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Sample records for additional risk factor

  1. Additional risk factors for lethal hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Fiona; Gilbert, John D; Winskog, Calle; Byard, Roger W

    2013-08-01

    An 86-year-old woman was found dead lying on her back on the floor of an unkempt kitchen. She had last been seen four days before. Her dress was pulled up and she was not wearing underpants. The house was noted to be in "disarray" with papers covering most surfaces and the floor. Rubbish was piled up against one of the doors. At autopsy the major findings were of a fractured left neck of femur, fresh pressure areas over her right buttock, Wischnewski spots of the stomach and foci of pancreatic necrosis, in keeping with hypothermia. No significant underlying organic diseases were identified and there was no other evidence of trauma. Death was due to hypothermia complicating immobility from a fractured neck of femur. This case confirms the vulnerability of frail, elderly and socially-isolated individuals to death from hypothermia if a significant illness or injury occurs. Additional risk factors for hypothermia are also illustrated in this case that involve inadequate housing construction with absent insulation and window double glazing. The approach to hypothermic deaths should, therefore, include checking for these features as well as measuring room and environmental temperatures, evaluating the type and quality of heating and the nature of the floor and its coverings, Given the ageing population in many Western countries, increasing social isolation of the elderly, cost of fuel and electricity, and lack of energy efficient housing, this type of death may become an increasingly witnessed occurrence during the colder months of the year. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Anticardiolipin antibodies in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: An additional risk factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Maha; ElDiasty, Amany M; Mabed, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    To report the prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) having high-risk criteria (HRC). Diabetic patients having PDR with HRC and diabetics free of retinopathy were compared for the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies. Among the 34 patients, 6 (17.7%) of diabetics having PDR with HRC were positive for anticardiolipin antibodies. There was no significant association of aCL antibodies with sex or type of diabetes. Using Pearson's correlation test, no significant associations of aCL antibodies with duration of diabetes or age of patients were found. All patients who were positive for anticardiolipin antibodies had PDR with HRC. The difference was statistically significant. Presence of anticardiolipin antibodies may represent an additional risk factor for PDR. (author)

  3. The Addition of Vascular Calcification Scores to Traditional Risk Factors Improves Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Liabeuf

    Full Text Available Although a variety of non-invasive methods for measuring cardiovascular (CV risk (such as carotid intima media thickness, pulse wave velocity (PWV, coronary artery and aortic calcification scores (measured either by CT scan or X-ray and the ankle brachial index (ABI have been evaluated separately in chronic kidney disease (CKD cohorts, few studies have evaluated these methods simultaneously. Here, we looked at whether the addition of non-invasive methods to traditional risk factors (TRFs improves prediction of the CV risk in patients at different CKD stages.We performed a prospective, observational study of the relationship between the outputs of non-invasive measurement methods on one hand and mortality and CV outcomes in 143 patients at different CKD stages on the other. During the follow-up period, 44 patients died and 30 CV events were recorded. We used Cox models to calculate the relative risk for outcomes. To assess the putative clinical value of each method, we also determined the categorical net reclassification improvement (NRI and the integrated discrimination improvement.Vascular calcification, PWV and ABI predicted all-cause mortality and CV events in univariate analyses. However, after adjustment for TRFs, only aortic and coronary artery calcification scores were found to be significant, independent variables. Moreover, the addition of coronary artery calcification scores to TRFs improved the specificity of prediction by 20%.The addition of vascular calcification scores (especially the coronary artery calcification score to TRFs appears to improve CV risk assessment in a CKD population.

  4. Adiponectin provides additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis in both genders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. METHODS: We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima-media-thickness (CIMT was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC, the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI were calculated. RESULTS: After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25-0.72 in men and 0.47 (0.29-0.75 in women. The area under the curve (AUC on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041. The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13-0.50, p<0.001, and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01-0.04, p<0.001 for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02-0.34, p = 0.031 and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: -0.002-0.008, p = 0.189. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis.

  5. A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Gary T.C.; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Yeung, Vincent T.F.; Chow, Chun-Chung; Tsang, Lynn W.W.; Cockram, Clive S.

    2001-01-01

    To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age

  6. [Personality self-actualization: an independent additional risk factor of myocardial infarction and unstable angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharobaro, V I; Zhenchevskaia, Iu V; Ivanova, T M

    2011-01-01

    It is shown for the first time that changes of self-actualization (SA) in patients with CHD are the main risk factor of myocardial infarction (MI) and unstable angina (UA). The clinical course and prognosis of MI correlate with SA prior to the development of an acute coronary event. Isolated correlations exist between CHD risk factors and results of SA questionnaire studies. SA personality peculiarities in patients with MI and UA account for more than 50% dispersion of the results of linear factor analysis.

  7. Using Structured Additive Regression Models to Estimate Risk Factors of Malaria: Analysis of 2010 Malawi Malaria Indicator Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirombo, James; Lowe, Rachel; Kazembe, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background After years of implementing Roll Back Malaria (RBM) interventions, the changing landscape of malaria in terms of risk factors and spatial pattern has not been fully investigated. This paper uses the 2010 malaria indicator survey data to investigate if known malaria risk factors remain relevant after many years of interventions. Methods We adopted a structured additive logistic regression model that allowed for spatial correlation, to more realistically estimate malaria risk factors. Our model included child and household level covariates, as well as climatic and environmental factors. Continuous variables were modelled by assuming second order random walk priors, while spatial correlation was specified as a Markov random field prior, with fixed effects assigned diffuse priors. Inference was fully Bayesian resulting in an under five malaria risk map for Malawi. Results Malaria risk increased with increasing age of the child. With respect to socio-economic factors, the greater the household wealth, the lower the malaria prevalence. A general decline in malaria risk was observed as altitude increased. Minimum temperatures and average total rainfall in the three months preceding the survey did not show a strong association with disease risk. Conclusions The structured additive regression model offered a flexible extension to standard regression models by enabling simultaneous modelling of possible nonlinear effects of continuous covariates, spatial correlation and heterogeneity, while estimating usual fixed effects of categorical and continuous observed variables. Our results confirmed that malaria epidemiology is a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors, both at the individual, household and community level and that risk factors are still relevant many years after extensive implementation of RBM activities. PMID:24991915

  8. Education and risk of coronary heart disease: Assessment of mediation by behavioural risk factors using the additive hazards model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, H; Rod, NH; Frederiksen, BL

    2013-01-01

    Educational-related gradients in coronary heart disease (CHD) and mediation by behavioral risk factors are plausible given previous research; however this has not been comprehensively addressed in absolute measures. Questionnaire data on health behavior of 69,513 participants, 52 % women, from se...

  9. Are blood pressure and diabetes additive or synergistic risk factors? outcome in 8494 subjects randomly recruited from 10 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    It remains unknown whether diabetes and high blood pressure (BP) are simply additive risk factors for cardiovascular outcome or whether they act synergistically and potentiate one another. We performed 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in 8494 subjects (mean age, 54.6 years; 47.0% women; 6.9% diabetic...

  10. Insulin resistance: an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tushar P; Rawal, Komal; Bagchi, Ashim K; Akolkar, Gauri; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Gupta, Sarita; Singal, Pawan K

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary life style and high calorie dietary habits are prominent leading cause of metabolic syndrome in modern world. Obesity plays a central role in occurrence of various diseases like hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, which lead to insulin resistance and metabolic derangements like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mediated by oxidative stress. The mortality rate due to CVDs is on the rise in developing countries. Insulin resistance (IR) leads to micro or macro angiopathy, peripheral arterial dysfunction, hampered blood flow, hypertension, as well as the cardiomyocyte and the endothelial cell dysfunctions, thus increasing risk factors for coronary artery blockage, stroke and heart failure suggesting that there is a strong association between IR and CVDs. The plausible linkages between these two pathophysiological conditions are altered levels of insulin signaling proteins such as IR-β, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, Glut4 and PGC-1α that hamper insulin-mediated glucose uptake as well as other functions of insulin in the cardiomyocytes and the endothelial cells of the heart. Reduced AMPK, PFK-2 and elevated levels of NADP(H)-dependent oxidases produced by activated M1 macrophages of the adipose tissue and elevated levels of circulating angiotensin are also cause of CVD in diabetes mellitus condition. Insulin sensitizers, angiotensin blockers, superoxide scavengers are used as therapeutics in the amelioration of CVD. It evidently becomes important to unravel the mechanisms of the association between IR and CVDs in order to formulate novel efficient drugs to treat patients suffering from insulin resistance-mediated cardiovascular diseases. The possible associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed here.

  11. Hyperhomocysteinemia - an additional risk factor of thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Shirokova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess homocystein (HC level in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS and its relation to thrombosis development and blood lipide spectrum disturbances. Material and methods. 32 pts (12 male and 20 female with mean age 36 12 years and mean disease duration 13 11 years were included. 8 pts had SLE without APS, 13 - SLE with APS and 11 - primary APS (PAPS. All pts were divided into 2 groups depending on blood HC level. 26 pts with HC level more than 12 mcg/d! were included In group 1 and 6 pts with HC level less than 12 mcg/dl - in group 2. HC level was measured with high efficacious liquid chromatography (HELC. Lipid-protein blood spectrum was assessed in all pts. Results. Elevated HC level was revealed in 26 from 32 pts: in 16 with SLE (including 12 pts with APS and in 10 with PAPS. HC concentration did not depend on APS presence, but frequence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC significantly associated with APS and thrombotic complications. 20 from 26 (76,9% pts with HHC had thrombosis history. Only I from 6 (16,7% pts with normal HC level had thrombosis history (exact Fisher test p=0,02. HC level did not depend on age and sex. Changes of blood lipid-protein indices were revealed in most pts. Lipid spectrum disturbances were confined largely to cholesterol elevation due to increase of atherogenic lipoproteins cholesterol. Only 22% of pts showed decrease of antiatherogenic lipoproteins concentration. Bblood lipid-protein spectrum indices did not depend on HC level. Conclusion. HHC is present in 84,6% of pts with APS (primary and secondary. In pts with APS HHC is more frequent than in pts without APS. HHC is associated with thrombotic complications. HHC and lipid-protein spectrum disturbances are independent risk factors of thrombotic complications in pts with SLE and APS.

  12. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  13. The drone as an additional risk factor due to conditions not provided for in radiological safety at major events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Gilberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Major international events are potential targets of terrorist actions, seeking instant publicity that events of this magnitude provide, with the intention of causing terror and disseminate its power to a large number of people worldwide. In this context, the critical analysis of additional risk factor linked to procedures and protocols adopted on radiation safety is important. The possibility of unforeseen situations of risk, especially those resulting from the current global technological development, is a fact. Radioactive material can be used in this type of terrorism in a wide range of devices and illicit trafficking of this material is a reality that worries the International Atomic Energy Agency. In the current technological development scenario of the world, the potential occurrence of terrorist acts using drones combined with radioactive material dispersal devices, is real. The recent history of drones incidents presents cases where, despite not having been necessarily terrorist motivation, their circumstances and characteristics favor the occurrence of malicious acts. This paper proposes to alert the need of updating the current security protocols, considering the potential association of this technology with radioactive dispersal devices. (author)

  14. Sufficient sleep duration contributes to lower cardiovascular disease risk in addition to four traditional lifestyle factors: the MORGEN study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Kromhout, D.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The contribution of sufficient sleep duration to lower CVD risk in addition to sufficient physical activity, a healthy diet, (moderate) alcohol consumption, and non-smoking has not been investigated yet. Design The MORGEN study is a prospective cohort study including 8128 men and 9759

  15. Influence of additional risk factors on the antihypertensive efficacy of eprosartan and telmisartan in patients with essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Syvolap

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of additional risk factors on blood pressure parameters, cardiovascular remodeling and the state of vegetative balance of the heart rhythm in patients with stage II essential hypertension (EH under treatment with eprosartan and telmisartan. Materials and methods. The study included 100 patients with stage II essential hypertension (EH, 1–2 degrees with a low and moderate risk of developing cardiovascular complications. The smoker's status was 30.0 %, hypercholesterolemia more than 5 mmol/l – 69.0 %, overweight and obesity – 82.0 % of patients with EH. By randomisation, half of the patients received eprosartan in a daily dose of 600 mg, the rest received telmisartan at a daily dose of 80 mg for 6 months. Before the start of treatment and after 6 months of therapy, all the patients were subjected to the evaluation of general physical examinations, calculation of body mass index, determination of serum TC level, ECG Holter monitoring with analysis of heart rate variability, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography and duplex pulsed wave dopplerography of extracranial and intracranial vessels. Two weeks before the study, the patients did not take any antihypertensive drugs. Results. In patients with EH with additional risk factors using of eprosartan for 6 months is accompanied by a significant decrease in "office" SBP by 30.0 %, DBP by 21.6 %, PBP by 41.4 % and avg. BP by 25.5 %, regression of myocardial hypertrophy and improvement of diastolic function of the left ventricle. Eprosartan demonstrated a high antihypertensive efficacy on the effect on SBP in patients with EH with the presence/absence of tobacco smoking. However, the effect of eprosartan on DBP was better in patients with EH who do not have the status of a smoker. All the patients with EH, regardless of the presence or absence of an elevated level of total cholesterol, reached the target level of SBP under

  16. The present global financial and economic crisis poses an additional risk factor for mental health problems on the employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avčin, Bojana Avguštin; Kučina, Andrea Užmah; Sarotar, Brigita Novak; Radovanović, Mirjana; Plesničar, Blanka Kores

    2011-09-01

    The global financial and economic crisis starting in 2007 led to a deterioration of several socio-economic determinants of mental health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the impact of the present economic crisis on the depression and anxiety levels of the employed in the private and public sector in Slovenia. Altogether 1592 employees completed an internet based self-reported questionnaire. Data about perceived impact of the economic crisis, several socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and health parameters were collected. Depression symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and anxiety symptoms by the Spielberger State-Inventory. Regression models were used 1) to explore the associations of the economic crisis with the level of depression and anxiety symptoms while controlling for some sociodemographic and work characteristic variables, and 2) to understand the relationship between some potentially important socioeconomic variables and the perception of the economic crisis. Depressive and anxiety scores were significantly increased among 590 (46.6%) employees being affected by the economic crisis. The level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with perceived impact by the crisis, recent sick leave, reported injuries sustained at work, benzodiazepine and analgesic use, the lack of emotional support, and trust in crisis telephone lines. The level of anxiety symptoms yielded the robust association with the level of depression symptoms, reported injuries sustained on the way to work and education. The economic crisis poses an additional risk factor for mental health problems which clinicians should internalize and become more aware of them. Symptoms of depression and anxiety can be masked in high-utilizers of medical care with physical complaints or psychoactive drug use.

  17. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at high risk. SERMS may cause side effects , such as hot flashes , so they are not often used for prevention of cancer. See the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Prevention for more information. Finasteride has been ...

  18. Risk factors for adjacent segment pathology requiring additional surgery after single-level spinal fusion: impact of pre-existing spinal stenosis demonstrated by preoperative myelography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugué, Itaru; Okada, Seiji; Masuda, Muneaki; Ueta, Takayoshi; Maeda, Takeshi; Shiba, Keiichiro

    2016-05-01

    We determined the incidence of and risk factors for clinical adjacent segment pathology (C-ASP) requiring additional surgeries among patients previously treated with one-segment lumbar decompression and fusion surgery. We retrospectively analysed 161 consecutive patients who underwent one-segment lumbar decompression and fusion surgery for L4 degenerative spondylolisthesis. Patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), facet orientation and tropism, laminar inclination angle, spinal canal stenosis ratio [on myelography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)], preoperative adjacent segment instability, arthrodesis type, pseudarthrosis, segmental lordosis at L4-5, and the present L4 slip were evaluated by a log-rank test using the Kaplan-Meier method. A multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model was used to analyse all factors found significant by the log-rank test. Of 161 patients, 22 patients (13.7 %) had additional surgeries at cranial segments located adjacent to the index surgery's location. Pre-existing canal stenosis ≥47 % at the adjacent segment on myelography, greater facet tropism, and high BMI were significant risk factors for C-ASP. The estimated incidences at 10 years postoperatively for each of these factors were 51.3, 39.6, and 32.5 %, and the risks for C-ASP were 4.9, 3.7, and, 3.1 times higher than their counterparts, respectively. Notably, spinal canal stenosis on myelography, but not on MRI, was found to be a significant risk factor for C-ASP (log-rank test P < 0.0001 and 0.299, respectively). Pre-existing spinal stenosis, greater facet tropism, and higher BMI significantly increased C-ASP risk. Myelography is a more accurate method for detecting latent spinal canal stenosis as a risk factor for C-ASP.

  19. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk factors ... do smoke, quit. Controlling your cholesterol through diet, exercise, and medicines . Controlling high blood pressure through diet, ...

  20. [Risk Factors for Predicting the Need for Additional Surgery for Symptomatic Adjacent Segment Disease after Minimally Invasive Surgery-Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Kenji; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Shirato, Mitsuru; Teshima, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    To determine the incidence of and risk factors for symptomatic adjacent segment disease(SASD)requiring additional surgery in patients previously treated with minimally invasive surgery-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion(MIS-TLIF)for degenerative lumbar disease. A series of 467 consecutive patients who had undergone MIS-TLIF of one or two segments to treat degenerative lumbar disease was identified. The mean age of the patients at the time of the index operation was 67.7 years and the mean follow-up period was 33.2 months(range, 6.0-110.1 months). The incidence rate of SASD surgeries was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test and Cox regression analysis were used for risk factor analysis based on age, sex, number of fused segments, presence of laminectomy adjacent to index fusion, and L1 plumb line. The overall incidence rate of SASD requiring additional surgery was 2.8%. Kaplan-Meier analysis predicted a disease-free rate of adjacent segments in 94.3% of the patients at 4 years and in 90.8% of the patients at 8 years after the index operation. In the analysis of risk factors, a negative L1 plumb line was associated with a 5.6 times higher incidence of SASD requiring additional surgery than that associated with a positive L1 plumb line(p=0.0096). There was no significant difference in the survival rates based on age, sex, number of fused segments, and concomitant laminectomy to adjacent segment. Approximately 9.2% of the patients were predicted to undergo additional surgery for treating SASD within 8 years of MIS-TLIF. In this study, presence of a negative L1 plumb line indicated higher incidence of additional SASD associated surgeries than that shown by a positive L1 plumb line. Therefore, surgeons should carefully consider this factor while performing MIS-TLIF.

  1. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is still ... Scientists are working diligently to understand what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does ...

  2. Fat and starch as additive risk factors for milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the additive effects of starch and fat as risk factors associated with milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles. In experiment 1, 4 multiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows, averaging 114±14 d in milk and 662±52 kg of body weight, were randomly assigned to 4 treatments in a 4×4 Latin square to determine the effect of these risk factors on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid profile. In each 21-d period, cows were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: a control diet (CON; ether extract 5.2%, starch 19%); CON with added oil (OL; ether extract 6.4%, starch 18%); CON with added starch (STR; ether extract 5.5%, starch 22%); and CON with added oil and starch (COMBO; ether extract 6.5%, starch 23%). After completion of experiment 1, milk production response was evaluated in a second experiment with a similar approach to diet formulation. Twenty Holstein cows, 12 primiparous and 8 multiparous, averaging 117±17 d in milk and 641±82 kg, were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Results from experiment 1 showed that ruminal pH was not affected by treatment averaging 5.87±0.08. Molar proportion of propionate in rumen fluid was greatest on the COMBO diet, followed by OL and STR, and lowest for CON. The concentration of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat increased with the COMBO diet. Adding oil, starch, or a combination of both resulted in lower concentration and yield of fatty acidsstarch are additive risk factors that will likely induce milk fat depression in diets containing high inclusion of dried distillers grains with solubles. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  4. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk factors are unique to women. These include: Menopause Use of hormonal birth control (certain types of combination pills, patches, ... risk factors are unique to women. These include: Menopause Use of hormonal birth control (certain types of combination pills, patches, ...

  5. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of getting ... disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do to ...

  6. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B

    2011-01-06

    An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1), with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit), without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM). The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM), 5-min (76 μM) and 10-min (40 μM) sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with high acetaldehyde concentrations in

  7. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monakhova Yulia B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1, with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit, without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM. The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM, 5-min (76 μM and 10-min (40 μM sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral

  8. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for severa...

  9. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  10. Elevated soluble urokinase receptor values in CSF, age and bacterial meningitis infection are independent and additive risk factors of fatal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzanakaki, G; Paparoupa, M; Kyprianou, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of cerebrospinal fluid soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) level, infection and age as risk factors for fatal outcome in patients suspected of having meningitis and/or bacteraemia on admission to hospital. A total of 545 cerebrospinal...... fluid samples from patients with clinically suspected meningitis were sent to the Hellenic National Meningitis Reference Laboratory. Ten of 545 (1.83%) patients died. Analysis by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve revealed that both suPAR and age were significant for prediction of fatal...... outcome. Patients with levels of suPAR above the cut-off values and age ≥51 years, or patients in which either Neisseria meningitis or Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected were categorized as high risk patients. The combination of the above three predictors (suPAR, age and infectious agent...

  11. Caregiving for youth with co-occurring developmental disabilities and behavioral health issues when caregivers face additional health-related stressors: Analysis of risk and protective factors from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael J; Behimer, Gretchen; Anderson, Jeffrey A; Riddle, Ilka

    2016-12-01

    Family caregivers of youth with DD and behavioral health issues experience the highest level of caregiving strain. Many must also deal with their own or another family member's chronic health condition, which may place them at additional risk for poor outcomes. (1) Provide a "snapshot" of DD family caregivers based on a national sample; (2) identify risk and protective factors among groups of DD caregivers with graduated levels of health-related stressors; (3) examine the impact of risk and protective factors on strain for DD caregivers. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from N=600 DD caregivers recruited through sites across the United States. Risk and protective factors were compared among three groups of caregivers at study enrollment: (1) those focused on providing care for the target youth with DD, without additional health-related stressors with which to contend; (2) those contending with minor additional health-related stressors; and, (3) those contending with major additional health-related stressors. Predictors of caregiving strain at six months post-enrollment were identified. 52% of the overall sample was unemployed and 71% were living at or below poverty. Differences were found among groups on a variety of risk and protective factors. With some exceptions, predictors of caregiving strain were similar to non-DD populations. This study provides valuable information about a population of caregivers who are highly vulnerable to poor outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of considering the needs, strengths, and outcomes of family caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Trespass event risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-12

    The Volpe Center has used three sources of datathe Federal Railroad Administrations required accident reports, locomotive video, and U.S. Census datato investigate common risk factors for railroad trespassing incidents, the leading cause of ...

  14. Amblyopia risk factor prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) published a set of risk factors for amblyopia. The intent was to promote uniformity of reporting and development in screening. Because this prevalence is not yet known, this meta-analysis is an attempt to estimate it. Major community preschool eye examination studies were reviewed and AAPOS cut-offs estimated. The approximate prevalence of anisometropia is 1.2%, hyperopia is 6%, astigmatism is 15%, myopia is 0.6%, strabismus is 2.5%, and visual acuity less than 20/40 is 6%. The mean combined prevalence is 21% ± 2% compared to a prevalence of amblyopia 20/40 and worse of 2.5%. Knowing risk factor prevalence simplifies validation efforts. Amblyopia screening with a risk factor sensitivity less than 100% is expected and desirable. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Risk factors for hypospadias.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roelofs, L.A.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Gier, R.P.E. de; Roeleveld, N.

    2007-01-01

    Despite being one of the most common congenital defects in boys, the etiology of hypospadias remains largely unknown. In this case-referent study, we evaluated a wide spectrum of potential risk factors for hypospadias. Cases were identified from the hospital information system, and referents were

  16. Perioperative allergy: risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, C; Stringari, G; Pajno, G B; Peroni, D G; Franceschini, F; Dello Iacono, I; Bernardini, R

    2011-01-01

    Perioperative anaphylactic as well as anaphylactoid reactions can be elicited by drugs, diagnostic agents, antiseptics, disinfectants and latex. In some individuals, allergic reactions occur in the absence of any evident risk factor. Previous history of specific safe exposure to a product does not permit to exclude the risk of having a reaction. We have systematically reviewed characteristics in the patient's history or clinical parameters that affect the risk of developing reactions during anesthesia. Evidence shows that patients with previous unexplained reaction during anesthesia are at risk for perioperative allergic reactions. An allergic reaction to an agent is associated with previous reaction to a product that is related with the culprit agent. Multiple surgery procedures, professional exposure to latex and allergy to fruit are associated with an increased frequency of latex allergy. It has been shown that in some instances, allergic perioperative reactions may be more common in atopic patients and in females.

  17. Additive risk survival model with microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray techniques survey gene expressions on a global scale. Extensive biomedical studies have been designed to discover subsets of genes that are associated with survival risks for diseases such as lymphoma and construct predictive models using those selected genes. In this article, we investigate simultaneous estimation and gene selection with right censored survival data and high dimensional gene expression measurements. Results We model the survival time using the additive risk model, which provides a useful alternative to the proportional hazards model and is adopted when the absolute effects, instead of the relative effects, of multiple predictors on the hazard function are of interest. A Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type estimate is proposed for simultaneous estimation and gene selection. Tuning parameter is selected using the V-fold cross validation. We propose Leave-One-Out cross validation based methods for evaluating the relative stability of individual genes and overall prediction significance. Conclusion We analyze the MCL and DLBCL data using the proposed approach. A small number of probes represented on the microarrays are identified, most of which have sound biological implications in lymphoma development. The selected probes are relatively stable and the proposed approach has overall satisfactory prediction power.

  18. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  19. Risk Factors for Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hau Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a complex human disease. The incidence of dementia among the elderly population is rising rapidly worldwide. In the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD is the leading type of dementia and was the fifth and eighth leading cause of death in women and men aged ≥ 65 years, respectively, in 2003. In Taiwan and many other counties, dementia is a hidden health issue because of its underestimation in the elderly population. In Western countries, the prevalence of AD increases from 1–3% among people aged 60–64 years to 35% among those aged > 85 years. In Taiwan, the prevalence of dementia for people aged ≥ 65 years was 2–4% by 2000. Therefore, it is important to identify protective and risk factors for dementia to prevent this disease at an early stage. Several factors are related to dementia, e.g. age, ethnicity, sex, genetic factors, physical activity, smoking, drug use, education level, alcohol consumption, body mass index, comorbidity, and environmental factors. In this review, we focus on studies that have evaluated the association between these factors and the risk of dementia, especially AD and vascular dementia. We also suggest future research directions for researchers in dementia-related fields.

  20. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  1. [In the case of premature live birth, is very early rupture of the membranes an additional risk factor for morbidity and mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnard, T; Vincent-Rohfritsch, A; Le Ray, C; Goffinet, F; Patkai, J; Sibiude, J

    2018-02-26

    To describe survival rate after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 25 weeks of gestation and compare neonatal morbidity and mortality among those born alive with a control group of infants born at a similar gestational age without premature rupture of membranes. We conducted a retrospective single-centre study at Port-Royal maternity, from 2007 to 2015, comparing neonatal outcomes between liveborninfants exposed to PPROM prior to 25 weeks of gestation (WG) and a control group not exposed to premature rupture of the membranes. For each live-born child, the next child born after spontaneous labor without PPROM was matched for gestational age at birth, sex, and whether or not they received antenatal corticosteroid therapy. The primary endpoint was severe neonatal complications assessed by a composite endpoint including neonatal deaths, grade 3-4 HIV, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, leukomalacia and stade 3-4 retinopathies. Among 77 cases of very premature rupture of the membranes, 55 children were born alive. Among these, the average gestational age at birth was 28 WG and 1 day. The rate of severe neonatal complications did not differ between the two groups (43.6% in the PPROM group vs. 36.4%, P=0.44) and the survival rate at discharge was also similar in the two groups (85.5% vs. 83.6%, P=0.98). In our cohort and among livebirths after 24 WG, PPROM before 25 WG was not associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to children born at the same gestational age after a spontaneous labor with intact membranes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... your cell phone Research has found several risk factors that may increase your chances of getting lung ...

  3. Risk factors for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  4. Risk factor based investing:case: MSCI risk factor indices

    OpenAIRE

    Pieskä, J. (Jukka)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this thesis is to study risk factor based investing and test how well MSCI constructs their risk factor based indices. Risk factor based investing has gained a lot of media exposure in the recent years and “Smart Beta” products are becoming more popular. Blackrock estimated that there are more than 700 exchange traded products available and they have over $ 529 billion in assets under management. Risk fa...

  5. Risk Factors in Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Tükenmez Demirc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: There have been reports suggesting the involvement of environmental factors in the disease process of pemphigus. In this study, we aimed to find out the risk factors which could play role in the etiopathogenesis in our pemphigus patients.Material and method: A total of 42 patients (15 male and 27 female who were diagnosed as pemphigus with histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations in our clinic between the years 1998-2004, were interviewed for assessment of regarding with the subjects of the demographic properties, occupational groups, educational level, the number of pregnancies, stressfull life events, diet habits, smoking and alcohol consumption before the onset of the disease and the results were compared to 42 age and gender-matched controls with similar socioeconomic circumstances. Results: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were found to be statistically significant in pemphigus patients than in controls. Conclusion: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were assumed to play role in the etiopathogenesis and course of pemphigus.

  6. An additional bolus of rapid-acting insulin to normalise postprandial cardiovascular risk factors following a high-carbohydrate high-fat meal in patients with type 1 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew D; Walker, Mark; Ajjan, Ramzi A; Birch, Karen M; Gonzalez, Javier T; West, Daniel J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate an additional rapid-acting insulin bolus on postprandial lipaemia, inflammation and pro-coagulation following high-carbohydrate high-fat feeding in people with type 1 diabetes. A total of 10 males with type 1 diabetes [HbA 1c 52.5 ± 5.9 mmol/mol (7.0% ± 0.5%)] underwent three conditions: (1) a low-fat (LF) meal with normal bolus insulin, (2), a high-fat (HF) meal with normal bolus insulin and (3) a high-fat meal with normal bolus insulin with an additional 30% insulin bolus administered 3-h post-meal (HFA). Meals had identical carbohydrate and protein content and bolus insulin dose determined by carbohydrate-counting. Blood was sampled periodically for 6-h post-meal and analysed for triglyceride, non-esterified-fatty acids, apolipoprotein B48, glucagon, tumour necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, human tissue factor activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Continuous glucose monitoring captured interstitial glucose responses. Triglyceride concentrations following LF remained similar to baseline, whereas triglyceride levels following HF were significantly greater throughout the 6-h observation period. The additional insulin bolus (HFA) normalised triglyceride similarly to low fat 3-6 h following the meal. HF was associated with late postprandial elevations in tumour necrosis factor alpha, whereas LF and HFA was not. Fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue factor pathway levels were similar between conditions. Additional bolus insulin 3 h following a high-carbohydrate high-fat meal prevents late rises in postprandial triglycerides and tumour necrosis factor alpha, thus improving cardiovascular risk profile.

  7. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  8. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  10. [Recurrent diverticulitis - risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, Z; Slováček, R; Sankot, J

    2013-10-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is a common illness, especially in the elderly population. It may be asymptomatic and cause chronic intestinal problems, colonic diverticular bleeding or inflammatory complications with considerable morbidity and mortality. We have attempted at finding factors that would help us identify patients with a higher risk of diverticulitis recurrence as well as patients with a higher likelihood of perforated diverticulitis. This retrospective study included all patients admitted to our surgical ward for inflammatory complications of diverticular disease between 2000 and 2012: 278 patients, 88 men and 190 women. We looked up the first attack of diverticulitis in our documentation as well as the relapses, if any, their number and course, and the time from the first attack to the relapse. We analyzed the influence of age, gender, comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, overweight, ischemic heart disease, chronic renal failure, gastroduodenal disease), nicotine abuse and medication (glucocorticoids and other immunosuppressive drugs, acetylsalicylic acid) on diverticulitis recurrence and its complicated course. We compared the results of conservative and surgical therapy. Statistical analysis was performed using Fishers exact test and Man-Whitney U tests. We did not demonstrate any statistically significant dependence of diverticulitis recurrence on age or gender. Colectomy (both acute and elective surgery) clearly decreases the likelihood of recurrence (p=0.00007). Comorbidities, nicotine abuse and medication were not associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Steroid and immunosuppressive drugs use was significantly associated with higher perforation rates, without impacting on the likelihood of recurrence. Regular smoking of cigarettes had no impact on recurrence or on its severity. We did not find any reliable indicator of recurrent diverticulitis. Age, gender, comorbidities, smoking and medication are not significant. Immunocompromised

  11. Managing Multiple Risk Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lollis, Charlie

    1998-01-01

    ...) contribute to the racial differences in cardiovascular risk and events among women. High levels of socioeconomic stress, higher dietary fat intake and sedentary lifestyle are more prevalent among black than white women...

  12. Prevalence and obstetric risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggest that obstetric factors increase the risk of damage to the anal sphincter and subsequent development of AI.[4-6] These ... variations may impact on obstetric risk factors and AI prevalence. We therefore performed a study in our population, which .... Regulatory approvals. Institutional and hospital ethical approval were ...

  13. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  14. The drone as an additional risk factor due to conditions not provided for in radiological safety at major events; O drone como fator adicional de risco decorrente de condicoes nao previstas na seguranca radiologica em grandes eventos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gilberto de Jesus

    2015-07-01

    Major international events are potential targets of terrorist actions, seeking instant publicity that events of this magnitude provide, with the intention of causing terror and disseminate its power to a large number of people worldwide. In this context, the critical analysis of additional risk factor linked to procedures and protocols adopted on radiation safety is important. The possibility of unforeseen situations of risk, especially those resulting from the current global technological development, is a fact. Radioactive material can be used in this type of terrorism in a wide range of devices and illicit trafficking of this material is a reality that worries the International Atomic Energy Agency. In the current technological development scenario of the world, the potential occurrence of terrorist acts using drones combined with radioactive material dispersal devices, is real. The recent history of drones incidents presents cases where, despite not having been necessarily terrorist motivation, their circumstances and characteristics favor the occurrence of malicious acts. This paper proposes to alert the need of updating the current security protocols, considering the potential association of this technology with radioactive dispersal devices. (author)

  15. Low-grade inflammation is a risk factor for clinical stroke events in addition to silent cerebral infarcts in Japanese older hypertensives: the Jichi Medical School ABPM Study, wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Joji; Tamura, Yurie; Hoshide, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Kario, Kazuomi

    2007-03-01

    risk factor for clinical stroke events in addition to silent cerebral infarcts in Japanese older hypertensives, indicating that the risk for clinical stroke events increases with preexisting hypertensive target organ damage in the brain and additionally with ongoing low-grade inflammation.

  16. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  18. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  19. Risk and Protective Factors and Achievement of Children At Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, Diane

    A study was done to identify social, economic, and childhood characteristics of high and low achieving children living in adverse environmental conditions, and to test the association between achievement and specific risk and protective factors. In addition, the study identified the most powerful model for predicting achievement by comparing…

  20. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  1. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  2. Risk factors and diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Jusufović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between risk factors and diabetic retinopathy, which is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries for patients aged 20 to 65.We compared risk factors between patients without retinopathy, with non-proliferate and with proliferate retinopathy (p< 0.05. Duration of diabetes is most important for the development of retinopathy. Hyperglycaemia and high blood pressure are important for progression. Better control of blood sugar and elevated blood pressure can reduce progression of retinopathy and riskof vision loss.

  3. Detecting Risk Factor of Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1/2 (1995), s. 203-212 ISSN 0208-5216. [Seminar on Statistics and Clinical Practice. Warsaw, 20.06.1994-23.06.1994] Keywords : risk factors * genetics * association * epidemilogy * measures of association * screening * genetics

  4. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  5. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  6. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  7. Additional risk of end-of-the-pipe geoengineering technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    qualitatively from the known successes. They do not tackle the initial cause, namely the carbon-dioxide inputs that are too high. This is their additional specific risk. 'The acceptability of geoengineering will be determined as much by social, legal and political issues as by scientific and technical factors', conclude Adam Corner and Nick Pidgeon (2010) when reviewing social and ethical implications of geoengineering the climate. It is to debate in that context that most geoengineering technologies are 'end of the pipe technologies', what involves an additional specific risk. Should these technologies be part of the toolbox to tackle anthropogenic climate change? Adam Corner and Nick Pidgeon 2010, Geoengineering the climate: The social and ethical implications, Environment Vol. 52.

  8. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues AN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity

  10. Fine mapping in the MHC region accounts for 18% additional genetic risk for celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Pulit, Sara L.; Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A.; Romanos, Jihane; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; van Heel, David A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; de Balcker, Paul I. W.

