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Sample records for addition cambridge randomised

  1. The ADDITION-Cambridge trial protocol: a cluster – randomised controlled trial of screening for type 2 diabetes and intensive treatment for screen-detected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinmonth Ann

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses a major public health challenge. Population-based screening and early treatment for type 2 diabetes could reduce this growing burden. However, the benefits of such a strategy remain uncertain. Methods and design The ADDITION-Cambridge study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of (i a stepwise screening strategy for type 2 diabetes; and (ii intensive multifactorial treatment for people with screen-detected diabetes in primary care. 63 practices in the East Anglia region participated. Three undertook the pilot study, 33 were allocated to three groups: no screening (control, screening followed by intensive treatment (IT and screening plus routine care (RC in an unbalanced (1:3:3 randomisation. The remaining 27 practices were randomly allocated to IT and RC. A risk score incorporating routine practice data was used to identify people aged 40–69 years at high-risk of undiagnosed diabetes. In the screening practices, high-risk individuals were invited to take part in a stepwise screening programme. In the IT group, diabetes treatment is optimised through guidelines, target-led multifactorial treatment, audit, feedback, and academic detailing for practice teams, alongside provision of educational materials for newly diagnosed participants. Primary endpoints are modelled cardiovascular risk at one year, and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity at five years after diagnosis of diabetes. Secondary endpoints include all-cause mortality, development of renal and visual impairment, peripheral neuropathy, health service costs, self-reported quality of life, functional status and health utility. Impact of the screening programme at the population level is also assessed through measures of mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, health status and health service use among high-risk individuals. Discussion ADDITION-Cambridge is conducted in a defined high-risk group

  2. The ADDITION-Cambridge trial protocol: a cluster – randomised controlled trial of screening for type 2 diabetes and intensive treatment for screen-detected patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Simmons, Rebecca K; Williams, Kate M; Barling, Roslyn S; Prevost, A Toby; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses a major public health challenge. Population-based screening and early treatment for type 2 diabetes could reduce this growing burden. However, the benefits of such a strategy remain uncertain. Methods and design The ADDITION-Cambridge study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of (i) a stepwise screening strategy for type 2 diabetes; and (ii) intensive multifactorial treatment for people with screen-detected diabetes in primary care. 63 practices in the East Anglia region participated. Three undertook the pilot study, 33 were allocated to three groups: no screening (control), screening followed by intensive treatment (IT) and screening plus routine care (RC) in an unbalanced (1:3:3) randomisation. The remaining 27 practices were randomly allocated to IT and RC. A risk score incorporating routine practice data was used to identify people aged 40–69 years at high-risk of undiagnosed diabetes. In the screening practices, high-risk individuals were invited to take part in a stepwise screening programme. In the IT group, diabetes treatment is optimised through guidelines, target-led multifactorial treatment, audit, feedback, and academic detailing for practice teams, alongside provision of educational materials for newly diagnosed participants. Primary endpoints are modelled cardiovascular risk at one year, and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity at five years after diagnosis of diabetes. Secondary endpoints include all-cause mortality, development of renal and visual impairment, peripheral neuropathy, health service costs, self-reported quality of life, functional status and health utility. Impact of the screening programme at the population level is also assessed through measures of mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, health status and health service use among high-risk individuals. Discussion ADDITION-Cambridge is conducted in a defined high-risk group accessible through primary

  3. Screening for type 2 diabetes and population mortality over 10 years (ADDITION-Cambridge): a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Rebecca K; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Sharp, Stephen J; Sargeant, Lincoln A; Williams, Kate M; Prevost, A Toby; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses a major public health challenge. Population-based screening and early treatment for type 2 diabetes could reduce this growing burden. However, uncertainty persists around the benefits of screening for type 2 diabetes. We assessed the effect of a population-based stepwise screening programme on mortality. Methods In a pragmatic parallel group, cluster-randomised trial, 33 general practices in eastern England were randomly assigned by the method of minimisation in an unbalanced design to: screening followed by intensive multifactorial treatment for people diagnosed with diabetes (n=15); screening plus routine care of diabetes according to national guidelines (n=13); and a no-screening control group (n=5). The study population consisted of 20 184 individuals aged 40–69 years (mean 58 years), at high risk of prevalent undiagnosed diabetes, on the basis of a previously validated risk score. In screening practices, individuals were invited to a stepwise programme including random capillary blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) tests, a fasting capillary blood glucose test, and a confirmatory oral glucose tolerance test. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. All participants were flagged for mortality surveillance by the England and Wales Office of National Statistics. Analysis was by intention-to-screen and compared all-cause mortality rates between screening and control groups. This study is registered, number ISRCTN86769081. Findings Of 16 047 high-risk individuals in screening practices, 15 089 (94%) were invited for screening during 2001–06, 11 737 (73%) attended, and 466 (3%) were diagnosed with diabetes. 4137 control individuals were followed up. During 184 057 person-years of follow up (median duration 9·6 years [IQR 8·9–9·9]), there were 1532 deaths in the screening practices and 377 in control practices (mortality hazard ratio [HR] 1·06, 95% CI 0·90–1·25

  4. Healthy Behaviour Change and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients - ADDITION-Cambridge Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gráinne H; Cooper, Andrew J M; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J; Simmons, Rebecca K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether improvements in health behaviours are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Population-based prospective cohort study of 867 newly diagnosed diabetes patients aged between 40 and 69 years from the treatment phase of the ADDITION-Cambridge study. As the results for all analyses were similar by trial arm, data were pooled and results presented for the whole cohort. Participants were identified via population-based stepwise screening between 2002 and 2006 and underwent assessment of physical activity (EPAQ questionnaire), diet (plasma vitamin C and self-report), and alcohol consumption (self-report) at baseline and one year. A composite primary CVD outcome was examined, comprised of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke and revascularisation. RESULTS After a mean (SD) follow-up of 5.1 (1.1) years, 6% of the cohort experienced a CVD event (12.2/1000-person years; 95% CI 9.3 to 15.9). CVD risk was inversely related to the number of positive health behaviours changed in the year following diabetes diagnosis. The relative risk (95% CI) for primary CVD event in individuals who did not change any health behavior compared to those who adopted three/four healthy behaviors was 4.17 (1.02 to 17.09), adjusting for age, sex, study group, social class occupation and prescription of cardio-protective medication (ptrend = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS Cardiovascular disease risk was inversely associated with the number of healthy behaviour changes adopted in the year following diagnosis of diabetes. Interventions that promote early achievement of these goals in newly diagnosed patients could help reduce the burden of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24658389

  5. Cardiovascular risk reduction following diagnosis of diabetes by screening: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Morten; Simmons, Rebecca K; Williams, Kate M; Roglic, Gojka; Sharp, Stephen J; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncertainties persist concerning the effects of early intensive management of type 2 diabetes and which patients benefit most from such an approach. Aim To describe change in modelled cardiovascular risk in the 14 months following diagnosis, and to examine which baseline patient characteristics and treatment components are associated with risk reduction. Design and setting A cohort of individuals from a pragmatic, single-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial of 236 females and 361 males with screen-detected type 2 diabetes and without prior cardiovascular disease (CVD), from 49 GP surgeries in eastern England, examined at baseline (2002–2006) and after 14-months’ follow-up. Method Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the association between baseline patient characteristics, treatment components, and change in modelled 10-year cardiovascular risk (UK Prospective Diabetes Study [UKPDS] [version 3] risk engine). Results There was a downward shift in the distribution of modelled CVD risk over 14 months mean 31% (standard deviation [SD] = 14%) to 26% [SD = 13%]). Older individuals, males, and those with a larger waist circumference at baseline exhibited smaller risk reductions. Individuals prescribed higher numbers of drugs over the follow-up period, and those who decreased their energy intake or reduced their weight, demonstrated larger reductions in modelled risk. Conclusion It is possible to achieve significant reductions in modelled CVD risk over 14 months following diagnosis of diabetes by screening. Risk reduction appeared to be driven mainly by prescription of higher numbers of drugs, decreased energy intake, and weight reduction. There was room for further risk reduction, as many patients were not prescribed recommended treatments. PMID:22687231

  6. Philosophy at Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Newsletter of the Philosophy Faculty. Articles by: Simon Blackburn, 'From the Chair' ; Nick Treanor, 'Inaugural lecture: What is distinctive about human thought?' ; Clare Chambers, 'Political Philosophy at Cambridge' ; Alexis Papazoglou,'Aspects of philosophy at Cambridge' ; Peter Smith, 'Principia at 100' ; Nigel Crisp, 'Turning the World Upside Down' ; Cain Todd, 'Fiction, Emotion, Imagination'; Fraser MacBride, 'Philosophy, St John's, Cambridge, 1986.'

