WorldWideScience

Sample records for additional steady-state acquisition

  1. Isolated sixth cranial nerve aplasia visualized with Fast Imaging Employing Steady-State Acquisition (FIESTA) MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilyugina, Svetlana A; Fischbein, Nancy J; Liao, Y Joyce; McCulley, Timothy J

    2007-06-01

    An otherwise healthy 12-month-old girl presented for evaluation of reduced abduction of the left eye detected at 6 months of age. The remainder of the examination was unremarkable. A special MRI sequence-fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA)-visualized the right but not the left sixth nerve cisternal segment. This is the first reported use of the MRI FIESTA sequence to diagnose aplasia of the sixth cranial nerve.

  2. Addition of multimodal therapy to standard management of steady state sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Iheanyi; Ezenwosu, Osita; Ikefuna, Anthony; Duru, Augustine; Chukwu, Barth; Madu, Anazoeze; Nwagha, Theresa; Ocheni, Sunday; Ibegbulam, Obike; Emodi, Ifeoma; Anike, Uche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Agu, Kingsley; Ajuba, Ifeoma; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Ololo, Uche

    2013-01-01

    Most people on folic acid to boost erythropoiesis and prophylactic antimicrobials, the standard management of steady state sickle cell disease (SCD), have unacceptable numbers of crises. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding multimodal therapy with potassium thiocyanate and omega-3 fatty acids to the standard management of steady state SCD. Pre- and post-treatment numbers of crises and other disease indices were compared in 16 HbSS individuals on folic acid and paludrine after 12 months of adding eicosapentaenoic acid 15 mg/kg/day, docosahexaenoic acid 10 mg/kg/day, and potassium thiocyanate 1-2 mL/day, each milliliter of which contained 250 mg of thiocyanate and 100 micrograms of iodine to prevent hypothyroidism: a possible side-effect due to competitive inhibition of the transport of iodide into the thyroid gland by thiocyanate. Median number of crises reduced from 3/yr to 1/yr (P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of impaired thyroid function. Plasma level of tri-iodothyronine improved (P < 0.0001). Steady state full blood count and bilirubin level did not change significantly. The findings suggest that addition of potassium thiocyanate and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids to standard management of steady state SCD reduces the number of crises. This observation needs to be evaluated in larger studies.

  3. Cranial nerve assessment in posterior fossa tumors with fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Takeshi; Minamida, Yoshihiro; Yamaki, Toshiaki; Koyanagi, Izumi; Nonaka, Tadashi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2005-10-01

    Steady-state free precession is widely used for ultra-fast cardiac or abdominal imaging. The purpose of this work was to assess fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and to evaluate its efficacy for depiction of the cranial nerve affected by the tumor. Twenty-three consecutive patients with posterior fossa tumors underwent FIESTA sequence after contrast agent administration, and then displacement of the cranial nerve was evaluated. The 23 patients with posterior fossa tumor consisted of 12 schwannomas, eight meningiomas, and three cases of epidermoid. Except in the cases of epidermoid, intensity of all tumors increased on FIESTA imaging of the contrast enhancement. In the schwannoma cases, visualization of the nerve became poorer as the tumor increased in size. In cases of encapsulated meningioma, all the cranial nerves of the posterior fossa were depicted regardless of location. The ability to depict the nerves was also significantly higher in meningioma patients than in schwannoma patients (PFIESTA sequence offers similar contrast to other heavily T2-weighted sequences, it facilitated a superior assessment of the effect of tumors on cranial nerve anatomy. FIESTA sequence was useful for preoperative simulations of posterior fossa tumors.

  4. Control, data acquisition and remote participation for steady-state operation in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)]. E-mail: sudo@nifs.ac.jp; Nagayama, Y. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Emoto, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nakanishi, H. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Chikaraishi, H. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Imazu, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Iwata, C. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Kojima, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Komada, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kubo, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kumazawa, R. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Mase, A. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Miyazawa, J. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Mutoh, T. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nakamura, Y. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nonomura, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ohsuna, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Saito, K. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sakamoto, R.; Seki, T.; Shoji, M.; Tsuda, K.; Yoshida, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    Control, data acquisition, plasma monitoring and remote participation for steady state operation in the large helical device (LHD) are reviewed. By controlling the impedance matching of ICH, the plasma position and the electron density, high temperature plasma is confined for 1905s. The plasma parameters are monitored in real time. Data are continuously sampled by the YOKOGAWA WE7000 system and by the NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS CompactPCI system. Those data are managed by the object-oriented database system based on ObjectStore in distributed servers with mass storage. By using the multi protocol label switching-virtual private network (MPLS-VPN) technology, the local area network of LHD is expanded to the Japanese fusion community. This provides the remote participants with the same environment of the LHD control room.

  5. Overview of data acquisition and central control system of steady state superconducting Tokamak (SST-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, S., E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in; Mahajan, K.; Gulati, H.K.; Sharma, M.; Kumar, A.; Patel, K.; Masand, H.; Mansuri, I.; Dhongde, J.; Bhandarkar, M.; Chudasama, H.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The paper gives overview on SST-1 data acquisition and central control system and future upgrade plans. • The lossless PXI based data acquisition of SST-1 is capable of acquiring around 130 channels with sampling frequency ranging from 10 KHz to 1 MHz sampling frequency. • Design, architecture and technologies used for central control system (CCS) of SST-1. • Functions performed by CCS. - Abstract: Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) has been commissioned successfully and has been carrying out limiter assisted ohmic plasma experiments since the beginning of 2014 achieving a maximum plasma current of 75 kA at a central field of 1.5 T and the plasma duration ∼500 ms. In near future, SST-1 looks forward to carrying out elongated plasma experiments and stretching plasma pulses beyond 1 s. The data acquisition and central control system (CCS) for SST-1 are distributed, modular, hierarchical and scalable in nature The CCS has been indigenously designed, developed, implemented, tested and validated for the operation of SST-1. The CCS has been built using well proven technologies like Redhat Linux, vxWorks RTOS for deterministic control, FPGA based hardware implementation, Ethernet, fiber optics backbone for network, DSP for real-time computation & Reflective memory for high-speed data transfer etc. CCS in SST-1 controls & monitors various heterogeneous SST-1 subsystems dispersed in the same campus. The CCS consists of machine control system, basic plasma control system, GPS time synchronization system, storage area network (SAN) for centralize data storage, SST-1 networking system, real-time networks, SST-1 control room infrastructure and many other supportive systems. Machine Control System (MCS) is a multithreaded event driven system running on Linux based servers, where each thread of the software communicates to a unique subsystem for monitoring and control from SST-1 central control room through network programming. The CCS hardware

  6. Steady state and dynamic behaviors of a methane biofilter under periodic addition of ethanol vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Milad; Avalos Ramirez, Antonio; Jones, J Peter; Heitz, Michèle

    2017-07-15

    Ethanol was added to a methane (CH4) biofilter with inorganic packing materials over three cycles based on increasing the gas flow rates from 3 to 6 and finally to 12 L min(-1) corresponding to empty bed residence times (EBRT) of 6, 3 and 1.5 min. The steady state performance of the CH4 biofilter was studied for CH4 inlet loads (ILs) of 33, 66 and 132 gCH4 m(-3) h(-1) prior and after each ethanol cycle. In addition, the steady state removal of a mixture of CH4 and ethanol for a CH4/ethanol mass ratio of around 7.5 gCH4 g (-1)ethanol was evaluated over three cycles (EBRTs of 6, 3 and 1.5 min). In the absence of ethanol, the CH4 removal efficiency (RE) dropped from 35 to 7% due to an EBRT decrease from 6 to 1.5 min. In addition, the presence of ethanol resulted in a CH4 RE reduction at a constant EBRT in every cycle. The CH4 REs dropped from 35 to 29%, 17 to 13% and 7 to 0% for corresponding ethanol ILs of 4.5, 9 and 18 gethanol m(-3) h(-1) over the cycles. Moreover, the periodic presence of ethanol in the CH4 biofilter allowed the study of transient behaviors of the biofilter during ethanol addition and the biofilter recovery after each cycle. The CH4 RE reduction as a result of ethanol addition in each cycle was instantaneous. However, the CH4 RE recovery after completion of ethanol addition took 10, 14 and 25 days for ethanol ILs of 4.5, 9 and 18 gethanol m(-3) h(-1) respectively. The recovery time was related to the ethanol concentration in the leachate which were 1100 ± 200, 1100 ± 350 and 2500 ± 400 gethanol m(-3)leachate for corresponding ethanol ILs of 4.5, 9 and 18 gethanol m(-3) h(-1), respectively. Based on steady state and dynamic process conditions of the biofilter, the lowest gas flow rate of 3 L min(-1) (EBRT of 6 min) produced the best performance when both pollutants were present (CH4 IL of 33 gCH4 m(-3) h(-1) and ethanol IL of 4.5 gethanol m(-3) h(-1)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ping-Huei [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Long, E-mail: minglong.wu@csie.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Tzu-Chao [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Yu [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China); Huang, Teng-Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  8. Simultaneous fat suppression and band reduction with large-angle multiple-acquisition balanced steady-state free precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Brady; Hargreaves, Brian A; Cukur, Tolga; Morrell, Glen R; Gold, Garry E; Bangerter, Neal K

    2012-04-01

    Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) MRI is a rapid and signal-to-noise ratio-efficient imaging method, but suffers from characteristic bands of signal loss in regions of large field inhomogeneity. Several methods have been developed to reduce the severity of these banding artifacts, typically involving the acquisition of multiple bSSFP datasets (and the accompanying increase in scan time). Fat suppression with bSSFP is also challenging; most existing methods require an additional increase in scan time, and some are incompatible with bSSFP band-reduction techniques. This work was motivated by the need for both robust fat suppression and band reduction in the presence of field inhomogeneity when using bSSFP for flow-independent peripheral angiography. The large flip angles used in this application to improve vessel conspicuity and contrast lead to specific absorption rate considerations, longer repetition times, and increased severity of banding artifacts. In this work, a novel method that simultaneously suppresses fat and reduces bSSFP banding artifact with the acquisition of only two phase-cycled bSSFP datasets is presented. A weighted sum of the two bSSFP acquisitions is taken on a voxel-by-voxel basis, effectively synthesizing an off-resonance profile at each voxel that puts fat in the stop band while keeping water in the pass band. The technique exploits the near-sinusoidal shape of the bSSFP off-resonance spectrum for many tissues at large (>50°) flip angles.

  9. Three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition MRI and its diagnostic value for lumbar foraminal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Osamu; Fujikawa, Akira; Tachibana, Atsuko

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D FIESTA) in the diagnosis of lumbar foraminal stenosis (LFS). Fifteen patients with LFS and 10 healthy volunteers were studied. All patients met the following criteria: (1) single L5 radiculopathy without compressive lesion in the spinal canal, (2) pain reproduction during provocative radiculography, and (3) improvement of symptoms after surgery. We retrospectively compared the symptomatic nerve roots to the asymptomatic nerve roots on fast spin-echo (FSE) T1 sagittal, FSE T2 axial and reconstituted 3D FIESTA images. The κ values for interobserver agreement in determining the presence of LFS were 0.525 for FSE T1 sagittal images, 0.735 for FSE T2 axial images, 0.750 for 3D FIESTA sagittal, 0.733 for axial images, and 0.953 for coronal images. The sensitivities and specificities were 60 and 86 % for FSE T1 sagittal images, 27 and 91 % for FSE T2 axial images, 60 and 97 % for 3D FIESTA sagittal images, 60 and 94 % for 3D FIESTA axial images, and 100 and 97 % for 3D FIESTA coronal images, respectively. 3D FIESTA can provide more reliable and additional information for the running course of lumbar nerve root, compared with conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Particularly, use of 3D FIESTA coronal images enables accurate diagnosis for LFS.

  10. Detection of pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle by fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerkpattanapipat, Pairoj; Mazur, Wojciech; Link, Kerry M; Clark, Hollins P; Hundley, W Gregory

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights the importance of interpretating images throughout the course of a dobutamine MRI stress test. Upon review of the baseline images, the left ventricular (LV) endocardium was not well seen due to flow artifacts associated with low intracavitary blood-flow velocity resulting from a prior myocardial infarction. Physicians implemented a cine fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) technique that was not subject to low flow artifact within the LV cavity. With heightened image clarity, physicians unexpectedly identified a LV pseudoaneurysm.

  11. Dynamic MR imaging of temporomandibular joint: an initial assessment with fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Dong, Min-jun; Tao, Xiao-feng; Yu, Qiang; Li, Kai-cheng; Yang, Chi

    2015-04-01

    The study was aimed to determine and optimize the parameters for the MR fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequence, which was to obtain an acceptable image to evaluate the value of the movement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In this investigation, 20 volunteers were examined to determine and optimize the parameters of the FIESTA sequence. Then, 160 TMJs from 80 patients with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) of clinical suspicion were consecutively performed by both static MRI and dynamic FIESTA MRI on the oblique sagittal position. The FIESTA MR images of TMJs were obtained from a slow, consecutive, free and open-closed movement. Based on the cycles of TMJ movements during the process of FIESTA MRI (90seconds), we classified all TMJs into 2 groups: cycles of open-closed mouths less than or equal to 3 (group 1) and more than 3 (group 2). Each image was marked level 1-3 by its quality. Meanwhile, the location of articular disc, mandibular condyle, motive artifact, "jumping sign" and the joint effusion in each TMJ were assessed respectively. By dynamic FIESTA MRI among 160 TMJs, 92 TMJs (57.50%) were in group 1, and 68 TMJs were (42.50%) in group 2. There were statistically significant differences between group 1 and group 2(pFIESTA-MRI. Among 79 TMJs with ADDw/oR(anterior disc displacement without reduction), 42 sides were operated with Maxillofacial arthroscopy surgery. The surgical result was in agreement with the MR result. Most TMJs images with a slow free open-close movement (cycles≦3) could be successfully obtained by the dynamic FIESTA MRI. The FIESTA MRI might be considered as an additional method to evaluate the movement of the articular disk and the mandibular condyle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Two-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) cine acquisition of fetal non-central nervous system abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu-Huei; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the value of two-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (2D FIESTA) cine MR with parallel imaging techniques in the diagnosis of fetal non-central nervous system (CNS) anomalies. A total of 28 pregnant women were referred for further MR evaluation on fetuses after abnormal sonographic results. A total of 33 fetal MR examinations were performed by a 1.5 T MR scanner with eight-channel phase-arrayed body coils. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE(R), GE) of three orthogonal planes and 2D FIESTA for cine fetal MR of three sagittal planes (midsagittal and 10 mm off midline on left and right) were routinely acquired. Additional planes on target organs with variable imaging frames were added if indicated. Nine of the 33 examinations (9/33; 27.3%) had motion artifacts obscuring the detail in SSFSE imaging; 2D FIESTA imaging provided motion-artifact-free imaging in all of them. Cine 2D FIESTA imaging provided additional information on the visceral peristalsis. The information helped in differentiating dilated gastrointestinal (GI) tract from other intraabdominal cystic lesions and in confirming the nature and level of GI tract obstruction. With sub-half-second temporal resolution of the 2D FIESTA sequences, fetal movement is no longer problematic. In addition to the anatomical information also provided by conventional SSFSE sequences, 2D FIESTA demonstrates information on motility and peristalsis of hollow organs and helps the diagnosis of fetal visceral anomalies. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. STEADY-STATE DESIGN OF VERTICAL WELLS FOR LIQUIDS ADDITION AT BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents design charts that a landfill engineer can use for the design of a vertical well system for liquids addition at bioreactor landfills. The flow rate and lateral and vertical zones of impact of a vertical well were estimated as a function of input variables su...

  14. STEADY-STATE DESIGN OF VERTICAL WELLS FOR LIQUIDS ADDITION AT BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents design charts that a landfill engineer can use for the design of a vertical well system for liquids addition at bioreactor landfills. The flow rate and lateral and vertical zones of impact of a vertical well were estimated as a function of input variables su...

  15. Fat/water separation in single acquisition steady-state free precession using multiple echo radial trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aiming; Grist, Thomas M; Block, Walter F

    2005-11-01

    Phase detection in fully refocused SSFP imaging has recently allowed fat/water separation without preparing the magnetization or using multiple acquisitions. Instead, it exploits the phase difference between fat and water at an echo time at the midpoint of the TR. To minimize the TR for improved robustness to B0 inhomogeneity, a 3D projection acquisition collecting two half echoes at the beginning and end of each excitation was previously implemented. Since echoes are not formed at the midpoint of the TR, this method still requires two passes of k-space for fat/water separation. A new method is presented to linearly combine the half echoes to separate fat and water in a single acquisition. Separation using phase detection provides superior contrast between fat and water voxels. Results from high resolution angiography and musculoskeletal studies with improved robustness to inhomogeneity and a 50% scan time reduction compared to the two pass method are presented.

  16. Preoperative detection of the neurovascular relationship in trigeminal neuralgia using three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, QingShi; Zhou, Qin; Liu, ZhiLing; Li, ChuanFu; Ni, ShiLei; Xue, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Microvascular decompression is an accepted treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Preoperative identification of neurovascular compression, therefore, could aid determination of the appropriate treatment for TN. To preoperatively visualize the neurovascular relationship, three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D FIESTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were performed on 37 patients with TN in our study. 3D FIESTA in combination with MRA identified surgically verified neurovascular contact in 35 of 36 symptomatic nerves. The offending vessel (artery or vein) was correctly identified in 94.4% of patients, and agreement between preoperative MRI visualization and surgical findings was excellent (k=0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-1.00). Thus, 3D FIESTA in combination with MRA is useful in the detection of vascular contact with the trigeminal nerve in patients with TN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Steady-state analysis of a bistable system subject to a coloured multiplicative noise and a white additive noise with coloured cross-correlated noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Can-Jun; Chen Shi-Bo; Mei Dong-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The steady-state properties of a bistable system are investigated when both the multiplicative noise and the coupling between additive and multiplicative noises are coloured with different values of noise correlation times τ1 and 72. After introducing a dimensionless parameter R(R = α/D, D is the intensity of the multiplicative noise and α is the intensity of the additive noise), and performing the numerical computations, we find the following points: (1) For the case ofR > 1, λ (the intensity of correlation between additive and multiplicative noises), τ1 and τ2 can induce the stationary probability distribution (SPD) transition from bimodal to unimodal in structure, but for the cases of R ≤ 1,the bimodal structure is preserved; (2) α can also induce the SPD transition from bimodal to unimodal in structure;(3) the bimodal structure of the SPD exhibits a symmetrical structure as D increases.

  18. Dural attachment of intracranial meningiomas: evaluation with contrast-enhanced three-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Takahashi, Mayu; Aoyama, Yuichi; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Saito, Takeshi; Akiba, Daisuke; Nishizawa, Shigeru [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Neurosurgery, Kitakyusyu (Japan); Kakeda, Shingo; Korogi, Yukunori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Radiology, Kitakyusyu (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of contrast-enhanced fast imaging with steady-state acquisition (CE-FIESTA) for assessing whether dural attachment in intracranial meningiomas is adhesive or not by correlation with intraoperative findings. Fourteen consecutive patients who were candidates for surgical treatment of meningiomas were prospectively analyzed with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, including CE-FIESTA at 3 T. First, two neuroradiologists assessed several characteristics of the attachment of the meningioma to the dura mater or skull base on CE-FIESTA images. Second, the surgical findings of adhesion at the dural attachment of meningiomas were evaluated by two neurosurgeons. Finally, the CE-FIESTA findings were correlated with the surgical findings by one neurosurgeon and one neuroradiologist by consensus. CE-FIESTA clearly depicted a hypointense marginal line at the attachment site of the meningioma. When CE-FIESTA revealed smooth marginal lines or hyperintense zones along the marginal lines, tumors were detached easily from the dura mater. On the contrary, when CE-FIESTA showed an irregularity, such as partial disruption of the marginal lines, vessels, or bony hyperostosis, the tumors tended to adhere firmly to the dura mater, which was found to contain small vessels and fine fibrous tissues. There seems to be an excellent correlation between the characteristics of dural attachment of meningiomas on CE-FIESTA images and intraoperative findings. Therefore, for operative planning, CE-FIESTA may provide useful information regarding the adhesiveness of dural attachment. (orig.)

  19. Dural attachment of intracranial meningiomas: evaluation with contrast-enhanced three-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) at 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Kakeda, Shingo; Takahashi, Mayu; Aoyama, Yuichi; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Saito, Takeshi; Akiba, Daisuke; Korogi, Yukunori; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of contrast-enhanced fast imaging with steady-state acquisition (CE-FIESTA) for assessing whether dural attachment in intracranial meningiomas is adhesive or not by correlation with intraoperative findings. Fourteen consecutive patients who were candidates for surgical treatment of meningiomas were prospectively analyzed with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, including CE-FIESTA at 3 T. First, two neuroradiologists assessed several characteristics of the attachment of the meningioma to the dura mater or skull base on CE-FIESTA images. Second, the surgical findings of adhesion at the dural attachment of meningiomas were evaluated by two neurosurgeons. Finally, the CE-FIESTA findings were correlated with the surgical findings by one neurosurgeon and one neuroradiologist by consensus. CE-FIESTA clearly depicted a hypointense marginal line at the attachment site of the meningioma. When CE-FIESTA revealed smooth marginal lines or hyperintense zones along the marginal lines, tumors were detached easily from the dura mater. On the contrary, when CE-FIESTA showed an irregularity, such as partial disruption of the marginal lines, vessels, or bony hyperostosis, the tumors tended to adhere firmly to the dura mater, which was found to contain small vessels and fine fibrous tissues. There seems to be an excellent correlation between the characteristics of dural attachment of meningiomas on CE-FIESTA images and intraoperative findings. Therefore, for operative planning, CE-FIESTA may provide useful information regarding the adhesiveness of dural attachment.

  20. MR assessment of left ventricular function: quantitative comparison of fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) with fast gradient echo cine technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Stern, Jessica S; Mai, Vu M; Pierchala, Linda N; Edelman, Robert R; Prasad, Pottumarthi V

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the agreement of fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) cine technique with segmented k-space fast gradient echo (GRE) cine technique when using them for assessment of cardiac function. Eleven MR cine studies were performed on six healthy volunteers and five patients, using FIESTA and fast GRE techniques. The quantitative measurements of ventricular function obtained from the two techniques were compared. The data analysis was performed by two observers independently. Compared to fast GRE cine technique, FIESTA cine technique consistently resulted in higher end-diastolic volume (10.2%) and end-systolic volume (21.6%), but lower myocardial mass of left ventricle (19.2%) and ejection fraction (9.9%). The stroke volume obtained from the two techniques was very close. The primary explanation for this variability is that the two techniques have different mechanisms on establishing signal contrast. Compared to fast GRE technique, FIESTA provides significantly different results when using it for assessment of left ventricular function. It is important to consider this difference in the assessment of cardiac function. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) MRI to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within dural reflections of posterior fossa cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, David J; Scoffings, Daniel; Ajithkumar, Thankamma; Williams, Michael V; Jefferies, Sarah J

    2016-11-01

    There is no consensus approach to covering skull base meningeal reflections-and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) therein-of the posterior fossa cranial nerves (CNs VII-XII) when planning radiotherapy (RT) for medulloblastoma and ependymoma. We sought to determine whether MRI and specifically fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences can answer this anatomical question and guide RT planning. 96 posterior fossa FIESTA sequences were reviewed. Following exclusions, measurements were made on the following scans for each foramen respectively (left, right); internal acoustic meatus (IAM) (86, 84), jugular foramen (JF) (83, 85) and hypoglossal canal (HC) (42, 45). A protocol describes measurement procedure. Two observers measured distances for five cases and agreement was assessed. One observer measured all the remaining cases. IAM and JF measurement interobserver variability was compared. Mean measurement difference between observers was -0.275 mm (standard deviation 0.557). IAM and JF measurements were normally distributed. Mean IAM distance was 12.2 mm [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8-15.6]; JF was 7.3 mm (95% CI 4.0-10.6). The HC was difficult to visualize on many images and data followed a bimodal distribution. Dural reflections of posterior fossa CNs are well demonstrated by FIESTA MRI. Measuring CSF extension into these structures is feasible and robust; mean CSF extension into IAM and JF was measured. We plan further work to assess coverage of these structures with photon and proton RT plans. Advances in knowledge: We have described CSF extension beyond the internal table of the skull into the IAM, JF and HC. Oncologists planning RT for patients with medulloblastoma and ependymoma may use these data to guide contouring.

  2. A controlled study on the anatomy of cervical extraforaminal ligaments and three-dimensional fast-imaging employing a steady-state acquisition sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junlin; Shi, Benchao; Qiu, Shijun; Ding, Zihai; Wang, Lina

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance three-dimensional fast-imaging employing a steady-state acquisition (MR 3D-FIESTA) sequence to study cervical EFLs using the anatomical results of cadavers as the gold standard. Part I: The cervical regions of five embalmed adult cadavers were scanned using the MR 3D-FIESTA sequence. Ligamentous structures in the intervertebral foramina (IVFs) between C4 and T1 in the MRI scans were identified by a radiologist. Part II: After the specimens were scanned, gross and microscopic anatomical studies were conducted on the IVFs between C4 and T1 in the specimens by an anatomist. Part III: Using the anatomical results of the cadavers as the gold standard, the utility of the MR 3D-FIESTA sequence for imaging cervical EFLs was evaluated. Specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) and accuracy were calculated. The occurrence rate of transforaminal ligaments (TFLs) in the IVFs between C4 and T1 was 42.5%. The results obtained by the radiologist using the MR 3D-FIESTA sequence to identify TFLs are as follows: specificity 96.2%, sensitivity 76.5%, PPV 92.9%, NPV 86.2%, and accuracy 88.4%. MR 3D-FIESTA sequences clearly showed cervical EFLs. In the 3D-FIESTA sequence scans that the radiologist believed to indicate the presence of a cervical TFL, the probability that the TFL existed was approximately 93%. When the radiologist believed that no TFL was present in the 3D-FIESTA sequence scan, the probability that a TFL existed was 14%.

  3. A case of posterior cerebral artery dissection presenting with migraine-like headache and visual field defect: usefulness of fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Koichi; Toyama, Kentaro; Ito, Takeo; Hasunuma, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Yasuo

    2012-11-01

    We report a 34-year-old woman with sudden onset of unilateral migraine-like headache and right homonymous hemianopsia. Fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) of the posterior cerebral artery captured an intimal flap and a pseudolumen, leading to a diagnosis of posterior cerebral artery dissection. This case was considered a spontaneous posterior cerebral artery dissection causing migraine-like headache. The treatment of migraine-like headache hinges on correct diagnosis. In this case, FIESTA was very useful in diagnosing an intracranial artery dissection. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Einstein's steady-state cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2014-09-01

    Last year, a team of Irish scientists discovered an unpublished manuscript by Einstein in which he attempted to construct a "steady-state" model of the universe. Cormac O'Raifeartaigh describes the excitement of finding this previously unknown work.

  5. Trigeminal neuralgia: Assessment of neurovascular decompression by 3D fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition and 3D time of flight multiple overlapping thin slab acquisition magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ruth; Pascual, José M.; Yus, Miguel; Jorquera, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Background: Trigeminal neuralgia is most commonly caused by vascular compression at the trigeminal nerve (TN) root entry zone. Microvascular decompression (MVD) has been established as a useful treatment. Outcome depends on the correct identification of the compression site and its adequate decompression at surgery. Preoperative identification of neurovascular compression might predict which patients will benefit from MVD. Management of persistent or recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after an MVD is a baffling problem for neurosurgeons. An accurate neuroradiological evaluation of the TN padding following a failed MVD might help identify the underlying cause and plan further treatment. Case description: A 68-year-old female presented with a right-sided trigeminal neuralgia (V3) refractory to medical therapy. A high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) study included fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and time of flight multiple overlapping thin slab acquisition (TOF MOTSA) sequences to evaluate the neurovascular anatomy in the cerebellopontine angle. An unambiguous compression of the right TN at the rostral-medial site by the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) was identified. The SCA loop compressing the TN was identical in location and configuration to that predicted in the preoperative study. After the MVD, the patient was relieved from her pain and a postoperative high-resolution 3D MRI study confirmed the appropriate placement of the Teflon implant between the TN and SCA. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report that characterizes the proper TN padding by high-resolution 3D MRI after trigeminal MVD. The present case also emphasizes the importance of performing a 3D MRI in patients with trigeminal neuralgia to anticipate the surgeon's view and predict the outcome after MVD. PMID:22629487

  6. Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibai Iskakbayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.

  7. Steady-State Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    illustrate the “equation oriented” approach as well as the “sequential modular” approach to solving complex flowsheets for steady state applications. The applications include the Williams-Otto plant, the hydrodealkylation (HDA) of toluene, conversion of ethylene to ethanol and a bio-ethanol process.......This chapter covers the basic principles of steady state modelling and simulation using a number of case studies. Two principal approaches are illustrated that develop the unit operation models from first principles as well as through application of standard flowsheet simulators. The approaches...

  8. Comparison of two single-breath-held 3-D acquisitions with multi-breath-held 2-D cine steady-state free precession MRI acquisition in children with single ventricles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atweh, Lamya A.; Dodd, Nicholas A.; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Chu, Zili D. [Texas Children' s Hospital, EB Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Pednekar, Amol [Philips Healthcare, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnamurthy, Rajesh [Texas Children' s Hospital, EB Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Breath-held two-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession cine acquisition (2-D breath-held SSFP), accelerated with parallel imaging, is the method of choice for evaluating ventricular function due to its superior blood-to-myocardial contrast, edge definition and high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio throughout the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the two different single-breath-hold 3-D cine SSFP acquisitions using 1) multidirectional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acceleration factors (3-D multiple SENSE SSFP), and 2) k-t broad-use linear acceleration speed-up technique (3-D k-t SSFP) with the conventional 2-D breath-held SSFP in non-sedated asymptomatic volunteers and children with single ventricle congenital heart disease. Our prospective study was performed on 30 non-sedated subjects (9 healthy volunteers and 21 functional single ventricle patients), ages 12.5 +/- 2.8 years. Two-dimensional breath-held SSFP with SENSE acceleration factor of 2, eight-fold accelerated 3-D k-t SSFP, and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP with total parallel imaging factor of 4 were performed to evaluate ventricular volumes and mass in the short-axis orientation. Image quality scores (blood myocardial contrast, edge definition and interslice alignment) and volumetric analysis (end systolic volume, end diastolic volume and ejection fraction) were performed on the data sets by experienced users. Paired t-test was performed to compare each of the 3-D k-t SSFP and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP clinical scores against 2-D breath-held SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis was performed on left ventricle (LV) and single ventricle volumetry. Interobserver and intraobserver variability in volumetric measurements were determined using intraclass coefficients. The clinical scores were highest for the 2-D breath-held SSFP images. Between the two 3-D sequences, 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP performed better than 3-D k-t SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis for volumes

  9. Comparison of two single-breath-held 3-D acquisitions with multi-breath-held 2-D cine steady-state free precession MRI acquisition in children with single ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atweh, Lamya A; Dodd, Nicholas A; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Pednekar, Amol; Chu, Zili D; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh

    2016-05-01

    Breath-held two-dimensional balanced steady--state free precession cine acquisition (2-D breath-held SSFP), accelerated with parallel imaging, is the method of choice for evaluating ventricular function due to its superior blood-to-myocardial contrast, edge definition and high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio throughout the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the two different single-breath-hold 3-D cine SSFP acquisitions using 1) multidirectional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acceleration factors (3-D multiple SENSE SSFP), and 2) k-t broad-use linear acceleration speed-up technique (3-D k-t SSFP) with the conventional 2-D breath-held SSFP in non-sedated asymptomatic volunteers and children with single ventricle congenital heart disease. Our prospective study was performed on 30 non-sedated subjects (9 healthy volunteers and 21 functional single ventricle patients), ages 12.5 +/- 2.8 years. Two-dimensional breath-held SSFP with SENSE acceleration factor of 2, eight-fold accelerated 3-D k-t SSFP, and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP with total parallel imaging factor of 4 were performed to evaluate ventricular volumes and mass in the short-axis orientation. Image quality scores (blood myocardial contrast, edge definition and interslice alignment) and volumetric analysis (end systolic volume, end diastolic volume and ejection fraction) were performed on the data sets by experienced users. Paired t-test was performed to compare each of the 3-D k-t SSFP and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP clinical scores against 2-D breath-held SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis was performed on left ventricle (LV) and single ventricle volumetry. Interobserver and intraobserver variability in volumetric measurements were determined using intraclass coefficients. The clinical scores were highest for the 2-D breath-held SSFP images. Between the two 3-D sequences, 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP performed better than 3-D k-t SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis for volumes

  10. Steady-State Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This chapter covers the basic principles of steady state modelling and simulation using a number of case studies. Two principal approaches are illustrated that develop the unit operation models from first principles as well as through application of standard flowsheet simulators. The approaches i...

  11. Mechanism of Non-Steady State Dissolution of Goethite in the Presence of Siderophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, P. U.; Kretzschmar, R.; Kraemer, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for almost all known organisms. Bacteria, fungi, and graminaceous plants are capable of exuding siderophores as part of an iron acquisition strategy. The production of these strong iron chelating ligands is induced by iron limited conditions. Grasses under iron stress, for example, exude phytosiderophores into the rhizosphere in a special diurnal rhythm (Roemheld and Marschner 1986). A few hours after sunrise the exudation starts, culminates around noon and is shut down again until about 4 hours after noon. The phytosiderophores diffuse into the rhizosphere (Marschner et al. 1986) and are passively back transported to the plants by advective flow induced by high transpiration around noon. Despite a fairly short residence time of the phytosiderophores in the rhizosphere, it is a very effective strategy for iron acquisition. To investigate the effect of such pulse inputs of siderophores on iron acquisition, we studied the dissolution mechanism of goethite (alpha-FeOOH), a mineral phase common in soils, under non-steady state conditions. In consideration of the chemical complexity of the rhizosphere, we also investigated the effect of other organic ligands commonly found in the rhizosphere (e. g. oxalate) on the dissolution kinetics. The dissolution experiments were conducted in batch reactors with a constant goethite solids concentration of 2.5 g/l, an ionic strength of 0.01 M, a pH of 6 and 100 microM oxalate. To induce non-steady state conditions, 3 mM phytosiderophores were added to a batch after the goethite-oxalate suspension reacted for a certain time period. Before the siderophore was added to the goethite-oxalate suspension, no dissolution of iron was observed. But, with the addition of the siderophore, a high rate was observed for the iron mobilization under these non-steady state conditions that subsequently was followed by a slow steady state dissolution rate. The results of these non-steady state experiments are very

  12. Free Radical Addition Polymerization Kinetics without Steady-State Approximations: A Numerical Analysis for the Polymer, Physical, or Advanced Organic Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, H. Darrell; Brown, Amber; Landis, Amanda; Schimke, Greg; Peters, George

    2014-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the free radical addition polymerization system is described that provides those teaching polymer, physical, or advanced organic chemistry courses the opportunity to introduce students to numerical methods in the context of a simple but mathematically stiff chemical kinetic system. Numerical analysis can lead students to an…

  13. Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T

    1976-09-01

    The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.

  14. On circulating power of steady state tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Yagi, Masatoshi

    1996-03-01

    Circulating power for the sustenance and profile control of the steady state tokamak plasmas is discussed. The simultaneous fulfillment of the MHD stability at high beta value, the improved confinement and the stationary equilibrium requires the rotation drive as well as the current drive. In addition to the current drive efficiency, the efficiency for the rotation drive is investigated. The direct rotation drive by the external torque, such as the case of beam injection, is not efficient enough. The mechanism and the magnitude of the spontaneous plasma rotation are studied. (author)

  15. Non-Markovianity assisted Steady State Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the dependence of steady state entanglement in a dimer system with a coherent exchange interaction and subject to local dephasing on the degree of Markovianity of the system-environment interaction. We demonstrate that non-Markovianity of the system-environment interaction is an essential resource that may support the formation of steady state entanglement whereas purely Markovian dynamics governed by Lindblad master equations results in separable steady states. This result illustrates possible mechanisms leading to long lived entanglement in purely decohering local environments. A feasible experimental demonstration of this non-Markovianity assisted steady state entanglement using a system of trapped ions is presented.

  16. 快速稳态进动采集序列MR检查在胎儿成像中的应用%Application of MR imaging with fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence in normal fetus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石银龙; 王传兵; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨快速稳态进动采集序列(FIESTA)在胎儿MR检查中的应用价值.方法 对30例20周以上正常胎儿行MR检查,采用FIESTA序列对胎儿头颅、躯干行轴位、冠状位、矢状位扫描,观察胎儿各系统主要器官,包括脑、肺、心脏、肝、脾、胃肠道等的解剖和MR表现.结果 孕20周时,胎儿各主要器官均已发育.中枢神经系统在FIESTA图像脑室系统高信号的衬托下,大脑三层结构清晰可辨,脑室系统呈生理性扩大状态.30周后脑沟、回形成逐渐明显;非神经系统亦可较清晰显示.结论 FIESTA可清楚显示胎儿各主要器官的正常解剖和发育变化,胎儿主要器官和MR表现与新生儿有较大区别.%Objective To investigate the value of MR imaging with fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequence in normal fetus. Methods Thirty normal fetuses with gestational age greater than 20 weeks underwent MR imaging with FIESTA sequence on sagittal and axial view of the fetus body and the head. The normal fetus anatomy of the brain, lungs, heart, liver, spleen,gastrointestinal tract and their MR manifestations were observed. Reulls The main organs of fetus had developed in 20 weeks gestation. In the central nervous system .against the high signal of the ventricular system, three layers of the cerebrum were identified, and the ventricular system was extended physiologically. Cerebral gyri and sulcus developed significantly after 30 weeks gestation. Non-central nervous system( non-CNS) tissues could also be clearly observed. Conclusion FIESTA sequence MR imaging can clearly show the normal fetal anatomy of main organs, which are quite different from those in newborns.

  17. Geomorphic and Thermal Steady State Regimes: Reality or Wishful Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, J.; Furlong, K.

    2003-04-01

    In many tectonic geomorphic studies, it is assumed that rates of uplift within an orogen are matched by rates of exhumation producing a steady-state orogen. However, the tools used to determine exhumation are thermally driven (e.g. Fission Track, U-Th/He) and exhumation can substantially perturb the crustal thermal regime. Since knowing the thermal regime is key to determining exhumation from thermochronology, problems arise. In order to interpret a rate of exhumation we make the assumption that an area is in thermal 'steady state', which in young active orogens unlikely exists. Taiwan, the Southern Alps, Fiordland, and Nanga Parbat are relatively young mountain belts that have begun to uplift or have experienced increased rates of uplift during the past 5-10 Ma. As there is a time lag between the onset of uplift and achieving geomorphic steady state and again between reaching geomorphic steady state and thermal steady state, these orogens may be too young to have achieved this final stage. Additionally, young orogens may not have experienced a constant rate of uplift and denudation in the time over which the thermochronometers average. Certainly, in the case of the Southern Alps, present uplift rates can not have existed since uplift begun. Therefore, an apparent age is recording a transient thermal state. Even in a case where geomorphic steady state exists i.e. exhumation balances uplift, it is unlikely that a thermal steady state has been reached. This precludes the simple interpretation of exhumation rates often made. When multiple thermochronometers are used, inconsistencies can arise. For example, an increase in the rate of uplift is often observed when comparing the rates of exhumation using different thermochronometers. Our modeling shows that in some cases this phenomena is actually eliminated by considering the transient nature of the thermal regime following the onset of uplift and exhumation of an active orogen. To accurately determine exhumation rate

  18. Chemostat-cultivated Escherichia coli at high dilution rate: multiple steady states and drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, R A; Domach, M M

    1990-06-20

    The representation of metabolic network reaction kinetics in a scaled, polynomial form can allow for the prediction of multiple steady states. The polynomial formalism is used to study chemostat-cultured Escherichia coli which has been observed to exhibit two multiple steady states under ammonium ion-limited growth conditions: a high cell density-low ammonium ion concentration steady state and a low cell density-high ammonium ion concentration steady state. Additionally, the low-cell-density steady state has been observed to drift to the high-cell-density steady state. Inspection of the steady-state rate expressions for the ammonium ion transport/assimilation network (in polynomial form) suggests that at low ammonium ion concentrations, two steady states are possible. One corresponds to heavy use of the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GLNS-GS) branch and the second to heavy use of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) branch. Realization of the predicted intracellular steady states is also found to be dependent on the parameters of the transport process. Moreover, the two steady states differ in where their energy intensity lies. To explain the drift, GLNS, which is inducible under low ammonium ion concentrations, is suggested to be a "memory element." A chemostat-based model is developed to illustrate that perturbations in dilution rate can lead to drift between the two steady states provided that the disturbance in dilution rate is sufficiently large and/or long in duration.

  19. Non-Markovianity-assisted steady state entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelga, Susana F; Rivas, Ángel; Plenio, Martin B

    2012-04-20

    We analyze the steady state entanglement generated in a coherently coupled dimer system subject to dephasing noise as a function of the degree of Markovianity of the evolution. By keeping fixed the effective noise strength while varying the memory time of the environment, we demonstrate that non-Markovianity is an essential, quantifiable resource that may support the formation of steady state entanglement whereas purely Markovian dynamics governed by Lindblad master equations lead to separable steady states. This result illustrates possible mechanisms leading to long-lived entanglement in purely decohering, possibly local, environments. We present a feasible experimental demonstration of this noise assisted phenomenon using a system of trapped ions.

  20. Steady state nutrition by transpiration controlled nutrient supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, W.G.; Labe, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Programmed nutrient addition with a constant relative addition rate has been advocated as a suitable research technique for inducing steady state nutrition in exponentially growing plants. Transpiration controlled nutrient supply is proposed as an alternative technique for plants with a short or no

  1. Emergence of advance waves in a steady-state universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, R.H.

    1979-10-01

    In standard Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics advanced waves from any source are absolutely canceled by the advanced waves from the absorber responding to that source. The present work shows this cancellation fails over cosmic distances in a steady-state universe. A test of the view proposed earlier, in a paper which assumed failure of cancellation ad hoc, that zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field are such emergent advanced waves, is posed. The view entails anomalous slowing of spontaneous transition rates at longer emission wavelengths; available data go against this, furnishing additional argument against the suspect assumption that the universe is steady-state.

  2. A steady state theory for processive cellulases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil;

    2013-01-01

    . This has significant kinetic implications, for example the maximal specific rate (Vmax/E0) for processive cellulases is much lower than the catalytic rate constant (kcat). We discuss how relationships based on this theory may be used in both comparative and mechanistic analyses of cellulases....... remains to be fully developed. In this paper, we suggest a deterministic kinetic model that relies on a processive set of enzyme reactions and a quasi steady-state assumption. It is shown that this approach is practicable in the sense that it leads to mathematically simple expressions for the steady......-state rate, and only requires data from standard assay techniques as experimental input. Specifically, it is shown that the processive reaction rate at steady state may be expressed by a hyperbolic function related to the conventional Michaelis–Menten equation. The main difference is a ‘kinetic processivity...

  3. Multiple steady state phenomenon in martensitic transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the basic facts that the martensitic transformation is a physical phenomenon which occurs in non-equilibrium conditions and there exists the feedback mechanism in the martensitic transformation, the dynamical processes of the isothermal and athermal martensitic transformations were analyzed by using nonlinear theory and a bifurcation theory model was established. It is shown that a multiple steady state phenomenon can take place as austenite is cooled, and the transitions of the steady state temperature between the branches of stable steady states can be considered the transformation from austenite to martensite. This model can estimate the starting temperature of the martensitic transformation and explain some experimental features of the martensitic transformation such as the effects of cooling rate, fluctuation and austenitic grain size on the martensitic transformation.

  4. Steady state nutrition by transpiration controlled nutrient supply

    OpenAIRE

    Braakhekke, W.G.; Labe, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Programmed nutrient addition with a constant relative addition rate has been advocated as a suitable research technique for inducing steady state nutrition in exponentially growing plants. Transpiration controlled nutrient supply is proposed as an alternative technique for plants with a short or no exponential growth phase. A two-weeks experiment with transpiration controlled nitrogen supply to Pennisetum americanum was carried out to evaluate this method. After an adaptation phase a constant...

  5. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, H.-S. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Wolf, R. C. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Andreeva, T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Cardella, A [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Erckmann, V. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Gantenbein, G [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Hathiramani, D [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Kasparek, W [Universitat Stuttgart, Institute fur Plasmaforschung, Germany; Klinger, T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Koenig, R [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Kornejew, P [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Laqua, H P [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Lechte, C [Universitat Stuttgart, Institute fur Plasmaforschung, Germany; Michel, G [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Peacock, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany; Sunn Pedersen, T [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Thumm, M [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, IHM, EURATOM Association, Karlsruhe, Germany; Turkin, Yu. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Wegener, Lutz [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Werner, A. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Zhang, D [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Beidler, C. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Bozhenkov, S. [EURATOM-Association, Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics, Greifswald, Germany; Brown, T. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Geiger, J. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Harris, Jeffrey H [ORNL; Heitzenroeder, P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Lumsdaine, Arnold [ORNL; Maassberg, H. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Marushchenko, N B [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Neilson, G. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Otte, M [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Rummel, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Tretter, Jorg [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany

    2013-01-01

    The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition.

  6. Highly enhanced steady-state optomechanical entanglement via cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    We study steady-state optomechanical entanglement in presence of an additional cross-Kerr coupling between the optical and mechanical mode. We find that a significant enhancement of the steady-state entanglement can be achieved at a considerably lower driving power, which is also extremely robust with respect to system parameters and environmental temperature.

  7. 色关联乘性和加性色噪声驱动的多稳态系统的稳态特性%Steady-state analysis of a tristable system driven by a correlated multiplicative and an additive colored noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时培明; 李培; 韩东颖

    2014-01-01

    The steady-state problems of a tristable system are studied under the action of color correlated multiplicative and additive colored noise. Firstly, the expression of the steady-state probability density function is derived based on the uniform colored noise approximation, and then the change regulation of the steady-state probability density function is analyzed with the change of the strength and relevance of multiplicative noise and additive noise. Results show that the non-equilibrium phase transition of the system can be induced by the correlation strength and time of additive noise and multiplicative noise as well as the additive noise strength.%研究了色关联乘性和加性色噪声作用下的三稳态系统的稳态问题。首先利用一致有色噪声近似方法,推导出稳态概率密度函数的表达式,然后分析了乘性噪声和加性噪声的强度以及关联性对稳态概率密度函数的影响,研究结果表明:加性噪声强度、加性噪声和乘性噪声的关联强度和关联时间可以诱导系统的非平衡相变。

  8. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography with additional steady-state acquisition of the infragenicular arteries in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Yousef W; Eiberg, Jonas P; Løgager, Vibeke B

    2010-01-01

    -body (WB) MRA. Twenty consecutive patients with PAD referred to digital-subtraction angiography (DSA) underwent WB-MRA. Using a bolus-chase technique, first-pass WB-MRA was performed from the supra-aortic vessels to the ankles. The blood-pool contrast agent gadofosveset trisodium was used at a dose of 0...

  9. Steady-state solution methods for open quantum optical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, P. D.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the numerical solution methods available when solving for the steady-state density matrix of a time-independent open quantum optical system, where the system operators are expressed in a suitable basis representation as sparse matrices. In particular, we focus on the difficulties posed by the non-Hermitian structure of the Lindblad super operator, and the numerical techniques designed to mitigate these pitfalls. In addition, we introduce a doubly iterative inverse-power method that...

  10. Iron-oxide labeling of hematogenous macrophages in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and the contribution to signal loss in fast imaging employing steady state acquisition (FIESTA) images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweida, Ayman J; Dunn, Elizabeth A; Karlik, Stephen J; Dekaban, Gregory A; Foster, Paula J

    2007-07-01

    To determine the contribution of blood-derived macrophages to the signal loss observed in MR images of inflammatory lesions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). A relapsing-remitting form of EAE was induced in transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) specifically in hematopoietic cells of the myelomonocytic lineage. Animals were injected with Feridex, a superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle, 24 hours prior to in vivo MRI. MRI was performed using a 1.5T whole-body scanner; a high-performance, custom-built gradient coil insert; and a 3D steady-state free precession (SSFP) imaging pulse sequence. Comparisons were made between MR images and corresponding anti-GFP and Perl's Prussian blue (PPB)-stained brain sections. MR images revealed the presence of discrete regions of signal loss throughout the brains of EAE animals that were administered Feridex. Histological staining showed that regions of signal loss on MR images corresponded anatomically with regions of PPB- and GFP-positive cells. This experiment provides the first direct evidence that macrophages of hematogenous origin are labeled with SPIO after intravenous administration of Feridex, and contribute to the regions of signal loss detected in MR images of EAE brain. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Steady State Analysis of Towed Marine Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; HUANG Guo-liang; DENG De-heng

    2008-01-01

    Efficient numerical schemes were presented for the steady state solutions of towed marine cables. For most of towed systems, the steady state problem can be resolved into two-point boundary-value problem, or initial value problem in some special cases where the initial values are available directly. A new technique was proposed and attempted to solve the two-point boundary-value problem rather than the conventional shooting method due to its algorithm complexity and low efficiency. First, the boundary conditions are transformed into a set of nonlinear governing equations about the initial values, then bisection method is employed to solve these nonlinear equations with the aid of 4th order Runge-Kutta method. In common sense, non-uniform (sheared) current is assumed, which varies in magnitude and direction with depth. The schemes are validated through the DE Zoysa's example, then several numerical examples are also presented to illustrate the numerical schemes.