    Although dietary gluten is the trigger for celiac disease, risk is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We fine mapped the MHC association signal to identify additional risk factors independent of the HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles and

  11. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone......Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...

  12. Neurodevelopmental risk factors in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobato M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross......-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM...... lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should...

  14. "Risk factors of birth asphyxia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Saleem, Shafaq; Afzal, Rafia; Iqbal, Umair; Saleem, Sehrish Muhammad; Shaikh, Muhammad Waqas Abid; Shahid, Nazish

    2014-12-20

    Birth asphyxia is an insult to the fetus or newborn due to failure to breath or breathing poorly, leads to decrease oxygen perfusion to various organs. According to WHO, 4 million neonatal deaths occurred each year due to birth asphyxia. Our goal was to evaluate antepartum, intrapartum, and fetal risk factors of birth asphyxia. It was a Retrospective Case control study, conducted at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of pediatric ward (I, II, III) and in Gynecology wards (I, II, III) of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. Study was conducted from January 2011-November 2012. Neonates diagnosed with birth asphyxia were considered as "cases" while neonates born either with normal vaginal delivery or by cesarean section having no abnormality were considered as "control". Demographics of both the mother and neonate were noted and Questions regarding possible risk factors were asked from mother. Ethical issues were confirmed from Institutional review board of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Out of total 240 neonates, 123 were "cases" and 117 were "control". Mean maternal age in "case" group was 24.22 ± 3.38 while maternal age of control group was 24.30 ± 4.04. Significant antepartum risk factors were maternal age of 20-25 (OR 0.30 CI 95% 0.07-1.21), booking status (OR 0.20 CI 95% 0.11-0.37), pre-eclampsia (OR 0.94 CI 95% 0.90-0.98) and primigravidity (OR 2.64 CI 95% 1.56-4.46). Significant Intrapartum risk factors were breech presentation (OR 2.96 CI 95% 1.25-7.02), home delivery (OR 16.16 CI 95% 3.74-69.75) and maternal fever (OR 10.01 CI95% 3.78-26.52). Significant Fetal risk factors were resuscitation of child (OR 23 CI 95% 31.27-1720.74), pre-term babies(OR 0.34 CI 95% 0.19-0.58), fetal distress (OR 0.01 CI 95% 0.00-0.11) and baby weight (OR 0.13 CI 95% 0.05-0.32). Measures should be taken to prevent neonatal mortality with great emphasis on skilled attendance at birth

  15. Risk factors for hypospadias in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin

    2014-01-01

    This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823

  16. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  17. Glaucoma history and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles W

    Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased risk of schizophrenia from additive interaction between infant motor developmental delay and obstetric complications: evidence from a population-based longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mary C

    2011-12-01

    Obstetric complications and developmental delay are well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. The authors investigated whether these risk factors interact in an additive manner to further increase risk for schizophrenia.

  19. Environmental risk factors for heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Timothy E; Conklin, Daniel J; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we discuss current evidence linking environmental pollutants to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extensive evidence indicates that environmental factors contribute to CVD risk, incidence, and severity. Migrant studies show that changes in the environment could substantially alter CVD risk in a genetically stable population. Additionally, CVD risk is affected by changes in nutritional and lifestyle choices. Recent studies in the field of environmental cardiology suggest that environmental toxins also influence CVD. Exposure to tobacco smoke is paradigmatic of such environmental risk and is strongly and positively associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In animal models of exposure, tobacco smoke induces endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic responses and exacerbates atherogenesis and myocardial ischemic injury. Similar mechanism may be engaged by other pollutants or food constituents. Several large population-based studies indicate that exposure to fine or ultrafine particulate air pollution increases CVD morbidity and mortality, and the plausibility of this association is supported by data from animal studies. Exposure to other chemicals such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and metals has also been reported to elevate CVD risk by affecting atherogenesis, thrombosis, or blood pressure regulation. Maternal exposure to drugs, toxins, and infection has been linked with cardiac birth defects and premature CVD in later life. Collectively, the data support the notion that chronic environmental stress is an important determinant of CVD risk. Further work is required to assess the magnitude of this risk fully and to delineate specific mechanisms by which environmental toxins affect CVD.

  20. Covariate selection for the semiparametric additive risk model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers covariate selection for the additive hazards model. This model is particularly simple to study theoretically and its practical implementation has several major advantages to the similar methodology for the proportional hazards model. One complication compared...... and study their large sample properties for the situation where the number of covariates p is smaller than the number of observations. We also show that the adaptive Lasso has the oracle property. In many practical situations, it is more relevant to tackle the situation with large p compared with the number...... of observations. We do this by studying the properties of the so-called Dantzig selector in the setting of the additive risk model. Specifically, we establish a bound on how close the solution is to a true sparse signal in the case where the number of covariates is large. In a simulation study, we also compare...

  1. Sociomedical risk factors for male infecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. A total of 917 men from infertile couples with abnormal ejaculate indicators were examined. Their age was 34.1 ± 6.3 years; the infertility period was 4.6 ± 3.9 years. A retrospective analysis of their case histories, clinical examination, questioning to identify risk factors for infertility, and anthropometric measurements of weight and height were made. Weight was rated normal at a body mass index (BMI of ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 ; overweight at 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 , and obesity at ≥ 30 kg/m2 . When identifying infertility risk factors, the investigators kept in mind 24 risk factors at the moment of examination or in the patient histories, which were grouped into 3 clusters: 1 – environmental factors and occupational hazards; 2 – evidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities; 3 – social and quality-of-life factors; this cluster also includes history and examination evidence of tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and other social diseases, such as hepatitis B and C, or human immunodeficiency infection. Then the men who did not show an exacerbation of somatic diseases, genetic anomalies associated with reproductive disorders, or an exacerbation of social diseases at the moment of examination were selected from the total sample. These were divided into 2 groups: normal weight and obese patients. The frequency of the above mentioned infertility risk factors and additionally the proportion of persons engaged in intellectual or manual labor were calculated in each group.Results and discussion. In the total sample, the frequency of infertility risk factors including occupational hazards and environmental factors was < 20 %; the incidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities was 1–39 %. The highest frequency of risk factors was noted in cluster 3. Among them, alcohol consumption (75 % occupied the first place; next were the rate of sexually transmitted infections (59 %, emotional stress (44 %, and smoking (42

  2. Risk factors evaluation for urolithiasis among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Velásquez-Forero

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria were the most frequent risk factors associated with urolithiasis, followed by hypercalciuria. High PTH values were excluded. Children presented two or more risk factors for urolithiasis.

  3. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  4. Improvements on Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......= -.48; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: High intensity training does not promote any additional improvements in CVD risk factors than LIT in obese adolescents....

  5. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  6. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  7. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stroke Risk Factors, Genetics, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Amelia K; Esenwa, Charles; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-02-03

    Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome, and determining risk factors and treatment depends on the specific pathogenesis of stroke. Risk factors for stroke can be categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Age, sex, and race/ethnicity are nonmodifiable risk factors for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, while hypertension, smoking, diet, and physical inactivity are among some of the more commonly reported modifiable risk factors. More recently described risk factors and triggers of stroke include inflammatory disorders, infection, pollution, and cardiac atrial disorders independent of atrial fibrillation. Single-gene disorders may cause rare, hereditary disorders for which stroke is a primary manifestation. Recent research also suggests that common and rare genetic polymorphisms can influence risk of more common causes of stroke, due to both other risk factors and specific stroke mechanisms, such as atrial fibrillation. Genetic factors, particularly those with environmental interactions, may be more modifiable than previously recognized. Stroke prevention has generally focused on modifiable risk factors. Lifestyle and behavioral modification, such as dietary changes or smoking cessation, not only reduces stroke risk, but also reduces the risk of other cardiovascular diseases. Other prevention strategies include identifying and treating medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, that increase stroke risk. Recent research into risk factors and genetics of stroke has not only identified those at risk for stroke but also identified ways to target at-risk populations for stroke prevention. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Risk factors for diarrheal duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, N M; Caulfield, L E; Black, R E; Macharia, W M

    1997-11-01

    To identify child feeding behavior and household hygiene practices that are risk factors for prolonged diarrheal illness, a longitudinal community study was conducted over a 14-month period among 920 children aged 3-37 months who lived in an urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Morbidity surveillance was done by home visits every third day in the absence of diarrhea and daily during diarrheal illness until termination of the episode. In-home observations were made to characterize maternal hygiene, cooking, and child feeding practices. Overall, 1,496 episodes of diarrhea were detected. The average diarrheal incidence was 3.5 episodes/child-year, and the incidence of diarrhea > 14 days was 3 episodes/100 child-years. Cox regression was used to examine the independent effects of covariates on time to recovery from a diarrheal episode. Adjusted behavioral factors that were observed to influence recovery from diarrhea included: uncovered water containers (rate ratio (RR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.94); giving no fluids (as opposed to oral rehydration solutions (ORS)/sugar salt solutions (SSS)) (RR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.77); and administration of diluted cow's milk during the first 3 days of an episode (RR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.00-1.52). These associations remained significant after adjusting for diarrheal severity. The authors recommend, among other measures, improvement of water storage and promotion of continued feeding with cereal-milk mix during diarrhea.

  10. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...

  11. [Prenatal risk factors for neonatal asphyxia: how risk for each?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Li; He, Rui-Zhi; Peng, Qian; Guo, Ke-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Qiong; Yuan, Hui-Hua; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal asphyxia is the third leading cause of neonatal death and main cause of long-term neurodevelopmental handicap throughout the world. Prevention is more important than treatment. Most previous reports are limited to retrospective investigations of the relationships between some prenatal risk factors and low Apgar scores. This study was designed to prospectively investigate the relationship between prenatal risk factors and neonatal asphyxia and the influence of single or multiple risk factors on the incidence of neonatal asphyxia, and examine significant risk factors for neonatal asphyxia. From April 2002 through October 2004, a total of 10 376 live-born newborns were enrolled. Forty-six prenatal risk factors were investigated. Neonatal asphyxia was diagnosed based on the following four items: 1. 1-min Apgar score asphyxia was analyzed. The significant risk factors were screened by single logistic regression analysis and forward stepwise conditional multiple logistic regression analysis, with enrolled threshold alphaor=0.10 and pasphyxia occurred in 117 cases (1.13%) out of the 8 530 cases. In the 1 846 cases without risk factors, none had asphyxia (x2=25.6, pasphyxia increased with increasing numbers of risk factors, from 0.23% in newborns with one risk factor to 14.29% in newborns who had nine risk factors (r=0.96, pasphyxia by systematically examining prenatal risk factors and giving interventions for the newborns with risk factors, especially those with the above significant risk factors or with multiple risk factors. Proper cesareon section according to indications might be helpful to decrease the incidence of birth asphyxia.

  12. Risk analysis of sulfites used as food additives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian Bo; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua Li; Zhang, Ji Yue; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Zhu Tian

    2014-02-01

    This study was to analyze the risk of sulfites in food consumed by the Chinese people and assess the health protection capability of maximum-permitted level (MPL) of sulfites in GB 2760-2011. Sulfites as food additives are overused or abused in many food categories. When the MPL in GB 2760-2011 was used as sulfites content in food, the intake of sulfites in most surveyed populations was lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Excess intake of sulfites was found in all the surveyed groups when a high percentile of sulfites in food was in taken. Moreover, children aged 1-6 years are at a high risk to intake excess sulfites. The primary cause for the excess intake of sulfites in Chinese people is the overuse and abuse of sulfites by the food industry. The current MPL of sulfites in GB 2760-2011 protects the health of most populations. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors for hypospadias in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Fan Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%. Ten patients (5.1% were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6% with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47 and < 18 (OR = 2.95 years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67, used drugs (OR = 1.53 and had an infection (OR = 1.87 during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68 and fathers (OR = 1.74 were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias.

  14. Vascular risk factors and adipocyte dysfunction in metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajer, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The cluster of vascular risk factors closely associated with obesity, consists of fasting and postprandial dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, also known as metabolic syndrome, is associated with an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, adipose tissue in

  15. [General practitioner burnout: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients.

  16. Polyhydramnios. Risk factors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Mariam; Saquib, Shabnam; Rizvi, Syed G

    2008-02-01

    To determine the risk factors associated with polyhydramnios, and assess the maternal and perinatal outcome in these patients. A prospective study of all deliveries complicated with polyhydramnios in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman between January 2005 and April 2006. Polyhydramnios was divided into mild and moderate to severe based on the amniotic fluid index values. The demographic data, antenatal complications, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, postpartum complications, and perinatal outcome were studied. A total of 2648 singleton deliveries occurred during the study period. Two hundred and eight (7.8%) women with polyhydramnios formed the study group, and 2440 women with normal amniotic fluid formed the control. Polyhydramnios was mild in 179 (86.1%) and moderate to severe in 29 (13.9%) cases. Sixty-eight (32.7%) of these pregnancies were complicated with diabetes as compared with 12.4% of the controls. Preterm delivery occurred in 16 (7.7%) cases. Cesarean delivery rate was 27.9% in the study group compared with 17.3% in the control. Major congenital anomalies were found in 2.8% of newborns compared with 1% among the controls. Eighteen babies were admitted to the special care baby unit. These data demonstrates a significant positive relation with maternal age, diabetes in pregnancy, and fetal macrosomia with polyhydramnios. Anemia during pregnancy, cesarean delivery rate, and congenital anomalies were significantly higher in the study group.

  17. Fine mapping in the MHC region accounts for 18% additional genetic risk for celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Pulit, Sara L; Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A; Romanos, Jihane; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; van Heel, David A; Wijmenga, Cisca; de Bakker, Paul I W

    2015-06-01

    Although dietary gluten is the trigger for celiac disease, risk is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We fine mapped the MHC association signal to identify additional risk factors independent of the HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles and observed five new associations that account for 18% of the genetic risk. Taking these new loci together with the 57 known non-MHC loci, genetic variation can now explain up to 48% of celiac disease heritability.

  18. Joint associations of obsity and other cardiovascular risk factors in relation to risk of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K.; Chiuve, Stephanie; Rimm, Eric B.

    Background: Obesity is a well-established risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the influence of other lifestyle and clinical risk factors on the association between body-mass index (BMI: weight in kg/height in m2) and CHD remains uncertain. Methods and Results: In the Danish Die...... risk, even among individuals who have few CHD risk factors. BMI and other CHD risk factors appear to work in an additive fashion on risk of ACS....

  19. Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection among medical students and healthcare workers in Johannesburg, South Africa. A van Rie, K McCarthy, L Scott, A Dow, WDF Venter, WS Stevens ...

  20. Identification of Behavioral Risk Factors During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruţa Florina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to smoking during pregnancy is known to be one of the main modifiable risk factors, which threatens maternal and child health. Along with this factor, are not to be neglected also other risk factors belonging to lifestyle sphere, such as alcohol, sedentary, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge.

  1. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  2. [Risk factors for anorexia in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Xiao; Lang, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Qin-Feng

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors for anorexia in children, and to reduce the prevalence of anorexia in children. A questionnaire survey and a case-control study were used to collect the general information of 150 children with anorexia (case group) and 150 normal children (control group). Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors for anorexia in children. The results of the univariate analysis showed significant differences between the case and control groups in the age in months when supplementary food were added, feeding pattern, whether they liked meat, vegetables and salty food, whether they often took snacks and beverages, whether they liked to play while eating, and whether their parents asked them to eat food on time (Panorexia in children. Liking of meat (OR=0.093) and vegetables (OR=0.272) and eating on time required by parents (OR=0.079) were protective factors against anorexia in children. Timely addition of supplementary food, a proper diet, and development of children's proper eating and living habits can reduce the incidence of anorexia in children.

  3. Family history based approach in risk prediction for Parkinson's disease: Additional contribution of familial associated disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrecar Irena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the contribution of family history of Parkinson's disease and its associated disorders in the assessment of predictive capacity of risk models for Parkinson’s disease. In a population of 192 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 1659 healthy individuals we investigated the impact of environmental factors and the effects of family history on Parkinson's disease risk. Pesticides exposure, positive family history of Parkinson’s disease and a positive family history of dementia and melanoma were associated to an increased risk for Parkinson’s disease, with results regarding family history of depression near to statistical significance. Smoking and caffeine intake were associated to a decreased risk for Parkinson’s disease. Three risk prediction models were assessed using the area under the curve approach: first model was based on known environmental risk factors, in the second model we added family history of Parkinson’s disease and in the third model we additionally included family history of dementia, melanoma and depression. We showed that inclusion of data on family history of associated disorders (AUC 0.76 improves predictive capacity of risk model for Parkinson’s disease in comparison with the first (AUC 0.62 and the second model (AUC 0.71. We concluded that family history of associated disorders: dementia, depression and melanoma improves predictive capacity of risk models for Parkinson’s disease.

  4. Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of keywords include postpartum depression and risk factors or obstetrical history, social factors, or biological factors. Literature review showed that risk factors for postpartum depression in the area of economic and social factors, obstetrical history, and biological factors, lifestyle and history of mental illness detected. Data from this study can use for designing a screening tools for high-risk pregnant women and for designing a prevention programs.

  5. Psychosocial risk screening during pregnancy: additional risks identified during a second interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patricia A; Godecker, Amy; Sidebottom, Abbey C

    2011-11-01

    The Prenatal Risk Overview (PRO) screens for 13 psychosocial risk factors associated with poor birth outcomes. This study assessed the extent to which risk factors unreported during an intake interview were identified during a subsequent interview. A total of 708 pregnant women were screened and re-screened at three urban community health care centers between July 2007 and April 2010. Study participants were predominantly young (mean age 23.5 years), unmarried (75.1%) women of color (92.5%); 38.4% were foreign-born. The proportional increase in participants identified as being at risk for individual domains at the second interview ranged from 5.6% to 49.0% for the combined Moderate/High Risk classification and from 5.6% to 73.0% for the High Risk only classification. For women whose health and well-being are challenged by poverty, violence, social isolation, and other stressors, both initial screening and repeat screening offer opportunities to alleviate identified risks.

  6. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present. History of Preeclampsia/Eclampsia: Women with a history of preeclampsia/eclampsia have an increased risk of future hypertension and stroke one to 30 years after delivery. Hypertension: Women with chronic primary or secondary hypertension, ...

  7. Public risk perception of food additives and food scares. The case in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Do Stroke Patients Know Their Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomann, Maarja; Vibo, Riina; Kõrv, Janika

    2016-03-01

    Risk factor management is the key to stroke prevention. Although several studies have assessed the awareness of different risk factors in the general public, there are limited data available on how well acute stroke patients know their own risk factors. The aim of this study was to assess stroke patients' informedness of their own stroke risk factors. All consecutive eligible acute stroke and transient ischemic attack patients hospitalized at the Tartu University Hospital, Department of Neurology, during 9 months in 2010 were interviewed about different stroke risk factors within 72 hours from hospitalization. The respective information was also retrieved from medical records. Of the 341 patients admitted during the study period, 195 were eligible for the interview. Diabetes was the best known risk factor (89%) followed by hypertension (80%), atrial fibrillation (78%), previous stroke (77%), and heart failure and/or ischemic heart disease (66%). We found that acute stroke patients are best informed of their diabetes and worst informed of their ischemic heart disease and/or heart failure. There is, however, room for amelioration in the awareness of all of the studied risk factors. More attention should be addressed to explaining the risks and treatment options to patients at risk of stroke and the general population. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Elderly Taiwanese's Intrinsic Risk Factors for Fall-related Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Fun Li

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Elderly Taiwanese inpatients with existing intrinsic conditions of cancer, vertigo, and lower leg weakness were at high risk of falling, resulting in severe injuries. Additional research including controlled trials is necessary to further identify treatable, causal intrinsic risk factors for this elderly group.

  10. Risk Factors and Comorbidities in Diabetic Neuropathy: An Update 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Distal symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) is the most common neurological manifestation in diabetes. Major risk factors of DSPN include diabetes duration, hyperglycemia, and age, followed by prediabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Height, smoking, insulin resistance, hypoinsulinemia, and others represent an additional risk. Importantly, hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and smoking are modifiable. Stringent glycemic control has been shown to be effect...

  11. Female Sex Is a Risk Modifier Rather Than a Risk Factor for Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Brønnum; Skjøth, Flemming; Overvad, Thure Filskov

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke risk in atrial fibrillation is assessed by using the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Sex category (Sc, ie, female sex) confers 1 point on CHA2DS2-VASc. We hypothesized that female sex is a stroke risk modifier, rather than an overall risk factor, when added to a CHA2DS2-VA (sex...... strata as events per 100 person-years. For quantifying absolute risk of stroke, we calculated risks based on the pseudovalue method. Female sex as a prognostic factor was investigated by inclusion as an interaction term on the CHA2DS2-VA score to calculate the thromboembolic risk ratio for different......), but the Sc risk component modifies and accentuates stroke risk in women who would have been eligible for oral anticoagulant treatment on the basis of ≥2 additional stroke risk factors....

  12. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective o...

  13. Physical risk factors for neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G.A.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Bongers, P.M.; Wal, G. van der; Bouter, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    To identify physical risk factors for neck pain, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. Based on methodological quality and study design, 4 levels of evidence were defined to establish the strength of evidence for the relationship between risk factors and neck pain. Altogether, 22

  14. RISK FACTORS FOR STROKE AND USE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-04-04

    Apr 4, 2003 ... Objective: To review risk factors for stroke and the use of echocardiography in its diagnosis. ... therapy. Several risk factors are shared between ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke and these have been well documented. Stroke has .... history, physical examination, electrocardiography or chest.

  15. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  16. Proportion of neural tube defects attributable to known risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Tinker, Sarah C; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Recognized risk factors for neural tube defects (NTDs) poorly predict population-level NTD risk. However, the proportion of NTDs that can be attributed to these risk factors is uncertain. To determine the proportion of NTD cases that is attributable to known or suspected risk factors (i.e., female infant sex, family history of NTDs, and maternal Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, pregestational diabetes, gestational diabetes, low dietary folate intake, lack of folic acid supplementation, anticonvulsant use, and hot tub or sauna use), we estimated the adjusted population attributable fraction (aAF) for each factor, using the method of Eide and Geffler and data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Our analyses of these data indicate that the proportion of cases of spina bifida and anencephaly that can be attributed to known risk factors is 28% and 44%, respectively. For spina bifida, the factor with the greatest attributable fraction was maternal obesity (aAF, 10%), whereas for anencephaly it was Hispanic ethnicity (aAF, 15%). Our analyses indicate that known risk factors account for <50% of NTD cases. Hence, the majority of NTD cases are attributable to, as yet, unidentified factors. These findings highlight the need for continued research to identify genetic and additional nongenetic risk factors for NTDs. Further, these findings suggest that strategies that aim to reduce the risk of NTDs associated with maternal Hispanic ethnicity and obesity may have the greatest impact on the population prevalence of these conditions.

  17. Lifestyle and other risk factors for diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Stephan K; Kruis, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Diverticulosis is a very common condition. Around 20% of the carriers of diverticula are believed to suffer from diverticular disease during their lifetime. This makes diverticular disease one of the clinically and economically most significant diseases in gastroenterology. The etiopathogenesis of diverticulosis and diverticular disease is not well understood. Epidemiological studies allow defining risk factors for the development of diverticulitis and its complications. A comprehensive literature search was performed and the current knowledge about risk factors for diverticulitis and associated conditions reviewed. Besides non-controllable risk factors like age and sex, lifestyle factors like food, drinks and physical activity, drugs are described to increase or decrease the risk to develop diverticulitis or to suffer from complications. The recognition of risk factors for the development of diverticular disease or even complicated disease like lifestyle habits or medication is crucial for patient management.

  18. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Joachim Raabe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD. A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis integrates cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programmed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programming can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs.

  19. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Martinez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood, and family were used to predict gang membership. Demographic data were also used as predictor variables. Results indicated that an increase in Community-Neighborhood Risk was associated with a decrease in joining a gang. Non-significant findings for Peer Risk, School Risk, Family Risk and demographic variables are additionally discussed. The current research identifies issues which middle school youth encounter in a county setting; provides a homegrown report to assist stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students, and law enforcement in identifying locally relevant risk factors of gang behavior; and substantiates risk factors for gang membership proliferation in those neighborhoods with no recently documented history of gangs.

  20. Primary Hyperaldosteronism As A Risk Factor For Recurrent Nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekamol Tantisattamo

    2012-06-01

    Hyperaldosteronism can cause hypercalciuria, phosphaturia, and hypocitraturia, all of which are risk factors for nephrolithiasis. Additionally, hyperaldosteronism and deoxycorticosterone mediated hypertension have been associated with hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Our case augments earlier literature suggesting increased risk for nephrolithiasis in patients with hyperaldosteronism and suggests that hyperaldosteronism should be considered as a risk factor for patient with nephrolithiasis. It remains unclear if both primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism increase the relative risk for nephrolithiasis and the role of aldosterone receptor antagonist therapy for recurrent nephrolithiasis associated with hyperaldosteronism.

  1. Influence of Additives on Cigarette Related Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco additives play an important role in the manufacturing and for the quality of tobacco products, particularly cigarettes and roll-your-own tobaccos. Attention is increasingly given to the potential effects of additives on consumer behavior and health. This review is intended to compile, collate and - to some degree - evaluate the wealth of pertinent scientific information available from the published literature and other special sources. At first, the reasons are set forth for the use of additives in cigarette manufacturing. In response to the growing controversy over the attractiveness and addictiveness of smoking, the clarification of terms and concepts is followed by a detailed discussion of two kinds of substances with particular relevance: Additives like ammonium compounds that are claimed to increase nicotine availability, and additives that are claimed to increase nicotine addictiveness.

  2. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced......-high risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥ 30g/l, we created a scoring system to identify low, intermediate and high risk SMM. This first population-based study of SMM patients confirms that an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression...

  3. Musculoskeletal Risk Factors in the Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, C A; Nicholas, J A; Goldberg, B

    1989-11-01

    In brief: Many children and adolescents participate in sports that put them at risk for musculoskeletal injuries. Underlying physical conditions, or risk factors, may predispose them to particular types of sports injuries. Research shows that these risk factors fall into five categories: body type, flexibility, muscle strength, inadequate rehabilitation of a previous injury, and skeletal malalignment and anomalies. Some findings show, for example, that youthful football players who are also heavy have an increased rate of injury, sprains and strains are less common in flexible athletes, and patellar pain or subluxation may be related to a variety of malalignment factors. The authors recommend using a systematic, integrated approach to risk assessment of the athlete, both for detecting risk factors and determining their potential for con tribu ting to a sports injury.

  4. Does development finance pose an additional risk to monetary policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Issahaku

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether remittances entail extra risk for macroeconomic policy management and examines the role (if any that the financial system can play in the interaction between remittances and monetary policy. Employing panel data for 106 developing countries from 1970 to 2013, the results from our panel vector autoregressive (PVAR model reveal that remittance volatility reduces macroeconomic risk in developing countries while simultaneously stimulating a reduction in domestic interest rates. This finding remains robust to alternative specifications of remittance volatility and monetary policy risk and to variations in the degree of financial development. The key lesson from this study is that developing countries can leverage the positive impact of remittances in reducing macroeconomic instability by implementing policies that induce remittances.

  5. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  6. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  7. Psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Pamela K; Forney, K Jean

    2013-07-01

    One goal in identifying psychosocial risk factors is to discover opportunities for intervention. The purpose of this review is to examine psychosocial risk factors for disordered eating, placing research findings in the larger context of how etiological models for eating disorders can be transformed into models for intervention. A qualitative literature review was conducted focusing on psychological and social factors that increase the risk for developing eating disorders, with an emphasis on well-replicated findings from prospective longitudinal studies. Epidemiological, cross-cultural, and longitudinal studies underscore the importance of the idealization of thinness and resulting weight concerns as psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders. Personality factors such as negative emotionality and perfectionism contribute to the development of eating disorders but may do so indirectly by increasing susceptibility to internalize the thin ideal or by influencing selection of peer environment. During adolescence, peers represent self-selected environments that influence risk. Peer context may represent a key opportunity for intervention, as peer groups represent the nexus in which individual differences in psychological risk factors shape the social environment and social environment shapes psychological risk factors. Thus, peer-based interventions that challenge internalization of the thin ideal can protect against the development of eating pathology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Are hypertensive women at additional risk of ischaemic heart disease from physically demanding work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesøe, Karen; Søgaard, Karen; Aadahl, Mette; Boyle, Eleanor; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The combination of hypertension and high physical activity at work may increase blood pressure considerably and increase the risk of atherosclerosis and thereby ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but only a few studies in men, and none among women, have examined this topic. This was a prospective cohort study. In 1993, 12,093 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort Study, aged 45-64 years answered a baseline questionnaire on physical activity at work, history of hypertension, a selection of known risk factors for IHD and occupational factors. Information on incident IHD from baseline to 2008 was retrieved by individual linkage to the National Register of Hospital Discharges. In a fully adjusted Cox model, hypertensive nurses with high physical activity at work had nearly three times higher risk of IHD (hazard ratio (HR) 2.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.12-3.87)) compared to normotensive nurses with moderate physical activity at work. Significant additive interaction between physical activity at work and hypertension was found measured by the relative excess risk due to additive interaction (RERI) (1.20 (95% CI 0.26-2.14), and in an additive hazards model. Hypertensive nurses with high physical activity at work had 60 additional cases of IHD per 10,000 person years compared to normotensive nurses with moderate physical activity at work (60.0 (95% CI 38.1-81.9; p women may be at particular high risk of IHD from physically demanding work. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  9. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  10. The Benefit of Experiencing Risk in Addition to Friluftsliv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    The best way to reach self-realization, an ever-widening identification with nature, is through the Norwegian tradition of friluftsliv, a nonaggressive, environmentally sensitive approach to being in nature. When risk is associated with friluftsliv and not pursued for its own sake, it helps one achieve self-realization. Reliance on technology for…

  11. Low Fruit/Vegetable Consumption in the Home: Cumulative Risk Factors in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wendy L.; Swindle, Taren M.; Kyzer, Angela L.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk theory suggests that a variety of social risk factors would have an additive effect on obesity risk. Multiple studies have suggested that obesity is related to basic resources such as transportation and financial resources. Additional research points to parental engagement and parental monitoring as additional sources of risk. This…

  12. Risk Factors for Cognitive Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmijn, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    textabstractCognitive impairment is one of the major symptoms of dementia. The main cognitive functions acc orientation to time and place, recall and memory, attention, language, calculation, and visual construction. Impairment of cognitive functions influences the ability of an individual to live independently, and it diminishes the quality of life. In addition to the consequences for an individual, cognitive impairment imposes a major burden on the health care system because it induces an i...

  13. Risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors: a pooled international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Bridget J; Rankin, Kristin M; Aldape, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Oligodendroglial tumors are rare subtypes of brain tumors and are often combined with other glial tumors in epidemiological analyses. However, different demographic associations and clinical characteristics suggest potentially different risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate p...... that additional factors specific to oligodendroglial tumors have yet to be identified. Large, multi-institution international studies will be necessary to better characterize these etiological risk factors.......Oligodendroglial tumors are rare subtypes of brain tumors and are often combined with other glial tumors in epidemiological analyses. However, different demographic associations and clinical characteristics suggest potentially different risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate...... possible risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors (including oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and mixed glioma). Data from 7 case-control studies (5 US and 2 Scandinavian) were pooled. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals...

  14. Additional Treatments for High-Risk Obstetric Antiphospholipid Syndrome: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffatti, Amelia; Hoxha, Ariela; Favaro, Maria; Tonello, Marta; Colpo, Anna; Cucchini, Umberto; Banzato, Alessandra; Pengo, Vittorio

    2017-08-01

    Most investigators currently advocate prophylactic-dose heparin plus low-dose aspirin as the preferred treatment of otherwise healthy women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome, whilst women with a history of vascular thrombosis alone or associated with pregnancy morbidity are usually treated with therapeutic heparin doses in association with low-dose aspirin in an attempt to prevent both thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity. However, the protocols outlined above fail in about 20 % of pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome. Identifying risk factors associated with pregnancy failure when conventional therapies are utilized is an important step in establishing guidelines to manage these high-risk patients. Some clinical and laboratory risk factors have been found to be related to maternal-foetal complications in pregnant women on conventional therapy. However, the most efficacious treatments to administer to high-risk antiphospholipid syndrome women in addition to conventional therapy in order to avoid pregnancy complications are as yet unestablished. This is a comprehensive review on this topic and an invitation to participate in a multicentre study in order to identify the best additional treatments to be used in this subset of antiphospholipid syndrome patients.

  15. Price Response to Factor Index Additions and Deletions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Huij (Joop); G. Kyosev (Georgi)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAbnormal price reaction around S&P 500 index changes has been considered as strong evidence that long term demand for stocks is downward sloping. This notion, however, has recently lost popularity due to the evidence that new additions are accompanied with a contemporaneous change in

  16. High oxygen as an additional factor in food preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amanatidou, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, the efficacy of high oxygen as an additional hurdle for food preservation is studied. At high oxygen conditions and at low temperature, significant impairment of growth and viability of bacterial cells is found to occur as the result of free

  17. Psychosocial Factors in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is increasing in prevalence globally. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetes, and lifestyle and clinical risk factors do not fully account for the link between the conditions. This article provides an overview of the evidence concerning the role of psychosocial stress factors in diabetes risk, as well as in cardiovascular complications in people with existing diabetes. Several types of psychosocial factors are discussed including depression, other types of emotional distress, exposure to stressful conditions, and personality traits. The potential behavioral and biological pathways linking psychosocial factors to diabetes are presented and implications for patient care are highlighted.

  18. Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among the elderly (Bernert, 2007) and, mediated by depression, are associated with suicide ideation among the elderly (Nadorff et al., 2013). ... suicidal behavior in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent ... (2013) 5 Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for ...

  19. Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Infections: Symptoms, Causes & Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Nontuberculosis Mycobacteria NTM Symptoms, Causes & Risk Factors The symptoms caused by NTM infection ... Low-grade fever Night sweats Weight loss What Causes NTM Lung Infections? NTM lung infections are caused ...

  20. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... rupture (ASR). Design  Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting  Data were taken from the National Medical Birth Registry, Denmark. Population  Patients with a first and a second vaginal delivery in the time period 1997-2010. Methods  Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...

  1. Shoulder Dystocia: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounian, Joseph G

    2016-12-01

    Shoulder dystocia complicates ∼1% of vaginal births. Although fetal macrosomia and maternal diabetes are risk factors for shoulder dystocia, for the most part its occurrence remains largely unpredictable and unpreventable.

  2. Increased risk of sadness and suicidality among victims of bullying experiencing additional threats to physical safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tammy B; Adesman, Andrew

    2017-11-23

    Objective To examine, in a nationally-representative sample of high school students, to what extent one or more additional threats to physical safety exacerbates the risk of sadness and suicidality among victims of school and/or cyber-bullying. Methods National data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) were analyzed for grades 9-12 (n = 15,624). Victimization groups were characterized by school-bullying and cyber-bullying, with and without additional threats to physical safety: fighting at school, being threatened/injured at school, and skipping school out of fear for one's safety. Outcomes included 2-week sadness and suicidality. Outcomes for victimization groups were compared to non-victims using logistic regression adjusting for sex, grade and race/ethnicity. Results Overall, 20.2% of students were school-bullied, and 15.5% were cyber-bullied in the past year. Compared to non-victims, victims of school-bullying and victims of cyber-bullying (VoCBs) who did not experience additional threats to physical safety were 2.76 and 3.83 times more likely to report 2-week sadness, and 3.39 and 3.27 times more likely to exhibit suicidality, respectively. Conversely, victims of bullying who experienced one or more additional threats to physical safety were successively more likely to report these adverse outcomes. Notably, victims of school-bullying and VoCBs with all three additional risk factors were 13.13 and 17.75 times more likely to exhibit suicidality, respectively. Conclusion Risk of depression symptoms and suicidality among victims of school-bullying and/or cyber-bullying is greatly increased among those who have experienced additional threats to physical safety: fighting at school, being threatened/injured at school and skipping school out of fear for their safety.

  3. Additional quality factors for the World Wide Web.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Ronan

    2000-01-01

    Web site development is maturing from the enthusiastic experimental practice of early years to a more professional discipline, addressing the needs of Web site visitors and owner organisations. Quality is central to this maturing and it is necessary to have a full understanding of the meaning of quality in the context of the ever-changing Web. This paper identifies five new quality factors for the Web (visibility, credibility, intelligibility, engagibility and differentiation), together with ...