  7. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 1

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint English series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint English tests. - Offers plenty of additional questions for use in class or as homework. - Includes clearly identified questions on grammar and punctuation, comprehension, use of language and essay planning. - Follows the structure of the relevant textbook to ensure a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course. - Provides a space for Students to write their answers. This Workbook is matched to the Cambridge Secondary 1 Curriculum Fr

  8. Changes in diet, cardiovascular risk factors and modelled cardiovascular risk following diagnosis of diabetes: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, L A; Griffin, S J; Williams, K M; Prevost, A T; Kinmonth, A-L; Wareham, N J; Simmons, R K

    2014-01-01

    Aims To describe change in self-reported diet and plasma vitamin C, and to examine associations between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in the year following diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Methods Eight hundred and sixty-seven individuals with screen-detected diabetes underwent assessment of self-reported diet, plasma vitamin C, cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and 1 year (n = 736) in the ADDITION-Cambridge trial. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk at 1 year, adjusting for change in physical activity and cardio-protective medication. Results Participants reported significant reductions in energy, fat and sodium intake, and increases in fruit, vegetable and fibre intake over 1 year. The reduction in energy was equivalent to an average-sized chocolate bar; the increase in fruit was equal to one plum per day. There was a small increase in plasma vitamin C levels. Increases in fruit intake and plasma vitamin C were associated with small reductions in anthropometric and metabolic risk factors. Increased vegetable intake was associated with an increase in BMI and waist circumference. Reductions in fat, energy and sodium intake were associated with reduction in HbA1c, waist circumference and total cholesterol/modelled cardiovascular disease risk, respectively. Conclusions Improvements in dietary behaviour in this screen-detected population were associated with small reductions in cardiovascular disease risk, independently of change in cardio-protective medication and physical activity. Dietary change may have a role to play in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk following diagnosis of diabetes. PMID:24102972

  9. The University of Cambridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭大任

    2007-01-01

    The University of Cambridge was founded in 1209,just a few decades after Oxford University,making it the second oldest university in the English-speaking world.Like“the other place”, the university is made up of 31 colleges and more than 100 departments,catering for around 15,500 students.Cambridge has a worldwide reputation for outstanding

  10. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Meteorological and Environmental Research has been included by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA) since 2011. CSA is a retrieval system published by Cambridge Information Group. CSA was founded in the late 1950's,and became part of the CIG family in 1971. CSA's original mission was publishing secondary source materials relating to the physical sciences. Completely

  11. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological and Environmental Research has been included by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA) since 2011. CSA is a retrieval system published by Cambridge Information Group. CSA was founded in the late 1950’s,and became part of the CIG family in 1971. CSA’s original mission was publishing secondary source materials relating to the physical sciences. Completely

  12. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 2

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Build confidence and understanding throughout the year with hundreds of additional practice questions. This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint tests. - Develops understanding and builds confidence ahead of assessment with exercises matched to the tests - Ensures a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course by following the structure of the relevant textbook - Saves planning time with exercises that are suitable for use in class or as homework This Workbook is

  13. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 3

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Build confidence and understanding throughout the year with hundreds of additional practice questions. This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint tests. - Develops understanding and builds confidence ahead of assessment with exercises matched to the tests - Ensures a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course by following the structure of the relevant textbook - Saves planning time with exercises that are suitable for use in class or as homework This Workbook is

  14. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface.

  15. Cambridge IGCSE computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Dave; Konrad, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations. Develop your students computational thinking and programming skills with complete coverage of the latest syllabus (0478) from experienced examiners and teachers. - Includes a Student CD-ROM with interactive tests, based on the short answer questions from both papers - Follows the order of the syllabus exactly, ensuring complete coverage - Introduces students to self-learning exercises, helping them learn how to use their knowledge in new scenarios This syllabus is for first examination from 2015.

  16. Cambridge technicals level 3 IT

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Victoria; Middleton, Saundra

    2016-01-01

    Support your teaching of the new Cambridge Technicals 2016 suite with Cambridge Technical Level 3 IT, developed in partnership between OCR and Hodder Education; this textbook covers each specialist pathway and ensures your ability to deliver a flexible course that is both vocationally focused and academically thorough. Cambridge Technical Level 3 IT is matched exactly to the new specification and follows specialist pathways in IT Infrastructure Technician, Emerging Digital Technology Practitioner, Application Developer, and Data Analyst. - Ensures effective teaching of each specialis

  17. The Cambridge Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iuliano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the latter part of 19th century photography has played a central role in the development of architecture for its persuasive visual impact. But, despite this clear interaction, there is still reluctance from scholars in accepting less rigid approaches to the two disciplines. Indeed, the combination of the subjects, with the necessary rigour, can open up new and effective horizons for architectural history, with a potential influence on the perceived reality: this could gradually establish attention towards less known heritage. In the case we present here, by means of a provocative exhibition on Cambridge’s buildings after the Second World War, we have used photography to re-evaluate modern architecture. Cambridge in Concrete. Images from the RIBA British Architectural Library Photographs Collection, was held on the occasion of the University of Cambridge Department of Architecture’s Centenary (1912-2012. The cues for our task were contained in the collections of the Royal Institute of British Architects: the photographic archive is the world’s biggest holding of architectural images which, since 2012, has been renamed in honour of Robert Elwall (1953-2012, first curator of the collection. As part of the exhibition we published a limited edition catalogue; we have here revisited, combined and enlarged our original essays.

  18. International Commercial Contracts, by Giuditta Cordero Moss. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713......Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713...

  19. Cambridge IGCSE computer science workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, David; Guinness, Paul; Nagle, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    Student workbook to support students throughout their Cambridge IGCSE Computer Science course, with plenty of extra practice questions and activities. Accompanies the Cambridge IGCSE Computer Science student text book, following the contents and chapter order. Students write their answers in the book and keep it for study in class or at home throughout their course.

  20. Randomised controlled feasibility trial of an evidence-informed behavioural intervention for obese adults with additional risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko F Sniehotta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. METHOD: Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI≥30 kg/m2 adults (age≥18 y with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. RESULTS: Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44; mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06 with 2.35(1.47 co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation. Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural

  1. Bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): protocol for multicentre parallel group randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Miriam; Rumsby, Kate; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Chorozoglou, Maria; Wood, Wendy; Roberts, Amanda; Thomas, Kim S; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bath emollients are widely prescribed for childhood eczema, yet evidence of their benefits over direct application of emollients is lacking. Objectives To determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adding bath emollient to the standard management of eczema in children Methods and analysis Design: Pragmatic open 2-armed parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting: General practitioner (GP) practices in England and Wales. Participants: Children aged over 12 months and less than 12 years with eczema, excluding inactive or very mild eczema (5 or less on Nottingham Eczema Severity Scale). Interventions: Children will be randomised to either bath emollients plus standard eczema care or standard eczema care only. Outcome measures: Primary outcome is long-term eczema severity, measured by the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) repeated weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes include: number of eczema exacerbations resulting in healthcare consultations over 1 year; eczema severity over 1 year; disease-specific and generic quality of life; medication use and healthcare resource use; cost-effectiveness. Aiming to detect a mean difference between groups of 2.0 (SD 7.0) in weekly POEM scores over 16 weeks (significance 0.05, power 0.9), allowing for 20% loss to follow-up, gives a total sample size of 423 children. We will use repeated measures analysis of covariance, or a mixed model, to analyse weekly POEM scores. We will control for possible confounders, including baseline eczema severity and child's age. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 NRES committee 14/NE/0098. Follow-up will be completed in 2017. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, the public, dermatology and primary care journals, guideline developers and decision-makers. Trial registration number ISRCTN

  2. Hodder Cambridge primary mathematics workbook 2

    CERN Document Server

    Broadbent, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations to support the full curriculum framework from 2011. Consolidate learning, deepen conceptual understanding and develop problem solving skills through practice questions; ideal for independent learning, homework or extension activities- Supports and build on knowledge gained from the Learner's Book with practice exercises.- Provides additional 'intelligent practice' through variation.- Challenges learners to deepen and extend their understanding- Incorporates the principles of variation and intelligent practice in each activity.

  3. Hodder Cambridge primary mathematics workbook 5

    CERN Document Server

    King, Steph

    2017-01-01

    Endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations to support the full curriculum framework from 2011. Consolidate learning, deepen conceptual understanding and develop problem solving skills through practice questions; ideal for independent learning, homework or extension activities- Supports and build on knowledge gained from the Learner's Book with practice exercises.- Provides additional 'intelligent practice' through variation.- Challenges learners to deepen and extend their understanding- Incorporates the principles of variation and intelligent practice in each activity.

  4. Bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): protocol for multicentre parallel group randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Miriam; Rumsby, Kate; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Chorozoglou, Maria; Wood, Wendy; Roberts, Amanda; Thomas, Kim S; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Bath emollients are widely prescribed for childhood eczema, yet evidence of their benefits over direct application of emollients is lacking. Objectives To determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adding bath emollient to the standard management of eczema in children Pragmatic open 2-armed parallel group randomised controlled trial. General practitioner (GP) practices in England and Wales. Children aged over 12 months and less than 12 years with eczema, excluding inactive or very mild eczema (5 or less on Nottingham Eczema Severity Scale). Children will be randomised to either bath emollients plus standard eczema care or standard eczema care only. Primary outcome is long-term eczema severity, measured by the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) repeated weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes include: number of eczema exacerbations resulting in healthcare consultations over 1 year; eczema severity over 1 year; disease-specific and generic quality of life; medication use and healthcare resource use; cost-effectiveness. Aiming to detect a mean difference between groups of 2.0 (SD 7.0) in weekly POEM scores over 16 weeks (significance 0.05, power 0.9), allowing for 20% loss to follow-up, gives a total sample size of 423 children. We will use repeated measures analysis of covariance, or a mixed model, to analyse weekly POEM scores. We will control for possible confounders, including baseline eczema severity and child's age. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. This protocol was approved by Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 NRES committee 14/NE/0098. Follow-up will be completed in 2017. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, the public, dermatology and primary care journals, guideline developers and decision-makers. ISRCTN84102309. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Clark and Prehistory at Cambridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jane Smith

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available If honours and titles give measure of a man, then Professor Sir Grahame Clark was indeed important. Faculty Assistant Lecturer in the Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology at Cambridge University from 1935-46, University Lecturer 1946-52, Disney Professor of Archaeology 1952-74, Head of the Department of Archaeol­ogy and Anthropology 1956-61 and 1968-71, Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge 1950-73, Master of Peterhouse 1973-80, he was a visiting lecturer at diverse universities; appointed CBE in 1971, he received many awards includ­ing the prestigious Erasmus Prize for 1990, presented by Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, for his "long and inspiring devotion to prehistory" (Scarre 1991:10; and in June 1992, he was knighted. Yet well before fame and position were rewards, Clark made major contributions to the establishment of prehis­tory as an academic subject at Cambridge University. Cambridge was the first and, for many years, only British university granting an undergraduate degree which offered prehistory as a specialization. "The development of postgraduate research in prehistoric archaeology at Cambridge had to wait on the provision of undergraduate teaching;' Clark (1989b: 6 recently observed. The "faculty was the only one in Britain producing a flow of graduates in prehistoric archaeology" (Clark 1989a: 53.

  6. Cambridge IGCSE English first language

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    Revised edition for the 2015 syllabus to help your students prepare for their examination and enhance their enjoyment of English. This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE First Language English (0500 and 0522) syllabuses, for first teaching from 2013. ? Develops the skills necessary to become a better reader and writer. ? Offers detailed advice and preparation for the examination. ? Teaches skills for successful writing of essays and coursework assignment. We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain endorsement for this title.