  12. On Steady-State Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    circulation (Ooyama, 1969; Shapiro and Willoughby , 1982). Above the frictional boundary layer, this steady-state circulation must be along absolute angular...u′ sin λ〉 on the right-hand side of this equation. ‖According to axisymmetric balance dynamics (Ooyama, 1969; Shapiro and Willoughby , 1982), the...such as the diabatic heating rate and frictional and eddy processes (Shapiro and Willoughby , 1982; Shapiro and Montgomery, 1993; Vigh and Schubert, 2009

  13. On Typicality in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.; Searles, Debra J.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-08-01

    From the statistical mechanical viewpoint, relaxation of macroscopic systems and response theory rest on a notion of typicality, according to which the behavior of single macroscopic objects is given by appropriate ensembles: ensemble averages of observable quantities represent the measurements performed on single objects, because " almost all" objects share the same fate. In the case of non-dissipative dynamics and relaxation toward equilibrium states, " almost all" is referred to invariant probability distributions that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. In other words, the collection of initial micro-states (single systems) that do not follow the ensemble is supposed to constitute a set of vanishing, phase space volume. This approach is problematic in the case of dissipative dynamics and relaxation to nonequilibrium steady states, because the relevant invariant distributions attribute probability 1 to sets of zero volume, while evolution commonly begins in equilibrium states, i.e., in sets of full phase space volume. We consider the relaxation of classical, thermostatted particle systems to nonequilibrium steady states. We show that the dynamical condition known as Ω T-mixing is necessary and sufficient for relaxation of ensemble averages to steady state values. Moreover, we find that the condition known as weak T-mixing applied to smooth observables is sufficient for ensemble relaxation to be independent of the initial ensemble. Lastly, we show that weak T-mixing provides a notion of typicality for dissipative dynamics that is based on the (non-invariant) Lebesgue measure, and that we call physical ergodicity.

  14. On the use of steady-state signal equations for 2D TrueFISP imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Bram F; Heijman, Edwin; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2009-07-01

    To explain the signal behavior in 2D-TrueFISP imaging, a slice excitation profile should be considered that describes a variation of effective flip angles and magnetization phases after excitation. These parameters can be incorporated into steady-state equations to predict the final signal within a pixel. The use of steady-state equations assumes that excitation occurs instantaneously, although in reality this is a nonlinear process. In addition, often the flip angle variation within the slice excitation profile is solely considered when using steady-state equations, while TrueFISP is especially known for its sensitivity to phase variations. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the precision of steady-state equations in calculating signal intensities in 2D TrueFISP imaging. To that end, steady-state slice profiles and corresponding signal intensities were calculated as function of flip angle, RF phase advance and pulse shape. More complex Bloch simulations were considered as a gold standard, which described every excitation within the sequence until steady state was reached. They were used to analyze two different methods based on steady-state equations. In addition, measurements on phantoms were done with corresponding imaging parameters. Although the Bloch simulations described the steady-state slice profile formation better than methods based on steady-state equations, the latter performed well in predicting the steady-state signal resulting from it. In certain cases the phase variation within the slice excitation profile did not even have to be taken into account.

  15. Oscillations and multiple steady states in active membrane transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F M; Bisch, P M

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of some non-linear extensions of the six-state alternating access model for active membrane transport is investigated. We use stoichio-metric network analysis to study the stability of steady states. The bifurcation analysis has been done through standard numerical methods. For the usual six-state model we have proved that there is only one steady state, which is globally asymptotically stable. When we added an autocatalytic step we found self-oscillations. For the competition between a monomer cycle and a dimer cycle, with steps of dimer formation, we have also found self-oscillations. We have also studied models involving the formation of a complex with other molecules. The addition of two steps for formation of a complex of the monomer with another molecule does not alter either the number or the stability of steady states of the basic six-state model. The model which combines the formation of a complex with an autocatalytic step shows both self-oscillations and multiple steady states. The results lead us to conclude that oscillations could be produced by active membrane transport systems if the transport cycle contains a sufficiently large number of steps (six in the present case) and is coupled to at least one autocatalytic reaction,. Oscillations are also predicted when the monomer cycle is coupled to a dimer cycle. In fact, the autocatalytic reaction can be seen as a simplification of the model involving competition between monomer and dimer cycles, which seems to be a more realistic description of biological systems. A self-regulation mechanism of the pumps, related to the multiple stationary states, is expected only for a combined effect of autocatalysis and formation of complexes with other molecules. Within the six-state model this model also leads to oscillation.

  16. Energy repartition in the nonequilibrium steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peng; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Zhang, Huaiwu

    2017-01-01

    The concept of temperature in nonequilibrium thermodynamics is an outstanding theoretical issue. We propose an energy repartition principle that leads to a spectral (mode-dependent) temperature in steady-state nonequilibrium systems. The general concepts are illustrated by analytic solutions of the classical Heisenberg spin chain connected to Langevin heat reservoirs with arbitrary temperature profiles. Gradients of external magnetic fields are shown to localize spin waves in a Wannier-Zeemann fashion, while magnon interactions renormalize the spectral temperature. Our generic results are applicable to other thermodynamic systems such as Newtonian liquids, elastic solids, and Josephson junctions.

  17. Magnetic sensor for steady state tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyatani, Yuzuru; Mori, Katsuharu; Oguri, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1996-06-01

    A new type of magnetic sensor has been developed for the measurement of steady state magnetic fields without DC-drift such as integration circuit. The electromagnetic force induced to the current which leads to the sensor was used for the measurement. For the high frequency component which exceeds higher than the vibration frequency of sensor, pick-up coil was used through the high pass filter. From the results using tokamak discharges, this sensor can measure the magnetic field in the tokamak discharge. During {approx}2 hours measurement, no DC drift was observed. The sensor can respond {approx}10ms of fast change of magnetic field during disruptions. We confirm the extension of measured range to control the current which leads to the sensor. (author).

  18. Frozen steady states in active systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, Volker; Hammerich, Benjamin; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R

    2011-01-01

    Even simple active systems can show a plethora of intriguing phenomena and often we find complexity were we would have expected simplicity. One striking example is the occurrence of a quiescent or absorbing state with frozen fluctuations that at first sight seems to be impossible for active matter driven by the incessant input of energy. While such states were reported for externally driven systems through macroscopic shear or agitation, the investigation of frozen active states in inherently active systems like cytoskeletal suspensions or active gels is still at large. Using high density motility assay experiments, we demonstrate that frozen steady states can arise in active systems if active transport is coupled to growth processes. The experiments are complemented by agent-based simulations which identify the coupling between self-organization, growth and mechanical properties to be responsible for the pattern formation process.

  19. Steady state modeling of desiccant wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2014-01-01

    Desiccant wheels are rotary desiccant dehumidifiers used in air conditioning and drying applications. The modeling of simultaneous heat and mass transfer in these components is crucial for estimating their performances, as well as for simulating and optimizing their implementation in complete sys...... be taken into account in a future version of the model. More experimental data have to be gathered to implement eventual missing phenomena and validate the model for all input parameters....... systems. A steady state two-dimensional model is formulated and implemented aiming to obtain good accuracy and short computational times. Comparison with experimental data from the literature shows that the model reproduces the physical behavior of desiccant wheels. Mass diffusion in the desiccant should......Desiccant wheels are rotary desiccant dehumidifiers used in air conditioning and drying applications. The modeling of simultaneous heat and mass transfer in these components is crucial for estimating their performances, as well as for simulating and optimizing their implementation in complete...

  20. Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, P M

    2016-01-01

    Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balance dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify constraints on excess thermodynamic quantities that ride above the NESS housekeeping background. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. Altogether, these point to universal thermodynamic laws that are immediately app...

  1. Non equilibrium steady states: fluctuations and large deviations of the density and of the current

    OpenAIRE

    Derrida, B.

    2007-01-01

    These lecture notes give a short review of methods such as the matrix ansatz, the additivity principle or the macroscopic fluctuation theory, developed recently in the theory of non-equilibrium phenomena. They show how these methods allow to calculate the fluctuations and large deviations of the density and of the current in non-equilibrium steady states of systems like exclusion processes. The properties of these fluctuations and large deviation functions in non-equilibrium steady states (fo...

  2. Steady-state existence of passive vector fields under the Kraichnan model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arponen, Heikki

    2010-03-01

    The steady-state existence problem for Kraichnan advected passive vector models is considered for isotropic and anisotropic initial values in arbitrary dimension. The models include the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, linear pressure model, and linearized Navier-Stokes (LNS) equations. In addition to reproducing the previously known results for the MHD model, we obtain the values of the Kraichnan model roughness parameter xi for which the LNS steady state exists.

  3. Growth and nitrogen acquisition strategies of Acacia senegal seedlings under exponential phosphorus additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, M E; Harmand, J M; Drevon, J J

    2011-05-15

    There remains conflicting evidence on the relationship between P supply and biological N(2)-fixation rates, particularly N(2)-fixing plant adaptive strategies under P limitation. This is important, as edaphic conditions inherent to many economically and ecologically important semi-arid leguminous tree species, such as Acacia senegal, are P deficient. Our research objective was to verify N acquisition strategies under phosphorus limitations using isotopic techniques. Acacia senegal var. senegal was cultivated in sand culture with three levels of exponentially supplied phosphorus [low (200 μmol of P seedling(-1) over 12 weeks), mid (400 μmol) and high (600 μmol)] to achieve steady-state nutrition over the growth period. Uniform additions of N were also supplied. Plant growth and nutrition were evaluated. Seedlings exhibited significantly greater total biomass under high P supply compared to low P supply. Both P and N content significantly increased with increasing P supply. Similarly, N derived from solution increased with elevated P availability. However, both the number of nodules and the N derived from atmosphere, determined by the (15)N natural abundance method, did not increase along the P gradient. Phosphorus stimulated growth and increased mineral N uptake from solution without affecting the amount of N derived from the atmosphere. We conclude that, under non-limiting N conditions, A. senegal N acquisition strategies change with P supply, with less reliance on N(2)-fixation when the rhizosphere achieves a sufficient N uptake zone.

  4. Potential multiple steady-states in the long-term carbon cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Tennenbaum, Stephen; Schwartzman, David

    2013-01-01

    Modelers of the long term carbon cycle in Earth history have previously assumed there is only one stable climatic steady state. Here we investigate the possibility of multiple steady states. We find them in Abiotic World, lacking any biotic influence, resulting from possible variations in planetary albedo in different temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide level regimes, with the same weathering forcing balancing a volcanic source to the atmosphere, ocean pool. In Plant World modeling relevant to the Phanerozoic, we include the additional effects of biotic enhancement of weathering on land, organic carbon burial, oxidation of reduced organic carbon in terrestrial sediments and the variation of biotic productivity with temperature, finding a second stable steady state appearing between twenty and fifty degrees C. The very warm early Triassic climate may be the prime candidate for an upper temperature steady state. Given our results, the anthropogenic driven rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide could potentially...

  5. Steady-state and non-steady state operation of counter-current chromatography devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Ignatova, Svetlana N; Sutherland, Ian A; Hewitson, Peter; Zakhodjaeva, Yulya A; Erastov, Andrey A

    2013-11-01

    Different variants of separation processes based on steady-state (continuous sample loading) and non-steady state (batch) operating modes of CCC columns have been analyzed and compared. The analysis is carried out on the basis of the modified equilibrium cell model, which takes into account both mechanisms of band broadening - interphase mass transfer and axial mixing. A full theoretical treatment of the intermittent counter-current chromatography with short sample loading time is performed. Analytical expressions are presented allowing the simulation of the intermittent counter-current chromatography separations for various experimental conditions. Chromatographic and extraction separations have been compared and advantages and disadvantages of the two methods have been evaluated. Further technical development of the CCC machines to implement counter-current extraction separations is considered.

  6. Constructive interference in steady-state/FIESTA-C clinical applications in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Makarand; Kulkami, Makarand

    2011-04-01

    High spatial resolution is one of the major problems in neuroimaging, particularly in cranial and spinal nerve imaging. Constructive interference in steady-state/fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition with phase cycling is a robust sequence in imaging the cranial and spinal nerve pathologies. This pictorial review is a concise article about the applications of this sequence in neuroimaging with clinical examples. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  7. Balanced Steady-State Free Precession (bSSFP) from an effective field perspective: Application to the detection of chemical exchange (bSSFPX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Liu, Zheng; Grant, Aaron; Keupp, Jochen; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Vinogradov, Elena

    2017-02-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a novel contrast mechanism and it is gaining increasing popularity as many promising applications have been proposed and investigated. Fast and quantitative CEST imaging techniques are further needed in order to increase the applicability of CEST for clinical use as well as to derive quantitative physiological and biological information. Steady-state methods for fast CEST imaging have been reported recently. Here, we observe that an extreme case of these methods is a balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequence. The bSSFP in itself is sensitive to the exchange processes; hence, no additional saturation or preparation is needed for CEST-like data acquisition. The bSSFP experiment can be regarded as observation during saturation, without separate saturation and acquisition modules as used in standard CEST and similar experiments. One of the differences from standard CEST methods is that the bSSFP spectrum is an XY-spectrum not a Z-spectrum. As the first proof-of-principle step, we have implemented the steady-state bSSFP sequence for chemical exchange detection (bSSFPX) and verified its feasibility in phantom studies. These studies have shown that bSSFPX can achieve exchange-mediated contrast comparable to the standard CEST experiment. Therefore, the bSSFPX method has a potential for fast and quantitative CEST data acquisition.

  8. Steady-state creep in the mantle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. RANALLI

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY - The creep equations for steady-state flow of olivine at high
    pressure and temperature are compared in an attempt to elucidate the rheological
    behaviour of the mantle. Results are presented in terms of applied deformation
    maps and curves of effective viscosity v depth.
    In the upper mantle, the transition stress between dislocation and diffusion
    creep is between 10 to 102 bar (as orders of magnitude for grain sizes from
    0.01 to 1 cm. The asthenosphere under continents is deeper, and has higher
    viscosity, than under oceans. Predominance of one creep mechanism above the
    others depends on grain size, strain rate, and volume fraction of melt; the
    rheological response can be different for different geodynamic processes.
    In the lower mantle, on the other hand, dislocation creep is predominant
    at all realistic grain sizes and strain rates. If the effective viscosity has to be only
    slightly higher than in the upper mantle, as some interpretations of glacioisostatic
    rebound suggest, then the activation volume cannot be larger than
    11 cm3 mole^1.

  9. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C.; Maroo, Shalabh C.

    2016-02-01

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  10. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-02-03

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  11. Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Paul M.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-08-01

    Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balanced dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify the constraints on excess heat and dissipated work necessary to control a system that is kept far from equilibrium by background, uncontrolled "housekeeping" forces. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes thermodynamic feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. We also generalize an approach recently used to determine the work dissipated when driving between functionally relevant configurations of an active energy-consuming complex system. Altogether, these results highlight universal thermodynamic laws that apply to the accessible degrees of freedom within the effective dynamic at any emergent level of hierarchical organization. By way of illustration, we analyze a voltage-gated sodium ion channel whose molecular conformational dynamics play a critical functional role in propagating action potentials in mammalian neuronal membranes.

  12. Integrated stoichiometric, thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of steady state metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, R M T; Thiele, I; Provan, G; Nasheuer, H P

    2010-06-07

    The quantitative analysis of biochemical reactions and metabolites is at frontier of biological sciences. The recent availability of high-throughput technology data sets in biology has paved the way for new modelling approaches at various levels of complexity including the metabolome of a cell or an organism. Understanding the metabolism of a single cell and multi-cell organism will provide the knowledge for the rational design of growth conditions to produce commercially valuable reagents in biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate how equations representing steady state mass conservation, energy conservation, the second law of thermodynamics, and reversible enzyme kinetics can be formulated as a single system of linear equalities and inequalities, in addition to linear equalities on exponential variables. Even though the feasible set is non-convex, the reformulation is exact and amenable to large-scale numerical analysis, a prerequisite for computationally feasible genome scale modelling. Integrating flux, concentration and kinetic variables in a unified constraint-based formulation is aimed at increasing the quantitative predictive capacity of flux balance analysis. Incorporation of experimental and theoretical bounds on thermodynamic and kinetic variables ensures that the predicted steady state fluxes are both thermodynamically and biochemically feasible. The resulting in silico predictions are tested against fluxomic data for central metabolism in Escherichia coli and compare favourably with in silico prediction by flux balance analysis.

  13. Constrained optimal steady-state control for isolated traffic intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack HADDAD; David MAHALEL; Ilya IOSLOVICH; Per-Olof GUTMAN

    2014-01-01

    The steady-state or cyclic control problem for a simplified isolated traffic intersection is considered. The optimization problem for the green-red switching sequence is formulated with the help of a discrete-event max-plus model. Two steady-state control problems are formulated: optimal steady-state with green duration constraints, and optimal steady-state control with lost time. In the case when the criterion is a strictly increasing, linear function of the queue lengths, the steady-state control problems can be solved analytically. The structure of constrained optimal steady-state traffic control is revealed, and the effect of the lost time on the optimal solution is illustrated.

  14. Steady state effects in a two-pulse diffusion-weighted sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubkov, Mikhail; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Price, William S. [Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Stilbs, Peter [Division of Applied Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-04-21

    In conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion measurements a significant amount of experimental time is used up by magnetization recovery, serving to prevent the formation of the steady state, as in the latter case the manifestation of diffusion is modulated by multiple applications of the pulse sequence and conventional diffusion coefficient inference procedures are generally not applicable. Here, an analytical expression for diffusion-related effects in a two-pulse NMR experiment (e.g., pulsed-gradient spin echo) in the steady state mode (with repetition times less than the longitudinal relaxation time of the sample) is derived by employing a Fourier series expansion within the solution of the Bloch-Torrey equations. Considerations are given for the transition conditions between the full relaxation and the steady state experiment description. The diffusion coefficient of a polymer solution (polyethylene glycol) is measured by a two-pulse sequence in the full relaxation mode and for a range of repetition times, approaching the rapid steady state experiment. The precision of the fitting employing the presented steady state solution by far exceeds that of the conventional fitting. Additionally, numerical simulations are performed yielding results strongly supporting the proposed description of the NMR diffusion measurements in the steady state.

  15. On multiple alternating steady states induced by periodic spin phase perturbation waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buračas, Giedrius T; Jung, Youngkyoo; Lee, Jongho; Buxton, Richard B; Wong, Eric C; Liu, Thomas T

    2012-05-01

    Direct measurement of neural currents by means of MRI can potentially open a high temporal resolution (10-100 ms) window applicable for monitoring dynamics of neuronal activity without loss of the high spatial resolution afforded by MRI. Previously, we have shown that the alternating balanced steady state imaging affords high sensitivity to weak periodic currents owing to its amplification of periodic spin phase perturbations. This technique, however, requires precise synchronization of such perturbations to the radiofrequency pulses. Herein, we extend alternating balanced steady state imaging to multiple balanced alternating steady states for estimation of neural current waveforms. Simulations and phantom experiments show that the off-resonance profile of the multiple alternating steady state signal carries information about the frequency content of driving waveforms. In addition, the method is less sensitive than alternating balanced steady state to precise waveform timing relative to radiofrequency pulses. Thus, multiple alternating steady state technique is potentially applicable to MR imaging of the waveforms of periodic neuronal activity.

  16. Particle Velocity Fluctuations in Steady State Sedimentation: Stratification Controlled Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Segrè, P N

    2007-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of steady state sedimentation of semi-concentrated ($\\phi=0.10$) monodisperse spheres are studied in liquid fluidized beds. Laser turbidity and particle imaging methods are used to measure the particle velocity fluctuations and the steady state concentration profiles. Using a wide range of particle and system sizes, we find that the measured gradients $\

  17. Coexistence Steady States in a Predator-Prey Model

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    An age-structured predator-prey system with diffusion and Holling-Tanner-type nonlinearities is considered. Regarding the intensity of the fertility of the predator as bifurcation parameter, we prove that a branch of positive coexistence steady states bifurcates from the marginal steady state with no prey. A similar result is obtained when the fertility of the prey varies.

  18. Steady-state captopril renography: continuous monitoring of the captopril-induced increase in {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3} mean parenchymal transit time in renovascular hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Esper, I. [Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France); Chajari, M`H. [Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France); Fonroget, J. [Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France); Neveu, J.P. [Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France); Makdassi, R. [Department of Nephrology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France); Bailly, P. [Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France); Fournier, A. [Department of Nephrology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France)

    1997-07-01

    Steady-state captopril renography (SSCR) is an original technique for assessing the captopril-induced increase in technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine ({sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}) mean parenchymal transit time (MPTT) in kidneys affected with functional renal artery stenosis (RAS). The steady-state parenchymal activity achieved by constant infusion of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}is directly linked to the MPTT of the radiopharmaceutical. This steady-state parenchymal activity was continuously monitored from 15 min before to 60 min after a single dose of captopril in order to detect possible disruption of the steady state. SSCR was performed in 11 hypertensive patients with unilateral RAS and in two with RAS of a solitary kidney before renal revascularization (RR). In four of these patients, an additional SSCR was performed after RR. Of the ten patients whose hypertension was cured or improved by RR, one presented an uninterpretable SSCR and six presented a positive SSCR on the affected side. Control SSCR performed in four of these six patients was bilaterally negative. SSCR was also bilaterally negative in the three patients who showed no blood pressure response to RR. These preliminary results tend to indicate that, in spite of the stability of pre- and post-captopril hydration and data acquisition conditions allowed by this steady-state technique, the sensitivity is lower than expected. However, the reason for the false-negative results does not seem to be inherent to SSCR. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Locating CVBEM collocation points for steady state heat transfer problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromadka, T.V.

    1985-01-01

    The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method or CVBEM provides a highly accurate means of developing numerical solutions to steady state two-dimensional heat transfer problems. The numerical approach exactly solves the Laplace equation and satisfies the boundary conditions at specified points on the boundary by means of collocation. The accuracy of the approximation depends upon the nodal point distribution specified by the numerical analyst. In order to develop subsequent, refined approximation functions, four techniques for selecting additional collocation points are presented. The techniques are compared as to the governing theory, representation of the error of approximation on the problem boundary, the computational costs, and the ease of use by the numerical analyst. ?? 1985.

  20. Petri nets for steady state analysis of metabolic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Klaus; Heiner, Monika; Koch, Ina

    2011-01-01

    Computer assisted analysis and simulation of biochemical pathways can improve the understanding of the structure and the dynamics of cell processes considerably. The construction and quantitative analysis of kinetic models is often impeded by the lack of reliable data. However, as the topological structure of biochemical systems can be regarded to remain constant in time, a qualitative analysis of a pathway model was shown to be quite promising as it can render a lot of useful knowledge, e. g., about its structural invariants. The topic of this paper are pathways whose substances have reached a dynamic concentration equilibrium (steady state). It is argued that appreciated tools from biochemistry and also low-level Petri nets can yield only part of the desired results, whereas executable high-level net models lead to a number of valuable additional insights by combining symbolic analysis and simulation.

  1. Steady state analysis of metabolic pathways using Petri nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Klaus; Heiner, Monika; Koch, Ina

    2003-01-01

    Computer assisted analysis and simulation of biochemical pathways can improve the understanding of the structure and the dynamics of cell processes considerably. The construction and quantitative analysis of kinetic models is often impeded by the lack of reliable data. However, as the topological structure of biochemical systems can be regarded to remain constant in time, a qualitative analysis of a pathway model was shown to be quite promising as it can render a lot of useful knowledge, e. g., about its structural invariants. The topic of this paper are pathways whose substances have reached a dynamic concentration equilibrium (steady state). It is argued that appreciated tools from biochemistry and also low-level Petri nets can yield only part of the desired results, whereas executable high-level net models lead to a number of valuable additional insights by combining symbolic analysis and simulation.

  2. Steady-state solution methods for open quantum optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nation, P D

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the numerical solution methods available when solving for the steady-state density matrix of a time-independent open quantum optical system, where the system operators are expressed in a suitable basis representation as sparse matrices. In particular, we focus on the difficulties posed by the non-Hermitian structure of the Lindblad super operator, and the numerical techniques designed to mitigate these pitfalls. In addition, we introduce a doubly iterative inverse-power method that can give reduced memory and runtime requirements in situations where other iterative methods are limited due to poor bandwidth and profile reduction. The relevant methods are demonstrated on several prototypical quantum optical systems where it is found that iterative methods based on iLU factorization using reverse Cuthill-Mckee ordering tend to outperform other solution techniques in terms of both memory consumption and runtime as the size of the underlying Hilbert space increases. For eigenvalue solving, Krylov iterat...

  3. Steady-State Performance of Kalman Filter for DPLL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yi; CUI Xiaowei; LU Mingquan; FENG Zhenming

    2009-01-01

    For certain system models, the structure of the Kalman filter is equivalent to a second-order vari-able gain digital phase-locked loop (DPLL). To apply the knowledge of DPLLs to the design of Kalman filters, this paper studies the steady-state performance of Kalman filters for these system models. The results show that the steady-state Kalman gain has the same form as the DPLL gain. An approximate simple form for the steady-state Kalman gain is used to derive an expression for the equivalent loop bandwidth of the Kalman filter as a function of the process and observation noise variances. These results can be used to analyze the steady-state performance of a Kalman filter with DPLL theory or to design a Kalman filter model with the same steady-state performance as a given DPLL.

  4. Steady State of Pedestrian Flow in Bottleneck Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Weichen; Seyfried, Armin; Chraibi, Mohcine; Drzycimski, Kevin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with pedestrians could depend strongly on initial conditions. Comparisons of the results of such experiments require to distinguish carefully between transient state and steady state. In this work, a feasible algorithm - Cumulative Sum Control Chart - is proposed and improved to automatically detect steady states from density and speed time series of bottleneck experiments. The threshold of the detection parameter in the algorithm is calibrated using an autoregressive model. Comparing the detected steady states with previous manually selected ones, the modified algorithm gives more reproducible results. For the applications, three groups of bottleneck experiments are analysed and the steady states are detected. The study about pedestrian flow shows that the difference between the flows in all states and in steady state mainly depends on the ratio of pedestrian number to bottleneck width. When the ratio is higher than a critical value (approximately 115 persons/m), the flow in all states is almost ...

  5. Steady states and stability in metabolic networks without regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Oleksandr; van der Schaft, Arjan; Weissing, Franz J

    2016-07-21

    Metabolic networks are often extremely complex. Despite intensive efforts many details of these networks, e.g., exact kinetic rates and parameters of metabolic reactions, are not known, making it difficult to derive their properties. Considerable effort has been made to develop theory about properties of steady states in metabolic networks that are valid for any values of parameters. General results on uniqueness of steady states and their stability have been derived with specific assumptions on reaction kinetics, stoichiometry and network topology. For example, deep results have been obtained under the assumptions of mass-action reaction kinetics, continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTR), concordant reaction networks and others. Nevertheless, a general theory about properties of steady states in metabolic networks is still missing. Here we make a step further in the quest for such a theory. Specifically, we study properties of steady states in metabolic networks with monotonic kinetics in relation to their stoichiometry (simple and general) and the number of metabolites participating in every reaction (single or many). Our approach is based on the investigation of properties of the Jacobian matrix. We show that stoichiometry, network topology, and the number of metabolites that participate in every reaction have a large influence on the number of steady states and their stability in metabolic networks. Specifically, metabolic networks with single-substrate-single-product reactions have disconnected steady states, whereas in metabolic networks with multiple-substrates-multiple-product reactions manifolds of steady states arise. Metabolic networks with simple stoichiometry have either a unique globally asymptotically stable steady state or asymptotically stable manifolds of steady states. In metabolic networks with general stoichiometry the steady states are not always stable and we provide conditions for their stability. In order to demonstrate the biological

  6. Multiple repetition time balanced steady-state free precession imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukur, Tolga; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2009-07-01

    Although balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging yields high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency, the bright lipid signal is often undesirable. The bSSFP spectrum can be shaped to suppress the fat signal with scan-efficient alternating repetition time (ATR) bSSFP. However, the level of suppression is limited, and the pass-band is narrow due to its nonuniform shape. A multiple repetition time (TR) bSSFP scheme is proposed that creates a broad stop-band with a scan efficiency comparable with ATR-SSFP. Furthermore, the pass-band signal uniformity is improved, resulting in fewer shading/banding artifacts. When data acquisition occurs in more than a single TR within the multiple-TR period, the echoes can be combined to significantly improve the level of suppression. The signal characteristics of the proposed technique were compared with bSSFP and ATR-SSFP. The multiple-TR method generates identical contrast to bSSFP, and achieves up to an order of magnitude higher stop-band suppression than ATR-SSFP. In vivo studies at 1.5 T and 3 T demonstrate the superior fat-suppression performance of multiple-TR bSSFP.

  7. Steady-state decoupling and design of linear multivariable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A constructive criterion for decoupling the steady states of a linear time-invariant multivariable system is presented. This criterion consists of a set of inequalities which, when satisfied, will cause the steady states of a system to be decoupled. Stability analysis and a new design technique for such systems are given. A new and simple connection between single-loop and multivariable cases is found. These results are then applied to the compensation design for NASA STOL C-8A aircraft. Both steady-state decoupling and stability are justified through computer simulations.

  8. Comparison between a steady-state and a transient flow model and related radionuclide concentration predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedeon, M.; Mallants, D.

    2012-04-01

    compared to the equilibrium concentration evolution based on repeating transient flow solutions. This comparison confirmed that although a steady-state flow solution does not correspond to the reality of time-varying groundwater flows, the concentration predictions based the steady-state flow solution are conservative. Additional prediction scaled parameter sensitivity analyses deepen the understanding on the effects of the flow solution temporality on the concentration predictions.

  9. Pre-Steady-State Kinetic Analysis of Single-Nucleotide Incorporation by DNA Polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Peter Guengerich, F

    2016-06-01

    Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis is a powerful and widely used method to obtain multiple kinetic parameters. This protocol provides a step-by-step procedure for pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of single-nucleotide incorporation by a DNA polymerase. It describes the experimental details of DNA substrate annealing, reaction mixture preparation, handling of the RQF-3 rapid quench-flow instrument, denaturing polyacrylamide DNA gel preparation, electrophoresis, quantitation, and data analysis. The core and unique part of this protocol is the rationale for preparation of the reaction mixture (the ratio of the polymerase to the DNA substrate) and methods for conducting pre-steady-state assays on an RQF-3 rapid quench-flow instrument, as well as data interpretation after analysis. In addition, the methods for the DNA substrate annealing and DNA polyacrylamide gel preparation, electrophoresis, quantitation and analysis are suitable for use in other studies. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Enhancement of the steady-state magnetization in TROSY experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riek, Roland [Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Biophysik Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Hoenggerberg (Switzerland)], E-mail: rr@mol.biol.ethz.ch

    2001-10-15

    Under the condition that the longitudinal relaxation time of spin I is shorter than the longitudinal relaxation time of spin S the steady-state magnetization in [S,I]-TROSY-type experiments can be enhanced by intermediate storage of a part of the steady-state magnetization of spin I on spin S with a pulse sequence element during the relaxation delay. It is demonstrated with samples ranging in size from the 1 kDa cyclosporin to the 110 kDa {sup 15}N,{sup 2}H-labeled dihydroneopterin Aldolase that intermediate storage of steady-state magnetization in a [{sup 15}N,{sup 1}H]-TROSY experiment yields a signal gain of 10-25%. The method proposed here for intermediate storage of steady-state magnetization can be implemented in any [{sup 15}N,{sup 1}H]-TROSY-type experiments.

  11. Steady state and time resolved spectroscopy of photoswitchable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Steady state en time resolved spectroscopie zijn twee fundamentele methodes voor het bestuderen van fotochemische processen. In dit proefschrift zijn drie zelf-opgezette spectroscopische systemen beschreven, waarmee samen met andere spectroscopische methoden verscheidende met licht schakelbare syste

  12. Non-equilibrium steady states: fluctuations and large deviations of the density and of the current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Bernard

    2007-07-01

    These lecture notes give a short review of methods such as the matrix ansatz, the additivity principle or the macroscopic fluctuation theory, developed recently in the theory of non-equilibrium phenomena. They show how these methods allow us to calculate the fluctuations and large deviations of the density and the current in non-equilibrium steady states of systems like exclusion processes. The properties of these fluctuations and large deviation functions in non-equilibrium steady states (for example, non-Gaussian fluctuations of density or non-convexity of the large deviation function which generalizes the notion of free energy) are compared with those of systems at equilibrium.

  13. SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.

  14. Analytic description of adaptive network topologies in a steady state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Stefan; Nunes, Ana

    2015-06-01

    In many complex systems, states and interaction structure coevolve towards a dynamic equilibrium. For the adaptive contact process, we obtain approximate expressions for the degree distributions that characterize the interaction network in such active steady states. These distributions are shown to agree quantitatively with simulations except when rewiring is much faster than state update and used to predict and to explain general properties of steady-state topologies. The method generalizes easily to other coevolutionary dynamics.

  15. Steady-state leaching of tritiated water from silica gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, H.A.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion.......Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion....

  16. Steady-state leaching of tritiated water from silica gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, H.A.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion.......Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion....

  17. General Unified Integral Controller with Zero Steady-State Error for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    the steady-state error suppression with no need of additional complex control algorithms such as the synchronous reference frame transformation. Five alternative implementation methods are comparatively evaluated from the viewpoint of the steady-state and dynamic responses. Further, the theoretical analysis......Current regulation is crucial for operating single-phase grid-connected inverters. The challenge of the current controller is how to fast and precisely tracks the current with zero steady-state error. This paper proposes a novel feedback mechanism for the conventional PI controller. It allows...

  18. Multiple steady states in coupled flow tank reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Katharine L. C.; Kottalam, J.; Hatlee, Michael D.; Ross, John

    1992-05-01

    Coupling between continuous-flow, stirred tank reactors (CSTR's), each having multiple steady states, can produce new steady states with different concentrations of the chemical species in each of the coupled tanks. In this work, we identify a kinetic potential ψ that governs the deterministic time evolution of coupled tank reactors, when the reaction mechanism permits a single-variable description of the states of the individual tanks; examples include the iodate-arsenous acid reaction, a cubic model suggested by Noyes, and two quintic models. Stable steady states correspond to minima of ψ, and unstable steady states to maxima or saddle points; marginally stable states typically correspond to saddle-node points. We illustrate the variation in ψ due to changes in the rate constant for external material intake (k0) and for exchange between tanks (kx). For fixed k0 values, we analyze the changes in numbers and types of steady states as kx increases from zero. We show that steady states disappear by pairwise coalescence; we also show that new steady states may appear with increasing kx, when the reaction mechanism is sufficiently complex. For fixed initial conditions, the steady state ultimately reached in a mixing experiment may depend on the exchange rate constant as a function of time, kx(t) : Adiabatic mixing is obtained in the limit of slow changes in kx(t) and instantaneous mixing in the limit as kx(t)→∞ while t remains small. Analyses based on the potential ψ predict the outcome of mixing experiments for arbitrary kx(t). We show by explicit counterexamples that a prior theory developed by Noyes does not correctly predict the instability points or the transitions between steady states of coupled tanks, to be expected in mixing experiments. We further show that the outcome of such experiments is not connected to the relative stability of steady states in individual tank reactors. We find that coupling may effectively stabilize the tanks. We provide

  19. Soil residence time: A window into landscape morphologic steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, P. C.; Roering, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    For a landscape in true morphologic steady state the erosion rate and the average residence time of the debris mantle regolith (including the soils) are everywhere equal. Where other factors influencing soil properties such as climate, organisms and parent material are relatively invariant the degree of weathering and extent of pedological development in the debris mantle regolith should be spatially invariant. The corollary to this argument, commonly exploited in soil-geomorphic analysis, is that variation in debris mantle regolith development in a landscape reflects inheritance of older geomorphic surfaces and hence departure from steady state, at least over some time and space scale. The Oregon Coast Range (OCR) experiences a constant rate of rock uplift and has escaped the effects of Pleistocene glacial and periglacial processes. Furthermore, rock uplift and denudation rates have been shown to be approximately in balance, and consequently the OCR is promoted as being a good candidate for a (flux) steady state landscape. This is, however, not a sufficient condition for morphologic steady state, which is often assumed in numerical landscape simulations. The rock underlying the OCR is relatively homogeneous turbidites of the Tyee formation, and climatic and vegetation factors are relatively uniform over large areas. The degree of weathering and pedological development of the regolith on hillslopes should therefore dominantly reflect variation in regolith residence time, such that significant variation implies non-morphologic-steady state conditions. Indeed, spatial variation in soil/regolith age indicates the extent of departure from morphologic steady state. We have observed ubiquitous but localised deep, highly weathered regoliths and soils on ridge tops in the OCR. The extent, depth, geometry and elevational distribution of these deep regolith patches combined with relative measures of their age derived from total element and meteoric 10Be inventory will enable

  20. The Future of Additive Manufacturing in Air Force Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-22

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE FUTURE OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING IN AIR FORCE ACQUISITION by Benjamin D. Forest, Lt Col, USAF...those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government, the Department of Defense, or Air University. In...accordance with Air Force Instruction 51-303, it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government. 3 Biography Lieutenant Colonel

  1. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Patel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

  2. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. PMID:27412267

  3. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-08-15

    During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

  4. Attentional modulation of auditory steady-state responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatin Mahajan

    Full Text Available Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR. The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence. The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex.

  5. Non-steady state population kinetics of intravenous phenytoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, B; Beal, S L

    1998-08-01

    This observational study explored the effects of demographics, sickness, and polypharmacy on the non-steady state population pharmacokinetics of intravenous phenytoin. One hundred fifteen patients were studied. Models were developed using the NONMEM program with hybrid first-order conditional estimation. A Michaelis-Menten model with delayed induction was preferred over a Michaelis-Menten model without induction, a Michaelis-Menten model with immediate induction, or a linear model with delayed induction. When the data were fit to a Michaelis-Menten model with delayed induction, the volume of distribution (Vd) was found to depend on weight and serum albumin. The Vd was estimated to be 0.95 l/kg, assuming an albumin level of 3 g/dl. The Michaelis-Menten constant (km) was estimated to be 7.9 mg/l. The baseline maximum metabolic rate was 580 mg/day for a 70-kg patient. The average time to onset of induction was 59.5 hours. If a fever developed after induction began, it increased the extent of induction. This model was evaluated retrospectively in 26 additional patients, yielding a mean prediction error of -0.4 mg/l (-3.0-2.2 mg/l) and a mean absolute prediction error of 4.7 mg/l (3.2-6.2 mg/l) based on two-level feedback. Given the large interindividual variances in maximum metabolic rate, phenytoin levels should be measured frequently.

  6. Models of steady state cooling flows in elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Peter W.; Trester, Jeffrey J.; Canizares, Claude R.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive set of steady state models for spherically symmetric cooling flows in early-type galaxies is presented. It is found that a reduction of the supernova (SN) rate in ellipticals produces a decrease in the X-ray luminosity of galactic cooling flows and a steepening of the surface brightness profile. The mean X-ray temperature of the cooling flow is not affected noticeably by a change in the SN rate. The external pressure around a galaxy does not markedly change the luminosity of the gas within the galaxy but does change the mean temperature of the gas. The presence of a dark matter halo in a galaxy only changes the mean X-ray temperature slightly. The addition of a distribution of mass sinks which remove material from the general accretion flow reduces L(X) very slightly, flattens the surface brightness profile, and reduces the central surface brightness level to values close to those actually observed. A reduction in the stellar mass-loss rate only slightly reduces the X-ray luminosity of the cooling flow and flattens the surface brightness by a small amount.

  7. The inductive, steady-state sustainment of stable spheromaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, A. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Morgan, K. D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Hansen, C. J.; Everson, C. J.; Penna, J. M.; Nelson, B. A.

    2016-10-01

    Inductive helicity injection current drive with imposed perturbations has led to the breakthrough of spheromak sustainment while maintaining stability. Sustained spheromaks show coherent, imposed plasma motion and low plasma-generated mode activity, indicating stability. Additionally, record current gain of 3.9 has been achieved with evidence of pressure confinement. The Helicity Injected Torus - Steady Inductive (HIT-SI) experiment studies efficient, steady-state current drive for magnetic confinement plasmas using a novel experimental method which is ideal for low aspect ratio, toroidal geometries and is compatible with closed flux surfaces. Analysis of surface magnetic probes indicates large n = 0 and 1 toroidal Fourier mode amplitudes and little energy in higher modes. Biorthogonal decomposition shows that almost all of the n = 1 energy is imposed by the injectors, rather than plasma-generated. Ion Doppler spectroscopy (IDS) measurements show coherent, imposed plasma motion of +/-2.5 cm in the region inside r 10 cm (a = 23 cm) and the size of the separate spheromak is consistent with that predicted by Imposed-dynamo Current Drive (IDCD). Coherent motion indicates that the spheromak is stable and a lack of plasma-generated n = 1 energy indicates that the maximum q is maintained below 1 for stability during sustainment.

  8. Stable MIMO Constrained Predictive Control with Steady state Objective Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A two-stage multi-objective optimization model-predictive control algorithms(MPC) strategy is pre sented. A domain MPC controller with input constraints is used to increase freedom for steady-state objective and enhance stabilization of the controller. A steady-state objective optimization algorithm oriented to transient process is adopted to realize optimization of objectives else than dynamic control. It is proved that .the stabilization for both dynamic control and steady-state objective optimization can be guaranteed. The theoretical results are demonstrated and discussed using a distillation tower as the model. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that this control strategy is efficient and provides a good strategic solution to practical process control.

  9. Structural simplification of chemical reaction networks in partial steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelaine, Guillaume; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim; Tonello, Elisa

    2016-11-01

    We study the structural simplification of chemical reaction networks with partial steady state semantics assuming that the concentrations of some but not all species are constant. We present a simplification rule that can eliminate intermediate species that are in partial steady state, while preserving the dynamics of all other species. Our simplification rule can be applied to general reaction networks with some but few restrictions on the possible kinetic laws. We can also simplify reaction networks subject to conservation laws. We prove that our simplification rule is correct when applied to a module of a reaction network, as long as the partial steady state is assumed with respect to the complete network. Michaelis-Menten's simplification rule for enzymatic reactions falls out as a special case. We have implemented an algorithm that applies our simplification rules repeatedly and applied it to reaction networks from systems biology.

  10. Quantum quasi-steady states in current transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agosta, Roberto; Zwolak, Michael; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-03-01

    We investigate quasi-steady state solutions to transport in quantum systems by finding states which at some time minimize the change in density throughout all space and have a given current density flowing from one part of the system to another [1]. Contrary to classical dynamics, in a quantum mechanical system there are many states with a given energy and particle number which satisfy this minimization criterion. Taking as an example spinless fermions on a one-dimensional lattice, we explicitly show the phase space of a class of quasi-steady states. We also discuss the possibility of coherent and incoherent mixing of these steady state solutions leading to a new type of noise in quantum transport. [1] M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004).

  11. Steady state decoupling and design of linear multivariable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J. Y.; Thaler, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A constructive criterion for decoupling the steady states of linear multivariable systems is developed. The criterion consists of n(n-1) inequalities with the type numbers of the compensator transfer functions as the unknowns. These unknowns can be chosen to satisfy the inequalities and hence achieve a steady state decoupling scheme. It turns out that pure integrators in the loops play an important role. An extended root locus design method is then developed to take care of the stability and transient response. The overall procedure is applied to the compensation design for STOL C-8A aircraft in the approach mode.

  12. Adaptive steady-state stabilization for nonlinear dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, David J.

    2008-07-01

    By means of LaSalle’s invariance principle, we propose an adaptive controller with the aim of stabilizing an unstable steady state for a wide class of nonlinear dynamical systems. The control technique does not require analytical knowledge of the system dynamics and operates without any explicit knowledge of the desired steady-state position. The control input is achieved using only system states with no computer analysis of the dynamics. The proposed strategy is tested on Lorentz, van der Pol, and pendulum equations.

  13. Electric machines steady state, transients, and design with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2009-01-01

    Part I: Steady StateIntroductionElectric Energy and Electric MachinesBasic Types of Transformers and Electric MachinesLosses and EfficiencyPhysical Limitations and RatingsNameplate RatingsMethods of AnalysisState of the Art and Perspective Electric TransformersAC Coil with Magnetic Core and Transformer Principles Magnetic Materials in EMs and Their LossesElectric Conductors and Their Skin EffectsComponents of Single- and 3-Phase TransformersFlux Linkages and Inductances of Single-Phase TransformersCircuit Equations of Single-Phase Transformers With Core LossesSteady State and Equivalent Circui

  14. Mapping current fluctuations of stochastic pumps to nonequilibrium steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotskoff, Grant M.

    2017-03-01

    We show that current fluctuations in a stochastic pump can be robustly mapped to fluctuations in a corresponding time-independent nonequilibrium steady state. We thus refine a recently proposed mapping so that it ensures equivalence of not only the averages, but also optimal representation of fluctuations in currents and density. Our mapping leads to a natural decomposition of the entropy production in stochastic pumps similar to the "housekeeping" heat. As a consequence of the decomposition of entropy production, the current fluctuations in weakly perturbed stochastic pumps are shown to satisfy a universal bound determined by the steady state entropy production.

  15. Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady-State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1997-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of steady-state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problem is an idealization of a ship bottom raking process, i.e. a continuous cutting damage of a ship bottom by a hard knife-like rock in a grounding event. A new...

  16. The Enlisted Steady State-Simulation (ESS-SIM) Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    1 Model design ...current inven- tories. A simulation of the transition from a current inventory toward the steady state is required for such an understanding. Model design ...described by paygrade (e.g., the Navy needs 100 E-5 OS personnel). • Longevity (length of service): Many personnel policies address longevity (e.g., Zone A

  17. The concave river long profile: a morphodynamic steady state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, A.

    2011-12-01

    By definition, a morphodynamic steady state is governed by a spatially constant sediment transport rate. As the sediment transport rate is a function of shear stress associated with skin friction, the morphodynamic steady state has been considered to be governed by a spatially constant bed slope. For this reason, the typical concave river long profile has been considered to be a quasi-steady state. The river's steady state has been considered to be one with a spatially constant bed slope, with tributaries inducing a stepwise decrease in bed slope in streamwise direction. Yet, for the sediment transport rate to be spatially constant, it rather is the product of water surface slope and water depth associated with skin friction that needs to be constant. This implies that physical mechanisms that induce streamwise variation in the sediment transport rate can be compensated by a streamwise variation in bed slope so as to guarantee a spatially constant sediment transport rate. Following the river course, such physical mechanisms can be bedrock exposure, partial transport, and a spatially lagging bedform growth. At locations where tributaries increase the water discharge, the above mechanisms cause the river bed profile to be upward concave over a significant reach. At bifucations or at locations where river widening prevails, the river bed profile is upward convex.

  18. ONLINE MONITORING STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMIT PADA SISTEM INTERKONEKSI SULSELRABAR

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Pada beberapa dekade terakhir, fenomena black-out (pemadaman total)akibat voltage collapse mengalami peningkatan.Hal ini disebabkan oleh peningkatan konsumen pemakai listrik yang tidak sebanding dengan peningkatan pembangkit dan pengembangan jaringan transmisi. Berdasarkan kenyataan dilapangan, ketidakstabilan steady state sangat berhubungan dengan rendahnya ketersediaan daya aktif/reaktif, level tegangan yang rendah, dan besarnya perubahan tegangan untuk perubahan beban atau daya pembangkit....

  19. Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...

  20. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  1. A study for multiple steady states of biochemical reactions under substrate and product inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien

    2000-08-01

    This paper combines Sturm's method with the tangent analysis method to solve a biochemical reaction involving multiplicity. This method can easily derive the necessary conditions for multiplicity. In addition, we find a starting bifurcation point for multiplicity which cannot be obtained by the tangent method alone. Moreover, a start-up strategy is suggested to obtain a high conversion and unique steady state in four selected kinetic models of biochemical reactions, with inhibition.

  2. Steady-state properties of driven magnetic reconnection in 2D electron magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, L; Simakov, Andrei N; Zocco, A

    2007-12-07

    We formulate a rigorous nonlinear analytical model that describes the dynamics of the diffusion (reconnection) region in driven systems in the context of electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD). A steady-state analysis yields allowed geometric configurations and associated reconnection rates. In addition to the well-known open X-point geometry, elongated configurations are found possible. The model predictions have been validated numerically with two-dimensional EMHD nonlinear simulations, and are in excellent agreement with previously published work.

  3. Analysis of slow transitions between nonequilibrium steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Dibyendu; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    Transitions between nonequilibrium steady states obey a generalized Clausius inequality, which becomes an equality in the quasistatic limit. For slow but finite transitions, we show that the behavior of the system is described by a response matrix whose elements are given by a far-from-equilibrium Green-Kubo formula, involving the decay of correlations evaluated in the nonequilibrium steady state. This result leads to a fluctuation-dissipation relation between the mean and variance of the nonadiabatic entropy production, Δ {{s}\\text{na}} . Furthermore, our results extend—to nonequilibrium steady states—the thermodynamic metric structure introduced by Sivak and Crooks for analyzing minimal-dissipation protocols for transitions between equilibrium states.

  4. Steady State Dynamic Operating Behavior of Universal Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan Burdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the universal motor is developed and used for various dynamic steady state and transient operating conditions of loads. In the investigation, output torque, motor speed, input current, input/output power and efficiency are computed, compared and analyzed for different loads. While this paper discusses the steady-state behavior of the universal motor, another companion paper, ?Transient dynamic behavior of universal motor?, will discuss its transient behavior in detail. A non-linear generalized electric machine model of the motor is considered for the analysis. This study was essential to investigate effect of output load on input current, power, speed and efficiency of the motor during operations. Previously such investigation is not known

  5. Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: steady state and linearized dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, Wei-Ting

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue is assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description for tissue dynamics at long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insight for the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface could enhance small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multi-layered tissues, it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology and developing pattern.

  6. Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.

  7. Nonequilibrium Steady States of a Stochastic Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiwei

    We study the nonequilibrium steady state of a stochastic lattice gas model, originally proposed by Katz, Lebowitz and Spohn (Phys. Rev. B 28: 1655 (1983)). Firstly, we solve the model on some small lattices exactly in order to see the general dependence of the steady state upon different parameters of the model. Nextly, we derive some analytical results for infinite lattice systems by taking some suitable limits. We then present some renormalization group results for the continuum version of the model via field theoretical techniques, the supersymmetry of the critical dynamics in zero field is also explored. Finally, we report some very recent 3-D Monte Carlo simulation results, which have been obtained by applying Multi-Spin-Coding techniques on a CDC vector supercomputer - Cyber 205 at John von Neumann Center.