  4. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    OpenAIRE

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption of awkward postures. Another category of work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) includes psychosocial work characteristics, such as work demands, job control and social supp...

  5. Risk factors in prevention of drug dependences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2007-01-01

    The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors over the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk

  7. Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through Aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors, through aerobic exercises. The central argument here is that through exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a reduction in body weight and ultimately less risk on the ...

  8. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  9. Genetic risk factors of venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, R. F.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    Venous thrombosis, whose main clinical presentations include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, represents a major health problem worldwide. Numerous conditions are known to predispose to venous thrombosis and these conditions are commonly referred to as risk indicators or risk factors.

  10. Risk factors and classifications of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Munoz, Miguel Angel; Fernandez-Aguilar, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Perez, Belinda; Perez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Albiach, Beatriz; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Marin-Camero, Naiara; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2013-07-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor represents more than 50% of all biliary tract cholangiocarcinomas. A wide range of risk factors have been identified among patients with Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma including advanced age, male gender, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, nonalcoholic cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and metabolic syndrome. Various classifications have been used to describe the pathologic and radiologic appearance of cholangiocarcinoma. The three systems most commonly used to evaluate Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are the Bismuth-Corlette (BC) system, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the TNM classification. The BC classification provides preoperative assessment of local spread. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center proposes a staging system according to three factors related to local tumor extent: the location and extent of bile duct involvement, the presence or absence of portal venous invasion, and the presence or absence of hepatic lobar atrophy. The TNM classification, besides the usual descriptors, tumor, node and metastases, provides additional information concerning the possibility for the residual tumor (R) and the histological grade (G). Recently, in 2011, a new consensus classification for the Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma had been published. The consensus was organised by the European Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association which identified the need for a new staging system for this type of tumors. The classification includes information concerning biliary or vascular (portal or arterial) involvement, lymph node status or metastases, but also other essential aspects related to the surgical risk, such as remnant hepatic volume or the possibility of underlying disease.

  11. Phosphate additives in food--a health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Eberhard; Hahn, Kai; Ketteler, Markus; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Mann, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia has been identified in the past decade as a strong predictor of mortality in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). For example, a study of patients in stage CKD 5 (with an annual mortality of about 20%) revealed that 12% of all deaths in this group were attributable to an elevated serum phosphate concentration. Recently, a high-normal serum phosphate concentration has also been found to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population. Therefore, phosphate additives in food are a matter of concern, and their potential impact on health may well have been underappreciated. We reviewed pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and EU databases (www.zusatzstoffe-online.de, www.codexalimentarius.de), with the search terms "phosphate additives" and "hyperphosphatemia." There is no need to lower the content of natural phosphate, i.e. organic esters, in food, because this type of phosphate is incompletely absorbed; restricting its intake might even lead to protein malnutrition. On the other hand, inorganic phosphate in food additives is effectively absorbed and can measurably elevate the serum phosphate concentration in patients with advanced CKD. Foods with added phosphate tend to be eaten by persons at the lower end of the socioeconomic scale, who consume more processed and "fast" food. The main pathophysiological effect of phosphate is vascular damage, e.g. endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification. Aside from the quality of phosphate in the diet (which also requires attention), the quantity of phosphate consumed by patients with advanced renal failure should not exceed 1000 mg per day, according to the guidelines. Prospective controlled trials are currently unavailable. In view of the high prevalence of CKD and the potential harm caused by phosphate additives to food, the public should be informed that added phosphate is damaging to health. Furthermore, calls for labeling

  12. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  14. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  15. Risk factors for homelessness among women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Donna L; Yano, Elizabeth M; McGuire, James; Hines, Vivian; Lee, Martin; Gelberg, Lillian

    2010-02-01

    Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate exact standard errors of the model coefficients and p-values. Characteristics associated with homelessness were sexual assault during military service, being unemployed, being disabled, having worse overall health, and screening positive for an anxiety disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. Protective factors were being a college graduate or married. Efforts to assess housed women veterans' risk factors for homelessness should be integrated into clinical care programs within and outside the Veterans Administration. Programs that work to ameliorate risk factors may prevent these women's living situations from deteriorating over time.

  16. Atrial fibrillation and bleeding complication - risk factors and risk marker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breithardt, G.; Ravens, U.; Kirchhof, P.; van Gelder, I. C.

    2012-01-01

    The development of atrial fibrillation (AF) is closely linked to risk factors like hypertension and heart failure, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and valvular heart disease. These factors partly overlap with those which determine the progression of atrial fibrillation and the incidence of

  17. Epidemiology and risk factors of lower limb fractures (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Grygorieva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents current data about the risk factors of main lower limb fractures (LLFs of different localization (femur, tibia and foot. It has been shown that the most studies examine epidemiology and risk factors for hip fractures, but information about the risk factors for other LLFs is insufficient and controversial. It has been demonstrated that in addition to factors of age and sex, the road traffic accidents, sports, inadequate physical activity, injuries, falls and previous fractures play the important role in the development of LLFs. Also some diseases (systemic osteoporosis, large joints osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, epilepsy, alcoholism, parkinsonism, cancer, obesity and cataract can influence the LLFs risk. Administration of some drugs, in particular, hypnotic and sedative, as well as antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs and glucocorticoids, is the additional risk factor for LLFs. Almost all types of fractures in women are associated with low bone mineral density, which is more defined at femoral neck than at spine or peripheral skeleton, but part of fractures associated with osteoporosis is small and ranges from 10 to 44 %. The assessment of risk factors should necessarily be carried out in routine clinical practice in patients with LLFs, since it affects not only their incidence, but also the prognosis of treatment of these patients.

  18. Retinal vein occlusion: genetic predisposition and systemic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaki, Kassiani; Politou, Marianna; Rouvas, Alexandros; Merkouri, Efrossyni; Travlou, Anthi; Theodosiadis, Panayiotis; Gialeraki, Argyri

    2013-04-01

    The role of systemic risk factors (age, smoking, diabetes, arterial hypertension) in the development of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is well established. However, the association of RVO with genetic predisposition to thrombosis remains poorly understood. The aim of the study was to assess any possible additional effect of genetic predisposition to the already well known 'classical' risk factors of RVO in a cohort of elderly Greek patients. Fifty-one elderly patients with RVO and 51 healthy individuals matched for age and sex were evaluated for systemic risk factors (smoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension) and coagulation defects (lupus anticoagulant, natural inhibitors of coagulation). Additionally, genotyping was performed for mutations/polymorphisms involved in haemostasis such as: FV G1691A, FV G4070A, FIIG 20210A, MTHFR C677T and A1298C, PAI-1-675 4G/5G, F XIII exon 2G/T, EPCR A4600G and G4678C. We identified systemic risk factors in the majority of the patients Hypertension (P=0.001), dyslipidemia (P=0.029) and diabetes (P=0.01) are associated with RVO in the majority of the patients. The prevalence of prothrombotic risk factors was not significantly different in the patients with RVO compared to controls. Apart from systemic risk factors, genetic predisposition to thrombosis does not seem to have an important association with RVO in this group of elderly patients.

  19. Crohn's disease: risk factor for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cristina Dias dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease that can reach any part of the gastrointestinal tract. This disease has been associated with an increased neoplastic risk, including colorectal carcinoma. Objective: The objective of this work is to describe the mechanisms present in two diseases, and that are responsible for the increased risk in Crohn's disease. Methods: A bibliographic research was conducted in PubMed database. In addition to the articles obtained with an inserted query in Pubmed, other references relevant to the topic in question were included. Results: Colorectal cancer risk varies according to the presence of certain factors, and an example of this is Crohn's disease. Chronic inflammation seems to be an important contribution to carcinogenesis, since it creates a microenvironment suitable for the onset and progression of the disease. There are molecular changes that are common to two conditions, thus justifying the fact of Crohn's disease being a risk factor for colorectal carcinoma. The disease control with an appropriate therapy and with surveillance are two ways to control this risk. Conclusions: A proinflammatory state is the cornerstone in the association between Crohn's disease and colorectal carcinoma. The implementation of surveillance strategies allowed a decrease in morbidity and mortality associated with this cancer. Resumo: Introdução: A doença de Crohn é uma doença inflamatória que pode atingir todo o trato gastrointestinal. Esta patologia tem sido associada a um risco neoplásico aumentado, nomeadamente de carcinoma colorretal. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever os mecanismos responsáveis pelo aumento do risco de carcinoma colorretal na doença de Crohn. Métodos: A pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada na base de dados Pubmed. Para além dos artigos obtidos com a query inserida na Pubmed, foram também incluídas outras referências com relevância para o tema em questão. Resultados

  20. Tuberculosis: distribution, risk factors, mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochi, A

    1994-10-01

    About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort.

  1. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  2. Systematic assessment of environmental risk factors for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Köhler, Cristiano A.; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk...... factors supported by high epidemiological credibility. Methods: We searched the Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo databases up to 7 October 2016 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed associations between putative environmental risk factors and BD....... For each meta-analysis, we estimated its summary effect size by means of both random- and fixed-effects models, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), the 95% prediction interval, and heterogeneity. Evidence of small-study effects and excess of significance bias was also assessed. Results: Sixteen publications...

  3. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoutová, J.; Janáčková, P.; Šerý, Omar; Zeman, T.; Ambrož, P.; Kovalová, M.; Vařechová, K.; Hosák, L.; Jiřík, V.; Janout, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-8 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA MZd NT14504 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : schizophrenia * risk factors * epidemiology Subject RIV: FQ - Public Health Care, Social Medicine Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  4. Bone metastasis risk factors in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Catarina; Vendrell, Inês; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Casimiro, Sandra; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Bone is the single most frequent site for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Patients with bone-only metastasis have a fairly good prognosis when compared with patients with visceral disease. Nevertheless, cancer-induced bone disease carries an important risk of developing skeletal related events that impact quality of life (QoL). It is therefore particularly important to stratify patients according to their risk of developing bone metastasis. In this context, several risk factors have been studied, including demographic, clinicopathological, genetic, and metabolic factors. Most of them show conflicting or non-definitive associations and are not validated for clinical use. Nonetheless, tumour intrinsic subtype is widely accepted as a major risk factor for bone metastasis development and luminal breast cancer carries an increased risk for bone disease. Other factors such as gene signatures, expression of specific cytokines (such as bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 7) or components of the extracellular matrix (like bone crosslinked C-telopeptide) might also influence the development of bone metastasis. Knowledge of risk factors related with bone disease is of paramount importance as it might be a prediction tool for triggering the use of targeted agents and allow for better patient selection for future clinical trials. PMID:28194227

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors and collateral artery formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, D; Pasterkamp, G; Hoefer, I E

    2009-12-01

    Arterial lumen narrowing and vascular occlusion is the actual cause of morbidity and mortality in atherosclerotic disease. Collateral artery formation (arteriogenesis) refers to an active remodelling of non-functional vascular anastomoses to functional collateral arteries, capable to bypass the site of obstruction and preserve the tissue that is jeopardized by ischaemia. Hemodynamic forces such as shear stress and wall stress play a pivotal role in collateral artery formation, accompanied by the expression of various cytokines and invasion of circulating leucocytes. Arteriogenesis hence represents an important compensatory mechanism for atherosclerotic vessel occlusion. As arteriogenesis mostly occurs when lumen narrowing by atherosclerotic plaques takes place, presence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes) is highly likely. Risk factors for atherosclerotic disease affect collateral artery growth directly and indirectly by altering hemodynamic forces or influencing cellular function and proliferation. Adequate collateralization varies significantly among atherosclerotic patients, some profit from the presence of extensive collateral networks, whereas others do not. Cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in certain patients because of the reduced protection through an alternative vascular network. Likewise, drugs primarily thought to control cardiovascular risk factors might contribute or counteract collateral artery growth. This review summarizes current knowledge on the influence of cardiovascular risk factors and the effects of cardiovascular medication on the development of collateral vessels in experimental and clinical studies.

  6. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on

  7. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...

  8. [Environmental risk factors for schizophrenia: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, J; Galliot, A-M; Durand-Roger, J; Leboyer, M; Llorca, P-M; Schürhoff, F; Szöke, A

    2013-02-01

    Evidence of variations in schizophrenia incidence rates has been found in genetically homogenous populations, depending on changes within time or space of certain environmental characteristics. The consideration of the impact of environmental risk factors in etiopathogenic studies has put the environment in the forefront of research regarding psychotic illnesses. Various environmental factors such as urbanicity, migration, cannabis, childhood traumas, infectious agents, obstetrical complications and psychosocial factors have been associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia. These risk factors can be biological, physical, psychological as well as social and may operate at different times in an individual's life (fetal period, childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Whilst some of these factors act on an individual level, others act on a populational level, modulating the individual risk. These factors can have a direct action on the development of schizophrenia, or on the other hand act as markers for directly implicated factors that have not yet been identified. This article summarizes the current knowledge on this subject. An extensive literature search was conducted via the search engine Pubmed. Eight risk factors were selected and developed in the following paper: urbanicity (or living in an urban area), cannabis, migration (and ethnic density), obstetrical complications, seasonality of birth, infectious agents (and inflammatory responses), socio-demographic factors and childhood traumas. For each of these factors, we provide information on the importance of the risk, the vulnerability period, hypotheses made on the possible mechanisms behind the factors and the level of proof the current research offers (good, medium, or insufficient) according to the amount, type, quality and concordance of the studies at hand. Some factors, such as cannabis, are "unique" in their influence on the development of schizophrenia since it labels only one risk factor

  9. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  11. [Identification of risk factors for congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals C, Andrea; Cavada C, Gabriel; Nazer H, Julio

    2014-11-01

    The relative importance of congenital malformations as a cause of death in the first year of life is increasing along with the control of preventable causes of perinatal mortality. To identify risk factors for congenital malformations. Retrospective case-control study of births registered in the database of The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), in the period 2001-2010. Birth weight and gestational age were significantly lower in cases than controls, behaving as risk factors and associated with a greater severity of congenital malformations. The risk and severity of congenital malformations increased along with mother's age. Fetal growth retardation, a history of congenital malformations in the family, physical factors and acute illnesses of the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy were also significant risk factors for congenital malformations and their severity. The educational level of the mother was a protective factor for congenital malformations and their severity. Variables previously identified as risk factors for congenital malformations, were significantly related with the occurrence of congenital malformations and their severity.

  12. Risk factors for recurrent spontaneous epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrich, Victor; Brozek, Annabelle; Boyle, Timothy R; Chyou, Po-Huang; Yale, Steven H

    2014-12-01

    To identify risk factors associated with spontaneous recurrent epistaxis. This was a retrospective cohort study assessing patients in the Marshfield Clinic system diagnosed as having epistaxis between January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2011. There were 461 cases with at least 2 episodes of spontaneous epistaxis within 3 years and 912 controls with only 1 episode in the same time frame. More than 50 potential risk factors were investigated, including demographic features, substance use, nasal anatomical abnormalities, nasal infectious and inflammatory processes, medical comorbidities, medications, and laboratory values. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to calculate hazard ratios of epistaxis recurrence. Traditional risk factors for epistaxis, including nasal perforation, nasal septum deviation, rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract infection, did not increase the risk of recurrence. Significant risk factors for recurrent epistaxis included congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a history of anemia. Warfarin use increased the risk of recurrence, independent of international normalized ratio. Aspirin and clopidogrel were not found to increase the risk of recurrence. Few major adverse cardiovascular events were observed within 30 days of the first epistaxis event. Congestive heart failure is an underappreciated risk factor for recurrent epistaxis. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus may induce atherosclerotic changes in the nasal vessels, making them friable and more at risk for bleeding. Patients with recurrent epistaxis may also be more susceptible to developing anemia. Physicians should promote antiplatelet and antithrombotic medication adherence despite an increased propensity for recurrent epistaxis to prevent major adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  14. Corruption and reduced oil production: An additional resource curse factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kasim, Farouk; Søreide, Tina; Williams, Aled

    2013-01-01

    Prominent contributions to the resource curse literature suggest weak governance and corruption are important factors behind the wide welfare variations observed among oil producing countries. How weak governance and corruption influence revenue management and expenditure decisions, as well as the possible welfare benefits derived from oil, are broadly discussed. How they impact upon volumes of oil produced has, however, attracted little attention. This paper combines a review of the resource curse and oil production literatures with findings from qualitative interviews with oil sector experts to appreciate the feasibility of connections between corruption and oil production below its potential. We make particular reference to environments where regulatory institutions or political accountability are weak and focus primarily on producer government and oil firm relations. Drawing on insights from geology, political science and economics, we suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil actually produced and create constraints on long term revenues for oil producing countries. We argue greater disclosure of information on oil production efficiency on a field-by-field and country-by-country basis will assist further investigation of the relationships between corruption and volumes of oil produced. - Highlights: ► We combine a literature review with qualitative interviews with oil experts. ► We focus on feasible connections between corruption and oil production levels. ► We suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil produced. ► Corruption may reinforce suboptimal oil production. ► More data on oil production efficiency by field and country will assist research

  15. Menopause as risk factor for oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menopause (hypoestrogenism) as a risk factor for oxidative stress. We carried out a cross-sectional study with 187 perimenopausal women from Mexico City, including 94 premenopausal (mean ± SD age, 44.9 ± 4.0 y; estrogen, 95.8 ± 65.7 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 13.6 ± 16.9 mIU/mL) and 93 postmenopausal (mean ± SD age, 52.5 ± 3.3 y; estrogen, 12.8 ± 6.8 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 51.4 ± 26.9 mIU/mL) women. We measured lipoperoxides using a thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance assay, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and the total antioxidant status with the Randox kit. An alternative cutoff value for lipoperoxide level of 0.320 μmol/L or higher was defined on the basis of the 90th percentile of young healthy participants. All women answered the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, and a structured questionnaire about pro-oxidant factors, that is, smoking, consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, and physical activity. Finally, we measured weight and height and calculated body mass index. The lipoperoxide levels were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group (0.357 ± 0.05 vs 0.331 ± 0.05 μmol/L, P = 0.001). Using logistic regression to control pro-oxidant variables, we found that menopause was the main risk factor for oxidative stress (odds ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.35-5.11; P menopause rating score, insomnia score, and lipoperoxides, and this relationship was most evident in the postmenopausal group (menopause scale, r = 0.327 [P = 0.001]; insomnia scale, r = 0.209 [P < 0.05]). Our findings suggest that the depletion of estrogen in postmenopause could cause oxidative stress in addition to the known symptoms.

  16. Risk factors across the eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

    2014-12-15

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Risk Factors and Risk-Based Protective Factors for Violent Offending: A Study of Young Victorians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to examine risk factors and risk-based and interactive protective factors for violent offending in a group of 437 young Australians. Participants were recruited into the study when they were in Grade 5 (10-11 years) and followed up almost annually until young adulthood (18-19 years). Measures of violent offending, risk and protective factors, and demographics were obtained through a modification of the Communities That Care youth survey. The data collected enabled identification of groups of students at-risk of violent offending according to drug use, low family socioeconomic status, and antisocial behavior. Results showed that there were very few associations between the risk factors and risk-based protective factors measured in this study (e.g., belief in the moral order, religiosity, peer recognition for prosocial involvement, attachment to parents, low commitment to school, and poor academic performance) and later self-reported violent offending. There were no statistically significant interactive protective factors. Further longitudinal analyses with large sample sizes are needed to examine risk factors and risk-based protective factors and interactive protective factors in at-risk groups. The findings support the need for multi-faceted prevention and early intervention approaches that target multiple aspects of youth's lives.

  18. [Risk factors of birth obstetric trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía-González, Alejandrina; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Nava-Bermea, Manuel

    2013-06-01

    The proper prenatal care for pregnant women is crucial to quickly identify risk factors for birth trauma. To identify risk factors for neonatal birth trauma. Case-control study that included a patient in the case group for every two controls. The following risk factors were identified: cephalopelvic disproportion, macrosomia, use of forceps, precipitated or prolonged labor, malpresentation, and the most common types of birth trauma. We used descriptive statistics and odds ratios. Statistically significant risk factors for birth trauma were: maternal age or = 30 years (OR = 2.5), first pregnancy (OR = 4.0), cephalopelvic disproportion (OR = 8.3), forceps delivery (OR = 9.4), birth weight greater than 3,800 g (OR = 6.6), and non-cephalic presentation (OR = 8.3). Found birth trauma types were: ecchymosis (40.4%), caput succedaneum (25%), erosion (15.4%), clavicle fracture (5.9%), brachial plexus paralysis (4.7%), inter alia. The perinatal outcome of 79 infants with birth trauma were compared to 158 healthy newborns. Risk factors associated with birth injuries were: Maternal (age, pregnancy), newborn (weight), and birth care (presentation, instrumentation and pelvic sufficiency).

  19. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.53–2.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413

  20. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Moon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed.

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exfoliated cervical cells were harvested and processed using Polymerase Chain Reaction to identify the DNAs of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18. The prevalence rate of HPV infection was 76% [(38/50) at 95% CI=61.8-86.9] with 60.5% (23/38) having co-infections with both HPV type 16 and 18. Risk factors of the infection ...

  2. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8......-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... in the population, even a modestly higher risk of heart failure associated with vital exhaustion may be of importance in the planning of future preventive strategies for heart failure....

  3. Crohn's disease: risk factor for colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sandra Cristina Dias dos; Barbosa, Laura Elisabete Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease that can reach any part of the gastrointestinal tract. This disease has been associated with an increased neoplastic risk, including colorectal carcinoma. Objective: The objective of this work is to describe the mechanisms present in two diseases, and that are responsible for the increased risk in Crohn's disease. Methods: A bibliographic research was conducted in PubMed database. In addition to the articles obtained with an i...

  4. Risk factors for psychiatric disturbance in children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskentausta, T; Iivanainen, M; Almqvist, F

    2007-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher risk for psychiatric disturbance than their peers with normal intelligence, but research data on risk factors are insufficient and partially conflicting. The subjects comprised 75 children with ID aged 6-13 years. Data were obtained from case files and the following four questionnaires completed by their parents or other carers: Developmental Behaviour Checklist, American Association of Mental Deficiency (AAMD) Adaptive Behavior Scale, a questionnaire on additional disabilities, and a questionnaire on family characteristics and child development. The risk of psychopathology was most significantly increased by moderate ID, limitations in adaptive behaviour, impaired language development, poor socialization, living with one biological parent, and low socio-economic status of the family. The risk of psychopathology in children with ID is increased by factors related to family characteristics and child development. Identifying these factors will help diagnose and possibly prevent psychiatric disorders in these children.

  5. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  6. Risk factors for relaparotomy after cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessous, Roy; Danor, Daniela; Weintraub, Y Adi; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Sergienko, Ruslan; Ohel, Iris; Sheiner, Eyal

    2012-11-01

    To investigate risk factors for relaparotomy after cesarean section (CS). A retrospective case-control study comparing all CS that were complicated with relaparotomy to cesarean deliveries without this complication. Relaparotomy complicated 0.23% (n=80) of CS during the study period (n=34,389). Independent risk factors for relaparotomy following CS from a multivariable logistic regression model were post partum hemorrhage, cervical tears, placenta previa, uterine rupture, placental abruption, severe preeclampsia and previous CS. Most women (51.2%) underwent relaparotomy during the first 24 h after CS. The leading causes for relaparotomy was bleeding (70%) and burst abdomen (8.8%). Hysterectomy was performed in 31.3% of the patients. Risk factors for relaparotomy after CS are previous CS, severe preeclampsia, placenta previa, uterine rupture, placental abruption, cervical tear and PPH. Experienced obstetricians should be involved in such cases and the possibility for complications including relaparotomy should be emphasized.

  7. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  8. Determination of risk factors of neonatal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A M; Nargis, S; Mollah, A H; Kabir, L M; Sarkar, R N

    2010-07-01

    Pneumonia is an important cause of neonatal infection and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. The best way to reduce the high prevalence of pneumonia at this age group is through identification and elimination of its risk factors. This case-control study was conducted in the department of Pediatrics, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital during Nov 2007 to Nov 2008 with an aim to identify the risk factors of pneumonia. Data were collected from 100 neonates, 50 cases and 50 controls who met the predefined inclusion criteria. Results shows mean birth weight (pneonatal resuscitation (ppneumonia. Multivariate analysis showed inadequate antenatal care (OR 168.9), home delivery (OR 13.8), intrapartum fever (OR 225.9), obstetric problem of mother (OR 33.4), requirement of resuscitation (OR 12.5), prolonged labour (OR 15.2) as significant risk factors of neonatal pneumonia.

  9. Preoperative modifiable risk factors in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rooijen, Stefanus; Carli, Francesco; Dalton, Susanne O

    2017-01-01

    in higher mortality rates and greater hospital costs. The number and severity of complications is closely related to patients' preoperative performance status. The aim of this study was to identify the most important preoperative modifiable risk factors that could be part of a multimodal prehabilitation...... program. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of a consecutive series of Dutch CRC patients undergoing colorectal surgery were analyzed. Modifiable risk factors were correlated to the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) and compared within two groups: none or mild complications (CCI ... complications (CCI ≥20). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to explore the combined effect of individual risk factors. RESULTS: In this 139 patient cohort, smoking, malnutrition, alcohol consumption, neoadjuvant therapy, higher age, and male sex, were seen more frequently in the severe...

  10. Personal and couple level risk factors: Maternal and paternal parent-child aggression risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Meagan C; Rodriguez, Christina M; Baker, Levi R

    2017-07-01

    Previous literature examining parent-child aggression (PCA) risk has relied heavily upon mothers, limiting our understanding of paternal risk factors. Moreover, the extent to which factors in the couple relationship work in tandem with personal vulnerabilities to impact PCA risk is unclear. The current study examined whether personal stress and distress predicted PCA risk (child abuse potential, over-reactive discipline style, harsh discipline practices) for fathers as well as mothers and whether couple functioning mediated versus moderated the relation between personal stress and PCA risk in a sample of 81 couples. Additionally, the potential for risk factors in one partner to cross over and affect their partner's PCA risk was considered. Findings indicated higher personal stress predicted elevated maternal and paternal PCA risk. Better couple functioning did not moderate this relationship but partially mediated stress and PCA risk for both mothers and fathers. In addition, maternal stress evidenced a cross-over effect, wherein mothers' personal stress linked to fathers' couple functioning. Findings support the role of stress and couple functioning in maternal and paternal PCA risk, including potential cross-over effects that warrant further inquiry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Sakshi Singh; T K Ray; Ranjan Das; Abha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been observed to be associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. GDM is becoming a public health concern globally as well as in India with fast increasing trend. It affects approximately 14% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of food items having high glycaemic index with GDM risk are sparse. Most of the literature has focused on typical risk factors like advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes mellitus,...

  12. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  13. Risk Factors for Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Histologic Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirk JT

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the different histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma have different risk factors. We investigated the relationships between selected epidemiologic variables (i.e., parity, family history of ovarian cancer, oral contraceptive use, a history of tubal ligation and noncontraceptive estrogen use and the major histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer in a hospital-based case-control study of adult women at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, USA. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. We observed a pattern of increased risk associated with family history and a pattern of risk reduction associated with parity, noncontraceptive estrogen use and tubal ligation across all histologic subtype groups. However, we did not observe a consistent pattern of risk associated with oral contraceptive use. These results provide some additional support for the hypothesis that the effects of various ovarian cancer risk factors may differ according to the histologic subtype.

  14. Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for arterial hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risk factors the bankers commonly had knowledge of are alcohol, obesity, high salt intake, certain drugs, stress, emotional problems and family history while the traffic wardens commonly had knowledge of all these in addition to cigarette smoking. Also, more bankers (32.2%) than traffic wardens (13.3%) were smoking ...

  15. Fall risk factors in community-dwelling elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bergland

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a common and serious problem for older adults. Approximately one-third of older communitydwelling people fall at least once a year. The main purpose of this paper is to present risk factors for fall in older people living at home. The databases used for identifying documentation of risk factors are Cinahl, Eric, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Medline, Psycinfo and dissertation. Many psychosocial and medical conditions and impairment of sensorimotor function, balance and gait have been shown in large epidemiological studies to be strongly associated with falls. Several of the risk factors are interrelated. The intrinsic-extrinsic distinction seem to be an oversimplification. A better understanding of falls is usually obtained when examining the person in association with the environmental factors. Advanced age, history of falls, ADL limitations, impaired gait and mobility, visual impairment, reduced sensation, muscular weakness, poor reaction time, impaired cognition, diseases as stroke, use of psychoactive medication and use of many medications are risk factors shown to be strongly associated with falls. This means recommendation of multifactorial fall risk assessment must incorporate a range of physiological and mental tests in addition to assessing balance and gait as well as taking multiple chronic diseases and medications into account. These finding underscore the importance of multidimensional fall intervention with special focus on modifiable risk factors

  16. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and

  17. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P.; Noethen, Markus M.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapaa-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E.; Tsoi, Lam C.; van Heel, David A.; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M.; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer substantial risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen-binding repertoires between a heterozygote's two expressed HLA variants might result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested the

  18. Effectiveness of the addition of therapeutic alliance with minimal intervention in the treatment of patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain and low risk of involvement of psychosocial factors: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (TalkBack trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Felipe Ribeiro Cabral; de Melo do Espírito Santo, Caique; de Luna Teixeira, Francine Mendonça; Tonini, Thaís Vanelli; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2017-01-31

    The stratified model of care has been an effective approach for the treatment of low back pain. However, the treatment of patients with low risk of psychosocial-factor involvement is unclear. The addition of the therapeutic alliance to a minimal intervention may be an option for the treatment of low back pain. This paper reports on the rationale, design and protocol for a randomized controlled trial with blind assessor to assess the effectiveness of the addition of therapeutic alliance with minimal intervention on pain and disability in patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain. Two hundred and twenty-two patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain and low risk of involvement of psychosocial factors will be assessed and randomly allocated into three groups (n = 74 patients per group). The Positive Therapeutic Alliance group will receive counseling and guidance with an emphasis on therapeutic alliance and empathy. The Usual Treatment group will receive the same information and counseling with limited interaction with the therapist. The Control group will not receive any intervention. The treatment will be composed by two intervention sessions with a 1-week interval. A blinded assessor will collect the following outcomes at baseline, 1 month, 6 months and 12 months after randomization: pain intensity (Pain Numerical Rating Scale), specific disability (Patient-specific Functional Scale), general disability (Oswestry Disability Index), global perceived effect (Global Perceived Effect Scale), empathy (Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure), credibility and expectations related to treatment. The analysis will be performed using linear mixed models. This will be the first study to understand the effect of combining enhanced therapeutic alliance to a treatment based on counseling, information and advice (minimal intervention). The addition of the therapeutic alliance to minimal intervention may improve the treatment of chronic, nonspecific low back

  19. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Freire da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.

  20. Pulmonary embolism: sifting the risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, K G; Roush, M B

    1998-12-01

    A 20-year-old female college cross-country runner developed chest pain and dyspnea that increased with running. A chest radiograph revealed a right-side pleural effusion, and a ventilation-perfusion scan indicated a probable pulmonary embolism. The diagnosis was left-side pulmonary emboli. Testing for genetic risk factors was negative, leaving oral contraceptive use as the likely cause of the condition. The patient was treated with anticoagulant drugs and discontinuation of oral contraceptives, and was allowed to resume running gradually. Discussion covers genetic and other risk factors, anticoagulation therapy, and return to play.

  1. Childhood risk factors for developing fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Olivieri,1 Bruce Solitar,2,* Michel Dubois3,*1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Rheumatology, 3Department of Pain Management, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal.Methods: A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences.Results: A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married.Discussion: Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood

  2. Risk factors for first time incidence sciatica: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad E; Taylor, Jeffrey; Wright, Alexis; Milosavljevic, Steven; Goode, Adam; Whitford, Maureen

    2014-06-01

    Characteristically, sciatica involves radiating leg pain that follows a dermatomal pattern along the distribution of the sciatic nerve. To our knowledge, there are no studies that have investigated risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica. The purpose of the systematic review was to identify the longitudinal risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica and to report incidence rates for the condition. For the purposes of this review, first time incidence sciatica was defined as either of the following: 1) no prior history of sciatica or 2) transition from a pain-free state to sciatica. Studies included subjects of any age from longitudinal, observational, cohort designs. The study was a systematic review. Eight of the 239 articles identified by electronic search strategies met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors and their respective effect estimates were reported using descriptive analysis and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Modifiable risk factors included smoking, obesity, occupational factors and health status. Non-modifiable factors included age, gender and social class. Incidence rates varied among the included studies, in part reflecting the variability in the operationalized definition of sciatica but ranged from sciatica are modifiable, suggesting the potential benefits of primary prevention. In addition, those risk factors are also associated with unhealthy lifestyles, which may function concomitantly toward the development of sciatica. Sciatica as a diagnosis is inconsistently defined among studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Genetic risk factors in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaïti-Pellié, C

    1999-12-01

    Familial risk factors are known to play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, particularly when the relatives are affected by early-onset cancer. Part of this familial aggregation can be accounted for by inherited forms of colorectal cancer, i.e. familial adenomatous polyposis (less than 1% of all CRC) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (about 3%). Other genetic factors may be involved in the development of adenoma or in the transformation of adenoma into carcinoma. That the existence of polymorphisms of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene increase susceptibility to both adenomas and cancer favours this hypothesis. Interactions between environmental factors, and most of all dietary factors, and polymorphisms of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes may also be involved. Better knowledge of these mechanisms will substantially widen the scope of colorectal cancer prevention.

  4. Risk factors for acute renal failure: inherent and modifiable risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Martine; Kellum, John A; Gibney, R T Noel; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Tumlin, James; Mehta, Ravindra

    2005-12-01

    Our purpose is to discuss established risk factors in the development of acute renal failure and briefly overview clinical markers and preventive measures. Findings from the literature support the role of older age, diabetes, underlying renal insufficiency, and heart failure as predisposing factors for acute renal failure. Diabetics with baseline renal insufficiency represent the highest risk subgroup. An association between sepsis, hypovolemia, and acute renal failure is clear. Liver failure, rhabdomyolysis, and open-heart surgery (especially valve replacement) are clinical conditions potentially leading to acute renal failure. Increasing evidence shows that intraabdominal hypertension may contribute to the development of acute renal failure. Radiocontrast and antimicrobial agents are the most common causes of nephrotoxic acute renal failure. In terms of prevention, avoiding nephrotoxins when possible is certainly desirable; fluid therapy is an effective prevention measure in certain clinical circumstances. Supporting cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and renal perfusion pressure are indicated to reduce the risk for acute renal failure. Nonionic, isoosmolar intravenous contrast should be used in high-risk patients. Although urine output and serum creatinine lack sensitivity and specificity in acute renal failure, they remain the most used parameters in clinical practice. There are identified risk factors of acute renal failure. Because acute renal failure is associated with a worsening outcome, particularly if occurring in critical illness and if severe enough to require renal replacement therapy, preventive measures should be part of appropriate management.

  5. Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of ke...