  7. Are changes in glycaemic control associated with diabetes-specific quality of life and health status in screen-detected type 2 diabetes patients? Four-year follow up of the ADDITION-Cambridge cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, L; Long, G H; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2015-01-01

    Interventions that improve HbA1c levels do not necessarily improve health-related quality of life (QoL). This issue may be particularly relevant in asymptomatic diabetes patients detected earlier in the course of the disease. HbA1c , diabetes-specific QoL (ADDQoL) and health status were measured in 510 screen-detected diabetes patients from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial at 1 and 5 years post diagnosis. Multivariable logistic/linear regression was used to quantify the longitudinal association between change in HbA1c from 1 to 5 years and ADDQoL and health status at 5 years, adjusting for age, sex, education and trial group; alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, plasma vitamin C, HbA1c , ADDQoL or health status at 1 year, and glucose-lowering medication at 5 years. From 1 to 5 years, median HbA1c interquartile range increased from 6.3% (5.9-6.8) to 6.8% (6.4-7.4); the median ADDQoL score and mean health status physical health summary score decreased from -0.4 (-1 to -0.08) to -0.5 (-1.08 to -0.09) (suggesting an adverse impact of diabetes on QoL) and by -0.79 (8.94) points, respectively. Increases in HbA1c were independently associated with reporting a negative impact of diabetes on QoL (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.85) but not with the health status summary scores. Increases in HbA1c from 1 to 5 years post-diagnosis were independently associated with increased odds of reporting a negative impact of diabetes on QoL. While our results suggest that efforts to reduce HbA1c do not adversely affect health-related QoL, large numbers of participants still report a negative impact of diabetes on their QoL 5 years post-diagnosis. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The new Cambridge English course student 1

    CERN Document Server

    Swan, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The New Cambridge English Course is a course teachers and students can rely on to cover the complete range and depth of language and skills needed from beginner to upper-intermediate level. Each level is designed to provide at least 72 hours of class work using the Student's Book, with additional self-study material provided in the Practice Book. The course has a proven multi-syllabus approach which integrates work on all the vital aspects of language study: grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, skills, notions and functions.

  9. Cambridge IGCSE physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennett, Heather; Konrad, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling title, developed by International experts - now updated to offer comprehensive coverage of the core and extended topics in the latest syllabus. - Includes a student's CD-ROM featuring interactive tests and practice for all examination papers- Covers the core and supplement sections of the updated syllabus- Supported by the most comprehensive range of additional material, including Teacher Resources, Laboratory Books, Practice Books and Revision Guides- Written by renowned, expert authors with vast experience of teaching and examining international qualifications We are working

  10. 33 CFR 117.549 - Cambridge Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cambridge Harbor. 117.549 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.549 Cambridge Harbor. The draw of the S342 bridge, mile 0.1 at Cambridge, shall open on signal from 6 a.m. to 8 p.m.; except that, from...

  11. Honorary Degree Congregation in Cambridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One day in mid-June 2006 when I was on a visit to the Countryside Restoration Trust at Barton near Cambridge, Mr. Christopher Stevenson, the director of Program of Events for Newcomers & Academic Visitors, gave me a letter enclosing a notice and a ticket I booked nearly two months earlier. He told me that I was very lucky because a strictly limited number of tickets had been allocated to academic visitors. It was a ticket to admit me to the Honorary Degree Congregation and to the reception afterwards on Tuesday 27 June.

  12. Michael Byers, International Law and the Arctic (Cambridge: Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative law, Cambridge University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Johnstone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of: Michael Byers, International Law and the Arctic, Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative law, Cambridge University Press, 2013. pp. 314 + xviii, 65.00 GBP (hardcover; 16.56GBP (kindle edition ISBN: 9781107042759 ISBN: 9781107042759

  13. The Cambridge double star atlas

    CERN Document Server

    MacEvoy, Bruce; Mullaney, James; Tirion, Wil; Mullaney, James

    2015-01-01

    The Cambridge Double Star Atlas is back! It is the first and only atlas of physical double stars that can be viewed with amateur astronomical instruments. Completely rewritten, this new edition explains the latest research into double stars, and looks at the equipment, techniques and opportunities that will enable you to discover, observe and measure them. The target list has been completely revised and extended to 2500 binary or multiple systems. Each system is described with the most recent and accurate data from the authoritative Washington Double Star Catalog, including the HD and SAO numbers that are most useful in our digital age. Hundreds of remarks explain the attributes of local, rapidly changing, often measured or known orbital systems. The color atlas charts by Wil Tirion have been updated to help you easily find and identify the target systems, as well as other deep-sky objects. This is an essential reference for double star observers..

  14. Trial access to Cambridge University Press ebooks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

    From 1 August till 31 October, CERN users are invited to enjoy a trial access to all Cambridge University Press electronic books: http://ebooks.cambridge.org/. Please don't hesitate to send feedback to library.desk@cern.ch.

  15. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  16. Cambridge checkpoint English revision guide for the Cambridge secondary 1 test

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    With Checkpoint English Revision Guide for the Cambridge Secondary 1 test you can aim for the best grade with the help of relevant and accessible notes, examiner advice plus questions and answers on each key topic. - Clear explanations of every topic covered in the Cambridge Secondary 1 Checkpoint English syllabus. - Builds revision skills you need for success in the test. - Exam tips wirtten by test setters and examiners giving you their expert advice. This text has not been through the Cambridge endorsement process.

  17. Cambridge checkpoint maths revision guide for the Cambridge secondary 1 test

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Alan

    2013-01-01

    With Checkpoint Maths Revision Guide for the Cambridge Secondary 1 test you can aim for the best grade with the help of relevant and accessible notes, examiner advice plus questions and answers on each key topic. - Clear explanations of every topic covered in the Cambridge Secondary 1 Checkpoint Maths syllabus. - Builds revision skills you need for success in the test. - Exam tips wirtten by test setters and examiners giving you their expert advice. This text has not been through the Cambridge endorsement process.

  18. The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS)

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, C N; Maiolino, R; Goldie, D J; Acedo, E de Lera; Wagg, J; Blundell, R; Paine, S; Zeng, L

    2014-01-01

    The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS) is a pathfinder program to demonstrate on-chip spectrometry at millimetre wavelengths. CAMELS will observe at frequencies from 103-114.7 GHz, providing 512 channels with a spectral resolution of R = 3000. In this paper we describe the science goals of CAMELS, the current system level design for the instrument and the work we are doing on the detailed designs of the individual components. In addition, we will discuss our efforts to understand the impact that the design and calibration of the filter bank on astronomical performance. The shape of the filter channels, the degree of overlap and the nature of the noise all effect how well the parameters of a spectral line can be recovered. We have developed a new and rigorous method for analysing performance, based on the concept of Fisher information. This can in be turn coupled to a detailed model of the science case, allowing design trade-offs to be properly investigated.

  19. 77 FR 3118 - Security Zone; Choptank River and Cambridge Channel, Cambridge, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... 3118-3121] [FR Doc No: 2012-1172] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-1164] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Choptank River and Cambridge Channel, Cambridge, MD..., U.S. Coast Guard, Captain of the Port Baltimore. [FR Doc. 2012-1172 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am]...

  20. Cambridge IGCSE mathematics core and extended

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, Ric

    2013-01-01

    The most cost effective and straightforward way to teach the revised syllabus, with all the core and extended content covered by a single book and accompanying free digital resources.  . This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus, for first teaching from 2013.  . ·         Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of questions. ·         Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every Student's Book.  . We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain

  1. OCR Cambridge nationals in ICT student book

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Sonia; Cushing, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Written by experts and in partnership with OCR, the brand-new OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Student's Book provides invaluable guidance for your teaching of the OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 . This textbook covers the mandatory Units 1 and 2 in detail, offering your students the knowledge and practice they require. Unit 1 - Understanding Computer Systems.; Coverage of use of applications and systems.; Case studies of how they are used for different purposes.; Exam style questions and guidance. Unit 2 - Using ICT to Create Business Solutions.; Coverage of the principles of use of re

  2. Does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) alleviate the pain experienced during bone marrow sampling in addition to standard techniques? A randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, David L; Rockett, Mark; Hasan, Mehedi; Poplar, Sarah; Rule, Simon A

    2015-06-01

    Bone marrow aspiration and trephine (BMAT) biopsies remain important tests in haematology. However, the procedures can be moderately to severely painful despite standard methods of pain relief. To test the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in alleviating the pain from BMAT in addition to standard analgesia using a numerical pain rating scale (NRS). 70 patients requiring BMAT were randomised (1:1) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. -35 patients received TENS impulses at a strong but comfortable amplitude (intervention group) and 35 patients received TENS impulses just above the sensory threshold (control group) (median pulse amplitude 20 and 7 mA, respectively). Patients and operators were blinded to group allocation. Pain assessments were made using a numerical pain scale completed after the procedure. No significant difference in NRS pain recalled after the procedure was detected (median pain score 5.7 (95% CI 4.8 to 6.6) in control vs 5.6 (95% CI 4.8 to 6.4) in the intervention group). However, 100% of patients who had previous experience of BMAT and >94% of participants overall felt they benefited from using TENS and would recommend it to others for this procedure. There were no side effects from the TENS device, and it was well tolerated. TENS is a safe, non-invasive adjunct to analgesia for reducing pain during bone marrow biopsy and provides a subjective benefit to most users; however, no objective difference in pain scores was detected when using TENS in this randomised controlled study. NCT02005354. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Weizmann ties with Cambridge in physics contest

    CERN Multimedia

    Siegel, J

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists and students from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot and Cambridge University in England have tied for first place in a physics competition aimed at simulating the future functioning of the particle accelerator being built at the European center CERN and due to open in 2007" (1/2 page)

  4. Enhancing CBT for Chronic Insomnia: A Randomised Clinical Trial of Additive Components of Mindfulness or Cognitive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mei Yin; Ree, Melissa J; Lee, Christopher W

    2016-09-01

    Although cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia has resulted in significant reductions in symptoms, most patients are not classified as good sleepers after treatment. The present study investigated whether additional sessions of cognitive therapy (CT) or mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) could enhance CBT in 64 participants with primary insomnia. All participants were given four sessions of standard CBT as previous research had identified this number of sessions as an optimal balance between therapist guidance and patient independence. Participants were then allocated to further active treatment (four sessions of CT or MBT) or a no further treatment control. The additional treatments resulted in significant improvements beyond CBT on self-report and objective measures of sleep and were well tolerated as evidenced by no dropouts from either treatment. The effect sizes for each of these additional treatments were large and clinically significant. The mean scores on the primary outcome measure, the Insomnia Severity Index, were 5.74 for CT and 6.69 for MBT, which are within the good-sleeper range. Treatment effects were maintained at follow-up. There were no significant differences between CT and MBT on any outcome measure. These results provide encouraging data on how to enhance CBT for treatment of insomnia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. CBT treatments for insomnia can be enhanced using recent developments in cognitive therapy. CBT treatments for insomnia can be enhanced using mindfulness-based treatments. Both cognitive therapy and mindfulness produce additional clinically significant change. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 76 FR 12729 - Cambridge Environmental Inc; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... AGENCY Cambridge Environmental Inc; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... claimed as Confidential Business Information (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to Cambridge Environmental Inc. in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). Cambridge Environmental Inc. has...