  8. Task-specific stability of multifinger steady-state action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschechtko, Sasha; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The authors explored task-specific stability during accurate multifinger force production tasks with different numbers of instructed fingers. Subjects performed steady-state isometric force production tasks and were instructed not to interfere voluntarily with transient lifting-and-lowering perturbations applied to the index finger. The main results were (a) intertrial variance in the space of finger modes at steady states was larger within the subspace that had no effect on the total force (the uncontrolled manifold [UCM]); (b) perturbations caused large deviations of finger modes within the UCM (motor equivalence); and (c) deviations caused by the perturbation showed larger variance within the UCM. No significant effects of the number of task fingers were noted in any of the 3 indicators. The results are discussed within the frameworks of the UCM and referent configuration hypotheses. The authors conclude, in particular, that all the tasks were effectively 4-finger tasks with different involvement of task and nontask fingers.

  9. Non-equilibrium steady states in supramolecular polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Sato, Akihiro; Hermans, Thomas M.

    2017-06-01

    Living systems use fuel-driven supramolecular polymers such as actin to control important cell functions. Fuel molecules like ATP are used to control when and where such polymers should assemble and disassemble. The cell supplies fresh ATP to the cytosol and removes waste products to sustain steady states. Artificial fuel-driven polymers have been developed recently, but keeping them in sustained non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) has proven challenging. Here we show a supramolecular polymer that can be kept in NESS, inside a membrane reactor where ATP is added and waste removed continuously. Assembly and disassembly of our polymer is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. Waste products lead to inhibition, causing the reaction cycle to stop. Inside the membrane reactor, however, waste can be removed leading to long-lived NESS conditions. We anticipate that our approach to obtain NESS can be applied to other stimuli-responsive materials to achieve more life-like behaviour.

  10. Approach to steady-state transport in nanoscale conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushong, Neil; Sai, Na; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2005-12-01

    We show, using a tight-binding model and time-dependent density-functional theory, that a quasi-steady-state current can be established dynamically in a finite nanoscale junction without any inelastic effects. This is simply due to the geometrical constriction experienced by the electron wave packets as they propagate through the junction. We also show that in this closed nonequilibrium system two local electron occupation functions can be defined on each side of the nanojunction which approach Fermi distributions with increasing number of atoms in the electrodes. The resultant conductance and current-voltage characteristics at quasi-steady state are in agreement with those calculated within the static scattering approach.

  11. Steady-state Physics, Effective Temperature Dynamics in Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Using the gauge-gravity duality, we argue that for a certain class of out-of-equilibrium steady-state systems in contact with a heat bath at a given temperature, the macroscopic physics can be captured by an effective thermodynamic description. The steady-state is obtained by applying a constant electric field that results in a stationary current flow. Within holography, we consider generic probe systems where an open string equivalence principle and an open string metric govern the effective thermodynamics. This description comes equipped with an effective temperature, which is larger than the bath temperature, and a corresponding effective entropy. For conformal or scale-invariant theories, certain scaling behaviours follow immediately. In general, in the large electric field limit, this effective temperature is also observed to obey certain generic relations with various physical parameters in the system.

  12. Multiplying steady-state culture in multi-reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erm, Sten; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-11-01

    Cultivation of microorganisms in batch experiments is fast and economical but the conditions therein change constantly, rendering quantitative data interpretation difficult. By using chemostat with controlled environmental conditions the physiological state of microorganisms is fixed; however, the unavoidable stabilization phase makes continuous methods resource consuming. Material can be spared by using micro scale devices, which however have limited analysis and process control capabilities. Described herein are a method and a system combining the high throughput of batch with the controlled environment of continuous cultivations. Microorganisms were prepared in one bioreactor followed by culture distribution into a network of bioreactors and continuation of independent steady state experiments therein. Accelerostat cultivation with statistical analysis of growth parameters demonstrated non-compromised physiological state following distribution, thus the method effectively multiplied steady state culture of microorganisms. The theoretical efficiency of the system was evaluated in inhibitory compound analysis using repeated chemostat to chemostat transfers.

  13. Extending Molecular Theory to Steady-State Diffusing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRINK,LAURA J. D.; SALINGER,ANDREW G.; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.

    1999-10-22

    Predicting the properties of nonequilibrium systems from molecular simulations is a growing area of interest. One important class of problems involves steady state diffusion. To study these cases, a grand canonical molecular dynamics approach has been developed by Heffelfinger and van Swol [J. Chem. Phys., 101, 5274 (1994)]. With this method, the flux of particles, the chemical potential gradients, and density gradients can all be measured in the simulation. In this paper, we present a complementary approach that couples a nonlocal density functional theory (DFT) with a transport equation describing steady-state flux of the particles. We compare transport-DFT predictions to GCMD results for a variety of ideal (color diffusion), and nonideal (uphill diffusion and convective transport) systems. In all cases excellent agreement between transport-DFT and GCMD calculations is obtained with diffusion coefficients that are invariant with respect to density and external fields.

  14. Use of time attenuation curves to determine steady-state characteristics before C-arm CT measurement of cerebral blood volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroff, Jildaz; Jittapiromsak, Pakrit; Benachour, Nidhal; Mihalea, Cristian; Rouchaud, Aymeric; Neki, Hiroaki; Ikka, Leon; Moret, Jacques; Spelle, Laurent [Beaujon Medical Center, NEURI - Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris Diderot University, Clichy (France); Ruijters, Daniel [Philips Healthcare, Interventional X-Ray Innovation, Best (Netherlands)

    2014-03-15

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurement by flat panel detector CT (FPCT) in the angiography suite seems to be a promising tool for patient management during endovascular therapies. A steady state of contrast agent distribution is mandatory during acquisition for accurate FPCT CBV assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that steady-state parameters were studied in clinical practice. Before the CBV study, test injections were performed and analyzed to determine a customized acquisition delay from injection for each patient. Injection protocol consisted in the administration of 72 mL of contrast agent material at the injection rate of 4.0 mL/s followed by a saline flush bolus at the same injection rate. Peripheral or central venous accesses were used depending on their availability. Twenty-four patients were treated for different types of neurovascular diseases. Maximal attenuation, steady-state length, and steady-state delay from injection were derived from the test injections' time attenuation curves. With a 15 % threshold from maximum attenuation values, average steady-state duration was less than 10 s. Maximum average steady-state duration with minimal delay variation was obtained with central injection protocols. With clinically acceptable contrast agent volumes, steady state is a brief condition; thus, fast rotation speed acquisitions are needed. The use of central injections decreases the variability of steady-state's delay from injection. Further studies are needed to optimize and standardize injection protocols to allow a larger diffusion of the FPCT CBV measurement during endovascular treatments. (orig.)

  15. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris

    2017-01-01

    examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power......, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p

  16. Anthropic-principle arguments against steady-state cosmological theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, F.J. (Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1982-04-01

    Steady-state theories are very difficult to rule out on observational grounds, particularly if they are adjusted to contain a three-degree isotropic thermal-background radiation. However, anthropic-principle arguments can be used to rule out virtually any cosmological theory which has the universe stationary in the large. For example, anthropic considerations show that the perfect cosmological principle is self-contradictory.

  17. Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, L.-N.; Wolf, R. A.; Voigt, G.-H.; Wu, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    A two-dimensional, force-balance magnetic field model is presented. The theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD is demonstrated. A numerical solution is obtained for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The results are consistent with the convection time sequences reported by Erickson (1985).

  18. Optimal operation of Petlyuk distillation: Steady-state behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ivar J. Halvorsen; Sigurd Skogestad

    2001-01-01

    The "Petlyuk" or "dividing-wall" or "fully thermally coupled" distillation column is an interesting alternative to the conventional cascaded binary columns for separation of multi-component mixtures. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in operation have been reported as one reason. With three product compositions controlled, the system has two degrees of freedom left for on-line optimization. We show that the steady-state optimal solution surface is quite narrow, an...

  19. Approach to steady state transport in nanoscale conductors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We show, using a tight-binding model and time-dependent density-functional theory, that a quasi-steady state current can be established dynamically in a finite nanoscale junction without any inelastic effects. This is simply due to the geometrical constriction experienced by the electron wavepackets as they propagate through the junction. We also show that in this closed non-equilibrium system two local electron occupation functions can be defined on each side of the nanojunction which approa...

  20. The Approach to Steady State Using Homogeneous and Cartesian Coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Gochberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeating an arbitrary sequence of RF pulses and magnetic field gradients will eventually lead to a steady-state condition in any magnetic resonance system. While numerical methods can quantify this trajectory, analytic analysis provides significantly more insight and a means for faster calculation. Recently, an analytic analysis using homogeneous coordinates was published. The current work further develops this line of thought and compares the relative merits of using a homogeneous or a Cartesian coordinate system.

  1. Steady state equivalence among autocatalytic peroxidase-oxidase reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-González, José; Femat, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    Peroxidase-oxidase is an enzymatic reaction that can exhibit dynamical scenarios such as bistability, sustained oscillations, and Shilnikov chaos. In this work, we apply the chemical reaction network theory approach to find kinetic constants such that the associated mass action kinetics ordinary differential equations induced by three four dimensional structurally different enzymatic reaction systems can support the same steady states for several chemical species despite differences in their chemical nature.

  2. Multiple Color Stimulus Induced Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    evoked potentials, multiple color, FFT, bispectrum I. INTRODUCTION Visual evoked potential ( VEP ) is the electrical response of...brain under visual stimulation, which can be recorded from the scalp over the visual cortex of the brain. A distinction is made between transient VEP ...and steady-state VEP (SSVEP) based on the stimulation frequencies. The former arises when the stimulation frequencies are less than 2 Hz. However

  3. Evaluation of a steady-state test of foam stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Stefan; Lösch, Dörte; Carey, Enda; Weaire, Denis; Hloucha, Matthias; Stubenrauch, Cosima

    2011-02-01

    We have evaluated a steady-state test of foam stability, based on the steady-state height of a foam produced by a constant velocity of gas flow. This test is mentioned in the book by Bikerman [Foams, Springer, Berlin, 1973] and an elementary theory was developed for it by Verbist et al. [J. Phys. Condens. Matter 8 (1996) p. 3715]. For the study, we used an aqueous solution of the cationic surfactant dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide, C12TAB, at a concentration of two times the critical micelle concentration (2 cmc). During foam generation, bubbles collapse at the top of the column which, in turn, eventually counterbalances the rate of bubble production at the bottom. The resulting balance can be described mathematically by an appropriate solution of the foam drainage equation under specified boundary conditions. Our experimental findings are in agreement with the theoretical predictions of a diverging foam height at a critical gas velocity and a finite foam height in the limit of zero velocity. We identify a critical liquid fraction below which a foam is unstable as an important parameter for characterizing foam stability. Furthermore, we deduce an effective viscosity of the liquid which flows through the foam. Currently unexplained are two experimental observations, namely sudden changes of the steady-state foam height in experiments that run over several hours and a reduction in foam height once an overflow of the foam from the containing vessel has occurred.

  4. STEADY-STATE MODEL OF SOLAR WIND ELECTRONS REVISITED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-20

    In a recent paper, Kim et al. put forth a steady-state model for the solar wind electrons. The model assumed local equilibrium between the halo electrons, characterized by an intermediate energy range, and the whistler-range fluctuations. The basic wave–particle interaction is assumed to be the cyclotron resonance. Similarly, it was assumed that a dynamical steady state is established between the highly energetic superhalo electrons and high-frequency Langmuir fluctuations. Comparisons with the measured solar wind electron velocity distribution function (VDF) during quiet times were also made, and reasonable agreements were obtained. In such a model, however, only the steady-state solution for the Fokker–Planck type of electron particle kinetic equation was considered. The present paper complements the previous analysis by considering both the steady-state particle and wave kinetic equations. It is shown that the model halo and superhalo electron VDFs, as well as the assumed wave intensity spectra for the whistler and Langmuir fluctuations, approximately satisfy the quasi-linear wave kinetic equations in an approximate sense, thus further validating the local equilibrium model constructed in the paper by Kim et al.

  5. Steady state statistical correlations predict bistability in reaction motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Suchana; Barik, Debashis

    2017-03-01

    Various cellular decision making processes are regulated by bistable switches that take graded input signals and convert them to binary all-or-none responses. Traditionally, a bistable switch generated by a positive feedback loop is characterized either by a hysteretic signal response curve with two distinct signaling thresholds or by characterizing the bimodality of the response distribution in the bistable region. To identify the intrinsic bistability of a feedback regulated network, here we propose that bistability can be determined by correlating higher order moments and cumulants (≥2) of the joint steady state distributions of two components connected in a positive feedback loop. We performed stochastic simulations of four feedback regulated models with intrinsic bistability and we show that for a bistable switch with variation of the signal dose, the steady state variance vs. covariance adopts a signatory cusp-shaped curve. Further, we find that the (n + 1)th order cross-cumulant vs. nth order cross-cumulant adopts a closed loop structure for at least n = 3. We also propose that our method is capable of identifying systems without intrinsic bistability even though the system may show bimodality in the marginal response distribution. The proposed method can be used to analyze single cell protein data measured at steady state from experiments such as flow cytometry.

  6. Basin stability measure of different steady states in coupled oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Sarbendu; Bera, Bidesh K; Majhi, Soumen; Hens, Chittaranjan; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-04-05

    In this report, we investigate the stabilization of saddle fixed points in coupled oscillators where individual oscillators exhibit the saddle fixed points. The coupled oscillators may have two structurally different types of suppressed states, namely amplitude death and oscillation death. The stabilization of saddle equilibrium point refers to the amplitude death state where oscillations are ceased and all the oscillators converge to the single stable steady state via inverse pitchfork bifurcation. Due to multistability features of oscillation death states, linear stability theory fails to analyze the stability of such states analytically, so we quantify all the states by basin stability measurement which is an universal nonlocal nonlinear concept and it interplays with the volume of basins of attractions. We also observe multi-clustered oscillation death states in a random network and measure them using basin stability framework. To explore such phenomena we choose a network of coupled Duffing-Holmes and Lorenz oscillators which are interacting through mean-field coupling. We investigate how basin stability for different steady states depends on mean-field density and coupling strength. We also analytically derive stability conditions for different steady states and confirm by rigorous bifurcation analysis.

  7. Basin stability measure of different steady states in coupled oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Sarbendu; Bera, Bidesh K.; Majhi, Soumen; Hens, Chittaranjan; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-01-01

    In this report, we investigate the stabilization of saddle fixed points in coupled oscillators where individual oscillators exhibit the saddle fixed points. The coupled oscillators may have two structurally different types of suppressed states, namely amplitude death and oscillation death. The stabilization of saddle equilibrium point refers to the amplitude death state where oscillations are ceased and all the oscillators converge to the single stable steady state via inverse pitchfork bifurcation. Due to multistability features of oscillation death states, linear stability theory fails to analyze the stability of such states analytically, so we quantify all the states by basin stability measurement which is an universal nonlocal nonlinear concept and it interplays with the volume of basins of attractions. We also observe multi-clustered oscillation death states in a random network and measure them using basin stability framework. To explore such phenomena we choose a network of coupled Duffing-Holmes and Lorenz oscillators which are interacting through mean-field coupling. We investigate how basin stability for different steady states depends on mean-field density and coupling strength. We also analytically derive stability conditions for different steady states and confirm by rigorous bifurcation analysis. PMID:28378760

  8. Nonequilibrium Steady State Thermodynamics and Fluctuations for Stochastic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tooru; Cohen, E. G. D.

    2008-02-01

    We use the work done on and the heat removed from a system to maintain it in a nonequilibrium steady state for a thermodynamic-like description of such a system as well as of its fluctuations. Based on an extended Onsager-Machlup theory for nonequilibrium steady states we indicate two ambiguities, not present in an equilibrium state, in defining such work and heat: one due to a non-uniqueness of time-reversal procedures and another due to multiple possibilities to separate heat into work and an energy difference in nonequilibrium steady states. As a consequence, for such systems, the work and heat satisfy multiple versions of the first and second laws of thermodynamics as well as of their fluctuation theorems. Unique laws and relations appear only to be obtainable for concretely defined systems, using physical arguments to choose the relevant physical quantities. This is illustrated on a number of systems, including a Brownian particle in an electric field, a driven torsion pendulum, electric circuits and an energy transfer driven by a temperature difference.

  9. Ideal MHD Stability of ITER Steady State Scenarios with ITBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.M. Poli, C.E. Kessel, S. Jardin, J. Manickam, M. Chance, J. Chen

    2011-07-27

    One of ITER goals is to demonstrate feasibility of continuous operations using non-inductive current drive. Two main candidates have been identified for advanced operations: the long duration, high neutron fluency hybrid scenario and the steady state scenario, both operating at a plasma current lower than the reference ELMy scenario [1][2] to minimize the required current drive. The steady state scenario targets plasmas with current 7-10 MA in the flat-top, 50% of which will be provided by the self-generated, pressure-driven bootstrap current. It has been estimated that, in order to obtain a fusion gain Q > 5 at a current of 9 MA, it should be ΒN > 2.5 and H > 1.5 [3]. This implies the presence of an Internal Transport Barrier (ITB). This work discusses how the stability of steady state scenarios with ITBs is affected by the external heating sources and by perturbations of the equilibrium profiles.

  10. Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillermin, Christophe [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rain, Pascal [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et de Materiaux Dielectriques (LEMD), CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rowe, Stephen W [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2006-02-07

    Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T{sub g} = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm{sup -1} with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T{sub g}, transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T{sub g}, the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm{sup -1} have been measured.

  11. Steady states of continuous-time open quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaobin; Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2017-07-01

    Continuous-time open quantum walks (CTOQW) are introduced as the formulation of quantum dynamical semigroups of trace-preserving and completely positive linear maps (or quantum Markov semigroups) on graphs. We show that a CTOQW always converges to a steady state regardless of the initial state when a graph is connected. When the graph is both connected and regular, it is shown that the steady state is the maximally mixed state. As shown by the examples in this article, the steady states of CTOQW can be very unusual and complicated even though the underlying graphs are simple. The examples demonstrate that the structure of a graph can affect quantum coherence in CTOQW through a long-time run. Precisely, the quantum coherence persists throughout the evolution of the CTOQW when the underlying topology is certain irregular graphs (such as a path or a star as shown in the examples). In contrast, the quantum coherence will eventually vanish from the open quantum system when the underlying topology is a regular graph (such as a cycle).

  12. Cavitation modeling for steady-state CFD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanimann, L.; Mangani, L.; Casartelli, E.; Widmer, M.

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation in hydraulic turbomachines is an important phenomenon to be considered for performance predictions. Correct analysis of the cavitation onset and its effect on the flow field while diminishing the pressure level need therefore to be investigated. Even if cavitation often appears as an unsteady phenomenon, the capability to compute it in a steady state formulation for the design and assessment phase in the product development process is very useful for the engineer. In the present paper the development and corresponding application of a steady state CFD solver is presented, based on the open source toolbox OpenFOAM®. In the first part a review of different cavitation models is presented. Adopting the mixture-type cavitation approach, various models are investigated and developed in a steady state CFD RANS solver. Particular attention is given to the coupling between cavitation and turbulence models as well as on the underlying numerical procedure, especially the integration in the pressure- correction step of pressure-based solvers, which plays an important role in the stability of the procedure. The performance of the proposed model is initially assessed on simple cases available in the open literature. In a second step results for different applications are presented, ranging from airfoils to pumps.

  13. SBWR Model for Steady-State and Transient Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Espinosa-Paredes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of a simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR to analyze the steady-state and transient behavior. The SBWR model is based on approximations of lumped and distributed parameters to consider neutronics and natural circulation processes. The main components of the model are vessel dome, downcomer, lower plenum, core (channel and fuel, upper plenum, pressure, and level controls. Further consideration of the model is the natural circulation path in the internal circuit of the reactor, which governs the safety performance of the SBWR. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, the predictions were compared with plant data, manufacturer_s predictions, and RELAP5 under steady-state and transient conditions of a typical BWR. In steady-state conditions, the profiles of the main variables of the SBWR core such as superficial velocity, void fraction, temperatures, and convective heat transfer coefficient are presented and analyzed. The transient behavior of SBWR was analyzed during the closure of all main steam line isolation valves (MSIVs. Our results in this transient show that the cooling system due to natural circulation in the SBWR is around 70% of the rated core flow. According to the results shown here, one of the main conclusions of this work is that the simplified model could be very helpful in the licensing process.

  14. On the interpretation of recharge estimates from steady-state model calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William P; Evans, David G

    2007-01-01

    Ground water recharge is often estimated through the calibration of ground water flow models. We examine the nature of calibration errors by considering some simple mathematical and numerical calculations. From these calculations, we conclude that calibrating a steady-state ground water flow model to water level extremes yields estimates of recharge that have the same value as the time-varying recharge at the time the water levels are measured. These recharge values, however, are a subdued version of the actual transient recharge signal. In addition, calibrating a steady-state ground water flow model to data collected during periods of rising water levels will produce recharge values that underestimate the actual transient recharge. Similarly, calibrating during periods of falling water levels will overestimate the actual transient recharge. We also demonstrate that average water levels can be used to estimate the actual average recharge rate provided that water level data have been collected for a sufficient amount of time.

  15. Structural Evaluation of a PGSFR Steam Generator for a Steady State Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang-Gyu; Kim, Jong-Bum; Kim, Hoe-Woong; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, design loads for design condition and normal operating steady state condition were classified and the structural analyses for each design loads were carried out. And, structural integrities under each service level were evaluated according to ASME design code. The structural analyses of a steam generator are carried out and its structural integrity under the given service levels is evaluated per ASME Code rule. The design loads according to design condition and normal operating steady condition are classified and stresses calculated from stress analyses are linearized and summarized in their stress components. As a result, the SG structure satisfies with design criteria for both service levels. Though the steam header is designed as a thick hemisphere, its design margin is not so high in spite of just steady state condition. Thus, additional evaluation by considering various operating events will be followed.

  16. An Enhancement of the Replacement Steady State Genetic Algorithm for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyadh Naoum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In these days, Internet and computer systems face many intrusions, thus for this purpose we need to build a detection or prevention security system. Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a system used to detect attacks, Steady State Genetic Algorithm (SSGA is applied to support IDS by supplying the rule pool with additional data, these data can be used in testing phase to detect the attacks. The main goal of this research is to enhance Replacement steady state genetic algorithm to detect intrusions. This enhancement has been achieved by comparing replacement methods. This research proved that the Triple Tournament Replacement is better than Binary Tournament Replacement to increase Detection Rate and there are no effects on False Positive Rate. In this research represent the results of DR equal 100% for three types of attack (DoS, Probe and R2T, and 53% for U2R.

  17. THE APPARENT VISCOSITY OF SEMI-SOLID AZ91D ALLOY AT STEADY STATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.S. Zhen; W.M. Mao; S.J. Yan; A.M. Zhao; C.L. CuI; X.Y. Zhong

    2002-01-01

    The Rheological behavior of semi-solid AZ91D at steady state is studied using a Couettetype viscometer in the present paper. The results show that the apparent viscosity ofsemi-solid AZ91D at the steady state increases with the solid fraction increasing, andgoes up sharply when the solid fraction reaches a certain value, which is called criticalfraction. In addition, the apparent viscosity of semi-solid AZ91D at the steady statetakes on a distinct downtrend with the shearing rate increasing, which indicates astrong shear thinning property. In addition, the critical solid fraction becomes higherunder larger shearing rate, owing to the more globular shape of the solid particles.Based on the present experiment results, an empirical equation is built as that, relatingthe steady state apparent viscosity of semi-solid AZ91D with the solid fraction fs andshearing rate γ at the same time: ηapp=10. 74exp(6.95fs)γ-0.86.

  18. Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis cysteine ligase (MshC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Luxenburger, Andreas; Painter, Gavin F; Blanchard, John S

    2007-10-09

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and many other members of the Actinomycetes family produce mycothiol, i.e., 1-d-myo-inosityl-2-(N-acetyl-l-cysteinyl)amido-2-deoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranoside (MSH or AcCys-GlcN-Ins), to act against oxidative and antibiotic stress. The biosynthesis of MSH is essential for cell growth and has been proposed to proceed via a biosynthetic pathway involving four key enzymes, MshA-MshD. The MSH biosynthetic enzymes present potential targets for inhibitor design. With this as a long-term goal, we have carried out a kinetic and mechanistic characterization, using steady-state and pre-steady-state approaches, of the recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis MshC. MshC catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of GlcN-Ins and cysteine to form Cys-GlcN-Ins. Initial velocity and inhibition studies show that the steady-state kinetic mechanism of MshC is a Bi Uni Uni Bi Ping Pong mechanism, with ATP binding followed by cysteine binding, release of PPi, binding of GlcN-Ins, followed by the release of Cys-GlcN-Ins and AMP. The steady-state kinetic parameters were determined to be kcat equal to 3.15 s-1, and Km values of 1.8, 0.1, and 0.16 mM for ATP, cysteine, and GlcN-Ins, respectively. A stable bisubstrate analogue, 5'-O-[N-(l-cysteinyl)sulfamonyl]adenosine, exhibits competitive inhibition versus ATP and noncompetitive inhibition versus cysteine, with an inhibition constant of approximately 306 nM versus ATP. Single-turnover reactions of the first and second half reactions were determined using rapid-quench techniques, giving rates of approximately 9.4 and approximately 5.2 s-1, respectively, consistent with the cysteinyl adenylate being a kinetically competent intermediate in the reaction by MshC.

  19. Phase-sensitive fat suppression steady-state free procession sequence with phase correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Zhong-Liang; Zhou Kun; Zhang Shi-Gang; Gao Song; Bao Shang-Lian

    2008-01-01

    Robust and fast fat suppression is a challenge in balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) magnetic resonance imaging.Although single-acquisition phase-sensitive SSFP can provide fat-suppressed images in short scan time,phase errors,especially spatially-dependent phase shift,caused by a variety of factors may result in misplacement of fat and water voxels.In this paper,a novel phase correction algorithm was used to calibrate those phase errors during image reconstruction.This algorithm corrects phase by region growing,employing both the magnitude and the phase information of image pixels.Phantom and in vivo imagings were performed to validate the technique.As a result,excellent fat-suppressed images were acquired by using single-acquisition phase-seusitive SSFP with phase correction.

  20. A Data Filter for Identifying Steady-State Operating Points in Engine Flight Data for Condition Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that automatically identifies and extracts steady-state engine operating points from engine flight data. It calculates the mean and standard deviation of select parameters contained in the incoming flight data stream. If the standard deviation of the data falls below defined constraints, the engine is assumed to be at a steady-state operating point, and the mean measurement data at that point are archived for subsequent condition monitoring purposes. The fundamental design of the steady-state data filter is completely generic and applicable for any dynamic system. Additional domain-specific logic constraints are applied to reduce data outliers and variance within the collected steady-state data. The filter is designed for on-line real-time processing of streaming data as opposed to post-processing of the data in batch mode. Results of applying the steady-state data filter to recorded helicopter engine flight data are shown, demonstrating its utility for engine condition monitoring applications.

  1. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, O.; Subaşı, Y.; Jarzynski, C.

    2016-04-01

    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP)—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  2. Relaxation versus adiabatic quantum steady-state preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Albash, Tameem; Marvian, Milad; Lidar, Daniel; Zanardi, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Adiabatic preparation of the ground states of many-body Hamiltonians in the closed-system limit is at the heart of adiabatic quantum computation, but in reality systems are always open. This motivates a natural comparison between, on the one hand, adiabatic preparation of steady states of Lindbladian generators and, on the other hand, relaxation towards the same steady states subject to the final Lindbladian of the adiabatic process. In this work we thus adopt the perspective that the goal is the most efficient possible preparation of such steady states, rather than ground states. Using known rigorous bounds for the open-system adiabatic theorem and for mixing times, we are then led to a disturbing conclusion that at first appears to doom efforts to build physical quantum annealers: relaxation seems to always converge faster than adiabatic preparation. However, by carefully estimating the adiabatic preparation time for Lindbladians describing thermalization in the low-temperature limit, we show that there is, after all, room for an adiabatic speedup over relaxation. To test the analytically derived bounds for the adiabatic preparation time and the relaxation time, we numerically study three models: a dissipative quasifree fermionic chain, a single qubit coupled to a thermal bath, and the "spike" problem of n qubits coupled to a thermal bath. Via these models we find that the answer to the "which wins" question depends for each model on the temperature and the system-bath coupling strength. In the case of the "spike" problem we find that relaxation during the adiabatic evolution plays an important role in ensuring a speedup over the final-time relaxation procedure. Thus, relaxation-assisted adiabatic preparation can be more efficient than both pure adiabatic evolution and pure relaxation.

  3. Noncontrast-enhanced renal angiography using multiple inversion recovery and alternating TR balanced steady-state free precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hattie Z; Worters, Pauline W; Wu, Holden H; Ingle, R Reeve; Vasanawala, Shreyas S; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2013-08-01

    Noncontrast-enhanced renal angiography techniques based on balanced steady-state free precession avoid external contrast agents, take advantage of high inherent blood signal from the T 2 / T 1 contrast mechanism, and have short steady-state free precession acquisition times. However, background suppression is limited; inflow times are inflexible; labeling region is difficult to define when tagging arterial flow; and scan times are long. To overcome these limitations, we propose the use of multiple inversion recovery preparatory pulses combined with alternating pulse repetition time balanced steady-state free precession to produce renal angiograms. Multiple inversion recovery uses selective spatial saturation followed by four nonselective inversion recovery pulses to concurrently null a wide range of background T 1 species while allowing for adjustable inflow times; alternating pulse repetition time steady-state free precession maintains vessel contrast and provides added fat suppression. The high level of suppression enables imaging in three-dimensional as well as projective two-dimensional formats, the latter of which has a scan time as short as one heartbeat. In vivo studies at 1.5 T demonstrate the superior vessel contrast of this technique.

  4. Steady-State Plasmas in KT5D Magnetized Torus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhenhua; LIU Wandong; WAN Baonian; ZHAO Yanping; LI Jiangang; YAN Longwen; YANG Qingwei; DING Xuantong; XU Min; YU Yi; WANG Zhijiang; LU Ronghua; WEN Yizhi; YU Changxuan; MA Jinxiu; WAN Shude

    2007-01-01

    Steady-state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) wave in the KT5D magnetized torus was studied using a fast high-resolution camera and Langmuir probes. It was found that both the discharge patterns taken by the camera and the plasma parameters measured by the probes were very sensitive to the working gas pressure and the magnetic configuration of the torus both without and with vertical fields. There existed fast vertical motion of the plasma. Tentative discussion is presented about the observed phenomena such as the bright resonance layer at a high gas pressure and the wave absorption mechanism at a low pressure. Further explanations should be found.

  5. Steady State Stokes Flow Interpolation for Fluid Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatacharya, Haimasree; Nielsen, Michael Bang; Bridson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Fluid control methods often require surface velocities interpolated throughout the interior of a shape to use the velocity as a feedback force or as a boundary condition. Prior methods for interpolation in computer graphics — velocity extrapolation in the normal direction and potential flow...... — suffer from a common problem. They fail to capture the rotational components of the velocity field, although extrapolation in the normal direction does consider the tangential component. We address this problem by casting the interpolation as a steady state Stokes flow. This type of flow captures...... the rotational components and is suitable for controlling liquid animations where tangential motion is pronounced, such as in a breaking wave...

  6. Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi [Department of Chemical System Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, JST, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels.

  7. Full steady-state operation in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Arslanbekov, R.; Hoang, G.T.; Peysson, Y.

    1996-06-01

    In order to produce fully non-inductive, Lower Hybrid (LH) driven discharges in a systematic and reproducible manner, new operation modes have been studied on the superconducting TORE SUPRA tokamak. It is shown that this operation mode allows to reach full steady-state within a characteristic time of a few seconds. The underlying physics is described and a detailed analysis of the experiments is made. It is shown, in particular, that this operation scenario generates stable stationary plasmas with improved confinement, so that the so-called `LHEP` regime can be extrapolated to continuous operation. (K.A.). 19 refs.

  8. Full steady state LH scenarios in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Litaudon, X.; Arslanbekov, R.; Hoang, G.T.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1995-12-31

    Lower Hybrid discharge have been realised in Tore Supra using feed-back control of the primary circuit voltage such that the loop voltage was maintained exactly to zero near the plasma surface. This new scenario allows the plasma current to float and quickly reach an equilibrium value determined by the current drive efficiency and Lower Hybrid power. Recent experimental results show that, with the new constant flux scenario the coupled plasma and primary currents reach a steady state in less than 10 s which is a good agreement with theoretical expectations. A complete analysis of this scenario is presented. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Steady-state models of glucose-perturbed Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, B.E.; Reimers, J.M.

    1988-10-15

    Young sorocarps of Dictyostelium discoideum were incubated in the presence of 50 mM (/sup 14/C)glucose, and nine metabolites were isolated over a period of 60 min to determine their specific radioactivity. The program TFLUX was used to construct models consisting of 17 metabolite pools and 40 reactions (excluding external pools). Net glucose uptake was 10% or less in the two experiments chosen for extensive analysis, and a single steady-state model was adequate to describe the data in both cases. Despite differences in metabolite levels, flux, and labeling kinetics, the models of glucose-perturbed metabolism confirm earlier conclusions regarding metabolic compartments.

  10. Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Calibration Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field designed and developed a steady state vacuum ultraviolet automated (SSVUVa) facility with in situ VUV intensity calibration capability. The automated feature enables a constant accelerated VUV radiation exposure over long periods of testing without breaking vacuum. This test facility is designed to simultaneously accommodate four isolated radiation exposure tests within the SSVUVa vacuum chamber. Computer-control of the facility for long, term continuous operation also provides control and recording of thermocouple temperatures, periodic recording of VUV lamp intensity, and monitoring of vacuum facility status. This paper discusses the design and capabilities of the SSVUVa facility.

  11. Steady-state grain growth in UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinari, C.M.; Lameiras, F.S. [CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    1998-06-05

    The authors have observed steady-state grain growth in sintered UO{sub 2} pellets of nuclear purity at 2,003 K under H{sub 2}. The behavior of the grain size distribution at different instants is consistent with the grain growth model proposed by one of the authors. The total number of grains was estimated using the Saltykov`s method, and the evolution is in accordance with the model proposed by Rhines and Craig. The parabolic growth law was observed for the mean intercept length with n = 0.4.

  12. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  13. Optimising performance in steady state for a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh

    2012-01-01

    Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance...... is shown to predominantly be influenced by the suction pressure. Employing appropriate performance function leads to conclusions on the choice of set-point for the suction pressure that are contrary to the existing practice. Analysis of the resulting data leads to a simple method for finding optimal...

  14. Dendritic cell-development in steady-state and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Michael Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC), the major antigen-presenting cells, continuously need to be regenerated from bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). What intermediate progenitors exist on the way to DC generation and what external factors act on these in steady-state and during inflammation, has not been addressed in detail. Flt3L is a non-redundant cytokine in DC development and the generation of DCs was shown to proceed along both Flt3+ common lymphoid and common myeloid prog...

  15. Multiple nonequilibrium steady states for one-dimensional heat flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Isbister, D J; Evans, D J

    2001-08-01

    A nonequilibrium molecular dynamics model of heat flow in one-dimensional lattices is shown to have multiple steady states for any fixed heat field strength f(e) ranging from zero to a certain positive value. We demonstrate that, depending on the initial conditions, there are at least two possibilities for the system's evolution: (i) formation of a stable traveling wave (soliton), and (ii) chaotic motion throughout the entire simulation. The percentage of the soliton-generating trajectories is zero for small field strength f(e), but increases sharply to unity over a critical region of the parameter f(e).

  16. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  17. A Novel Wireless TCP and its Steady State Throughput Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ling; JI Hong; YUE Guang-xin

    2004-01-01

    Unlike wired networks, random packet loss due to bit errors may cause significant performance degradation of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). We propose and study a novel end-to-end congestion control mechanism called TCP-LD (Loss Detection) that is simple and effective for dealing with random packet loss. We also give its steady state throughput model. Both the ns2 and numerical simulation results show that our scheme can achieve significant throughput improvements without adversely affecting other concurrent TCP connections, including other concurrent Reno connections both in wired and wireless environment.

  18. Non-steady-state aerosol filtration in nanostructured fibrous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Rafal; Gradoń, Leon

    2011-06-28

    The filtration of aerosol particles using composites of nano- and microsized fibrous structures is a promising method for the effective separation of nanoparticles from gases. A multi-scale physical system describing the flow pattern and particle deposition at a non-steady-state condition requires an advanced method of modelling. The combination of lattice Boltzmann and Brownian dynamics was used for analysis of the particle deposition pattern in a fibrous system. The dendritic structures of deposits for neutral and charged fibres and particles are present. The efficiency of deposition, deposit morphology, porosity and fractal dimension were calculated for a selected operational condition of the process.

  19. Nonequilibrium steady-state circulation and heat dissipation functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, H

    2001-08-01

    A nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS), different from an equilibrium, is sustained by circular balance rather than detailed balance. The circular fluxes are driven by energy input and heat dissipation, accompanied by a positive entropy production. Based on a Master equation formalism for NESS, we show the circulation is intimately related to the recently studied Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry of heat dissipation functional, which in turn suggests a Boltzmann's formulalike relation between rate constants and energy in NESS. Expanding this unifying view on NESS to diffusion is discussed.

  20. Stabilizing unstable steady states using multiple delay feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborn, Alexander; Parlitz, Ulrich

    2004-12-31

    Feedback control with different and independent delay times is introduced and shown to be an efficient method for stabilizing fixed points (equilibria) of dynamical systems. In comparison to other delay based chaos control methods multiple delay feedback control is superior for controlling steady states and works also for relatively large delay times (sometimes unavoidable in experiments due to system dead times). To demonstrate this approach for stabilizing unstable fixed points we present numerical simulations of Chua's circuit and a successful experimental application for stabilizing a chaotic frequency doubled Nd-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser.

  1. Steady-state flow properties of amorphous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, Vikram; O'Connor, Thomas; Robbins, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the steady-state shear flow curves of a standard glass model: the bidisperse Lennard-Jones system. For a wide range of temperatures in the neighborhood of the glass transition temperature Tg predicted by the mode coupling theory, we compute the steady-state shear stress and viscosity as a function of the shear rate γ ˙. At temperatures near and above Tg, the stress crosses over from linear Newtonian behavior at low rates to power law shear-thinning at high rates. As T decreases below Tg, the stress shows a plateau, becoming nearly rate-independent at low γ ˙. There is a weak increase in stress that is consistent with Eyring theory for activated flow of a solid. We find that when the strain rate is reduced to extremely low values, Newtonian behavior appears once more. Insights gained from these simulations are applied to the computation of flow curves of a well-established boundary lubricant: squalane. In the elastohydrodynamic regime, squalane responds like a glassy solid with an Eyring-like response, but at low rates it has a relatively small Newtonian viscosity. Supported by the Army Research Laboratory under Grant W911NF-12-2-0022.

  2. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Adam; Vasilaki, Eleni; Beste, Christian; Gurney, Kevin; Humphries, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  3. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTomkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's Disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  4. Steady states of the parametric rotator and pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzas, Antonio O, E-mail: abouzas@fis.mda.cinvestav.m [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km. 6, Apdo Postal 73 ' Cordemex' , Merida 97310, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    We discuss several steady-state rotation and oscillation modes of the planar parametric rotator and pendulum with damping. We consider a general elliptic trajectory of the suspension point for both rotator and pendulum, for the latter at an arbitrary angle with gravity, with linear and circular trajectories as particular cases. We treat the damped, nonlinear equation of motion of the parametric rotator and pendulum perturbatively for small parametric excitation and damping, although our perturbative approach can be extended to other regimes as well. Our treatment involves only ordinary second-order differential equations with constant coefficients, and provides numerically accurate perturbative solutions in terms of elementary functions. Some of the steady-state rotation and oscillation modes studied here have not been discussed in the previous literature. Other well-known ones, such as parametric resonance and the inverted pendulum, are extended to elliptic parametric excitation tilted with respect to gravity. The results presented here should be accessible to advanced undergraduates, and of interest to graduate students and specialists in the field of nonlinear mechanics.

  5. Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash A. Deshpande; N. Kumar

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of our numerical simulation of classical-dissipative dynamics of a charged particle subjected to a non-Markovian stochastic forcing. We find that the system develops a steady-state orbital magnetic moment in the presence of a static magnetic field. Very significantly, the sign of the orbital magnetic moment turns out to be paramagnetic for our choice of parameters, varied over a wide range. This is shown specifically for the case of classical dynamics driven by a Kubo–Anderson type non-Markovian noise. Natural spatial boundary condition was imposed through (1) a soft (harmonic) confining potential, and (2) a hard potential, approximating a reflecting wall. There was no noticeable qualitative difference. What appears to be crucial to the orbital magnetic effect noticed here is the non-Markovian property of the driving noise chosen. Experimental realization of this effect on the laboratory scale, and its possible implications are briefly discussed. We would like to emphasize that the above steady-state classical orbital paramagnetic moment complements, rather than contradicts the Bohr–van Leeuwen (BvL) theorem on the absence of classical orbital diamagnetism in thermodynamic equilibrium.

  6. Steady States and Universal Conductance in a Quenched Luttinger Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmann, Edwin; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Mastropietro, Vieri; Moosavi, Per

    2016-05-01

    We obtain exact analytical results for the evolution of a 1+1-dimensional Luttinger model prepared in a domain wall initial state, i.e., a state with different densities on its left and right sides. Such an initial state is modeled as the ground state of a translation invariant Luttinger Hamiltonian {H_{λ}} with short range non-local interaction and different chemical potentials to the left and right of the origin. The system evolves for time t > 0 via a Hamiltonian {H_{λ'}} which differs from {H_{λ}} by the strength of the interaction. Asymptotically in time, as {t to &infty}; , after taking the thermodynamic limit, the system approaches a translation invariant steady state. This final steady state carries a current I and has an effective chemical potential difference {μ+ - μ-} between right- (+) and left- (-) moving fermions obtained from the two-point correlation function. Both I and {μ+ - μ-} depend on {λ} and {λ'} . Only for the case {λ = λ' = 0} does {μ+ - μ-} equal the difference in the initial left and right chemical potentials. Nevertheless, the Landauer conductance for the final state, {G = I/(μ+ - μ-)} , has a universal value equal to the conductance quantum {e^2/h} for the spinless case.

  7. Steady-State ALPS for Real-Valued Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    The two objectives of this paper are to describe a steady-state version of the Age-Layered Population Structure (ALPS) Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) and to compare it against other GAs on real-valued problems. Motivation for this work comes from our previous success in demonstrating that a generational version of ALPS greatly improves search performance on a Genetic Programming problem. In making steady-state ALPS some modifications were made to the method for calculating age and the method for moving individuals up layers. To demonstrate that ALPS works well on real-valued problems we compare it against CMA-ES and Differential Evolution (DE) on five challenging, real-valued functions and on one real-world problem. While CMA-ES and DE outperform ALPS on the two unimodal test functions, ALPS is much better on the three multimodal test problems and on the real-world problem. Further examination shows that, unlike the other GAs, ALPS maintains a genotypically diverse population throughout the entire search process. These findings strongly suggest that the ALPS paradigm is better able to avoid premature convergence then the other GAs.

  8. Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Avinash A.; Kumar, N.

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of our numerical simulation of classical-dissipative dynamics of a charged particle subjected to a non-Markovian stochastic forcing. We find that the system develops a steady-state orbital magnetic moment in the presence of a static magnetic field. Very significantly, the sign of the orbital magnetic moment turns out to be paramagnetic for our choice of parameters, varied over a wide range. This is shown specifically for the case of classical dynamics driven by a Kubo-Anderson type non-Markovian noise. Natural spatial boundary condition was imposed through (1) a soft (harmonic) confining potential, and (2) a hard potential, approximating a reflecting wall. There was no noticeable qualitative difference. What appears to be crucial to the orbital magnetic effect noticed here is the non-Markovian property of the driving noise chosen. Experimental realization of this effect on the laboratory scale, and its possible implications are briefly discussed. We would like to emphasize that the above steady-state classical orbital paramagnetic moment complements, rather than contradicts the Bohr-van Leeuwen (BvL) theorem on the absence of classical orbital diamagnetism in thermodynamic equilibrium.

  9. Steady States and Universal Conductance in a Quenched Luttinger Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmann, Edwin; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Mastropietro, Vieri; Moosavi, Per

    2017-01-01

    We obtain exact analytical results for the evolution of a 1+1-dimensional Luttinger model prepared in a domain wall initial state, i.e., a state with different densities on its left and right sides. Such an initial state is modeled as the ground state of a translation invariant Luttinger Hamiltonian {H_{λ}} with short range non-local interaction and different chemical potentials to the left and right of the origin. The system evolves for time t > 0 via a Hamiltonian {H_{λ'}} which differs from {H_{λ}} by the strength of the interaction. Asymptotically in time, as {t to ∞}, after taking the thermodynamic limit, the system approaches a translation invariant steady state. This final steady state carries a current I and has an effective chemical potential difference {μ+ - μ-} between right- (+) and left- (-) moving fermions obtained from the two-point correlation function. Both I and {μ+ - μ-} depend on {λ} and {λ'}. Only for the case {λ = λ' = 0} does {μ+ - μ-} equal the difference in the initial left and right chemical potentials. Nevertheless, the Landauer conductance for the final state, {G = I/(μ+ - μ-)}, has a universal value equal to the conductance quantum {e^2/h} for the spinless case.

  10. Calculations of two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic axisymmetric steady-states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Jardin, S. C.

    2009-11-01

    M3D- C1 is an implicit, high-order finite element code for the solution of the time-dependent nonlinear two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic equations [S.C. Jardin, J. Breslau, N. Ferraro, A high-order implicit finite element method for integrating the two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic equations in two dimensions, J. Comp. Phys. 226 (2) (2007) 2146-2174]. This code has now been extended to allow computations in toroidal geometry. Improvements to the spatial integration and time-stepping algorithms are discussed. Steady-states of a resistive two-fluid model, self-consistently including flows, anisotropic viscosity (including gyroviscosity) and heat flux, are calculated for diverted plasmas in geometries typical of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Exploration of spherical torus physics in the NSTX device, Nucl. Fusion 40 (3Y) (2000) 557-561]. These states are found by time-integrating the dynamical equations until the steady-state is reached, and are therefore stationary or statistically steady on both magnetohydrodynamic and transport time-scales. Resistively driven cross-surface flows are found to be in close agreement with Pfirsch-Schlüter theory. Poloidally varying toroidal flows are in agreement with comparable calculations [A.Y. Aydemir, Shear flows at the tokamak edge and their interaction with edge-localized modes, Phys. Plasmas 14]. New effects on core toroidal rotation due to gyroviscosity and a local particle source are observed.

  11. Nonequilibrium many-body steady states via Keldysh formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2016-01-01

    Many-body systems with both coherent dynamics and dissipation constitute a rich class of models which are nevertheless much less explored than their dissipationless counterparts. The advent of numerous experimental platforms that simulate such dynamics poses an immediate challenge to systematically understand and classify these models. In particular, nontrivial many-body states emerge as steady states under nonequilibrium dynamics. While these states and their phase transitions have been studied extensively with mean-field theory, the validity of the mean-field approximation has not been systematically investigated. In this paper, we employ a field-theoretic approach based on the Keldysh formalism to study nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions in a variety of models. In all cases, a complete description via the Keldysh formalism indicates a partial or complete failure of the mean-field analysis. Furthermore, we find that an effective temperature emerges as a result of dissipation, and the universal behavior including the dynamics near the steady state is generically described by a thermodynamic universality class.

  12. The technology and science of steady-state operation in magnetically confined plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécoulet, A.; Hoang, G. T.

    2008-12-01

    The steady-state operation of magnetically confined fusion plasmas is considered as one of the 'grand challenges' of future decades, if not the ultimate goal of the research and development activities towards a new source of energy. Reaching such a goal requires the high-level integration of both science and technology aspects of magnetic fusion into self-consistent plasma regimes in fusion-grade devices. On the physics side, the first constraint addresses the magnetic confinement itself which must be made persistent. This means to either rely on intrinsically steady-state configurations, like the stellarator one, or turn the inductively driven tokamak configuration into a fully non-inductive one, through a mix of additional current sources. The low efficiency of the external current drive methods and the necessity to minimize the re-circulating power claim for a current mix strongly weighted by the internal 'pressure driven' bootstrap current, itself strongly sensitive to the heat and particle transport properties of the plasma. A virtuous circle may form as the heat and particle transport properties are themselves sensitive to the current profile conditions. Note that several other factors, e.g. plasma rotation profile, magneto-hydro-dynamics activity, also influence the equilibrium state. In the present tokamak devices, several examples of such 'advanced tokamak' physics research demonstrate the feasibility of steady-state regimes, though with a number of open questions still under investigation. The modelling activity also progresses quite fast in this domain and supports understanding and extrapolation. This high level of physics sophistication of the plasma scenario however needs to be combined with steady-state technological constraints. The technology constraints for steady-state operation are basically twofold: the specific technologies required to reach the steady-state plasma conditions and the generic technologies linked to the long pulse operation of a

  13. Tracking Control for an Overactuated Hypersonic Air-Breathing Vehicle with Steady State Constraints (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    choice of a steady state control is completely independent from the choice of a stabilizing control law. This separation is key for the methods we will...develop for steady state optimization in later sections. Combining the steady state with the stabilizing control , we can express the control law as u...for stabilizing control and optimization methods for steady state control, both unconstrained and constrained, we were able to produce promising results

  14. A steady-state kinetic analysis of the prolyl-4-hydroxylase mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskel, N T; Kuby, S A

    1981-01-01

    Published kinetic data by Kivirikko, et al. on the prolyl-4-hydroxylase reaction have been re-evaluated using the overall steady-state velocity equation in the forward and reverse directions for an ordered ter ter kinetic mechanism. Qualitatively, the published data for prolyl-4-hydroxylase appear to fit the predicted patterns for this kinetic mechanism. More kinetic data are needed to confirm these results and to quantitate the kinetic parameters but, tentatively, the order of substrate addition would appear to be alpha-ketoglutarate, oxygen, and peptide; and the order of product release would be hydroxylated peptide (or collagen), carbon dioxide, and succinate.