  6. Risk factors associated with lipomyelomeningocele: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Arash; Hanaei, Sara; Fadakar, Kaveh; Dadkhah, Sahar; Arjipour, Mahdi; Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    In general, it seems that both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the induction of neural tube defects. Lipomyelomeningocele (LipoMMC) is a rather common type of closed neural tube defect, but only limited studies have investigated the potential risk factors of this anomaly. Therefore, the purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors involved in LipoMMC formation. Various risk factors were evaluated in 35 children between 1 month and 10 years of age with LipoMMC in a hospital-based case-control study. The 2 control arms consisted of 35 children with myelomeningocele (MMC group) and 35 children with congenital anomalies other than central nervous system problems (control group). All groups were matched for age and visited the same hospital. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of all data, including the mothers' weight and height during pregnancy, education, reproductive history, previous abortions, and socioeconomic status, as well as the parents' consanguinity and family history of the same anomalies. Univariate analysis of the children with LipoMMC compared to the control group showed that the use of periconceptional folic acid supplementation was significantly lower in the MMC and LipoMMC groups compared to the control group. In addition, comparison of the MMC and control groups revealed statistically significant differences regarding the use of folic acid and maternal obesity. In multivariate analysis, use of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester was an independent risk factor for LipoMMC and MMC. Furthermore, maternal obesity was a significantly positive risk factor for MMC. The probable risk factors for LipoMMC were investigated in this case-control study. Consumption of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester is an independent protective factor against LipoMMC. It seems that larger studies are needed to examine other possible

  7. Risk factors for mortality in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, H; Chandran, S; Potluri, R

    2015-09-01

    Down syndrome is a genetic condition that contributes to a significantly shorter life expectancy compared with the general population. We investigated the most common comorbidities in a population of acute hospital patients with Down syndrome and further explored what the most common risk factors for mortality are within this population. From our database of one million patients admitted to National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in northern England, we identified 558 people who had Down syndrome. We compared this group with an age- and gender-matched control group of 5580 people. The most prevalent comorbid diseases within the Down's population were hypothyroidism (22.9%) and epilepsy (20.3%). However, the conditions that had the highest relative risks (RRs) in the Down's population were septal defects and dementia. Respiratory failure, dementia and pneumonia were the most significantly related comorbidities to mortality in the Down syndrome population. In the control population, respiratory failure, dementia and renal failure were the most significant disease contributors. When these contributors were analysed using multivariate analysis, heart failure, respiratory failure, pneumonia and epilepsy were the identified risk factors for in-hospital mortality in the Down syndrome population. Respiratory failure was the sole risk factor for mortality in the Down syndrome population [RR = 9.791 (1.6-59.9) P ≤ 0.05], when compared with the risk factors for mortality in the control population. There is significant medical morbidity in Down syndrome. This morbidity contributes to the lower life expectancy. Respiratory failure is a risk factor for mortality in Down syndrome. We need to thoroughly investigate people with Down syndrome to ensure any treatable illnesses are well managed. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Psychosocial risk factors and personality disorders in outpatient cardiology setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Suárez-Bagnasco

    2015-01-01

    Psychological risk factors and personality disorders comorbidities are more frequent than psychological risk factors only or personality disorders only in outpatient cardiology setting without cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  10. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  11. Hypospadias: risk factor patterns and different phenotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Zanden, L.F.M. van der; Gier, R.P.E. de; Barten, E.J.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain more insight into the origin of hypospadias by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study in which a distinction was made between different phenotypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were 305 boys with hypospadias and 629 boys with

  12. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer Risk and Environmental Factors For millions of women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer, the 1994 discovery of the first breast ... gene by researchers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and their collaborators, was a ...

  13. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  14. Self-management of vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing

  15. [Hepatitis caused by virus C. Risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garassini, M E; Pulgar, Y; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A

    1995-01-01

    To establish the risk factors to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we studied 120 patients divided in 2 groups: A first group of 40 patients with HCV infection, 24 (60%) with past medical history of blood transfusion, 14 (35%) of them also had hemodialysis and 3 Kidney transplant. 10 patients (25%) had mayor surgery without transfusion, 3 had frequent visits to the dentist and 3 month baby whose mother was HCV positive. In 4 patients we found no risk factors. A second group of 80 patients who visit our clinic for the first time, 2 were found positive for HCV (1.6%). 13 of them had blood transfusion, one was HCV+ (OR: 5.5, P = 0.73). 41 had history of mayor surgery, one HCV+ (OR: 0.95, P = 1.000). The risk factors related to HCV infection in our population were blood transfusion, hemodialysis and mayor surgery. The use of EV drugs, tatoos, sexual behavior, interfamiliar or vertical transmission were not risk factor in our population.

  16. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, L.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830917

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for

  17. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  18. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background

    Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In

  19. Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from c...

  20. Depression: risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehl, L.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Otte, C.

    2012-01-01

    Major depression is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In patients with existing cardiovascular disease, major depression has a large impact on the quality of life and is associated with a poor course and prognosis. Potential mechanisms responsible for this

  1. Risk factors associated with oesophageal malignancy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... Genetics, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption are among the known risk factors for this deadly cancer. ... Methods: A case-control study where volunteer adult patients aged 18 and above with diagnosis of oesophageal cancer (cases) and non-esophageal cancer ...

  2. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption

  3. Risk factors for autism: An Egyptian study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    Abstract This study has been conducted to determine the possible risk factors of autism. This case control study was conducted at pediatric hospital, Ain Shams University on, 100 autistic patients who were subjected to the followings tools: Confirmation of diagnosis using DSM-IV-TR criteria,. IQ assessment using ...

  4. [Risk factors found in suicide attempters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Manzano, Alberto Iram; Robles-Romero, Miguel Angel; Gutiérrez-Román, Elsa Armida; Martínez-Arriaga, María Guadalupe; Valadez-Toscano, Francisco Javier; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of risk factors for suicide in general population is crucial for the design of suicide prevention programs. Our objective was to identify personal and family risk factors in suicide attempters. Case-control design. We searched in patients with an acute intoxication, those subjects with and intoxication attributable to suicide attempt. These patients were matched with controls by gender and the date of intoxication. We use a structured questionnaire to identify personal characteristics, family features and network support. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval were obtained. 25 cases and 25 controls were evaluated. The risk factors associated with suicide attempt adjusted by age, were being a student and smoking habits. Family violence background showed OR = 3.8 (IC 95 % = 1.1-13), family disintegration a OR = 8.5 (IC 95 % = 2.1-35), critical events background OR = 8.8 (IC 95 % = 2.1-36), poor self-esteem OR = 8.2 (IC 95 % 2-35), depression OR = 22 (IC 95 % = 3-190), anxiety OR = 9 (IC 95 % = 2-47), family dysfunction OR = 25 (IC 95 % = 4-151). The principal risk factor for suicide attempt was family dysfunction and psychological traits.

  5. Risk factors for hearing loss in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Maharani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 6 of 1,000 children with live births suffer from permanent hearing loss at birth or the neonatal period. At least 90% of cases occur in developing countries. Hearing loss should be diagnosed as early as possible so that intervention can be done before the age of 6 months. Objective To determine risk factors for hearing loss in neonates. Methods We performed a case-control study involving 100 neonates with and without hearing loss who were born at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar from November 2012 to February 2013. Subjects were consisted of 2 groups, those with hearing loss (case group of 50 subjects and without hearing loss (control group of 50 subjects. The groups were matched for gender and birth weight. We assessed the following risk factors for hearing loss: severe neonatal asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, history of aminoglycoside therapy, and mechanical ventilation by Chi-square analysis. The results were presented as odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results Seventy percent of neonates with hearing loss had history of aminoglycoside therapy. Multivariable analysis revealed that aminoglycoside therapy of 14 days or more was a significant risk factor for hearing loss (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.1 to 6.8; P=0.040. There were no statistically significant associations between hearing loss and severe asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, or mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Aminoglycoside therapy for >=14 days was identified as a risk factor for hearing loss in neonates.

  6. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2015-01-01

    was generally seen with increasing age in both countries, but deviating patterns were seen for alcohol intake, red/processed meat, obesity and age 70+. Conclusions: This study supports findings from other European studies that generally demonstrate modest public awareness of many established cancer risk factors...

  7. Risk factors for falls of older citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, C.; Hekman, E. E. G.; Verkerke, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fall prevention is a major issue in the ageing society. This study provides an overview of all risk factors for falls of older citizens. METHOD: A literature search was conducted to retrieve studies of the past 25 years. All participants from the studies lived in the community or

  8. Tourette Syndrome (TS): Risk Factors and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... having TS. The causes of TS and other tic disorders are not well understood. Although the risk factors ... Psychiatry. 2017; 74(7): 740-746. Related Links Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Child Development Positive Parenting Tips A-Z ...

  9. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  10. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  11. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  12. Macrosomia - maternal and fetal risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infant weighing 4 000 g or more in a black population. Identifiable maternal risk factors included a ... of the high perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, as well as maternal morbidity, are discussed. S Afr Med J 1995; 85: 43-46. Little attention has been paid to fetal macrosomia in black. African populations, despite the fact that ...

  13. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    and Gram-positive bacteria. KEY WORDS: Antenatal women, antibiotic resistance, asymptomatic bacteriuria, prevalence, risk factors. INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy is classified as either symptomatic or asymptomatic. Symptomatic UTI are divided into lower tract (acute cystitis) and upper ...

  14. [Mortality risk factors in ventilator associated pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren B, Osvaldo; Aranda T, Jacquelin; Dorn H, Lilian; Ferrada M, Mónica; Ugarte E, Héctor; Koscina M, Vinka; López R, Daniel; Morel F, Mauro

    2009-06-01

    to identify lethality and mortality rates and, mortality risk factors in ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) on 114 patients treated between 2000 and 2007. Twenty five risk factors were analyzed, emphasizing age, gender, APACHE score, associated diseases, hypotension at intake, coma, hospitalization time, length of time of ventilation, emergency intubation, reintubation, previous antibiotics, and resistant microrganisms. Lethality was 25.4 %, and mortality was 2.4 %. Association between lethality, and APACHE score was found (p: 0.04). Critical APACHE value was 22. Also, in early pneumonia, association between lethality and nasogastric tube (p: 0.01, I.C. 95 % 1.39 - 6.35) was found. No association with late pneumonia was found among mortality and clinical practices. Death's RR (relative risk) increase in following values with: previous neurological disease 2.7 (p: 0.15, IC 95 % 1.15 - 6.5), neurological comaRR 2 (p: 0.2, IC 95 % 0.54 - 7.53). Nevertheless, at multivariate analysis no mortality risk factors were identified. Fair association with time in ICU (p: 0.051 IC 95 % 0.99 - 1.17) and, male sex (p: 0.051, IC 95 % 0.99 - 6.72) was found. We observed multiple factors associated to mortality in VAP: use of nasogastric catheter, longer stay in ICU and male sex.

  15. Risk factors associated with oesophageal malignancy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors associated with oesophageal malignancy among Ethiopian patients: a case control study. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  16. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olfa Berriche

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... Abstract Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone den- sity and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporo- sis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of ...

  17. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis | Berriche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone density and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporosis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of osteoporotic women and ...

  18. RISK FACTORS FOR STROKE AND USE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-04-04

    Apr 4, 2003 ... Objective: To review risk factors for stroke and the use of echocardiography in its diagnosis. ... embolism(5,18). Intra-cardiac thrombosis: This occurs in the setting of post myocardial infarction particularly in the anterior cardiac area (19). AC with INR .... of left ventricular thrombi in patients with acute anterior.

  19. Risk factors in oil and gas lending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.; Kipp, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that with the increasing internationalization of the petroleum industry, lenders to the industry must understand and overcome several new credit risk factors. As a result, new financial products are now available to reserve-based borrowers. Traditional project financing now also may include futures hedging, swaps, and collar elements

  20. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence

  1. Variation among cardiovascular risk calculators in relative risk increases with identical risk factor increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G Michael; Nouri, Faeze; Korownyk, Christina; Kolber, Michael R; Vandermeer, Ben; McCormack, James

    2015-09-07

    Risk estimates for the same patient can vary substantially among cardiovascular risk calculators and the reasons are not fully explained. We compared the relative risk increases for consistent risk factors changes across different cardiovascular risk calculators. Five clinicians independently selected 16 calculators providing absolute risk estimations. Hypothetical patients were generated using a combination of seven risk factors [age, gender, smoking, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol and diabetes] dichotomized to high and low risk, generating 2(7) patients (128 total). Relative risk increases due to specific risk factors were determined and compared. The 16 selected calculators were from six countries, used 5- and 10-year predictions, and estimated CVD or coronary heart disease risk. Across the different calculators for non-diabetic patients, changing age from 50 to 70 produced average relative risk increases from 82 to 395%, gender (female to male) 35-225%, smoking status 31-118%, systolic blood pressure (120-160 mmHg) 16-124%, total cholesterol (4-7 mmol/L) 51-302% and HDL (1.3-0.8 mmol/L) 27-133%. Similar results were found among diabetic patients. Some calculators appeared to have consistently higher relative risk increases over multiple risk factors. Cardiovascular risk calculators weigh the same risk factors differently. For each risk factor, the relative risk increase from the calculator with the highest increase was generally three to eight times greater than the relative risk increase from the calculator with lowest increase. This likely contributes to some of the inconsistency in risk calculator estimation. It also limits the use of risk calculators in estimating the benefits of therapy.

  2. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches...

  3. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    2.7, 95% CI 1.9-3.9), being distracted by someone (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.3-4.1), non-routine task (OR 8.2, 95% CI 5.3-12.5), altered surroundings (OR 20.9, 95% CI 12.2-35.8), and broken machinery or materials (OR 20.6, 95% CI 13.5-31.7). The risk of occupational injury did not vary substantially....... In particular, equipment (broken machinery or materials) and work-practice-related factors (non-routine task and altered surroundings) increased the risk of an occupational injury. Elaboration of results in relation to hazard period and information bias is warranted....... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...

  4. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested a possible protective role of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system. The available evidence does not support either cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation. This chapter provides an overview and discussion of the current knowledge...... of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...

  5. [High risk factors analysis of stillbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y; Xia, H X; Wang, Y S; Lin, X L; Zhu, T T; Zhao, Y; Li, X T

    2017-12-25

    Objective: To explore the high risk factors of stillbirth. Methods: 176 cases of stillbirth were collected in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University from January 1(st), 2010 to December 31(st), 2016. All cases were analyzed retrospectively, including general profile, high risk factors of stillbirth in different years and pregnancy periods. Results: (1) The incidence of stillbirth was 0.178%(176/98 785). Stillbirth occured mostly at 28-28(+6) gestational weeks (10.8%,19/176), and the second peak was 29-29(+6) weeks(10.2%,18/176), while the third common period was 37-37(+6) weeks (9.1%,16/176). After 39 weeks, it maintained at a low level. (2) The top 5 high risk factors of stillbirth were infection (18.2%,32/176), unexplained (13.6%,24/176), hypertention disorders in pregnancy (13.1%, 23/176), umbilical cord torsion (12.5%, 22/176) and fetal malformations (10.2%, 18/176). (3) From 2010 to 2012, the top 3 high risk factors were unexplained, the umbilical cord torsion and infection, while hypertention in pregnancy, infection and fetal malformation became the top 3 high risk factors after 2013. (4) Early stillbirth (20-27(+6) weeks) accounted for 21.6%(38/176); and unexplained (47.4%, 18/38), fetal edema (13.2%, 5/38),infection (13.2%, 5/38), umbilical cord torsion (5.3%, 2/38) were the top 4 high risk factors. Late stillbirth (≥28 weeks) accounted for 78.4%(138/176), with infection (19.6%,27/138), hypertention in pregnancy (15.9%,22/138), umbilical cord torsion (14.5%,20/138) and fetal malformation(12.3%,17/138)being the top 4 high risk factors. Conclusions: More attention should be paid to maternal complications, especially infection and hypertension in pregnancy. Antenatal fetal monitoring, timely termination of pregnancy, standard management of stillbirth and looking for the causes may help reduce the incidence of stillbirth.

  6. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as 'outcome' variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 - 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 - 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks.

  7. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended.

  9. Risk factors of preseptal and orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Tariq Farooq; Zaman, Mir; Khan, Mohammad Naeem; Khan, Mohammad Daud

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the frequency and major risk factors of preseptal and orbital cellulitis. A cross-sectional analytical study. The Khyber Institute of Ophthalmic Medical Sciences, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from July 2003 to December 2006. All consecutive patients between ages 6 and 40 years, admitted to the institute with the diagnosis of preseptal and orbital cellulitis were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I included patients with ages 6-16 years and group II with ages 17-40 years. The clinical features, diagnosis and risk factors were entered on a specially-designed proforma. The risk factors included were trauma, insect bite, localized or systemic infection and postsurgical. Odd ratio and p-values were calculated for potential risk factors. The frequency of orbital cellulitis was 0.1% of total admission. Out of 26 patients, 42.30% patients were in group I and 57 in group II. In group I, insect bite was the most common risk factor identified in 40% of patients with preseptal cellulitis and trauma as a common cause in 50% with orbital cellulitis. In group II, trauma was the leading cause in 50% of patients with preseptal cellulitis and sinusitis as a common cause in 18.1% with those of orbital cellulitis. In both groups the p-values were found insignificant (p>0.5). Complications included cicatricial ectropion in 44.4% and orbital abscess in 41.1%. For preseptal cellulitis, insect bite was the most common cause in group I and trauma was the leading cause in group II. For orbital cellulitis, trauma was important cause in group I and sinusitis in group II.

  10. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal...... exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD......-up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints (wheeze episodes, asthma...

  11. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    -up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints (wheeze episodes, asthma......The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal...

  12. Risk factors of coercion among psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do...... in this first large-scale study. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted among all psychiatric inpatients in Denmark, following 112,233 individuals during 1999-2014. Data from Danish registers were analysed using logistic regression for repeated measures. RESULTS: 24,594 inpatients were exposed to a coercive...... measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased...

  13. Risk factors for criminal recidivism in older sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Sjöstedt, Gabrielle; Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Sexual offenders constitute a substantial proportion of the older male prison population. Recent research findings, with potential consequences for risk management, indicate that recidivism risk might be lower in older sexual offenders. We followed up all adult male sexual offenders released from prison in Sweden during 1993-1997 (N=1,303) for criminal reconviction for an average of 8.9 years. We studied rates of repeat offending (sexual and any violent) by four age bands (<25, 25-39, 40-54, and 55+years), and examined whether risk factors for recidivism remained stable across age groups. Results showed that recidivism rates decreased significantly in older age bands. In addition, the effect of certain risk factors varied by age band. These findings on recidivism rates in older sexual offenders concur with studies from the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada and may suggest some generalizability in Western settings. Further research is needed to address underlying mechanisms.

  14. Reproductive risk factors surveyed in Matamoros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) have been distributed through a community-based distribution (CBD) program in Matamaros, Mexico under the auspices of the Centro pro Orientacion Familiar (COFAC). Family Health International (FHI) has provided technical assistance enabling COFAC to conduct a Reproductive Risk Factors Survey to determine if any substantial group of women were placed at a greater risk of death or serious health damage because of this program than if the program had not existed, and, if so, how might such women be protected. The health of CBD acceptors was compared with that of women accepting OC from other sources and women who had never taken OC, using parameters ranging from anemia to cardiovascular disorders. The objective was to investigate the behavior of women who may have serious contraindications to OC and/or pregnancy. About 500 women were interviewed in their homes by specially trained nurses with a questionnaire supplemented by some simple, objective measurements. For validation, a complete medical history was taken and physical examination given for a subsample in the COFAC clinic. Some 40 separate reproductive health indicators were developed from this data. Findings indicated that the CBD program in Matamoros did not introduce any new source of danger to women of reproductive age. As a generality across the 40 indicators, CBD acceptors were as healthy as acceptors from other sources and were somewhat more likely to have consulted a physician. Current OC users were healthier than never users, after controlling for age and parity. The fact of regular contact with neighborhood promotoras (promoters), backed up by the COFAC medical center, represented an additional source of safety not previously available. The promoters were responsible for promotion of family planning, including sale at a subsidized price of OCs and contraceptive foam, and were trained in the use of a checklist for possible contraindications to OC. The CBD program introduced an

  15. Risk Factors and Biomarkers of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nathan G.; Singh, Malkit K.; ElShelmani, Hanan; Mansergh, Fiona C.; Wride, Michael A.; Padilla, Maximilian; Keegan, David; Hogg, Ruth E.; Ambati, Balamurali K.

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker can be a substance or structure measured in body parts, fluids or products that can affect or predict disease incidence. As age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, much research and effort has been invested in the identification of different biomarkers to predict disease incidence, identify at risk individuals, elucidate causative pathophysiological etiologies, guide screening, monitoring and treatment parameters, and predict disease outcomes. To date, a host of genetic, environmental, proteomic, and cellular targets have been identified as both risk factors and potential biomarkers for AMD. Despite this, their use has been confined to research settings and has not yet crossed into the clinical arena. A greater understanding of these factors and their use as potential biomarkers for AMD can guide future research and clinical practice. This article will discuss known risk factors and novel, potential biomarkers of AMD in addition to their application in both academic and clinical settings. PMID:27156982

  16. The risk of venous thrombosis in individuals with a history of superficial vein thrombosis and acquired venous thrombotic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Rachel E J; Lijfering, Willem M; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2013-12-19

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) increases the risk of venous thrombosis fourfold to sixfold. As most individuals with SVT do not develop venous thrombosis, additional risk factors may explain the risk of developing a venous thrombosis. In the Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of risk factors for venous thrombosis study, we assessed the risk of venous thrombosis in individuals with previous SVT and a mild thrombotic risk factor (smoking or overweight/obesity), a strong risk factor (surgery, hospitalization, plaster cast immobilization, or malignancy), or a reproductive factor in women (oral contraception, postmenopausal hormone therapy, or pregnancy/puerperium). Individuals with previous SVT alone had a 5.5-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-6.8) increased risk of venous thrombosis. This was 9.3 (95% CI, 7.2-12.1) combined with a mild thrombotic risk factor, 31.4 (95% CI, 14.6-67.5) with a strong risk factor, and 34.9 (95% CI, 19.1-63.8) in women with a reproductive risk factor. The highest separate risk estimates were found for SVT with surgery (42.5; 95% CI, 10.2-177.6), hospitalization (49.8; 95% CI, 11.9-209.2), or oral contraception (43.0; 95% CI, 15.5-119.3 in women). In conclusion, the risk of venous thrombosis is markedly increased in individuals with previous SVT who have an acquired thrombotic risk factor.

  17. Occupational and genetic risk factors associated with intervertebral disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Iita M; Karppinen, Jaro; Taimela, Simo; Ott, Jürg; Barral, Sandra; Kaikkonen, Kaisu; Heikkilä, Olli; Mutanen, Pertti; Noponen, Noora; Männikkö, Minna; Tervonen, Osmo; Natri, Antero; Ala-Kokko, Leena

    2007-05-01

    Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. To evaluate the interaction between known genetic risk factors and whole-body vibration for symptomatic intervertebral disc disease (IDD) in an occupational sample. Risk factors of IDD include, among others, whole-body vibration and heredity. In this study, the importance of a set of known genetic risk factors and whole-body vibration was evaluated in an occupational sample of train engineers and sedentary controls. Eleven variations in 8 genes (COL9A2, COL9A3, COL11A2, IL1A, IL1B, IL6, MMP-3, and VDR) were genotyped in 150 male train engineers with an average of 21-year exposure to whole-body vibration and 61 male paper mill workers with no exposure to vibration. Subjects were classified into IDD-phenotype and asymptomatic groups, based on the latent class analysis. The number of individuals belonging to the IDD-phenotype was significantly higher among train engineers (42% of train engineers vs. 17.5% of sedentary workers; P = 0.005). IL1A -889T allele represented a significant risk factor for the IDD-phenotype both in the single marker allelic association test (P = 0.043) and in the logistic regression analysis (P = 0.01). None of the other allele markers was significantly associated with symptoms when analyzed independently. However, for all the SNP markers considered, whole-body vibration represents a nominally significant risk factor. The results suggest that whole-body vibration is a risk factor for symptomatic IDD. Moreover, whole-body vibration had an additive effect with genetic risk factors increasing the likelihood of belonging to the IDD-phenotype group. Of the independent genetic markers, IL1A -889T allele had strongest association with IDD-phenotype.

  18. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  19. Risk factors in child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Eryl A; Jones, Alyson C

    2013-04-01

    To quantify the incidence of child sexual abuse allegations referred to a forensic examination centre; to identify possible risk factors predisposing children to sexual abuse by measuring their prevalence among the complainant population. The records of children involved in sexual abuse allegations presenting over a 12 month period were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data such as nature of case, sex, ethnicity, number of previous allegations, assailant relationship, month of presentation, and age were compiled. Potential risk factors such as alcohol or drug use, being 'looked after', physical disability, learning disability, previous consensual sexual intercourse, past psychiatric history, and history of psychiatric support were compiled. Descriptive statistics were calculated. 138 cases were recorded, of which the majority were acute. Epidemiological data demonstrated a higher incidence in females and most complainants were of White British origin. Most of the cases were of first allegations and the assailant relationship was most frequently an acquaintance. The incidence was highest in January. The modal age was 15 years and age distribution was positively skewed. Of the potential risk factors studied, alcohol and drug use was the most prevalent. Prevalence increased with age for the majority of factors studied. Alcohol and drug use may be an area in which preventative strategies would be beneficial. Ethnic minorities may hold a large amount of unreported cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2006-01-01

    therapy for postoperative pain should be investigated, since the intensity of acute postoperative pain correlates with the risk of developing a persistent pain state. Finally, the role of genetic factors should be studied, since only a proportion of patients with intraoperative nerve damage develop...... chronic pain. Based on information about the molecular mechanisms that affect changes to the peripheral and central nervous system in neuropathic pain, several opportunities exist for multimodal pharmacological intervention. Here, we outline strategies for identification of patients at risk...... and for prevention and possible treatment of this important entity of chronic pain....

  1. Risk factors for sporadic ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Vysotsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of the literature on the problems of sporadic ovarian cancer details the present views of its disputable risk factors, such as dietary habits, body weight, contraception, and labor, and age of commencing a sexual activity. It discusses the dietary and sexual behavior model that has changed since the Neolithic, as well as the number of menses and ovulations throughout the reproductive peri- od. The works by authors dealing with the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of ovarian cancer are analyzed.

  2. Recurrent Shoulder Dystocia: Risk Factors and Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurewitsch Allen, Edith D

    2016-12-01

    A prior history of delivery complicated by shoulder dystocia confers a 6-fold to nearly 30-fold increased risk of shoulder dystocia recurrence in a subsequent vaginal delivery, with most reported rates between 12% and 17%. Whereas prevention of shoulder dystocia in the general population is neither feasible nor cost-effective, directing intervention efforts at the particular subgroup of women with a prior history of shoulder dystocia has merit. Potentially modifiable risk factors and individualized management strategies that may reduce shoulder dystocia recurrence and its associated significant morbidities are reviewed.

  3. Risk factors for genital human papillomavirus among men in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Mwaiselage, Julius; Iftner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    were offered HIV testing. Risk factors for HPV (HC2 high-risk and/or low-risk positivity) were assessed using logistic regression with adjustment for age, lifetime number of sexual partners, and HIV status. Altogether, 372 men (20.5%) were HPV-positive. Among men tested for HIV (n = 1,483), the HIV......The objective of the study was to assess risk factors for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among men in Tanzania, both overall and in relation to HIV status. In a cross-sectional study conducted among 1,813 men in Tanzania, penile swabs were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). Study participants......, although not being statistically significant. In conclusion, HIV is a strong risk factor for HPV among men in Tanzania. Additionally, in HIV-positive men a high BMI seems to be associated with a lower risk of HPV. Finally, we observed a tendency toward a lower risk of HPV both among HIV-positive and HIV...

  4. Pharmaceutical supply chain risk assessment in Iran using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and simple additive weighting (SAW) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberidoost, Mona; Olfat, Laya; Hosseini, Alireza; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Alaeddini, Mahdi; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical supply chain is a significant component of the health system in supplying medicines, particularly in countries where main drugs are provided by local pharmaceutical companies. No previous studies exist assessing risks and disruptions in pharmaceutical companies while assessing the pharmaceutical supply chain. Any risks affecting the pharmaceutical companies could disrupt supply medicines and health system efficiency. The goal of this study was the risk assessment in pharmaceutical industry in Iran considering process's priority, hazard and probability of risks. The study was carried out in 4 phases; risk identification through literature review, risk identification in Iranian pharmaceutical companies through interview with experts, risk analysis through a questionnaire and consultation with experts using group analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method and rating scale (RS) and risk evaluation of simple additive weighting (SAW) method. In total, 86 main risks were identified in the pharmaceutical supply chain with perspective of pharmaceutical companies classified in 11 classes. The majority of risks described in this study were related to the financial and economic category. Also financial management was found to be the most important factor for consideration. Although pharmaceutical industry and supply chain were affected by current political conditions in Iran during the study time, but half of total risks in the pharmaceutical supply chain were found to be internal risks which could be fixed by companies, internally. Likewise, political status and related risks forced companies to focus more on financial and supply management resulting in less attention to quality management.

  5. Risk Factors for Urosepsis in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Peach MSN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify factors that predispose older adults to urosepsis and urosepsis-related mortality. Method: A systematic search using PubMed and CINAHL databases. Articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE criteria and were scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Results: A total of 180 articles were identified, and six met inclusion criteria. The presence of an internal urinary catheter was associated with the development of urosepsis and septic shock. Although a number of factors were examined, functional dependency, number of comorbidities, and low serum albumin were associated with mortality across multiple studies included in this review. Discussion: Little scientific evidence is available on urosepsis, its associated risk factors, and those factors associated with urosepsis-related mortality in older adults. More research is warranted to better understand urosepsis in this vulnerable population in an effort to improve the quality of patient care.

  6. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingre C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Ingre,1 Per M Roos,2 Fredrik Piehl,1 Freya Kamel,3 Fang Fang4 1Department of Clinical Neuroscience, 2Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, risk factors, genetics, lifestyle, environment

  7. Extracting additional risk managers information from a risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in deli meats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F.; Asselt, van E.D.; García-Gimeno, R.M.; Zurera, G.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The risk assessment study of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is an example of an extensive quantitative microbiological risk assessment that could be used by risk analysts and other scientists to obtain information and by managers and

  8. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelic, Radojka; Milicevic, Snjezana; Balaban, Jagoda

    2017-02-01

    Scientific studies show that many factors related to lifestyles affect the reduction of bone mineral density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The goal of this study was to determine whether smoking, drinking coffee and alcohol in menopausal women contribute to the reduction of bone mass and osteoporosis, as well as the impact of physical activity on bone mass. The study was carried out as case study and matched controls. The group of cases consisted of 100 females in postmenopausal age, in which by the DEXA method was newly diagnosed osteoporosis at the Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Center of RS during 2015-2016, while the control group consisted of 100 females in a postmenopausal age without diagnosed osteoporosis. The groups were matched by age (±2 years). In order to collect demographic data and information on risk factors for osteoporosis and lifestyle of patients was used the questionnaire Bone Mineral Density Questionnaire- Female of the Irish Association for osteoporosis. Testing the significance of differences in terms of smoking showed that the studied groups are statistically significantly different in terms of smoking (χ 2 =24.025, p=0.000). In terms of consumption of coffee, a statistically significant difference was found between the group of cases and control group (χ 2 =0.615, p=0.735). When observing the obtained information about the consumption of alcohol, we find that this preventable risk factor in the present study did not show as significant for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (χ 2 =4.35, p=0.114). Statistical analysis shows that there are significant differences between the group of cases and control group in terms of physical activity (χ 2 =7.30, p=0.026). Analysis of the data of our study by univariate logistic regressions showed that smoking (p=0.000) was statistically significantly associated with osteoporosis, while physical activity is a protective factor for bone mass (p

  9. Skin carcinoma and occupational risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares Fernandez, Tomasa Maria; Correa Lozano, Zoila; Ibarra Fernandez de la Vega, Enrique Jose; Bonet Gorbea Mariano

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relative contribution of different occupational risk factors associated with the occurrence of skin cancer in the provinces of Havana City and Havana, Cuba , in 2006-2007. It was designed a case-control study of hospital base that included 112 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and 448 witnesses, following the inclusion-exclusion criteria preset. We considered the totality of patients diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell histological study of skin biopsy or surgical excision. Risk factors with possible association with the disease were studied, such as sun exposure, ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and a wide range of chemical and biological substances potentially carcinogenic

  10. Dynamic risk factors: the Kia Marama evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Stephen M; Wales, David S; Bakker, Leon; Ward, Tony

    2002-04-01

    Risk assessment is an essential part of clinical practice. Each of the three aspects of risk (static, stable, and acute dynamic) are important at various points of contact between the man and the systems that are responsible for providing service. Dynamic factors, the typical treatment and supervision targets, have received less research attention than static factors. This paper examined the extent to which pretreatment, posttreatment and change scores were associated with reoffending among men incarcerated for sexually molesting. The results were generally supportive of change in prooffending attitudes as the key to not reoffending and suggested that the perspective-taking component of empathy and the use of fantasy may be important mechanisms. Affect scales generally failed to show any relationship with reoffending, outside decreases in trait and suppressed anger. Moreover, these data suggest that we could improve our assessments and treatment through increased sensitivity to offense pathways.

  11. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained first. Afterwards, the findings of content analysis which was obtained from newspaper reports about femicide in 2013 have been shown and these findings have been discussed within the context of I-cube theory, respectively. Finally, solutions to prevent this violence has been suggested.

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences...

  13. Time trends in osteoporosis risk factor profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob Præst; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to identify prevalent osteoporosis risk factors, medications and comorbidities associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Furthermore to evaluate changes in risk factor profiles over 12 years. 6285 women consecutively referred to an osteoporosis specialist clinic were...... was established in a real-life setting. The prevalence of osteoporosis and proportion of patient's having comorbidity's associated with osteoporosis were increasing during the inclusion period (start 23.8 %, end 29.7 %). Increasing age (OR = 1.05), current smoking (OR = 1.18), estrogen deficiency (OR = 1.......7), hyperthyroidism (OR = 1.5), previous major osteoporotic fracture (OR = 1.7), former osteoporosis treatment (OR = 3.5), higher BMI (OR = 0.87), use of calcium supplementation (OR = 1.2), high exercise level (OR = 0.7), and use of thiazide diuretics (OR = 0.7) were identified as predictors of osteoporosis by DXA...

  14. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic...... syndrome in men and women. Methods: The study population consisted of 3621 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline and reexamined after 10 years. The data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, income.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and...

  15. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Slingerland, L.I.

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for plasma glucose measurements. The glucose disposal rate measured during HGC was lower in normal glucose-tolerant cats than in normal glucose-tolerant humans, apparently related to the cat’s lower insu...

  16. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia da Silva Leroy; Adélia Lúcio; Maria Helena Baena de Moraes Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI) and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls) with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine...

  17. Risk factors of depression occurrence in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this lecture is focus on different aspects of occurerence of depression in Adolescence, especially with focus on risk factors. I introduced epidemiology of depression : causes, treatment, and prevention (Abela & Hankin,2008). The special part of the lecture was focus on etiology of depression. Adolescence is characterized by positive gains in cognitive maturity, better interpersonal skills, new experiences, increased autonomy, and hormonal changes (Feldman & Elliot, 1990). Alt...

  18. Risk factors for hearing loss in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins; Marília Fontenele e Silva Câmara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment ...

  19. Allergy: A Risk Factor for Suicide?

    OpenAIRE

    Postolache, Teodor T.; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.

    2008-01-01

    The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy.

  20. Eating Disorders: Epidemiology and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlová, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the epidemiology and risk factors of eating disorders. It focuses on the impact of the political and cultural changes that occured in the Czech Republic in the early 1990s. The term eating disorders includes mental illnesses characterized by disturbances in eating behaviour: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and various eating disorders not otherwise specifieed. It appears that the incidence of anorexia nervosa was increasing until 1970s and remains stable since. The inci...

  1. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  2. Risk Factors for Hemorrhoids on Screening Colonoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Peery

    Full Text Available Constipation, a low fiber diet, sedentary lifestyle and gravidity are commonly assumed to increase the risk of hemorrhoids. However, evidence regarding these factors is limited. We examined the association between commonly cited risk factors and the prevalence of hemorrhoids.We performed a cross sectional study of participants who underwent a colonoscopy in a colorectal adenoma prevention trial and who had a detailed assessment of bowel habits, diet and activity. The presence of hemorrhoids was extracted from the subjects' colonoscopy reports. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for age and sex.The study included 2,813 participants. Of these, 1,074 had hemorrhoids recorded. Constipation was associated with an increased prevalence of hemorrhoids (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.11, 1.86. Of the fiber subtypes, high grain fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk (OR for quartile 4 versus quartile 1 = 0.78, 95% CI 0.62, 0.98. We found no association when comparing gravid and nulligravida women (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.62-1.40. Sedentary behavior was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98, but not physical activity (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.03. Neither being overweight nor obese was associated with the presence of hemorrhoids (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72-1.09 and OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.06.Constipation is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhoids. Gravidity and physical activity do not appear to be associated. High grain fiber intake and sedentary behavior are associated with a decreased risk of hemorrhoids.

  3. Malaria risk factors in north-east Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtove George

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the factors which determine a household's or individual's risk of malaria infection is important for targeting control interventions at all intensities of transmission. Malaria ecology in Tanzania appears to have reduced over recent years. This study investigated potential risk factors and clustering in face of changing infection dynamics. Methods Household survey data were collected in villages of rural Muheza district. Children aged between six months and thirteen years were tested for presence of malaria parasites using microscopy. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to identify significant risk factors for children. Geographical information systems combined with global positioning data and spatial scan statistic analysis were used to identify clusters of malaria. Results Using an insecticide-treated mosquito net of any type proved to be highly protective against malaria (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.96. Children aged five to thirteen years were at higher risk of having malaria than those aged under five years (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.01-2.91. The odds of malaria were less for females when compared to males (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.98. Two spatial clusters of significantly increased malaria risk were identified in two out of five villages. Conclusions This study provides evidence that recent declines in malaria transmission and prevalence may shift the age groups at risk of malaria infection to older children. Risk factor analysis provides support for universal coverage and targeting of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs to all age groups. Clustering of cases indicates heterogeneity of risk. Improved targeting of LLINs or additional supplementary control interventions to high risk clusters may improve outcomes and efficiency as malaria transmission continues to fall under intensified control.