  6. A randomised controlled trial of sensory awareness training and additional motor practice for learning scalpel skills in podiatry students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causby, Ryan S; McDonnell, Michelle N; Reed, Lloyd; Hillier, Susan L

    2016-12-05

    The process of using a scalpel, like all other motor activities, is dependent upon the successful integration of afferent (sensory), cognitive and efferent (motor) processes. During learning of these skills, even if motor practice is carefully monitored there is still an inherent risk involved. It is also possible that this strategy could reinforce high levels of anxiety experienced by the student and affect student self-efficacy, causing detrimental effects on motor learning. An alternative training strategy could be through targeting sensory rather than motor processes. Second year podiatry students who were about to commence learning scalpel skills were recruited. Participants were randomly allocated into sensory awareness training (Sensory), additional motor practice (Motor) or usual teaching only (Control) groups. Participants were then evaluated on psychological measures (Intrinsic Motivation Inventory) and dexterity measures (Purdue Pegboard, Grooved Pegboard Test and a grip-lift task). A total of 44 participants were included in the study. There were no baseline differences or significant differences between the three groups over time on the Perceived Competence, Effort/ Importance or Pressure/ Tension, psychological measures. All groups showed a significant increase in Perceived Competence over time (F1,41 = 13.796, p = 0.001). Only one variable for the grip-lift task (Preload Duration for the non-dominant hand) showed a significant difference over time between the groups (F2,41 = 3.280, p = 0.038), specifically, Motor and Control groups. The use of sensory awareness training, or additional motor practice did not provide a more effective alternative compared with usual teaching. Further research may be warranted using more engaged training, provision of supervision and greater participant numbers. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12616001428459 . Registered 13(th) October 2016. Registered Retrospectively.

  7. Addition of sub-anaesthetic dose of ketamine reduces gag reflex during propofol based sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: A prospective randomised double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Tandon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Gag reflex is unwanted during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE. Experimental studies have demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism prevents gag reflex. We conducted a study to determine if sub-anaesthetic doses of ketamine, added to propofol, reduce the incidence of gag reflex. Methods: This prospective, randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study was done in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 270 patients undergoing UGIE, were randomised to propofol (P group (n = 135 or propofol plus ketamine (PK group (n = 135. All patients received propofol boluses titrated to Ramsay sedation score of not <4. Patients in PK group in addition received ketamine, 0.15 mg/kg immediately before the first-propofol dose. Top-up doses of propofol were given as required. Stata 11 software (StataCorp. was used to calculate the proportion of patients with gag reflex and the corresponding relative risk. Propofol consumed and time to recovery in the two groups was compared using Student′s t-test and Cox proportional hazards regression respectively. Results: Significantly, fewer patients in the PK group had gag reflex compared to the P group (3 vs. 23, risk ratio = 0.214, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07-0.62; P = 0.005. The incidence of hypotension (6 vs. 16, risk ratio = 0.519, 95% CI = 0.25-1.038; P = 0.06, number of required airway manoeuvres (4 vs. 19, risk ratio = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13-0.74; P = 0.014, median time to recovery (4 min vs. 5 min, hazard ratio = 1.311, 95% CI = 1.029-1.671; P = 0.028 and propofol dose administered (152 mg vs. 167 mg, 95% CI = 4.74-24.55; P = 0.004 was also less in the PK group compared to the P group. Conclusion: Ketamine in sub-anaesthetic dose decreases gag reflex during UGIE.

  8. Optimising corticosteroid injection for lateral epicondylalgia with the addition of physiotherapy: A protocol for a randomised control trial with placebo comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Peter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corticosteroid injection and physiotherapy are two commonly prescribed interventions for management of lateral epicondylalgia. Corticosteroid injections are the most clinically efficacious in the short term but are associated with high recurrence rates and delayed recovery, while physiotherapy is similar to injections at 6 weeks but with significantly lower recurrence rates. Whilst practitioners frequently recommend combining physiotherapy and injection to overcome harmful effects and improve outcomes, study of the benefits of this combination of treatments is lacking. Clinicians are also faced with the paradox that the powerful anti-inflammatory corticosteroid injections work well, albeit in the short term, for a non-inflammatory condition like lateral epicondylalgia. Surprisingly, these injections have not been rigorously tested against placebo injections. This study primarily addresses both of these issues. Methods A randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design will evaluate the clinical efficacy, cost-effectiveness and recurrence rates of adding physiotherapy to an injection. In addition, the clinical efficacy and adverse effects of corticosteroid injection beyond that of a placebo saline injection will be studied. 132 participants with a diagnosis of lateral epicondylalgia will be randomly assigned by concealed allocation to one of four treatment groups – corticosteroid injection, saline injection, corticosteroid injection with physiotherapy or saline injection with physiotherapy. Physiotherapy will comprise 8 sessions of elbow manipulation and exercise over an 8 week period. Blinded follow-up assessments will be conducted at baseline, 4, 8, 12, 26 and 52 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome will be a participant rating of global improvement, from which measures of success and recurrence will be derived. Analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis using linear

  9. Hodder Cambridge primary mathematics learner's book 5

    CERN Document Server

    King, Steph

    2017-01-01

    Endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations to support the full curriculum framework from 2011. Develop learners' mathematical fluency, problem solving and reasoning skills using the mastery approach with this series of Learner's books, aiding preparation for the Progression and Cambridge Primary Tests. - Introduces topics through engaging starter activities.- Develops mathematical language with New Words and worked examples. - Illustrates topics clearly and vividly with imaginative design and relatable characters- Builds fluency and mathematical reasoning skills by exploring, clarifying, practising and then extending concepts to ensure learners master mathematical ideas.- Enhances learners' ability to apply their skills and solve non-routine mathematical problems, by ensuring they secure a deep conceptual understanding of the subject. - Supports learners of all abilities with hints and Try this extension challenges.- Secures knowledge with problem solving integrated throughout....

  10. Cambridge Elementary students enjoy gift of computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Children at Cambridge Elementary School, Cocoa, Fla., eagerly unwrap computer equipment donated by Kennedy Space Center. Cambridge is one of 13 Brevard County schools receiving 81 excess contractor computers thanks to an innovative educational outreach project spearheaded by the Nasa k-12 Education Services Office at ksc. Behind the children is Jim Thurston, a school volunteer and retired employee of USBI, who shared in the project. The Astronaut Memorial Foundation, a strategic partner in the effort, and several schools in rural Florida and Georgia also received refurbished computers as part of the year-long project. Ksc employees put in about 3,300 volunteer hours to transform old, excess computers into upgraded, usable units. A total of $90,000 in upgraded computer equipment is being donated.

  11. Hodder Cambridge primary mathematics learner's book 2

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations to support the full curriculum framework from 2011. Develop learners' mathematical fluency, problem solving and reasoning skills using the mastery approach with this series of Learner's books, aiding preparation for the Progression and Cambridge Primary Tests. - Introduces topics through engaging starter activities.- Develops mathematical language with New Words and worked examples. - Illustrates topics clearly and vividly with imaginative design and relatable characters- Builds fluency and mathematical reasoning skills by exploring, clarifying, practising and then extending concepts to ensure learners master mathematical ideas.- Enhances learners' ability to apply their skills and solve non-routine mathematical problems, by ensuring they secure a deep conceptual understanding of the subject. - Supports learners of all abilities with hints and Try this extension challenges.- Secures knowledge with problem solving integrated throughout....

  12. Alchemy in Cambridge. An Annotated Catalogue of Alchemical Texts and Illustrations in Cambridge Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Alchemy in Cambridge captures the alchemical content of 56 manuscripts in Cambridge, in particular the libraries of Trinity College, Corpus Christi College and St John's College, the University Library and the Fitzwilliam Museum. As such, this catalogue makes visible a large number of previously unknown or obscured alchemica. While extant bibliographies, including those by M.R. James a century ago, were compiled by polymathic bibliographers for a wide audience of researchers, Alchemy in Cambridge benefits from the substantial developments in the history of alchemy, bibliography, and related scholarship in recent decades. Many texts are here identified for the first time. Another vital feature is the incorporation of information on alchemical illustrations in the manuscripts, intended to facilitate research on the visual culture of alchemy. The catalogue is aimed at historians of alchemy and science, and of high interest to manuscript scholars, historians of art and historians of college and university libraries.

  13. The DARS (Dopamine Augmented Rehabilitation in Stroke) trial: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of Co-careldopa treatment in addition to routine NHS occupational and physical therapy after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Bipin B; Hartley, Suzanne; Holloway, Ivana; Couzens, J Alastair; Ford, Gary A; Meads, David; Sackley, Catherine M; Walker, Marion F; Ruddock, Sharon P; Farrin, Amanda J

    2014-08-08

    Stroke has a huge impact, leaving more than a third of affected people with lasting disability and rehabilitation remains a cornerstone treatment in the National Health Service (NHS). Recovery of mobility and arm function post-stroke occurs through re-learning to use the affected body parts and/or learning to compensate with the lesser affected side. Promising evidence suggests that the addition of Co-careldopa to physical therapy and occupational therapy may improve the recovery of arm and leg movement and lead to improved function. Dopamine Augmented Rehabilitation in Stroke (DARS) is a multi-centre double-blind, randomised, placebo, controlled clinical trial of Co-careldopa in addition to routine NHS occupational therapy and physical therapy as part of early stroke rehabilitation. Participants will be randomised on a 1:1 basis to either Co-careldopa or placebo. The primary objective of the trial is to determine whether the addition of six weeks of Co-careldopa treatment to rehabilitation therapy can improve the proportion of patients who can walk independently eight weeks post-randomisation. The DARS trial will provide evidence as to whether Co-careldopa, in addition to routine NHS occupational and physical therapy, leads to a greater recovery of motor function, a reduction in carer dependency and advance rehabilitation treatments for people with stroke. ISRCTN99643613 assigned on 4 December 2009.