  15. Controlling Unknown Saddle Type Steady States of Dynamical Systems with Latency in the Feedback Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, Arunas; Bumeliene, Skaidra; Tamaseviciute, Elena

    2009-01-01

    We suggest an adaptive control technique for stabilizing saddle type unstable steady states of dynamical systems. The controller is composed of an unstable and a stable high-pass filters operating in parallel. The mathematical model is considered analytically and numerically. The conjoint...... controller is sufficiently robust to time latencies in the feedback loop. In addition, it is not sensitive to the damping parameters of the system and is relatively fast. Experiments have been performed using a simplified version of the electronic Young-Silva circuit imitating behavior of the Duffing...

  16. Steady States in SIRS Epidemical Model of Mobile Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duan-Ming; He, Min-Hua; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Pan, Gui-Jun; Sun, Hong-Zhang; Su, Xiang-Ying; Sun, Fan; Yin, Yan-Ping; Li, Rui; Liu, Dan

    2006-01-01

    We consider an epidemical model within socially interacting mobile individuals to study the behaviors of steady states of epidemic propagation in 2D networks. Using mean-field approximation and large scale simulations, we recover the usual epidemic behavior with critical thresholds δc and pc below which infectious disease dies out. For the population density δ far above δc, it is found that there is linear relationship between contact rate λ and the population density δ in the main. At the same time, the result obtained from mean-field approximation is compared with our numerical result, and it is found that these two results are similar by and large but not completely the same.

  17. Relativistic Hydrodynamics and Non-Equilibrium Steady States

    CERN Document Server

    Spillane, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We review recent interest in the relativistic Riemann problem as a method for generating a non-equilibrium steady state. In the version of the problem under con- sideration, the initial conditions consist of a planar interface between two halves of a system held at different temperatures in a hydrodynamic regime. The new double shock solutions are in contrast with older solutions that involve one shock and one rarefaction wave. We use numerical simulations to show that the older solutions are preferred. Briefly we discuss the effects of a conserved charge. Finally, we discuss deforming the relativistic equations with a nonlinear term and how that deformation affects the temperature and velocity in the region connecting the asymptotic fluids.

  18. Steady-State Density Functional Theory for Finite Bias Conductances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanucci, G; Kurth, S

    2015-12-09

    In the framework of density functional theory, a formalism to describe electronic transport in the steady state is proposed which uses the density on the junction and the steady current as basic variables. We prove that, in a finite window around zero bias, there is a one-to-one map between the basic variables and both local potential on as well as bias across the junction. The resulting Kohn-Sham system features two exchange-correlation (xc) potentials, a local xc potential, and an xc contribution to the bias. For weakly coupled junctions the xc potentials exhibit steps in the density-current plane which are shown to be crucial to describe the Coulomb blockade diamonds. At small currents these steps emerge as the equilibrium xc discontinuity bifurcates. The formalism is applied to a model benzene junction, finding perfect agreement with the orthodox theory of Coulomb blockade.

  19. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  20. Steady State Rheological Characteristic of Semisolid Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal compressive experiments at different temperatures, strain rates and holding time for semisolid AZ91D, Zr modified AZ91D and MB15 alloy with higher solid volume fraction were carried out by using Gleeble-15000 simulator and the true stress-strain curves were given directly. The relationship of apparent viscosity vs temperature, shear rate and holding time of the three kinds of semi-solid magnesium alloys, as well as isothermal steady state rheological characteristic and mechanical behavior were studied. The results show that the three magnesium alloys had the characteristic of shear-thinning. The rheological characteristic of the semi-solid MB15 is different from that of semi-solid AZ91D. The semi-solid MB15 has higher apparent viscosity and deformation resistance.

  1. Quantally fed steady-state domain distributions in Stochastic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, M; Deza, R R; Bellini, Mauricio; Sisterna, Pablo D.; Deza, Roberto R.

    2000-01-01

    Within the framework of stochastic inflationary cosmology we derive esteady-state distributions P_c(V) of domains in comoving coordinates, under the assumption of slow-rolling and for two specific choices of the coarse-grained inflaton potential $V(\\Phi)$. We model the process as a Starobinsky-like equation in V-space plus a time-independent source term P_w(V) which carries (phenomenologically) quantum-mechanical information drawn from either of two known solutions of the Wheeler-De Witt equation: Hartle-Hawking's and Vilenkin's wave functions. The presence of the source term leads to the existence of nontrivial steady-state distributions P^w_c(V). The relative efficiencies of both mechanisms at different scales are compared for the proposed potentials.

  2. Factorised steady states and condensation transitions in nonequilibrium systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M R Evans

    2005-06-01

    Systems driven out of equilibrium can often exhibit behaviour not seen in systems in thermal equilibrium – for example phase transitions in one-dimensional systems. In this talk I will review a simple model of a nonequilibrium system known as the `zero-range process' and its recent developments. The nonequilibrium stationary state of this model factorises and this property allows a detailed analysis of several `condensation' transitions wherein a finite fraction of the constituent particles condenses onto a single lattice site. I will then consider a more general class of mass transport models, encompassing continuous mass variables and discrete time updating, and present a necessary and sufficient condition for the steady state to factorise. The property of factorisation again allows an analysis of the condensation transitions which may occur.

  3. Manifest and Subtle Cyclic Behavior in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, R K P; Mandal, Dibyendu; Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    2016-01-01

    Many interesting phenomena in nature are described by stochastic processes with irreversible dynamics. To model these phenomena, we focus on a master equation or a Fokker-Planck equation with rates which violate detailed balance. When the system settles in a stationary state, it will be a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS), with time independent probability distribution as well as persistent probability current loops. The observable consequences of the latter are explored. In particular, cyclic behavior of some form must be present: some are prominent and manifest, while others are more obscure and subtle. We present a theoretical framework to analyze such properties, introducing the notion of "probability angular momentum" and its distribution. Using several examples, we illustrate the manifest and subtle categories and how best to distinguish between them. These techniques can be applied to reveal the NESS nature of a wide range of systems in a large variety of areas. We illustrate with one application: var...

  4. Dust remobilization in fusion plasmas under steady state conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; De Angeli, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Ripamonti, D.; Riva, G.; Bykov, I.; Shalpegin, A.; Vignitchouk, L.; Brochard, F.; Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S.; Litnovsky, A.

    2016-02-01

    The first combined experimental and theoretical studies of dust remobilization by plasma forces are reported. The main theoretical aspects of remobilization in fusion devices under steady state conditions are analyzed. In particular, the dominant role of adhesive forces is highlighted and generic remobilization conditions—direct lift-up, sliding, rolling—are formulated. A novel experimental technique is proposed, based on controlled adhesion of dust grains on tungsten samples combined with detailed mapping of the dust deposition profile prior and post plasma exposure. Proof-of-principle experiments in the TEXTOR tokamak and the EXTRAP-T2R reversed-field pinch are presented. The versatile environment of the linear device Pilot-PSI allowed for experiments with different magnetic field topologies and varying plasma conditions that were complemented with camera observations.

  5. Entanglement structure of non-equilibrium steady states

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, Raghu; Mumford, Sam; Tubman, Norm; Swingle, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of calculating transport properties of interacting quantum systems, specifically electrical and thermal conductivities, by computing the non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of the system biased by contacts. Our approach is based on the structure of entanglement in the NESS. With reasonable physical assumptions, we show that a NESS close to local equilibrium is lightly entangled and can be represented via a computationally efficient tensor network. We further argue that the NESS may be found by dynamically evolving the system within a manifold of appropriate low entanglement states. A physically realistic law of dynamical evolution is Markovian open system dynamics, or the Lindblad equation. We explore this approach in a well-studied free fermion model where comparisons with the literature are possible. We study both electrical and thermal currents with and without disorder, and compute entropic quantities such as mutual information and conditional mutual information. We conclude with a di...

  6. Stationary Distribution and Thermodynamic Relation in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    KAUST Repository

    Komatsu, Teruhisa S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe our recent attempts toward statistical mechanics and thermodynamics for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) realized, e.g., in a heat conducting system. Our first result is a simple expression of the probability distribution (of microscopic states) of a NESS. Our second result is a natural extension of the thermodynamic Clausius relation and a definition of an accompanying entropy in NESS. This entropy coincides with the normalization constant appearing in the above mentioned microscopic expression of NESS, and has an expression similar to the Shannon entropy (with a further symmetrization). The NESS entropy proposed here is a clearly defined measurable quantity even in a system with a large degrees of freedom. We numerically measure the NESS entropy in hardsphere fluid systems with a heat current, by observing energy exchange between the system and the heat baths when the temperatures of the baths are changed according to specified protocols.

  7. Steady-State Chemotactic Response in E. coli

    CERN Document Server

    Kafri, Yariv

    2007-01-01

    The bacterium E. coli maneuvers itself to regions with high chemoattractant concentrations by performing two stereotypical moves: `runs', in which it moves in near straight lines, and `tumbles', in which it does not advance but changes direction randomly. The duration of each move is stochastic and depends upon the chemoattractant concentration experienced in the recent past. We relate this stochastic behavior to the steady-state density of a bacterium population, and we derive the latter as a function of chemoattractant concentration. In contrast to earlier treatments, here we account for the effects of temporal correlations and variable tumbling durations. A range of behaviors obtains, that depends subtly upon several aspects of the system - memory, correlation, and tumbling stochasticity in particular.

  8. Fast Prediction Method for Steady-State Heat Convection

    KAUST Repository

    Wáng, Yì

    2012-03-14

    A reduced model by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Galerkin projection methods for steady-state heat convection is established on a nonuniform grid. It was verified by thousands of examples that the results are in good agreement with the results obtained from the finite volume method. This model can also predict the cases where model parameters far exceed the sample scope. Moreover, the calculation time needed by the model is much shorter than that needed for the finite volume method. Thus, the nonuniform POD-Galerkin projection method exhibits high accuracy, good suitability, and fast computation. It has universal significance for accurate and fast prediction. Also, the methodology can be applied to more complex modeling in chemical engineering and technology, such as reaction and turbulence. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Optimal operation of Petlyuk distillation: Steady-state behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar J. Halvorsen

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The "Petlyuk" or "dividing-wall" or "fully thermally coupled" distillation column is an interesting alternative to the conventional cascaded binary columns for separation of multi-component mixtures. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in operation have been reported as one reason. With three product compositions controlled, the system has two degrees of freedom left for on-line optimization. We show that the steady-state optimal solution surface is quite narrow, and depends strongly on disturbances and design parameters. Thus it seems difficult to achieve the potential energy savings compared to conventional approaches without a good control strategy. We discuss candidate variables which may be used as feedback variables in order to keep the column operation close to optimal in a "self-optimizing" control scheme.

  10. Full steady state LH scenarios in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian-Vilbert, F.; Litaudon, X.; Arslanbekov, R.; Hoang, G.T.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y. [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la fusion, Departement de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, Centre d`detudes de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-02-01

    Lower hybrid discharges have been realised in Tore Supra using feed-back control of the primary circuit voltage (V{sub oh}) such that the loop voltage was maintained exactly zero near the plasma surface. This new scenario allows the plasma current to float and quickly reach an equilibrium value determined by the current drive efficiency and Lower Hybrid power. Recent experimental results show that, with the new {open_quote}{open_quote}constant flux{close_quote}{close_quote} scenario the coupled plasma and primary currents reach a steady state in less than 10 s which is in good agreement with theoretical expectations. A complete analysis of this scenario is presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. An Adsorption Equilibria Model for Steady State Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Azhar Bin

    2016-02-29

    The investigation of adsorption isotherms is a prime factor in the ongoing development of adsorption cycles for a spectrum of advanced, thermally-driven engineering applications, including refrigeration, natural gas storage, and desalination processes. In this work, a novel semi-empirical mathematical model has been derived that significantly enhances the prediction of the steady state uptake in adsorbent surfaces. This model, a combination of classical Langmuir and a novel modern adsorption isotherm equation, allows for a higher degree of regression of both energetically homogenous and heterogeneous adsorbent surfaces compared to several isolated classical and modern isotherm models, and has the ability to regress isotherms for all six types under the IUPAC classification. Using a unified thermodynamic framework, a single asymmetrical energy distribution function (EDF) has also been proposed that directly relates the mathematical model to the adsorption isotherm types. This fits well with the statistical rate theory approach and offers mechanistic insights into adsorption isotherms.

  12. Progress Toward Steady-State Operation on Tore Supra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Jacquinot; G. T. Hoang; the Tore Supra Team

    2004-01-01

    Important technological and physics issues related to steady-state operation required for next step are being examined on Tore Supra, after a major upgrade of internal components in order to increase the heat extraction capability to 25 MW for 1000 s. Here, we show first experimental results, where all the plasma facing components were actively cooled during pulses exceeding four minutes, with reactor-relevant heat load. New physics was observed in non-inductively driven plasmas, including a stationary peaked radial profile of the plasma density generated by an anomalous inward pinch; and a regime characterized by sinusoidal oscillations of central electron temperature, governed by non-linear coupling between heat transport and plasma current analogous to a predator-prey mechanism.

  13. Analysis of steady-state ductile crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian

    1999-01-01

    the finite element mesh remains fixed relative to the tip of the growing crack. Fracture is modelled using two different local crack growth criteria. One is a crack opening displacement criterion, while the other is a model in which a cohesive zone is imposed in front of the crack tip along the fracture zone......The fracture strength under quasi-static steady-state crack growth in an elastic-plastic material joined by a laser weld is analyzed. Laser welding gives high mismatch between the yield stress within the weld and the yield stress in the base material. This is due to the fast termic cycle, which....... Both models predict that in general a thinner laser weld gives higher interface strength. Furthermore, both fracture criteria show, that the preferred path of the crack is close outside the weld material; a phenomenon also observed in experiments....

  14. Modelling of pulsed and steady-state DEMO scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J. F.; Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Fable, E.; Garzotti, L.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Kemp, R.; King, D. B.; Schneider, M.; Stankiewicz, R.; Stępniewski, W.; Vincenzi, P.; Ward, D.; Zagórski, R.

    2015-07-01

    Scenario modelling for the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) has been carried out using a variety of simulation codes. Two DEMO concepts have been analysed: a pulsed tokamak, characterized by rather conventional physics and technology assumptions (DEMO1) and a steady-state tokamak, with moderately advanced physics and technology assumptions (DEMO2). Sensitivity to impurity concentrations, radiation, and heat transport models has been investigated. For DEMO2, the impact of current driven non-inductively by neutral beams has been studied by full Monte Carlo simulations of the fast ion distribution. The results obtained are a part of a more extensive research and development (R&D) effort carried out in the EU in order to develop a viable option for a DEMO reactor, to be adopted after ITER for fusion energy research.

  15. Thermodynamics and phase coexistence in nonequilibrium steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Ronald

    2016-09-01

    I review recent work focussing on whether thermodynamics can be extended to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS), in particular, the possibility of consistent definitions of temperature T and chemical potential μ for NESS. The testing-grounds are simple lattice models with stochastic dynamics. Each model includes a drive that maintains the system far from equilibrium, provoking particle and/or energy flows; for zero drive the system relaxes to equilibrium. Analysis and numerical simulation show that for spatially uniform NESS, consistent definitions of T and μ are possible via coexistence with an appropriate reservoir, if (and in general only if) a particular kind of rate (that proposed by Sasa and Tasaki) is used for exchanges of particles and energy between systems. The program fails, however, for nonuniform systems. The functions T and μ describing isolated phases cannot be used to predict the properties of coexisting phases in a single, phase-separated system.

  16. Steady-state negative Wigner functions of nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Rips, Simon; Wilson-Rae, Ignacio; Hartmann, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to prepare nanomechanical oscillators in non-classical steady states, characterized by a pronounced negative Wigner function. In our optomechanical approach, the mechanical oscillator couples to multiple laser driven resonances of an optical cavity. By lowering the resonant frequency of the oscillator via an inhomogeneous electrostatic field, we significantly enhance its intrinsic geometric nonlinearity per phonon. This causes the motional sidebands to split into separate spectral lines for each phonon number and transitions between individual phonon Fock states can be selectively addressed. We show that this enables preparation of the nanomechanical oscillator in a single phonon Fock state. Our scheme can for example be implemented with a carbon nanotube dispersively coupled to the evanescent field of a state of the art whispering gallery mode microcavity.

  17. Computational complexity of nonequilibrium steady states of quantum spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzolino, Ugo; Prosen, Tomaž

    2016-03-01

    We study nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) of spin chains with boundary Markovian dissipation from the computational complexity point of view. We focus on X X chains whose NESS are matrix product operators, i.e., with coefficients of a tensor operator basis described by transition amplitudes in an auxiliary space. Encoding quantum algorithms in the auxiliary space, we show that estimating expectations of operators, being local in the sense that each acts on disjoint sets of few spins covering all the system, provides the answers of problems at least as hard as, and believed by many computer scientists to be much harder than, those solved by quantum computers. We draw conclusions on the hardness of the above estimations.

  18. Steady State Thermal Analyses of SCEPTOR X-57 Wingtip Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnulo, Sydney L.; Chin, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Andrew D.; Dubois, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Electric aircraft concepts enable advanced propulsion airframe integration approaches that promise increased efficiency as well as reduced emissions and noise. NASA's fully electric Maxwell X-57, developed under the SCEPTOR program, features distributed propulsion across a high aspect ratio wing. There are 14 propulsors in all: 12 high lift motor that are only active during take off and climb, and 2 larger motors positioned on the wingtips that operate over the entire mission. The power electronics involved in the wingtip propulsion are temperature sensitive and therefore require thermal management. This work focuses on the high and low fidelity heat transfer analysis methods performed to ensure that the wingtip motor inverters do not reach their temperature limits. It also explores different geometry configurations involved in the X-57 development and any thermal concerns. All analyses presented are performed at steady state under stressful operating conditions, therefore predicting temperatures which are considered the worst-case scenario to remain conservative.

  19. Steady-State Axisymmetric MHD Solutions with Various Boundary Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lile

    2014-01-01

    Axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can be invoked for describing astrophysical magnetized flows and formulated to model stellar magnetospheres including main sequence stars (e.g. the Sun), compact stellar objects [e.g. magnetic white dwarfs (MWDs), radio pulsars, anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), magnetars, isolated neutron stars etc.], and planets as a major step forward towards a full three-dimensional model construction. Using powerful and reliable numerical solvers based on two distinct finite-difference method (FDM) and finite-element method (FEM) schemes of algorithm, we examine axisymmetric steady-state or stationary MHD models in Throumoulopoulos & Tasso (2001), finding that their separable semi-analytic nonlinear solutions are actually not unique given their specific selection of several free functionals and chosen boundary conditions. The multiplicity of nonlinear steady MHD solutions gives rise to differences in the total energies contained in the magnetic fields and flow velocity fields as ...

  20. Dissipative production of a maximally entangled steady state

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Y; Reiter, F; Tan, T R; Bowler, R; S\\orensen, A S; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2013-01-01

    Entangled states are a key resource in fundamental quantum physics, quantum cryp-tography, and quantum computation [1].To date, controlled unitary interactions applied to a quantum system, so-called "quantum gates", have been the most widely used method to deterministically create entanglement [2]. These processes require high-fidelity state preparation as well as minimizing the decoherence that inevitably arises from coupling between the system and the environment and imperfect control of the system parameters. Here, on the contrary, we combine unitary processes with engineered dissipation to deterministically produce and stabilize an approximate Bell state of two trapped-ion qubits independent of their initial state. While previous works along this line involved the application of sequences of multiple time-dependent gates [3] or generated entanglement of atomic ensembles dissipatively but relied on a measurement record for steady-state entanglement [4], we implement the process in a continuous time-indepen...

  1. Steady-state, cavity-less, multimode superradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The study of collective light-matter interactions, where the dynamics of an individual scatterer depend on the state of the entire multi-scatterer system, has recently received much attention in the areas of fundamental research and photonic technologies. Cold atomic vapors represent an exciting system for studying such effects because light-based manipulation of internal and center-of-mass atomic states lead to reduced instability thresholds and new phonomena. Previous investigations required single-mode cavities to realize strong light mediated atom-atom interactions, though, which limits the observable phenomena. Here we demonstrate steady-state, mirrorless superradiance in a cold vapor pumped by weak optical fields. Beyond a critical pumping strength, the vapor spontaneously transforms into a spatially self-organized state: a density grating forms. Scattering of the pump beams off this grating generates new optical fields that act back on the vapor to enhance the atomic organization. This system has appli...

  2. Extending the definition of entropy to nonequilibrium steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelle, David P

    2003-03-18

    We study the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a finite classical system subjected to nongradient forces xi and maintained at fixed kinetic energy (Hoover-Evans isokinetic thermostat). We assume that the microscopic dynamics is sufficiently chaotic (Gallavotti-Cohen chaotic hypothesis) and that there is a natural nonequilibrium steady-state rho(xi). When xi is replaced by xi + deltaxi, one can compute the change deltarho of rho(xi) (linear response) and define an entropy change deltaS based on energy considerations. When xi is varied around a loop, the total change of S need not vanish: Outside of equilibrium the entropy has curvature. However, at equilibrium (i.e., if xi is a gradient) we show that the curvature is zero, and that the entropy S(xi + deltaxi) near equilibrium is well defined to second order in deltaxi.

  3. Avoiding Rebound through a Steady-State Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    is considered to be limited primarily by productive capacity with little concern for ecological costs and limits. In such a development aiming at unlimited growth it would from a long term environmental perspective be close to irrelevant to reach for more efficient use of energy at the end-users, since it would...... only buy some time. From this perspective, the environmental problem with the rebound effect is not the higher energy efficiency, which pushes towards lower flows of resources through the economy, but rather the conventional economy which rebounds the savings, because of its quest for higher flows....... In this chapter, I shall take the rebound debate further by discussing the possible role of energy efficiency in a sustainable economy that is based on the notion of ‘sufficiency’. The assumption is that globally we need to achieve a ‘steady-state economy’. Considering the urgent need for better material...

  4. Simultaneous imaging of MR angiographic image and brain surface image using steady-state free precession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takane, Atsushi; Tsuda, Munetaka (Hitachi Ltd., Katsuta, Ibaraki (Japan)); Koizumi, Hideaki; Koyama, Susumu; Yoshida, Takeyuki

    1993-09-01

    Synthesis of a brain surface image and an angiographic image representing brain surface vasculatures can be useful for pre-operational contemplation of brain surgery. Both brain surface images and brain surface vasculature images were successfully acquired simultaneously utilizing both FID signals and time-reversed FID signals created under steady-state free precession (SSFP). This simultaneous imaging method has several advantages. No positional discrepancies between both images and prolongation of scan time are anticipated because of concurrent acquisition of the two kinds of image data. Superimposition and stereo-display of both images enable understanding of their spatial relationship, and therefore afford a useful means for pre-operational simulation of brain surgery. (author).

  5. Laguna Verde BWRs operational experience: steady-state fuel performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas V, G. F.; Bravo S, J. M. [Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, 28401 North Carolina (United States); Casillas, J. L., E-mail: gabriel.cuevas-vivas@gnf.co [General Electric Hitachi Nuclear Energy, 1989 Little Orchard St. Romm 239, San Jose, 95125 California (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The two BWR at Laguna Verde nuclear power station are finishing 21 and 15 years of continuous successful operation as of 2010. During Unit 1 and 2 commercial operations only Ge/GNF fuel designs have been employed; fuel lattice designs 8 x 8 and 10 x 10 were used at the reactor, with an original licensed thermal power (OLTP: 1931 MWt) and the reactor's first power up-rates of 5%. GNF fuel will be also used for the second EPU to reach 120% of OLTP in the near future. Thermal and gamma traversing in-core probes (Tip) are used for power monitoring purposes along with the Ge (now GNF-A) core monitoring system, 3-dimensional Monicore{sup TM}. GNF-A has also participated by preparing the core management plan that is regularly fine-tuned in collaboration with Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE owner of the Laguna Verde reactors). For determination of thermal margins and eigenvalue prediction, GNF-A employs the NRC-licensed steady-state core simulator PANAC11. Tip comparisons are routinely used to adapt power distributions for a better thermal margin calculation. Over the years, several challenges have appeared in the near and long term fuel management planning such as increasing cycle length, optimization of the thermal margins, rated power increase, etc. Each challenge has been successfully overcome via operational strategy, code improvements and better fuel designs. This paper summarizes Laguna Verde Unit 1 and 2 steady-state performance from initial commercial operation, with a discussion of the nuclear and thermal-hydraulic design features, as well as of the operational strategies that set and interesting benchmark for future fuel applications, code development and operation of the BWRs. (Author)

  6. A mathematical model of pan evaporation under steady state conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Roderick, Michael L.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of changing climate, global pan evaporation records have shown a spatially-averaged trend of ∼ -2 to ∼ -3 mm a-2 over the past 30-50 years. This global phenomenon has motivated the development of the "PenPan" model (Rotstayn et al., 2006). However, the original PenPan model has yet to receive an independent experimental evaluation. Hence, we constructed an instrumented US Class A pan at Canberra Airport (Australia) and monitored it over a three-year period (2007-2010) to uncover the physics of pan evaporation under non-steady state conditions. The experimental investigations of pan evaporation enabled theoretical formulation and parameterisation of the aerodynamic function considering the wind, properties of air and (with or without) the bird guard effect. The energy balance investigation allowed for detailed formulation of the short- and long-wave radiation associated with the albedos and the emissivities of the pan water surface and the pan wall. Here, we synthesise and generalise those earlier works to develop a new model called the "PenPan-V2" model for application under steady state conditions (i.e., uses a monthly time step). Two versions (PenPan-V2C and PenPan-V2S) are tested using pan evaporation data available across the Australian continent. Both versions outperformed the original PenPan model with better representation of both the evaporation rate and the underlying physics of a US Class A pan. The results show the improved solar geometry related calculations (e.g., albedo, area) for the pan system led to a clear improvement in representing the seasonal cycle of pan evaporation. For general applications, the PenPan-V2S is simpler and suited for applications including an evaluation of long-term trends in pan evaporation.

  7. Interpolation of steady-state concentration data by inverse modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwede, Ronnie L; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2010-01-01

    In most groundwater applications, measurements of concentration are limited in number and sparsely distributed within the domain of interest. Therefore, interpolation techniques are needed to obtain most likely values of concentration at locations where no measurements are available. For further processing, for example, in environmental risk analysis, interpolated values should be given with uncertainty bounds, so that a geostatistical framework is preferable. Linear interpolation of steady-state concentration measurements is problematic because the dependence of concentration on the primary uncertain material property, the hydraulic conductivity field, is highly nonlinear, suggesting that the statistical interrelationship between concentration values at different points is also nonlinear. We suggest interpolating steady-state concentration measurements by conditioning an ensemble of the underlying log-conductivity field on the available hydrological data in a conditional Monte Carlo approach. Flow and transport simulations for each conditional conductivity field must meet the measurements within their given uncertainty. The ensemble of transport simulations based on the conditional log-conductivity fields yields conditional statistical distributions of concentration at points between observation points. This method implicitly meets physical bounds of concentration values and non-Gaussianity of their statistical distributions and obeys the nonlinearity of the underlying processes. We validate our method by artificial test cases and compare the results to kriging estimates assuming different conditional statistical distributions of concentration. Assuming a beta distribution in kriging leads to estimates of concentration with zero probability of concentrations below zero or above the maximal possible value; however, the concentrations are not forced to meet the advection-dispersion equation.

  8. Steady-state spectroscopy of new biological probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zied, Osama K.

    2007-02-01

    The steady state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) and (2,2'-bipyridine)-3,3'-diol (BP(OH) II) were studied here free in solution and in human serum albumin (HSA) in order to test their applicability as new biological probes. HBO and BP(OH) II are known to undergo intramolecular proton transfers in the excited state. Their absorption and fluorescence spectra are sensitive to environmental change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, thus allowing the opportunity to use them as environment-sensitive probes. The effect of water on the steady state spectra of the two molecules also shows unique features which may position them as water sensors in biological systems. For HBO in buffer, fluorescence is only due to the syn-keto tautomer, whereas in HSA the fluorescence is due to four species in equilibrium in the excited state (the syn-keto tautomer, the anti-enol tautomer, the solvated syn-enol tautomer, and the anion species of HBO). Analysis of the fluorescence spectra of HBO in HSA indicates that HBO is exposed to less water in the HBO:HSA complex. For the BP(OH) II molecule, unique absorption due to water was observed in the spectral region of 400-450 nm. This absorption decreases in the presence of HSA due to less accessibility to water as a result of binding to HSA. Fluorescence of BP(OH) II is due solely to the di-keto tautomer after double proton transfer in the excited state. The fluorescence peak of BP(OH) II shows a red-shift upon HSA recognition which is attributed to the hydrophobic environment inside the binding site of HSA. We discuss also the effect of probe-inclusion inside well-defined hydrophobic cavities of cyclodextrins.

  9. Concentrations of OH and HO2 radicals during NAMBLEX: measurements and steady state analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OH and HO2 concentrations were measured simultaneously at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in the summer of 2002 during the NAMBLEX (North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer EXperiment field campaign. OH was measured by laser-induced fluorescence employing the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique, with a mean daytime detection limit of 2.7×105 molecule cm−3 (5 min acquisition period; signal-to-noise ratio = 1. HO2 was detected as OH following its chemical conversion through addition of NO, with a mean detection limit of 4.4×106 molecule cm−3. The diurnal variation of OH was measured on 24 days, and that of HO2 on 17 days. The local solar noon OH concentrations ranged between (3–8×106 molecule cm−3, with a 24 h mean concentration of 9.1×105 molecule cm−3. The local solar noon HO2 concentrations were (0.9–2.1×108 molecule cm−3 (3.5–8.2 pptv, with a 24 h mean concentration of 4.2×107 molecule cm−3 (1.6 pptv. HO2 radicals in the range (2–3×107 molecule cm−3 were observed at night. During NAMBLEX, a comprehensive suite of supporting measurements enabled a detailed study of the behaviour of HOx radicals under primarily clean marine conditions. Steady state expressions are used to calculate OH and HO2 concentrations and to evaluate the effect of different free-radical sources and sinks. The diurnally averaged calculated to measured OH ratio was 1.04±0.36, but the ratio displays a distinct diurnal variation, being less than 1 during the early morning and late afternoon/evening, and greater than 1 in the middle of the day. For HO2 there was an overprediction, with the agreement between calculated and measured concentrations improved by including reaction with measured IO and BrO radicals and uptake to aerosols. Increasing the concentration of IO radicals included in the calculations to above that measured by a DOAS instrument with an absorption path located mainly over the ocean, reflecting the

  10. Steady state, continuity, and the curious behavior of steep channels in layered rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, M. D.; Perne, M.; Thaler, E.; Myre, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Considerations of landscape steady state have substantially informed our understanding of the relationships between landscapes, tectonics, climate, and lithology. Topographic steady state, where topography is fixed in time, is a particularly important tool in the interpretation of landscape features, such as bedrock channel profiles, within a context of uplift patterns and rock strength. However, topographic steady state cannot strictly be attained in a landscape with layered rocks with non-vertical contacts. We show that an assumption of channel continuity, where channel retreat rates in the direction parallel to a contact are equal above and below the contact, provides a more general description of steady state landscapes in layered rocks, and that topographic steady state is a special case of the steady state derived from continuity. We demonstrate that modeled landscapes approach continuity steady state using 1D simulations and full landscape evolution models. Contrary to common conceptions, continuity predicts that channels will be steeper in weaker rocks in the case of subhorizontal rock layers when the stream power erosion exponent n<1. For subhorizontal layered rocks with different erodibilities, continuity also predicts larger slope contrasts than would be predicted by topographic steady state. Continuity steady state is a type of flux steady state, where uplift is balanced on average by erosion. The differences between topographic steady state and continuity steady state are most pronuced for steep channels in subhorizontal layered rocks. Consequently, cratonic and plateau settings are most likely to produce the effects predicted by continuity steady state. These settings remain relatively underexplored within the bedrock channel literature. Though examples illustrated here utilze the stream power erosion law, continuity steady state provides a general mathematical tool that can be used to explore the development of landscapes in layered rocks using any

  11. Transferability of running and cycling training zones in triathletes: implications for steady-state exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel G; Tofte, Courtney; Pliego, German J; Raymond, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether physiological measurements obtained from one mode of testing and training could be applied to another mode, as in prescribing heart rate (HR) zone training from cyling to running. Secondary objectives were 1) to assess the validity of applying data from incremental testing to steady-state exercise, and 2) to compare breakpoint in respiratory rate (RR) with the conventional method of anaerobic threshold (AT) breakpoint, the ventilatory equivalent for oxygen VE/VO2). Sixteen experienced triathletes performed VO2max testing on a cycle ergometer (CE) and treadmill (TM). In addition, a 30-minute time trial (TT) was performed on a CE. No significant differences were observed between modes of testing for VO2max (CE = 68.4 +/- 11.1 mlxkgxmin, TM = 69.0 +/- 13.2 mlxkgxmin), maximum HR (CE = 177.1 +/- 6.1 bpm, TM = 178.1 +/- 7.4 bpm), or AT (CE AT HR = 153.9 +/- 10.5 bpm, TM AT HR = 157.0 +/- 9.5 bpm). Although the mean difference in AT HR was small (3.1 bpm), a small correlation coefficient (0.321) between the AT for the 2 testing modes resulted in a large total error (TE = 12.1 bpm), indicating limited practical application of training zones between modes of testing. Mean TT HR and mean TT RR were significantly greater than mean AT HR (159.4 +/- 8.9 vs. 153.9 +/- 10.5 bpm) and mean AT RR (37.8 +/- 6.0 vs. 32.4 +/- 3.2 breaths per minute) because of significant "drift" in these 2 variables over time, whereas TT watts and AT watts were not significantly different (249.1 +/- 47.8 vs. 240.6 +/- 71.1 W). Finally, a significant difference and large TE (9.0 bpm) betweenVE/VO2 AT HR and the RR AT HR (153.9 +/- 10.5 and 158.4 +/- 10.0 bpm) may preclude the practical use of the RR breakpoint. From the results of this study, it is recommended that the triathlete perform sport-specific testing to assess training zones for cycling and running. In addition, because both HR and RR "drift" upward with steady-state exercise, AT

  12. Microchemostat array with small-volume fraction replenishment for steady-state microbial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaewon; Wu, Jianzhang; Polymenis, Michael; Han, Arum

    2013-11-07

    A chemostat is a bioreactor in which microorganisms can be cultured at steady-state by controlling the rate of culture medium inflow and waste outflow, thus maintaining media composition over time. Even though many microbial studies could greatly benefit from studying microbes in steady-state conditions, high instrument cost, complexity, and large reagent consumption hamper the routine use of chemostats. Microfluidic-based chemostats (i.e. microchemostats) can operate with significantly smaller reagent consumption while providing accurate chemostatic conditions at orders of magnitude lower cost compared to conventional chemostats. Also, microchemostats have the potential to significantly increase the throughput by integrating arrays of microchemostats. We present a microchemostat array with a unique two-depth culture chamber design that enables small-volume fraction replenishment of culture medium as low as 1% per replenishment cycle in a 250 nl volume. A system having an array of 8 microchemostats on a 40 × 60 mm(2) footprint could be automatically operated in parallel by a single controller unit as a demonstration for potential high throughput microbial studies. The model organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, successfully reached a stable steady-state of different cell densities as a demonstration of the chemostatic functionality by programming the dilution rates. Chemostatic functionality of the system was further confirmed by quantifying the budding index as a function of dilution rate, a strong indicator of growth-dependent cell division. In addition, the small-volume fraction replenishment feature minimized the cell density fluctuation during the culture. The developed system provides a robust, low-cost, and higher throughput solution to furthering studies in microbial physiology.

  13. Quasi-steady State Reduction of Molecular Motor-Based Models of Directed Intermittent Search

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay M.

    2010-02-19

    We present a quasi-steady state reduction of a linear reaction-hyperbolic master equation describing the directed intermittent search for a hidden target by a motor-driven particle moving on a one-dimensional filament track. The particle is injected at one end of the track and randomly switches between stationary search phases and mobile nonsearch phases that are biased in the anterograde direction. There is a finite possibility that the particle fails to find the target due to an absorbing boundary at the other end of the track. Such a scenario is exemplified by the motor-driven transport of vesicular cargo to synaptic targets located on the axon or dendrites of a neuron. The reduced model is described by a scalar Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, which has an additional inhomogeneous decay term that takes into account absorption by the target. The FP equation is used to compute the probability of finding the hidden target (hitting probability) and the corresponding conditional mean first passage time (MFPT) in terms of the effective drift velocity V, diffusivity D, and target absorption rate λ of the random search. The quasi-steady state reduction determines V, D, and λ in terms of the various biophysical parameters of the underlying motor transport model. We first apply our analysis to a simple 3-state model and show that our quasi-steady state reduction yields results that are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the full system under physiologically reasonable conditions. We then consider a more complex multiple motor model of bidirectional transport, in which opposing motors compete in a "tug-of-war", and use this to explore how ATP concentration might regulate the delivery of cargo to synaptic targets. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  14. Seeing the talker’s face supports executive processing of speech in steady state noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmit eMishra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Listening to speech in noise depletes cognitive resources, affecting speech processing. The present study investigated how remaining resources or cognitive spare capacity (CSC can be deployed by young adults with normal hearing. We administered a test of CSC (CSCT, Mishra et al., 2013 along with a battery of established cognitive tests to 20 participants with normal hearing. In the CSCT, lists of two-digit numbers were presented with and without visual cues in quiet, as well as in steady-state and speech-like noise at a high intelligibility level. In low load conditions, two numbers were recalled according to instructions inducing executive processing (updating, inhibition and in high load conditions the participants were additionally instructed to recall one extra number, which was the always the first item in the list. In line with previous findings, results showed that CSC was sensitive to memory load and executive function but generally not related to working memory capacity. Furthermore, CSCT scores in quiet were lowered by visual cues, probably due to distraction. In steady-state noise, the presence of visual cues improved CSCT scores, probably by enabling better encoding. Contrary to our expectation, CSCT performance was disrupted more in steady-state than speech-like noise, although only without visual cues, possibly because selective attention could be used to ignore the speech-like background and provide an enriched representation of target items in working memory similar to that obtained in quiet. This interpretation is supported by a consistent association between CSCT scores and updating skills.

  15. Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N., E-mail: beris@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling.

  16. Mantle Sulfur Cycle: A Case for Non-Steady State ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartigny, Pierre; Labidi, Jabrane

    2016-04-01

    Data published over the last 5 years show that the early inference that mantle is isotopically homogeneous is no more valid. Instead, new generation data on lavas range over a significant 34S/32S variability of up to 5‰ with δ 34S values often correlated to Sr- and Nd-isotope compositions. This new set of data also reveals the Earth's mantle to have a sub-chondritic 34S/32S ratio, by about ˜ 1‰. We will present at the conference our published and unpublished data on samples characterizing the different mantle components (i.e. EM1, EM2, HIMU and LOMU). All illustrate 34S-enrichments compared to MORB with Δ 33S and Δ 36S values indistinguishable from CDT or chondrites at the 0.03‰ level. These data are consistent with the recycling of subducted components carrying sulfur with Δ 33S and Δ 36S-values close to zero. Archean rocks commonly display Δ 33S and Δ 36S values deviating from zero by 1 to 10 ‰. The lack of variations for Δ 33S and Δ 36S values in present day lava argue against the sampling of any subducted protolith of Archean age in their mantle source. Instead, our data are consistent with the occurrence of Proterozoic subducted sulfur in the source of the EM1, EM2, LOMU and HIMU endmember at the St-Helena island. This is in agreement with the age of those components early derived through the use of the Pb isotope systematic. Currently, the negative δ 34S-values of the depleted mantle seem to be associated with mostly positive values of enriched components. This would be inconsistent with the concept a steady state of sulfur. Assuming that the overall observations of recycled sulfur are not biased, the origin of such a non-steady state remains unclear. It could be related to the relatively compatible behavior of sulfur during partial melting, as the residue of present-day melting can be shown to always contain significant amounts of sulfide (50{%} of what is observed in a fertile source). This typical behavior likely prevents an efficient

  17. The Budyko functions under non-steady-state conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Roger; Lhomme, Jean-Paul

    2016-12-01

    The Budyko functions relate the evaporation ratio E / P (E is evaporation and P precipitation) to the aridity index Φ = Ep / P (Ep is potential evaporation) and are valid on long timescales under steady-state conditions. A new physically based formulation (noted as Moussa-Lhomme, ML) is proposed to extend the Budyko framework under non-steady-state conditions taking into account the change in terrestrial water storage ΔS. The variation in storage amount ΔS is taken as negative when withdrawn from the area at stake and used for evaporation and positive otherwise, when removed from the precipitation and stored in the area. The ML formulation introduces a dimensionless parameter HE = -ΔS / Ep and can be applied with any Budyko function. It represents a generic framework, easy to use at various time steps (year, season or month), with the only data required being Ep, P and ΔS. For the particular case where the Fu-Zhang equation is used, the ML formulation with ΔS ≤ 0 is similar to the analytical solution of Greve et al. (2016) in the standard Budyko space (Ep / P, E / P), a simple relationship existing between their respective parameters. The ML formulation is extended to the space [Ep / (P - ΔS), E / (P - ΔS)] and compared to the formulations of Chen et al. (2013) and Du et al. (2016). The ML (or Greve et al., 2016) feasible domain has a similar upper limit to that of Chen et al. (2013) and Du et al. (2016), but its lower boundary is different. Moreover, the domain of variation of Ep / (P - ΔS) differs: for ΔS ≤ 0, it is bounded by an upper limit 1 / HE in the ML formulation, while it is only bounded by a lower limit in Chen et al.'s (2013) and Du et al.'s (2016) formulations. The ML formulation can also be conducted using the dimensionless parameter HP = -ΔS / P instead of HE, which yields another form of the equations.

  18. Mechanism for multiplicity of steady states with distinct cell concentration in continuous culture of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongky, Andrew; Lee, Jongchan; Le, Tung; Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2015-07-01

    Continuous culture for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins offers the possibility of steady state operations and thus more consistent product quality and increased productivity. Under some conditions, multiplicity of steady states has been observed in continuous cultures of mammalian cells, wherein with the same dilution rate and feed nutrient composition, steady states with very different cell and product concentrations may be reached. At those different steady states, cells may exhibit a high glycolysis flux with high lactate production and low cell concentration, or a low glycolysis flux with low lactate and high cell concentration. These different steady states, with different cell concentration, also have different productivity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of steady state multiplicity and devising a strategy to steer the culture toward the desired steady state is critical. We establish a multi-scale kinetic model that integrates a mechanistic intracellular metabolic model and cell growth model in a continuous bioreactor. We show that steady state multiplicity exists in a range of dilution rate in continuous culture as a result of the bistable behavior in glycolysis. The insights from the model were used to devise strategies to guide the culture to the desired steady state in the multiple steady state region. The model provides a guideline principle in the design of continuous culture processes of mammalian cells.

  19. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XX. The Steady State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M.; Massini, Peter

    1952-09-01

    The separation of the phenomenon of photosynthesis in green plants into a photochemical reaction and into the light-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide is discussed, The reduction of carbon dioxide and the fate of the assimilated carbon were investigated with the help of the tracer technique (exposure of the planks to the radioactive C{sup 14}O{sub 2}) and of paper chromatography. A reaction cycle is proposed in which phosphoglyceric acid is the first isolable assimilations product. Analyses of the algal extracts which had assimilated radioactive carbon dioxide in a stationary condition ('steady-state' photosynthesis) for a long time provided further information concerning the proposed cycle and permitted the approximate estimation, for a number of compounds of what fraction of each compound was taking part in the cycle. The earlier supposition that light influences the respiration cycle was confirmed. The possibility of the assistance of {alpha}-lipoic acid, or of a related substance, in this influence and in the photosynthesis cycle, is discussed.

  20. Stable Gene Regulatory Network Modeling From Steady-State Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Edward Larvie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks represent an abstract mapping of gene regulations in living cells. They aim to capture dependencies among molecular entities such as transcription factors, proteins and metabolites. In most applications, the regulatory network structure is unknown, and has to be reverse engineered from experimental data consisting of expression levels of the genes usually measured as messenger RNA concentrations in microarray experiments. Steady-state gene expression data are obtained from measurements of the variations in expression activity following the application of small perturbations to equilibrium states in genetic perturbation experiments. In this paper, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator-vector autoregressive (LASSO-VAR originally proposed for the analysis of economic time series data is adapted to include a stability constraint for the recovery of a sparse and stable regulatory network that describes data obtained from noisy perturbation experiments. The approach is applied to real experimental data obtained for the SOS pathway in Escherichia coli and the cell cycle pathway for yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Significant features of this method are the ability to recover networks without inputting prior knowledge of the network topology, and the ability to be efficiently applied to large scale networks due to the convex nature of the method.

  1. Regulation of steady-state neutrophil homeostasis by macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, Claire; Pua, Heather; Sempowski, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    The timely clearance of apoptotic neutrophils from inflammation sites is an important function of macrophages; however, the role of macrophages in maintaining neutrophil homeostasis under steady-state conditions is less well understood. By conditionally deleting the antiapoptotic gene cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (C-FLIP) in myeloid cells, we have generated a novel mouse model deficient in marginal zone and bone marrow stromal macrophages. These mice develop severe neutrophilia, splenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis, decreased body weight, and increased production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and IL-1β, but not IL-17. c-FLIPf/f LysM-Cre mice exhibit delayed clearance of circulating neutrophils, suggesting that failure of macrophages to efficiently clear apoptotic neutrophils causes production of cytokines that drive excess granulopoiesis. Further, blocking G-CSF but not IL-1R signaling in vivo rescues this neutrophilia, suggesting that a G-CSF–dependent, IL-1β–independent pathway plays a role in promoting neutrophil production in mice with defective clearance of apoptotic cells. PMID:20980680

  2. Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.

  3. Steady-state and dynamic network modes for perceptual expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Uk-Su; Sung, Yul-Wan; Ogawa, Seiji

    2017-01-12

    Perceptual expectation can attenuate repetition suppression, the stimulus-induced neuronal response generated by repeated stimulation, suggesting that repetition suppression is a top-down modulatory phenomenon. However, it is still unclear which high-level brain areas are involved and how they interact with low-level brain areas. Further, the temporal range over which perceptual expectation can effectively attenuate repetition suppression effects remains unclear. To elucidate the details of this top-down modulatory process, we used two short and long inter-stimulus intervals for a perceptual expectation paradigm of paired stimulation. We found that top-down modulation enhanced the response to the unexpected stimulus when repetition suppression was weak and that the effect disappeared at 1,000 ms prior to stimulus exposure. The high-level areas involved in this process included the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG_L) and left parietal lobule (IPL_L). We also found two systems providing modulatory input to the right fusiform face area (FFA_R): one from IFG_L and the other from IPL_L. Most importantly, we identified two states of networks through which perceptual expectation modulates sensory responses: one is a dynamic state and the other is a steady state. Our results provide the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence of temporally nested networks in brain processing.

  4. Glaucoma affects steady state VEP contrast thresholds before psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaegan; Rahman, Anmar M A; Sanderson, Gordon F

    2008-07-01

    Frequency doubling technology (FDT) is a recent psychophysical test for glaucoma. It measures the contrast threshold to low spatial frequency, high temporal frequency sinusoidal luminance profile bars. We wanted to confirm, with stricter controls, Vaegan and Hollow's report that contrast thresholds of steady state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) to a stimulus resembling the central field of the FDT test was more sensitive to glaucoma than the subjective threshold to the same stimulus and to start to optimize the technique. A double masked trial using 57 eyes of 42 subjects. Both thresholds were estimated by modified binary search. In psychophysical testing, subjects were given a two alternative forced choice task. In ssVEP testing a significant signal in any one of eight channels was deemed to be a detection. In some subjects electrode positions were compared, both eyes were tested, tests were repeated to estimate reliability, stimulus frequencies were varied or full contrast functions were obtained. Thresholds and percent abnormal increased as a function of glaucoma severity for ssVEPs but not for psychophysics. Both threshold measures were reliable. Interocular correlations were low. SsVEP amplitude against contrast functions had similar thresholds to those found by modified binary search. The data was too irregular for individual thresholds to be estimated from a fitted exponential. Amplitudes were greatest at 7 to 10 Hz, psychophysical thresholds at 18.29 Hz, when formal controls were used, as they had in a less controlled previous study at 7.14 Hz.

  5. ADI type preconditioners for the steady state inhomogeneous Vlasov equation

    CERN Document Server

    Gasteiger, Markus; Ostermann, Alexander; Tskhakaya, David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current work is to find numerical solutions of the steady state inhomogeneous Vlasov equation. This problem has a wide range of applications in the kinetic simulation of non-thermal plasmas. However, the direct application of either time stepping schemes or iterative methods (such as Krylov based methods like GMRES or relexation schemes) is computationally expensive. In the former case the slowest timescale in the system forces us to perform a long time integration while in the latter case a large number of iterations is required. In this paper we propose a preconditioner based on an ADI type splitting method. This preconditioner is then combined with both GMRES and Richardson iteration. The resulting numerical schemes scale almost ideally (i.e. the computational effort is proportional to the number of grid points). Numerical simulations conducted show that this can result in a speedup of close to two orders of magnitude (even for intermediate grid sizes) with respect to the not preconditio...

  6. Interaction-induced mode switching in steady-state microlasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li; Liu, David; Cerjan, Alexander; Rotter, Stefan; Cao, Hui; Johnson, Steven G; Türeci, Hakan E; Stone, A Douglas

    2016-01-11

    We demonstrate that due to strong modal interactions through cross-gain saturation, the onset of a new lasing mode can switch off an existing mode via a negative power slope. In this process of interaction-induced mode switching (IMS) the two involved modes maintain their identities, i.e. they do not change their spatial field patterns or lasing frequencies. For a fixed pump profile, a simple analytic criterion for the occurrence of IMS is given in terms of their self- and cross-interaction coefficients and non-interacting thresholds, which is verified for the example of a two-dimensional microdisk laser. When the spatial pump profile is varied as the pump power is increased, IMS can be induced even when it would not occur with a fixed pump profile, as we show for two coupled laser cavities. Our findings apply to steady-state lasing and are hence different from dynamical mode switching or hopping. IMS may have potential applications in robust and flexible all-optical switching.