  4. Fall risk factors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P; Hildebrand, K

    2000-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance, and postural instability. Patients with PD suffer frequent falls, yet little research has been done to identify risks specific to PD patients. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with falls for PD patients through the collection of demographic, environmental, and medical information as well as fall diaries completed during a 3-month period. Patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD, with and without falls, were included in the study provided they could stand and walk and had no other condition that could predispose them to falls. Of the 118 participants, 59% reported one or more falls. A total of 237 falls were reported. Duration and severity of PD symptoms, particularly freezing, involuntary movements, and walking and postural difficulties, were significantly associated with an increased risk of falls. Other factors associated with falls were postural hypotension and daily intake of alcohol. Forty percent of falls resulted in injury, but serious injury was rare. The findings have implications for reducing the risk of falls through patient education.

  5. Gangrenous cholecystitis: mortality and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önder, Akın; Kapan, Murat; Ülger, Burak Veli; Oğuz, Abdullah; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Uslukaya, Ömer

    2015-02-01

    As a serious complication of cholelithiasis, gangrenous cholecystitis presents greater mortality than noncomplicated cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to specify the risk factors on mortality. 107 consecutive patients who underwent surgery due to gangrenous cholecystitis between January 1997 and October 2011 were investigated retrospectively. The study included 60 (56.1%) females and 47 (43.9%) males, with a mean age of 60.7 ± 16.4 (21-88) years. Cardiovascular diseases were the most frequently accompanying medical issues (24.3%). Thirty-six complications (33.6%) developed in 29 patients, and surgical site infection was proven as the most common. Longer delay time prior to hospital admission, low white blood cell count, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, pericholecystic fluid in abdominal ultrasonography, and conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery were identified as risk factors affecting mortality (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.044, P = 0.005, P = 0.049, P = 0.009, P = 0.022, P = 0.011, and P = 0.004, respectively). Longer delay time prior to hospital admission and low white blood cell count were determined as independent risk factors affecting mortality.

  6. Risk Factor and Comorbidity of Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a chronic daily headache which interfere a quality of life. The purpose of this research is to obtain the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of migraine. Methods: A cross sectional study involving 4771 subjects in 5 villages in the district of Central Bogor, Bogor City 2011–2012. Data collection was performed using WHO STEPS (interview, measurement, physical examination, and laboratory test. Results: In this study, the migraine prevalence was 22.43%, with significant risk factors were sex, age, and stress (p < 0.05. Comorbidity of migraine was coronary heart diseases (p < 0.05. There was no significant correlation between migraine with marital status, level of education, smoking, hypertension, obesity, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, trigliseride level, and diabetes mellitus (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Risk factors which have significant association with migraine are sex, age, and stress, whereas coronary heart disease existed as a comorbidity with migraine.

  7. Risk factors for atherosclerosis - can they be used to identify the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors are often used in preventive care programmes to identify the patient at particular risk for developing atherosclerosis. Risk factors for atherosclerosis have also been shown to be linked to the presence of the disease at a given time, a fact that may be helpful when screening for additional atherosclerotic disease in ...

  8. Maternal and Gestational Risk Factors for Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Olof; Boyd, Heather A.; Ahlgren, Martin; Wilbrand, Kerstin; Westergaard, Tine; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Ekbom, Anders; Melbye, Mads

    2008-01-01

    Background An increase in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported, but the environmental causes remain virtually unknown. Objectives Our goal was to assess the association between risk of hypospadias and indicators of placental function and endogenous hormone levels, exposure to exogenous hormones, maternal diet during pregnancy, and other environmental factors. Methods We conducted a case–control study in Sweden and Denmark from 2000 through 2005 using self-administered questionnaires completed by mothers of hypospadias cases and matched controls. The response rate was 88% and 81% among mothers of cases and controls, respectively. The analyses included 292 cases and 427 controls. Results A diet during pregnancy lacking both fish and meat was associated with a more than 4-fold increased risk of hypospadias [odds ratio (OR) = 4.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6–13.3]. Boys born to obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] women had a more than 2-fold increased risk of hypospadias (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2–5.7) compared with boys born to mothers with a normal weight (BMI = 20–24). Maternal hypertension during pregnancy and absence of maternal nausea increased a boy’s risk of hypospadias 2.0-fold (95% CI, 1.1–3.7) and 1.8-fold (95% CI, 1.2–2.8), respectively. Nausea in late pregnancy also appeared to be positively associated with hypospadias risk (OR = 7.6; 95% CI, 1.1–53). Conclusions A pregnancy diet lacking meat and fish appears to increase the risk of hypospadias in the offspring. Other risk associations were compatible with a role for placental insufficiency in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:18709149

  9. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  10. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-04-16

    Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26-32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10-12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Risk factor profiles for

  11. Assessment of risk factors for noncommunicable disease risk factors among men of working age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Vasilyev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the investigation of some modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors and poor explored as well of non-convectional diseases among men of working age.Subjects and methods. Seven thousand thirty five men in age of 18 to 60 years were examined. History data included age, gender, nationality,high blood pressure (BP episodes, antihypertensive drugs taking in case of arterial hypertension, smoking. Instrumental examination included BP measurement when seated after 5 minutes of the rest with mean BP calculation. Total cholesterol and creatinine in blood, clearance of creatinine calculation by Cockcroft–Gault formula, microalbuminuria were assayed; depression level was estimated by Beck score. With purpose to analyze the risk factors structure all examined subjects were divided into three groups according to SCORE scale.Results. Cholesterol level analysis revealed the increasing of parameter in 41.7 % of examined patients (n = 307. Microalbuminuria was revealed in 13.8 % (n = 102 of men, and 19.3 % of them (n = 80 had increased blood pressure. Some levels of depression were revealed in 42.5 % (n = 312, among them the arterial hypertension was observed in 62,5 % (n = 195. The group with low and moderate cardiovascular risk consisted of 594 persons (80.8 %. High cardiovascular risk was determined in 15.2 % men of working age (n = 112. Very high cardiovascular risk was revealed in 3.9 % (n = 29 of responders.Conclusion. Increasing of traditional risk factors rate is associated with increasing of additional risk factors. Received data are widening the perception about risk factors structure in population. Particularly the question about renal filtration function role, depressive syndrome, trophologic insufficiency is raised. Consideration of those in prophylaxis system consideration requires a specific education of general practitioners.

  12. Environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroubakis, I; Manousos, O N; Meuwissen, S G; Pena, A S

    1996-01-01

    Besides a genetic predisposition, a causal role of various environmental factors have been taken into consideration in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The most consistent association of environmental factors so far identified is the association between non smoking and ulcerative colitis (UC) as well a between smoking and Crohn's disease (CD). Other factors such as oral contraceptives, refined sugar, perinatal events, childhood infections, microbial agents, and domestic hygiene have been found to be associated with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease but further evaluation is required to confirm the consistency and to define the strength of the association. Recent data also suggest that measles virus may persist in intestinal tissue and early exposure to the virus may be a risk factor for development of CD. The further investigation of environmental factors on IBD and the explanation of their role is expected to open new avenues for basic scientific research and may lead to the development of a more rational approach to the prevention and treatment of IBD. The available data suggest that UC and CD are heterogeneous disorders of multifactorial etiology in which hereditary and environmental factors interact to produce the disease.

  13. Risk Factors and Comorbidities in Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tint, Derrick; Kubala, Stephanie; Toskala, Elina

    2016-02-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disorder that creates a significant burden on the healthcare system. It is caused by a combination of inflammatory, environmental, and host factors; however, the precise mechanism of how each factor leads to CRS continues to be a source of debate. Previous data regarding this topic is often inconsistent or of lower quality. In this article, we review the recent literature on the risk factors and comorbidities in CRS. Large population-based studies have helped establish smoking as a significant risk factor for CRS. The focus has now shifted towards smoking and its effect on long-term outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Ciliary dyskinesia, both primary and secondary, can affect both the sinonasal cavity and lower airways simultaneously by decreasing the beat frequency of cilia and inducing mucostasis. The effects of secondary dyskinesia may be reversible and there is some evidence to suggest the use of topical mucolytics in patients with CRS. Allergy and variants of sinonasal anatomy have been hypothesized to increase the risk of developing CRS by inducing chronic inflammation and obstructing the sinus ostia. Nevertheless, emerging data regarding these topics continue to produce inconclusive results. Inflammation of the upper and lower airways can occur simultaneously as seen in patients with asthma and aspirin sensitivity. The connection between these pro-inflammatory disease states has been known for many years. Newer evidence include large population-based studies and studies that correlate objective tests, such as computer tomography scans to pulmonary function tests. However, the treatment of CRS and its effects on obstructive airway disease continues to be a topic of debate. More large prospective studies are needed in order to continue refining our knowledge of the disease processes in CRS.

  14. Trends of risk factors in coronary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabri Mikloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In current era of widespread use of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI, it is debatable whether coronary artery by-pass graft (CABG patients are at higher risk. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate trends in risk profile of isolated CABG patients. Methods. By analysing the EuroSCORE and its risk factors, we reviewed a consecutive group of 4675 isolated CABG patients, operated on during the last 8 years (2001-2008 at our Clinic. The number of PCI patients was compared to the number of CABG patients. For statistical analyses, Pearson’s chi-square and ANOVA tests were used. Results. The number of PCI increased from 159 to 1595 (p<0.001, and the number of CABG from 557 to 656 (p<0.001. The mean EuroSCORE increased from 2.74 to 2.92 (p=0.06. The frequency of the following risk factors did not change over years: female gender, previous cardiac surgery, serum creatinine >200μmol/l, left ventricular dysfunction and postinfarct ventricular septal rupture. Chronic pulmonary disease, neurological dysfunction, and unstable pectoral angina declined significantly (p<0.001. Critical preoperative care declined from 3.1% in 2001 to 0.5 % in 2005, than increased and during the last 3 years did not change (2.3%. The mean age increased from 56.8 to 60.7 (p<0.001 and extracardiac arteriopathy increased from 9.2% to 22.9% (p<0.001. Recent preoperative myocardial infarction increased from 11% to 15.1% (p=0.021, while emergency operations increased from 0.9% to 4.0% (p=0.001. Conclusion. The number of CABG increases despite the enlargement of PCI. The risk for isolated CABG given by EuroSCORE increases over years. The risk factors, significantly contributing to higher EuroSCORE are: older age, extracardiac arteriopathy, recent myocardial infarction and emergency operation.

  15. Risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; Smid, Tjabe; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots, taking into account person-, work-, health-, sleep-, and lifestyle-related characteristics. The study population consisted of 502 pilots who participated in the MORE Energy study. Included risk factors were either measured through an online questionnaire or provided by the company. The outcome of this study, fatigue, was assessed using the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), and was defined as scoring more than 76 points on this questionnaire. The association of the risk factors with fatigue was determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the participating pilots, 29.5 % scored more than 76 points on the CIS and were classified as being fatigued. The fully adjusted regression model showed that person-, work-, health-, and lifestyle-related characteristics were associated with fatigue. Pilots who were aged 31 to 40 (OR 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32-8.53) or 41 to 50 (OR 4.19, 95 % CI 1.40-12.47), an evening type (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.38-4.16), scored higher on work-life balance disturbance (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.10-1.36), scored higher on need for recovery (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), scored lower on general health perception (OR 0.31, 95 % CI 0.20-0.47), were less physically active (OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.89), and had a moderate alcohol consumption (OR 3.88, 95 % CI 1.21-12.43), were at higher risk for fatigue. Higher age, being an evening type, disturbance of the work-life balance, more need for recovery, a lower perceived health, less physical activity, and moderate alcohol consumption were shown to be risk factors for fatigue. Further longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the direction of the associations found and to evaluate the effects of possible countermeasures in airline pilots.

  16. Risk factors of peri-implant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Mano Azul, António; Rocha, Evangelista; Maló, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors for the incidence of peri-implant pathology. One-thousand, two-hundred and seventy-fifty patients (255 cases and 1020 controls), rehabilitated with dental implants, were included. Peri-implant pathology was defined as the presence of peri-implant pockets ≥ 5 mm, bleeding on probing, vertical bone loss, and loss of attachment ≥ 2 mm. Cases and controls were matched for age, gender, and duration of follow-up. A logistic regression model was used, with estimation of the OR for each variable and interaction, with a level of significance of 5%. The risk factors for peri-implant pathology were: history of periodontitis (OR = 19), bacterial plaque (OR = 3.6), bleeding (OR = 2.9), bone level on the medium third of the implant (OR = 13.9), lack of prosthetic fit or non-optimal screw joint (OR = 5.9), metal-ceramic restorations (OR = 3.9), and the interaction between bacterial plaque and the proximity of other teeth or implants (PROXI) (OR = 4.3). PROXI (OR = 0.44) exerted a protective effect when independent. Based on the results, peri-implant pathology represents a group of multifactorial situations with interaction of biological and biomechanical components in its pathogenesis. It was possible to model the condition and to assess, with high precision, the risk profile of each patient. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  17. Occupational risk factors for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, J; Heinonen, O P

    1992-01-01

    To investigate possible associations between cardiovascular malformations and maternal occupational exposure to various factors during the first trimester of pregnancy, 406 cases and 756 controls were studied retrospectively. The cases were taken from all infants diagnosed with cardiovascular malformations born in Finland during 1982 and 1983. The controls were randomly selected from all normal births in the country during the same period. All mothers were interviewed approximately 3 months after delivery by a midwife, using a structured questionnaire. Maternal overall exposure to chemicals at work was more prevalent among the case group (35.8%) than the control group (26.2%, P less than 0.01). Among the specific chemical groups, maternal exposure to dyes, lacquers, or paints was significantly associated with the risk of congenital heart disease. Exposure to organic solvents during the first trimester seemed to increase to risk of ventricular septal defect (P less than 0.05). Work at video display terminals was slightly more prevalent among the case group (6.3%) than among the control group (5.0%). The mothers' education level, regular exposure to passive smoking at work, or temperature at the workplace were not risk factors for congenital heart disease in the offspring, neither was maternal exposure to microwave ovens, disinfectants, pesticides, or anesthetic gases. It is concluded that many maternal exposures at work seem not to have a teratogenic effect on the fetal heart, although the limited power of this investigation needs to be borne in mind.

  18. Risk Factors in Osteporotic Vertebral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzan Günaydın

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for osteoporotic vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women. 44 postmenopausal women whose L 2-L4 T scores were £ -2.5 SD with a mean age of 66.38+ 6.47 years were included in this study. Age, postmenopausal years, body mass index, milk consumption (before and after age 50, family history of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture, patient’s previous fracture history, tobacco use, number of pregnancies, surgical menopause were questioned in all patients. DEXA was used to evaluate bone mineral density . Kleerekoper method was used to evaluate the fractures between T4 and L5 vertebra on lateral thoracal and lumbar X rays. When 25 patient with vertebral fractures compared with 19 patients without fracture ,only patient’s age showed statistically significant difference between groups ( p=0.035. Of the 5 risk factors chosen (age, L2-L4 BMD, L2-L4 T score, body weight <57 kg, milk consumption before age 50 only patient’s age was found to be statistically important in estimating vertebral fracture risk (p=0.032.There was statistically significant positive correlation between vertebral deformity score (evaluated according to Kleerekoper method and patient’s age and postmenopausal years (respectively p=0.001, p=0.006.

  19. Risk factors for local recurrence of fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, V; Troncoso, S; Mejías, L; Idoate, M Á; San-Julián, M

    To evaluate the clinical, radiological and histological factors that can predict local recurrence of fibromatosis. A retrospective study was conducted on 51 patients diagnosed with fibromatosis in this hospital from 1983 to 2014. The mean follow-up was 83 months. A study was made of the clinical parameters, location, depth, size, surgical margins, and proliferation index (Ki-67). An evaluation was also made of the risk of recurrence depending on the adjuvant treatment and the relationship between treatment and patient functionality. Tumour location and depth were identified as risk factors for local recurrence, showing statistically significant differences (P<.001 and P=.003, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, size, surgical margins, or adjuvant treatments, or in the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society Score according to the treatment received. The mean Ki-67 was 1.9% (range 1-4), and its value was not associated with the risk of recurrence. Deep fibromatosis fascia tumours, and those located in extremities are more aggressive than superficial tumours and those located in trunk. The Ki-67 has no predictive value in local recurrence of fibromatosis. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or other adjuvant treatments such as tamoxifen have not been effective in local control of the disease. Given the high recurrence rate, even with adequate margins, a wait and see attitude should be considered in asymptomatic patients and/or stable disease. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Shoulder dystocia: risk factors, predictability, and preventability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shobha H; Sokol, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Shoulder dystocia remains an unpredictable obstetric emergency, striking fear in the hearts of obstetricians both novice and experienced. While outcomes that lead to permanent injury are rare, almost all obstetricians with enough years of practice have participated in a birth with a severe shoulder dystocia and are at least aware of cases that have resulted in significant neurologic injury or even neonatal death. This is despite many years of research trying to understand the risk factors associated with it, all in an attempt primarily to characterize when the risk is high enough to avoid vaginal delivery altogether and prevent a shoulder dystocia, whose attendant morbidities are estimated to be at a rate as high as 16-48%. The study of shoulder dystocia remains challenging due to its generally retrospective nature, as well as dependence on proper identification and documentation. As a result, the prediction of shoulder dystocia remains elusive, and the cost of trying to prevent one by performing a cesarean delivery remains high. While ultimately it is the injury that is the key concern, rather than the shoulder dystocia itself, it is in the presence of an identified shoulder dystocia that occurrence of injury is most common. The majority of shoulder dystocia cases occur without major risk factors. Moreover, even the best antenatal predictors have a low positive predictive value. Shoulder dystocia therefore cannot be reliably predicted, and the only preventative measure is cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92%) used an observational design and focused on women (70%) with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups) and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although evolving, is still

  2. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  3. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  4. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  5. Risk factors affecting prognosis in infantile spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul Mert, Gulen; Herguner, Mihriban Ozlem; Incecik, Faruk; Altunbasak, Sakir; Sahan, Duygu; Unal, Ilker

    2017-11-01

    To assess risk factors that affect epilepsy prognosis and neurodevelopmental outcome and response to treatment in patients diagnosed with infantile spasm. In this study, demographics, treatment modalities, etiologies, risk factors affecting neurodevelopmental outcome and epilepsy prognosis were assessed retrospectively at the end of a minimum 24-months follow-up of 104 patients diagnosed with infantile spasm from May 2012 to October 2015. Neonatal seizure during neonatal period, abnormal head circumference, young age at the time of presentation and early gestational age, symptomatic etiology, abnormal initial examination and abnormal development test at the time of diagnosis, consanguinity, the medical center where treatment was started in the second center or beyond and magnetic resonance imaging finding were found to be statistically significant for poor prognosis in terms of neurodevelopment (p Infantile spasm is an age-related epileptic encephalopathy, and it was observed that it is still catastrophic, and that the most important factor affecting prognosis of epilepsy is etiology, age at the time of presentation and the medical center where treatment was started in the second center or beyond.

  6. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation in patients presenting to an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the risk ...

  7. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N Ph L; de Bruijn, J G M

    2012-10-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single parenthood, and unemployment increase the risk for women, but not for men. These findings are consistent with current literature on the subject. Further research on the context, nature, and severity of domestic violence in the Caribbean is necessary. Studies should preferably combine the strengths of national crime surveys and family conflict studies: nationally representative samples (including men and women) and questionnaires that include all possible experiences of psychological, physical, and sexual assaults by current and former partners, family, and friends.

  8. Child and environmental risk factors predicting readiness for learning in children at high risk of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnot, Julia; Hamilton, Lorna; Maughan, Barbara; Snowling, Margaret J

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the role of distal, proximal, and child risk factors as predictors of reading readiness and attention and behavior in children at risk of dyslexia. The parents of a longitudinal sample of 251 preschool children, including children at family risk of dyslexia and children with preschool language difficulties, provided measures of socioeconomic status, home literacy environment, family stresses, and child health via interviews and questionnaires. Assessments of children's reading-related skills, behavior, and attention were used to define their readiness for learning at school entry. Children at family risk of dyslexia and children with preschool language difficulties experienced more environmental adversities and health risks than controls. The risks associated with family risk of dyslexia and with language status were additive. Both home literacy environment and child health predicted reading readiness while home literacy environment and family stresses predicted attention and behavior. Family risk of dyslexia did not predict readiness to learn once other risks were controlled and so seems likely to be best conceptualized as representing gene-environment correlations. Pooling across risks defined a cumulative risk index, which was a significant predictor of reading readiness and, together with nonverbal ability, accounted for 31% of the variance between children.

  9. Perceptions of risk factors for road traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew; Smith, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Research has identified a number of risk factors for road traffic accidents. Some of these require education of drivers and a first step in this process is to assess perceptions of these risk factors to determine the current level of awareness. An online survey examined risk perception with the focus being on driver behavior, risk taking and fatigue. The results showed that drivers’ perceptions of the risk from being fatigued was lower than the perceived risk from the other factors.

  10. A note on additive risk measures in rank-dependent utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goovaerts, M.J.; Kaas, R.; Laeven, R.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This note proves that risk measures obtained by applying the equivalent utility principle in rank-dependent utility are additive if and only if the utility function is linear or exponential and the probability weighting (distortion) function is the identity.

  11. Obesity risk factors in Turkish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garipagaoglu, Muazzez; Budak, Nurten; Süt, Necdet; Akdikmen, Oznur; Oner, Naci; Bundak, Rüveyde

    2009-08-01

    On the basis of the knowledge that the prevalence of obesity in children has increased steadily in recent years, this study aimed to assess the association between obesity and certain risk factors in a group of 6- to 14-year-old children living in Istanbul. The study was carried out at the Istanbul University School of Medicine Hospital. Data were collected from 592 children aged between 6 and 14 years who were examined in general pediatrics clinics. Weight and height measurements were performed on the children and their parents. The children were classified as obese and nonobese in accordance with the body mass index reference values for Turkish children. Energy intake of children was estimated with a 3-day food consumption recording form. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the information from the parents on possible risk factors causing obesity. The physical activity state of the children was assessed. A logistic regression model was developed to examine the relationships between obesity and possible risk factors. Almost 32% (n = 184) and 69% (n = 408) of children were assessed as obese and nonobese, respectively. Although there was no difference in daily energy intakes of obese and nonobese children, 13.6% of obese and 40.9% of nonobese children were reported to do physical activity regularly. Obesity was strongly associated with parental obesity. Furthermore, energy intake; having regular physical activity; presence of obesity in the mother, the father, and the mother's family; and having a mother working out of home were also significantly associated with obesity. Creating awareness in mothers on the importance of a healthy nutrition and encouraging families to participate in physical activities are important points in the prevention of childhood obesity.

  12. Adolescent self-harm and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jixiang; Song, Jianwei; Wang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to define the characteristics of adolescents who have engaged in self-harm behavior and ascertain the risk factors. From January 2013 to January 2014, 4,176 adolescents from senior middle schools in Linyi, China, were administered four questionnaire surveys to ascertain the following: incidence of self-harm behavior regarding the frequency of different self-harm behaviors by group (never/one to five times/greater than five times in the last 6 months) and then comparing the self-harm behavior of the different subgroups; symptom self-check, comparing the differences between the adolescents with self-harm behavior and without in nine subscales (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, fear, paranoid, and psychosis); Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List scores; and Egna Minnenav Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) scores. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of self-harm in adolescents. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was 27.60%; the occurrence of adolescent self-harm was closely related to their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU. Being female, an urban student, or an only child; having poor school performance or experiences of stressful life events, harsh parenting styles, or excessive interference; and poor mental health were the risk factors for adolescent self-harm. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was high, and their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU affected the occurrence of adolescent self-harm, which is an issue that needs greater attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS...... suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...

  14. Testicular cancer - epidemiology, etiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Ondrus, D.

    2012-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare malignancy, that affects 1-2 % of male population. Trends of testicular cancer mortality are stable for a long period of time, even that incidence shows a rapid growth. This paper deals with national trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality in Slovakia from 1968 to 2007 by using the join-point regression analysis to propose potential changes in health care. The authors noted a statistically significant increase in the values of incidence and improvement in mortality after 1975. Paper also deals with the etiology and risk factors of this malignancy. (author)

  15. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  16. STROKE AND PREGNANCY: THE MAIN RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Taitubayeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify risk factors for the development of acute cerebral circulatory impairments (ACCI in pregnant women.Materials and methods. The material for the study was the medical history of 31 pregnant women with diagnosis ACCI. The average age was 29,5 ± 5,1 years. The comparison group consisted of pregnant women with physiological pregnancy (n = 30 with different gestation periods, the mean age was 29,1 ± 6,7 years. In this study, a comparative analysis of risk factors for stroke was carried out: gynecological and allergic history, smoking and taking contraceptives, the presence of chronic diseases, indicators of the hemostasis and lipid spectrum, polymorphism of thrombophilia genes.Results. The prevalence of ischemic stroke over hemorrhagic stroke was found, which was 77.4% and 22.6%, respectively. In 93.5% of cases, a stroke occurred during pregnancy, in 79.3% of them in the third trimester of gestation. The number of recuperated women was 67.7%. As a result of statistical treatment, a significant difference in study and comparison groups was obtained (p < 0.05 as a result of a burdened obstetric-gynecological history. Among the women taking contraceptives, 11 (35.5% women were in the study group, and 3 (10% women were found in the comparison group (p < 0.05. At the analysis of smoking in the history the number of women in the study group prevailed comparing to the comparison group (35.5–13.3%, p < 0.05. Changes in the lipid spectrum system and hemostasis were detected, but there were no significant differences between the study group and the comparison group (p> 0.05. Various forms of mutations were identified in the group with ischemic stroke in 14 (58.3% women, in 2 (28.5% women in the group with hemorrhagic stroke.Conclusion. Of all the data analyzed in pregnant women with stroke, statistically significant risk factors are: smoking, taking contraceptives, the presence of chronic diseases, including an obstructed obstetric

  17. Metals Additive Manufacturing. Great Promise in Mitigating Shortages but Some Risks Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    initiatives such as establishing “Amer- ica Makes”—the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute—and funding some AM-related Manufacturing Tech ...Defense AT&L: November-December 2016 38 Metals Additive Manufacturing Great Promise in Mitigating Shortages but Some Risks Remain Drew Miller n... risks for obsolescence man- agement. As we leverage the growth of this new technol- 39 Defense AT&L: November-December 2016 ogy, it will be

  18. Distribution of risk factors among children with febrile convulsions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximal risk factors are male gender, age < 2 years, 2nd birth order and positive family nd history. The social status of families is a distal risk factor. The second year of life and 2 birth order are the strongest predisposing factors to the development of FC. Key words: Febrile convulsions, Risk factors, Benin City, Nigeria ...

  19. Risk factors for corneal ectasia after LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F; Kotb, Amgad A

    2006-09-01

    To establish a grading system that helps identify high-risk individuals who may experience corneal ectasia after LASIK. Retrospective, comparative, interventional case series. One hundred forty-eight consecutive patients (148 eyes) were included in this study. Thirty-seven patients who underwent LASIK at other refractive centers experienced corneal ectasia in 1 eye after LASIK. One hundred eleven eyes of 111 patients who underwent successful LASIK during the same period were age and gender matched and served as controls. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative topographic analysis of the cornea. The follow-up period in both groups of patients ranged from 2 to 5 years, with a mean follow-up of 3.6 years. All patients underwent LASIK for myopia (spherical equivalent, -4.00 to -8.00 diopters). Corneal keratometry, oblique cylinder, pachymetry, posterior surface elevation, difference between the inferior and superior corneal diopteric power, and posterior best sphere fit (BSF) over anterior BSF were given a grade of 1 to 3 each. An ectasia grading system was established, and the cumulative risk score was assessed. Patients who had a grade of 7 or less showed no evidence of corneal ectasia, whereas 16 (59%) of 27 patients who had a grade of 8 to 12 had corneal ectasia. Twenty-one (100%) of 21 patients with a grade of more than 12 had corneal ectasia after LASIK (P<0.0001). A risk score may help in the prediction of patients who are at risk of experiencing corneal ectasia after LASIK. A prospective clinical study is needed to assess the validity of these risk factors.

  20. Clinical symptoms and risk factors in cerebral microangiopathy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Okroglic

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although the clinical manifestation and risk factors of cerebral microangiopathy (CM remain unclear, the number of diagnoses is increasing. Hence, patterns of association among lesion topography and severity, clinical symptoms and demographic and disease risk factors were investigated retrospectively in a cohort of CM patients. METHODS: Patients treated at the Department of Neurology, University of Bonn for CM (n = 223; 98m, 125f; aged 77.32±9.09 from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical symptoms, blood chemistry, potential risk factors, demographic data and ratings of vascular pathology in the brain based on the Wahlund scale were analyzed using Pearson's chi square test and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Progressive cognitive decline (38.1%, gait apraxia (27.8%, stroke-related symptoms and seizures (24.2%, TIA-symptoms (22% and vertigo (17% were frequent symptoms within the study population. Frontal lobe WMLs/lacunar infarcts led to more frequent presentation of progressive cognitive decline, seizures, gait apraxia, stroke-related symptoms, TIA, vertigo and incontinence. Parietooccipital WMLs/lacunar infarcts were related to higher frequencies of TIA, seizures and incontinence. Basal ganglia WMLs/lacunar infarcts were seen in patients with more complaints of gait apraxia, vertigo and incontinence. Age (p = .012, arterial hypertension (p<.000, obesity (p<.000 and cerebral macroangiopathy (p = .018 were positively related to cerebral lesion load. For increased glucose level, homocysteine, CRP and D-Dimers there was no association. CONCLUSION: This underlines the association of CM with neurological symptoms upon admission in a topographical manner. Seizures and vertigo are symptoms of CM which may have been missed in previous studies. In addition to confirming known risk factors such as aging and arterial hypertension, obesity appears to increase the risk as well. Since the incidence of CM is increasing, future

  1. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Lifestyle and diet as risk factors for overanticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning-van Beest, Fernie J A; Geleijnse, Johanna M; van Meegen, Erik; Vermeer, Cees; Rosendaal, Frits R; Stricker, Bruno H C

    2002-04-01

    The risk of hemorrhage when using coumarin anticoagulants sharply increases when the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is > or =6.0. We performed a case-control study among outpatients of an anticoagulation clinic to identify sociodemographic-, lifestyle-, and dietary factors related to overanticoagulation. Three hundred cases with an INR > or =6.0 were compared with 302 randomly selected matched controls with an INR within the target zone. Age, sex, and level of education were not associated with overanticoagulation. Body mass index was negatively related to overanticoagulation, a beneath-average level of physical activity was positively related to overanticoagulation and never-smokers were more likely to have an INR > or =6.0 compared with smokers. Habitual alcohol consumption, even heavy drinking, was not related to overanticoagulation. However, a recent decrease of alcohol intake increased the risk of an INR > or =6.0. In addition, weight loss and a vacation were risk factors for overanticoagulation. Dietary factors were not associated with overanticoaguation. If risk factors can not be avoided, increased monitoring of INR values could prevent overanticoagulation and potential bleeding complications.

  3. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Their Associated Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahangiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims :Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs is high among office workers. Long time seated posture, working with computer, repetitive movements and inappropriate environmental conditions may have causal effects in these disorders. High prevalence rate of MSDs makes ergonomics assessment and working conditions improvement necessary. Designing an assessment checklist and calculating ergonomics indices can be useful in this evaluation. This study was conducted with the objectives of determination of prevalence rate, ergonomics assessment of working conditions and determination of factors associated with MSDs among office workers. Methods:In this study 400 randomly selected office workers participated. Nordic musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire was applied to determine prevalence rate of MSDs. Working conditions were assessed by the designed ergonomics checklist and ergonomic risk factors were identified. Data were analyzed using statistical tests including t-test, Chi-square and test of proportion by SPSS software (Version 12.0. Results:The highest prevalence rates of MSDs were reported in lower back and neck regions (49% and 47%, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there were significant association between occurrence of MSDs and calculated ergonomics indices (P<0.05. The mean of ergonomics index among those suffered from MSDs were less than other healthy workers indicating inappropriate ergonomics conditions. Calculation of OR also revealed that ergonomics conditions was associated with MSDs occurrence among workers (P<0.05. Totally, 53.3% of the office workers studied had poor working conditions. Awkward working posture and inappropriate workstation design were recognized as the main risk factors in the office workplace.  Conclusion:Most ergonomics problems were originated from bad postures and inappropriate design of workstation. Any interventional program for working conditions improvement should

  4. Risk factors in young patients with peripheral atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, K; Buss, C; Goyen, M; Renzing-Köhler, K; Rudofsky, G

    2000-09-01

    Risk factors and especially the combination of multiple risk factors are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Therefore, patients with an early manifestation of atherosclerotic disease are likely to show an extraordinary risk profile. We analysed the frequencies and severity of risk factors in young patients with manifest peripheral arterial occlusive disease as compared to old patients. We analysed the risk profiles in 303 patients who were sent for interventional treatment of a symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The risk profiles were described for different age groups (54 patients under 50 years of age, 194 patients from 51 to 74 years, 55 patients over 75 years). Multiple linear regression analysis and analysis of variance were performed to look for age-dependent effects. Elevated total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and nicotine abuse were more frequent in patients younger than 50 years. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension were more frequent in patients older than 75 years. The different frequencies for smoking, diabetes mellitus and hypertension were age-related (phematocrit and uric acid. The coincidence with clinically manifest myocardial infarction was 11.15% in the patients under 50 years compared to 20.6% in those aged 51-74 years and 16.4% in those over 75 years, for cerebral stroke it was 5.6%, 17.5% and 14.5%, respectively. Patients under 50 years with peripheral arterial occlusive disease and a history of myocardial infarction were characterised by high levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoprotein(a). Excluding patients with prior myocardial infarction patients did not show any difference in risk profile between the three age groups. In a population suffering from manifest peripheral arterial occlusive disease the risk profile in patients under 50 years is not different from that in older patients. In contrast an additional myocardial infarction in such a population is associated with pathological

  5. Additional prognostic value of physical examination, exercise testing, and arterial ultrasonography for coronary risk assessment in primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournot, Maxime; Taraszkiewicz, Dorota; Cambou, Jean-Pierre; Galinier, Michel; Boccalon, Henri; Hanaire-Broutin, Hélène; Chamontin, Bernard; Carrié, Didier; Ferrières, Jean

    2009-11-01

    The choice of noninvasive tests used in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases must be based on medical evidence. The aim of this study was to assess the additional prognostic value, over conventional risk factors, of physical examination, exercise testing, and arterial ultrasonography, in predicting a first coronary event. A prospective cohort study was conducted between 1996 and 2004 (n = 2,709), with follow-up in 2006 (response rate 96.6%). Participants had no history or symptoms of cardiovascular disease and had a standardized physical examination, a cardiac exercise testing, and carotid and femoral ultrasonography at baseline. Incident cases of definite coronary events were recorded during follow-up. Over the Framingham risk score, femoral bruit, positive exercise test, intima-media thickness >0.63 mm, and a femoral plaque provided significant additional information to the prediction model. The addition of the exercise test to the traditional risk factors, then the intima-media thickness and lastly the presence of femoral plaques, produces incremental increases in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.73-0.78, P = .02) and about a 50% increase in the positive predictive value (15.8%-31.4%), with no effect on the negative predictive value (96.4%-96.9%). Physical examination, exercise testing, and arterial ultrasonography provide incremental information on the risk of coronary event in asymptomatic adults. Exercise testing and femoral ultrasonography also improve the accuracy of the risk stratification.