  14. Cambridge IGCSE english as a second language

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Revised edition for the 2015 syllabus offering the easiest and most cost effective way to teach both the speaking and listening components with one set of books covering two years and free digital material. This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE English as a Second Language (0510 and 0511) syllabuses, for first teaching from 2013. ? Prepares students for their exams with a focus on assessed language features, such as inference, opinion and attitude. ? Develops language abilities at an appropriate pace with extra interactive tests on a free CD-ROM. We are working with Cambr

  15. Addition of telephone coaching to a physiotherapist-delivered physical activity program in people with knee osteoarthritis: A randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennell Kim L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is one of the most common and costly chronic musculoskeletal conditions world-wide and is associated with substantial pain and disability. Many people with knee OA also experience co-morbidities that further add to the OA burden. Uptake of and adherence to physical activity recommendations is suboptimal in this patient population, leading to poorer OA outcomes and greater impact of associated co-morbidities. This pragmatic randomised controlled trial will investigate the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of adding telephone coaching to a physiotherapist-delivered physical activity intervention for people with knee OA. Methods/Design 168 people with clinically diagnosed knee OA will be recruited from the community in metropolitan and regional areas and randomly allocated to physiotherapy only, or physiotherapy plus nurse-delivered telephone coaching. Physiotherapy involves five treatment sessions over 6 months, incorporating a home exercise program of 4–6 exercises (targeting knee extensor and hip abductor strength and advice to increase daily physical activity. Telephone coaching comprises 6–12 telephone calls over 6 months by health practitioners trained in applying the Health Change Australia (HCA Model of Health Change to provide behaviour change support. The telephone coaching intervention aims to maximise adherence to the physiotherapy program, as well as facilitate increased levels of participation in general physical activity. The primary outcomes are pain measured by an 11-point numeric rating scale and self-reported physical function measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale after 6 months. Secondary outcomes include physical activity levels, quality-of-life, and potential moderators and mediators of outcomes including self-efficacy, pain coping and depression. Relative cost-effectiveness will be determined from health service usage and outcome

  16. Effect of a chitosan additive to a Sn2+-containing toothpaste on its anti-erosive/anti-abrasive efficacy--a controlled randomised in situ trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, N; Klimek, J; Ganss, C

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Sn(2+) is a notable anti-erosive agent. There are indications that biopolymers such as chitosan can enhance the effect of Sn(2+), at least in vitro. However, little information exists about their anti-erosive/anti-abrasive in situ effects. In the present in situ study, the efficacy of Sn(2+)-containing toothpastes in the presence or absence of chitosan was tested. Ten subjects participated in the randomised crossover study, wearing mandibular appliances with human enamel specimens. Specimens were extraorally demineralised (7 days, 0.5% citric acid, pH 2.6; 6 × 2 min/day) and intraorally exposed to toothpaste suspensions (2 × 2 min/day). Within the suspension immersion time, one half of the specimens were additionally brushed intraorally with a powered toothbrush (5 s, 2.5 N). Tested preparations were a placebo toothpaste (negative control), two experimental toothpastes (F/Sn = 1,400 ppm F(-), 3,500 ppm Sn(2+); F/Sn/chitosan = 1,400 ppm F(-), 3,500 ppm Sn(2+), 0.5 % chitosan) and an SnF2-containing gel (positive control, GelKam = 3,000 ppm Sn(2+), 1,000 ppm F(-)). Substance loss was quantified profilometrically (μm). In the placebo group, tissue loss was 11.2 ± 4.6 (immersion in suspension) and 17.7 ± 4.7 (immersion in suspension + brushing). Immersion in each Sn(2+)-containing suspension significantly reduced tissue loss (p ≤ 0.01); after immersion in suspension + brushing, only the treatments with GelKam (5.4 ± 5.5) and with F/Sn/chitosan (9.6 ± 5.6) significantly reduced loss [both p ≤ 0.05 compared to placebo; F/Sn 12.8 ± 6.4 (not significant)] Chitosan enhanced the efficacy of the Sn(2+)-containing toothpaste as an anti-erosive/anti-abrasive agent. The use of Sn(2+)- and chitosan-containing toothpaste is a good option for symptomatic therapy in patients with regular acid impacts.

  17. The Whipple Museum and Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippard, Brian

    The Whipple Museum is part of the History and Philosophy of Science Department in the University of Cambridge. It is on your right as soon as you enter Free School Lane from Pembroke Street, and is normally open between 1:30 and 4:30 P.M. on weekdays. The main room, a hall with hammer-beam roof, is a relic of Stephen Perse’s school (1624) now flourishing elsewhere in the city. It houses a large collection of mathematical, physical and astronomical instruments — abaci, Napier’s bones, slide rules; sextants and other surveying instruments; telescopes, compasses and pocket sundials (especially of ivory from Nuremberg 1500-1700); and a Grand Orrery by George Adams (1750). The gallery of a second room is used for special exhibitions, often of items from the well-stocked store. Some specialist catalogues have been compiled and are on sale.

  18. Teachers Learning: Professional Development and Education. Cambridge Education Research Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Colleen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Teachers Learning: Professional Development and Education" is part of The Cambridge Education Research series, edited by senior colleagues at the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education, which has a longstanding tradition of involvement in high quality, innovative teacher education and continuing professional development.…

  19. Teachers Learning: Professional Development and Education. Cambridge Education Research Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Colleen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Teachers Learning: Professional Development and Education" is part of The Cambridge Education Research series, edited by senior colleagues at the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education, which has a longstanding tradition of involvement in high quality, innovative teacher education and continuing professional development.…

  20. 76 FR 13665 - Cambridge Tool & Die, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Action Total Staffing, Cambridge, OH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Register on January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4731). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Cambridge Tool & Die, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Action Total Staffing, Cambridge, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  1. Recent Developments in Cambridge College Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Wilson

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Cambridge University has three tiers of libraries available to students: the University Library, departmental (subject libraries and college libraries. Over the past thirty years there has been increasing pressure on the colleges to provide more books, reader places and technical resources in their libraries, with the result that a number of new library buildings, of very different styles, have been opened. Other colleges have opted for refurbishment and extension of existing libraries. These libraries are small (30-100,000 books and intimate, often open 24 hours a day and with generous provision for lending books. Great importance is placed on keeping them at the heart of the college. Challenges for architects are the sensitive sites, restrictions on changes to listed buildings, and the limited space available. The constricted sites cause difficulties for the builders too. I will consider some solutions to these problems with reference to projects in four colleges: Pembroke, Peterhouse, Corpus Christi and Newnham. At Pembroke architects Freeland Rees Roberts have built an extension to a listed building and at Peterhouse they have adapted an adjoining room. Corpus Christi is moving its library to a Victorian building which has been internally redesigned by Wright + Wright. Newnham demolished a 1960s extension in order to develop the plot more efficiently to a design by John Miller + Partners. All the architects have shown sensitivity to the needs of their clients and ingenuity in making intensive use of limited space.

  2. Artificial Pancreas Project at Cambridge 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovorka, R

    2015-08-01

    The development and clinical testing of closed-loop systems (the artificial pancreas) is underpinned by advances in continuous glucose monitoring and benefits from concerted academic and industry collaborative efforts. This review describes the progress of the Artificial Pancreas Project at the University of Cambridge from 2006 to 2014. Initial studies under controlled laboratory conditions, designed to collect representative safety and performance data, were followed by short to medium free-living unsupervised outpatient studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery using a model predictive control algorithm. Accompanying investigations included assessment of the psychosocial impact and key factors affecting glucose control such as insulin kinetics and glucose absorption. Translation to other disease conditions such as critical illness and Type 2 diabetes took place. It is concluded that innovation of iteratively enhanced closed-loop systems will provide tangible means to improve outcomes and quality of life in people with Type 1 diabetes and their families in the next decade.

  3. The Cambridge-Cambridge ROSAT serendipity survey; 2, classification of x-ray luminous galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, B J; Wiles, B J; Elvis, M; Boyle, B J; McMahon, R G; Wiles, B J; Elvis, M

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of an intermediate-resolution (1.5\\AA) spectroscopic study of 17 X-ray luminous narrow emission-line galaxies previously identified in the Cambridge-Cambridge {\\it ROSAT} Serendipity Survey and the {\\it Einstein} Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. Emission-line ratios reveal that the sample is composed of ten Seyfert and seven starburst galaxies. Measured linewidths for the narrow H\\alpha emission lines lie in the range 170-460\\,km\\,s^{-1}. Five of the objects show clear evidence for asymmetry in the [OIII]\\lambda5007 emission-line profile. Broad H\\alpha emission is detected in six of the Seyfert galaxies, which range in type from Seyfert 1.5 to 2. Broad H\\beta emission is only detected in one Seyfert galaxy. The mean full width at half maximum for the broad lines in the Seyfert galaxies is {\\rm FWHM = 3900\\pm 1750\\,km\\,s^{-1}}. Broad ({\\rm FWHM = 2200\\pm 600\\,km\\,s^{-1}}) H\\alpha emission is also detected in three of the starburst galaxies, which could originate from stellar winds or ...

  4. Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baruchello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

  5. 8th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann; Dong, Hua

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 8th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT '14), incorporating the 11th Cambridge Workshop on Rehabilitation Robotics, held in Cambridge, England in March 2016. It presents novel and state-of-the-art research from an international group of leaders in the fields of universal access and assistive technology. It explores various issues including the reconciliation of usability, accessibility and inclusive design, the design of inclusive assistive and rehabilitation systems, measuring product demand and human capabilities, data mining and visualizing inclusion, legislation in inclusive design, and situational inclusive interfaces (automotive and aerospace). This book provides an invaluable resource to researchers, postgraduates, design practitioners, therapists and clinical practitioners, as well as design teachers.