  7. Full steady-state operation in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Arslanbekov, R.; Hoang, G.T.; Peysson, Y. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-12-01

    In order to produce fully non-inductive, lower hybrid (LH) driven discharges in a systematic and reproducible manner, new operation modes have been studied on the superconducting Tore Supra tokamak. To cope with some uncertainties in the LH current drive efficiency (e.g. profile dependences), the plasma current is not imposed a priori, but evolves freely until the equilibrium (which depends on the LH power level) is reached. The voltage applied on the primary circuit no longer controls the plasma current. In an `open loop` scenario in which this voltage is present and constant, the timescale required to attain the equilibrium is the longest characteristic time of the coupled plasma-poloidal field coils system ({approx} 60 s). In order to obtain a stationary state faster, a new feedback scheme has been implemented in which the primary circuit voltage is controlled in such a way that the flux consumption vanishes. It is shown that this operation mode allows full steady-state to be reached within a characteristic time of a few seconds. The underlying physics is described and a detailed analysis of the experiments is made. It is shown, in particular, that this operation scenario generates stable stationary plasmas with improved confinement, so that the so-called `LHEP` regime can be extrapolated to continuous operation. (Author).

  8. Grand canonical steady-state simulation of nucleation

    CERN Document Server

    Horsch, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Grand canonical molecular dynamics (GCMD) is applied to the nucleation process in a metastable phase near the spinodal, where nucleation occurs almost instantaneously and is limited to a very short time interval. With a variant of Maxwell's demon, proposed by McDonald [Am. J. Phys. 31: 31 (1963)], all nuclei exceeding a specified size are removed. In such a steady-state simulation, the nucleation process is sampled over an arbitrary timespan and all properties of the metastable state, including the nucleation rate, can be obtained with an increased precision. As an example, a series of GCMD simulations with McDonald's demon is carried out for homogeneous vapor to liquid nucleation of the truncated-shifted Lennard-Jones (tsLJ) fluid, covering the entire relevant temperature range. The results are in agreement with direct non-equilibrium MD simulation in the canonical ensemble. It is confirmed for supersaturated vapors of the tsLJ fluid that the classical nucleation theory underpredicts the nucleation rate by t...

  9. Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.

  10. Steady State Response Analysis of a Tubular Piezoelectric Print Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jiaqing; Liu, Yaxin; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-12

    In recent years, inkjet technology has played an important role in industrial materials printing and various sensors fabrication, but the mechanisms of the inkjet print head should be researched more elaborately. The steady state deformation analysis of a tubular piezoelectric print head, which can be classified as a plane strain problem because the radii of the tubes are considerably smaller than the lengths, is discussed in this paper. The geometric structure and the boundary conditions are all axisymmetric, so a one-dimensional mathematical model is constructed. By solving the model, the deformation field and stress field, as well as the electric potential distribution of the piezoelectric tube and glass tube, are obtained. The results show that the deformations are on the nanometer scale, the hoop stress is larger than the radial stress on the whole, and the potential is not linearly distributed along the radial direction. An experiment is designed to validate these computations. A discussion of the effect of the tubes' thicknesses on the system deformation status is provided.

  11. Development of the ITER Advanced Steady State and Hybrid Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Kessel, D. Campbell, T. Casper, Y. Gribov, and J. Snipes

    2010-09-24

    Full discharge simulations are performed to examine the plasma current rampup, flattop and rampdown phases self-consistently with the poloidal field (PF) coils and their limitations, plasma transport evolution, and heating/current drive (H/CD) sources. Steady state scenarios are found that obtain 100% non-inductive current with Ip = 7.3-10.0 MA, βN ~ 2.5 for H98 = 1.6, Q’s range from 3 to 6, n/nGr = 0.75-1.0, and NB, IC, EC, and LH source have been examined. The scenarios remain within CS/PF coil limits by advancing the pre-magnetization by 40 Wb. Hybrid scenarios have been identified with 35-40% non-inductive current for Ip = 12.5 MA, H98 ~ 1.25, with q(0) reaching 1 at or after the end of rampup. The equilibrium operating space for the hybrid shows a large range of scenarios can be accommodated, and access 925-1300 s flattop burn durations.

  12. A theory of nonequilibrium steady states in quantum chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei

    2017-09-01

    Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is a quasistationary state, in which exist currents that continuously produce entropy, but the local observables are stationary everywhere. We propose a theory of NESS under the framework of quantum chaos. In an isolated quantum system whose density matrix follows a unitary evolution, there exist initial states for which the thermodynamic limit and the long-time limit are noncommutative. The density matrix \\hat ρ of these states displays a universal structure. Suppose that \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketα and \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketβ are different eigenstates of the Hamiltonian with energies E_α and E_β , respectively. \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ behaves as a random number which has zero mean. In thermodynamic limit, the variance of \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ is a smooth function of ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert , scaling as 1/≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert 2 in the limit ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert \\to 0 . If and only if this scaling law is obeyed, the initial state evolves into NESS in the long time limit. We present numerical evidence of our hypothesis in a few chaotic models. Furthermore, we find that our hypothesis indicates the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) for current operators in a bipartite system.

  13. Steady-state evolution of debris disks around A stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wyatt, M C; Su, K Y L; Rieke, G H; Greaves, J S; Beichman, C A; Bryden, G

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a simple analytical model for the steady-state evolution of debris disks due to collisions is confronted with Spitzer observations of main sequence A stars. All stars are assumed to have planetesimal belts with a distribution of initial masses and radii. In the model disk mass is constant until the largest planetesimals reach collisional equilibrium whereupon the mass falls off oc 1/t. We find that the detection statistics and trends seen at both 24 and 70um can be fitted well by the model. While there is no need to invoke stochastic evolution or delayed stirring to explain the statistics, a moderate rate of stochastic events is not ruled out. Potentially anomalous systems are identified by a high dust luminosity compared with the maximum permissible in the model (HD3003, HD38678, HD115892, HD172555). Their planetesimals may have unusual properties (high strength or low eccentricity) or this dust could be transient. While transient phenomena are also favored for a few systems in the literature, ...

  14. Classical quasi-steady state reduction-A mathematical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke, Alexandra; Walcher, Sebastian; Zerz, Eva

    2017-04-01

    We discuss parameter dependent polynomial ordinary differential equations that model chemical reaction networks. By classical quasi-steady state (QSS) reduction we understand the following familiar (heuristically motivated) mathematical procedure: Set the rate of change for certain (a priori chosen) variables equal to zero and use the resulting algebraic equations to obtain a system of smaller dimension for the remaining variables. This procedure will generally be valid only for certain parameter ranges. We start by showing that the reduction is accurate if and only if the corresponding parameter is what we call a QSS parameter value, and that the reduction is approximately accurate if and only if the corresponding parameter is close to a QSS parameter value. The QSS parameter values can be characterized by polynomial equations and inequations, hence parameter ranges for which QSS reduction is valid are accessible in an algorithmic manner. A defining characteristic of a QSS parameter value is that the algebraic variety defined by the QSS relations is invariant for the differential equation. A closer investigation of the associated systems shows the existence of further invariant sets; here singular perturbations enter the picture in a natural manner. We compare QSS reduction and singular perturbation reduction, and show that, while they do not agree in general, they do, up to lowest order in a small parameter, for a quite large and relevant class of examples. This observation, in turn, allows the computation of QSS reductions even in cases where an explicit resolution of the polynomial equations is not possible.

  15. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01). Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05). In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age. PMID:28245274

  16. Dynamic steady-state of periodically-driven quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yudin, V I; Basalaev, M Yu; Kovalenko, D

    2015-01-01

    Using the density matrix formalism, we prove an existence theorem of the periodic steady-state for an arbitrary periodically-driven system. This state has the same period as the modulated external influence, and it is realized as an asymptotic solution ($t$$\\to$$+\\infty$) due to relaxation processes. The presented derivation simultaneously contains a simple computational algorithm non-using both Floquet and Fourier theories, i.e. our method automatically guarantees a full account of all frequency components. The description is accompanied by the examples demonstrating a simplicity and high efficiency of our method. In particular, for three-level $\\Lambda$-system we calculate the lineshape and field-induced shift of the dark resonance formed by the field with periodically modulated phase. For two-level atom we obtain the analytical expressions for signal of the direct frequency comb spectroscopy with rectangular light pulses. In this case it was shown the radical dependence of the spectroscopy lineshape on pul...

  17. Kinematical Analysis along Maximal Lactate Steady State Swimming Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Figueiredo, Rafael Nazario, Marisa Sousa, Jailton Gregório Pelarigo, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ricardo Fernandes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematical analysis during swimming at the intensity corresponding to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS. Thirteen long distance swimmers performed, in different days, an intermittent incremental protocol of n x 200 m until exhaustion and two to four 30-min submaximal constant speed bouts to determine the MLSS. The video analysis, using APAS System (Ariel Dynamics Inc., USA, allowed determining the following relevant swimming determinants (in five moments of the 30-min test: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%: stroke rate, stroke length, trunk incline, intracyclic velocity variation, propelling efficiency, index of coordination and the time allotted to propulsion per distance unit. An ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare the parameters mean values along each moment of analysis. Stoke rate tended to increase and stroke length to decrease along the test; a tendency to decrease was also found for intracyclic velocity variation and propelling efficiency whereas the index of coordination and the propulsive impulse remained stable during the MLSS test. It can be concluded that the MLSS is not only an intensity to maintain without a significant increase of blood lactate concentration, but a concomitant stability for some biomechanical parameters exists (after an initial adaptation. However, efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to changes occurring during swimming at this threshold intensity.

  18. Steady state relativistic stellar dynamics around a massive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Or, Ben

    2015-01-01

    A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the "loss-cone", which take them directly into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena: tidal heating and tidal disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, are of interest as they can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the existence of the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, probe strong gravity, and provide information on stars and gas near the MBH. The continuous loss of stars and the processes that resupply them shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss-cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady-state analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclos...

  19. Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.

  20. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis. XX. The Steady State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, M.; Massini, Peter

    1952-09-01

    The separation of the phenomenon of photosynthesis in green plants into a photochemical reaction and into the light-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide is discussed, The reduction of carbon dioxide and the fate of the assimilated carbon were investigated with the help of the tracer technique (exposure of the planks to the radioactive C{sup 14}O{sub 2}) and of paper chromatography. A reaction cycle is proposed in which phosphoglyceric acid is the first isolable assimilations product. Analyses of the algal extracts which had assimilated radioactive carbon dioxide in a stationary condition ('steady-state' photosynthesis) for a long time provided further information concerning the proposed cycle and permitted the approximate estimation, for a number of compounds of what fraction of each compound was taking part in the cycle. The earlier supposition that light influences the respiration cycle was confirmed. The possibility of the assistance of {alpha}-lipoic acid, or of a related substance, in this influence and in the photosynthesis cycle, is discussed.

  1. Enzyme Kinetics: A critique of the quasi-steady-state approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The standard two-step model of homogeneous-catalyzed reactions had been theoretically analyzed at various levels of approximations from time to time. The primary aim was to check the validity of the quasi-steady-state approximation, and hence emergence of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with various substrate-enzyme ratios. But, conclusions vary. We solve here the desired set of coupled nonlinear differential equations by invoking a new set of dimensionless variables. Approximate solutions are obtained via the power-series method aided by Pade approximants. The scheme works very successfully in furnishing the initial dynamics at least up to the region where existence of any steady state can be checked. A few conditions for its validity are put forward and tested against the findings. Temporal profiles of the substrate and the product are analyzed in addition to that of the complex to gain further insights into legitimacy of the above approximation. Some recent observations like the reactant stationary approxim...

  2. Steady-state propagation speed of rupture fronts along 1D frictional interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Amundsen, David Skålid; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Katzav, Eytan; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The rupture of dry frictional interfaces occurs through the propagation of fronts breaking the contacts at the interface. Recent experiments have shown that the velocities of these rupture fronts range from quasi-static velocities proportional to the external loading rate to velocities larger than the shear wave speed. The way system parameters influence front speed is still poorly understood. Here we study steady-state rupture propagation in a 1D spring-block model of an extended frictional interface, for various friction laws. With the classical Amontons--Coulomb friction law, we derive a closed-form expression for the steady-state rupture velocity as a function of the interfacial shear stress just prior to rupture. We then consider an additional shear stiffness of the interface and show that the softer the interface, the slower the rupture fronts. We provide an approximate closed form expression for this effect. We finally show that adding a bulk viscosity on the relative motion of blocks accelerates stead...

  3. Nonequilibrium steady states in a closed inhomogeneous asymmetric exclusion process with generic particle nonconservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Bijoy; Mondal, Souvik; Chandra, Anjan Kumar; Banerjee, Tirthankar; Basu, Abhik

    2017-01-01

    We study the totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) on a nonuniform one-dimensional ring consisting of two segments having unequal hopping rates, or defects. We allow weak particle nonconservation via Langmuir kinetics (LK), which are parametrized by generic unequal attachment and detachment rates. For an extended defect, in the thermodynamic limit the system generically displays inhomogeneous density profiles in the steady state—the faster segment is either in a phase with spatially varying density having no density discontinuity, or a phase with a discontinuous density changes. Nonequilibrium phase transitions between the above phases are controlled by the inhomogeneity and LK. The slower segment displays only macroscopically uniform bulk density profiles in the steady states, reminiscent of the maximal current phase of TASEP but with a bulk density generally different from half. With a point defect, there are spatially uniform low- and high-density phases as well, in addition to the inhomogeneous density profiles observed for an extended defect. In all the cases, it is argued that the mean particle density in the steady state is controlled only by the ratio of the LK attachment and detachment rates.

  4. Open chemical reaction networks, steady-state loads and Braess-like paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Kinshuk

    2014-01-01

    Open chemical reaction systems involve matter-exchange with the surroundings. As a result, species can accumulate inside a system during the course of the reaction. We study the role of network topology in governing the concentration build-up inside a fixed reaction volume at steady state, particularly focusing on the effect of additional paths. The problem is akin to that in traffic networks where an extra route, surprisingly, can increase the overall travel time. This is known as the Braess' paradox. Here, we report chemical analogues of such a paradox in suitably chosen reaction networks, where extra reaction step(s) can inflate the total concentration, denoted as `load', at steady state. It is shown that, such counter-intuitive behavior emerges in a qualitatively similar pattern in networks of varying complexities. We then explore how such extra routes affect the load in a biochemical scheme of uric acid degradation. From a thorough analysis of this network, we propose a functional role of some decomposit...

  5. Cell-Autonomous Gβ Signaling Defines Neuron-Specific Steady State Serotonin Synthesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G proteins regulate a vast array of cellular functions via specific intracellular effectors. Accumulating pharmacological and biochemical studies implicate Gβ subunits as signaling molecules interacting directly with a wide range of effectors to modulate downstream cellular responses, in addition to their role in regulating Gα subunit activities. However, the native biological roles of Gβ-mediated signaling pathways in vivo have been characterized only in a few cases. Here, we identified a Gβ GPB-1 signaling pathway operating in specific serotonergic neurons to the define steady state serotonin (5-HT synthesis, through a genetic screen for 5-HT synthesis mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that signaling through cell autonomous GPB-1 to the OCR-2 TRPV channel defines the baseline expression of 5-HT synthesis enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase tph-1 in ADF chemosensory neurons. This Gβ signaling pathway is not essential for establishing the serotonergic cell fates and is mechanistically separated from stress-induced tph-1 upregulation. We identified that ADF-produced 5-HT controls specific innate rhythmic behaviors. These results revealed a Gβ-mediated signaling operating in differentiated cells to specify intrinsic functional properties, and indicate that baseline TPH expression is not a default generic serotonergic fate, but is programmed in a cell-specific manner in the mature nervous system. Cell-specific regulation of TPH expression could be a general principle for tailored steady state 5-HT synthesis in functionally distinct neurons and their regulation of innate behavior.

  6. Estimating steady state and transient characteristics of molten salt natural circulation loop using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudariyawar, J.Y. [Homi Bhabha National Institue, Mumbai (India); Vaidya, A.M.; Maheshwari, K.K.; Srivastava, A.K. [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India); Satyamurthy, P. [ATDS, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India)

    2015-03-15

    The steady state and transient characteristics of a molten salt natural circulation loop (NCL) are obtained by 3D CFD simulations. The working fluid is a mixture of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} in 60:40 ratio. Simulation is performed using PHOENICS CFD software. The computational domain is discretized by a body fitted grid generated using in-built mesh generator. The CFD model includes primary side. Primary side fluid is subjected to heat addition in heater section, heat loss to ambient (in piping connecting heater and cooler) and to secondary side (in cooler section). Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved along with the standard k-ε turbulence model. Validation of the model is done by comparing the computed steady state Reynolds number with that predicted by various correlations proposed previously. Transient simulations were carried out to study the flow initiations transients for different heater powers and different configurations. Similarly the ''power raising'' transient is computed and compared with in-house experimental data. It is found that, using detailed information obtained from 3D transient CFD simulations, it is possible to understand the physics of oscillatory flow patterns obtained in the loop under certain conditions.

  7. Progress toward steady-state tokamak operation exploiting the high bootstrap current fraction regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Q. L.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gong, X. Z.; Holcomb, C. T.; Lao, L. L.; McKee, G. R.; Meneghini, O.; Staebler, G. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Qian, J. P.; Solomon, W. M.; Turnbull, A. D.; Holland, C.; Guo, W. F.; Ding, S. Y.; Pan, C. K.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.

    2016-06-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments have increased the normalized fusion performance of the high bootstrap current fraction tokamak regime toward reactor-relevant steady state operation. The experiments, conducted by a joint team of researchers from the DIII-D and EAST tokamaks, developed a fully noninductive scenario that could be extended on EAST to a demonstration of long pulse steady-state tokamak operation. Improved understanding of scenario stability has led to the achievement of very high values of βp and βN , despite strong internal transport barriers. Good confinement has been achieved with reduced toroidal rotation. These high βp plasmas challenge the energy transport understanding, especially in the electron energy channel. A new turbulent transport model, named TGLF-SAT1, has been developed which improves the transport prediction. Experiments extending results to long pulse on EAST, based on the physics basis developed at DIII-D, have been conducted. More investigations will be carried out on EAST with more additional auxiliary power to come online in the near term.

  8. Transcriptional monitoring of steady state and effects of anaerobic phases in chemostat cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penttilä Merja

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemostat cultures are commonly used in production of cellular material for systems-wide biological studies. We have used the novel TRAC (transcript analysis with aid of affinity capture method to study expression stability of approximately 30 process relevant marker genes in chemostat cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei and its transformant expressing laccase from Melanocarpus albomyces. Transcriptional responses caused by transient oxygen deprivations and production of foreign protein were also studied in T. reesei by TRAC. Results In cultures with good steady states, the expression of the marker genes varied less than 20% on average between sequential samples for at least 5 or 6 residence times. However, in a number of T. reesei cultures continuous flow did not result in a good steady state. Perturbations to the steady state were always evident at the transcriptional level, even when they were not measurable as changes in biomass or product concentrations. Both unintentional and intentional perturbations of the steady state demonstrated that a number of genes involved in growth, protein production and secretion are sensitive markers for culture disturbances. Exposure to anaerobic conditions caused strong responses at the level of gene expression, but surprisingly the cultures could regain their previous steady state quickly, even after 3 h O2 depletion. The main effect of producing M. albomyces laccase was down-regulation of the native cellulases compared with the host strain. Conclusion This study demonstrates the usefulness of transcriptional analysis by TRAC in ensuring the quality of chemostat cultures prior to costly and laborious genome-wide analysis. In addition TRAC was shown to be an efficient tool in studying gene expression dynamics in transient conditions.

  9. Instability and Existence of Spatial Nonhomogenuos Steady State of the Classical Contiunuum Heisenberg Spain Chin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The Landau-Lifshitz equation of the ferromagnetic spin chain with Gilbert damping term is considered.which is described by δS/δt=S×ΔS-λS×(S×ΔS),All spatial nonhomogenuos steady-state solutions.which are the form S=R1 cos(lr)+ R2 sin(lr)Al∈R,wherer |R1|=|R2|=1 and R1⊥R2,are proposed,Moreover the instability of the spatial nonhomogenuos steady-state solutions Sl(r)(l≠0) is investigated.Every perturbation of the spatial nonhomogenuos steady-state tends to a spatial homogeneous steady-state as t→∞.Thus the hetercolinic orbits,which connect the spatial nonhomogenuos steady-state and the spatial homogeneous steady-state,are exist.Filially numerical experiments are provided.

  10. Qualitative Analysis on a Reaction-Diffusion Prey Predator Model and the Corresponding Steady-States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qunyi BIE; Rui PENG

    2009-01-01

    The authors study a diffusive prey-predator model subject to the homogeneous Neumann boundary condition and give some qualitative descriptions of solutions to this reaction-diffusion system and its corresponding steady-state problem.The local and global stability of the positive constant steady-state are discussed,and then some results for nonexistence of positive non-constant steady-states are derived.

  11. Steady-state probability density function in wave turbulence under large volume limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeontaek Choia; Sang Gyu Job

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the possibility for two-mode probability density function (PDF) to have a non-zero flux steady state solution. We take the large volume limit so that the space of modes becomes continuous. It is shown that in this limit all the steady-state two- or higher-mode PDFs are the product of one-mode PDFs. The flux of this steady-state solution turns out to be zero for any finite mode PDF.

  12. NON-CONSTANT POSITIVE STEADY-STATES OF A PREDATOR-PREY-MUTUALIST MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WENYAN; WANG MINGXIN

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the authors deal with the non-constant positive steady-states of a predator-prey-mutualist model with homogeneous Neumann boundary condition. They first give a priori estimates (positive upper and lower bounds) of positive steady-states,and then study the non-existence, the global existence and bifurcation of non-constant positive steady-states as some parameters are varied. Finally the asymptotic behavior of such solutions as d3 →∞ is discussed.

  13. Hopf and steady state bifurcation analysis in a ratio-dependent predator-prey model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lai; Liu, Jia; Banerjee, Malay

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we perform spatiotemporal bifurcation analysis in a ratio-dependent predator-prey model and derive explicit conditions for the existence of non-constant steady states that emerge through steady state bifurcation from related constant steady states. These explicit conditions are numerically verified in details and further compared to those conditions ensuring Turing instability. We find that (1) Turing domain is identical to the parametric domain where there exists only steady state bifurcation, which implies that Turing patterns are stable non-constant steady states, but the opposite is not necessarily true; (2) In non-Turing domain, steady state bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation act in concert to determine the emergent spatial patterns, that is, non-constant steady state emerges through steady state bifurcation but it may be unstable if the destabilising effect of Hopf bifurcation counteracts the stabilising effect of diffusion, leading to non-stationary spatial patterns; (3) Coupling diffusion into an ODE model can significantly enrich population dynamics by inducing alternative non-constant steady states (four different states are observed, two stable and two unstable), in particular when diffusion interacts with different types of bifurcation; (4) Diffusion can promote species coexistence by saving species which otherwise goes to extinction in the absence of diffusion.

  14. A new perspective on steady-state cosmology: from Einstein to Hoyle

    CERN Document Server

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the discovery of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted a 'steady-state' model of the universe, i.e., a cosmic model in which the expanding universe remains essentially unchanged due to a continuous formation of matter from empty space. The manuscript was apparently written in early 1931, many years before the steady-state models of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. We compare Einstein's steady-state cosmology with that of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold and consider the reasons Einstein abandoned his model. The relevance of steady-state models for today's cosmology is briefly reviewed.

  15. On the number of steady states in a multiple futile cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Sontag, Eduardo D

    2008-07-01

    The multisite phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle is a motif repeatedly used in cell signaling. This motif itself can generate a variety of dynamic behaviors like bistability and ultrasensitivity without direct positive feedbacks. In this paper, we study the number of positive steady states of a general multisite phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, and how the number of positive steady states varies by changing the biological parameters. We show analytically that (1) for some parameter ranges, there are at least n + 1 (if n is even) or n (if n is odd) steady states; (2) there never are more than 2n - 1 steady states (in particular, this implies that for n = 2, including single levels of MAPK cascades, there are at most three steady states); (3) for parameters near the standard Michaelis-Menten quasi-steady state conditions, there are at most n + 1 steady states; and (4) for parameters far from the standard Michaelis-Menten quasi-steady state conditions, there is at most one steady state.

  16. Simulation and Analysis on Multiple Steady States of an Industrial Acetic Acid Dehydration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍军; 黄定伟

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an industrial acetic acid dehydration system via heterogeneous azeotropic distillation is simulated by Aspen Plus software. Residue curves are used to analyze the distillating behavior, and appropriate operating region of the system is determined. Based on steady states simulation, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to detect the output multiple steady states in the system. Different solution branches are observered when the flow rates of the feed stream and the organic reflux stream are selected as manipulated variables. The performance of the column under different steady states is different. A method is oroposed to achieve the desired steady state.

  17. Computational multiple steady states for enzymatic esterification of ethanol and oleic acid in an isothermal CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pang-Yen; Chuang, Guo-Syong; Chao, An-Chong; Li, Hsing-Ya

    2005-05-01

    The capacity of complex biochemical reaction networks (consisting of 11 coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations) to show multiple steady states, was investigated. The system involved esterification of ethanol and oleic acid by lipase in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The Deficiency One Algorithm and the Subnetwork Analysis were applied to determine the steady state multiplicity. A set of rate constants and two corresponding steady states are computed. The phenomena of bistability, hysteresis and bifurcation are discussed. Moreover, the capacity of steady state multiplicity is extended to the family of the studied reaction networks.

  18. Impact of aquifer desaturation on steady-state river seepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J.; Miracapillo, Cinzia; Mehl, Steffen

    2016-02-01

    Flow exchange between surface and ground water is of great importance be it for beneficial allocation and use of the water resources or for the proper exercise of water rights. That exchange can take place under a saturated or unsaturated flow regime. Which regimes occur depend on conditions in the vicinity of the interactive area. Withdrawals partially sustained by seepage may not bring about desaturation but greater amounts eventually will. The problem considered in this paper deals only with the steady-state case. It is meant as a first step toward a simple, yet accurate and physically based treatment of the transient situation. The primary purpose of the article is to provide simple criteria for determination of the initiation of desaturation in an aquifer originally in saturated hydraulic connection with a river or a recharge area. The extent of the unsaturated zone in the aquifer will increase with increasing withdrawals while at the same time the seepage rate from the river increases. However the seepage increase will stop once infiltration takes place strictly by gravity in the aquifer and is no longer opposed by the capillary rise from the water table below the riverbed. Following desaturation simple criteria are derived and simple analytical formulae provided to estimate the river seepage based on the position of the water table mound below the clogging layer and at some distance away from the river bank. They fully account for the unsaturated flow phenomena, including the existence of a drainage entry pressure. Two secondary objectives were to verify that (1) the assumption of uniform vertical flow through a clogging layer and that (2) the approximation of the water table mound below the seepage area as a flat surface were both reasonably legitimate. This approach will be especially advantageous for the implementation of the methodology in large-scale applications of integrated hydrologic models used for management.

  19. Auditory steady-state responses for estimating moderate hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, DeWet; Erasmus, Hettie

    2007-07-01

    The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) has gained popularity as an alternative technique for objective audiometry but its use in less severe degrees of hearing loss has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the ASSR in estimating moderate degrees of hearing loss. Seven subjects (12 ears) with moderate sensorineural hearing loss between 15 and 18 years of age were enrolled in the study. Forty-eight behavioural and ASSR thresholds were obtained across the frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz. ASSR thresholds were determined using a dichotic multiple frequency recording technique. Mean threshold differences varied between 2 and 8 dB (+/-7-10 dB SD) across frequencies. The highest difference and variability was recorded at 0.5 kHz. The frequencies 1-4 kHz also revealed significantly better correlations (0.74-0.88) compared to 0.5 kHz (0.31). Comparing correlation coefficients for behavioural thresholds less than 60 and 60 dB and higher revealed a significant difference. Eighty-six percent of ASSR thresholds corresponded within 5 dB of moderate to severe behavioural thresholds compared to only 29% for mild to moderate thresholds in this study. The results confirm that the ASSR can reliably estimate behavioural thresholds of 60 dB and higher, but due to increased variability, caution is recommended when estimating behavioural thresholds of less than 60 dB, especially at 0.5 kHz.

  20. Nonequilibrium steady states in a model for prebiotic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, A.; Fedorov, I.; Halley, J. W.

    2014-02-01

    Some statistical features of steady states of a Kauffman-like model for prebiotic evolution are reported from computational studies. We postulate that the interesting "lifelike" states will be characterized by a nonequilibrium distribution of species and a time variable species self-correlation function. Selecting only such states from the population of final states produced by the model yields the probability of the appearance of such states as a function of a parameter p of the model. p is defined as the probability that a possible reaction in the the artificial chemistry actually appears in the network of chemical reactions. Small p corresponds to sparse networks utilizing a small fraction of the available reactions. We find that the probability of the appearance of such lifelike states exhibits a maximum as a function of p: at large p, most final states are in chemical equilibrium and hence are excluded by our criterion. At very small p, the sparseness of the network makes the probability of formation of any nontrivial dynamic final state low, yielding a low probability of production of lifelike states in this limit as well. We also report results on the diversity of the lifelike states (as defined here) that are produced. Repeated starts of the model evolution with different random number seeds in a given reaction network lead to final lifelike states which have a greater than random likelihood of resembling one another. Thus a form of "convergence" is observed. On the other hand, in different reaction networks with the same p, lifelike final states are statistically uncorrelated. In summary, the main results are (1) there is an optimal p or "sparseness" for production of lifelike states in our model—neither very dense nor very sparse networks are optimal—and (2) for a given p or sparseness, the resulting lifelike states can be extremely different. We discuss some possible implications for studies of the origin of life.

  1. Steady state growth of E. Coli in low ammonium environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsu; Deris, Barret; Zhang, Zhongge; Hwa, Terry

    2011-03-01

    Ammonium is the preferred nitrogen source for many microorganisms. In medium with low ammonium concentrations, enteric bacteria turn on the nitrogen responsive (ntr) genes to assimilate ammonium. Two proteins in E. coli, Glutamine synthetase (GS) and the Ammonium/methylammonium transporter AmtB play crucial roles in this regard. GS is the major ammonium assimilation enzyme below 1mM of NH4 + . AmtB is an inner membrane protein that transports NH4 + across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient. In order to study ammonium uptake at low NH4 + concentration at neutral pH, we developed a microfluidic flow chamber that maintains a homogenous nutrient environment during the course of exponential cell growth, even at very low concentration of nutrients. Cell growth can be accurately monitored using time-lapse microscopy. We followed steady state growth down to micro-molar range of NH4 + for the wild type and Δ amtB strains. The wild type strain is able to maintain the growth rate from 10mM down to a few uM of NH4 + , while the mutant exhibited reduced growth below ~ 20 ~uM of NH4 + . Simultaneous characterization of the expression levels of GS and AmtB using fluorescence reporters reveals that AmtB is turned on already at 1mM, but contributes to function only below ~ 30 ~uM in the wild-type. Down to ~ 20 ~uM of NH4 + , E.~coli can compensate the loss of AmtB by GS alone.

  2. Human auditory steady state responses to binaural and monaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, D W F; Taylor, P

    2005-03-01

    Binaural beat sensations depend upon a central combination of two different temporally encoded tones, separately presented to the two ears. We tested the feasibility to record an auditory steady state evoked response (ASSR) at the binaural beat frequency in order to find a measure for temporal coding of sound in the human EEG. We stimulated each ear with a distinct tone, both differing in frequency by 40Hz, to record a binaural beat ASSR. As control, we evoked a beat ASSR in response to both tones in the same ear. We band-pass filtered the EEG at 40Hz, averaged with respect to stimulus onset and compared ASSR amplitudes and phases, extracted from a sinusoidal non-linear regression fit to a 40Hz period average. A 40Hz binaural beat ASSR was evoked at a low mean stimulus frequency (400Hz) but became undetectable beyond 3kHz. Its amplitude was smaller than that of the acoustic beat ASSR, which was evoked at low and high frequencies. Both ASSR types had maxima at fronto-central leads and displayed a fronto-occipital phase delay of several ms. The dependence of the 40Hz binaural beat ASSR on stimuli at low, temporally coded tone frequencies suggests that it may objectively assess temporal sound coding ability. The phase shift across the electrode array is evidence for more than one origin of the 40Hz oscillations. The binaural beat ASSR is an evoked response, with novel diagnostic potential, to a signal that is not present in the stimulus, but generated within the brain.

  3. MTR variations in normal adult brain structures using balanced steady-state free precession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Meritxell; Wetzel, Stephan G.; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Gloor, Monika; Bieri, Oliver; Scheffler, Klaus [University of Basel Hospital, Division of Radiological Physics, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-03-15

    Magnetization transfer (MT) is sensitive to the macromolecular environment of water protons and thereby provides information not obtainable from conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared to standard methods, MT-sensitized balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) offers high-resolution images with significantly reduced acquisition times. In this study, high-resolution magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) images from normal appearing brain structures were acquired with bSSFP. Twelve subjects were studied on a 1.5 T scanner. MTR values were calculated from MT images acquired in 3D with 1.3 mm isotropic resolution. The complete MT data set was acquired within less than 3.5 min. Forty-one brain structures of the white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) were identified for each subject. MTR values were higher for WM than GM. In general, MTR values of the WM and GM structures were in good accordance with the literature. However, MTR values showed more homogenous values within WM and GM structures than previous studies. MT-sensitized bSSFP provides isotropic high-resolution MTR images and hereby allows assessment of reliable MTR data in also very small brain structures in clinically feasible acquisition times and is thus a promising sequence for being widely used in the clinical routine. The present normative data can serve as a reference for the future characterization of brain pathologies. (orig.)

  4. 76 FR 14562 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Additional Requirements for Market Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... 52 RIN 9000-AL50 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Additional Requirements for Market Research AGENCY... interim rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement section 826, Market Research... items engages in market research as necessary before making purchases. DATES: Effective Date: April...

  5. NASA Glenn Steady-State Heat Pipe Code GLENHP: Compilation for 64- and 32-Bit Windows Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Leonard K.; Geng, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    A new version of the NASA Glenn Steady State Heat Pipe Code, designated "GLENHP," is introduced here. This represents an update to the disk operating system (DOS) version LERCHP reported in NASA/TM-2000-209807. The new code operates on 32- and 64-bit Windows-based platforms from within the 32-bit command prompt window. An additional evaporator boundary condition and other features are provided.

  6. Oxygen consumption dynamics in steady-state tumour models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David Robert; Fletcher, Alexander G; Partridge, Mike

    2014-09-01

    Oxygen levels in cancerous tissue can have a significant effect on treatment response: hypoxic tissue is both more radioresistant and more chemoresistant than well-oxygenated tissue. While recent advances in medical imaging have facilitated real-time observation of macroscopic oxygenation, the underlying physics limits the resolution to the millimetre domain, whereas oxygen tension varies over a micrometre scale. If the distribution of oxygen in the tumour micro-environment can be accurately estimated, then the effect of potential dose escalation to these hypoxic regions could be better modelled, allowing more realistic simulation of biologically adaptive treatments. Reaction-diffusion models are commonly used for modelling oxygen dynamics, with a variety of functional forms assumed for the dependence of oxygen consumption rate (OCR) on cellular status and local oxygen availability. In this work, we examine reaction-diffusion models of oxygen consumption in spherically and cylindrically symmetric geometries. We consider two different descriptions of oxygen consumption: one in which the rate of consumption is constant and one in which it varies with oxygen tension in a hyperbolic manner. In each case, we derive analytic approximations to the steady-state oxygen distribution, which are shown to closely match the numerical solutions of the equations and accurately predict the extent to which oxygen can diffuse. The derived expressions relate the limit to which oxygen can diffuse into a tissue to the OCR of that tissue. We also demonstrate that differences between these functional forms are likely to be negligible within the range of literature estimates of the hyperbolic oxygen constant, suggesting that the constant consumption rate approximation suffices for modelling oxygen dynamics for most values of OCR. These approximations also allow the rapid identification of situations where hyperbolic consumption forms can result in significant differences from constant

  7. Steady State Comparisons HAWC2 v12.2 vs HAWCStab2 v2.12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pirrung, Georg

    This reports presents comparison of the steady state HAWC2 [1] [2] [3] simulation results and the HAWCStab2 computations of the DTU10MW reference turbine [4] [5]. It serves as a simple validation for the HAWCStab2 [6] [7] [8] steady state computations....

  8. Distance to achieve steady state walking speed in frail elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemann, U.; Najafi, B.; Zijlstra, W.; Hauer, K.; Muche, R.; Becker, C.; Aminian, K.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to determine the length of the gait initiation phase before achieving steady state walking in frail older people. Based on body fixed sensors, habitual walking was analysed in 116 community-dwelling older persons (mean age 83.1 years, 84% women). The start of steady state walking was

  9. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Electromagnetic signals found in an automotive service environment shall not cause malfunctions or changes in the... Short Test Equipment (I) Steady-State Test Exhaust Analysis System (a) Sampling system—(1) General requirements. The sampling system for steady-state short tests shall, at a minimum, consist of a tailpipe...

  10. A steady-state analytical slope stability model for complex hillslopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talebi, A.; Troch, P.A.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a steady-state analytical hillslope stability model to study the role of topography on rain-induced shallow landslides. We combine a bivariate continuous function of the topographic surface, a steady-state hydrological model of hillslope saturated storage, and the infinite slope

  11. Steady-state properties of a finite system driven by a chemical-potential gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Vitting; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1990-01-01

    A two-dimensional lattice-gas model with repulsive interactions periodically infinite in one dimension and finite in the other is driven into a mass-transporting steady state by asymmetric chemical potentials applied at the open edges. By computer-simulation techniques the steady-state current...

  12. A steady-state analytical slope stability model for complex hillslopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talebi, A.; Troch, P.A.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a steady-state analytical hillslope stability model to study the role of topography on rain-induced shallow landslides. We combine a bivariate continuous function of the topographic surface, a steady-state hydrological model of hillslope saturated storage, and the infinite slope

  13. Steady State Solution for the Weakly Damped Forced Korteweg—de Vries Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BolingGUO; GuoguangLIN

    1998-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of steady state solution for the weakly damped forced KdV equation with a periodic boundary value problems are proved.It is obtained that the every solution of the weakly damped forced KdV equations converges to the steady state soluton as time t→∞。

  14. Stream-power incision model in non-steady-state mountain ranges: An empirical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yen-Chieh; SUNG Quocheng; CHEN Chao-Nan

    2006-01-01

    Stream-power incision model has always been applied to detecting the steady-state situation of ranges. Oblique arc-continent collision occurring during the period of Penglai Orogeny caused the Taiwan mountain belt to develop landscape of three evolution stages, namely stages of pre-steady-state (growing ranges in southern Taiwan), steady-state (ranges in central Taiwan) and post-steady-state (decaying ranges in northern Taiwan). In the analysis on streams of the Taiwan mountain belt made by exploring the relationship between the slope of bedrock channel (S) and the catchment area (A), the topographic features of the ranges at these three stages are acquired. The S-A plot of the steady-state ranges is in a linear form, revealing that the riverbed height of bedrock channel does not change over time (dz/dt =0). The slope and intercept of the straight line S-A are related to evolution time of steady-state topography and tectonic uplift rate respectively. The S-A plots of the southern and northern ranges of Taiwan mountain belt appear to be in convex and concave forms respectively, implying that the riverbed height of bedrock channel at the two ranges rises (dz/dt>0)and falls (dz/dt<0) over time respectively. Their tangent intercept can still reflect the tectonic uplift rate.This study develops an empirical stream-power eresion model of pre-steady-state and post-steady-state topography.

  15. Surfkin: A program to solve transient and steady state heterogeneous reaction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COLTRIN,MICHAEL E.; WIXOM,RYAN R.; DANDY,DAVID S.

    2000-05-01

    Heterogeneous chemical reactions occurring at a gas/surface interface are fundamental in a variety of important applications, such as combustion, catalysis, chemical vapor deposition and plasma processing. Detailed simulation of these processes may involve complex, coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, gas-phase chemistry, in addition to heterogeneous reaction chemistry. This report documents the Surfkin program, which simulates the kinetics of heterogeneous chemical reactions. The program is designed for use with the Chemkin and Surface Chemkin (heterogeneous chemistry) programs. It calculates time-dependent or steady state surface site fractions and bulk-species production/destruction rates. The surface temperature may be specified as a function of time to simulate a temperature-programmed desorption experiment, for example. This report serves as a user's manual for the program, explaining the required input and format of the output. Two detailed example problems are included to further illustrate the use of this program.

  16. Strain gradient effects on steady state crack growth in rate-sensitive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Steady state crack propagation produce substantial plastic strain gradients near the tip, which are accompanied by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and additional local strain hardening. Here, the objective is to study these gradient effects on Mode I toughness...... of a homogeneous rate-sensitive metal, using a higher order plasticity theory. Throughout, emphasis is on the toughness rate-sensitivity, as a recent numerical study of a conventional material (no gradient effects) has indicated a significant influence of both strain rate hardening and crack tip velocity. Moreover......, a characteristic velocity, at which the toughness becomes independent of the rate-sensitivity, has been observed. It is the aim to bring forward a similar characteristic velocity for the current strain gradient visco-plastic model, as-well as to signify its use in future visco-plastic material modeling....

  17. A two-dimensional MHD global coronal model - Steady-state streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    1992-01-01

    A 2D, time-dependent, numerical, MHD model for the simulation of coronal streamers from the solar surface to 15 solar is presented. Three examples are given; for dipole, quadrupole and hexapole (Legendre polynomials P1, P2, and P3) initial field topologies. The computed properties are density, temperature, velocity, and magnetic field. The calculation is set up as an initial-boundary value problem wherein a relaxation in time produces the steady state solution. In addition to the properties of the solutions, their accuracy is discussed. Besides solutions for dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole geometries, the model use of realistic values for the density and Alfven speed while still meeting the requirement that the flow speed be super-Alfvenic at the outer boundary by extending the outer boundary to 15 solar radii.

  18. The steady-state performance of a controlled current active filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, R.M. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering); Round, S.D. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-04-01

    An active filter that uses a high-frequency D-class asynchronous switching inverter for power system current distortion compensation is described. The distortion compensation technique involves deriving a signal corresponding to the distortion component of load current, and inverting and amplifying this signal for addition back to the supply current to cancel the load current distortion. A synthetic sinusoid is used to determine the distortion component in the time domain. Extensive computed and experimental results, illustrating the system's steady-state performance and ability to reduce the current harmonic distortion components, are presented. An intelligent controller is proposed to maintain the active filter's performance at the optimal operating point under varying load conditions.

  19. Erratum to: Study on Chloride Ion Penetration Resistance of Rubberized Concrete Under Steady State Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Noor Nurazuwa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of crumb rubber, CR as fine aggregate in the concrete to enhance concrete durability against chloride ion diffusion was studied. Chloride ion diffusion in rubberized concrete was tested by migration test under steady state condition. Concrete specimen with water-to-cement ratio of 0.50 was prepared to study the CR effectiveness in comparison with lower water-to-cement ratio. In addition, 10% silica fume, SF was added to provide denser concrete and to understand its effectiveness against chloride ion diffusion. Results showed that chloride transport characteristics were improved by the increasing amount of CR in all mixed due to the fact that CR has the ability to repel water. Meanwhile, rubberized concrete with w/c = 0.35 gave better resistance against chloride ion penetration compared to w/c = 0.50. This was much improved with combination of CR and SF.

  20. Development of synchronous generator saturation model from steady-state operating data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadric, Martin; Despalatovic, Marin; Terzic, Bozo [FESB University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Split (Croatia)

    2010-11-15

    A new method to estimate and model the saturated synchronous reactances of hydroturbine generators from operating data is presented. For the estimation process, measurements of only the generator steady-state variables are required. First, using a specific procedure, the field to armature turns ratio is estimated from measured steady-state variables at constant power generation and various excitation conditions. Subsequently, for each set of steady-state operating data, saturated synchronous reactances are identified. Fitting surfaces, defined as polynomial functions in two variables, are later used to model these saturated reactances. It is shown that the simpler polynomial functions may be used to model saturation at the steady-state than at the dynamic conditions. The developed steady-state model is validated with measurements performed on the 34 MVA hydroturbine generator. (author)

  1. Newton's method applied to finite-difference approximations for the steady-state compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Harry E.; Beam, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    Finite-difference approximations for steady-state compressible Navier-Stokes equations, whose two spatial dimensions are written in generalized curvilinear coordinates and strong conservation-law form, are presently solved by means of Newton's method in order to obtain a lifting-airfoil flow field under subsonic and transonnic conditions. In addition to ascertaining the computational requirements of an initial guess ensuring convergence and the degree of computational efficiency obtainable via the approximate Newton method's freezing of the Jacobian matrices, attention is given to the need for auxiliary methods assessing the temporal stability of steady-state solutions. It is demonstrated that nonunique solutions of the finite-difference equations are obtainable by Newton's method in conjunction with a continuation method.

  2. Modeling attainment of steady state of drug concentration in plasma by means of a Bayesian approach using MCMC methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Paul; Brunschwig, Hadassa; Luedin, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The approach of Bayesian mixed effects modeling is an appropriate method for estimating both population-specific as well as subject-specific times to steady state. In addition to pure estimation, the approach allows to determine the time until a certain fraction of individuals of a population has reached steady state with a pre-specified certainty. In this paper a mixed effects model for the parameters of a nonlinear pharmacokinetic model is used within a Bayesian framework. Model fitting by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods as implemented in the Gibbs sampler as well as the extraction of estimates and probability statements of interest are described. Finally, the proposed approach is illustrated by application to trough data from a multiple dose clinical trial.

  3. Glucose Regulation of Pre-steady State Kinetics of ATP Hydrolysis by Na,K-ATPase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Mahfuzul HAQUE; Nikhat MANZOOR; Mohammad AMIN; Mohammad Ejaz HUSSAIN; Luqman Ahmad KHAN

    2007-01-01

    The effect of glucose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose on pre-steady state kinetics of ATP hydrolysis by Na,K-ATPase has been investigated by following pH transients in a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. A typical pre-steady state signal showed an initial decrease then subsequent increase in acidity. Under optimal Na+ (120 mM) and K+ (30 mM) concentrations, magnitudes of both H+ release and H+ absorption were found to be approximately 1.0/ATPase molecule. The presence of 1 mM glucose significantly decreased H+ absorption at high Na+ concentrations, whereas it was ineffective at low Na+. H+ release was decreased significantly in the presence of 1 mM glucose at Na+ concentrations ranging from 30 mM to 120 mM. Similar to the control,K+ did not show any effect on either H+ release or H+ absorption at all tested combinations of Na+ and K+ concentrations. Pre-steady state H+ signal obtained in the presence of 2-deoxy-D-glucose did not vary significantly as compared with glucose. Delayed addition of K+ (by 30 ms) to the mixture (enzyme+120 mM Na++ATP+glucose) showed that only small fractions of population absorb H+ in the absence of K+. No H+ absorption was observed in the absence of Na+. Delayed mixing of Na+ or K+ did not have any effect on H+ release. Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on H+ absorption and release was almost the same as that of glucose at all combinations of Na+ and K+ concentrations. Results obtained have been discussed in terms of an extended kinetic scheme which shows that, in the presence of either glucose or 2-deoxy-D-glucose, significantly fewer enzyme molecules reache the E~P(3Na+) stage and that K+ plays an important role in the conversion of E1.ADP.P(3Na+) to H+.E1~(3Na+) complex.

  4. Reversible adenylylation of glutamine synthetase is dynamically counterbalanced during steady-state growth of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hiroyuki; Hwa, Terence; Lenz, Peter; Yan, Dalai

    2010-12-03

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the central enzyme for nitrogen assimilation in Escherichia coli and is subject to reversible adenylylation (inactivation) by a bifunctional GS adenylyltransferase/adenylyl-removing enzyme (ATase). In vitro, both of the opposing activities of ATase are regulated by small effectors, most notably glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate. In vivo, adenylyltransferase (AT) activity is critical for growth adaptation when cells are shifted from nitrogen-limiting to nitrogen-excess conditions and a rapid decrease of GS activity by adenylylation is needed. Here, we show that the adenylyl-removing (AR) activity of ATase is required to counterbalance its AT activity during steady-state growth under both nitrogen-excess and nitrogen-limiting conditions. This conclusion was established by studying AR(-)/AT(+) mutants, which surprisingly displayed steady-state growth defects in nitrogen-excess conditions due to excessive GS adenylylation. Moreover, GS was abnormally adenylylated in the AR(-) mutants even under nitrogen-limiting conditions, whereas there was little GS adenylylation in wild-type strains. Despite the importance of AR activity, we establish that AT activity is significantly regulated in vivo, mainly by the cellular glutamine concentration. There is good general agreement between quantitative estimates of AT regulation in vivo and results derived from previous in vitro studies except at very low AT activities. We propose additional mechanisms for the low AT activities in vivo. The results suggest that dynamic counterbalance by reversible covalent modification may be a general strategy for controlling the activity of enzymes such as GS, whose physiological output allows adaptation to environmental fluctuations.