  6. Post biopsy pneumothorax: Risk factors and course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.A.; Retamar, J.A.; Blazquez, J.; Castano, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The was to study the natural course of pneumothorax produced after aspiration biopsy in the attempt to differentiate those cases that will resolve spontaneously from those that will require drainage, and to assess the possible risk factors associated with the development of this entity. Eighty-nine CT-guided aspiration biopsies were performed in 80 patients. Control CT was done immediately after the procedure and 24 hours later. When pneumothorax persisted, CT was repeated at 48 h, 72 h, day 5 and day 7 or until a drainage tube was introduced. The cases of pneumothorax were classified as minimal, anterior or anterolateral. Seven variables were assessed as possible risk factors for its occurrence. Pneumothorax developed on 29 occasions (32.5%), requiring drainage in 12 cases (13.5%). In 20 patients (22%), pneumothorax occurred immediately, while in the remaining 9 (10%) it was detected in the 24 h CT scan. When studied according to type, drainage was required in 3 of the 19 cases of minimal or anterior pneumothorax (15%) and in 9 or the 10 cases of anterolateral location (90%) (p<0.0005). The mean thickness of the parenchyma punctured was 3.4 cm +- 2.2. cm when pneumothorax developed and 1.3 cm+- 2 cm when it did not (p<0.0001). There is a statistically significant association between the development of anterolateral pneumothorax and the need for chest drainage. The thickness of the punctured parenchyma is associated with the production of pneumothorax. 16 refs

  7. Sexting; your definition, risk factors and consecuences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Tomasa Mercado Contreras

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The advance of the technology in communications has led to social networking sites fulfill an important role in society. Among the most used and known is Facebook, that social network allows to make public certain information and provides the opportunity to hold private conversations. This new trend of talks, and the natural desire to explore sexuality has led young people interested at phenomenon known as sexting. This phenomenon, from some of the negative consequences became public, has attracted the interest from parents, teachers, researchers and health workers, however, have not been universally well defined. This lack of unanimous conceptualization has led to confusion within the psychological, social and legal area. That is why in the present article presents results of a systematic review of articles that speak about sexting. The select articles were those that were published from 2009 to 2014, in which work was focused to adolescents and speak about risk factors and consequences of the phenomenon. The articles were analyzed by looking at the similarities and differences in their definition of sexting and their results, identifying risk factors and consequences related considered. With the analysis was possible to categorize their limitations and finally offer a possible definition of sexting.

  8. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías López, Ma del C; Tárraga López, P J; Rodríguez Montes, J A; Solera Albero, J; Celada Rodríguez, A; López Cara, M A; Gálvez, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the general population of an urban health center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal History: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT) dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%), similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40%) and obesity (23%) and lowest in hypertension (23%). In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.

  9. Adolescent fatherhood: Risk factor or resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Benatuil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the adolescent pregnancy has been historically centered in the mother, the preponderant focus has been considers the maternity in this stage of the vital cycle as a factor of risk. Nowadays, have begun some studies that focus the problem of the adolescent pregnancy being centered in the father’s figure to appear and proposing a healthy focus, starting from the introduction of such concepts like Resilience. The present article, is a theoretical work, it is carried out to leave of secondary data. The objective is the compilation of studies and information on the subject of adolescent fatherhood from a less explored focus, considering the factors of risk and resilience. Different studies are raised with Latin American youths. Also are analyzed the access possibilities to the sanitary system from the youths, the knowledge of birth-control methods and the participation in programs of reproductive health. It outlines the importance of including the males in the whole process of procreation and the boy’s upbringing. 

  10. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  11. Risk Factors for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella de la Caridad Armenteros Espino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: cervix cancer constitutes the second cause of death worldwide, with new diagnosis each year. Objective: to determine the risk factors of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the municipality of Cruces. Methods: it was developed an analytical research with case and control design from November 2013 to November 2014. The group of cases was formed of the 34 women with this diagnosis. There were selected 64 females from the same environment with the same age for the control group. The data obtained by surveys and clinical records reviews were presented in absolute numbers and percentages. It was used Chi-squared test and odd ratio. Results: 52 % of women with neoplasia were less than 25 years old. Significant differences were found which associate neoplasia with early sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted infections by Papilloma virus, Plane genital condyloma, and the use of oral contraceptive pills. Multiple sex partner was a frequent antecedent. Conclusion: risk factors associated to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the group of women studied in the Cruces municipality were early sexual intercourse, mainly before 15 years old, multiple sex partner, sexually communicated diseases and the use of oral contraceptive pills for more than 5 years.

  12. Injury risk factors among telemark skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggy, M L; Ong, R

    2000-01-01

    We performed a population survey of telemark skiers over two ski seasons to determine specific risk factors for injury. The survey inquired about the skier's sex, experience, equipment used, injuries, and number of days skied in each season. The respondents completed the surveys whether or not they were injured while skiing. We received 677 responses from telemark skiing clubs, with 19,962 skier-days of data. The number of self-reported injuries was 178, for an overall self-reported injury rate of 8.9 per 1000 skier-days. Knee injuries (N = 48) were the most common injury (27%), followed by thumb (N = 32, 18%) and shoulder (N = 21, 12%) injuries. Specific risk factors for injury were identified with multivariate regression and survival analysis. The skill level of the skier had a significant injury-sparing effect, as did the use of plastic telemark boots. The protective effect of the plastic boots was likely due to the increased stability they provided compared with traditional leather boots. There were fewer knee injuries with the recently available releasable bindings for telemark skis. Sex and age had no significant impact on injury rates in this study population. As all reported deaths associated with telemark sking were due to environmental hazards, skiers must continue to pay close attention to these hazards in the backcountry.

  13. Risk factors for hearing loss in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment was defined according to average threshold greater than 35dBNA, in the frequencies of 1,000; 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, in the best ear. Results: Statistically significant odds ratios were: a to audiological history: noise exposure and family history of deafness; b to situations involving hearing difficulty: television, church, telephone, silent environment, spatial location of sound, difficulty with voices and noisy environment; c to otologic history: tinnitus, otorrhea and nausea; and d to medical history: visual problems, smoke, alcohol, thyroid problems and kidney disease. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlighted, for sensorineural hearing loss, risk factors related to audiologic, otologic and medical history, and to situations involving hearing difficulty.

  14. Risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Shyam; Neupane, Shailes

    2013-01-01

    To examine the incidence of and risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal. Data were analyzed from a survey of 1172 women who had surgical abortions between December 2009 and March 2010 in 2 clinics in Kathmandu, Nepal. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimate odds ratios for the risk factors. Among the respondents, 32.3% (95% confidence interval, 29.6-34.9) had repeat abortions. This incidence rose sharply with age and parity, and was higher among those with no intention of having a future child, those attaining primary or secondary level education, and those attending the non-governmental sector clinic. Women with repeat abortion were similar to those with 1 abortion in terms of contraceptive practice. Among women not using contraceptives at the time of the unintended pregnancy, the 3 most commonly cited reasons were ill health, non-compliance with the method intended for use, and dislike of the method. Women with repeat abortion showed a pattern of contraceptive acceptance immediately after the procedure similar to that of women who had 1 abortion. Repeat abortion is emerging as a major public health issue in Nepal, with implications for counseling and provision of abortion, and for family planning services. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CLIMATE AS A RISK FACTOR FOR TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁKOS NÉMETH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate risk factors for tourism are surveyed and illustrated with regard to the expected climate changes in Hungary. These changes are not at all advantageous and which affect the business in question both directly and indirectly. These are the summer resort tourism (characterised by bioclimatic indices. Green tourism is the next one to characterise, including skiing, mountain climbing and eco-tourism, as well. Here both day-to-day weather extremes and long-lasting effects on the biota (e.g. drought, or inundation for plain-area eco-tourism. Last, but not least the urban (cultural- and shopping- tourism is presented, since the large towns exhibit their special climate and different risks. The paper intends to specify these meteorological factors and effects also in terms of the different types of touristic activities. The general statements on the effect of weather and climate on tourism are illustrated by a few individual parameters and also by the so called Physiologically Equivalent Temperature. Annual and diurnal course of this parameter are presented, together with various trends in this variable at different sites and in different (hot and cold extremities of the occurring values. Other examples, helping the tourism industry are presented in various climate conditions of the country. They include high precipitation and high relative humidity information. The paper also lists the possible adaptation measures to extreme events and also their likely changes in time.

  16. Risk factors associated with childhood asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, R.; Rajar, U.D.M.

    2008-01-01

    To identify the risk factors associated with childhood asthma, in children attending Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. The study included 398 age-matched children (200 asthmatic and 198 non-asthmatic). Information was collected concerning their familial history of atopy, birth weight, environment, breastfeeding, disease and treatment history. Odds ratio was calculated for determining the risk. The children were aged between 12 months and 8 years and 60% were male. The asthmatic children were hospitalized more frequently than the non-asthmatic children (p < 0.0001). Most of the asthmatic children lived in the urban areas of Hyderabad (odd ratio (OR) 16.7, 95% CI = 3.1-14.6, p < 0.0001), had a parental history of asthma (OR 26.8, 95% CI = 10.8-68.2, p < 0.0001) or allergic rhinitis (OR 4, 95% CI 1.2-13.4, p= 0.01), 38.5% had at least one person who smoked, and were weaned earlier than the non-asthmatic children (OR =12.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4, p < 0.01). Childhood asthma was strongly associated with a family history of asthma and allergic rhinitis, the urban place of residence, having smokers as parents and early weaning from maternal breast milk. The results highlight the need to educate the parents about the risk of smoking and early weaning in the development of asthma. (author)

  17. [Nursing diagnoses, related factors and risk factors during the postoperative period following bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rosa Aparecida Nogueira; Caetano, Joselany Áfio; Barros, Lívia Moreira; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2013-02-01

    The objective was to identify the main diagnoses, related factors and risk factors regarding the cardiovascular/pulmonary responses class proposed by NANDA version 2009-2011. This case series descriptive study was performed with twenty patients who underwent bariatric surgery in a public hospital in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Data were collected by two intensive care unit nurse specialists through interviews, physical examinations and the reviewing of medical records, and analyzed through descriptive statistics and cross-mapping. The nursing diagnoses identified with a frequency greater than 50% were: decreased cardiac output (75%), ineffective breathing patterns (65%), dysfunctional ventilatory weaning response (55%) and ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion (75%); in addition, fourteen related factors and five risk factors were identified. We verified the need for further studies to better define the diagnostic profile of these patients in order to direct nursing care towards the early detection of complications.

  18. Nutritional risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been observed to be associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. GDM is becoming a public health concern globally as well as in India with fast increasing trend. It affects approximately 14% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of food items having high glycaemic index with GDM risk are sparse. Most of the literature has focused on typical risk factors like advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes mellitus, history of abortions, previous history of GDM. Objective: To assess the risk of developing GDM in pregnant women consuming food items with high glycemic index. Material and Methods: A hospital based case control study was conducted in Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated hospital with a sample size of 104 (52 cases & 52 controls. For dietary history a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used. The usual pattern of eating during days, weeks and months were asked. The data was compiled and analysed in SPSS version 12. Results: Total 30.8% cases and 13.5% controls gave history of consuming food items having high glycaemic index more frequently (at least once daily. The odds ratio of developing GDM was 2.86(CI -1.06-7.70 among the cases who were taking high glycaemic foods more frequently in comparison to those who were taking occasionally. Conclusions: Risk of developing GDM in high glycemic foods consumers is high. Simple measures like changing dietary patterns, consuming food items with low glycaemic load can contribute significantly in prevention of GDM. 

  19. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Etiology, symptomatology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtibaa, L; Fakhfakh, N; Kallel, A; Belhadj, S; Belhaj Salah, N; Bada, N; Kallel, K

    2017-06-01

    To determine epidemiological, clinical and mycological characteristics of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in Tunisian population and to evaluate predisposing factors. In this retrospective study, 2160 vaginal swabs were performed over 2 years (January 2014-December 2015). It was carried out at the laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology, Rabta Hospital in Tunisia. After swab collecting, direct examination and culture on Sabouraud Chloramphenicol and Sabouraud Chloramphenicol Actidione media were implemented to research yeasts. Then identifying of yeast species was through chlamydosporulation test and auxanogram. For each patient, a questionnaire was filled noting age, medical and surgical history, symptoms and risk factors. Statistical analysis of data was performed on SPSS 16 using Khi 2 test, P<0.05 was considered significant. Direct examination was positive showed spore and/or pseudohypha in 24.72%. Candida albicans was isolated most frequently (76.61%) followed by Candida glabrata (17.18%). The maximum frequency of Candida-positive cultures was in 25-34 years old age group. Leucorrhea was the most common symptom (72.25%) followed by vulvar prurits (63.23%), dyspareunia (32.25%) and urinary burning (24.92%). Only pregnancy was correlated positively with VVC. It appears from our study that VVC is relatively common in Tunisia. His diagnosis results from confrontation of anamnestic, clinical and mycological data. The knowledge of risk factors and their correction would be necessary to prevent the occurrence of VVC, especially in its recurrent form. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia da Silva Leroy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, p<0.0001, multiparity (OR 2.26, CI 95% 1.22 - 4.19, p=0.009, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks (OR 2.52, CI 95% 1.16 - 5.46, p=0.02 and constipation (OR 1.94, CI 95% 1.05 - 5.46, p=0.035. CONCLUSION: Most often, UI first appeared during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent.

  1. FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT – INFLUENCE FACTORS AND NEW TRENDS

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Vasilescu

    2014-01-01

    Financial or corporate risk management is a part of the firm risk management with which deal with the financial risks, such as market risk, liquidity risk and credit risk. In the context of international financial crisis, a variety of factors are influencing the development of corporate risk management: the increased volatility and deregulation of financial markets; developments in information and communications technology; the complexity of financial products and so on. The objective of risk...

  2. Clinical Symptoms and Risk Factors in Cerebral Microangiopathy Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okroglic, S.; Widmann, C.N.; Urbach, H.; Scheltens, P.; Heneka, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical manifestation and risk factors of cerebral microangiopathy (CM) remain unclear, the number of diagnoses is increasing. Hence, patterns of association among lesion topography and severity, clinical symptoms and demographic and disease risk factors were investigated

  3. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  4. Association of breakfast intake with cardiometabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Shafiee

    2013-11-01

    Conclusions: skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of MetS and other cardiometabooic factors in children and adolescents. Promoting the benefit of eating breakfast could be a simple and important implication to prevent these risk factors.

  5. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  6. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva

    2012-01-01

    on average gained 2 kg of weight and 8% became obese during follow-up. The experience of major life events in childhood, work life and adult life was associated with weight gain and obesity in women, but not in men. Vital exhaustion was associated with weight gain in a dose-response manner in men (P = 0......The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants...

  7. Patterns of multisite pain and associations with risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Masood Kadir, M.; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S.P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H.; Sarquis, Leila M.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J.; Harris, E. Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Sirk, Tuuli; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C.W; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To explore definitions for multisite pain, and compare associations with risk factors for different patterns of musculoskeletal pain, we analysed cross-sectional data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study. The study sample comprised 12,410 adults aged 20–59 years from 47 occupational groups in 18 countries. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect information about pain in the past month at each of 10 anatomical sites, and about potential risk factors. Associations with pain outcomes were assessed by Poisson regression, and characterised by prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Extensive pain, affecting 6–10 anatomical sites, was reported much more frequently than would be expected if the occurrence of pain at each site were independent (674 participants vs 41.9 expected). In comparison with pain involving only 1–3 sites, it showed much stronger associations (relative to no pain) with risk factors such as female sex (PRR 1.6 vs 1.1), older age (PRR 2.6 vs 1.1), somatising tendency (PRR 4.6 vs 1.3), and exposure to multiple physically stressing occupational activities (PRR 5.0 vs 1.4). After adjustment for number of sites with pain, these risk factors showed no additional association with a distribution of pain that was widespread according to the frequently used American College of Rheumatology criteria. Our analysis supports the classification of pain at multiple anatomical sites simply by the number of sites affected, and suggests that extensive pain differs importantly in its associations with risk factors from pain that is limited to only a small number of anatomical sites. PMID:23727463

  8. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Lacher; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to the victim or the perpetrator were assessed. Bi- and multivariate analysis were used to identify abuse and neglect determinants. A total of 150 cases reflected at least one form of elder abuse or neglect; 104 cases were categorised as abuse with at least one type of abuse (overall 135 mentions), 46 cases were categorised as neglect (active or passive). Psychological abuse was the most reported form (47%), followed by financial (35%), physical (30%) and anticonstitutional abuse (18%). In 81% of the 150 cases at least two risk factors existed. In 13% no associated risk factor could be identified. Compared with neglect, elders with abuse were less likely to be a nursing home resident than living at home (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.19). In addition, they were more likely to be cohabiting with their perpetrators (OR 18.01, 95% CI 4.43-73.19). For the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.

  9. RISK FACTOR DIAGNOSTIC SCORE IN DIABETIC FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shameem P. M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Diabetic foot ulcers vary in their clinical presentation and nature of severity and therefore create a challenging problem to the treating surgeon regarding the prediction of the clinical course and the end result of the treatment. Clinical studies have shown that there are certain risk factors for the progression of foot ulcers in diabetics and it may therefore be possible to predict the course of an ulcer foot at presentation itself, thus instituting proper therapy without delay. Spoken otherwise clinical scoring may tell that this particular ulcer is having highest chance of amputation, then one may be able to take an early decision for the same and avoid the septic complications, inconvenience to the patient, long hospital stay and cost of treatments. AIM OF THE STUDY Aim of the study is to evaluate the above-mentioned scoring system in predicting the course the diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients with Diabetic Foot attending the OPD of Department of Surgery of Government Hospital attached to Calicut Medical College are included in the present study. After thorough history taking and clinical examination, six risk factors like Age, pedal vessels, renal function, neuropathy, radiological findings and ulcers were observed in the patients by giving certain scoring points to each of them. The total number of points scored by the patients at the time of admission or OPD treatment was correlated with the final outcome in these patients, whether leading to amputation or conservative management. All the data was analysed using standard statistical methods. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS There were 12 females and 38 males with a female to male ratio 1:3.1. All were aged above 30 years. Twenty-four (48% of them were between 30-60 years and twenty six (52% were above 60 years. 10 patients were treated conservatively with risk score range: 10 to 35. Six had single toe loss with risk score: 25 to 35. Six had multiple toe loss

  10. Predicting Prostate Cancer Mortality Among Men With Intermediate to High-Risk Disease and Multiple Unfavorable Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Chen Minghui; Catalona, William J.; Moul, Judd W.; Sun, Leon; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the number of unfavorable risk factors could be used to predict the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) among men with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We studied 1,063 men who underwent radical prostatectomy (n = 559), external beam radiotherapy (n = 288), or radiotherapy plus androgen suppression therapy (n = 116) for prostate cancer between 1965 and 2002. Fine and Gray's regression analysis was used to determine whether an increasing number of unfavorable risk factors (prostate-specific antigen level >10 ng/mL, Gleason score of ≥7, clinical Stage T2b or greater, or pretreatment prostate-specific antigen velocity >2.0 ng/mL/y) was associated with the interval to PCSM and all-cause mortality. Results: Median follow-up was 5.6 years. Compared with those with one risk factor, the adjusted hazard ratio for PCSM was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.1-4.8; p = 0.03) for two risk factors, 5.4 (95% confidence interval 2.7-10.7; p < 0.0001) for three risk factors, and 13.6 (95% confidence interval 6.3-29.2; p < 0.0001) for all four risk factors. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PCSM was 2.4% for one factor, 2.4% for two factors, 7.0% for three factors, and 14.7% for all four factors. Prostate cancer deaths as a proportion of all deaths was 19% for one factor, 33% for two factors, 53% for three factors, and 80% for four factors. Conclusion: The number of unfavorable risk factors was significantly associated with PCSM. Prostate cancer was the major cause of death in men with at least three risk factors. Therefore, these men should be considered for clinical trials designed to assess whether survival is prolonged with the addition of novel agents to current standards of practice

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew MC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael C Kew Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron

  12. ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy with extrauterine implantation. This situation is gynecologic emergency that contributes to maternal mortality. Therefore, early recognition, based on identification of the causes of ectopic pregnancy risk factors, is needed. Methods: The design descriptive observational. The samples were pregnant women who had ectopic pregnancy at Maternity Room, Emergency Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, from 1 July 2008 to 1 July 2010. Sampling technique was total sampling using medical records. Result: Patients with ectopic pregnancy were 99 individuals out of 2090 pregnant women who searched for treatment in Dr. Soetomo Hospital. However, only 29 patients were accompanied with traceable risk factors. Discussion:. Most ectopic pregnancies were in the age group of 26-30 years, comprising 32 patients (32.32%, then in age groups of 31–35 years as many as 25 patients (25.25%, 18 patients in age group 21–25 years (18.18%, 17 patients in age group 36–40 years (17.17%, 4 patients in age group 41 years and more (4.04%, and the least was in age group of 16–20 years with 3 patients (3.03%. A total of 12 patients with ectopic pregnancy (41.38% had experience of abortion and 6 patients (20.69% each in groups of patients with ectopic pregnancy who used family planning, in those who used family planning as well as ectopic pregnancy patients with history of surgery. There were 2 patients (6.90% of the group of patients ectopic pregnancy who had history of surgery and history of abortion. The incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy was 4.73%, mostly in the second gravidity (34.34%, whereas the nulliparous have the highest prevalence of 39.39%. Acquired risk factors, i.e. history of operations was 10.34%, patients with family planning 20.69%, patients with history of abortion 41.38%, patients with history of abortion and operation 6.90% patients with family and history of abortion was 20.69%.

  13. RISK FACTORS FOR VERY PRETERM DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Витальевна Батырева

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research – assess risk factors for very preterm delivery in the Omsk region. Materials and methods. The main group comprised women with very preterm delivery (n = 64; сomparison group – pregnant women with a threat of interruption in terms of 22-27 weeks and successful preserving therapy (n = 63; control group – pregnant women in whom this pregnancy was taking place without the threat of interruption (n = 62. Results. Risk factors for very preterm delivery were bacterial vaginosis, specific vaginitis, kidney disease and the threat of interruption. There was a significant lead in streptococci (32.3 ± 5.8 %, especially group B (19.0 ± 4.9 % in the main group. The risk factor for very preterm delivery was infectious viral diseases transferred during pregnancy, observed in 12.7 ± 4.2 % of women in the main group, in 7.8 ± 3.3 % in the comparison group (p < 0.01 and in 4.8 ± 2,7 % – control (p < 0,001. In the main group, placental insufficiency was 2 times more common than in the comparison group and 13 times than in the control group. Every sixth pregnant of the main group had manifestations of gestosis. Such complications of gestation as the premature detachment of the normally inserted placenta (7.8 ± 3.3 % and inborn malformations of a fruit (1.6 ± 1.6 % were observed only in the main group. Conclusion. The results of the research and literature data showed that the significant influence on the level of very early premature births is due to: the age of the parents, the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, drugs, abortion, preterm birth, urinary tract and genital tract infections, severe somatic diseases, multiple pregnancies. In the structure of complications of gestation during miscarriages, placental insufficiency predominates, the threat of abortion, fetal growth retardation, and polyhydramnios.

  14. Epidemiology, classification, and modifiable risk factors of peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas W Shammas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas W ShammasMidwest Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Cardiovascular Medicine, PC, Davenport, IA, USAAbstract: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is part of a global vascular problem of diffuse atherosclerosis. PAD patients die mostly of cardiac and cerebrovascular-related events and much less frequently due to obstructive disease of the lower extremities. Aggressive risk factors modification is needed to reduce cardiac mortality in PAD patients. These include smoking cessation, reduction of blood pressure to current guidelines, aggressive low density lipoprotein lowering, losing weight, controlling diabetes and the use of oral antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin or clopidogrel. In addition to quitting smoking and exercise, cilostazol and statins have been shown to reduce claudication in patients with PAD. Patients with critical rest limb ischemia or severe progressive claudication need to be treated with revascularization to minimize the chance of limb loss, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, epidemiology, risk factors, classification

  15. INCISIONAL HERNIA - A CLINICAL STUDY, OBESITY - A MAJOR RISK FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Kota; Ramesh Lingala

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Incisional hernia is a common surgical problem with which a patient presents to the surgical OPD. There are certain modifiable risk factors, which if corrected can prevent incisional hernia. Among these risk factors, obesity is a major risk factor. Present study aims to prove that obesity is a major risk factor for incisional hernia. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care centre from December 2014 to December 2017...

  16. Clinical presentation and risk factors of osteoradionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chronopoulos, Aristeidis

    2015-03-26

    Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive

  17. Clinical presentation and risk factors of osteoradionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronopoulos, Aristeidis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors among college students: Knowledge, perception, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Shurmur, Scott W; Pullen, Carol H; Yates, Bernice C

    2017-04-01

    To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience sampling. College students were knowledgeable about cardiovascular risk factors but did not perceive themselves at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors was correlated with the lifetime risk estimates (ρ = .17, p = .048), and perception of cardiovascular risk was positively associated with 30-year CVD risk estimates (ρ = .16, p = .048). More than 50% of the participants had 1 or more cardiovascular risk factors. High knowledge level of cardiovascular risk factors was not sufficient to lower cardiovascular risks within this study population, but changing perception of cardiovascular risk factors may play a bigger role in reducing long-term cardiovascular risks.

  19. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....

  20. Risk factors and assessment for cardiovascular disease among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: cardiovascular risk factors are prevalent in HIV-positive patients which places them at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to determine the risk factors and risk assessment for CVD in HIV-positive patients with and without antiretroviral therapy. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study of ...

  1. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-10-13

    Oct 13, 2011 ... risk factor and 104(76%) recognized history of previous benign breast lump as a risk factor . Other risk factors .... nurses in Nigeria where 89% would agree to have mastectomy should they develop breast cancer [11]. ... Only seventy five percent carried out the procedure at least once every month. A lower.

  2. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation in patients presenting to an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the ...

  3. Vitamin D Deficiency : Universal Risk Factor for Multifactorial Diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Navis, Gerjan

    In the Western world, the majority of morbidity and mortality are caused by multifactorial diseases. Some risk factors are related to more than one type of disease. These so-called universal risk factors are highly relevant to the population, as reduction of universal risk factors may reduce the

  4. Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis patients: A single center study. ... Stenosis was the most common risk factor for vascular failure as it occurred in (29%) of patients. ... Other risk factors for dialysis CRBSI include older age, low serum albumin, high BUN and decreasing the duration of dialysis.

  5. Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarek A. Ghonemy

    2015-08-18

    Aug 18, 2015 ... Diabetes was the second common risk factor for vascular failure as it occurred in (17%) of patients. Conclusion: Stenosis and infection are the most common complications of the vascular access. DM is an important risk factor for the incidence of infection. Other risk factors for dialysis CRBSI include older ...

  6. Modifiable Risk factors of Hypertension and Socio‑demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of modifiable risk factors of hypertension in ... Ibekwe: Correlation between modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio‑demographic profile in Oghara, Delta State. 72. Annals of ..... non‑communicable disease risk factors among older adults in South Africa.

  7. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adolescents secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a statistically significant association between presence of hypertension and impaired fasting glucose and risk factor for type 2 DM. Conclusion: The significant risk factors identified in this study were prehypertension/hypertension and impaired fasting blood glucose. Key words: Adolescence, Risk factors, Type 2 ...

  8. Risk factors for amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Kinoshita

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: DCM and cardiac sarcoidosis were identified as risk factors for amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Risk factors for amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism included higher baseline TSH level and lower baseline free T4 level, suggesting that subclinical hypothyroidism may be a potential risk factor for the development of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism.

  9. Risk factors for scabies in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hao; Lee, Sai-Cheong; Huang, Shie-Shian; Kao, Yu-Chin; See, Lai-Chu; Yang, Shih-Hsien

    2012-08-01

    Scabies is a global problem. Transmission of scabies is usually due to direct or indirect contact. Delay in diagnosis may result in the spread of the scabies mite. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important. In this study, we collected data from 52 scabies patients and analyzed the risk factors for scabies with the case-control method. Our study has revealed that the patients who were bedridden [odds ratio (OR) 6.72, p scabies infection. To prevent scabies, proper management of the nursing home setting, including adequate cleaning of the contaminated clothing, bedding and equipment, in combination with treating all suspected scabies patients, and contact isolation are important and necessary. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Dysbiosis a risk factor for celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbovan, Anamaria; Sur, Genel; Samasca, Gabriel; Lupan, Iulia

    2017-04-01

    Celiac disease remains one of the most challenging pathologies of the small intestine. It involves multiple pathogenic pathways and there are no disease-changing pharmacological agents available against it yet. The term microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit a particular region of the body. Normal gut microbiota has a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and promoting health. Celiac disease is associated with microbiota alteration, especially with an increase in the number of Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in the number of Gram-positive bacteria. There is a strong relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and celiac disease, and recent studies are aimed at determining whether the celiac disease is a risk factor for dysbiosis or dysbiosis is for celiac disease. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the latest findings regarding the gut microbiota and its impact on the celiac disease, including therapeutic aspects.

  11. Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E

    1996-01-01

    suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...... (DSS) score, previous mental disorder, type of mental disorder, previous suicide attempts, expression of suicidal intentions, circumstances at suicide, and suicide method for all MS patients who had committed suicide. In order to characterize MS suicides with respect to risk factors, comparisons were...... made for male and female suicides and for various groups of MS suicides according to disability status. RESULTS: The male suicide patients were characterized by a tendency to commit suicide in the age interval 40-49 years, by the use of a violent suicide method, by previous suicidal behaviour...

  12. Risk factor profile in retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Raj

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available 150 cases of retinal detachment comprising 50 patients each of bilateral retinal detachment, unilateral retinal detachment without any retinal lesions in the fellow eve and unilateral retinal detachment with retinal lesions in the fellow eye were studied and the various associated risk factors were statistically analysed. The findings are discussed in relation to their aetiological and prognostic significance in the different types of retinal detachment. Based on these observations certain guidelines are offered which may be of value in decision making, in prophylactic detachment surgery. Tractional breaks in the superior temporal quadrant especially when symptomatic. mandate prophylactic treatment. Urgency is enhanced it′ the patient is aphakic. Associated myopia adds to the urgency. The higher incidence of initial right e′ e involvement in all groups suggests a vascular original possibly ischaemic.

  13. Consanguinity as risk factor for cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic, S

    2003-03-01

    Cervical carcinoma is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Among the risk factors for HPV infection are having multiple sex partners and sex partners who themselves had multiple sex partners. Women married to relatives are more likely to become infected with HPV and develop cervical carcinoma. Consanguineous spouses have a mild sexual aversion to each other that leads to sex avoidance and increases likelihood of satisfying sexual desire outside the marriage. Sexual aversion develops as a result of spouses growing together in early childhood, which triggers biological imprinting of Westermarck. Westermarck's effect prevents incest in nuclear family. In consanguineous family, it extends to spouses, producing mild sexual antipathy. Because of high prevalence of consanguinity worldwide, it is important to test this hypothesis.

  14. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  15. Sleep disorder risk factors among student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monma, Takafumi; Ando, Akira; Asanuma, Tohru; Yoshitake, Yutaka; Yoshida, Goichiro; Miyazawa, Taiki; Ebine, Naoyuki; Takeda, Satoko; Omi, Naomi; Satoh, Makoto; Tokuyama, Kumpei; Takeda, Fumi

    2018-04-01

    To clarify sleep disorder risk factors among student athletes, this study examined the relationship between lifestyle habits, competition activities, psychological distress, and sleep disorders. Student athletes (N = 906; male: 70.1%; average age: 19.1 ± 0.8 years) in five university sports departments from four Japanese regions were targeted for analysis. Survey items were attributes (age, gender, and body mass index), sleep disorders (recorded through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), lifestyle habits (bedtime, wake-up time, smoking, drinking alcohol, meals, part-time jobs, and use of electronics after lights out), competition activities (activity contents and competition stressors), and psychological distress (recorded through the K6 scale). The relation between lifestyle habits, competition activities, psychological distress, and sleep disorders was explored using logistic regression analysis. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis with attributes as adjustment variables showed that "bedtime," "wake-up time," "psychological distress," "part-time jobs," "smartphone/cellphone use after lights out," "morning practices," and "motivation loss stressors," were risk factors that were independently related to sleep disorders. Sleep disorders among student athletes are related to lifestyle habits such as late bedtime, early wake-up time, late night part-time jobs, and use of smartphones/cellphones after lights out; psychological distress; and competition activities such as morning practices and motivation loss stressors related to competition. Therefore, this study suggests the importance of improving these lifestyle habits, mental health, and competition activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors in iatrogenic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalva-Iborra, A; Alcanyis-Alberola, M; Grao-Castellote, C; Torralba-Collados, F; Giner-Pascual, M

    2017-09-01

    In the last years, there has been a change in the aetiology of spinal cord injury. There has been an increase in the number of elderly patients with spinal cord injuries caused by diseases or medical procedures. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of the occurrence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury in our unit. The secondary aim is to study what variables can be associated with a higher risk of iatrogenesis. A retrospective, descriptive, observational study of patients with acute spinal cord injury admitted from June 2009 to May 2014 was conducted. The information collected included the patient age, aetiology, neurological level and grade of injury when admitted and when discharged, cardiovascular risk factors, a previous history of depression and any prior treatment with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. We applied a logistic regression. The grade of statistical significance was established as Pinjury was the thoracic level (48%). The main aetiology of spinal cord injury caused by iatrogenesis was surgery for degenerative spine disease, in patients under the age of 30 were treated with intrathecal chemotherapy. Iatrogenic spinal cord injury is a frequent complication. A statistically significant association between a patient history of depression and iatrogenic spinal cord injury was found as well as with anticoagulant and antiplatelet drug use prior to iatrogenic spinal cord injury.

  17. Risk factors of post renal transplant hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Alireza Hamidian; Roozbeh, Jamshid; Raiss-Jalali, Ghanbar Ali; Dabaghmanesh, Alireza; Jalaeian, Hamed; Bahador, Ali; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Salehipour, Mehdi; Salahi, Heshmat; Malek-Hosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that patients with end stage renal diseases (ESRD) have hyper-plastic parathyroid glands. In most patients, a decrease in parathyroid hormone (PTH) occurs by about 1 year after renal transplantation. However, some renal transplant recipients continue to have elevated level of PTH. We prospectively evaluated 121 patients undergoing renal transplantation between August 2000 and 2002. The duration of dialysis, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), albumin, creatinine and iPTH levels were recorded prior to transplantation and three months and one year after transplantation. These 121 patients were on dialysis for an average period of 17.4 months prior to transplantation. An increase in the serum Ca and a decrease in serum P and iPTH level was seen in the patients after transplantation (P< 0.001). Hyperparathyroidism was in 12 (9.9%) and 7 (5.7%) patients three months and one year after transplantation respectively. Elderly patients and patients with longer duration on dialysis had an increased risk of developing post transplant hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia in the first year post transplant (P< 0.05). In conclusion age and duration on dialysis before transplantation seems to be important risk factors for post transplant hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  18. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  19. Periodontitis as a Risk Factor of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirina Bartova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. These findings have brought a new aspect to the etiology of the disease. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. The formation of lipid stripes has been reported in 10-year-old children and the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a risk factor contributing to lipid stripes development. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis.

  20. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation.

  1. Risk factors for severity and recurrence of colonic diverticular bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Natércia

    Full Text Available Background: Colonic diverticular bleeding is the most common cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Risk factors related to severity and repeated bleeding episodes are not completely clearly defined. Objective: To characterize a Portuguese population hospitalized due to colonic diverticular bleeding and to identify the clinical predictors related to bleeding severity and rebleeding. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all hospitalized patients diagnosed with colonic diverticular bleeding from January 2008 to December 2013 at our institution. The main outcomes evaluated were bleeding severity, defined as any transfusion support requirements and/or signs of hemodynamic shock, and 1-year recurrence rate. Results: Seventy-four patients were included, with a mean age of 75.7 ± 9.5 years; the majority were male (62.2%. Thirty-six patients (48.6% met the criteria for severe bleeding; four independent risk factors for severe diverticular bleeding were identified: low hemoglobin level at admission (≤ 11 g/dL; OR 18.8, older age (≥ 75 years; OR 4.7, bilateral diverticular location (OR 14.2 and chronic kidney disease (OR 5.6. The 1-year recurrence rate was 12.9%. We did not identify any independent risk factor for bleeding recurrence in this population. Conclusion: In this series, nearly half of the patients hospitalized with diverticular bleeding presented with severe bleeding. Patients with low hemoglobin levels, older age, bilateral diverticular location and chronic kidney disease had a significantly increased risk for severe diverticular bleeding. In addition, a small number of patients rebled within the first year after the index episode, although we could not identify independent risk factors associated with the recurrence of diverticular bleeding.