  6. Intelligence Inside the King’s College of Cambridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriono Nugroho

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Article concerns with a stylistic analysis on a poem in terms of Systemic Functional Linguistics and Verbal Art Semiotics. The writing uses library research, qualitative data, documentary study, descriptive method and intrinsic-objective approach. The semantic analysis results in both automatized and foregrounded meanings. Then the automatized meaning produces lexical cohesion and in turn, it produces subject matter. Meanwhile, the foregrounded meaning produces the literary meaning and in turn, it creates theme. Finally, the analysis indicates that the subject matter is about the establishment of Cambridge University, the literary meaning is about eternal thoughts of Cambridge University, and the theme is about intelligence.

  7. Cambridge international AS and A level mathematics statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Porkess, Roger; Konrad, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This brand new series has been written for the University of Cambridge International Examinations course for AS and A Level Mathematics (9709). This title covers the requirements of S1 and S2. The authors are experienced examiners and teachers who have written extensively at this level, so have ensured all mathematical concepts are explained using language and terminology that is appropriate for students across the world. Students are provded with clear and detailed worked examples and questions from Cambridge International past papers, so they have the opportunity for plenty of essenti

  8. Cambridge international AS and A level mathematics mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Porkess, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This brand new series has been written for the University of Cambridge International Examinations course for AS and A Level Mathematics (9709). This title covers the requirements of M1 and M2. The authors are experienced examiners and teachers who have written extensively at this level, so have ensured all mathematical concepts are explained using language and terminology that is appropriate for students across the world. Students are provded with clear and detailed worked examples and questions from Cambridge International past papers, so they have the opportunity for plenty of essential exam

  9. Skype'i stipendium viib Cambridge'i / Kadri Bank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bank, Kadri

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Infotehnoloogia Sihtasutuse (EITSA) Skype'i 100 000-kroonise magistristipendiumi sai Tartu Ülikooli matemaatika-informaatikateaduskonna kevadel lõpetanud Ago-Erik Riet, kes edestas kuut konkurenti ja asub õppima Cambridge'i Ülikooli magistrantuuri matemaatikat

  10. The Cambridge Primary Review: A Reply to R. J. Campbell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The author was disappointed by R. J. Campbell's sour critique of the Cambridge Primary Review in "FORUM" Volume 52 Number 1 2010. His description of the Review's proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking, cumbersome and partial" is such a bizarre misjudgement that it calls for some response. The author comments in turn on R. J.…

  11. Skype'i stipendium viib Cambridge'i / Kadri Bank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bank, Kadri

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Infotehnoloogia Sihtasutuse (EITSA) Skype'i 100 000-kroonise magistristipendiumi sai Tartu Ülikooli matemaatika-informaatikateaduskonna kevadel lõpetanud Ago-Erik Riet, kes edestas kuut konkurenti ja asub õppima Cambridge'i Ülikooli magistrantuuri matemaatikat

  12. The Cambridge Primary Review: A Reply to R. J. Campbell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The author was disappointed by R. J. Campbell's sour critique of the Cambridge Primary Review in "FORUM" Volume 52 Number 1 2010. His description of the Review's proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking, cumbersome and partial" is such a bizarre misjudgement that it calls for some response. The author comments in turn on R. J.…

  13. Protocol for the ADDITION-Plus study: a randomised controlled trial of an individually-tailored behaviour change intervention among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes under intensive UK general practice care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanshawe Tom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses both clinical and public health challenges. Cost-effective approaches to prevent progression of the disease in primary care are needed. Evidence suggests that intensive multifactorial interventions including medication and behaviour change can significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with established type 2 diabetes, and that patient education in self-management can improve short-term outcomes. However, existing studies cannot isolate the effects of behavioural interventions promoting self-care from other aspects of intensive primary care management. The ADDITION-Plus trial was designed to address these issues among recently diagnosed patients in primary care over one year. Methods/Design ADDITION-Plus is an explanatory randomised controlled trial of a facilitator-led, theory-based behaviour change intervention tailored to individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. 34 practices in the East Anglia region participated. 478 patients with diabetes were individually randomised to receive (i intensive treatment alone (n = 239, or (ii intensive treatment plus the facilitator-led individual behaviour change intervention (n = 239. Facilitators taught patients key skills to facilitate change and maintenance of key behaviours (physical activity, dietary change, medication adherence and smoking, including goal setting, action planning, self-monitoring and building habits. The intervention was delivered over one year at the participant's surgery and included a one-hour introductory meeting followed by six 30-minute meetings and four brief telephone calls. Primary endpoints are physical activity energy expenditure (assessed by individually calibrated heart rate monitoring and movement sensing, change in objectively measured dietary intake (plasma vitamin C, medication adherence (plasma drug levels, and smoking status (plasma cotinine levels at

  14. Group photograph: Dark Energy Survey Autumn Collaboration meeting Cambridge 2016 12 December 2016 - 16 December 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Group photograph of participants in the Dark Energy Survey Autumn collaboration meeting Cambridge 2016 12 December 2016 - 16 December 2016 taken outside the Cambridge Observatory building on 14 December 2016, by Amanda Smith, Graphics Officer.

  15. 78 FR 52802 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab... 01, 2013, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  16. 77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab... 7, 2012, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  17. Oral vitamins C and E as additional treatment in patients with acute anterior uveitis: a randomised double masked study in 145 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Rooij (Jeroen); S.G. Schwartzenberg; G.S. Baarsma (Seerp); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIM: To investigate the effect of additional oral vitamins C and E on acute anterior uveitis. METHODS: A placebo controlled double masked study on the effect of vitamin C 500 mg in combination with vitamin E 100 mg twice daily in 145 patients with acute ante

  18. Oral vitamins C and E as additional treatment in patients with acute anterior uveitis: a randomised double masked study in 145 patients

    OpenAIRE

    van Rooij, Jeroen; Schwartzenberg, S.G.; Baarsma, Seerp; Mulder, Paul

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIM: To investigate the effect of additional oral vitamins C and E on acute anterior uveitis. METHODS: A placebo controlled double masked study on the effect of vitamin C 500 mg in combination with vitamin E 100 mg twice daily in 145 patients with acute anterior uveitis. As a primary end point variable, laser cell/flare measurements were performed. Best corrected and stenopeic visual acuity (VA) testing and clinical variable scores were measured. RESULTS: Laser flare measurements ...

  19. 40 CFR 81.205 - Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.205 Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio) consists of the territorial...

  20. To assess whether indoor residual spraying can provide additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets in The Gambia: study protocol for a two-armed cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there has been mounting interest in scaling-up vector control against malaria in Africa. It needs to be determined if indoor residual spraying (IRS with DDT will provide significant marginal protection against malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and prompt treatment in a controlled trial, given that DDT is currently the most persistent insecticide for IRS. Methods A 2 armed cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted to assess whether DDT IRS and LLINs combined provide better protection against clinical malaria in children than LLINs alone in rural Gambia. Each cluster will be a village, or a group of small adjacent villages; all clusters will receive LLINs and half will receive IRS in addition. Study children, aged 6 months to 13 years, will be enrolled from all clusters and followed for clinical malaria using passive case detection to estimate malaria incidence for 2 malaria transmission seasons in 2010 and 2011. This will be the primary endpoint. Exposure to malaria parasites will be assessed using light and exit traps followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species and sporozoite infection. Study children will be surveyed at the end of each transmission season to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and the prevalence of anaemia. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN01738840 - Spraying And Nets Towards malaria Elimination (SANTE

  1. University of Cambridge deploys Procket Networks' PRO/8801

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Procket Networks, a provider of high performance Internet Protocol (IP) technology and products has announced that the University of Cambridge has deployed the PRO/8801(TM) router into its research network to develop industry-leading deep packet inspection applications. The major application for this deployment is to identify and understand new traffic patterns created by large scale scientific computations and downloads such as the GRID (1 page).

  2. Metaphor Analysis of Chinese Premier Wen’s Cambridge Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Luo

    2014-01-01

    Metaphor is more than an ostensible decoration of language. It is an integral part of human thought of ideologized world. This article analyzes the metaphor use of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s speech at Cambridge in February 2009, in an at-tempt to display how the preferred metaphors serve the purpose of this speech and reflect Premier Wen ’s construction of Chi-na’s situation.

  3. Traffic Sign Recognition System based on Cambridge Correlator Image Comparator

    OpenAIRE

    J. Turan; L. Ovsenik; T. Harasthy

    2012-01-01

    Paper presents basic information about application of Optical Correlator (OC), specifically Cambridge Correlator, in system to recognize of traffic sign. Traffic Sign Recognition System consists of three main blocks, Preprocessing, Optical Correlator and Traffic Sign Identification. The Region of Interest (ROI) is defined and chosen in preprocessing block and then goes to Optical Correlator, where is compared with database of Traffic Sign. Output of Optical Correlation is correlation plane, w...

  4. A Workshop on Environmental Technology Assessment Held at the University of Cambridge, England Held on 24-26 April, 1985,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    for Air Pollutants J J Stukel Economic Issues in the Control of Air Pollution I M Torrens Theme 2 Water Treatment Megatrends in Water Treatment...TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS -c -e ne>±- a- University of Cambridge, England April 24-26, 1985 MEGATRENDS IN NATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES F’. Fiessinaer, J... tourism caused load varia- •-s and agro-industry discharges could and should be controled cnemicals addition within the mechanical biological process

  5. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  7. Cambridge IGCSE and international certificate French foreign language

    CERN Document Server

    Grime, Yvette; Thacker, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This brand-new Student Book provides a grammar-led approach with extensive exam preparation that will help you develop independent, culturally aware students of French ready for the exam. The book is written to the latest Cambridge International Examinations syllabus by experienced teachers. Extensive use of French reflects the style of the exams and, with specific advice and practice, it helps students use the acquired skills to their best ability. Topics on Francophone cultures are integrated throughout to ensure students gain the cultural awareness that is at the heart of this qualification

  8. WORKING WITH ARCHIVES: CAMBRIDGE ECONOMICS THROUGH THE MAGNIFYING GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Marcuzzo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in economics using documentary archives provides clearer interpretations about the ideas and their development throughout time, in the context of the writing process in relation to the interlocutors and antagonists, and the nature of the problems addressed. This document presents examples of works with tough drafts, correspondence, tables of contents, notes, and related material of four economists of the "Cambridge Group": Piero Sraffa, Richard Kahn, Joan Robinson, and John Maynard Keynes. In each case the findings and importance of the research done in the files are described.