  5. Parameter estimation approach to banding artifact reduction in balanced steady-state free precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Marcus; Ingle, R Reeve; Gudmundson, Erik; Stoica, Petre; Nishimura, Dwight G; Barral, Joëlle K

    2014-09-01

    The balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) pulse sequence has shown to be of great interest due to its high signal-to-noise ratio efficiency. However, bSSFP images often suffer from banding artifacts due to off-resonance effects, which we aim to minimize in this article. We present a general and fast two-step algorithm for 1) estimating the unknowns in the bSSFP signal model from multiple phase-cycled acquisitions, and 2) reconstructing band-free images. The first step, linearization for off-resonance estimation (LORE), solves the nonlinear problem approximately by a robust linear approach. The second step applies a Gauss-Newton algorithm, initialized by LORE, to minimize the nonlinear least squares criterion. We name the full algorithm LORE-GN. We derive the Cramér-Rao bound, a theoretical lower bound of the variance for any unbiased estimator, and show that LORE-GN is statistically efficient. Furthermore, we show that simultaneous estimation of T1 and T2 from phase-cycled bSSFP is difficult, since the Cramér-Rao bound is high at common signal-to-noise ratio. Using simulated, phantom, and in vivo data, we illustrate the band-reduction capabilities of LORE-GN compared to other techniques, such as sum-of-squares. Using LORE-GN we can successfully minimize banding artifacts in bSSFP. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. How restful is it with all that noise? Comparison of Interleaved silent steady state (ISSS) and conventional imaging in resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, J; Ferreira, M; Leppert, I R; Matsushita, R; Pike, B; Zatorre, R J

    2017-02-15

    Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI. Several approaches have been developed to mitigate the effects of acoustic noise on fMRI signals, including sparse sampling protocols and interleaved silent steady state (ISSS) acquisition methods, the latter being used only for task-based fMRI. Here, we developed an ISSS protocol for resting-state fMRI (rs-ISSS) consisting of rapid acquisition of a set of echo planar imaging volumes following each silent period, during which the steady state longitudinal magnetization was maintained with a train of relatively silent slice-selective excitation pulses. We evaluated the test-retest reliability of intensity and spatial extent of connectivity networks of fMRI BOLD signal across three different days for rs-ISSS and compared it with a standard resting-state fMRI (rs-STD). We also compared the strength and distribution of connectivity networks between rs-ISSS and rs-STD. We found that both rs-ISSS and rs-STD showed high reproducibility of fMRI signal across days. In addition, rs-ISSS showed a more robust pattern of functional connectivity within the somatosensory and motor networks, as well as an auditory network compared with rs-STD. An increased connectivity between the default mode network and the language network and with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) network was also found for rs-ISSS compared with rs-STD. Finally, region of interest analysis showed

  7. The Completion of Non-Steady-State Queue Model on The Queue System in Dr. Yap Eye Hospital Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi Manggala Putri, Arum; Subekti, Retno; Binatari, Nikenasih

    2017-06-01

    Dr Yap Eye Hospital Yogyakarta is one of the most popular reference eye hospitals in Yogyakarta. There are so many patients coming from other cities and many of them are BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial, Social Security Administrative Bodies) patients. Therefore, it causes numerous BPJS patients were in long queue at counter C of the registration section so that it needs to be analysed using queue system. Queue system analysis aims to give queue model overview and determine its effectiveness measure. The data collecting technique used in this research are by interview and observation. After getting the arrival data and the service data of BPJS patients per 5 minutes, the next steps are investigating steady-state condition, examining the Poisson distribution, determining queue models, and counting the effectiveness measure. Based on the result of data observation on Tuesday, February 16th, 2016, it shows that the queue system at counter C has (M/M/1):(GD/∞/∞) queue model. The analysis result in counter C shows that the queue system is a non-steady-state condition. Three ways to cope a non-steady-state problem on queue system are proposed in this research such as bounding the capacity of queue system, adding the servers, and doing Monte Carlo simulation. The queue system in counter C will reach steady-state if the capacity of patients is not more than 52 BPJS patients or adding one more server. By using Monte Carlo simulation, it shows that the effectiveness measure of the average waiting time for BPJS patients in counter C is 36 minutes 65 seconds. In addition, the average queue length of BPJS patients is 11 patients.

  8. Steady-state equation of water vapor sorption for CaCl2-based chemical sorbents and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiquan; Yuan, Yanping; Sun, Qingrong; Cao, Xiaoling; Sun, Liangliang

    2016-09-01

    Green CaCl2-based chemical sorbent has been widely used in sorption refrigeration, air purification and air desiccation. Methods to improve the sorption rate have been extensively investigated, but the corresponding theoretical formulations have not been reported. In this paper, a sorption system of solid-liquid coexistence is established based on the hypothesis of steady-state sorption. The combination of theoretical analysis and experimental results indicates that the system can be described by steady-state sorption process. The steady-state sorption equation, μ = (η - γT) , was obtained in consideration of humidity, temperature and the surface area. Based on engineering applications and this equation, two methods including an increase of specific surface area and adjustment of the critical relative humidity (γ) for chemical sorbents, have been proposed to increase the sorption rate. The results indicate that the CaCl2/CNTs composite with a large specific surface area can be obtained by coating CaCl2 powder on the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The composite reached sorption equilibrium within only 4 h, and the sorption capacity was improved by 75% compared with pure CaCl2 powder. Furthermore, the addition of NaCl powder to saturated CaCl2 solution could significantly lower the solution’s γ. The sorption rate was improved by 30% under the same environment.

  9. Steady-state equation of water vapor sorption for CaCl2-based chemical sorbents and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiquan; Yuan, Yanping; Sun, Qingrong; Cao, Xiaoling; Sun, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    Green CaCl2-based chemical sorbent has been widely used in sorption refrigeration, air purification and air desiccation. Methods to improve the sorption rate have been extensively investigated, but the corresponding theoretical formulations have not been reported. In this paper, a sorption system of solid-liquid coexistence is established based on the hypothesis of steady-state sorption. The combination of theoretical analysis and experimental results indicates that the system can be described by steady-state sorption process. The steady-state sorption equation, μ = (η − γT) , was obtained in consideration of humidity, temperature and the surface area. Based on engineering applications and this equation, two methods including an increase of specific surface area and adjustment of the critical relative humidity (γ) for chemical sorbents, have been proposed to increase the sorption rate. The results indicate that the CaCl2/CNTs composite with a large specific surface area can be obtained by coating CaCl2 powder on the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The composite reached sorption equilibrium within only 4 h, and the sorption capacity was improved by 75% compared with pure CaCl2 powder. Furthermore, the addition of NaCl powder to saturated CaCl2 solution could significantly lower the solution’s γ. The sorption rate was improved by 30% under the same environment. PMID:27682811

  10. Sustained attention in context conditioning: Evidence from steady-state VEPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Anna K; Pauli, Paul; Wieser, Matthias J

    2015-12-01

    In classical fear conditioning an aversive event is paired repeatedly with a predictive stimulus, which later elicits fear. Repeated presentation of an aversive event in the absence of a predictive cue however may induce anxiety, and the context may gain a threatening value. As such conditioned anxiety can be considered a sustained reaction compared to phasic fear, it would be interesting to track continuous cortical responses during context conditioning. The present study realized a differential context conditioning paradigm and assessed sustained cortical activations to the threatening and the safe context and how neutral cues are processed within both contexts. Two pictures of different office rooms presented for 20s served as contexts. One room became associated with an unpleasant noise that was presented unpredictably (CTX+) while the other office (CTX-) was never associated with this unpleasant noise. After acquisition, a social agent or an object was presented as a distractor in both contexts. Cortical activations in response to contexts and distractors were assessed separately by steady-state visually evoked potentials (ssVEPs) using frequency tagging. Results revealed enhanced ssVEP-amplitudes for CTX+ compared to CTX- in a lateral occipital cluster during acquisition. Similarly, CTX+ elicited higher ssVEP-amplitudes during the test phase, and these context conditioning effects were not reduced by the simultaneous presentation of novel distractors. These results indicate that context conditioning was successfully implemented and that the anxiety context received facilitated cortical processing across the whole viewing time. We conclude that threatening contexts capture attention over a longer period of time, and are immune to distraction by new objects.

  11. Free-breathing steady-state free precession cine cardiac magnetic resonance with respiratory navigator gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghari, Mehdi H; Komarlu, Rukmini; Annese, David; Geva, Tal; Powell, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    To develop and validate a respiratory motion compensation method for free-breathing cardiac cine imaging. A free-breathing navigator-gated cine steady-state free precession acquisition (Cine-Nav) was developed which preserves the equilibrium state of the net magnetization vector, maintains the high spatial and temporal resolutions of standard breath-hold (BH) acquisition, and images entire cardiac cycle. Cine image data is accepted only from cardiac cycles occurring entirely during end-expiration. Prospective validation was performed in 10 patients by obtaining in each three complete ventricular image stacks with different respiratory motion compensation approaches: (1) BH, (2) free-breathing with 3 signal averages (3AVG), and (3) free-breathing with Cine-Nav. The subjective image quality score (1 = worst, 4 = best) for Cine-Nav (3.8 ± 0.4) was significantly better than for 3AVG (2.2 ± 0.5, P = 0.002), and similar to BH (4.0 ± 0.0, P = 0.13). The blood-to-myocardium contrast ratio for Cine-Nav (6.3 ± 1.5) was similar to BH (5.9 ± 1.6, P = 0.52) and to 3AVG (5.6 ± 2.5, P = 0.43). There were no significant differences between Cine-Nav and BH for the ventricular volumes and mass. In contrast, there were significant differences between 3AVG and BH in all of these measurements but right ventricular mass. Free-breathing cine imaging with Cine-Nav yielded comparable image quality and ventricular measurements to BH, and was superior to 3AVG. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pre-steady-state Kinetics for Hydrolysis of Insoluble Cellulose by Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil;

    2012-01-01

    The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime...... for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded enzyme...

  13. Simulation of Multi-Steady States in Low Temperature Gas Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李弘; 胡希伟

    2004-01-01

    This article presents hydrodynamics simulation of multi-steady states and mode transition by DC-beam-injected gas discharge, and provides a model approach to hysteresis and distinct forms of multi-steady states. The critical transition conditions of the three discharge modes (temperature limited mode, Langmuir mode, and space charge limited mode) are estimated to be dependent on the gas pressure and the filament temperature. Various forms of the multi-steady states in gas discharge can be uniformly explained by the displacement of the mutant positions. The simulation results are in a good agreement with those of the experiments.

  14. Absolute Steady-State Thermal Conductivity Measurements by Use of a Transient Hot-Wire System

    OpenAIRE

    Roder, Hans M.; Perkins, Richard A.; Laesecke, Arno; Nieto de Castro, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    A transient hot-wire apparatus was used to measure the thermal conductivity of argon with both steady-state and transient methods. The effects of wire diameter, eccentricity of the wire in the cavity, axial conduction, and natural convection were accounted for in the analysis of the steady-state measurements. Based on measurements on argon, the relative uncertainty at the 95 % level of confidence of the new steady-state measurements is 2 % at low densities. Using the same hot wires, the relat...

  15. Estimating time to steady state using the effective rate of drug accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Deborah L; Maes, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Unless all of a drug is eliminated during each dosing interval, the plasma concentrations within a dosing interval will increase until the time course of change in plasma concentrations becomes invariant from one dosing interval to the next, resulting in steady state. A simple method for estimating drug concentration time to steady state based on multiple dose area under the plasma concentration-time curve and effective rate of drug accumulation is presented. Several point estimates and confidence intervals for time to 90% of steady state are compared, and a recommendation is made on how to summarize and present the results. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cybernetic modeling and regulation of metabolic pathways in multiple steady states of hybridoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia, M J; Gambhir, A; Europa, A F; Ramkrishna, D; Hu, W S

    2000-01-01

    Hybridoma cells utilize a pair of complementary and partially substitutable substrates, glucose and glutamine, for growth. It has been shown that cellular metabolism shifts under different culture conditions. When those cultures at different metabolic states are switched to a continuous mode, they reach different steady states under the same operating conditions. A cybernetic model was constructed to describe the complementary and partial substitutable nature of substrate utilization. The model successfully predicted the metabolic shift and multiple steady-state behavior. The results are consistent with the experimental observation that the history of the culture affects the resulting steady state.

  17. Theoretical and experimental steady-state rotordynamics of an adaptive Air Film Damper with Metal Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhong, Ma; Zhichao, Liang; Hong, Wang; Dayi, Zhang; Jie, Hong

    2013-10-01

    An Air Film Damper (AFD) made with a highly damping material called Metal Rubber (MR) as the outer ring is a novel damping structure that aims to reduce the remarkable vibrations produced by a flexible rotor system. The mechanism of an AFD is firstly put forward and the mechanical model describing the fluid structure interaction is constructed. Taking into consideration the complex whirl of the rotor and the precession of the floating ring, the Reynolds equation of AFDs is derived and the air film pressure is obtained. Based on these calculations, the selection of MR stiffness is introduced and the adaptive properties of AFD are analyzed. Then the effects of AFD on the rotordynamics are studied based on the characterization of the parameters of a rotor system in the steady state. The mechanism and the effects of AFD on a rotor system are verified through rotating experimental tests. The theoretical and experimental results both show that AFD can adjust the air film clearance adaptively according to the vibration of the rotor; this can not only decrease the friction between the journal and the floating ring, but can also provide additional stiffness and damping to the rotor system, thus yielding additional vibration control. The mechanism of an AFD is obtained by theoretical and experimental investigations. Due to the elastic MR serving as the outer ring, an AFD can adjust the air film clearance adaptively according to the vibration of the rotor; this not only decreases the friction between the journal and the floating ring, but also provides additional stiffness and damping to the rotor system, as a function of vibration control. Taking into consideration the complex whirl of the rotor and the precession of the floating ring, the Reynolds equation of an AFD is derived and the mechanical model is established, based on the fluid structure interaction. Moreover, based on the maximum radial displacement during the entire operational process and the minimum thickness of

  18. Analytical Results of Steady-State Populations in Multiphoton Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXiao-Xue; LUOJin-Ming

    2004-01-01

    We present the explicit analytical expressions of the steady-state probability amplitudes and populations of atom levels in N-photon electromagnetically induced transparency for an arbitrary positive integer N.

  19. Nonexistence of nonconstant steady-state solutions in a triangular cross-diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yuan; Tao, Youshan; Winkler, Michael

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we study the Shigesada-Kawasaki-Teramoto model for two competing species with triangular cross-diffusion. We determine explicit parameter ranges within which the model exclusively possesses constant steady state solutions.

  20. Analytical solutions for transient and steady state beam loading in arbitrary traveling wave accelerating structures

    CERN Document Server

    Lunin, Andrei; Grudiev, Alexej

    2011-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived for transient and steady state gradient distributions in the travelling wave accelerating structures with arbitrary variation of parameters over the structure length. The results of both the unloaded and beam loaded cases are presented.

  1. Steady State Condition in the Measurement of VO2and VCO2by Indirect Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, M; Sacristan, E; Infante, O; Escalante, B; Rodriguez, F

    2005-01-01

    Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) is computed using VO2and VCO2short time 15-minute window measurement with Indirect Calorimetry (IC) instruments designed with mixing chamber. Steady state condition using a 10% variation coefficient criteria is the main objective to achieve metabolic long time prediction reliability. This study address how susceptible is the steady state VO2, VCO2measurement condition to the clino-orthostatic physiological maneuver. 30 young healthy subjects were analyzed. Only 18 passed the 10% variation coefficient inclusive criteria. They were exposed to 10 minutes clino-stage and 10 minutes orthostage. The hypothesis tests show not statistical significance (p< 0.1) in the average and variance analysis. It is concluded that the steady state is not influenced by the patient position IC test, probably because IC mixing chamber instruments are insensitive to detect a mayor physiological dynamics changes that can modify the steady state definition.

  2. Absolute Steady-State Thermal Conductivity Measurements by Use of a Transient Hot-Wire System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, H M; Perkins, R A; Laesecke, A; Nieto de Castro, C A

    2000-01-01

    A transient hot-wire apparatus was used to measure the thermal conductivity of argon with both steady-state and transient methods. The effects of wire diameter, eccentricity of the wire in the cavity, axial conduction, and natural convection were accounted for in the analysis of the steady-state measurements. Based on measurements on argon, the relative uncertainty at the 95 % level of confidence of the new steady-state measurements is 2 % at low densities. Using the same hot wires, the relative uncertainty of the transient measurements is 1 % at the 95 % level of confidence. This is the first report of thermal conductivity measurements made by two different methods in the same apparatus. The steady-state method is shown to complement normal transient measurements at low densities, particularly for fluids where the thermophysical properties at low densities are not known with high accuracy.

  3. A twin study of the trough plasma steady-state concentration of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore B; Damkier, Per; Pedersen, Rasmus S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS: We included 16 twin pairs (eight monozygotic and eight dizygotic twin pairs) for this study after contacting 524...... twin pairs. They were dosed with metformin to steady state (1 g twice daily) for 6 days and on day 7, the trough concentration of metformin was determined 12 h after the last dose. RESULTS: There was no strong intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in either...... dizygotic or monozygotic twin pairs. CONCLUSION: The trough steady-state plasma concentration of metformin does not appear to be tightly genetically regulated. The interpretation of this finding is limited by the small sample size....

  4. Exacting predictions by cybernetic model confirmed experimentally: steady state multiplicity in the chemostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Il; Song, Hyun-Seob; Sunkara, Sunil R; Lali, Arvind; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate strong experimental support for the cybernetic model based on maximizing carbon uptake rate in describing the microorganism's regulatory behavior by verifying exacting predictions of steady state multiplicity in a chemostat. Experiments with a feed mixture of glucose and pyruvate show multiple steady state behavior as predicted by the cybernetic model. When multiplicity occurs at a dilution (growth) rate, it results in hysteretic behavior following switches in dilution rate from above and below. This phenomenon is caused by transient paths leading to different steady states through dynamic maximization of the carbon uptake rate. Thus steady state multiplicity is a manifestation of the nonlinearity arising from cybernetic mechanisms rather than of the nonlinear kinetics. The predicted metabolic multiplicity would extend to intracellular states such as enzyme levels and fluxes to be verified in future experiments.

  5. Steady state of active systems is characterized by unique effective temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the properties of active matter systems, consisting of particles capable of taking up and dissipating energy and thus driven out of equilibrium, is important as it provides the possibility of a unified framework to analyze a diverse class of biological systems. Analysis of a large number of such systems shows an extension of equilibrium-like ideas are, sometimes, capable of capturing the steady state properties and a thermodynamic formulation of the problem might be possible. Investigating the detailed steady state properties and how the systems depart from equilibrium is important for such a formulation. Here we address the question through the framework of mode-coupling theory for dense active systems. We obtain a generic nonequilirbium theory for such systems and then taking the steady state limit of the theory we show that the system is characterized by a unique effective temperature, unlike other driven systems like a glass under shear. We discuss the differences of the steady states of an ...

  6. ROLE OF NMDA, NICOTINIC, AND GABA RECEPTORS IN THE STEADY STATE VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript characterizes the receptor pathways involved in pattern-evoked potential generation in rats" NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors appear to be involved in the generation of the steady-state pattern evoked response in vivo." The pattern evok...

  7. A closed-loop control scheme for steering steady states of glycolysis and glycogenolysis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Surajit; Patra, Sourav; Mukherjee, Anirban; Basu, Madhumita; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Dutta, Pranab K

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical networks normally operate in the neighborhood of one of its multiple steady states. It may reach from one steady state to other within a finite time span. In this paper, a closed-loop control scheme is proposed to steer states of the glycolysis and glycogenolysis (GG) pathway from one of its steady states to other. The GG pathway is modeled in the synergism and saturation system formalism, known as S-system. This S-system model is linearized into the controllable Brunovsky canonical form using a feedback linearization technique. For closed-loop control, the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) and the linear-quadratic gaussian (LQG) regulator are invoked to design a controller for tracking prespecified steady states. In the feedback linearization technique, a global diffeomorphism function is proposed that facilitates in achieving the regulation requirement. The robustness of the regulated GG pathway is studied considering input perturbation and with measurement noise.

  8. A Galerkin, finite-element analysis of steady-state flow and heat transport in the shallow hydrothermal system in the East Mesa area, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    A steady-state simulation model was applied to the shallow hydrothermal system in the East Mesa area of Imperial Valley, Calif. The steady-state equations of flow and heat transport were solved by use of a Galerkin, finite-element method. A solution was obtained by iterating between the temperature and pressure equations, using updated densities and viscosities. Temperature and pressure were obtained for each node, and corresponding head values were calculated. The simulated temperature and pressure patterns correlated well with the observed patterns. Additional data, mainly from test drilling, would be required for construction of a similar model of the deep hydrothermal system.

  9. Optimization of steady-state ¹³C-labeling experiments for metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Nicholas J; Masakapalli, Shyam K; Ratcliffe, R George

    2014-01-01

    While steady-state (13)C metabolic flux analysis is a powerful method for deducing multiple fluxes in the central metabolic network of heterotrophic and mixotrophic plant tissues, it is also time-consuming and technically challenging. Key steps in the design and interpretation of steady-state (13)C labeling experiments are illustrated with a generic protocol based on applications to plant cell suspension cultures.

  10. Mathematical analysis of steady-state solutions in compartment and continuum models of cell polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhenzhen; Chou, Ching-Shan; Yi, Tau-Mu; Nie, Qing

    2011-10-01

    Cell polarization, in which substances previously uniformly distributed become asymmetric due to external or/and internal stimulation, is a fundamental process underlying cell mobility, cell division, and other polarized functions. The yeast cell S. cerevisiae has been a model system to study cell polarization. During mating, yeast cells sense shallow external spatial gradients and respond by creating steeper internal gradients of protein aligned with the external cue. The complex spatial dynamics during yeast mating polarization consists of positive feedback, degradation, global negative feedback control, and cooperative effects in protein synthesis. Understanding such complex regulations and interactions is critical to studying many important characteristics in cell polarization including signal amplification, tracking dynamic signals, and potential trade-off between achieving both objectives in a robust fashion. In this paper, we study some of these questions by analyzing several models with different spatial complexity: two compartments, three compartments, and continuum in space. The step-wise approach allows detailed characterization of properties of the steady state of the system, providing more insights for biological regulations during cell polarization. For cases without membrane diffusion, our study reveals that increasing the number of spatial compartments results in an increase in the number of steady-state solutions, in particular, the number of stable steady-state solutions, with the continuum models possessing infinitely many steady-state solutions. Through both analysis and simulations, we find that stronger positive feedback, reduced diffusion, and a shallower ligand gradient all result in more steady-state solutions, although most of these are not optimally aligned with the gradient. We explore in the different settings the relationship between the number of steady-state solutions and the extent and accuracy of the polarization. Taken together

  11. Steady-state entanglement of a Bose-Einstein condensate and a nanomechanical resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Asjad, Muhammad; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.033606

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the steady-state entanglement between Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical cavity with a moving end mirror (nanomechanical resonator) driven by a single mode laser. The quantized laser field mediates the interaction between the Bose-Einstein condensate and nanomechanical resonator. In particular, we study the influence of temperature on the entanglement of the coupled system, and note that the steady-state entanglement is fragile with respect to temperature.

  12. Two Dimensional Steady State Eddy Current Analysis of a Spinning Conducting Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-09

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 855 Technical Report ARMET-TR-16045 TWO-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A ...any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN...August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TWO-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A SPINNING CONDUCTING CYLINDER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  13. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.

  14. Multiple steady states with distinct cellular metabolism in continuous culture of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Europa, A F; Gambhir, A; Fu, P C; Hu, W S

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian cells have the ability to proliferate under different nutrient environments by utilizing different combinations of the nutrients, especially glucose and the amino acids. Under the conditions often used in in vitro cultivation, the cells consume glucose and amino acids in great excess of what is needed for making up biomass and products. They also produce large amounts of metabolites with lactate, ammonia, and some non-essential amino acids such as alanine as the most dominant ones. By controlling glucose and glutamine at low levels, cellular metabolism can be altered and can result in reduced glucose and glutamine consumption as well as in reduced metabolite formation. Using a fed-batch reactor to manipulate glucose at a low level (as compared to a typical batch culture), cell metabolism was altered to a state with substantially reduced lactate production. The culture was then switched to a continuous mode and allowed to reach a steady-state. At this steady-state, the concentrations of cells and antibody were substantially higher than a control culture that was initiated from a batch culture without first altering cellular metabolism. The lactate and other metabolite concentrations were also substantially reduced as compared to the control culture. This newly observed steady-state was achieved at the same dilution rate and feed medium as the control culture. The paths leading to the two steady-states, however, were different. These results demonstrate steady-state multiplicity. At this new steady-state, not only was glucose metabolism altered, but the metabolism of amino acids was altered as well. The amino acid metabolism in the new steady-state was more balanced, and the excretion of non-essential amino acids and ammonia was substantially lower. This approach of reaching a more desirable steady-state with higher concentrations of cells and product opens a new avenue for high-density- and high-productivity-cell culture.

  15. Finite element modelling of creep process - steady state stresses and strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedmak Aleksandar S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element modelling of steady state creep process has been described. Using an analogy of visco-plastic problem with a described procedure, the finite element method has been used to calculate steady state stresses and strains in 2D problems. An example of application of such a procedure have been presented, using real life problem - cylindrical pipe with longitudinal crack at high temperature, under internal pressure, and estimating its residual life, based on the C*integral evaluation.

  16. Advanced Control Scenario of High-Performance Steady-State Operation for JT-60 Superconducting Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Tamai; Y. Kamada; A. Sakasai; S. Ishida; G. Kurita; M. Matsukawa; K. Urata; S. Sakurai; K. Tsuchiya; A. Morioka; Y. M. Miura; K. Kizu

    2004-01-01

    Plasma control on high-βN steady-state operation for JT-60 superconducting modification is discussed. Accessibility to high-βN exceeding the free-boundary limit is investigated with the stabilising wall of reduced-activated ferritic steel and the active feedback control of the in-vessel non-axisymmetric field coils. Taking the merit of superconducting magnet, advanced plasma control for steady-state high performance operation could be expected.

  17. Utility of two types of MR cisternography for patency evaluation of aqueduct and third ventriculostomy site: Three dimentsional sagittal fast spin echo sequence and steady-state coherent fast gradient echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Park, Jong Bin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Lee, Kyung Mi [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    We aimed to evaluate the utility of two types of MR cisternography [fast spin echo sequence and steady-state coherent gradient echo (GRE) sequence] in addition to phase contrast-cine imaging (PC-cine), for assessing patency at the aqueduct and third ventriculostomy site. 43 patients (35 patients with suspected aqueductal stenosis and 8 patients with third ventriculostomy) were retrospectively analyzed. PC-cine, 3 dimensional sagittal fast spin echo sequence [driven-equilibrium imaging (DRIVE) or volumetric isotrophic T2-weighted acquisition (T2 VISTA)] and steady-state coherent fast GRE sequence (balanced turbo field echo; bTFE) imaging were performed in all patients. The patency of the aqueduct or third ventriculostomy site was scored. Some pitfalls of each sequence were also analyzed in individual cases. 93% of all cases showed consistent scores in PC-cine, DRIVE/T2 VISTA, and bTFE imaging. DRIVE/T2 VISTA imaging provided functional information of cerebrospinal fluid flow with flow-related artifacts, while bTFE imaging allowed direct visualization of the aqueduct or ventriculostomy site. However, evaluation of anatomical structures was difficult in three cases with strong flow-related artifacts on DRIVE/T2 VISTA and in 2 cases with susceptibility artifacts on bTFE. Both DRIVE/T2 VISTA and bTFE imaging have complementary roles in evaluating the patency of the aqueduct and 3rd ventriculostomy site.

  18. Steady State Analysis of Convex Combination of Affine Projection Adaptive Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to propose an adaptive algorithm using convex combinational approach to have both fast convergence and less steady state error simultaneously. For this purpose, we have used two affine projection adaptive filters with complementary nature (both in step size and projection order as the component filters. The first component filter has high projection order and large step size which makes it to have fast convergence at the cost of more steady state error. The second component filter has slow convergence and less steady state error due to the selection of small step size and projection order. Both are combined using convex combiner so as to have best final output with fast convergence and less steady state error. Each of the component filters are updated using their own error signals and stochastic gradient approach is used to update the convex combiner so as to have minimum overall error. By using energy conservation argument, analytical treatment of the combination stage is made in stationary environment. It is found that during initial stage the proposed scheme converges to the fast filter which has good convergence later it converges to either of the two (whichever has less steady state error and towards the end, the final output converges to slow filter which is superior in lesser steady state error. Experimental results proved that the proposed algorithm has adopted the best features of the component filters.

  19. Experimental investigations of multiple steady states in aerobic continuous cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Frede; Olsson, Lisbeth; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-06-30

    The steady-state behavior of a glucose-limited, aerobic, continuous cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D was investigated around the critical dilution rate. Oxido-reductive steady states were obtained at dilution rates up to 0.09 h(-1) lower than the critical dilution rate by operating the bioreactor as a productostat, where the dilution rate was controlled on the basis of an ethanol measurement. Thus, the experimental investigations revealed that multiple steady states exist in a region of dilution rates below the critical dilution rate. The existence of multiple steady states was attributed to two distinct physiological effects occurring when growth changed from oxidative to oxido-reductive: (i) a decrease in the efficiency of ATP production and utilization (at ethanol concentrations below 3 g/L) and (ii) repression of the oxidative metabolism (at higher ethanol concentrations). The first effect was best observed at low ethanol concentrations, where multiple steady states were observed even when no repression of the oxidative metabolism was evident, i.e., the oxidative capacity was constant. However, at higher ethanol concentrations repression of the oxidative metabolism was observed (the oxidative capacity decreased), and this resulted in a broader range of dilution rates where multiple steady states could be found.

  20. Positive Steady States of a Prey-predator Model with Diffusion and Non-monotone Conversion Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui PENG; Ming Xin WANG; Wen Yan CHEN

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we study the positive steady states of a prey-predator model with di .usion throughout and a non-monotone conversion rate under the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition. We obtain some results of the existence and non-existence of positive steady states.The stability and uniqueness of positive steady states are also discussed.

  1. Illustrating the Steady-State Condition and the Single-Molecule Kinetic Method with the NMDA Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The steady-state is a fundamental aspect of biochemical pathways in cells; indeed, the concept of steady-state is a definition of life itself. In a simple enzyme kinetic scheme, the steady-state condition is easy to define analytically but experimentally often difficult to capture because of its evanescent quality; the initial, constant velocity…

  2. Transient and steady-state auditory gamma-band responses in first-degree relatives of people with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Donald C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulus-related γ-band oscillations, which may be related to perceptual binding, are reduced in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine auditory transient and steady-state γ-band findings in first-degree relatives of people with ASD to assess the potential familiality of these findings in ASD. Methods Magnetoencephalography (MEG recordings in 21 parents who had a child with an autism spectrum disorder (pASD and 20 healthy adult control subjects (HC were obtained. Gamma-band phase locking factor (PLF, and evoked and induced power to 32, 40 and 48 Hz amplitude-modulated sounds were measured for transient and steady-state responses. Participants were also tested on a number of behavioral and cognitive assessments related to the broad autism phenotype (BAP. Results Reliable group differences were seen primarily for steady-state responses. In the left hemisphere, pASD subjects exhibited lower phase-locked steady-state power in all three conditions. Total γ-band power, including the non-phase-locked component, was also reduced in the pASD group. In addition, pASD subjects had significantly lower PLF than the HC group. Correlations were seen between MEG measures and BAP measures. Conclusions The reduction in steady-state γ-band responses in the pASD group is consistent with previous results for children with ASD. Steady-state responses may be more sensitive than transient responses to phase-locking errors in ASD. Together with the lower PLF and phase-locked power in first-degree relatives, correlations between γ-band measures and behavioral measures relevant to the BAP highlight the potential of γ-band deficits as a potential new autism endophenotype.

  3. Two-phase bioconversion product recovery by microfiltration I. Steady state studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, P B; Lee, S S

    1998-03-20

    Recovery of an aqueous bioconversion product from complex, two-phase Pseudomonas putida broths containing 20% (v/v) soybean oil presents a significant challenge for downstream processing. Although not used before in multiple-phase separation for complex biotech products, crossflow filtration employing ceramic filters is one of the most attractive options which allow the design of integrated, continuous bioconversion processes. As a first attempt, we studied multichannel, monolithic ceramic membranes of different nominal pore sizes and lumen diameters under steady-state conditions. The best performance was obtained with 0.2-microm-pore/3-mm-lumen membrane, which completely rejected both cells and oil droplets from the permeate, creating a clear aqueous product stream. Although the same separation was achieved, the 50K molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) ultrafilter showed greater irreversible but similar reversible resistance, in addition to an order-of-magnitude higher membrane resistance. Larger nominal pore microfilters, such as 0.45 and 1.0 microm, experienced both cell and oil leakage even at low transmembrane pressure (10 psig). Attributed to greater shear at the same recirculation rate, smaller lumen filters did provide greater permeate flux. However, for practical purposes, the 0. 2-microm-pore/4-mm-lumen ceramic membrane was chosen for further evaluation. Transmembrane pressures up to 50 psig provided only marginal gains in filtration performance, whereas increasing shear rate resulted in linear increases in steady-state flux, presumably due to formation of shear-sensitive, complex gel/oil/cell layer near the membrane surface. A nominal shear rate of 9200 s-1 and 20 psig transmembrane pressure were chosen as optimal operating conditions. Additional studies in a clean system revealed that as low as 5% (v/v) soybean oil in deionized (DI) water resulted in an order-of-magnitude decline in steady-state permeate flux. Breakthrough of oil droplets occurred at 35 psig

  4. Steady state, erosional continuity, and the topography of landscapes developed in layered rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perne, Matija; Covington, Matthew D.; Thaler, Evan A.; Myre, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of topographic steady state has substantially informed our understanding of the relationships between landscapes, tectonics, climate, and lithology. In topographic steady state, erosion rates are equal everywhere, and steepness adjusts to enable equal erosion rates in rocks of different strengths. This conceptual model makes an implicit assumption of vertical contacts between different rock types. Here we hypothesize that landscapes in layered rocks will be driven toward a state of erosional continuity, where retreat rates on either side of a contact are equal in a direction parallel to the contact rather than in the vertical direction. For vertical contacts, erosional continuity is the same as topographic steady state, whereas for horizontal contacts it is equivalent to equal rates of horizontal retreat on either side of a rock contact. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we show that erosional continuity predicts the form of flux steady-state landscapes that develop in simulations with horizontally layered rocks. For stream power erosion, the nature of continuity steady state depends on the exponent, n, in the erosion model. For n = 1, the landscape cannot maintain continuity. For cases where n ≠ 1, continuity is maintained, and steepness is a function of erodibility that is predicted by the theory. The landscape in continuity steady state can be quite different from that predicted by topographic steady state. For n < 1 continuity predicts that channels incising subhorizontal layers will be steeper in the weaker rock layers. For subhorizontal layered rocks with different erodibilities, continuity also predicts larger slope contrasts than in topographic steady state. Therefore, the relationship between steepness and erodibility within a sequence of layered rocks is a function of contact dip. For the subhorizontal limit, the history of layers exposed at base level also influences the steepness-erodibility relationship. If uplift rate

  5. Quasi-steady state conditions in heterogeneous aquifers during pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yuanyuan; Yeh, Tian-Chyi J.; Shi, Liangsheng; Huang, Shao-Yang; Wang, Wenke; Wen, Jet-Chau

    2017-08-01

    Classical Thiem's well hydraulic theory, other aquifer test analyses, and flow modeling efforts often assume the existence of ;quasi-steady; state conditions. That is, while drawdowns due to pumping continue to grow, the hydraulic gradient in the vicinity of the pumping well does not change significantly. These conditions have built upon two-dimensional and equivalent homogeneous conceptual models, but few field data have been available to affirm the existence of these conditions. Moreover, effects of heterogeneity and three-dimensional flow on this quasi-steady state concept have not been thoroughly investigated and discussed before. In this study, we first present a quantitative definition of quasi-steady state (or steady-shape conditions) and steady state conditions based on the analytical solution of two- or three-dimensional flow induced by pumping in unbounded, homogeneous aquifers. Afterward, we use a stochastic analysis to investigate the influence of heterogeneity on the quasi-steady state concept in heterogeneous aquifers. The results of the analysis indicate that the time to reach an approximate quasi-steady state in a heterogeneous aquifer could be quite different from that estimated based on a homogeneous model. We find that heterogeneity of aquifer properties, especially hydraulic conductivity, impedes the development of the quasi-steady state condition before the flow reaching steady state. Finally, 280 drawdown-time data from the hydraulic tomographic survey conducted at a field site corroborate our finding that the quasi-steady state condition likely would not take place in heterogeneous aquifers unless pumping tests last a long period. Research significance (1) Approximate quasi-steady and steady state conditions are defined for two- or three-dimensional flow induced by pumping in unbounded, equivalent homogeneous aquifers. (2) Analysis demonstrates effects of boundary condition, well screen interval, and heterogeneity of parameters on the

  6. Two-lane traffic-flow model with an exact steady-state solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Masahiro

    2010-12-01

    We propose a stochastic cellular-automaton model for two-lane traffic flow based on the misanthrope process in one dimension. The misanthrope process is a stochastic process allowing for an exact steady-state solution; hence, we have an exact flow-density diagram for two-lane traffic. In addition, we introduce two parameters that indicate, respectively, driver's driving-lane preference and passing-lane priority. Due to the additional parameters, the model shows a deviation of the density ratio for driving-lane use and a biased lane efficiency in flow. Then, a mean-field approach explicitly describes the asymmetric flow by the hop rates, the driving-lane preference, and the passing-lane priority. Meanwhile, the simulation results are in good agreement with an observational data, and we thus estimate these parameters. We conclude that the proposed model successfully produces two-lane traffic flow particularly with the driving-lane preference and the passing-lane priority.

  7. Steady-State Analysis and Comparison of Control Strategies for PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM has been considered as the best choice for numerous applications. To make PMSM a high performance drive, effective control system is required. Vector control is accepted widely due to its decoupling effect but it is not the only performance requirement. Additional control methods such as constant torque angle control (CTAC, optimum torque per ampere control (OTPAC, unity power factor control (UPFC, constant mutual flux linkages control (CMFLC, and angle control of air gap flux and current phasor (ACAGF can also be implemented. This paper therefore presents some important control strategies for PMSM along with merits and limitations which provide a wide variety of control choices in many applications. The performance characteristics for each strategy under steady state are modelled and simulated in MATLAB environment. Based on the simulation results, a conclusion is drawn that OTPAC is superior in normalized torque per unit normalized stator current (Ten/isn ratio whereas UPFC yields very low Ten/isn ratio. In addition, performances of these control strategies are compared, which is a key to select optimum strategy depending on requirements. Based on the comparative study, it can be concluded that CMFLC is superior to CTAC, ACAGF, OTPAC, and UPFC. Hence, it can be a good control strategy to consider.

  8. Whole-brain perfusion imaging with balanced steady-state free precession arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Paul Kyu; Ye, Jong Chul; Kim, Eung Yeop; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sung-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Recently, balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) readout has been proposed for arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging to reduce susceptibility artifacts at a relatively high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, the main limitation of bSSFP-ASL is the low spatial coverage. In this work, methods to increase the spatial coverage of bSSFP-ASL are proposed for distortion-free, high-resolution, whole-brain perfusion imaging. Three strategies of (i) segmentation, (ii) compressed sensing (CS) and (iii) a hybrid approach combining the two methods were tested to increase the spatial coverage of pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) with three-dimensional bSSFP readout. The spatial coverage was increased by factors of two, four and six using each of the three approaches, whilst maintaining the same total scan time (5.3 min). The number of segments and/or CS acceleration rate (R) correspondingly increased to maintain the same bSSFP readout time (1.2 s). The segmentation approach allowed whole-brain perfusion imaging for pCASL-bSSFP with no penalty in SNR and/or total scan time. The CS approach increased the spatial coverage of pCASL-bSSFP whilst maintaining the temporal resolution, with minimal impact on the image quality. The hybrid approach provided compromised effects between the two methods. Balanced SSFP-based ASL allows the acquisition of perfusion images with wide spatial coverage, high spatial resolution and SNR, and reduced susceptibility artifacts, and thus may become a good choice for clinical and neurological studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Representation of Type 4 wind turbine generator for steady state short-circuit calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Wouleye

    Various technical impacts are associated to the interconnection of wind turbine generators to the grid. Among them, the increase of short-circuit levels along with its effect on the settings of protecting relays has long acted as an important inhibiting factor for the interconnection of new wind power plants to the grid. This is especially true at the medium voltage level where networks operate close to their short-circuit design value [1]. As renewable energies are progressively replacing traditional power generation sources, short-circuit studies need to adequately assess the impact of newly interconnected wind power plants on the fault level of the network. For planning and design purposes, short-circuit studies are usually performed using steady-state short-circuit programs. Unfortunately, very few have developed models of wind turbine generators that accurately estimate their fault contribution in the phase domain. In particular, no commercial fault-flow analysis program specifically addresses the modeling of inverter-based wind turbine generators which behavior is based on the inverter's characteristics rather than the generator's. The main contribution of this research work is the development of a simplified and yet accurate model of full-scale converter based wind turbine generator, also called Type 4 wind turbine generator, for steady-state short-circuit calculations. The model reproduces the real behavior of the Type 4 wind turbine generator under fault conditions by correctly accounting for the effect of the full-scale converter. The data used for the model is easily accessible to planning engineers. An additional contribution of this research work is the development of a short-circuit algorithm adapted to support the proposed model of Type 4 wind-turbine generator. Short-circuit algorithm based on modified-augmented-nodal analysis (MANA) is solved iteratively to accommodate the proposed model. The algorithm is successfully implemented in CYME 7.0, a

  10. Steady state analysis of Boolean molecular network models via model reduction and computational algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. Results This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. Conclusions The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate

  11. Steady state analysis of Boolean molecular network models via model reduction and computational algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Aguilar, Boris; Hinkelmann, Franziska; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-06-26

    A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate connectivity. The problem for

  12. FIESTA-ET: high-resolution cardiac imaging using echo-planar steady-state free precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Glenn S; Saranathan, Manojkumar

    2002-12-01

    This work describes a technique that combines multishot echo-planar imaging (EPI) with steady-state free precession (SSFP, also known as TrueFISP, FIESTA, and balanced FFE) for multislice, cine MR imaging of the heart. Unlike recently reported methods, the technique presented here (FIESTA-ET) is high-resolution and does not require offline reconstruction or postprocessing. It is therefore suitable for use on standard clinical scanners. FIESTA-ET was compared with conventional FIESTA imaging in 10 volunteers and quantitative analyses of myocardial signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and ventricular volumes were performed. While providing comparable image quality, FIESTA-ET required half the acquisition time per slice of conventional FIESTA. Because multiple slices could be imaged in a single breathhold, the entire heart could be scanned in less than 2 min. Although the FIESTA-ET images exhibited an unexpected increase (P FIESTA, the volumetric measurements showed excellent correlation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Steady-state distributions of probability fluxes on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełminiak, Przemysław; Kurzyński, Michał

    2017-02-01

    We consider a simple model of the Markovian stochastic dynamics on complex networks to examine the statistical properties of the probability fluxes. The additional transition, called hereafter a gate, powered by the external constant force breaks a detailed balance in the network. We argue, using a theoretical approach and numerical simulations, that the stationary distributions of the probability fluxes emergent under such conditions converge to the Gaussian distribution. By virtue of the stationary fluctuation theorem, its standard deviation depends directly on the square root of the mean flux. In turn, the nonlinear relation between the mean flux and the external force, which provides the key result of the present study, allows us to calculate the two parameters that entirely characterize the Gaussian distribution of the probability fluxes both close to as well as far from the equilibrium state. Also, the other effects that modify these parameters, such as the addition of shortcuts to the tree-like network, the extension and configuration of the gate and a change in the network size studied by means of computer simulations are widely discussed in terms of the rigorous theoretical predictions.

  14. A method for estimation of elasticities in metabolic networks using steady state and dynamic metabolomics data and linlog kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Gulik Walter M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic modeling of metabolic reaction networks under in vivo conditions is a crucial step in order to obtain a better understanding of the (disfunctioning of living cells. So far dynamic metabolic models generally have been based on mechanistic rate equations which often contain so many parameters that their identifiability from experimental data forms a serious problem. Recently, approximative rate equations, based on the linear logarithmic (linlog format have been proposed as a suitable alternative with fewer parameters. Results In this paper we present a method for estimation of the kinetic model parameters, which are equal to the elasticities defined in Metabolic Control Analysis, from metabolite data obtained from dynamic as well as steady state perturbations, using the linlog kinetic format. Additionally, we address the question of parameter identifiability from dynamic perturbation data in the presence of noise. The method is illustrated using metabolite data generated with a dynamic model of the glycolytic pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on mechanistic rate equations. Elasticities are estimated from the generated data, which define the complete linlog kinetic model of the glycolysis. The effect of data noise on the accuracy of the estimated elasticities is presented. Finally, identifiable subset of parameters is determined using information on the standard deviations of the estimated elasticities through Monte Carlo (MC simulations. Conclusion The parameter estimation within the linlog kinetic framework as presented here allows the determination of the elasticities directly from experimental data from typical dynamic and/or steady state experiments. These elasticities allow the reconstruction of the full kinetic model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the determination of the control coefficients. MC simulations revealed that certain elasticities are potentially unidentifiable from dynamic data only

  15. Steady state simulation of a double-effect steam absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.S.A.M.S.; Gilani, S.I.U.H. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Absorption cooling systems have become increasingly popular in recent years from the viewpoint of energy and environment. Despite a lower coefficient of performance (COP) as compared to the vapor compression, absorption refrigeration systems are attractive for using inexpensive waste heat, solar, geothermal or biomass energy sources for which the cost of supply is negligible in many cases. In addition absorption refrigeration uses natural substances which do not contribute towards ozone depletion and global warming. Owing to the serious environmental problems and the price of the traditional energy resources, the use of industrial waste heat or renewable energy as the driving force for vapor absorption cooling systems is continuously increasing. A steady-state model is developed to predict the performance of an absorption refrigeration system using LiBr-water as working pair. Each component of the cycle is modelled based on mass and energy balances. The design point parameters are determined. The refrigeration effect, coefficient of performance and load factor are analyzed for different heat input. Simulation is carried out and the results are compared with actual data and showed good agreement.

  16. From steady-state to synchronized yeast glycolytic oscillations II: model validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, Franco B; van Niekerk, David D; Snoep, Jacky L

    2012-08-01

    In an accompanying paper [du Preez et al., (2012) FEBS J279, 2810-2822], we adapt an existing kinetic model for steady-state yeast glycolysis to simulate limit-cycle oscillations. Here we validate the model by testing its capacity to simulate a wide range of experiments on dynamics of yeast glycolysis. In addition to its description of the oscillations of glycolytic intermediates in intact cells and the rapid synchronization observed when mixing out-of-phase oscillatory cell populations (see accompanying paper), the model was able to predict the Hopf bifurcation diagram with glucose as the bifurcation parameter (and one of the bifurcation points with cyanide as the bifurcation parameter), the glucose- and acetaldehyde-driven forced oscillations, glucose and acetaldehyde quenching, and cell-free extract oscillations (including complex oscillations and mixed-mode oscillations). Thus, the model was compliant, at least qualitatively, with the majority of available experimental data for glycolytic oscillations in yeast. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a model for yeast glycolysis has been tested against such a wide variety of independent data sets. The mathematical models described here have been submitted to the JWS Online Cellular Systems Modelling Database and can be accessed at http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za/database/dupreez/index.html. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  17. Structural Evaluation of Reactor Support Structure for a PGSFR in a Steady State Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, In-Su; Park, Chang-Gyu; Kim, Jong-Bum; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the steady state analysis for the RS was performed and the structural integrity was assessed in accordance with ASME Section III, Division 5, Subsection HF. In this paper, the structural integrities of the RS under the design condition and service level A condition have been assessed according to ASME code. The Reactor Support (RS) structure is one of the most important structures in the Prototype Gen 4 Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor(PGSFR). The RS provides various penetrations for an in-service inspection (ISI). In addition, it also supports the weight of the primary sodium and several main components such as Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS), Reactor Internal (RI), fuel assemblies and Reactor Enclosure System (RES) but except the Containment Vessel(CV). As a result, the RS structure satisfied with design criteria for both design condition and service level A. For the future work, a transient analysis and a seismic analysis need to be performed by combining the different design loads.

  18. Determining the Impact of Steady-State PV Fault Current Injections on Distribution Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seuss, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reno, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grijalva, Santiago [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report investigates the fault current contribution from a single large PV system and the impact it has on existing distribution overcurrent protection devices. Assumptions are made about the modeling of the PV system under fault to perform exhaustive steady - state fault analyses throughout distribution feeder models. Each PV interconnection location is tested to determine how the size of the PV system affects the fault current measured by each protection device. This data is then searched for logical conditions that indicate whether a protection device has operated in a manner that will cause more customer outages due to the addition of the PV system. This is referred to as a protection issue , and there are four unique types of issues that have been identified in the study. The PV system size at which any issues occur are recorded to determine the feeder's PV hosting capacity limitations due to interference with protection settings. The analysis is carried out on six feeder models. The report concludes with a discussion of the prevalence and cause of each protection issue caused by PV system fault current.

  19. Backaction-driven, robust, steady-state long-distance qubit entanglement over lossy channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzoi, Felix; Halperin, Eli; Wang, Xiaoting; Whaley, K. Birgitta; Schirmer, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    We present a scheme for generating robust and persistent entanglement between qubits that do not interact and that are separated by a long and lossy transmission channel, using Markovian reservoir engineering. The proposal uses only the correlated decay into the common channel of remotely separated, driven single-photon qubit transitions. This simple scheme is generic and applicable to various experimental implementations, including circuit and cavity QED, with little experimental overhead compared with methods requiring dynamic control, initialization, measurement, or feedback. In addition to avoiding these inefficiencies, the simple protocol is highly robust against noise, miscalibration, and loss in the channel. We find high-quality solutions over a wide range of parameters and show that the optimal strategy reflects a transition from ballistic to diffusive photon transmission, going from symmetrically and coherently driving a common steady state to asymmetrically absorbing photons that are emitted from one qubit by the second. Detailed analysis of the role of the transmission channel shows that allowing bidirectional decay drastically increases indistinguishability and thereby quadratically suppresses infidelity.