  2. Genetic Predisposition, Nongenetic Risk Factors, and Coronary Infarct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichopoulou, Antonia; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Bamia, Christina; Benetou, Vassiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ordovas, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Using a genetic predisposition score (GPS), additively integrating the associations of 11 polymorphisms with coronary heart disease (CHD), we examined the consequences of the joint presence of a high GPS and nongenetic CHD risk factors. Methods Within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition, 202 case patients with medically confirmed incident coronary infarct and 197 control subjects were identified in Greece. Each polymorphism contributed 1 unit (high-risk homozygous), one-half unit (heterozygous), or no units (low-risk homozygous) to the GPS. Odds ratios of coronary infarction for those at high risk because of genetic predisposition and simultaneous presence of an established CHD risk factor were estimated, compared with subjects at low risk, for both GPS and each CHD risk factor. Results The joint presence of a high GPS (≥3.5) and each studied CHD risk factor was in all instances associated with a significantly increased risk of coronary infarction. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.62 (1.14–6.02) for ever smoking, 2.88 (1.33–6.24) for hypertension, 3.50 (1.67–7.33) for low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, 3.05 (1.53–6.08) for high non-HDL level, and 3.66 (1.75–7.65) for poor adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The odds ratios were always lower and nonsignificant when the GPS was low. There was suggestive evidence for interaction of a high GPS with hypertension (P =.05) and non-HDL cholesterol level (P =.13). Conclusions Genetic predisposition may interact with hypertension and, perhaps, also with the level of non-HDL cholesterol, in the causation of CHD. Genetic predisposition and the other studied exposures seem to have converging effects. Thus, the GPS may identify individuals who could realize disproportional benefits by controlling their hypertension and, possibly, their non-HDL cholesterol level. PMID:18443266

  3. Hoarseness and Risk Factors in University Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Gustavo Polacow; Augusto de Lima Pontes, Antonio; Abranches, Denise; Augusto de Lima Pontes, Paulo

    2015-07-01

    To characterize the presence of hoarseness and the risk factors in male and female university teachers in private institutions in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey. Voice self-evaluation forms prepared by the Brazilian Ministry of Labor were administered to 846 university teachers in a private institution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence of hoarseness in the sample is 39.6%. Percentage of hoarseness is higher in females (51.8%) than in males (32.6%). Comparing hoarseness and time of teaching, it was observed that the percentage of hoarseness is lower in a time shorter or equal to 1 year, and it is higher in a time between 10 and 20 years. Percentage of hoarseness is lower in the maximum workload of one to three class hours per day compared with the other workloads. Percentage of hoarseness is lower when the maximum number of students per classroom is less than 30 than when it is between 101 and 150 students. Other factors like in terms of noise and sound competition, air pollution, and in terms of causing stress and anxiety, besides habits and style/quality of life are related to the presence of hoarseness. University teachers show high percentage of hoarseness. Factors, such as time of teaching, females, work organization, workplace, in terms of noise and sound competition, air pollution, and in terms of causing stress and anxiety, besides habits and style/quality of life, are related to the presence of hoarseness in this group. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Tobias L; Deutsch, Aaron J; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W J; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P; Nöthen, Markus M; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E; Tsoi, Lam C; van Heel, David A; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T; Gregersen, Peter K; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-09-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer substantial risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen-binding repertoires between a heterozygote's two expressed HLA variants might result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested the non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (ncases = 5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D; ncases = 5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (ncases = 3,089), idiopathic achalasia (ncases = 727) and celiac disease (ncases = 11,115). In four of the five diseases, we observed highly significant, non-additive dominance effects (rheumatoid arthritis, P = 2.5 × 10(-12); T1D, P = 2.4 × 10(-10); psoriasis, P = 5.9 × 10(-6); celiac disease, P = 1.2 × 10(-87)). In three of these diseases, the non-additive dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (rheumatoid arthritis, P = 1.8 × 10(-3); T1D, P = 8.6 × 10(-27); celiac disease, P = 6.0 × 10(-100)). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (rheumatoid arthritis, 1.4%; T1D, 4.0%; celiac disease, 4.1%) beyond a simple additive model.

  5. Immediately modifiable risk factors attributable to colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Lai, Pei Kuan; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-08-04

    limits and avoid alcohol intake are recommended. Future studies with other site-specific cancers and additional risk factors are needed.

  6. Risk indicators and potential risk factors for caries in 5-year-olds of different ethnic groups in Amsterdam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Horst, G. ter; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, to assess the oral health of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Dutch and "other" 5-yr-old children living in Amsterdam; second, to identify risk indicators for caries, in addition to ethnicity; and third, to identify potential risk factors related to

  7. Strong compound-risk factors: efficient discovery through emerging patterns and contrast sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyan; Yang, Qiang

    2007-09-01

    Odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) (risk ratio), and absolute risk reduction (ARR) (risk difference) are biostatistics measurements that are widely used for identifying significant risk factors in dichotomous groups of subjects. In the past, they have often been used to assess simple risk factors. In this paper, we introduce the concept of compound-risk factors to broaden the applicability of these statistical tests for assessing factor interplays. We observe that compound-risk factors with a high risk ratio or a big risk difference have an one-to-one correspondence to strong emerging patterns or strong contrast sets-two types of patterns that have been extensively studied in the data mining field. Such a relationship has been unknown to researchers in the past, and efficient algorithms for discovering strong compound-risk factors have been lacking. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework and a new algorithm that unify the discovery of compound-risk factors that have a strong OR, risk ratio, or a risk difference. Our method guarantees that all patterns meeting a certain test threshold can be efficiently discovered. Our contribution thus represents the first of its kind in linking the risk ratios and ORs to pattern mining algorithms, making it possible to find compound-risk factors in large-scale data sets. In addition, we show that using compound-risk factors can improve classification accuracy in probabilistic learning algorithms on several disease data sets, because these compound-risk factors capture the interdependency between important data attributes.

  8. Risk factor management in a contemporary Australian population at increased cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D J; Coller, J M; Gong, F F; McGrady, M; Prior, D L; Boffa, U; Shiel, L; Liew, D; Wolfe, R; Owen, A J; Krum, H; Reid, C M

    2017-11-14

    Effective management of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease risk factors offers longer, healthier lives and savings in health care. We examined risk factor management in participants of the SCReening Evaluation of the Evolution of New Heart Failure (SCREEN-HF) study, a self-selected population at increased cardiovascular disease risk recruited from members of a health insurance fund in Melbourne and Shepparton, Australia. Inclusion criteria were age ≥60 years with one or more of self-reported ischaemic or other heart disease, irregular or rapid heart rhythm, cerebrovascular disease, renal impairment, or treatment for hypertension or diabetes for ≥2 years. Exclusion criteria were known heart failure or cardiac abnormality on echocardiography or other imaging. Medical history, clinical examination, full blood examination and biochemistry (without lipids and HbA1c) were performed for 3847 participants on enrolment, and blood pressure, lipids and HbA1c were measured 1-2 years after enrolment for 3202 participants. Despite 99% of 3294 participants with hypertension receiving antihypertensive medication, half had blood pressures >140/90 mmHg. Approximately 77% of participants were overweight or obese, with one third obese. Additionally, 74% of participants at high cardiovascular disease risk had low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels ≥2 mmol/l, one third of diabetic participants had HbA1c >7%, 22% had estimated glomerular filtration rate management of modifiable risk factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Urbanization and noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors: WHO STEPwise Iranian NCD risk factors surveillance in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Zahra; Etemad, Koorosh; Yarahmadi, Shahin; Khodakarim, Soheila; Kameli, Mohammadesmail; Hezaveh, Alireza Mahdavi; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-27

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) according to the World Health Organization stepwise approach to surveillance of NCDs. This study is part of a NCD risk factor surveillance of 10 069 individuals in all provinces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, aged over 20 years, during 2011. By utilizing 2011 census data, urbanization levels were determined in all provinces and logistics regression was used to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors. Among males, urbanization had a positive correlation with low physical activity (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.42-2.09), low fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.8; 95% CI: 1.09-2.96), and high BMI (OR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.20-1.70). Among females there was a positive and significant correlation with low physical activity (OR=1.2; 95% CI: 1.08-1.49), low fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 0.78-1.91) and high BMI (OR=1.3; 95% CI: 1.14-1.53). Thus, urbanization has a significant correlation with increases in NCD factors in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  10. A study on the development of risk perception concerning food additives

    OpenAIRE

    臼井, 宗一

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the development process of risk perception concerning food additives, a sur vey was conducted with female college students (sophomores) for sources of information that made them feel insecure about food additives. The main source of the information when they were in infancy and at elementar y school was found to be family (mostly mother); that was teachers when they were at middle school and high school, and that was ...

  11. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors among Stroke Survivors in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Vincent-Onabajo; Taritei Moses

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of stroke risk factors is expected to reduce the incidence of stroke?whether first-ever or recurrent. This study examined knowledge of stroke risk factors and its determinants among stroke survivors. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of consenting stroke survivors at two physiotherapy facilities in Nigeria was carried out. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained and knowledge of stroke risk factors (defined as the ability to mention at least one correct risk fac...

  12. RISK FACTORS IN SUICIDE AMONG MALE ALCOHOL DEPENDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Prasanna; Gandhibabu; Asok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is a potent risk factor for completed suicide but data are limited on factors that distinguish risk within this high risk population. AIM: To study the risk factors for suicide attempts among male alcohol dependents. METHODS: This was a case control study conducted from January to July in the Year 2014. Cases and controls were recruited from Department of Psychiatry, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, using various tools such as semi structured p...

  13. Differences in Risk Factors for Recurrent Versus Incident Preterm Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Grantz, Katherine L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002–2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with ...

  14. Finding Color in Conformity: A Commentary on Culturally Specific Risk Factors for Violence in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephane M

    2015-11-01

    This article outlines the current utility of Indigenous culturally specific risk factors for violence and the ramifications for cross-cultural risk prediction. The Indigenous culturally specific violence risk factor literature has provided a rich body of contextual information outlining Indigenous patterns of criminal behaviour. This information has the capacity to facilitate offender responsivity and treatment targets in addition to assisting clinicians identify the presence of risk markers among Indigenous clients. However, if intended for inclusion in risk prediction models, culturally specific risk items then require further quantitative analysis to establish robust associations and probability estimates for recidivistic outcome. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Presence and Risk Factors for Glaucoma in Patients with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Brian J; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Pasquale, Louis R

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus represents a growing international public health issue with a near quadrupling in its worldwide prevalence since 1980. Though it has many known microvascular complications, vision loss from diabetic retinopathy is one of the most devastating for affected individuals. In addition, there is increasing evidence to suggest that diabetic patients have a greater risk for glaucoma as well. Though the pathophysiology of glaucoma is not completely understood, both diabetes and glaucoma appear to share some common risk factors and pathophysiologic similarities with studies also reporting that the presence of diabetes and elevated fasting glucose levels are associated with elevated intraocular pressure-the primary risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. While no study has completely addressed the possibility of detection bias, most recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that diabetic populations are likely enriched with glaucoma patients. As the association between diabetes and glaucoma becomes better defined, routine evaluation for glaucoma in diabetic patients, particularly in the telemedicine setting, may become a reasonable consideration to reduce the risk of vision loss in these patients.

  16. Risk Factors and Impulsivity in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Burcak Annagur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to genetic tendency, social, cultural, emotional and diet-related factors play important role in the development of obesity. Impulsivity is the possible predictor of relapse in obesity treatment. Impulsivity is also considered as a predicting factor among patients who quit the treatment. Research has shown that obese people are more impulsive than other people. Impulsive features are especially found to be higher with those who have binge eating disorder. Impulsive people appears to have no control over their behaviors on eating and they have more interest towards food with higher calories. Another issue that strengthens the assocaition between obesity and impulsivity is the obesity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Dopaminergic deficiency in the reward centre of the brain can be a common pathway for both attention deficit and obesity. Several approaches have been searched and put forward to sustain the patients’ lost weights after diet. Specific cognitive behavioral approaches developed for the treatment of impulsive behavior could contribute much into obesity treatment . Obesity is a chronic disease that requires long term treatment and follow up.

  17. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E.; Tsoi, Lam C.; Van Heel, David A.; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M.; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer strong risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen binding repertoires between a heterozygote’s two expressed HLA variants may result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Ncases=5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D, Ncases=5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (Ncases=3,089), idiopathic achalasia (Ncases=727), and celiac disease (Ncases=11,115). In four out of five diseases, we observed highly significant non-additive dominance effects (RA: P=2.5×1012; T1D: P=2.4×10−10; psoriasis: P=5.9×10−6; celiac disease: P=1.2×10−87). In three of these diseases, the dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (RA: P=1.8×10−3; T1D: P=8.6×1027; celiac disease: P=6.0×10−100). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (RA: 1.4%, T1D: 4.0%, and celiac disease: 4.1%, beyond a simple additive model). PMID:26258845

  18. The Effect of Osteoporosis Risk Factors on Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Umay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate whether osteoporosis (OP risk factors have any effect on bone mineral density in patients receiving OP treatment. Material and method: The study included 73 postmenopausal women with OP who had been using bisphosphonate treatment for one year, with at least one of either total lumbar or femoral neck T-score still <-2.5 and whose total lumbar and/or femoral neck T-scores showed no improvement compared to one year earlier. Demographic characteristics and OP risk factors were recorded. Mini-mental test (MMT, Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales were used in the evaluation of the cognitive status of patients. The assessed parameters of patients were compared with the current total lumbar and femoral neck T-scores. Results: Being underweight, illiteracy, high gravidity, inadequate calcium intake, and cognitive dysfunction were found to be effective on lumbar and femoral neck T- scores, while tea and coffee consumption, smoking status and the presence of additional comorbidity and drug use were found to be effective on femoral neck T-scores. Conclusion: Some OP risk factors may contribute to the ineffectiveness in patients receiving regular OP treatment who fail to show adequate response. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:44-50

  19. Are intestinal helminths risk factors for developing active tuberculosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Daniel; Mengistu, Getahun; Akuffo, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections in active tuberculosis patients and their healthy household contacts and to assess its association with active TB in an area endemic for both types of infections. METHODS: Smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and healthy ho......: Intestinal helminth infection may be one of the risk factors for the development of active pulmonary TB in addition to HIV infection. This finding may have important implications in the control of TB in helminth endemic areas of the world....

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among First Year Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Krishna Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of cardiovascular risk in young age is important to motivate them to modify life styles and seek health care early to lower the chances of acquiring cardiovascular disease in later age. This study was done to assess cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted throughout September and October 2017 in which all first year medical students from a medical college were assessed for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Participants’ demography, family history of illness, anthropometric measurements, and blood reports of lipid profile and fasting glucose were acquired. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS-21. Result: There were 99 participants; 55 males and 44 females. One or more risk factors were present in 87 (87.9% participants. Moreover, 67.7% (n = 67 participants had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common (n = 55, 55.6% risk factor followed by elevated triacylglycerol (n = 47, 47.5% and family history of hypertension (n = 45, 45.5%. There was no significant difference in presence of various risk factors between genders. Conclusion: There was higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Majority of them had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common risk factor. The risk factors were comparable in males and females.

  1. Prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents: The CASPIAN-III Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: This study proposes that in addition to national health policies on preventing cardiometabolic risk factors, specific interventions should be considered according to the regional SES level.

  2. Risk Factors for Postoperative Shivering After Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Masanori; Hitosugi, Takashi; Esaki, Kanako; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    Postoperative shivering is a frequent complication of anesthesia. However, there are few reports about postoperative shivering in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Postoperative shivering in patients after osteotomy was observed from April 2008 to September 2015. This retrospective study investigated the risk factors of postoperative shivering in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Anesthesia records of patients who underwent an osteotomy of the maxilla or mandible were checked. A patient's background (gender, age, height, and weight), anesthesia time, operative time, fentanyl, remifentanil, fluid volume, urine volume, blood loss volume, agent for anesthetic maintenance, rectal temperature at the end of surgery, and type of surgery were recorded in addition to the occurrence of postoperative shivering. In the univariate analysis, the Fisher exact test and the χ 2 test were used, and a multivariable analysis was performed using stepwise logistic regression to determine risk factors of postoperative shivering. In this study, 233 cases were investigated, and 24 patients (11.5%) had postoperative shivering. The occurrence of postoperative shivering was correlated with blood loss volume (shivering group, 633.9 ± 404.8 mL; nonshivering group, 367.0 ± 312.6 mL; P shivering group, 37.2 ± 0.6°C; nonshivering group, 37.5 ± 0.5°C; P shivering. Rectal temperature at the end of surgery was the highest risk factor (odds ratio = 2.560277; 95% confidence interval, 1.236774-5.327362), and blood loss volume was the next highest risk factor (odds ratio = 0.997733; 95% confidence interval, 0.999-0998). Clinicians should pay attention to postoperative shivering not only in patients with hypothermia but also in patients with substantial blood loss. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Additional components of risk assessment and their impact on the probability parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Saja

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the issue of risk assessment and its impact on the quality and safety of work. During the assessment of the turning lathe position additional components associated with the jobs personalization were taken into account. Paragraph 2 item 7 of the Regulation of the Minister of Laborr and Social Policy of 26 September 1997 on general safety regulations defines occupational risk as the likelihood of an adverse event. The authors drew attention to the reality of the accident, which sometimes depends on the predisposition of the employee. It turns out that a correct estimation of the probability of occurrence of the accident to be able to react in a timely way seems extremely important.. This parameter will be assessed more accurately if we take into account a number of additional components resulting from the characteristics of the employee. The results of the personalized assessment of risk may allow appropriate planning of corrective and preventive actions.

  4. [Amblyopia. Epidemiology, causes and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elflein, H M

    2016-04-01

    Amblyopia is the main cause for mostly monocular, impaired vision in childhood. Treatment and prevention of amblyopia is only effective during childhood. Ophthalmological screening of children does not yet exist in Germany. The prevalence of amblyopia in Germany is 5.6%, which is higher than in reports from studies in Australia; however, the prevalence of amblyopia is not comparable in these studies due to different definitions of amblyopia and the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study cohorts. At present it is unknown at what age ophthalmological screening should be carried out to prevent amblyopia and the appropriate frequency of screening examinations. Amblyopia is a disorder of the visual cortex that is due to suppression and deprivation of one eye leading to unilateral visual impairment. Approximately 50% of cases of amblyopia are caused by anisometropia, 25% by strabismus and in every sixth person by a combination of both. Other causes, such as unilateral congenital cataracts are relatively rare. A variety of factors, such as ocular pathologies, premature birth, familial disposition and general diseases are associated with an increased risk for amblyopia.

  5. [Atopic dermatitis - risk factors and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleska, Martyna; Trojacka, Ewelina; Savitskyi, Stepan; Terlikowska-Brzósko, Agnieszka; Galus, Ryszard

    2017-08-21

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by severe itching and eczematic skin lesions. In Poland from 1.5 to 2.5 million people suffer from AD. The pathophysiologic complexity and the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes cause diagnostic and therapeutic problems and this is the basis for the division of the disease into subtypes. Heterogeneity of the disease is also confirmed in the study of the genotype of the disease. In relation with AZS more than 1000 loci in chromosomes were demonstrated. The roles of certain genes and the pathophysiology of lesions caused by their polymorphism were described. Wide spectrums of AD risk factors are: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, obesity and high and low birth weight. The quality of life in patients with AD is impaired, the disease disrupts family and professional relationships. Biological medical products are an example of an individual approach to the treatment of AD. It seems, individual approach to disease and treatment can be a successive solution to the problem.

  6. Biomarkers in lone atrial fibrillation - an additional 'fine tuning' of risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Darae; Magnani, Jared W; Hylek, Elaine M

    2015-01-01

    Lone atrial fibrillation (LAF) is generally regarded as a benign disorder that does not significantly increase the risk of thromboembolism and mortality. However, there is growing evidence that "lone" atrial fibrillation (AF) is a "heterogeneous" disorder with varying risk for thromboembolism based on the patient's underlying cardiovascular risk factors. Blood biomarkers, including markers of myocardial strain, inflammation, endothelial injury, platelet activation, and hypercoagulability, have potential to improve our risk stratification and management of LAF. Currently, there is a paucity of data on biomarkers in strictly defined LAF. The majority of studies that aimed to study lone atrial fibrillation excluded patients with structural heart disease, but did not exclude patients with co-existing cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Moreover, many of the studies did not exclude patients based on age, thereby increasing the likelihood of including patients with cardiovascular co-morbidities. There are currently a limited number of studies aimed to investigate the role of biomarkers in true LAF. The results are conflicting as to whether these biomarkers are associated with LAF or stroke risk. Future studies enrolling patients with true LAF using strict definition are needed. Herein, we review our current knowledge of biomarkers in association with atrial fibrillation and LAF and discuss their potential clinical utility.

  7. Are hypertensive women at additional risk of ischaemic heart disease from physically demanding work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesøe, Karen; Søgaard, Karen; Aadahl, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Background: The combination of hypertension and high physical activity at work may increase blood pressure considerably and increase the risk of atherosclerosis and thereby ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but only a few studies in men, and none among women, have examined this topic.......Design: This was a prospective cohort study.Methods: In 1993, 12,093 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort Study, aged 45–64 years answered a baseline questionnaire on physical activity at work, history of hypertension, a selection of known risk factors for IHD and occupational factors. Information on incident IHD from...... baseline to 2008 was retrieved by individual linkage to the National Register of Hospital Discharges.Results: In a fully adjusted Cox model, hypertensive nurses with high physical activity at work had nearly three times higher risk of IHD (hazard ratio (HR) 2.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2...

  8. Using risk factors for detection and prognostication of uveal melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Koundanya, Vikram V; Shields, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of malignancy, particularly uveal melanoma, is crucial in protecting visual acuity, salvaging the eye, and preventing metastasis. Risk factors for early detection of uveal melanoma have been clearly delineated in the literature and allow identification of melanoma when it is tiny and simulates a nevus. These factors include thickness >2 mm, presence of subretinal fluid (SRF), symptoms, the orange pigment, margin near optic disc, acoustic hollowness, surrounding halo, and absence of drusen. The importance of early detection is realized when one considers melanoma thickness, as each millimeter increase in melanoma thickness imparts 5% increased risk for metastatic disease. Newer imaging modalities like enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autoflouroscence facilitate in detection of SRF and orange pigment. Additional molecular biomarkers and cytological features have been identified which can predict the clinical behavior of a small melanocytic lesion. Features that suggest a poor prognosis include higher blood levels of tyrosinase m-RNA, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor; monosomy 3 and gains in chromosome 8. Management of uveal melanoma includes enucleation (for large), local eye wall resection, brachytherapy, charged particle irradiation, and thermotherapy (for small to medium tumors). Although the role of a good clinical evaluation cannot be underestimated, it is advisable to evaluate the various radiological, molecular, and cytological features, to enhance the accuracy of early diagnosis and improved prognosis. PMID:25827540

  9. Using risk factors for detection and prognostication of uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The early detection of malignancy, particularly uveal melanoma, is crucial in protecting visual acuity, salvaging the eye, and preventing metastasis. Risk factors for early detection of uveal melanoma have been clearly delineated in the literature and allow identification of melanoma when it is tiny and simulates a nevus. These factors include thickness >2 mm, presence of subretinal fluid (SRF, symptoms, the orange pigment, margin near optic disc, acoustic hollowness, surrounding halo, and absence of drusen. The importance of early detection is realized when one considers melanoma thickness, as each millimeter increase in melanoma thickness imparts 5% increased risk for metastatic disease. Newer imaging modalities like enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autoflouroscence facilitate in detection of SRF and orange pigment. Additional molecular biomarkers and cytological features have been identified which can predict the clinical behavior of a small melanocytic lesion. Features that suggest a poor prognosis include higher blood levels of tyrosinase m-RNA, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor; monosomy 3 and gains in chromosome 8. Management of uveal melanoma includes enucleation (for large, local eye wall resection, brachytherapy, charged particle irradiation, and thermotherapy (for small to medium tumors. Although the role of a good clinical evaluation cannot be underestimated, it is advisable to evaluate the various radiological, molecular, and cytological features, to enhance the accuracy of early diagnosis and improved prognosis.

  10. Thrombophilic Risk Factors in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Ayten; Senturk, Omer; Aygun, Cem; Celebi, Altay; Caglayan, Cigdem; Hulagu, Sadettin

    2010-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have an increased risk for thromboembolism. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of thrombophilic risk factors in IBD patients and to assess the associations of these factors with disease activity. Forty-eight patients with IBD (24 ulcerative colitis, 24 Crohn's disease) and 40 matched healthy control individuals were enrolled. In addition to routine biochemical analysis, fasting blood samples were studied for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, protein-C, protein-S, antithrombin III, factor VII, factor VIII, D-dimer, vitamin B 12 , folic acid and homocysteine. Levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, D-dimer and the number of platelets were significantly higher in patients with IBD. When compared to control group, in patients with Crohn's disease serum homocystein levels were significantly higher (p = 0.025) while serum folic acid levels were significantly lower (p homocystein and the number of platelets were found to be significantly higher in Crohn's disease patients who were in active period of the disease. Thrombophilic defects are multifactorial and might be frequently seen in IBD patients. They might contribute to thrombotic complications of this disease.

  11. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...

  12. Risk of aspiration in care home residents and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarel-Wierink, C.D. van der; Putten, G.J. van der; Visschere, L.M. De; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Baat, C. de; Schols, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is a prevalent cause of death in care home residents. Dysphagia is a significant risk factor of aspiration pneumonia. The purpose of the current study was to screen for risk of aspiration in care home residents in the Netherlands and assess potential risk factors of aspiration. Five

  13. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Lígia da Silva; Lúcio, Adélia; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI) and its characteristics. This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls) with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, ppregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent. Investigar os fatores de risco para a incontinência urinária (IU) no puerpério e as suas características. Trata-se de estudo caso-controle com 344 puérperas (77 casos e 267 controles), com até 90 dias pós-parto. Foi aplicado, em um único momento, um questionário para os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos, e dois outros para avaliar a perda urinária, situações de perda e o tipo de IU. Apresentaram IU de esforço 45,5%, perda urinária diversas vezes ao dia 44,2%, sendo 71,4% em pequena quantidade e 57,1% ao tossir ou espirrar. Em 70,1% dos casos a IU iniciou-se na gestação e permaneceu no puerpério. Ao ajustar-se um modelo de regressão logística binária, apenas IU na gestação (OR 12,82, IC 95% 6,94 - 23,81, p<0,0001), multiparidade (OR 2,26, IC 95% 1,22 - 4,19, p=0,009), idade gestacional no parto maior ou igual a 37 semanas (OR 2,52, IC 95% 1,16 - 5,46, p=0,02) e constipação (OR 1,94, IC

  14. Epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Impaired fasting or glucose tolerance and/or diabetes can occur with hypertension, which theoretically predicts a worse cardiovascular risk profile, and consequently requires intensive cardiovasular risk management. Objectives. To characterise the frequency of the occurence of conventional cardiovascular risk ...

  15. Types of Obesity and Its Association with the Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Jilin Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xin; Jiang, Lingling; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Yuhan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a serious public health problem in recent years in China. Aggregation of CVD risk factors in one individual increases the risk of CVD and the risk increases substantially with each additional risk factor. This study aims to explore the relationship between the number of clustered CVD risk factors and different types of obesity. A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this population-based cross-sectional study in 2012. Informa...

  16. Hunger and Behavioral Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in School-Going Adolescents in Bolivia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Matthew L

    2016-04-21

    Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents. Hunger was associated with increased odds of nondaily fruit and vegetable consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21; P hunger sometimes [AOR = 1.83; P hunger, in addition to traditional behavioral risk factors.

  17. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil

    2016-01-01

    . Objective: The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India...... and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed. Results: HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP). Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health...

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 10-year Risk for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjoo Boo, RN, PhD

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in Korean women, and the combination of risk factors is common. Development and implementation of multifaceted nursing interventions are required to confront the current epidemic rise of CHD in Korean women.

  19. Modifiable risk factors and colorectal adenomas among those at high risk of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified several modifiable risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in the general population. However, associations between modifiable risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns, and colorectal neoplasms in two

  20. Additive pressor effects of caffeine and stress in male medical students at risk for hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, J D; al'Absi, M; Whitsett, T L; Passey, R B; Lovallo, W R

    2000-05-01

    The effects of caffeine on blood pressure (BP) and cortisol secretion were examined during elevated work stress in medical students at high versus low risk for hypertension. Among 31 male medical students who were regular consumers of caffeine, 20 were considered at low risk for hypertension (negative parental history and all screening BP caffeine during two lectures (low work stress) and two exams (high work stress) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Caffeine consumption and exam stress increased cortisol secretion in both groups (P caffeine or exam stress in both groups, low versus high risk, respectively (Caffeine: + 5/4 vs + 3/3 mm Hg; Stress: + 4/1 vs + 7/3 mm Hg; P caffeine caused additive increases in BP (Low Risk + 9/5 mm Hg, High Risk + 10/6 mm Hg) such that 46% of high-risk participants had average systolic BP > or = 140 mm Hg. This combined effect of stress and caffeine on BP suggests that it may be beneficial for individuals at high risk for hypertension to refrain from the use of caffeinated beverages, particularly at times when work demands and attendant stressors are high. For the same reasons, recent intake of caffeine should be controlled in patients undergoing BP measurement for the diagnosis of hypertension.

  1. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  2. Clinician Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Future Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegl, Christopher J.; Farrington, David P.; Augimeri, Leena K.

    2009-01-01

    We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476…

  3. Modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Factors associated with the development of hypertension can be categorized into modifiable and non‑modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, high salt diet, smoking alcohol consumption and others. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of ...

  4. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis....

  5. Lung cancer risk from radon and smoking - additive or multiplicative effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work is to evaluate the risk of lung cancer when combined radon and smoking exposure. Methodologically the evaluation is based on case and control study nested in two cohort studies, including 11,000 miners and 12,000 residents exposed to high concentrations of radon in homes. Radon exposure in individuals is complemented by information on smoking gained personally from them or from their relatives. The study is based on 1,073 cases of lung cancer among miners and 372 cases in population study. Control subjects were randomly selected in each study based on gender, year of birth and age achieved. The combined effect of smoking and radon is evaluated using the so-called geometric mixed models, whose special case is an additive or multiplicative model. The resulting model of the risk is closer to additive interaction (parameter of mixed model 0.2). The consequences of the model in the study of population are illustrated by estimates of lifetime risk in a hypothetical population of smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to the multiplicative risk model, the lifetime risk significantly increased according to the best geometric mixed model, especially in the population of non-smokers. (author)

  6. Risk Factors for Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopas Martin Rumende

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a well-known risk factor for TB in the past. The global convergence of the accelerating type 2 DM pandemic, high TB prevalence and drug-resistant TB during the past couple of decades has become a serious challenge to clinicians worldwide. Over the past few years, some studies have shown that the treatment failure rate is higher in TB patients with DM as comorbidity. Moreover, there is significant association between DM an MDR-TB. There is higher chance of TB bacilli persistence to be present in sputum of pulmonary TB patient with DM than TB-only patient after 5 months treatment, and this persistence made it necessary for more longer treatment. Presence of DM in TB patients cause a longer period for sputum conversion, therefore it may become a major cause of poor treatment outcome in TB patients. Previous studies showed that a major mechanism for the emergence of drugs resistance in TB bacilli is random mutation in the bacterial genome and the pressure of selection by anti-TB drugs. Pulmonary TB in diabetic patients usually show higher mycobacterial loads at the initiation of treatment, hence they may have higher chance of bacillary mutation and the emergence of MDR-TB with the presenting of higher bacterial loads, longer treatment is needed to clear the bacteria. Therefore, it is not suprising that a higher chance of MDR-TB patients could be find in those patients. A pharmacokinetic study noted that plasma levels of rifampicin were 53% lower in TB patients with diabetes, which might affect treatment outcomes. Inadequate immune respons of the host may also be important in this negative effect of diabetes. Depressed production of IFN-γ in diabetic patients is related to decreasing immune response to TB infection. Reduction of IL-12 response to mycobacterial stimulation in leukocytes from TB with diabetic patients suggest a compromise of innate immune response.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  8. Risk factors for miscarriage from a prevention perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Andersen, Per Kragh; Strandberg-Larsen, K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable risk factors for miscarriage and to estimate the preventable proportion of miscarriages that could be attributed to these. DESIGN: Nationwide observational follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: Ninety-one thousand four hundred and twenty seven pregnancies...... consumption, lifting of >20 kg daily, and night work. We estimated that 25.2% of the miscarriages might be prevented by reduction of all these risk factors to low risk levels. Modification of risk factors acting before and during pregnancy could lead to prevention of 14.7 and 12.5%, respectively......, of the miscarriages. Maternal age at conception and alcohol consumption were the most important risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Miscarriage risk is increased by multiple potentially modifiable risk factors and a considerable proportion of miscarriages may be preventable....

  9. Occupational risk factors for HIV infection among traditional birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in order to determine occupational risk ... KEYWORDS: HIV, Traditional birth attendants, occupational risk factors, Zambia. [Afr J Health Sci. 2010; 17:5-9] ... + 5% and a confidence level of 95%, the required minimum sample would have been ...

  10. Vascular Risk Factors as Treatment Target to Prevent Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; van Gool, Willem A.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that vascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and lack of physical exercise are associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Neuroradiological and neuropathological studies

  11. Measuring injury risk factors: question reliability in a statewide sample

    OpenAIRE

    Koziol-McLain, J.; Brand, D.; Morgan, D.; Leff, M.; Lowenstein, S.

    2000-01-01

    Background—Recently (1996–98), Colorado added 15 questions pertaining to injury related risks and behaviors to the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS). Questions addressed bicycle helmet use, traffic crashes, exposure to violence, suicidal behavior, and gun storage.

  12. Risk and protective factors for recidivism among juveniles who have offended sexually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spice, Andrew; Viljoen, Jodi L; Latzman, Natasha E; Scalora, Mario J; Ullman, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Literature on risk factors for recidivism among juveniles who have sexually offended (JSOs) is limited. In addition, there have been no studies published concerning protective factors among this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of risk and protective factors to sexual and nonsexual recidivism among a sample of 193 male JSOs (mean age = 15.26). Youths were followed for an average of 7.24 years following discharge from a residential sex offender treatment program. The risk factor opportunities to reoffend, as coded based on the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism, was associated with sexual recidivism. Several risk factors (e.g., prior offending; peer delinquency) were associated with nonsexual recidivism. No protective factors examined were associated with sexual recidivism, although strong attachments and bonds as measured by the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth was negatively related to nonsexual recidivism. These findings indicate that risk factors for nonsexual recidivism may be consistent across both general adolescent offender populations and JSOs, but that there may be distinct protective factors that apply to sexual recidivism among JSOs. Results also indicate important needs for further research on risk factors, protective factors, and risk management strategies for JSOs.

  13. Non-dietary environmental risk factors in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrís-i-Tortajada, J; Berbel-Tornero, O; Garcia-i-Castell, J; López-Andreu, J.A.; Sobrino-Najul, E; Ortega-García, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim is to update and disclose the main environmental risk factors, excluding dietary factors, involved in the etiopathology of prostate cancer. Materials and methods Bibliographic review of the last 25 years of non-dietary environmental risk factors associated with prostate cancer between 1985 and 2010, obtained from MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Environmental Risk Factors/Tobacco/Infectious-Inflammatory Factors/Pesticides/Vasectomy/Occupational Exposures/ Chemoprevention Agents/Radiation and Prostate Cancer. Results While some non-dietary environmental risk factors increase the risk of acquiring the disease, others decrease it. Of the former, it is worth mentioning exposal to tobacco smoke, chronic infectious-inflammatory prostatic processes and occupational exposure to cadmium, herbicides and pesticides. The first factors that reduce the risk are the use of chemopreventive drugs (Finasterida, Dutasteride) and exposure to ultraviolet solar radiation. With the current data, a vasectomy does not influence the risk of developing the disease. Conclusions The slow process of prostate carcinogenesis is the final result of the interaction of constitutional risk and environmental factors. Non-dietary environmental factors play an important role in the etiopathology of this disease. To appropriately assess the risk factors, extensive case studies that include all the possible variables must be analyzed. PMID:21439685

  14. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  15. [Risk factors for hyperammonemia during mFOLFOX6 treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misumi, Nobuhiro; Goto, Takashi; Miyoshi, Takanori; Hiraike, Mikako; Shirasawa, Hiromi; Saito, Ooki; Nishino, Takashi; Oudo, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Patients undergoing mFOLFOX6 treatment were classified into a hyperammonemia group (NH3 group) or a non-hyperammonemia group (Non-NH3 group) in order to investigate risk factors related to the onset of hyperammonemia. The NH3 group demonstrated significantly lower lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and albumin levels, and estimated glomerular filtration rates compared to the Non-NH3 group, suggesting that the NH3 group was experiencing renal dysfunction and loss of skeletal muscle mass due to malnutrition. Amino acid fractionation in the NH3 group revealed high urea levels, and delayed urea excretion was identified. Fluorocitric acid, a fluorouracil metabolite, inhibits aconitase in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition, decreased renal urea transporter function due to renal impairment leads to delayed urea excretion. These factors may induce secondary decreases in urea cycle function, leading to hyperammonemia.