  9. The Cambridge MRI database for animal models of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Morton, A Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Cambridge animal brain magnetic resonance imaging repository comprising 400 datasets to date from mouse models of Huntington disease. The data include raw images as well as segmented grey and white matter images with maps of cortical thickness. All images and phenotypic data for each subject are freely-available without restriction from (http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/243361/). Software and anatomical population templates optimised for animal brain analysis with MRI are also available from this site.

  10. Skin Regeneration Symposium Cambridge, 12-13 April 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rosalind

    2016-07-01

    The Annual Skin Regeneration Symposium, held in Cambridge, UK, 12-13 April 2016, explored the latest advancements in skin repair, regeneration and restoration, and the impact this has on patients. With over 140 delegates from the disciplines of burn and trauma care, chronic wounds and esthetic medicine, the symposium sparked lively debate and the sharing of results from interesting case studies, clinical trials and basic research to support the use of a Regenerative Epithelial Suspension produced using the ReCell(®) technology. Furthermore, it enabled delegates and speakers alike to share ideas and discuss how to improve the quality of care for patients.

  11. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Nicholas D; Sydes, Matthew R; Clarke, Noel W; Mason, Malcolm D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Thalmann, George; Amos, Claire; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison J; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Audrey; Elliott, Tony; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D; Hetherington, John; Hughes, Robert; Laing, Robert; McKinna, Fiona; McLaren, Duncan B; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Robinson, Angus J; Srihari, Narayanan; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John; Sundar, Santhanam; Tolan, Shaun; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term hormone therapy has been the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer since the 1940s. STAMPEDE is a randomised controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer who are starting first-line long-term hormone therapy. We report primary survival results for three research comparisons testing the addition of zoledronic acid, docetaxel, or their combination to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Methods Standard of care was hormone therapy for at least 2 years; radiotherapy was encouraged for men with N0M0 disease to November, 2011, then mandated; radiotherapy was optional for men with node-positive non-metastatic (N+M0) disease. Stratified randomisation (via minimisation) allocated men 2:1:1:1 to standard of care only (SOC-only; control), standard of care plus zoledronic acid (SOC + ZA), standard of care plus docetaxel (SOC + Doc), or standard of care with both zoledronic acid and docetaxel (SOC + ZA + Doc). Zoledronic acid (4 mg) was given for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly until 2 years, and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for six 3-weekly cycles with prednisolone 10 mg daily. There was no blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Pairwise comparisons of research versus control had 90% power at 2·5% one-sided α for hazard ratio (HR) 0·75, requiring roughly 400 control arm deaths. Statistical analyses were undertaken with standard log-rank-type methods for time-to-event data, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00268476) and ControlledTrials.com (ISRCTN78818544). Findings 2962 men were randomly assigned to four groups between Oct 5, 2005, and March 31, 2013. Median age was 65 years (IQR 60–71). 1817 (61%) men had M+ disease, 448 (15%) had N+/X M0, and 697 (24%) had N0M0. 165 (6

  12. The Cambridge Structural Database in retrospect and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Allen, Frank H

    2014-01-13

    The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) was established in 1965 to record numerical, chemical and bibliographic data relating to published organic and metal-organic crystal structures. The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) now stores data for nearly 700,000 structures and is a comprehensive and fully retrospective historical archive of small-molecule crystallography. Nearly 40,000 new structures are added each year. As X-ray crystallography celebrates its centenary as a subject, and the CCDC approaches its own 50th year, this article traces the origins of the CCDC as a publicly funded organization and its onward development into a self-financing charitable institution. Principally, however, we describe the growth of the CSD and its extensive associated software system, and summarize its impact and value as a basis for research in structural chemistry, materials science and the life sciences, including drug discovery and drug development. Finally, the article considers the CCDC's funding model in relation to open access and open data paradigms.

  13. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M; Ferrence, Gregory M; Allen, Frank H

    2010-10-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal-organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout.

  14. [Clinical usefulness and psychometric properties of the Cambridge Behavioural Inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Martinez, R; Kokoulina, E; Carballido-Araujo, E; Garcia-Fuertes, I; Gutierrez-Martinez, O; Santiago-Lopez, F; Vazquez-Batan, P

    2016-11-16

    Introduccion. Un area importante de la evaluacion neuropsicologica son los sintomas psicologicos y conductuales. El inventario conductual de CambridgeCambridge Behavioural Inventory (CBI)– es una medida de autoinforme dirigida a allegados que recoge una amplia variedad de sintomas conductuales que pueden darse en el curso de las enfermedades neurologicas. El principal objetivo del estudio es comprobar la utilidad clinica de su adaptacion al castellano. Sujetos y metodos. El CBI fue cumplimentado por 215 allegados de pacientes remitidos desde los servicios de neurologia y psiquiatria. Se compararon los perfiles del CBI de cuatro grupos de pacientes formados sobre la base de sus principales caracteristicas clinicas, datos psicometricos, pruebas de imagen y juicio clinico del profesional solicitante del estudio neuropsicologico. Resultados. La mayoria de las escalas (10 de 13) del CBI tuvo valores de consistencia interna aceptables, y las escalas de memoria y atencion/orientacion, correlaciones elevadas con medidas objetivas de memoria y orientacion temporal. Los perfiles del CBI de los grupos de pacientes con distintas condiciones (trastorno organico de la memoria, trastorno funcional de la memoria, variante conductual de demencia frontotemporal y enfermedad de Alzheimer) fueron consistentes con sus principales caracteristicas. Conclusiones. El CBI es un instrumento psicometricamente fiable y con adecuada validez convergente y discriminante que puede ser util en el proceso de evaluacion neuropsicologica, aportando informacion relevante no solo sobre el funcionamiento cognitivo y las capacidades funcionales, sino tambien sobre los sintomas conductuales y psicologicos de los pacientes con trastornos cognitivos.

  15. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Ferrence, Gregory M.; Allen, Frank H.

    2010-01-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal–organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout. PMID:20877495

  16. Sediment remediation of the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeloni, D.; Eby, M.; Jarvis, S.; Martin, P. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: danielle.angeloni@earthtech.ca

    2002-06-15

    'Full text:' Low dissolved oxygen levels and large accumulated sediment remediation alternatives were examined to assemble the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge (HMP) into a healthier and more desirable recreational area in the City of Cambridge. The theory that a large amount of sediment has been deposited into the HMP from the Speed River upstream over a number of years predicts the depressed oxygen levels, high nutrient-loading rates and the odour problems in the summer months. The initial phase in the remediation plan for this project involved extensive background research and investigation. The focus was on determining the characteristics of the sediment and the history of the pond, to ultimately decide if the sediment was the source of the issues. Dissolved oxygen field tests and sediment sampling were conducted to get information on the magnitude of the problem and the environmental hazards potentially present in the pond. The pond was modelled utilising the Streeter-Phelps oxygen-sag model to predict the oxygen deficit. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD{sub 5}) testing was completed to determine the oxygen demand in the pond. These tests were conducted by using water samples obtained from various sample points at the pond. The proposed solution is a combined dredging and aeration approach. Mechanical dredging using a clamshell bucket and the installation of aerators is expected to solve the dissolved oxygen and water quality issues. (author)

  17. From Cape Town to Cambridge: Orthopaedic trauma in contrasting environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, John E; Khanduja, Vikas

    2016-05-18

    To compare the trauma experience gained by a trainee at a United Kingdom major trauma centre and a secondary level hospital in South Africa. A profile of inpatient trauma cases during a five-week period in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge and Somerset Hospital, Cape Town was created. This was achieved by recording various parameters for each patient admitted including age, gender, injury, mechanism of injury and postal/area code. This, together with details of the departments themselves, allows a comparison of the amount and variety of orthopaedic trauma cases experienced by an individual trainee in each setting. The trauma profiles differed significantly. Patients in Cape Town were younger and more likely to be male. In the young, injury in Cape Town was more likely to occur due to assault or being struck by a vehicle, whilst patients in Cambridge were more likely to be injured whilst in a vehicle or in high energy falls. In older patients, trauma at both centres was almost exclusively due to mechanical falls. In a given age group, injuries at the two centres were similar, however the majority of patients admitted to Addenbrooke's were elderly, resulting in less variation in the overall injury profile. The trauma profile of a major trauma centre in the United Kingdom is less varied than that of a South African secondary centre, with significantly fewer cases per surgeon. This suggests a more varied training experience in the developing world with a greater caseload.

  18. Randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, C; Lødrup, A B; Smith, G;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many reflux patients remain symptomatic on a standard dose of proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Alginates decrease the number of reflux events by forming a raft on top of the stomach content and thus offer a supplemental mechanism of action to acid suppression. AIM: To assess the efficacy...... of an alginate (Gaviscon Advance, Reckitt Benckiser, Slough, UK) on reflux symptoms in patients with persistent symptoms despite once daily PPI. METHODS: This was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, 7-day double-blind trial preceded by a 7-day run-in period. Reflux symptoms were assessed using......: In patients with residual reflux symptoms despite PPI treatment, adding an alginate offers additional decrease in the burden of reflux symptoms (EudraCT/IND Number: 2011-005486-21)....