  20. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Wood, Richard Arthur; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-08-01

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: 1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; 2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and 3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  1. Extending unified-theory-of-reinforcement neural networks to steady-state operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Olivia L; McDowell, J J

    2016-06-01

    The unified theory of reinforcement has been used to develop models of behavior over the last 20 years (Donahoe et al., 1993). Previous research has focused on the theory's concordance with the respondent behavior of humans and animals. In this experiment, neural networks were developed from the theory to extend the unified theory of reinforcement to operant behavior on single-alternative variable-interval schedules. This area of operant research was selected because previously developed neural networks could be applied to it without significant alteration. Previous research with humans and animals indicates that the pattern of their steady-state behavior is hyperbolic when plotted against the obtained rate of reinforcement (Herrnstein, 1970). A genetic algorithm was used in the first part of the experiment to determine parameter values for the neural networks, because values that were used in previous research did not result in a hyperbolic pattern of behavior. After finding these parameters, hyperbolic and other similar functions were fitted to the behavior produced by the neural networks. The form of the neural network's behavior was best described by an exponentiated hyperbola (McDowell, 1986; McLean and White, 1983; Wearden, 1981), which was derived from the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974). In post-hoc analyses the addition of a baseline rate of behavior significantly improved the fit of the exponentiated hyperbola and removed systematic residuals. The form of this function was consistent with human and animal behavior, but the estimated parameter values were not.

  2. Epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed enantioselective conversion of trans-stilbene oxide: Insights into the reaction mechanism from steady-state and pre-steady-state enzyme kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archelas, Alain; Zhao, Wei; Faure, Bruno; Iacazio, Gilles; Kotik, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A detailed kinetic study based on steady-state and pre-steady-state measurements is described for the highly enantioselective epoxide hydrolase Kau2. The enzyme, which is a member of the α/β-hydrolase fold family, preferentially reacts with the (S,S)-enantiomer of trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) with an E value of ∼200. The enzyme follows a classical two-step catalytic mechanism with formation of an alkyl-enzyme intermediate in the first step and hydrolysis of this intermediate in a rate-limiting second step. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching during TSO conversion appears to correlate with alkylation of the enzyme. The steady-state data are consistent with (S,S) and (R,R)-TSO being two competing substrates with marked differences in k(cat) and K(M) values. The high enantiopreference of the epoxide hydrolase is best explained by pronounced differences in the second-order alkylation rate constant (k2/K(S)) and the alkyl-enzyme hydrolysis rate k3 between the (S,S) and (R,R)-enantiomers of TSO. Our data suggest that during conversion of (S,S)-TSO the two active site tyrosines, Tyr(157) and Tyr(259), serve mainly as electrophilic catalysts in the alkylation half-reaction, polarizing the oxirane oxygen of the bound epoxide through hydrogen bond formation, however, without fully donating their hydrogens to the forming alkyl-enzyme intermediate.

  3. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271

  4. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  5. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.

  6. Analytical solution of steady-state equations for chemical reaction networks with bilinear rate laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Adám M; Lai, Hong-Jian; McCabe Pryor, Meghan; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Edwards, Jeremy S

    2013-01-01

    True steady states are a rare occurrence in living organisms, yet their knowledge is essential for quasi-steady-state approximations, multistability analysis, and other important tools in the investigation of chemical reaction networks (CRN) used to describe molecular processes on the cellular level. Here, we present an approach that can provide closed form steady-state solutions to complex systems, resulting from CRN with binary reactions and mass-action rate laws. We map the nonlinear algebraic problem of finding steady states onto a linear problem in a higher-dimensional space. We show that the linearized version of the steady-state equations obeys the linear conservation laws of the original CRN. We identify two classes of problems for which complete, minimally parameterized solutions may be obtained using only the machinery of linear systems and a judicious choice of the variables used as free parameters. We exemplify our method, providing explicit formulae, on CRN describing signal initiation of two important types of RTK receptor-ligand systems, VEGF and EGF-ErbB1.

  7. Steady state security assessment in deregulated power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjure, Durgesh Padmakar

    outcome of the analysis. Also considering the large number of transactions occurring in the power market, and the massive sizes of transmission networks, the need for efficient analysis techniques is further highlighted. Thus on the whole, for present-day power systems, security assessment has acquired predominant importance. The primary emphasis of the work done in this dissertation is on development of techniques for fast assessment of the state of the transmission network following credible contingencies in traditional and deregulated power systems. In addition, methodologies for optimal correction strategies in the event of violation of security limits are also proposed. The work done can be enumerated as: (1) development of fast methods to assess the state of the transmission network from the point of view of loading margin and power flows, following increased loading conditions and line outages; (2) development of a comprehensive scheme to assess the impact of bilateral transactions on the operating state of the network; (3) optimal rescheduling of generation and curtailable loads for relieving the system of congestion and simultaneously maximizing the security margins.

  8. Time Reversibility, Correlation Decay and the Steady State Fluctuation Relation for Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis J. Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady state fluctuation relations for nonequilibrium systems are under intense investigation because of their important practical implications in nanotechnology and biology. However the precise conditions under which they hold need clarification. Using the dissipation function, which is related to the entropy production of linear irreversible thermodynamics, we show time reversibility, ergodic consistency and a recently introduced form of correlation decay, called T-mixing, are sufficient conditions for steady state fluctuation relations to hold. Our results are not restricted to a particular model and show that the steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation function holds near or far from equilibrium subject to these conditions. The dissipation function thus plays a comparable role in nonequilibrium systems to thermodynamic potentials in equilibrium systems.

  9. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of metformin is independent of the OCT1 genotype in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the steady-state pharmacokinetics of metformin in healthy volunteers with different numbers of reduced-function alleles in the organic cation transporter 1 gene (OCT1). METHODS: The study was conducted as part of a randomized cross-over trial. Thirty......-four healthy volunteers with known OCT1 genotypes (12 with two wild-type alleles, 13 with one and 9 with two reduced-function alleles) were included. In one of the study periods, they were titrated to steady-state with 1 g metformin twice daily. RESULTS: Neither AUC(0-12), C(max) nor Cl(renal) were...... volunteers, we found no impact of different OCT1 genotypes on metformin steady-state pharmacokinetics....

  10. Steady-state evaporator models of Solar Sea Power Plants. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetyei, S. A.; Neuman, C. P.

    1976-08-01

    Previously, a methodology was developed for modeling the dynamic and steady-state behavior of Solar Sea Power Plants (SSPP). Here, the pertinent physical laws of heat transfer and mass balance are applied to develop a lumped parameter, steady-state model for tube-and-shell evaporators incorporating falling films. This model is analyzed to investigate the assumption of constant heat transfer coefficients in modeling the steady-state behavior of smooth-tube evaporators operated in the turbulent flow regime. It is concluded that, for all practical purposes, the local heat transfer coefficient on the working fluid side of the evaporator tube is constant for both fixed and +-10% changes in the inlet working fluid flow rate. The overall objective is to develop simulation models of a complete SSPP as tools of design and optimization.

  11. Current Control in ITER Steady State Plasmas With Neutral Beam Steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.V. Budny

    2009-09-10

    Predictions of quasi steady state DT plasmas in ITER are generated using the PTRANSP code. The plasma temperatures, densities, boundary shape, and total current (9 - 10 MA) anticipated for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid, and electron cyclotron resonance are calculated. Four modes of operation with different combinations of current drive are studied. For each mode, scans with the NNBI aimed at differing heights in the plasma are performed to study effects of current control on the q profile. The timeevolution of the currents and q are calculated to evaluate long duration transients. Quasi steady state, strongly reversed q profiles are predicted for some beam injection angles if the current drive and bootstrap currents are sufficiently large.

  12. Discrimination of steady state and transient state of dither extremum seeking control via sinusoidal detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Baojie; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E.

    2016-08-01

    A major class of extremum seeking control (ESC) is based on the use of periodic dither perturbation of plant input for extracting the gradient information. Presence of the dither input into the steady state operation is undesirable in practice due to the possible excessive wear of actuators. It is thus beneficial to stop the dithering action after the ESC reaches its steady state. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically discriminating between the steady state and the transient state modes of extremum seeking control process using the sinusoidal detection techniques. Some design guidelines are proposed for the parameter selection of the relevant sinusoidal detection scheme. The proposed scheme is validated with simulation study on dynamic virtual plant of two building HVAC systems.

  13. Paracetamol decreases steady-state exposure to lamotrigine by induction of glucuronidation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy...... volunteers to quantify the effect of 4-day treatment of paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open-label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine...... sampling was performed in a non-randomised order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance...

  14. Breakdown of the resistor-network model for steady-state hopping conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emin, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuper, C.G. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Physics

    1996-05-01

    General master equations are used to study steady-state hopping transport in a disordered solid. We express a site`s occupancy in terms of its quasi-electrochemical potential (QECP); currents flow between sites whose QECP`s differ. Coupled nonlinear circuit equations for the QECP`s result from the steady-state condition and the boundary condition that the total QECP drop is the applied emf. When the site-to-site QECP differences are much smaller than the thermal energy, K{sub B}t, the effect of current flow on site occupancies is ignorable. These equations then reduce to those of a resistance network. However, the resistor-network model fails: (a) at low temperatures, (b) with increasing disorder, and (c) with increasing emf. We therefore study hopping conduction beyond this approximation. Exact examples show the importance of current-induced charge redistribution in non-ohmic steady-state flow.

  15. Sickle cell disease painful crisis and steady state differentiation by proton magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Adolfo A; Cabal, Carlos A; Lores, Manuel A; Losada, Jorge; Pérez, Enrique R

    2009-01-01

    The delay time of the Hb S polymerization process was investigated in 63 patients with sickle cell disease during steady state and 10 during painful crisis starting from spin-spin proton magnetic resonance (PMR) time behavior measured at 36 degrees C and during spontaneous deoxygenation. We found a significant decrease of delay time as a result of the crisis (36 +/- 10%) and two well-differentiated ranges of values for each state: 273-354 min for steady state and 166-229 min for crisis with an uncertainty region of 15%. It is possible to use PMR as an objective and quantitative method in order to differentiate both clinical conditions of the sickle cell patient, but a more clear differentiation can be established comparing the delay time (td) value of one patient during crisis with his own td value during steady state.

  16. Characterising Steady-State Topologies of SIS Dynamics on Adaptive Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wieland, Stefan; Parisi, Andrea; Nunes, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Disease awareness in epidemiology can be modelled with adaptive contact networks, where the interplay of disease dynamics and network alteration often adds new phases to the standard models (Gross et al. 2006, Shaw et al. 2008) and, in stochastic simulations, lets network topology settle down to a steady state that can be static (in the frozen phase) or dynamic (in the endemic phase). We show for the SIS model that, in the endemic phase, this steady state does not depend on the initial network topology, only on the disease and rewiring parameters and on the link density of the network, which is conserved. We give an analytic description of the structure of this co-evolving network of infection through its steady-state degree distribution.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics theory on the steady state interface pattern during solidification of a dilute binary alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自东; 胡汉起

    1997-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics equations of the time dependence of the perturbation amplitude of the solid/ liquid interface during unidirectional solidification of a dilute binary alloy are established. The solutions to these equations are obtained, and the condition of the initial steady state growth of the cellular and dendritic structure after the planar solid/liquid interface bifurcates (mGc> G) with the increase of the growth rate is given. The condition of the steady state growth of fine cellular and dendritic structure in the beginning after the coarse dendrites bifurcate ( mGc<Γw2 + G) under the rapid solidification is obtained. The relationship of the steady state cell and dendrite tip radius, the perturbation amplitude and wavelength at the solid/liquid interface is presented.

  18. Influence of Micro-Grid in Steady State Performance of Primary Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Buayai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Steady state analysis of primary distribution system is an integral part of Micro Grid (MG planning, design and operation of distribution system. In order to maximize performance and ensure secured operation of distribution system with MG, it is important to perform various analytical studies, both in static and dynamic domains. Static studies are the first step and static performance can be established by looking at a number of stead state aspects such as total power losses, voltage profile, feeder current and load ability of the system. This study presents such first step static analytical studies based on distribution load flow to see various steady state performances of primary distribution system due to the integration of MG. A 33-bus test distribution system has been used to present steady state performances. Results clearly show some useful contribution of MG in improving distribution system performance.

  19. Open Markov processes: A compositional perspective on non-equilibrium steady states in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Blake S

    2016-01-01

    In recent work, Baez, Fong and the author introduced a framework for describing Markov processes equipped with a detailed balanced equilibrium as open systems of a certain type. These `open Markov processes' serve as the building blocks for more complicated processes. In this paper, we describe the potential application of this framework in the modeling of biological systems as open systems maintained away from equilibrium. We show that non-equilibrium steady states emerge in open systems of this type, even when the rates of the underlying process are such that a detailed balanced equilibrium is permitted. It is shown that these non-equilibrium steady states minimize a quadratic form which we call `dissipation.' In some circumstances, the dissipation is approximately equal to the rate of change of relative entropy plus a correction term. On the other hand, Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production generally fails for non-equilibrium steady states. We use a simple model of membrane transport to illus...

  20. Steady-State Density Functional Theory for Non-equilibrium Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuanglong, Liu

    Recently, electron transport properties of molecular junctions under finite bias voltages have attracted a lot of attention because of the potential application of molecular electronic devices. When a molecular junction is under zero bias voltage at zero temperature, it is in equilibrium ground state and all its properties can be solved by ground-state density functional theory (GS-DFT) where ground-state electron density determines everything. Under finite bias voltage, the molecular junction is in non-equilibrium steady state. According to Hershfield's non-equilibrium statistics, a system in non-equilibrium steady state corresponds to an effective equilibrium system. This correspondence provides the basis for the steady-state density functional theory (SS-DFT) which will be developed in this thesis. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  1. Electronic transport characterization of silicon wafers by spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian [Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 350, Shuangliu, Chengdu 610209 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Bincheng, E-mail: bcli@ioe.ac.cn [Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 350, Shuangliu, Chengdu 610209 (China); School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2015-09-28

    Spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric (PCR) imaging technique is developed to characterize the electronic transport properties of silicon wafers. Based on a nonlinear PCR theory, simulations are performed to investigate the effects of electronic transport parameters (the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity) on the steady-state PCR intensity profiles. The electronic transport parameters of an n-type silicon wafer are simultaneously determined by fitting the measured steady-state PCR intensity profiles to the three-dimensional nonlinear PCR model. The determined transport parameters are in good agreement with the results obtained by the conventional modulated PCR technique with multiple pump beam radii.

  2. Transient and steady-state velocity of domain walls for a complete range of drive fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, H. C., Jr.; Bartran, D. S.

    1974-01-01

    Approximate analytic solutions for transient and steady-state 180 deg domain wall motion in bulk magnetic material are obtained from the dynamic torque equations with a Gilbert damping term. The results for the Walker region in which the transient solution approaches the familiar Walker steady-state solution are presented in a slightly new form for completeness. An analytic solution corresponding to larger drive fields predicts an oscillatory motion with an average value which decreases with drive field for reasonable values of the damping parameter. These results agree with those obtained by a computer solution of the torque equation and those obtained with the assumption of a very large anisotropy field.

  3. Realization of minute-long steady-state H-mode discharges on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianzu, GONG; Baonian, WAN; Jiangang, LI; Jinping, QIAN; Erzhong, LI; Fukun, LIU; Yanping, ZHAO; Mao, WANG; Handong, XU; A, M. GAROFALO; Annika, EKEDAH; Siye, DING; Juan, HUANG; Ling, ZHANG; Qing, ZANG; Haiqing, LIU; Long, ZENG; Shiyao, LIN; Biao, SHEN; Bin, ZHANG; Linming, SHAO; Bingjia, XIAO; Jiansheng, HU; Chundong, HU; Liqun, HU; Liang, WANG; Youwen, SUN; Guosheng, XU; Yunfeng, LIANG; Nong, XIANG; EAST Team

    2017-03-01

    In the 2016 EAST experimental campaign, a steady-state long-pulse H-mode discharge with an ITER-like tungsten divertor lasting longer than one minute has been obtained using only RF heating and current drive, through an integrated control of the wall conditioning, plasma configuration, divertor heat flux, particle exhaust, impurity management, and effective coupling of multiple RF heating and current drive sources at high injected power. The plasma current (I p ∼ 0.45 MA) was fully-noninductively driven (V loop technology studies on EAST, and will benefit the physics basis for steady state operation of ITER and CFETR.

  4. Characterization of polyester films used in capacitors. 1: Transient and steady-state conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, A.; Niezette, J.; Feyder, G.; Vanderschueren, J.

    1994-10-01

    Charging and discharging currents flowing through polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ultrathin films (1.5 - 12 micrometers) were measured by the use of a two-electrode configuration involving opposite lateral contacts. A study of the influence of electrification time, applied electric field, film thickness, nature of electrodes, and water content was carried out on both transient and steady-state conduction. The transient behavior can be interpreted in terms of dipolar orientation and relaxation processes while steady-state conductivity can be mainly accounted for in terms of Schottky emission. A comparison between PET and polyethylene naphthalate films is also reported.

  5. Interval finite difference method for steady-state temperature field prediction with interval parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Qiu, Zhi-Ping

    2014-04-01

    A new numerical technique named interval finite difference method is proposed for the steady-state temperature field prediction with uncertainties in both physical parameters and boundary conditions. Interval variables are used to quantitatively describe the uncertain parameters with limited information. Based on different Taylor and Neumann series, two kinds of parameter perturbation methods are presented to approximately yield the ranges of the uncertain temperature field. By comparing the results with traditional Monte Carlo simulation, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method for solving steady-state heat conduction problem with uncertain-but-bounded parameters. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Steady-State Numerical Modeling of Size Effects in Wire Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    Wire drawing processes at micron scale receive increased interest as micro wires are increasingly required in micro electrical components. At the micron scale, size effects become important and have to be taken into consideration. The goal is to optimize the semi-cone angle of the tool in terms...... of drawing force. The present study employs a steady-state modelling technique that omits the transient regime, thus creating a basis for comprehensive parameter studies. The steady-state procedure is based on the streamline integration method presented by Dean and Hutchinson [1]. This approach allows...

  7. UNIVERSAL THEORY OF STEADY-STATE ONE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOREFRACTIVE SOLITONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘劲松

    2001-01-01

    A universal theory of steady-state one-dimensional photorefractive spatial solitons is developed which applies to the steady-state one-dimensional photorefractive solitons under various realizations, including the screening solitons in a biased photorefractive medium, the photovoltaic solitons in open- and closed-circuit photovoltaic-photorefractive media and the screening-photovoltaic solitons in biased photovoltaic-photorefractive media. Previous theories advanced individually elsewhere for these solitons can be obtained by simplifying the universal theory under the appropriate conditions.

  8. A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Mitaxi P., E-mail: mitaxi.mehta@ahduni.edu.in [IICT, Ahmedabad University, Opp. IIM, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad (India); Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu [BITS-Pilani, K.K. Birla Goa campus, Goa (India)

    2014-01-17

    We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.

  9. Existence and stabilizability of steady-state for semilinear pulse-width sampler controlled system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JinRong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the steady-state of a semilinear pulse-width sampler controlled system on infinite dimensional spaces. Firstly, by virtue of Schauder's fixed point theorem, the existence of periodic solutions is given. Secondly, utilizing a generalized Gronwall inequality given by us and the Banach fixed point theorem, the existence and stabilizability of a steady-state for the semilinear control system with pulse-width sampler is also obtained. At last, an example is given for demonstration.

  10. EFFICIENT STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS METHOD FOR CLOSED-LOOP PWM SWITCHING CONVERTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Since the early70s,many s mall-signal fre-quency-domain modeling technique have been de-veloped to study the dynamic perfor mances and sta-bilities ofPWMs witching converters around thestatic operating point.However,the accuracy of thederived models relies on accurate deter mination ofthe steady state operating point,and usually manyperfor mances of circuits are given based on steady-state,so it is very essential to analyze the steadystate of circuits.Analysis methods for steadystate ofnonlinear circuits ca...

  11. S3C: EBT Steady-State Shooting code description and user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downum, W.B.

    1983-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) one-dimensional (1-D) Steady-State Shooting code (S3C) for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) plasmas is described. Benchmark calculations finding the steady-state density and electron and ion temperature profiles for a known neutral density profile and known external energy sources are carried out. Good agreement is obtained with results from the ORNL Radially Resolved Time Dependent 1-D Transport code for an EBT-Q type reactor. The program logic is described, along with the physics models in each code block and the variable names used. Sample input and output files are listed, along with the main code.

  12. Tetrahexahedral Pt Nanoparticles: Comparing the Oxygen Reduction Reaction under Transient vs Steady-State Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Yu-Jia; Wiberg, Gustav Karl Henrik; Zana, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    -state conditions. As a benchmark, the ORR activity is compared with those of polycrystalline Pt and a commercial Pt/C catalyst. The results show that, under transient conditions, the catalytic performance of the THH Pt NPs and Pt/C are approximately the same and about 2 times lower than that of polycrystalline Pt....... However, under steady-state conditions the THH Pt NPs perform considerably better than Pt/C. Under steady-state conditions THH Pt NPs are even slightly more active than polycrystalline Pt...

  13. Steady-State Kinetic Analysis of DNA Polymerase Single-Nucleotide Incorporation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes the experimental procedures for the steady-state kinetic analysis of DNA synthesis across DNA nucleotides (native or modified) by DNA polymerases. In vitro primer extension experiments with a single nucleoside triphosphate species followed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the extended products is described. Data analysis procedures and fitting to steady-state kinetic models is presented to highlight the kinetic differences involved in the bypass of damaged versus undamaged DNA. Moreover, explanations concerning problems encountered in these experiments are addressed. This approach provides useful quantitative parameters for the processing of damaged DNA by DNA polymerases. PMID:25501593

  14. Steady-state creep of complexly reinforced shallow metal-composite shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovskii, A. P.

    2010-05-01

    The problem of deformation of shallow shells of variable thickness reinforced with fibers of constant cross section, whose all phases operate under the conditions of steady-state creep, is formulated. The system of resolving equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are analyzed, and the procedure for solving this problem is developed. A way of approximate solution of such problems in the case of transient creep is indicated. The particular calculations performed show that the compliance of thin-walled structures, under the conditions of steady-state creep, greatly depends on the structure of reinforcement.

  15. Arbitrary Steady-State Solutions with the K-epsilon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Pettersson Reif, B. A.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    2006-01-01

    Widely-used forms of the K-epsilon turbulence model are shown to yield arbitrary steady-state converged solutions that are highly dependent on numerical considerations such as initial conditions and solution procedure. These solutions contain pseudo-laminar regions of varying size. By applying a nullcline analysis to the equation set, it is possible to clearly demonstrate the reasons for the anomalous behavior. In summary, the degenerate solution acts as a stable fixed point under certain conditions, causing the numerical method to converge there. The analysis also suggests a methodology for preventing the anomalous behavior in steady-state computations.

  16. Progress in the identification of catchments with co-existent multiple steady states and finite resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, T. J.; Western, A. W.; Thyer, M. A.; Frost, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrology has implicitly assumed that catchments are infinitely resilient to droughts and floods. No matter the magnitude of the climatic disturbance, almost all hydrological models simulate full recovery and hence assume infinite resilience. Recent research shows that catchments can undergo fundamental change during major droughts and this change in behavior is not captured by rainfall-runoff models. To date, the field of hydrological resilience has relied on theoretical deterministic models or vague resilience concepts, with the identification of catchments with multiple steady states (henceforth, attractors) remaining elusive. This is primarily due to the challenges stochastic forcing introduces into quantifying disturbance and recovery, and because resilience theory does not adequately address stochastic forcing. Drawing from recent hydrological resilience theory on catchment disturbance and recovery, a data-driven hidden Markov model is proposed for identifying recovery to a different hydrological state following major climatic disturbances. Application to selected unregulated catchments within Victoria, Australia, shows that after the Millennium Drought (~1995-2010) some catchments are yet to recover and have persisted within a functionally different hydrological state compared to that prior to the drought. Conversely, some catchments fully recovered at the cessation of the drought. This provides the first known field evidence that some catchments may have multiple attractors. Additionally, catchments are shown to differ in their resistance to the drought, with some catchments switching to a drought state at the commencement of the meteorological drought while other catchments taking ~10 years to switch to a hydrological drought state. In addition to separating hydrological droughts from meteorological droughts, this research provides a pathway for quantifying catchment resilience and resistance to climatic disturbances.

  17. Comparison of the influence of stimuli color on Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Junior Manuel Godinez Tello

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe main idea of a traditional Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials (SSVEP-BCI is the activation of commands through gaze control. For this purpose, the retina of the eye is excited by a stimulus at a certain frequency. Several studies have shown effects related to different kind of stimuli, frequencies, window lengths, techniques of feature extraction and even classification. So far, none of the previous studies has performed a comparison of performance of stimuli colors through LED technology. This study addresses precisely this important aspect and would be a great contribution to the topic of SSVEP-BCIs. Additionally, the performance of different colors at different frequencies and the visual comfort were evaluated in each case.MethodsLEDs of four different colors (red, green, blue and yellow flickering at four distinct frequencies (8, 11, 13 and 15 Hz were used. Twenty subjects were distributed in two groups performing different protocols. Multivariate Synchronization Index (MSI was the technique adopted as feature extractor.ResultsThe accuracy was gradually enhanced with the increase of the time window. From our observations, the red color provides, in most frequencies, both highest rates of accuracy and Information Transfer Rate (ITR for detection of SSVEP.ConclusionAlthough the red color has presented higher ITR, this color was turned in the less comfortable one and can even elicit epileptic responses according to the literature. For this reason, the green color is suggested as the best choice according to the proposed rules. In addition, this color has shown to be safe and accurate for an SSVEP-BCI.

  18. Steady-state and dynamic characteristics of a 20-kHz spacecraft power system - Control of harmonic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasynczuk, O.; Krause, P. C.; Biess, J. J.; Kapustka, R.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed computer simulation was used to illustrate the steady-state and dynamic operating characteristics of a 20-kHz resonant spacecraft power system. The simulated system consists of a parallel-connected set of DC-inductor resonant inverters (drivers), a 440-V cable, a node transformer, a 220-V cable, and a transformer-rectifier-filter (TRF) AC-to-DC receiver load. Also included in the system are a 1-kW 0.8-pf RL load and a double-LC filter connected at the receiving end of the 20-kHz AC system. The detailed computer simulation was used to illustrate the normal steady-state operating characteristics and the dynamic system performance following, for example, TRF startup. It is shown that without any filtering the given system exhibits harmonic resonances due to an interaction between the switching of the source and/or load converters and the AC system. However, the double-LC filter at the receiving-end of the AC system and harmonic traps connected in series with each of the drivers significantly reduce the harmonic distortion of the 20-kHz bus voltage. Significant additional improvement in the waveform quality can be achieved by including a double-LC filter with each driver.

  19. Design of a steady-state detector for fault detection and diagnosis of a residential air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minsung [Geothermal Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Yoon, Seok Ho; Domanski, Piotr A.; Vance Payne, W. [HVAC and R Equipment Performance Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8631, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents a general methodology for developing a steady-state detector for a vapor compression system based on a moving window and using standard deviations of seven measurements selected as features. The feature thresholds and optimized moving window size were based upon steady-state no-fault tests and startup transient tests. The study showed that evaporator superheat and condenser subcooling were sufficient for determining the onset of steady-state during the startup transient. However, they misidentified steady-state during indoor temperature change tests where evaporator saturation temperature and air temperature change across the evaporator were needed for proper steady-state identification. Hence, the paper recommends including all fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) features in the steady-state detector to ensure the robustness of the detector because different features may play key roles with different transients. (author)

  20. Steady-State Response of Periodically Supported Structures to a Moving Load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metrikine, A.V.; Wolfert, A.F.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Steady-state vibrations of periodically supported structures under a moving load are analytically investigated. The following three structures are considered: an overhead power line for a train, a long suspended bridge and a railway track. The study is based on the application of so-called 'periodic

  1. A Steady State Visually Evoked Potential Investigation of Memory and Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Old age is generally accompanied by a decline in memory performance. Specifically, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have revealed that there are age-related changes in the neural correlates of episodic and working memory. This study investigated age-associated changes in the steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and…

  2. Variational Principle for Non-Equilibrium Steady States of the XX Model

    CERN Document Server

    Matsui, T

    2003-01-01

    We show that non-equilibrium steady states of the one dimensional exactly solved XY model can be characterized by the variational principle of free energy of a long range interaction and that they cannot be a KMS state for any C$^*$-dynamical system.

  3. Steady State Visual Evoked Potential Based Brain-Computer Interface for Cognitive Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergren, Nicolai; Bendtsen, Rasmus L.; Kjær, Troels W.

    2016-01-01

    decline is important. Cognitive decline may be detected using fullyautomated computerized assessment. Such systems will provide inexpensive and widely available screenings of cognitive ability. The aim of this pilot study is to develop a real time steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain...

  4. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU, T.A.

    2000-04-27

    This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.

  5. Abnormal Attention in Autism Shown by Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Matthew

    2000-01-01

    Eight males with autism were required to shift attention between rapidly flashed targets alternating between left and right visual hemifields. When targets were separated by less than 700 ms, steady-state brain electrical response in both hemispheres was augmented and background EEG decreased for rightward shifts as compared with leftward shifts.…

  6. Radioactivity computation of steady-state and pulsed fusion reactors operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaya, H.

    1994-06-01

    Different mathematical methods are used to calculate the nuclear transmutation in steady-state and pulsed neutron irradiation. These methods are the Schuer decomposition, the eigenvector decomposition, and the Pade approximation of the matrix exponential function. In the case of the linear decay chain approximation, a simple algorithm is used to evaluate the transition matrices.

  7. A constitutive analysis of transient and steady-state elongational viscosities of bidisperse polystyrene blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolon-Garrido, Victor H.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann

    2008-01-01

    The transient and steady-state elongational viscosity data of three bidisperse polystyrene blends were investigated recently by Nielsen et al. [J. Rheol. 50, 453-476 (2006)]. The blends contain a monodisperse high molar mass component (M-L= 390 kg/ mol) in a matrix of a monodisperse small molar m...

  8. Steady State Crack Propagation in Layered Material Systems Displaying Visco-plastic Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2012-01-01

    The steady state fracture toughness of elastic visco-plastic materials is studied numerically, using both a conventional and a higher order model. Focus is on the combined effect of strain hardening, strain gradient hardening and strain rate hardening on cracking in layered material systems...

  9. Homogenization of steady-state creep of porous metals using three-dimensional microstructural reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Boccaccini, Dino; Persson, Åsa Helen;

    2016-01-01

    The effective steady-state creep response of porous metals is studied by numerical homogenization and analytical modeling in this paper. The numerical homogenization is based on finite element models of three-dimensional microstructures directly reconstructed from tomographic images. The effects ...... model, and closely matched by the Gibson-Ashby compression and the Ramakrishnan-Arunchalam creep models. [All rights reserved Elsevier]....

  10. A comparison of steady-state ARIES and pulsed PULSAR tokamak power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C.G.

    1994-07-01

    The multi-institutional ARIES study has completed a series of three steady-state and two pulsed cost-optimized conceptual designs of commercial tokamak fusion power plants that vary the level of assumed advances in technology and physics. The cost benefits of various design options are compared quantitatively. Possible means to improve the economic competitiveness of fusion are suggested.

  11. Pharmacokinetic Steady-States Highlight Interesting Target-Mediated Disposition Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Johan; Peletier, Lambertus A

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we derive explicit expressions for the concentrations of ligand L, target R and ligand-target complex RL at steady state for the classical model describing target-mediated drug disposition, in the presence of a constant-rate infusion of ligand. We demonstrate that graphing the steady-state values of ligand, target and ligand-target complex, we obtain striking and often singular patterns, which yield a great deal of insight and understanding about the underlying processes. Deriving explicit expressions for the dependence of L, R and RL on the infusion rate, and displaying graphs of the relations between L, R and RL, we give qualitative and quantitive information for the experimentalist about the processes involved. Understanding target turnover is pivotal for optimising these processes when target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) prevails. By a combination of mathematical analysis and simulations, we also show that the evolution of the three concentration profiles towards their respective steady-states can be quite complex, especially for lower infusion rates. We also show how parameter estimates obtained from iv bolus studies can be used to derive steady-state concentrations of ligand, target and complex. The latter may serve as a template for future experimental designs.

  12. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different tablet formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Bonde, J; Rasmussen, S N

    1992-01-01

    Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr r...

  13. Steady-state responses of axially accelerating viscoelastic beams: Approximate analysis and numerical confirmation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear parametric vibration of axially accelerating viscoelastic beams is inves-tigated via an approximate analytical method with numerical confirmations. Based on nonlinear models of a finite-small-stretching slender beam moving at a speed with a periodic fluctuation, a solvability condition is established via the method of multiple scales for subharmonic resonance. Therefore, the amplitudes of steady-state periodic responses and their existence conditions are derived. The amplitudes of stable steady-state responses increase with the amplitude of the axial speed fluctuation, and decrease with the viscosity coefficient and the nonlinear coefficient. The minimum of the detuning parameter which causes the existence of a stable steady-state periodic response decreases with the amplitude of the axial speed fluctuation, and increases with the viscosity coefficient. Nu-merical solutions are sought via the finite difference scheme for a nonlinear par-tial-differential equation and a nonlinear integro-partial-differential equation. The calculation results qualitatively confirm the effects of the related parameters pre-dicted by the approximate analysis on the amplitude and the existence condition of the stable steady-state periodic responses. Quantitative comparisons demonstrate that the approximate analysis results have rather high precision.

  14. Hydrodynamic analysis of propellers under steady state operation; Analise hidrodinamica de propulsores em regime permanente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Carlos Antonio Levi da; Troyman, Antonio Carlos Ramos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Oceanica

    1995-07-01

    Surface panel method has been applied to the propeller analysis. For the propeller modeling, the boss and blades surfaces have been discretized in quadrilateral panels with dipoles and sources constant distributions. The surface of the blade wakes have been represented by panels with dipole constant distributions. This discussion focused only the propeller under steady state operation.

  15. Transient and Steady-State Responses of an Asymmetric Nonlinear Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    oscillator that describes the motion of a damped, forced system supported symmetrically by simple shear springs on a smooth inclined bearing surface. We also use the percentage overshoot value to study the influence of damping and nonlinearity on the transient and steady-state oscillatory amplitudes.

  16. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU, T.A.

    2005-10-27

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  17. Calculation of the rate of coagulation of hydrophobic colloids in the non-steady state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebersen, G.J.; Wiersema, P.H.

    1974-01-01

    In accurate coagulation measurements, the observed coagulation rate should be extrapolated to time zero to find the rate of formation of doublets from singlet particles. In the theoretical calculation of coagulation rates, generally a steady state is assumed. At the onset of coagulation, however, a

  18. Pre-steady-state Kinetics for Hydrolysis of Insoluble Cellulose by Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Elmerdahl, Jens; Praestgaard, Eigil; Tatsumi, Hirosuke; Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded enzyme complex, processive hydrolysis, and dissociation, respectively. These kinetic parameters elucidate limiting factors in the cellulolytic process. We concluded, for example, that Cel7A cleaves about four glycosidic bonds/s during processive hydrolysis. However, the results suggest that stalling the processive movement and low off-rates result in a specific activity at pseudo-steady state that is 10–25-fold lower. It follows that the dissociation of the enzyme-substrate complex (half-time of ∼30 s) is rate-limiting for the investigated system. We suggest that this approach can be useful in attempts to unveil fundamental reasons for the distinctive variability in hydrolytic activity found in different cellulase-substrate systems. PMID:22493488

  19. Three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled simulation of MSR in steady state condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianjun; Wang, Chenglong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); An, Hongzhen [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100082 (China); Zhang, Daling, E-mail: dlzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Tian, Wenxi; Wu, Yingwei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Developed a three dimensional coupled code for MSR. • Investigated the neutron distribution and thermal-hydraulic characters of the core under steady state condition. • Analyzed the influence of inlet temperature and inlet velocity to thermal-hydraulics characteristics of the reactor. - Abstract: MSR (molten salt reactor) uses liquid molten salt as the coolant and fuel solvent, making it the only liquid reactor among the six generation IV reactor types. As a liquid reactor the physical properties of the reactor are significantly influenced by the fuel salt flow therefore conventional analysis methods applied in solid fuel reactors are not applicable for this type of reactors. The present work developed a three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled code and applied it to investigate the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the core in steady state condition based on neutron diffusion theory and numerical heat transfer. The code consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes and six group balance equations for delayed neutron precursors. The temperature distribution, neutron fluxes and delayed neutron precursors distribution of the core in steady state conditions was studied, and the result analyzed when inlet temperature and velocity were changed. From simulation it was found that the inlet temperature has little influence to neutron distribution however inlet velocity affects the delayed neutron distribution in steady state condition. The results provide some valuable information in design and research of this kind of reactor.

  20. Steady-State Crack Growth in Rate-Sensitive Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the active plastic zone surrounding a crack growingin a single crystal (FCC, BCC, and HCP) at constant velocity is investigated for ModeI loading under plane strain assumptions. The framework builds upon a steady-state relation bringing the desired solution out in a frame...

  1. Steady-state testing of an advanced solar-assisted heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.

    1982-06-01

    A prototype water-to-air solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) has been tested under steady state conditions. The results of the tests indicate that the nominal goal for the hardware portion of the contract was achieved and surpassed. The tests show some areas of potential improvement, which are discussed.

  2. Steady-State PMU Compliance Test under C37.118.1a-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiga, Radu; Wu, Qiuwei; Martin, Kenneth E.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible testing method and the steady-state compliance of PMUs under the C37.118.1a amendment. The work is focused on the changes made to the standard for the harmonic rejection and out-of-band interference tests for which the ROCOF Error limits have been suspended. The pap...

  3. Thin Film Equations with Soluble Surfactant and Gravity: Modeling and Stability of Steady States

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim; Laurençot, Philippe; Walker, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    A thin film on a horizontal solid substrate and coated with a soluble surfactant is considered. The governing degenerate parabolic equations for the film height and the surfactant concentrations on the surface and in the bulk are derived using a lubrication approximation when gravity is taken into account. It is shown that the steady states are asymptotically stable.

  4. Current Pressure Transducer Application of Model-based Prognostics Using Steady State Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubert, Christopher; Daigle, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prognostics is the process of predicting a system's future states, health degradation/wear, and remaining useful life (RUL). This information plays an important role in preventing failure, reducing downtime, scheduling maintenance, and improving system utility. Prognostics relies heavily on wear estimation. In some components, the sensors used to estimate wear may not be fast enough to capture brief transient states that are indicative of wear. For this reason it is beneficial to be capable of detecting and estimating the extent of component wear using steady-state measurements. This paper details a method for estimating component wear using steady-state measurements, describes how this is used to predict future states, and presents a case study of a current/pressure (I/P) Transducer. I/P Transducer nominal and off-nominal behaviors are characterized using a physics-based model, and validated against expected and observed component behavior. This model is used to map observed steady-state responses to corresponding fault parameter values in the form of a lookup table. This method was chosen because of its fast, efficient nature, and its ability to be applied to both linear and non-linear systems. Using measurements of the steady state output, and the lookup table, wear is estimated. A regression is used to estimate the wear propagation parameter and characterize the damage progression function, which are used to predict future states and the remaining useful life of the system.

  5. Steady-state properties of a totally asymmetric exclusion process with particles of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom

    2003-03-01

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEP's featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modeling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules, and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low density, high density, an maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d=1) TASEP. A simple mean field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or the order of the phase transitions. However, we employ a refined mean field approach to find apparently exact expressions for the steady state currents, boundary densities, and phase diagrams of the d>= 1 TASEP. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to support our analytic, mean field results.

  6. Out-of-equilibrium energy flow and steady state configurations in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Megias, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    We study out-of-equilibrium energy flow in a strongly coupled system by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular, we describe the appearance of a steady state connecting two asymptotic equilibrium systems. We obtain results within the linear response regime.

  7. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  8. Thermal shock behaviour of blisters on W surface during combined steady-state/pulsed plasma loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y. Z.; Liu, W.; Xu, B.; Luo, G.-N.; Li, C.; Qu, S. L.; Morgan, T. W.; De Temmerman, G.

    2015-09-01

    The thermal shock behaviour of blister-covered W surfaces during combined steady-state/pulsed plasma loading was studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The W samples were first exposed to steady-state D plasma to induce blisters on the surface, and then the blistered surfaces were exposed to steady-state/pulsed plasma. Growth and cracking of blisters were observed after the exposure to the steady-state/pulsed plasma, while no obvious damage occurred on the surface area not covered with blisters. The results confirm that blisters induced by D plasma might represent weak spots on the W surface when exposed to transient heat load of ELMs. The cracks on blisters were different from the cracks due to the transient heat loads reported before, and they were assumed to be caused by stress and strain due to the gas expansion inside the blisters during the plasma pulses. Moreover, most of cracks were found to appear on the blisters formed on grains with surface orientation near [1 1 1].

  9. Experimental study of vaporization effect on steady state and dynamic behavior of catalytic pellets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulikov, A.V.; Kuzin, N.A.; Shigarov, A.B.; Kirillov, V.A.; Westerterp, K.R.; Kronberg, Alexandre E.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of the combined evaporation of the liquid phase and reaction on single catalyst pellet performance has been studied experimentally. The exothermic, catalyzed hydrogenation of α-methylstyrene (AMS) to cumene has been employed as a model reaction. Steady state and dynamic experiments have

  10. Computing Bifurcation Diagrams of Steady State KuramotoSivashinsky Equation by Difference Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Utilizing difference formulae, we obtained the discrete systems of steady state Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (K-S) equation. Applied Newton's method and continuation technology to the systems, the bifurcated solutions are derived, and the bifurcation diagrams are constructed. All the results are successful and satisfactory.

  11. The total quasi-steady-state approximation for fully competitive enzyme reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram; Bersani, A.M.; Bersani, E.

    2007-01-01

    The validity of the Michaelis-Menten-Briggs-Haldane approximation for single enzyme reactions has recently been improved by the formalism of the total quasi-steady-state approximation. This approach is here extended to fully competitive systems, and a criterion for its validity is provided. We show...

  12. Formulation of Non-steady-state Dust Formation Process in Astrophysical Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nozawa, Takaya

    2013-01-01

    The non-steady-state formation of small clusters and the growth of grains accompanied by chemical reactions are formulated under the consideration that the collision of key gas species (key molecule) controls the kinetics of dust formation process. The formula allows us to evaluate the size distribution and condensation efficiency of dust formed in astrophysical environments. We apply the formulation to the formation of C and MgSiO3 grains in the ejecta of supernovae, as an example, to investigate how the non-steady effect influences the formation process, condensation efficiency f_{con}, and average radius a_{ave} of newly formed grains in comparison with the results calculated with the steady-state nucleation rate. We show that the steady-state nucleation rate is a good approximation if the collision timescale of key molecule tau_{coll} is much smaller than the timescale tau_{sat} with which the supersaturation ratio increases; otherwise the effect of the non-steady state becomes remarkable, leading to a lo...

  13. Reliable and Efficient Procedure for Steady-State Analysis of Nonautonomous and Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of contemporary design tools do not still contain steady-state algorithms, especially for the autonomous systems. This is mainly caused by insufficient accuracy of the algorithm for numerical integration, but also by unreliable steady-state algorithms themselves. Therefore, in the paper, a very stable and efficient procedure for the numerical integration of nonlinear differential-algebraic systems is defined first. Afterwards, two improved methods are defined for finding the steady state, which use this integration algorithm in their iteration loops. The first is based on the idea of extrapolation, and the second utilizes nonstandard time-domain sensitivity analysis. The two steady-state algorithms are compared by analyses of a rectifier and a C-class amplifier, and the extrapolation algorithm is primarily selected as a more reliable alternative. Finally, the method based on the extrapolation naturally cooperating with the algorithm for solving the differential-algebraic systems is thoroughly tested on various electronic circuits: Van der Pol and Colpitts oscillators, fragment of a large bipolar logical circuit, feedback and distributed microwave oscillators, and power amplifier. The results confirm that the extrapolation method is faster than a classical plain numerical integration, especially for larger circuits with complicated transients.

  14. Experimental study of vaporization effect on steady state and dynamic behavior of catalytic pellets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulikov, A.V.; Kuzin, N.A.; Shigarov, A.B.; Kirillov, V.A.; Kronberg, A.E.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of the combined evaporation of the liquid phase and reaction on single catalyst pellet performance has been studied experimentally. The exothermic, catalyzed hydrogenation of α-methylstyrene (AMS) to cumene has been employed as a model reaction. Steady state and dynamic experiments have b

  15. TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE STUDY OF PURE AND MIXED REFRIGERANTS IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the transient and steady state performance of a residential air-conditioning/heat pump (AC/HP) operating with different refrigerants. (NOTE: The project was motivated by environmental concerns related to...

  16. Calculation of the rate of coagulation of hydrophobic colloids in the non-steady state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebersen, G.J.; Wiersema, P.H.

    1974-01-01

    In accurate coagulation measurements, the observed coagulation rate should be extrapolated to time zero to find the rate of formation of doublets from singlet particles. In the theoretical calculation of coagulation rates, generally a steady state is assumed. At the onset of coagulation, however, a

  17. Efficient decoding with steady-state Kalman filter in neural interface systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Wasim Q; Truccolo, Wilson; Brown, Emery N; Hochberg, Leigh R

    2011-02-01

    The Kalman filter is commonly used in neural interface systems to decode neural activity and estimate the desired movement kinematics. We analyze a low-complexity Kalman filter implementation in which the filter gain is approximated by its steady-state form, computed offline before real-time decoding commences. We evaluate its performance using human motor cortical spike train data obtained from an intracortical recording array as part of an ongoing pilot clinical trial. We demonstrate that the standard Kalman filter gain converges to within 95% of the steady-state filter gain in 1.5±0.5 s (mean ±s.d.). The difference in the intended movement velocity decoded by the two filters vanishes within 5 s, with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 between the two decoded velocities over the session length. We also find that the steady-state Kalman filter reduces the computational load (algorithm execution time) for decoding the firing rates of 25±3 single units by a factor of 7.0±0.9. We expect that the gain in computational efficiency will be much higher in systems with larger neural ensembles. The steady-state filter can thus provide substantial runtime efficiency at little cost in terms of estimation accuracy. This far more efficient neural decoding approach will facilitate the practical implementation of future large-dimensional, multisignal neural interface systems.

  18. Steady-State Fluorescence Anisotropy to Investigate Flavonoids Binding to Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christine M.; Strollo, Christen M.

    2007-01-01

    The steady-state fluorescence anisotropy is employed to study the binding of protein of a model protein, human serum albumin, to a commonly used flavonoid, quercetin. The experiment describes the thermodynamics, as well as the biochemical interactions of such binding effectively.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following duty cycles apply for variable-speed engines with maximum engine power below 19 kW: (1) The... variable-speed engines with maximum engine power at or above 19 kW: (1) The following duty cycle applies... Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for constant-speed...

  20. Incorporation of wind generation to the Mexican power grid: Steady state analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar, J.H.; Guardado, J.L.; Cisneros, F. [Inst. Tecnologico de Morelia (Mexico); Cadenas, R.; Lopez, S. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a steady state analysis related with the incorporation of large amounts of eolic generation into the Mexican power system. An equivalent node is used to represent individual eolic generators in the wind farm. Possible overloads, losses, voltage and reactive profiles and estimated severe contingencies are analyzed. Finally, the conclusions of this study are presented.

  1. TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE STUDY OF PURE AND MIXED REFRIGERANTS IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the transient and steady state performance of a residential air-conditioning/heat pump (AC/HP) operating with different refrigerants. (NOTE: The project was motivated by environmental concerns related to...

  2. Steady-state diffusion regime in solid-phase micro extraction kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benhabib, K.; Laak, ter T.L.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2008-01-01

    The temporal evolution of diffusion-controlled analyte accumulation in solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is critically discussed in terms of the various aspects of steady-state diffusion in the two phases under conditions of fast exchange of the analyte at the solid phase film/water interface. For

  3. Multiple steady states detection in a packed-bed reactive distillation column using bifurcation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzan, Naveed; Faheem, Muhammad; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    A packed reactive distillation column producing ethyl tert-butyl ether from tert-butyl alcohol and ethanol was simulated for detection of multiple steady states using Aspen Plus®. A rate-based approach was used to make the simulation model more realistic. A base-case was first developed and fine...

  4. Analysis of Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1996-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of steady state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problem is an idealization of a ship bottom raking process, i.e. a continuous cutting damage of a ship bottom by a hard knife-like rock in a grounding event. A new...

  5. An induction machine model including interbar currents for studying performances during transients and steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razik, H. [Universite Henri Poincare, GREEN, CNRS-UMR 7037, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Henao, H. [University of Picardie, CREA, 33 rue Saint Leu, F-80039 Amiens Cedex 1 (France); Carlson, R. [GRUCAD/CTC/UFSC, Campus Universitario, C.P. 436, Florianopolis - SC, 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents a mathematical model of a three-phase induction motor taking into consideration the interbar contacts. Several models have been available in the references. However, they consider the rotor of the induction motor as being constituted either a three-phase or a squirrel cage even if it operates under stator and/or rotor faults condition. Nonetheless, the contact between a bar and the iron core for the machine has to be considered, especially when a rotor fault occurs. It is obvious that rotor currents are under the influence of rotor constitution materials. So, the paper aim's concerns a transient model of the induction motors which can consider the rotor broken bars defect. Despite its increasing complexity, it could be able to provide with useful indications for diagnostic purposes. This model is advocated for the simulation of motors behavior under rotor defect which takes into account the interbar currents. The proposed technique is based on the mesh model analysis of the squirrel cage. As low power induction motors are prevalent in industrial plants, we pay a special attention on them. Notwithstanding, additional currents are due to the contact between the non-insulated bar constituting the squirrel cage to the rotor iron core. The monitoring of induction motors is predominantly made through the stator current analysis of the motor when it operates at nominal condition. Moreover, this one is observed in steady state operating system, knowing that the motor is generally fed by a sinusoidal supply. Consequently, simulation results showed in this paper prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and the impact of interbar resistance both on the model and the line current spectrum for the diagnostic. An experimental test proves the effectiveness of this model. (author)

  6. Steady-state plant model to predict hydrogen levels in power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Acciona Energy North America developed a full-plant steady-state computational model that estimates levels of hydrogen in parabolic trough power plant components. The model estimated dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the circulating heat transfer fluid (HTF), and corresponding partial pressures within each component. Additionally for collector field receivers, the model estimated hydrogen pressure in the receiver annuli. The model was developed to estimate long-term equilibrium hydrogen levels in power plant components, and to predict the benefit of hydrogen mitigation strategies for commercial power plants. Specifically, the model predicted reductions in hydrogen levels within the circulating HTF that result from purging hydrogen from the power plant expansion tanks at a specified target rate. Our model predicted hydrogen partial pressures from 8.3 mbar to 9.6 mbar in the power plant components when no mitigation treatment was employed at the expansion tanks. Hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli were 8.3 to 8.4 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.001 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.001 mbar to 0.02 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.3 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.25 mbar to 0.28 mbar. Our results show that controlling hydrogen partial pressure in the expansion tanks allows us to reduce and maintain hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli to any practical level.