  16. An Analysis Of Tensile Test Results to Assess the Innovation Risk for an Additive Manufacturing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczak Stanisław

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the innovation risk for an additive manufacturing process. The analysis was based on the results of static tensile tests obtained for specimens made of photocured resin. The assessment involved analyzing the measurement uncertainty by applying the FMEA method. The structure of the causes and effects of the discrepancies was illustrated using the Ishikawa diagram. The risk priority numbers were calculated. The uncertainty of the tensile test measurement was determined for three printing orientations. The results suggest that the material used to fabricate the tensile specimens shows clear anisotropy of the properties in relation to the printing direction.

  17. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Noori, Nazanin; Zavareh, Maryam Beheshti; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2009-04-01

    The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intakes as means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, only limited data are available on the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on CVD risk factors in a community-based population. The aim of this study was to examine whether, and to what extent, intake of fruits and vegetables is inversely associated with CVD risk factors in adults. In this population-based cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 840 Tehranian adults (male and female) aged 18 to 74 years was randomly selected in 1998. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for lifestyle and nutritional confounders was used in 2 models. After adjusting for confounders, dietary fruit and vegetable were found to be significantly and inversely associated with CVD risk factors. Adjusted odds ratio for high low-density lipoprotein concentrations were 1.00, 0.88, 0.81, and 0.75 (P for trend history of diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, a trend which was not appreciably altered by additional adjustment for education, physical activity, and saturated, polyunsaturated, and total fat intakes. This association was observed across categories of smoking status, physical activity, and tertiles of the Keys score. Exclusion of subjects with prevalent diabetes mellitus or coronary artery disease did not alter these results significantly. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with lower concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and with the risk of CVD per se in a dose-response manner.

  18. Analysis of Hepatitis B Transmission Risk Factors in HIV Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Ghasemzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-infection with Hepatitis B (HBV virus and HIV is common due to similarity of their transmission methods. However, the prevalence of concurrent infection in different societies, shows the crucial role of various risk factors in different populations. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine risk factors of transmission of HBV in patients with HIV in a care center for AIDS patients in Rasht City. This case-control study was carried out on 60 HIV positive patients, who visited the Infectious Diseases Center of Razi Hospital of Rasht from November, 2015 to March, 2016. Participants were assigned to two 30-member experiment and control groups. They were adjusted in terms of age group (18-30, 30-40, 40-50, and 50-60, gender (male and female, and marital status (married, single, divorced, and widowed and visited by an infectious diseases specialist according to routine examinations. Data was recorded in a questionnaire for each subject. The mean age for the experimental group was 35±6.1, and for control group was 36.6± 5.7 years. Both univariate and multivariate analyses of development of HBV infection and variables including Illegitimate sexual intercourse, use of intravenous injection drugs, positive history of imprisonment, and tattooing (p value < 0.05 showed existence of significant relationships. Injection of illegal intravenous drugs, history of imprisonment, illegitimate sexual intercourse, and tattooing are four important risk factors for transmission of HBV infection to HIV patients. In addition, the master risk reduction program may include provision of clean disposable tools for intravenous injection of drugs and tattooing.

  19. Risk Factors for Increased Severity of Paediatric Medication Administration Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Kim; Goodman, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients' risks from medication errors are widely acknowledged. Yet not all errors, if they occur, have the same risks for severe consequences. Facing resource constraints, policy makers could prioritize factors having the greatest severe–outcome risks. This study assists such prioritization by identifying work-related risk factors most clearly associated with more severe consequences. Data from three Canadian paediatric centres were collected, without identifiers, on actual or potential erro...

  20. [Prevention of shoulder dystocia risk factors before delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, F

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether it is possible to prevent the occurrence of risk factors for shoulder dystocia before or during pregnancy. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. Studied measures were exercise before or during pregnancy, dietary management, and gestational diabetes management in obese and non-obese patients. No study has proven that the correction of these risk factors (except gestational diabetes) would reduce the risk of shoulder dystocia. In the general population, physical exercise is recommended either before or during pregnancy to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (physical activity before pregnancy) (grade B), fetal macrosomia (grade C) or maternal weight gain during pregnancy (grade C). No dietary regimen is recommended to reduce these issues (grade B). In overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI]>25), physical activity coupled with dietary management is recommended (grade A) because it reduces fetal macrosomia (EL1). In addition, it allows a modest reduction in maternal weight gain during pregnancy (EL2), but did have an effect on the occurrence of gestational diabetes (EL1). In case of gestational diabetes, diabetes care is recommended (diabetic diet, glucose monitoring, insulin if needed) (grade A) as it reduces the risk of macrosomia and shoulder dystocia (EL1). The recommended weight gain during pregnancy is 11.5 kg to 16 kg for normal BMI patients (grade B). Obese patients should be aware of the importance of controlling their weight gain during pregnancy (professional consensus). It is recommended that patients regain their pre-conception weight, and ideally a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2), 6 months postpartum (grade B) to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes and macrosomia in a subsequent pregnancy (EL2). Physical activity is recommended before and during pregnancy to reduce the occurrence of risk factors for shoulder dystocia

  1. Relationship between Sleep Duration and Risk Factors for Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Phua, Chun Seng; Jayaram, Lata; Wijeratne, Tissa

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. While various risk factors have been identified, sleep has only been considered a risk factor more recently. Various epidemiologic studies have associated stroke with sleep such as sleep duration, and laboratory and clinical studies have proposed various underlying mechanisms. The pathophysiology is multifactorial, especially considering sleep affects many common risk factors for stroke. This review aims to provide an outline of the...

  2. Risk Factors and Biomarkers of Ischemic Stroke in Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Ji-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke is common among cancer patients. However, risk factors and biomarkers of stroke in cancer patients are not well established. This study aimed to investigate risk factors and biomarkers as well as etiology of ischemic stroke in cancer patients. Methods A retrospective review was conducted in cancer patients with ischemic stroke who were admitted to a general hospital in Busan, Korea, between January 2003 and December 2012. The risk factors and biomarkers for strok...

  3. Prevalence of mental health risk factors among students in lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Pranckevičiūtė, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of Mental Health Risk Factors among Students in Lithuania There are a numberof studiesin Lithuania and whole world about depression among young people. However, the prevalence of several risk factors (mental health literacy, sense of coherence, depressiveness, suicidal thoughts, social support) among universities, colleges, vocational studentsin Lithuania has not been studied. Aim of the study – to assess mental health risk factors prevalence among Lithuanian students. Objectives: ...

  4. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  5. Traditional Risk Factors for Stroke in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Dae; Jung, Yo Han; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide. The occurrence of stroke is strongly dependent on well-known vascular risk factors. After rapid modernization, urbanization, and mechanization, East Asian countries have experienced growth in their aged populations, as well as changes in lifestyle and diet. This phenomenon has increased the prevalence of vascular risk factors among Asian populations, which are susceptible to developing cardiovascular risk factors. However, ...

  6. 34 CFR 655.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards? 655.32 Section 655.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION...

  7. 34 CFR 427.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider? 427.22 Section 427.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL VOCATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAM...

  8. 34 CFR 428.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider? 428.22 Section 428.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL VOCATIONAL INSTRUCTOR...

  9. Risk factors for bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Anderson, Connie M; Law, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a national web-based registry. Parents completed a survey dedicated to the school and bullying experiences of their child, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify child and school risk factors for involvement as victim, bully, or bully-victim. Additional analyses examined the risk of bullying involvement based on the amount of time spent in general education classrooms. Children diagnosed with Asperger's disorder, attending a public school or a school with a general education population, were at the greatest risk of being victimized in the past month. Children with comorbid conditions and a high level of autistic traits were the most likely to be victims, bullies, and bully-victims. Finally, children in full inclusion classrooms were more likely to be victimized than those who spend the majority of their time in special education settings. Future research studies should be invested in finding appropriate supports for children with autism spectrum disorder placed in inclusive settings.

  10. Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jang, Hyesue; Jo, Minkyung

    2017-05-19

    We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES), exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.

  11. Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subin Park

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES, exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.

  12. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. McLean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  13. Twin specific risk factors in primary school achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2012-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine twin specific risk factors that influence educational achievement in primary school. We included prenatal factors that are not unique to twins, except for zygosity, but show a higher prevalence in twins than in singletons. In addition, educational achievement was compared between twins and their nontwin siblings in a within-family design. Data were obtained from parents and teachers of approximately 10,000 twins and their nontwin siblings registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Teachers rated the proficiency of the children on arithmetic, language, reading, and physical education, and reported a national educational achievement test score (CITO). Structural equation modeling showed that gestational age, birth weight, and sex were significant predictors of educational achievement, even after correction for socioeconomic status. Mode of delivery and zygosity did not have an effect, while parental age only influenced arithmetic. Mode of conception, incubator time, and birth complications negatively affected achievement in physical education. The comparison of educational achievement of twins and singletons showed significantly lower ratings on arithmetic, reading, and language in twins, compared to their older siblings, but not compared to their younger siblings. Low gestational age and low birth weight were the most important risk factors for lower educational achievement of twins in primary school. It seems that the differences observed between twins and their nontwin siblings in educational achievement can largely be explained by birth order within the family.

  14. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. McLean

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  15. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors, a predictor of late adolescent overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kalantari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased CVD risk factors are predictors of future overweight in childhood and adolescent and increased weight is linked significantly with dyslipidemia and hypertension in this age group.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among emergency department workers and bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Airline Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Dana; Conlon, Helen Acree

    2018-02-01

    The health of an airline pilot is imperative to the safe travels of millions of people worldwide. Medical providers evaluate the cardiovascular risks for airline pilots and the medical requirements to obtain and maintain licensure as an airline pilot. It is the role of the occupational health nurse practitioner to evaluate and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population.

  18. Imaging Management of Breast Density, a Controversial Risk Factor for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, Shannon; Williams, Angela; Weinfurtner, Jared; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-04-01

    Breast density is well recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of breast cancer. However, the magnitude of risk is controversial. As the public becomes increasingly aware of breast density as a risk factor, legislation and notification laws in relation to breast density have become common throughout the United States. Awareness of breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer presents new challenges for the clinician in the approach to the management and screening of women with dense breasts. The evidence and controversy surrounding breast density as a risk factor for the development of breast cancer are discussed. Common supplemental screening modalities for breast cancer are also discussed, including tomosynthesis, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. A management strategy for screening women with dense breasts is also presented. The American College of Radiology recognizes breast density as a controversial risk factor for breast cancer, whereas the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recognizes breast density as a modest risk factor. Neither organization recommends the routine use of supplemental screening in women with dense breasts without considering additional patient-related risk factors. Breast density is a poorly understood and controversial risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Mammography is a screening modality proven to reduce breast cancer-related mortality rates and is the single most appropriate tool for population-based screening. Use of supplemental screening modalities should be tailored to individual risk assessment.

  19. Assessing the additive risks of PSII herbicide exposure to the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen E; Schaffelke, Britta; Shaw, Melanie; Bainbridge, Zoë T; Rohde, Ken W; Kennedy, Karen; Davis, Aaron M; Masters, Bronwyn L; Devlin, Michelle J; Mueller, Jochen F; Brodie, Jon E

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide residues have been measured in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon at concentrations which have the potential to harm marine plant communities. Monitoring on the Great Barrier Reef lagoon following wet season discharge show that 80% of the time when herbicides are detected, more than one are present. These herbicides have been shown to act in an additive manner with regards to photosystem-II inhibition. In this study, the area of the Great Barrier Reef considered to be at risk from herbicides is compared when exposures are considered for each herbicide individually and also for herbicide mixtures. Two normalisation indices for herbicide mixtures were calculated based on current guidelines and PSII inhibition thresholds. The results show that the area of risk for most regions is greatly increased under the proposed additive PSII inhibition threshold and that the resilience of this important ecosystem could be reduced by exposure to these herbicides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  1. Drought Risk Assessment based on Natural and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Wang, Huimin; Han, Dawei

    2015-04-01

    verify the effectiveness of the CDI. In addition, GIS is applied to provide geographically referenced information, i.e. information involving location, elevation, land use, water resources distance and so on, which are essential inputs for spatial analysis in drought risk assessment. On the whole, this study has proposed a new idea on drought risk assessment integrating natural factors with social factors, as well as providing a real-time drought monitoring method in a social context.

  2. Adding multiple risk factors improves Framingham coronary heart disease risk scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu G

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Guizhou Hu,1 Martin Root,2 Ashlee W Duncan1 1BioSignia, Inc., Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Nutrition and Health Care Management, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Purpose: Since the introduction of the Framingham Risk Score (FRS, numerous versions of coronary heart disease (CHD prediction models have claimed improvement over the FRS. Tzoulaki et al challenged the validity of these claims by illustrating methodology deficiencies among the studies. However, the question remains: Is it possible to create a new CHD model that is better than FRS while overcoming the noted deficiencies? To address this, a new CHD prediction model was developed by integrating additional risk factors, using a novel modeling process. Methods: Using the National Health Nutritional Examination Survey III data set with CHD-specific mortality outcomes and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities data set with CHD incidence outcomes, two FRSs (FRSv1 from 1998 and FRSv2 from National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, along with an additional risk score in which the high density lipoprotein (HDL component of FRSv1 was ignored (FRSHDL, were compared with a new CHD model (NEW-CHD. This new model contains seven elements: the original Framingham equation, FRSv1, and six additional risk factors. Discrimination, calibration, and reclassification improvements all were assessed among models. Results: Discrimination was improved for NEW-CHD in both cohorts when compared with FRSv1 and FRSv2 (P<0.05 and was similar in magnitude to the improvement of FRSv1 over FRSHDL. NEW-CHD had a similar calibration to FRSv2 and was improved over FRSv1. Net reclassification for NEW-CHD was substantially improved over both FRSv1 and FRSv2, for both cohorts, and was similar in magnitude to the improvement of FRSv1 over FRSHDL. Conclusion: While overcoming several methodology deficiencies reported by earlier authors, the NEW-CHD model improved CHD risk assessment when

  3. [The real-world effectiveness of personal protective equipment and additional risks for workers' health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, É I; Morozova, T V; Adeninskaia, E E; Kur'erov, N N

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) of hearing, respiratory organs and hands is considered. It is shown that real effect of PPE is twice lower than declared by supplier; this presumes some derating system. The aspects of discomfort and additional risks are analyzed. The hygienic and physiologic evaluation of PPE is required along with elaboration of an official document (OSH standard or sanitary regulation) on selection, personal fit, organization of use and individual training of workers and their motivation.

  4. Video game playing as a risk factor in adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Lysý, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Diploma thesis "Video game playing as a risk factor in adolescence?" deals with actuality of risks for children and youth linked to video games. This topic is currently intensively disscused because of cases of high school shootings. There are concerns that violence in video games is connected to rising of children and youth violence. Another risks refered to video games are addiction and obesity. This diploma thesis deals with these risk too. Goal of this thesis is find out if these risks ar...

  5. Evaluation of antenatal risk factors lit Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, H; Bergstrorn, S; Cnattingius, S; Dupret, A; Reitmaier, P

    1996-08-01

    The prevalence of antenatal risk factors and their association with adverse pregnancy outcome were prospectively studied in the county of Praia, Cape Verde. Of 4693 women registering for antenatal care, 8% were randomly selected from October 1991 through December 1992. Eventually 358 women were observed until puerperium when a physical examination and a structured interview took place. Three out of four women of the cohort were exposed to risk factors according to the existing risk classification in Praia, and 9% presented high risk factors. Thirty two percent of the cohort faced adverse pregnancy outcomes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were significantly increased among women who presented high risk factors, but 82% of all adverse outcomes occurred among other women. The antenatal risk classification investigated cannot be considered an effective tool for detection of women at risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.

  6. Cytokines and clustered cardiovascular risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Müller, Klaus; Eiberg, Stig

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the possible role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), low fitness, and fatness in the early development of clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and insulin resistance. Subjects for this cross......-sectional study were obtained from 18 schools near Copenhagen, Denmark. Two hundred ten 9-year-old children were selected for cytokine analysis from 434 third-grade children with complete CVD risk profiles. The subgroup was selected according to the CVD risk factor profile (upper and lower quartile of a composite...... CVD risk score). All the CVD risk factors and CRP differed between the high- and low-risk groups; but plasma glucose, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 had small and inconsistent differences. Strong associations were found between CVD risk scores and fitness (VO(2peak)) or fatness. No associations were found...

  7. Media Violence and Other Aggression Risk Factors in Seven Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Suzuki, Kanae; Swing, Edward L; Groves, Christopher L; Gentile, Douglas A; Prot, Sara; Lam, Chun Pan; Sakamoto, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukiko; Krahé, Barbara; Jelic, Margareta; Liuqing, Wei; Toma, Roxana; Warburton, Wayne A; Zhang, Xue-Min; Tajima, Sachi; Qing, Feng; Petrescu, Poesis

    2017-07-01

    Cultural generality versus specificity of media violence effects on aggression was examined in seven countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Romania, the United States). Participants reported aggressive behaviors, media use habits, and several other known risk and protective factors for aggression. Across nations, exposure to violent screen media was positively associated with aggression. This effect was partially mediated by aggressive cognitions and empathy. The media violence effect on aggression remained significant even after statistically controlling a number of relevant risk and protective factors (e.g., abusive parenting, peer delinquency), and was similar in magnitude to effects of other risk factors. In support of the cumulative risk model, joint effects of different risk factors on aggressive behavior in each culture were larger than effects of any individual risk factor.

  8. Addition of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Within an Obesity Risk Classification Model Identifies Men at Increased Risk of All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, T Alexander; Sui, Xuemei; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Ross, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Guidelines for identification of obesity-related risk which stratify disease risk using specific combinations of body mass index and waist circumference. Whether the addition of cardiorespiratory fitness, an independent predictor of disease risk, provides better risk prediction of all-cause mortality within current body mass index and waist circumference categories is unknown. The study objective was to determine whether the addition of cardiorespiratory fitness improves prediction of all-cause mortality risk classified by the combination of body mass index and waist circumference. We performed a prospective observational study using data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 31,267 men (mean age, 43.9 years; standard deviation, 9.4 years) who completed a baseline medical examination between 1974 and 2002 were included. The main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Participants were grouped using body mass index- and waist circumference-specific threshold combinations: normal body mass index: 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2), waist circumference threshold of 90 cm; overweight body mass index: 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2), waist circumference threshold of 100 cm, and obese body mass index: 30.0 to 34.9 kg/m(2), waist circumference threshold of 110 cm. Participants were classified using cardiorespiratory fitness as unfit or fit, where unfit was the lowest fifth of the age-specified distribution of maximal exercise test time on the treadmill among the entire Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study population. A total of 1399 deaths occurred over a follow-up of 14.1 ± 7.4 years, for a total of 439,991 person-years of observation. Men who were unfit and had normal body mass index with waist circumference men who were fit, respectively (P Men who were unfit and overweight had 41% (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.90) higher mortality risk with a waist circumference Men who were unfit and obese were not at increased mortality risk (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.90-2.09) with a waist

  9. Statistical evaluation of adding multiple risk factors improves Framingham stroke risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Xiaonan; Duncan, Ashlee; Hu, Guizhou; Zheng, Jiayin

    2017-04-14

    Framingham Stroke Risk Score (FSRS) is the most well-regarded risk appraisal tools for evaluating an individual's absolute risk on stroke onset. However, several widely accepted risk factors for stroke were not included in the original Framingham model. This study proposed a new model which combines an existing risk models with new risk factors using synthesis analysis, and applied it to the longitudinal Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) data set. Risk factors in original prediction models and new risk factors in proposed model had been discussed. Three measures, like discrimination, calibration and reclassification, were used to evaluate the performance of the original Framingham model and new risk prediction model. Modified C-statistics, Hosmer-Lemeshow Test and classless NRI, class NRI were the statistical indices which, respectively, denoted the performance of discrimination, calibration and reclassification for evaluating the newly developed risk prediction model on stroke onset. It showed that the NEW-STROKE (new stroke risk score prediction model) model had higher modified C-statistics, smaller Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square values after recalibration than original FSRS model, and the classless NRI and class NRI of the NEW-STROKE model over the original FSRS model were all significantly positive in overall group. The NEW-STROKE integrated with seven literature-derived risk factors outperformed the original FSRS model in predicting the risk score of stroke. It illustrated that seven literature-derived risk factors contributed significantly to stroke risk prediction.

  10. Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJehani, Yousef A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Data. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. It is important to understand the etiological factors and the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to recognize and appreciate the associated risk factors. As periodontal disease is multifactorial, effective disease management requires a clear understanding of all the associated risk factors. PMID:24963294

  11. Organization of accounting for factoring companies: risk-oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vygivska I.M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of rational organization of accounting factoring activity the current research identifies the types of factoring operations typical for the accounting system of factoring company, and their place in this system. The recommended provisions, which must be fixed in the accounting policy of the enterprise-factor, are presented. Based on the identification of the most significant provisions of the factoring agreement, it is proposed to limit the amount of funding depending on the type of factoring. The risk factor matrix for factoring business is developed to improve the efficiency of their management and the accounting of operations due to risk management methods. The accounting of the factoring company is proposed taking into account the following components: 1 the moment of acceptance of the sold (deferred receivable to the accounting; 2 the features of factoring depending on its type; 3 the peculiarities of accounting registration of charges in factoring operations; 4 the procedure for inventorying factoring transactions.

  12. Risk factors, management and outcomes of adverse drug reactions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antiretrovirals have been associated with serious adverse drug reactions. Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these factors may help in prevention and management of the adverse drug reactions. Objective: To describe the factors associated ...

  13. Temporomandibular dysfunction and risk factors for anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dıraçoǧlu, Demirhan; Yıldırım, Nazmiye Kocaman; Saral, İlknur; Özkan, Mine; Karan, Ayşe; Özkan, Sedat; Aksoy, Cihan

    2016-08-10

    Anxiety and depression may cause temporomandibular joint (TMJ) complaints or TMJ disorders may trigger some of psychiatric problems. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors and the interactive role of anxiety and depression in patients with TMJ dysfunction. A total of 273 patients who presented to the multidisciplinary outpatient clinic of TMJ diseases that were followed up for temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD), were included in this trial. Patients were classified in three sub-groups: patients with myofacial pain alone (group-1), patients with TMJ disorder alone (group-2), and patients with TMJ disorder and also myofacial pain (group-3). All patients were examined using the standard TMJ examination and were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) scale in order to determine anxiety and depression. According to the univariate analysis, risk factors for patients with confirmed anxiety and/or depression were being female (p= 0.005), existence of myofacial pain (p= 0.01), effects of stress on complaints (p= 0.005) and insufficient social support (p< 0.001). According to regression analysis, presence of psychopathology was increased 3.7 times in those being female, 3.5 times with insufficient social support, and 1.2 times with myofacial pain. Among the patients with TMD, the groups who were considered to have anxiety and depression were female patients, patients with deficient social support system, and patients with myofacial pain alone or patients with myofacial pain accompanying an existing TMJ disorder. The existence of anxiety and depression should be considered in addition to musculoskeletal pathologies during the treatment plan of patients with TMJ who have these risk factors.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in a population of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Rodrigues

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that a judicious diet, regular physical activity and blood pressure (BP monitoring must start in early childhood to minimize the impact of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. This study was designed to evaluate BP and metabolic parameters of schoolchildren from Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and correlate them with cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted on 380 students aged 10-14 years (177 boys, 203 girls enrolled in public schools. Baseline measurements included body mass index, BP and heart rate. The students were submitted to exercise spirometry on a treadmill. VO2max was obtained from exercise testing to voluntary exhaustion. Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose were measured. Nine point nine percent of the boys and 11.7% of the girls were hypertensive or had pre-hypertensive levels. There was no significant correlation between VO2max and TC, LDL-C, or TG in prepubertal children, but a slight negative correlation was detected in post-pubertal boys for HDL-C and TG. In addition, children with hypertension (3.4% or pre-hypertensive levels (6.6% also had comorbidity for overweight and blood lipid abnormalities (14% for triglycerides, 44.7% for TC, 25.9% for LDL-C, 52% for low HDL-C. The present study shows for the first time high correlations between prehypertensive blood pressure levels and the cardiovascular risk factors high TC, high LDL-C, low HDL-C in schoolchildren. These are important for the formulation of public health policies and strategies.

  15. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90......% of population-attributable risk. However, traditional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, cholesterol) appear to exert contrasting risks for stroke compared with coronary heart disease, and the etiology of stroke is far more heterogeneous. In addition, our knowledge of risk factors for stroke in low...... years). A questionnaire (cases and controls) is used to acquire information on known and proposed risk factors for stroke. Cardiovascular (e.g. blood pressure) and anthropometric (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio) measurements are obtained at the time of interview. Nonfasting blood samples and random urine...

  16. Toxic-Metabolic Risk Factors in Pediatric Pancreatitis: Recommendations for Diagnosis, Management and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Sohail Z.; Morinville, Veronique; Pohl, John; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Bellin, Melena D.; Freedman, Steve; Hegyi, Peter; Heyman, Melvin B; Himes, Ryan; Ooi, Chee Y.; Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane; Usatin, Danielle; Uc, Aliye

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pancreatitis in children can result from metabolic and toxic risk factors, but the evidence linking these factors is sparse. We review the evidence for association or causality of these risk factors in pancreatitis, discuss management strategies and their rationale. Methods We conducted a review of the pediatric pancreatitis literature with respect to the following risk factors: (a) hyperlipidemia, (b) hypercalcemia, (c) chronic renal failure, (d) smoking exposure, (e) alcohol, and (f) medications. Areas of additional research were identified. Results Hypertriglyceridemia of 1000 mg/dl or greater poses an absolute risk for pancreatitis; persistent elevations of calcium are predisposing. Further research is necessary to determine whether end stage renal disease leads to increased pancreatitis in children similar to adults. It is unknown whether cigarette smoking exposure, which clearly increases risk in adults, also increases risk in children. The role of alcohol in pediatric pancreatitis, whether direct or modifying, needs to be elucidated. The evidence supporting most cases of medication-induced pancreatitis is poor. Drug structure, improper handling of drug by host, and by-stander status may be implicated. Other pancreatitis risk factors must be sought in all cases. Conclusions The quality of evidence supporting causative role of various toxic and metabolic factors in pediatric pancreatitis is variable. Careful phenotyping is essential, including search for other etiologic risk factors. Directed therapy includes correction/ removal of any agent identified, and general supportive measures. Further research is necessary to improve our understanding of these pancreatitis risk factors in children. PMID:26594832

  17. Modeling the prevention of colorectal cancer from the combined impact of host and behavioral risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Matthew; Houlston, Richard S

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the utility of modeling modifiable lifestyle risk factors in addition to genetic variation in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening/prevention. We derived a polygenic risk score for CRC susceptibility variants in combination with the established nongenetic risk factors of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), adiposity, alcohol, red meat, fruit, vegetables, smoking, physical activity, and aspirin. We used the 37 known risk variants and 50 and 100% of all risk variants as calculated from a heritability estimate. We derived absolute risk from UK population age structure, incidence, and mortality rate data. Taking into account all risk factors (known variants), 42.2% of 55- to 59-year-old men with CRC have a risk at least as high as that of an average 60-year-old, the minimum eligible age for the UK NHS National Bowel Cancer Screening Program. If the male population is stratified by known variants and IBD status, then risk-difference estimates imply that for 10,000 50-year-old men in the 99th percentile, 760 cases could be prevented over a 25-year period through the modifiable risk factors, but in the lowest percentile, only 90 could be prevented. CRC screening and prevention centered on modifiable risk factors could be optimized if targeted at individuals at higher polygenic risk.Genet Med 19 3, 314-321.

  18. Risk factor profiles of South Asians with cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itrat, Ahmad; Ahmed, Bilal; Khan, Maria; Muhammad, Murtaza; Thaver, Danyal; Khowaja, Zubair; Ali, Shehzad; Bawa, Zeeshan; Rahat, Muhammad; Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran

    2011-08-01

    There is a paucity of population based data about the coexistent proportions of risk factors for stroke in South Asians. In this cross sectional survey performed in an urban slum, individuals 35 years of age or older were invited for participation through a simple random sample drawn from baseline census data. For each participant a systematic history and examination was performed to confirm the following risk factors: diabetes, hypertension, obesity, tobacco use, coronary artery disease, family history of coronary artery disease and/or stroke. Cerebrovascular events (stroke and TIA) were verified by a vascular neurologist. We report the association of risk factor groups and the presence of contemporaneous cerebrovascular event. Five hundred and forty-five individuals (49.4% females) participated in the study. One hundred and nineteen (21.8%) individuals had a cerebrovascular event (stroke and /or TIA). Obesity was found to be the predominant risk factor, occurring in 310 individuals (56.9%), followed by total hypertension (284; 52.1%) and tobacco use respectively (213; 39%). Cerebrovascular event increased in percentage with quantitative increase in risk factors. Cerebrovascular event prevalence was 14.3% with one risk factor, 22% with two, 27% with three, 33% with four, and 86% with five risk factors respectively. The combination of 4 risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cigarette smoking) conferred the highest odds of having cerebrovascular event at 4.9 (P 0.03). South Asians in an urban slum often have multiple modifiable risk factors for cerebrovascular event, increasing numbers of risk factors increase the risk of stroke and TIA. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.

  19. Analysis of prothrombotic and vascular risk factors in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, O; Huna-Baron, R; Kurtz, S; Steinberg, D M; Moisseiev, J; Rosenberg, N; Yassur, I; Vidne, O; Zivelin, A; Gitel, S; Davidson, J; Ravid, B; Seligsohn, U

    1999-04-01

    To determine whether genetic or acquired thrombophilias and other risk factors are associated with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Retrospective case-control study. Sixty-one patients with NAION diagnosed between 1984 and 1997. Ninety consecutive patients who visited the Eye Institute made up the control group. Protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, lupus anticoagulant, and three recently described prothrombotic polymorphisms (i.e., factor V G1691A, factor II G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR] C677T) were analyzed. In addition, risk factors for arteriosclerotic vascular disease were assessed. Parameters of thrombophilia. None of the thrombophilic markers (genetic and acquired) constituted a significant risk factor for NAION. Ischemic heart disease, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus were discerned as risk factors for NAION with odds ratios of 2.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-6.4), 2.6 (95% CI, 1.2-5.5), and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.1-4.8), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that ischemic heart disease and hypercholesterolemia exerted an additive risk for NAION with a combined odds ratio of 4.5 (95% CI, 1.4-14.5). However, none of these risk factors statistically predicted second eye involvement. NAION was not found to be associated with thrombophilic risk factors, yet it was related to ischemic heart disease, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus.

  20. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment...

  1. Dietary factors and risk of trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, F; La Vecchia, C; Mangili, G; Caminiti, C; Negri, E; Cecchetti, G; Fasoli, M

    1988-01-01

    The risk of gestational trophoblastic disease in relation to frequency of consumption of selected dietary items was evaluated with data from a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy on 148 women with histologically confirmed gestational trophoblastic disease and two control groups, one consisting of 372 obstetric control subjects and one consisting of 406 patients in the hospital for acute, nonobstetric, nongynecologic conditions. Patients with gestational trophoblastic disease tended to consume several foods less frequently, including the major sources of vitamin A and animal protein in the Italian diet. Relative risk estimates were significantly below unity in both control groups for green vegetable, carrot, liver, and cheese consumption and in the obstetric control group only for milk, meat, eggs, fresh fruit, and fish. Inverse relationships emerged between the risk of gestational trophoblastic disease and beta-carotene or retinol intake index. The trend of decreasing risk with increasing intake was significant for beta-carotene consumption. The present findings confirm that various aspects of diet may influence the risk of gestational trophoblastic disease. However, the limitation of available evidence still introduces serious uncertainties in the interpretation of these findings and suggests the potential importance of further epidemiologic and biochemical research to obtain more precise definition of specific dietary correlates of gestational trophoblastic disease.

  2. [Decreased skin function may be a risk factor for metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-Xing; Li, Da; Li, Chun-Yan; Zhou, Shi-Sheng

    2012-06-25

    The metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, is closely related to environmental and lifestyle risk factors. Increasing evidence suggests that environmental risk factors may involve an increase in xenobiotic exposure, for example due to environmental toxins, medications, high meat intake, food additives and supplements; while lifestyle risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyles, may involve a decrease in the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics. The skin, the body's largest organ, plays a distinct role in the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and the body lipid homeostasis, which is affected by sedentary lifestyle and physical activity, as well as by ambient temperature. Thus, it seems that decreased skin biotransformation and excretion, for example due to low ambient temperature and sedentary lifestyle, may be an important risk factor for metabolic syndrome. This review aims to provide insight into the role of the skin in the development of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Prevalence of some risk factors associated with hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is fast becoming a public health problem and has been associated with certain risk factors that have been found to contribute to the increasing rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Sub Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of some risk factors associated with ...

  4. Comparison of modifiable coronary artery disease risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of the following coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in urban (westernised) Black and White females: physical inactivity, hypertension, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity and multiple risk factors. Subjects: Subjects for this study were ...

  5. Stroke Risk Factors among Participants of a World Stroke Day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is the most common stroke risk factor globally as well as in the Nigerian population, however other modifiable risk factors such as obesity are becoming increasingly prevalent due to unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyle. Materials and Methods: We screened 224 volunteers from Ile‑Ife during the 2011 and ...

  6. Epidemiological study of risk factors in pediatric asthma | Tageldin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood asthma is a major public health problem in Egypt and worldwide. Epidemiologic, physiologic, and social factors appear to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the most frequent risk factors of childhood asthma exacerbation and severity in ...

  7. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis and analysis of risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about the prevalence and risk factors for the disease in resident cattle herds in the North Central Zone of Nigeria is however lacking. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk factors associated with the disease in Kanke Local Government Area (LGA) of ...

  8. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  9. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Sudan is less compared with international reports. Whether there is concomitant difference in the risk factors for GDM among Sudanese women is uncertain. Aim: This study investigated the common risk factors for GDM among Sudanese pregnant ...

  10. Causes and Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Salud. Publica de Mexico 2006;48(3):183-92. 28. Mbonye A. Risk factors associated with maternal deaths in health units in Uganda. African Journal of. Reproductive Health 2001;5(3). 29. Evjen-Olsen B, Hinderaker SG, Lie RT, Bergsjo P,. Gasheka P, Kvale G. Risk factors for maternal death in the highlands of rural northern ...

  11. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...

  12. Risk Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases at Gilgel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the distributions of the specific risk factors are not systematically identified in those countries hampering the designing of appropriate preventive and control strategies. The objective of this component of the study was to describe the distribution of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS: ...

  13. Obstetric Risk Factors and Subsequent Mental Health Problems in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies suggest that obstetric complications are associated with several child psychiatric conditions. In planning for child psychiatric services it is important to monitor patterns of morbidity and associated risk factors. Identifying obstetric risk factors in a newly opened child psychiatric clinic population with ...

  14. Geophagy As A Risk Factor For Helminth Infections In Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musumali

    Geophagy As A Risk Factor For Helminth Infections In. Pregnant Women In Lusaka, Zambia. Shinondo1 ... women, and as such geophagy was an unlikely risk factor for geohelminth infections. Other explanations for the ... markets to pregnant women are richer in iron and copper than the dietary supplement pills made by ...

  15. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and ...

  16. Low prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Identification of obesity and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for prevention of the diseases in adulthood. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children aged 6-15 years in Urban Dar es ...

  17. Prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its origin is in childhood, but information on its prevalence and associated risk factors in children are scarce. Objective: This study assessed the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among adolescents in Ondo town. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 965 respondents selected ...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of arternal hypertension among urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT Background: Studies on the prevalence of hypertension among Africans in workplace did not deal with risk factors of hypertension. Thus there is a need to screen urban central Africans at workplace for environmental risk factors of hypertension. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Kinshasa ...

  19. Estimating risk factors for HIV infection among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating risk factors for HIV infection among women in Mozambique using population-based survey data. ... African Journal of AIDS Research ... Findings from our study provide a unique and integrated perspective on risk factors for being HIV-positive among Mozambican women and could support the implementation of ...

  20. The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No African-based studies have reported the prevalence or severity of injuries, risk factors associated with injuries or return-to-play (RTP) time. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of injuries and associated risk factors, as well as severity of injuries sustained by professional male MMA athletes competing at the Extreme ...