  7. Steady-State Plant Model to Predict Hydroden Levels in Power Plant Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-27

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Acciona Energy North America developed a full-plant steady-state computational model that estimates levels of hydrogen in parabolic trough power plant components. The model estimated dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the circulating heat transfer fluid (HTF), and corresponding partial pressures within each component. Additionally for collector field receivers, the model estimated hydrogen pressure in the receiver annuli. The model was developed to estimate long-term equilibrium hydrogen levels in power plant components, and to predict the benefit of hydrogen mitigation strategies for commercial power plants. Specifically, the model predicted reductions in hydrogen levels within the circulating HTF that result from purging hydrogen from the power plant expansion tanks at a specified target rate. Our model predicted hydrogen partial pressures from 8.3 mbar to 9.6 mbar in the power plant components when no mitigation treatment was employed at the expansion tanks. Hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli were 8.3 to 8.4 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.001 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.001 mbar to 0.02 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.3 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.25 mbar to 0.28 mbar. Our results show that controlling hydrogen partial pressure in the expansion tanks allows us to reduce and maintain hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli to any practical level.

  8. Steady-state sweep visual evoked potential processing denoised by wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Heinar A.; Yamamoto, Jorge F.; Salomão, Solange R.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Pereira, Josenilson M.; Sacai, Paula Y.; de Oliveira, José P.; Costa, Marcio A.; Burattini, Marcelo N.

    2008-03-01

    Visually evoked potential (VEP) is a very small electrical signal originated in the visual cortex in response to periodic visual stimulation. Sweep-VEP is a modified VEP procedure used to measure grating visual acuity in non-verbal and preverbal patients. This biopotential is buried in a large amount of electroencephalographic (EEG) noise and movement related artifact. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) plays a dominant role in determining both systematic and statistic errors. The purpose of this study is to present a method based on wavelet transform technique for filtering and extracting steady-state sweep-VEP. Counter-phase sine-wave luminance gratings modulated at 6 Hz were used as stimuli to determine sweep-VEP grating acuity thresholds. The amplitude and phase of the second-harmonic (12 Hz) pattern reversal response were analyzed using the fast Fourier transform after the wavelet filtering. The wavelet transform method was used to decompose the VEP signal into wavelet coefficients by a discrete wavelet analysis to determine which coefficients yield significant activity at the corresponding frequency. In a subsequent step only significant coefficients were considered and the remaining was set to zero allowing a reconstruction of the VEP signal. This procedure resulted in filtering out other frequencies that were considered noise. Numerical simulations and analyses of human VEP data showed that this method has provided higher SNR when compared with the classical recursive least squares (RLS) method. An additional advantage was a more appropriate phase analysis showing more realistic second-harmonic amplitude value during phase brake.

  9. A high throughput screen for RGS proteins using steady state monitoring of free phosphate formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Aaron Monroy

    Full Text Available G-protein coupled receptors are a diverse group that are the target of over 50% of marketed drugs. Activation of these receptors results in the exchange of bound GDP for GTP in the Gα subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein. The Gα subunit dissociates from the β/γ subunits and both proceed to affect downstream signaling targets. The signal terminates by the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP and is temporally regulated by Regulators of G-protein Signaling (RGS proteins that act as GTPase Activating Proteins (GAPs. This makes RGS proteins potentially desirable targets for "tuning" the effects of current therapies as well as developing novel pharmacotherapies. Current methods for evaluating RGS activity depend on laborious and/or expensive techniques. In this study we developed a simple and inexpensive assay for the steady state analysis of RGS protein GAP activity, using RGS4, RGS8 and RGS17 as models. Additionally, we report the use of RGS4 as a model for high throughput assay development. After initial setup, this assay can be conducted in a highly parallel fashion with a read time of less than 8 minutes for a 1536-well plate. The assay exhibited a robust Z-factor of 0.6 in a 1536-well plate. We conducted a pilot screen for inhibitors using a small, 2320 compound library. From this screen, 13 compounds were identified as compounds for further analysis. The successful development of this assay for high-throughput screening provides a low cost, high speed, simple method for assessing RGS protein activity.

  10. Intracellular CHO cell metabolite profiling reveals steady-state dependent metabolic fingerprints in perfusion culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Daniel J; Steinhoff, Robert; Kopp, Marie R G; Serra, Elisa; Soos, Miroslav; Zenobi, Renato; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-12-20

    Perfusion cell culture processes allow the steady-state culture of mammalian cells at high viable cell density, which is beneficial for overall product yields and homogeneity of product quality in the manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. In this study, the extent of metabolic steady state and the change of the metabolite profile between different steady states of an industrial Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line producing a monoclonal antibody (mAb) was investigated in stirred tank perfusion bioreactors. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) of daily cell extracts revealed more than a hundred peaks, among which 76 metabolites were identified by tandem MS (MS/MS) and high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS. Nucleotide ratios (Uridine (U)-ratio, Nucleotide triphosphate (NTP)-ratio and energy charge (EC)) and multivariate analysis of all features indicated a consistent metabolite profile for a stable culture performed at 40 × 10(6) cells/mL over 26 days of culture. On the other hand the reactor was operated continuously so as to reach three distinct steady states one after the other at 20, 60 and 40 × 10(6) cells/mL. In each case, a stable metabolite profile was achieved after an initial transient phase of approximately three days at constant cell density when varying between these set points. Clear clustering according to cell density was observed by principal component analysis, indicating steady state dependent metabolite profiles. In particular, varying levels of nucleotides, nucleotide sugar and lipid precursors explained most of the variance between the different cell density set points. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. STEADY-STATE RELATIVISTIC STELLAR DYNAMICS AROUND A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar-Or, Ben; Alexander, Tal [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2016-04-01

    A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the “loss cone,” which take them into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena, e.g., tidal heating and disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, test strong gravity, and probe stars and gas near the MBH. These continuous stellar loss and resupply processes shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady state, analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclosed stellar mass, in-plane precession due to general relativity, dissipation by GW, uncorrelated two-body relaxation, correlated resonant relaxation (RR), and adiabatic invariance due to secular precession, using a rigorously derived description of correlated post-Newtonian dynamics in the diffusion limit. We argue that general maximal entropy considerations strongly constrain the orbital diffusion in steady state, irrespective of the relaxation mechanism. We identify the exact phase-space separatrix between plunges and inspirals, and predict their steady-state rates. We derive the dependence of the rates on the mass of the MBH, show that the contribution of RR in steady state is small, and discuss special cases where unquenched RR in restricted volumes of phase-space may affect the steady state substantially.

  12. Formulation of Non-steady-state Dust Formation Process in Astrophysical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Takaya; Kozasa, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    The non-steady-state formation of small clusters and the growth of grains accompanied by chemical reactions are formulated under the consideration that the collision of key gas species (key molecule) controls the kinetics of dust formation process. The formula allows us to evaluate the size distribution and condensation efficiency of dust formed in astrophysical environments. We apply the formulation to the formation of C and MgSiO3 grains in the ejecta of supernovae, as an example, to investigate how the non-steady effect influences the formation process, condensation efficiency f con, ∞, and average radius a ave, ∞ of newly formed grains in comparison with the results calculated with the steady-state nucleation rate. We show that the steady-state nucleation rate is a good approximation if the collision timescale of key molecule τcoll is much smaller than the timescale τsat with which the supersaturation ratio increases; otherwise the effect of the non-steady state becomes remarkable, leading to a lower f con, ∞ and a larger a ave, ∞. Examining the results of calculations, we reveal that the steady-state nucleation rate is applicable if the cooling gas satisfies Λ ≡ τsat/τcoll >~ 30 during the formation of dust, and find that f con, ∞ and a ave, ∞ are uniquely determined by Λon at the onset time t on of dust formation. The approximation formulae for f con, ∞ and a ave, ∞ as a function of Λon could be useful in estimating the mass and typical size of newly formed grains from observed or model-predicted physical properties not only in supernova ejecta but also in mass-loss winds from evolved stars.

  13. A pre-steady state and steady state kinetic analysis of the N-ribosyl hydrolase activity of hCD157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preugschat, Frank; Carter, Luke H; Boros, Eric E; Porter, David J T; Stewart, Eugene L; Shewchuk, Lisa M

    2014-12-15

    hCD157 catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinic acid riboside (NAR). The release of nicotinamide or nicotinic acid from NR or NAR was confirmed by spectrophotometric, HPLC and NMR analyses. hCD157 is inactivated by a mechanism-based inhibitor, 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-nicotinamide arabinoside (fNR). Modification of the enzyme during the catalytic cycle by NR, NAR, or fNR increased the intrinsic protein fluorescence by approximately 50%. Pre-steady state and steady state data were used to derive a minimal kinetic scheme for the hydrolysis of NR. After initial complex formation a reversible step (360 and 30s(-1)) is followed by a slow irreversible step (0.1s(-1)) that defined the rate limiting step, or kcat. The calculated KMapp value for NR in the hydrolytic reaction is 6nM. The values of the kinetic constants suggest that one biological function of cell-surface hCD157 is to bind and slowly hydrolyze NR, possibly converting it to a ligand-activated receptor. Differences in substrate preference between hCD157 and hCD38 were rationalized through a comparison of the crystal structures of the two proteins. This comparison identified several residues in hCD157 (F108 and F173) that can potentially hinder the binding of dinucleotide substrates (NAD+).

  14. T(1) measurement of (31)P metabolites at rest and during steady-state dynamic exercise using a clinical nuclear magnetic resonance scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cettolo, V; Piorico, C; Francescato, M P

    2006-03-01

    This article illustrates some problems and possible solutions to determine the apparent spin-lattice relaxation time (T(1)) of the muscular (31)P metabolites at rest and during dynamic steady-state exercise using a clinical 1.5 T NMR scanner and a surface coil. T(1) was first estimated on a phosphates solution (phantom) using four different acquisition protocols, all based on the multiple-point "progressive saturation" method, and by fitting each data set with two different mathematical models. Subsequently, two of the four protocols and both models were used to estimate T(1) both at rest and during exercise on the calf muscles of 10 healthy volunteers. Experimental results obtained on the phantom showed that T(1) is greatly affected by the longest nominal explored repetition time (P<0.001) and by the mathematical model (P<0.001), ranging from 0.65+/-0.10 to 8.4+/-0.8 s. The two acquisition protocols applied on volunteers yielded significantly different T(1) (P<0.001), which were also rather different from the literature values for the same metabolites. Nevertheless, independently of the acquisition protocol and/or the fitting procedure, T(1) of all muscular phosphagens did not change statistically from rest to steady-state aerobic exercise.

  15. Learning difficulties or learning English difficulties? Additional language acquisition: an update for paediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Vanessa; Rhodes, Anthea; Paxton, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Australia is a diverse society: 26% of the population were born overseas, a further 20% have at least one parent born overseas and 19% speak a language other than English at home. Paediatricians are frequently involved in the assessment and management of non-English-speaking-background children with developmental delay, disability or learning issues. Despite the diversity of our patient population, information on how children learn additional or later languages is remarkably absent in paediatric training. An understanding of second language acquisition is essential to provide appropriate advice to this patient group. It takes a long time (5 years or more) for any student to develop academic competency in a second language, even a student who has received adequate prior schooling in their first language. Refugee students are doubly disadvantaged as they frequently have limited or interrupted prior schooling, and many are unable to read and write in their first language. We review the evidence on second language acquisition during childhood, describe support for English language learners within the Australian education system, consider refugee-background students as a special risk group and address common misconceptions about how children learn English as an additional language. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analyses of the Savannah River new production reactor representative design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, R.J.; Maloney, K.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document contains the steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analysis of the representative design for the Savannah River heavy water new production reactor. A description of the reactor system and computer input model, the results of the steady-state analysis, and the results of four loss-of-pumping accident calculations are presented. 5 refs., 37 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Distraction task rather than focal attention modulates gamma activity associated with auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova-Bulanova, Inga; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Dapsys, Kastytis;

    2011-01-01

    To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level.......To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level....

  18. Action-at-a-distance electrodynamics in quasi-steady-state cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaustubh Sudhir Deshpande

    2014-09-01

    Action-at-a-distance electrodynamics – alternative approach to field theory – can be extended to cosmological models using conformal symmetry. An advantage of this is that, the origin of arrow of time in electromagnetism can be attributed to the cosmological structure. Different cosmological models can be investigated, based on Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory, and only those models can be considered viable for our Universe which have net full retarded electromagnetic interactions, i.e., forward direction of time. This work evaluates the quasi-steady-state model and demonstrates that it admits full retarded and not advanced solution. Thus, quasi-steady-state cosmology (QSSC) satisfies this necessary condition for a correct cosmological model, based on action-at-a-distance formulation.

  19. Numerical formulation of composition segregation at curved solid-liquid interface during steady state solidification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jai-Ching

    1994-01-01

    The lateral solute segregation that results from a curved solid-liquid interface shape during steady state unidirectional solidification of a binary alloy system has been studied both analytically and numerically by Coriell, Bosivert, Rehm, and Sekerka. The system under their study is a two dimensional rectangular system. However, most real growth systems are cylindrical systems. Thus, in a previous study, we have followed Coriell etc. formalism and obtained analytical results for lateral solute segregation for an azimuthal symmetric cylindrical binary melt system during steady state solidification process. The solid-liquid interface shape is expressed as a series combination of Bessel functions. In this study a computer program has been developed to simulate the lateral solute segregation.

  20. Steady-state and laser flash photolysis studies of 1-aziridinyl-1,2-dibenzoylalkenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, R.; Kumar, C.V.; Das, P.K.; George, M.V.

    1985-11-01

    Results of a photochemical study based on product analysis and 337.1-nm laser flash photolysis are reported for several cis- and trans-1,2-dibenzoylethylenes bearing aziridinyl groups at the 1-position. Products isolated from steady-state photolysis suggest facile ring expansions yielding pyrrolines as well as extrusion of alkenes from the aziridine moieties forming nitrene fragments, which subsequently undergo ring closure to give isoxazoles. Laser flash photolysis studies show transient absorption changes, explainable in terms of cis-trans photoisomerization and formation of azomethine ylides. The latter are also observed upon steady-state irradiation of these aziridinyl-1,2-dibenzoylethylenes in an EPA glass at 77 K. 46 references, 4 figures.

  1. Steady-state EB cap size fluctuations are determined by stochastic microtubule growth and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Jamie; Duellberg, Christian; Cade, Nicholas I; Griffin, Lewis D; Surrey, Thomas

    2017-03-28

    Growing microtubules are protected from depolymerization by the presence of a GTP or GDP/Pi cap. End-binding proteins of the EB1 family bind to the stabilizing cap, allowing monitoring of its size in real time. The cap size has been shown to correlate with instantaneous microtubule stability. Here we have quantitatively characterized the properties of cap size fluctuations during steady-state growth and have developed a theory predicting their timescale and amplitude from the kinetics of microtubule growth and cap maturation. In contrast to growth speed fluctuations, cap size fluctuations show a characteristic timescale, which is defined by the lifetime of the cap sites. Growth fluctuations affect the amplitude of cap size fluctuations; however, cap size does not affect growth speed, indicating that microtubules are far from instability during most of their time of growth. Our theory provides the basis for a quantitative understanding of microtubule stability fluctuations during steady-state growth.

  2. Steady state speed distribution analysis for a combined cellular automaton traffic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun-Feng; Chen Gui-Sheng; Liu Jin

    2008-01-01

    Cellular Automaton (CA) baaed traffic flow models have been extensively studied due to their effectiveness and simplicity in recent years. This paper develops a discrete time Markov chain (DTMC) analytical framework for a Nagel-Schreckenberg and Fukui-Ishibashi combined CA model (W2H traffic flow model) from microscopic point of view to capture the macroscopic steady state speed distributions. The inter-vehicle spacing Markov chain and the steady state speed Markov chain are proved to be irreducible and ergodie. The theoretical speed probability distributions depending on the traffic density and stochastic delay probability are in good accordance with numerical simulations. The derived fundamental diagram of the average speed from theoretical speed distributions is equivalent to the results in the previous work.

  3. Delayed feedback control of unstable steady states in fractional-order chaotic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Urumov, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    We study the possibility to stabilize unstable steady states in chaotic fractional-order dynamical systems by the time-delayed feedback method with both constant and time-varying delays. By performing a linear stability analysis in the constant delay case, we establish the parameter ranges for successful stabilization of unstable equilibria in the plane parametrizad by the feedback gain and the time delay. An insight into the control mechanism is gained by analyzing the characteristic equation of the controlled system, showing that the control scheme fails to control unstable equilibria having an odd number of positive real eigenvalues. It is shown numerically that delayed feedback control with a variable time-delay significantly enlarges the stability region of the steady states in comparison to the classical time-delayed feedback scheme with a constant delay.

  4. Mass transfer mathematical model for one-side plate steady-state ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yun-ren; ZHANG Qi-xiu

    2005-01-01

    A mass transfer mathematical model was developed based on one-side plate steady-state ultrafiltration (UF), and the numerical solution was obtained by Crank-Nicolson finite difference method. The effects of the feed concentration, channel length, axial velocity, and diffusion coefficient on the concentration at membrane surface and the concentration profiles were investigated. Furthermore, the operation parameters and the parameters of membrane module were all transformed into dimensionless ones, and the parameter rejection was included in the mass transfer model, therefore, it can be used to calculate the steady-state ultrafiltration with different rejections. The model was used for the calculation of the ultrafiltration of metal-cutting oil emulsion. The results show that the concentration polarization can be reduced by increasing the axial velocity to some extent, but the reduction of concentration polarization is very small when the resistance of ultrafiltration is very great.

  5. A Conductivity Relationship for Steady-state Unsaturated Flow Processes under Optimal Flow Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H. H.

    2010-09-15

    Optimality principles have been used for investigating physical processes in different areas. This work attempts to apply an optimal principle (that water flow resistance is minimized on global scale) to steady-state unsaturated flow processes. Based on the calculus of variations, we show that under optimal conditions, hydraulic conductivity for steady-state unsaturated flow is proportional to a power function of the magnitude of water flux. This relationship is consistent with an intuitive expectation that for an optimal water flow system, locations where relatively large water fluxes occur should correspond to relatively small resistance (or large conductance). Similar results were also obtained for hydraulic structures in river basins and tree leaves, as reported in other studies. Consistence of this theoretical result with observed fingering-flow behavior in unsaturated soils and an existing model is also demonstrated.

  6. Steady-State Fully Noninductive Current Driven by Electron Cyclotron Waves in a Magnetically Confined Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, O.; Henderson, M. A.; Hofmann, F.; Goodman, T.; Alberti, S.; Angioni, C.; Appert, K.; Behn, R.; Blanchard, P.; Bosshard, P.; Chavan, R.; Coda, S.; Duval, B. P.; Fasel, D.; Favre, A.; Furno, I.; Gorgerat, P.; Hogge, J.-P.; Isoz, P.-F.; Joye, B.; Lavanchy, P.; Lister, J. B.; Llobet, X.; Magnin, J.-C.; Mandrin, P.; Manini, A.; Marlétaz, B.; Marmillod, P.; Martin, Y.; Mayor, J.-M.; Martynov, A. A.; Mlynar, J.; Moret, J.-M.; Nieswand, C.; Nikkola, P.; Paris, P.; Perez, A.; Pietrzyk, Z. A.; Pitts, R. A.; Pochelon, A.; Pochon, G.; Refke, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Rommers, J.; Scavino, E.; Tonetti, G.; Tran, M. Q.; Troyon, F.; Weisen, H.

    2000-04-01

    A steady-state, fully noninductive plasma current has been sustained for the first time in a tokamak using electron cyclotron current drive only. In this discharge, 123 kA of current have been sustained for the entire gyrotron pulse duration of 2 s. Careful distribution across the plasma minor radius of the power deposited from three 0.5-MW gyrotrons was essential for reaching steady-state conditions. With central current drive, up to 153 kA of current have been fully replaced transiently for 100 ms. The noninductive scenario is confirmed by the ability to recharge the Ohmic transformer. The dependence of the current drive efficiency on the minor radius is also demonstrated.

  7. Rheological behavior of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy at steady state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yageng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The further application of semi-solid processing lies in the in-depth fundamental study like rheological behavior. In this research, the apparent viscosity of the semi-solid slurry of 7075 alloy was measured using a Couette type viscometer. The effects of solid fraction and shearing rate on the apparent viscosity of this alloy were investigated under different processing conditions. It can be seen that the apparent viscosity increases with an increase in the solid fraction from 10% to 50% (temperature 620 篊 to 630 篊 at steady state. When the solid fraction was fixed, the apparent viscosity can be decreased by altering the shearing rate from 61.235 s-1 to 489.88 s-1 at steady state. An empirical equation that shows the effects of solid fraction and shearing rate on the apparent viscosity is fitted. The microstructure of quenched samples was examined to understand the alloy抯 rheological behavior.

  8. Steady-state properties of a totally asymmetric exclusion process with periodic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom; Kolomeisky, Anatoly

    2005-01-01

    We study the steady-state behavior of totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) that contain periodically varying movement rates. In this model, particles move to the right at one of two rates: p2 if the particle occupies one of a periodically arranged set of lattice sites; p1 otherwise. Approximate mean field approaches are used to study the steady-state currents and bulk densities of this model. These mean field methods are found to provide results in good agreement with data derived from Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, the condition for particle-hole symmetry in the TASEP with periodically varying movement rates is specified, and the changes in the locations of the boundary-limited to maximal-current transition lines due to symmetry violation are investigated.

  9. Nonequilibrium steady state of biochemical cycle kinetics under non-isothermal conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium steady state of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics has been extensively studied, but much less investigated under non-isothermal conditions. However, once the heat exchange between subsystems is rather slow, the isothermal assumption of the whole system meets great challenge, which is indeed the case inside many kinds of living organisms. Here we generalize the nonequilibrium steady-state theory of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics, in the master-equation models, to the situation in which the temperatures of subsystems can be far from uniform. We first obtain a new thermodynamic relation between the chemical reaction rates and thermodynamic potentials under such a non-isothermal circumstances, which immediately implies simply applying the isothermal transition-state rate formula for each chemical reaction in terms of only the reactants' temperature, is not thermodynamically consistent. Therefore, we mathematically derive several revised reaction-rate formulas which not only obey the new ...

  10. Wavelet Based Analytical Expressions to Steady State Biofilm Model Arising in Biochemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, S; Hariharan, G

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have developed an efficient wavelet based approximation method to biofilm model under steady state arising in enzyme kinetics. Chebyshev wavelet based approximation method is successfully introduced in solving nonlinear steady state biofilm reaction model. To the best of our knowledge, until now there is no rigorous wavelet based solution has been addressed for the proposed model. Analytical solutions for substrate concentration have been derived for all values of the parameters δ and SL. The power of the manageable method is confirmed. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the wavelet method. Moreover the use of Chebyshev wavelets is found to be simple, efficient, flexible, convenient, small computation costs and computationally attractive.

  11. Quantum transport in networks and photosynthetic complexes at the steady state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Manzano

    Full Text Available Recently, several works have analysed the efficiency of photosynthetic complexes in a transient scenario and how that efficiency is affected by environmental noise. Here, following a quantum master equation approach, we study the energy and excitation transport in fully connected networks both in general and in the particular case of the Fenna-Matthew-Olson complex. The analysis is carried out for the steady state of the system where the excitation energy is constantly "flowing" through the system. Steady state transport scenarios are particularly relevant if the evolution of the quantum system is not conditioned on the arrival of individual excitations. By adding dephasing to the system, we analyse the possibility of noise-enhancement of the quantum transport.

  12. Quantum transport in networks and photosynthetic complexes at the steady state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several works have analysed the efficiency of photosynthetic complexes in a transient scenario and how that efficiency is affected by environmental noise. Here, following a quantum master equation approach, we study the energy and excitation transport in fully connected networks both in general and in the particular case of the Fenna-Matthew-Olson complex. The analysis is carried out for the steady state of the system where the excitation energy is constantly "flowing" through the system. Steady state transport scenarios are particularly relevant if the evolution of the quantum system is not conditioned on the arrival of individual excitations. By adding dephasing to the system, we analyse the possibility of noise-enhancement of the quantum transport.

  13. Dynamic fluid connectivity during steady-state multiphase flow in a sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Catriona A.; Menke, Hannah; Andrew, Matthew; Blunt, Martin J.; Krevor, Samuel

    2017-08-01

    The current conceptual picture of steady-state multiphase Darcy flow in porous media is that the fluid phases organize into separate flow pathways with stable interfaces. Here we demonstrate a previously unobserved type of steady-state flow behavior, which we term “dynamic connectivity,” using fast pore-scale X-ray imaging. We image the flow of N2 and brine through a permeable sandstone at subsurface reservoir conditions, and low capillary numbers, and at constant fluid saturation. At any instant, the network of pores filled with the nonwetting phase is not necessarily connected. Flow occurs along pathways that periodically reconnect, like cars controlled by traffic lights. This behavior is consistent with an energy balance, where some of the energy of the injected fluids is sporadically converted to create new interfaces.

  14. A Computational Approach to Steady State Correspondence of Regular and Generalized Mass Action Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2015-06-01

    It has been recently observed that the dynamical properties of mass action systems arising from many models of biochemical reaction networks can be characterized by considering the corresponding properties of a related generalized mass action system. The correspondence process known as network translation in particular has been shown to be useful in characterizing a system's steady states. In this paper, we further develop the theory of network translation with particular focus on a subclass of translations known as improper translations. For these translations, we derive conditions on the network topology of the translated network which are sufficient to guarantee the original and translated systems share the same steady states. We then present a mixed-integer linear programming algorithm capable of determining whether a mass action system can be corresponded to a generalized system through the process of network translation.

  15. Nonequilibrium density-matrix description of steady-state quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Abhishek; Saito, Keiji; Hänggi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    With this work we investigate the stationary nonequilibrium density matrix of current carrying nonequilibrium steady states of in-between quantum systems that are connected to reservoirs. We describe the analytical procedure to obtain the explicit result for the reduced density matrix of quantum transport when the system, the connecting reservoirs, and the system-reservoir interactions are described by quadratic Hamiltonians. Our procedure is detailed for both electronic transport described by the tight-binding Hamiltonian and for phonon transport described by harmonic Hamiltonians. For the special case of weak system-reservoir couplings, a more detailed description of the steady-state density matrix is obtained. Several paradigm transport setups for interelectrode electron transport and low-dimensional phonon heat flux are elucidated.

  16. A steady-state solver and stability calculator for nonlinear internal wave flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Kevin C.; Epifanio, Craig C.; Doyle, James D.

    2013-10-01

    A steady solver and stability calculator is presented for the problem of nonlinear internal gravity waves forced by topography. Steady-state solutions are obtained using Newton's method, as applied to a finite-difference discretization in terrain-following coordinates. The iteration is initialized using a boundary-inflation scheme, in which the nonlinearity of the flow is gradually increased over the first few Newton steps. The resulting method is shown to be robust over the full range of nonhydrostatic and rotating parameter space. Examples are given for both nonhydrostatic and rotating flows, as well as flows with realistic upstream shear and static stability profiles. With a modest extension, the solver also allows for a linear stability analysis of the steady-state wave fields. Unstable modes are computed using a shifted-inverse method, combined with a parameter-space search over a set of realistic target values. An example is given showing resonant instability in a nonhydrostatic mountain wave.

  17. STEADY-STATE RESPONSES AND THEIR STABILITY OF NONLINEAR VIBRATION OF AN AXIALLY ACCELERATING STRING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊; 陈立群

    2004-01-01

    The steady-state transverse vibration of an axially moving string with geometric nonlinearity was investigated. The transport speed was assumed to be a constant mean speed with small harmonic variations. The nonlinear partial-differential equation that governs the transverse vibration of the string was derived by use of the Hamilton principle. The method of multiple scales was applied directly to the equation. The solvability condition of eliminating the secular terms was established. Closed form solutions for the amplitude and the existence conditions of nontrivial steady-state response of the two-to-one parametric resonance were obtained. Some numerical examples showing effects of the mean transport speed, the amplitude and the frequency of speed variation were presented. The Liapunov linearized stability theory was employed to derive the instability conditions of the trivial solution and the nontrivial solutions for the two-to-one parametric resonance. Some numerical examples highlighting influences of the related parameters on the instability conditions were presented.

  18. Non-steady-state operation of polymer/TiO2 photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Kiril R.; Burlakov, Victor M.; Xie, Zhibin; Henry, Bernard M.; Carey, Michelle J.; Grovenor, Christopher R. M.; Burn, Paul L.; Assender, Hazel E.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    We present data on the initial period of operation of Gilch-route MEH-PPV/TiO2 composite solar cells (CSCs) which show that during this period the CSCs operate in a non-steady state regime. The behavior is complex and may include a gradual rise of the open circuit voltage (Voc) and of the short-circuit current density (Jsc) with time, a passage through a maximum of either or both parameters, and even a sign reversal. The mechanisms most probably contributing to the transient processes are: i) diffusion driven redistribution of charges resulting in the build up of a quasi steady state charge density profile across the device; ii) photo-doping resulting in a relatively slow increase of the average charge carrier concentration and consequently of the conductivity of the device. The latter is responsible for a strong decrease in Voc, and is evidenced by the significant increase in dark current after device illumination.

  19. Particle-based simulations of steady-state mass transport at high P\\'eclet numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Thomas; Rajah, Luke; Cohen, Samuel I A; Yates, Emma V; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chrisopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional approaches for simulating steady-state distributions of particles under diffusive and advective transport at high P\\'eclet numbers involve solving the diffusion and advection equations in at least two dimensions. Here, we present an alternative computational strategy by combining a particle-based rather than a field-based approach with the initialisation of particles in proportion to their flux. This method allows accurate prediction of the steady state and is applicable even at high P\\'eclet numbers where traditional particle-based Monte-Carlo methods starting from randomly initialised particle distributions fail. We demonstrate that generating a flux of particles according to a predetermined density and velocity distribution at a single fixed time and initial location allows for accurate simulation of mass transport under flow. Specifically, upon initialisation in proportion to their flux, these particles are propagated individually and detected by summing up their Monte-Carlo trajectories in p...

  20. Iterative solutions to the steady-state density matrix for optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, P. D.; Johansson, J. R.; Blencowe, M. P.; Rimberg, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a sparse matrix permutation from graph theory that gives stable incomplete lower-upper preconditioners necessary for iterative solutions to the steady-state density matrix for quantum optomechanical systems. This reordering is efficient, adding little overhead to the computation, and results in a marked reduction in both memory and runtime requirements compared to other solution methods, with performance gains increasing with system size. Either of these benchmarks can be tuned via the preconditioner accuracy and solution tolerance. This reordering optimizes the condition number of the approximate inverse and is the only method found to be stable at large Hilbert space dimensions. This allows for steady-state solutions to otherwise intractable quantum optomechanical systems.

  1. Iterative solutions to the steady state density matrix for optomechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nation, P D; Blencowe, M P; Rimberg, A J

    2014-01-01

    We present a sparse matrix permutation from graph theory that gives stable incomplete Lower-Upper (LU) preconditioners necessary for iterative solutions to the steady state density matrix for quantum optomechanical systems. This reordering is efficient, adding little overhead to the computation, and results in a marked reduction in both memory and runtime requirements compared to other solution methods, with performance gains increasing with system size. Either of these benchmarks can be tuned via the preconditioner accuracy and solution tolerance. This reordering optimizes the condition number of the approximate inverse, and is the only method found to be stable at large Hilbert space dimensions. This allows for steady state solutions to otherwise intractable quantum optomechanical systems.

  2. Steady State Convergence Acceleration of the Generalized Lattice Boltzmann Equation with Forcing Term through Preconditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Premnath, Kannan N; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2008-01-01

    Several applications exist in which lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM) are used to compute stationary states of fluid motions, particularly those driven or modulated by external forces. Standard LBM, being explicit time-marching in nature, requires a long time to attain steady state convergence, particularly at low Mach numbers due to the disparity in characteristic speeds of propagation of different quantities. In this paper, we present a preconditioned generalized lattice Boltzmann equation (GLBE) with forcing term to accelerate steady state convergence to flows driven by external forces. The use of multiple relaxation times in the GLBE allows enhancement of the numerical stability. Particular focus is given in preconditioning external forces, which can be spatially and temporally dependent. In particular, correct forms of moment-projections of source/forcing terms are derived such that they recover preconditioned Navier-Stokes equations with non-uniform external forces. As an illustration, we solve an extende...

  3. Steady-state and transient heat transfer through fins of complex geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Dawid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various methods for steady-state and transient analysis of temperature distribution and efficiency of continuous-plate fins are presented. For a constant heat transfer coefficient over the fin surface, the plate fin can be divided into imaginary rectangular or hexangular fins. At first approximate methods for determining the steady-state fin efficiency like the method of equivalent circular fin and the sector method are discussed. When the fin geometry is complex, thus transient temperature distribution and fin efficiency can be determined using numerical methods. A numerical method for transient analysis of fins with complex geometry is developed. Transient temperature distributions in continuous fins attached to oval tubes is computed using the finite volume - finite element methods. The developed method can be used in the transient analysis of compact heat exchangers to calculate correctly the heat flow rate transferred from the finned tubes to the fluid.

  4. Steady State Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Two-Axial groove and Multilobe Hydrodynamic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bhagat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steady state thermo-hydrodynamic analysis of two axial groove and multi lobe oil journal bearings is performed in this paper. To study the steady state thermo-hydrodynamic characteristics Reynolds equation is solved simultaneously along with the energy equation and heat conduction equation in bush and shaft. The effect of groove geometry, cavitation in the fluid film, the recirculation of lubricant, shaft speed has also been taken into account. Film temperature in case of three-lobe bearing is found to be high as compared to other studied bearing configurations. The data obtained from this analysis can be used conveniently in the design of such bearings, which are presented in dimensionless form.

  5. Steady state and time-resolved autofluorescence studies of human colonic tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Buhong Li; Zhenxi Zhang; Shusen Xie

    2006-01-01

    Steady state and time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopies are employed to study the autofluorescence characteristics of human colonic tissues in vitro. The excitation wavelength varies from 260 to 540 nm, and the corresponding fluorescence emission spectra are acquired from 280 to 800 nm. Significant difference in fluorescence intensity of excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) is observed between normal and tumor colonic tissues. Compared with normal colonic tissue, low nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and high amino acids and protoporphyrin Ⅸ (PpⅨ) fluorescences characterize high-grade malignant tissue. Moreover, the autofluorescence lifetimes of normal and carcinomatous colonic tissues at 635 nm under 397-nm excitation are about 4.32±0.12 and 18.45±0.05 ns, respectively. The high accumulation of endogenous PpⅨ in colonic cancers is demonstrated in both steady state and time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopies.

  6. Dynamics of the current filament formation and its steady-state characteristics in chalcogenide based PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoslovskiy, Nikita; Tsendin, Konstantin

    2017-03-01

    In the phase-change memory (PCM) crystallization occurs in the high-current filament which forms during switching to the conductive state. In the present paper we conduct a numerical modeling of the current filament formation dynamics in thin chalcogenide films using an electronic-thermal model based on negative-U centers tunnel ionization and Joule heating. The key role of inhomogeneities in the filament formation process is shown. Steady-state filament parameters were obtained from the analysis of the stationary heat conduction equation. The filament formation dynamics and the steady-state filament radius and temperature could be controlled by material parameters and contact resistance. Consequently it is possible to control the size of the region wherein crystallization occurs. A good agreement with numerous experimental data leads to the conclusion that thermal effects play a significant role in CGS conduction and high-current filament formation while switching.

  7. How should we understand non-equilibrium many-body steady states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad; Gorshkov, Alexey

    : Many-body systems with both coherent dynamics and dissipation constitute a rich class of models which are nevertheless much less explored than their dissipationless counterparts. The advent of numerous experimental platforms that simulate such dynamics poses an immediate challenge to systematically understand and classify these models. In particular, nontrivial many-body states emerge as steady states under non-equilibrium dynamics. In this talk, I use a field-theoretic approach based on the Keldysh formalism to study nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions in such models. I show that an effective temperature generically emerges as a result of dissipation, and the universal behavior including the dynamics near the steady state is described by a thermodynamic universality class. In the end, I will also discuss possibilities that go beyond the paradigm of an effective thermodynamic behavior.

  8. Comparison of Steady-State SVC Models in Load Flow Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares in a load flow calculation three existing steady-state models of static var compensator (SVC), i.e. the generator-fixed susceptance model, the total susceptance model and the firing angle model. The comparison is made in terms of the voltage at the SVC regulated bus, equivalent...... SVC susceptance at the fundamental frequency and the load flow convergence rate both when SVC is operating within and on the limits. The latter two models give inaccurate results of the equivalent SVC susceptance as compared to the generator model due to the assumption of constant voltage when the SVC...... is operating within the limits. This may underestimate or overestimate the SVC regulating capability. Two modified models are proposed to improve the SVC regulated voltage according to its steady-state characteristic. The simulation results of the two modified models show the improved accuracy...

  9. Steady state or non-steady state? Identifying driving mechanisms of oxygen isotope signatures of leaf transpiration in functionally distinct plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbert, Maren; Kübert, Angelika; Cuntz, Matthias; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Isotope techniques are widely applied in ecosystem studies. For example, isoflux models are used to separate soil evaporation from transpiration in ecosystems. These models often assume that plant transpiration occurs at isotopic steady state, i.e. that the transpired water shows the same isotopic signature as the source water. Yet, several studies found that transpiration did not occur at isotopic steady state, under both controlled and field conditions. Here we focused on identifying the internal and external factors which drive the isotopic signature of leaf transpiration. Using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), the effect of both environmental variables and leaf physiological traits on δ18OT was investigated under controlled conditions. Six plant species with distinct leaf physiological traits were exposed to step changes in relative air humidity (RH), their response in δ18OT and gas exchange parameters and their leaf physiological traits were assessed. Moreover, two functionally distinct plant types (tree, i.e. Quercus suber, and grassland) of a semi-arid Mediterranean oak-woodland where observed under natural conditions throughout an entire growth period in the field. The species differed substantially in their leaf physiological traits and their turn-over times of leaf water. They could be grouped in species with fast (240 min.) turn-over times, mostly due to differences in stomatal conductance, leaf water content or a combination of both. Changes in RH caused an immediate response in δ18OT, which were similarly strong in all species, while leaf physiological traits affected the subsequent response in δ18OT. The turn-over time of leaf water determined the speed of return to the isotopic steady or a stable δ18OT value (Dubbert & Kübert et al., in prep.). Under natural conditions, changes in environmental conditions over the diurnal cycle had a huge impact on the diurnal development of δ18OT in both observed plant functional types. However, in

  10. High-resolution steady state magnetic resonance angiography of the carotid arteries: are intravascular agents necessary?: feasibility and preliminary experience with gadobenate dimeglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzidei, Michele; Napoli, Alessandro; Marincola, Beatrice Cavallo; Kirchin, Miles A; Neira, Cristina; Geiger, Daniel; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    To prospectively evaluate the potential of gadobenate dimeglumine for high-resolution steady-state (SS) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) of the carotid arteries as an adjunct to conventional first-pass (FP) MRA, with computed tomography angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as reference. Institutional ethics committee approval and written informed consent were obtained. Forty consecutive patients underwent conventional FP MRA with 15 mL gadobenate dimeglumine, using a conventional 3D FLASH sequence (14 sec acquisition time). Immediately afterward, SS images were obtained using a high resolution coronal 3D FLASH sequence (240 sec acquisition time). All patients also underwent CTA and conventional DSA within 8 +/- 3 days. Three experienced radiologists assessed FP and SS image quality and calculated sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive values for stenosis grade and length, plaque morphology, and tandem lesions using DSA as reference. Detected stenoses were quantified and compared (Spearman rank correlation coefficient, [R(s)]; McNemar test) with DSA and CTA findings. Inter-read variability was assessed using kappa (kappa) statistics. The impact of SS acquisitions on diagnostic confidence and patient management was assessed. MRA FP and SS image quality was excellent in 63 (78.8%) and 46 (57.5%) vessels, adequate in 11 (13.8%) and 20 (25.0%) vessels, and poor in 6 (7.5%) and 14 (17.5%) vessels, respectively. Area under the curve analysis revealed no significant differences between MRA FP, MRA FP + SS, and CTA for the grading of stenoses (P = 0.838; accuracy values of 97.4%, 97.4%, and 98.7%, respectively). Greater accuracy (P < 0.001) was noted for FP + SS images over FP images alone for the assessment of plaque morphology (96.1% for FP + SS images vs. 83.3% for FP). Increased diagnostic confidence was noted for 49 (61.3%) vessels because of additional SS images whereas an impact on final diagnosis was noted

  11. STEADY-STATE AND IDLE OPTIMIZA- TION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng; MAO Xiaojian; YANG Lin; ZHUO Bin

    2008-01-01

    A novel steady-state optimization (SSO) of internal combustion engine (ICE) strategy is proposed to maximize the efficiency of the overall powertrain for hybrid electric vehicles, in which the ICE efficiency, the efficiencies of the electric motor (EM) and the energy storage device are all explicitly taken into account. In addition, a novel idle optimization of ICE strategy is implemented to obtain the optimal idle operating point of the ICE and corresponding optimal parking generation power of the EM using the view of the novel SSO of ICE strategy. Simulations results show that potential fuel economy improvement is achieved relative to the conventional one which only optimized the ICE efficiency by the novel SSO of ICE strategy, and fuel consumption per voltage increment decreases a lot during the parking charge by the novel idle optimization of ICE strategy.

  12. Simulation of the steady-state behaviour of a new design of a single planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianko-Oprych Paulina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to develop a mathematical model for computing the steady-state voltage – current characteristics of a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and to determine the performance of a new SOFC design. The design involves cross-flow bipolar plates. Each of the bipolar plates has an air channel system on one side and a fuel channel system on the other side. The proposed model was developed using the ANSYS-Fluent commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software supported by additional Fuel Cell module. The results confirm that the model can well simulate the diagonal current path. The effects of temperature and gas flow through the channels and a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA structure were taken into account. It was shown that a significant increase of the MEA temperature at high current density can lead to hot spots formation and hence electrode damage.

  13. Axial light emission and Ar metastable densities in a parallel plate dc micro discharge in steady state and transient regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuschel, T; Stefanović, I; Böke, M; Skoro, N; Marić, D; Petrović, Z Lj; Winter, J

    2011-01-01

    Axial emission profiles in a parallel plate dc micro discharge (feedgas: argon; discharge gap d=1mm; pressure p=10Torr) were studied by means of time resolved imaging with a fast ICCD camera. Additionally, volt-ampere (V-A) characteristics were recorded and Ar* metastable densities were measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Axial emission profiles in the steady state regime are similar to corresponding profiles in standard size discharges (d=1cm, p=1Torr). For some discharge conditions relaxation oscillations are present when the micro discharge switches periodically between low current Townsend-like mode and normal glow. At the same time the axial emission profile shows transient behavior, starting with peak distribution at the anode, which gradually moves towards the cathode during the normal glow. The development of argon metastable densities highly correlates with the oscillating discharge current. Gas temperatures in the low current Townsend-like mode (T= 320-400K) and the high...

  14. Restitution slope is principally determined by steady-state action potential duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattock, Michael J; Park, Kyung Chan; Yang, Hsiang-Yu; Lee, Angela W C; Niederer, Steven; MacLeod, Kenneth T; Winter, James

    2017-06-01

    The steepness of the action potential duration (APD) restitution curve and local tissue refractoriness are both thought to play important roles in arrhythmogenesis. Despite this, there has been little recognition of the apparent association between steady-state APD and the slope of the restitution curve. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that restitution slope is determined by APD and to examine the relationship between restitution slope, refractoriness and susceptibility to VF. Experiments were conducted in isolated hearts and ventricular myocytes from adult guinea pigs and rabbits. Restitution curves were measured under control conditions and following intervention to prolong (clofilium, veratridine, bretylium, low [Ca]e, chronic transverse aortic constriction) or shorten (catecholamines, rapid pacing) ventricular APD. Despite markedly differing mechanisms of action, all interventions that prolonged the action potential led to a steepening of the restitution curve (and vice versa). Normalizing the restitution curve as a % of steady-state APD abolished the difference in restitution curves with all interventions. Effects on restitution were preserved when APD was modulated by current injection in myocytes pre-treated with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM - to abolish the intracellular calcium transient. The non-linear relation between APD and the rate of repolarization of the action potential is shown to underpin the common influence of APD on the slope of the restitution curve. Susceptibility to VF was found to parallel changes in APD/refractoriness, rather than restitution slope. Steady-state APD is the principal determinant of the slope of the ventricular electrical restitution curve. In the absence of post-repolarization refractoriness, factors that prolong the action potential would be expected to steepen the restitution curve. However, concomitant changes in tissue refractoriness act to reduce susceptibility to sustained VF. Dependence on

  15. Coexistence of steady state for a diffusive prey-predator model with harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a diffusive prey-predator model with modified Leslie-Gower term and Michaelis-Menten type prey harvesting, subject to homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. Treating the prey harvesting parameter as a bifurcation parameter, we obtain the existence, bifurcation and stability of coexistence steady state solutions. We use the method of upper and lower solutions, degree theory in cones, and bifurcation theory. The conclusions show the importance of prey harvesting in the model.

  16. Iterative Observer-based Estimation Algorithms for Steady-State Elliptic Partial Differential Equation Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2017-07-19

    Steady-state elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) are frequently used to model a diverse range of physical phenomena. The source and boundary data estimation problems for such PDE systems are of prime interest in various engineering disciplines including biomedical engineering, mechanics of materials and earth sciences. Almost all existing solution strategies for such problems can be broadly classified as optimization-based techniques, which are computationally heavy especially when the problems are formulated on higher dimensional space domains. However, in this dissertation, feedback based state estimation algorithms, known as state observers, are developed to solve such steady-state problems using one of the space variables as time-like. In this regard, first, an iterative observer algorithm is developed that sweeps over regular-shaped domains and solves boundary estimation problems for steady-state Laplace equation. It is well-known that source and boundary estimation problems for the elliptic PDEs are highly sensitive to noise in the data. For this, an optimal iterative observer algorithm, which is a robust counterpart of the iterative observer, is presented to tackle the ill-posedness due to noise. The iterative observer algorithm and the optimal iterative algorithm are then used to solve source localization and estimation problems for Poisson equation for noise-free and noisy data cases respectively. Next, a divide and conquer approach is developed for three-dimensional domains with two congruent parallel surfaces to solve the boundary and the source data estimation problems for the steady-state Laplace and Poisson kind of systems respectively. Theoretical results are shown using a functional analysis framework, and consistent numerical simulation results are presented for several test cases using finite difference discretization schemes.

  17. General theory of Onsager symmetries for perturbations of equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krommes, John A.; Hu, Genze

    1993-11-01

    The theory of Onsager symmetry is reconsidered from the point of view of its application to nonequilibrium, possibly turbulent steady states. A dynamical formalism based on correlation and response functions is used; understanding of its relationship to more conventional approaches based on entropy production enables one to resolve various confusions about the proper use of the theory, even near thermal equilibrium. Previous claims that ``kinematic'' flows must be excluded from considerations of Onsager symmetry are refuted by showing that suitably defined reversible and irreversible parts of the Onsager matrix separately obey the appropriate symmetry; fluctuating hydrodynamics serves as an example. It is shown that Onsager symmetries are preserved under arbitrary covariant changes of variables; the Weinhold metric is used as a fundamental tensor. Covariance is used to render moot the controversy over the proper choice of fluxes and forces in neoclassical plasma transport theory. The fundamental distinction between the fully contravariant Onsager matrix Lij and its mixed representation Lij is emphasized and used to explain why some previous workers have failed to find Onsager symmetry around turbulent steady states. The generalized Onsager theorem of Dufty and Rubí [Phys. Rev. A 36, 222 (1987)] is reviewed. An explicitly soluble Langevin problem is shown to violate Onsager's original symmetry but to obey the generalized theorem. The physical content of the generalized Onsager symmetry is discussed from the point of view of Nosé-Hoover dynamics. A set of extended Graham-Haken potential conditions are derived for Fokker-Planck models and shown to be consistent with the generalized Onsager relations. Finally, for quite general, possibly turbulent steady states it is argued that realizable Markovian statistical closures with underlying Langevin representations must also obey the generalized theorem. In the special case in which all state variables have even parity

  18. The effectiveness of the auditory steady state response in diagnosing hearing loss in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunay Schmulian

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the emerging Auditory Steady State Response in light of existing procedures for diagnosis of hearing loss in infants. Opsomming Hierdie artikel poog om ‘n oorsig te verskaf van die opkomende Ouditief Standhoudende Respons teenoor huidige prosedures wat gebruik word om gehoorverlies in babas en jong kinders te diagnoseer. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  19. Maximum efficiency of steady-state heat engines at arbitrary power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Artem; Holubec, Viktor

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the efficiency of a heat engine operating in a nonequilibrium steady state maintained by two heat reservoirs. Within the general framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics we derive a universal upper bound on the efficiency of the engine operating at arbitrary fixed power. Furthermore, we show that a slight decrease of the power below its maximal value can lead to a significant gain in efficiency. The presented analysis yields the exact expression for this gain and the corresponding upper bound.

  20. Non-steady-state transport of superthermal electrons in the plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Nagy, Andrew F.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical solutions to the time-dependent kinetic equation, which describes the transport of superthermal electrons in the splasmasphere between the two conjugate ionospheres, are presented. The model calculates the distribution function as a function of time, field-aligned distance, energy, and pitch-angle. The processes of refilling, depleting, and establishing steady-state conditions of superthermal electrons in the plasmasphere are discussed.