  19. The Cambridge Equation with government activity revisited A Equação de Cambridge com atividade governamental revisitada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silva Azevedo Araujo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the steady-state distributional features found in a Kaldor-Pasinetti process, in which the government sector is allowed to run persistent deficits that may be financed through different instruments. Productive capital and bonds generate single rates of return, while workers' saving propensity remains uniform. This paper seeks to establish a generalization of Cambridge Eauqtion, considering the specific contributions of Steedman (1972, Pasinetti (1989, Dalziel (1991, and Faria (2000.Neste artigo faz-se uma análise das características distributivas do processo Kaldor-Pasinetti, assumindo-se que o setor governamental incorre em persistentes déficits que podem ser financiados através de diferentes instrumentos, como a emissão de títulos e de moeda. Através dessa abordagem é possível estudar como a atividade governamental afeta a distribuição de renda entre capitalistas e trabalhadores e assim obter generalizações do Teorema de Cambridge em que versões anteriores como as de Steedman (1972, Pasinetti (1989, Dalziel (1991 e Faria (2000 surgem como casos particulares.

  20. A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial to investigate the addition of direct access to physiotherapy to usual GP-led primary care for adults with musculoskeletal pain: the STEMS pilot trial protocol (ISRCTN23378642).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Annette; Tooth, Stephanie; Protheroe, Joanne; Salisbury, Chris; Ogollah, Reuben O; Jowett, Sue; Hay, Elaine M; Foster, Nadine E

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal problems are common, accounting for up to 30 % of general practitioner (GP) consultations and are a major cause of chronic disability worldwide. Demand for health care for musculoskeletal conditions is likely to continue to rise given the ageing population and the increasing impact of these common painful conditions. Physiotherapists are well equipped to deliver evidence-based management for these conditions. Direct access allows patients to access physiotherapy without seeing their GP or another referring practitioner first; however, for most patients in the UK, access to National Health Service physiotherapy is controlled through GP referral. The aim of this pilot, pragmatic, cluster trial is to assess the feasibility of a future large trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the additional offer of direct access to physiotherapy versus continuing with usual GP-led primary care alone for adults with common musculoskeletal problems. The pilot will focus on process outcomes to assess feasibility, although performance of the likely outcomes of a main trial will also be assessed. This is a two-arm parallel, cluster RCT where GP practices are the units of randomisation (the clusters), yet data are collected from individual patients with musculoskeletal problems (the participants). A direct access service will be set up in the participating physiotherapy service to provide the option of direct access to patients of the intervention arm practices. Inclusion criteria are broad to reflect the 'real-world' operation of an NHS physiotherapy direct access service for patients with musculoskeletal pain. Data collection will be through patient self-reported questionnaires at baseline, 2, 6 and 12 months and medical record review. No previous trials have been conducted into direct access to physiotherapy for patients with musculoskeletal problems. The strengths of the STEMS pilot trial are its size, the length of follow-up, and collection of

  1. Experience from two decades of the Cambridge Rapid Access Neurology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinte, Laura T; Fiddes, Barnaby D; Donaghy, Alastair; Whyte, Adam; Allen, Chris; Sawcer, Stephen J; Adam, Robert J; Stacpoole, Sybil R L

    2015-10-01

    We report on the evolution of the rapid access neurology clinic (established in 1995) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge. Annualised attendance data demonstrate an ever increasing demand, with primary headache disorders now accounting for more than 40% of referrals. Secondary causes of headache (including intracranial tumours, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, carotid or vertebral artery dissection and subdural haematomas) remain infrequent. In all such cases, there were additional diagnostic clues. The number of patients referred with problems related to chronic neurological diseases has fallen considerably, reflecting the roles of specialist nurses and clinics. Imaging investigation of choice shifted from computerised tomography scan (45 to 16%) towards magnetic resonance imaging (17 to 47%). Management is increasingly on an outpatient basis, often without the need for a follow-up appointment. The experience presented here should inform further development of rapid access neurology clinics across the UK and suggests the need for acute headache services, in line with those for transient ischaemic attack and first seizure.

  2. Hodder Cambridge primary mathematics teacher's resource pack 5

    CERN Document Server

    King, Steph

    2017-01-01

    Endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations to support the full curriculum framework from 2011. Save time and ensure full coverage of learning objectives with concise teaching notes and assessment support, built on a mastery approach to embed mathematical understanding. - Ensures clarity about the mastery approach with clear background information- Saves time with suggestions for starter activities relating to activities from the Learner's book, to introduce and explore new concepts- Assists formative and summative assessment with essential guidance- Allows flexibility and freedom to adapt ideas to the needs of the class whilst still being supportive and informative- Provides answers to Workbook questions, practice tests and Learner's book activities- Safeguards understanding with further activities and ideas for teaching to ensure that all learners master the concepts required.

  3. 7th Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, J; Heylighen, A; Dong, H; Inclusive Designing : Joining Usability, Accessibility, and Inclusion

    2014-01-01

    ‘Inclusive Designing’ presents the proceedings of the seventh Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT '14). It represents a unique multi-disciplinary workshop for the Inclusive Design Research community where designers, computer scientists, engineers, architects, ergonomists, policymakers and user communities can exchange ideas. The research presented at CWUAAT '14 develops methods, technologies, tools and guidance that support product designers and architects to design for the widest possible population for a given range of capabilities, within a contemporary social and economic context. In the context of developing demographic changes leading to greater numbers of older people and people with disabilities, the general field of Inclusive Design Research strives to relate the capabilities of the population to the design of products. Inclusive populations of older people contain a greater variation in sensory, cognitive and physical user capabilities. These variations may be...

  4. Traffic Sign Recognition System based on Cambridge Correlator Image Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents basic information about application of Optical Correlator (OC, specifically Cambridge Correlator, in system to recognize of traffic sign. Traffic Sign Recognition System consists of three main blocks, Preprocessing, Optical Correlator and Traffic Sign Identification. The Region of Interest (ROI is defined and chosen in preprocessing block and then goes to Optical Correlator, where is compared with database of Traffic Sign. Output of Optical Correlation is correlation plane, which consist of highly localized intensities, know as correlation peaks. The intensity of spots provides a measure of similarity and position of spots, how images (traffic signs are relatively aligned in the input scene. Several experiments have been done with proposed system and results and conclusion are discussed.

  5. Hodder Cambridge primary mathematics teacher's resource pack 2

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, Sarah-Anne

    2017-01-01

    Endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations to support the full curriculum framework from 2011. Save time and ensure full coverage of learning objectives with concise teaching notes and assessment support, built on a mastery approach to embed mathematical understanding. - Ensures clarity about the mastery approach with clear background information- Saves time with suggestions for starter activities relating to activities from the Learner's book, to introduce and explore new concepts- Assists formative and summative assessment with essential guidance- Allows flexibility and freedom to adapt ideas to the needs of the class whilst still being supportive and informative- Provides answers to Workbook questions, practice tests and Learner's book activities- Safeguards understanding with further activities and ideas for teaching to ensure that all learners master the concepts required.

  6. A Comparison between Oxford University and Cambridge University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Qiong-hui; ZHENG Yun-yan; YANG Zhi-min

    2016-01-01

    牛津大学和剑桥大学是两所世界著名的英国大学。他们不同于英国的其他大学,但两者本身却在历史、组织构造、教学风格方面拥有很多的相似之处。与此同时,它们在发展过程、框架结构、教学重点方面也有着不同之处。牛津大学和剑桥大学是两所世界一流的大学,它们因此成为世界各地的年青人所向往的理想大学。这两所大学将继续保持它们在将来高等教育界的显著地位。%Oxford University and Cambridge University in the United Kingdom are two world-famous universities, they differ from other universities in the United Kingdom, but they themselves have much in common in history, organizational makeup, and teaching style. Meanwhile, they also have some differences in development, framework, and educational focus. As two of the first-class universities in the world, Oxford University and Cambridge University have become the ideal universities that many young people all over the world yearn to enter. The two universities will keep themselves in the foreground of higher education in the future.

  7. Anneli Randla kaitses doktorikraadi Cambridge'is / Anneli Randla ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randla, Anneli

    1999-01-01

    5. mail kaitses Cambridge'is esimese eesti kunstiteadlasena doktorikraadi Anneli Randla. Töö teema: kerjusmungaordukloostrite arhitektuur Põhja-Euroopas. Juhendaja dr. Deborah Howard. Doktorikraadile esitatavatest nõudmistest, doktoritöö kaitsmisest, magistrikraadi kaitsnu õppimisvõimalustest Cambridge's.

  8. In search of low cost titanium: the fray farthing chen (FFC) cambridge process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, SJ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the Fray Farthing Chen (FFC) Cambridge process, a novel method for the electrochemical deoxidation of metal oxides in molten salt, discovered at the University of Cambridge in 1997. The process was hailed as a highly promising...

  9. In search of low cost titanium: the Fray Farthing Chen (FFC) Cambridge process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, SJ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the Fray Farthing Chen (FFC) Cambridge Process, a novel method for the electrochemical de-oxidation of metal oxides in molten salt, discovered at the University of Cambridge in 1997. The process was hailed as a highly promising...

  10. Investigating the Impact of Cambridge International Assessments on U.S. Stakeholders: Student and Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    As part of the continuing program to study the impact of its international assessments, the University of Cambridge International Examinations ("Cambridge") has undertaken a series of studies investigating the impact on a range of US stakeholders. This paper reports on research designed to respond to a series of washback and impact…

  11. Assessing the Impact of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) assesses the impacts of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed case studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of impacts. Many of these…

  12. A snuff, Sir? Et ego in Arcadia - op sabbatical in Cambridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Een maand lang heb ik in Cambridge onderzoek mogen doen. In deze column wil ik daar verslag van uitbrengen. Niet van mijn onderzoek — ik heb vooral rondgekeken in de bibliotheek en gesproken met collega's om te zien wat momenteel in de common law te koop is - maar van Cambridge zelf.

  13. Success in the US: Are Cambridge International Assessments Good Preparation for University Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart; Bailey, Clare

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the research being conducted by University of Cambridge International Examinations (Cambridge) to ensure that its international assessments prepare students as well as Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate for continued studies in colleges and universities. The primary purpose of the research is to highlight…

  14. Investigating the Impact of Cambridge International Assessments on U.S. Stakeholders: Student and Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    As part of the continuing program to study the impact of its international assessments, the University of Cambridge International Examinations ("Cambridge") has undertaken a series of studies investigating the impact on a range of US stakeholders. This paper reports on research designed to respond to a series of washback and impact questions…

  15. 77 FR 64143 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope Lab By Notice dated June 18, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on June 26, 2012, 77 FR 38086, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application by renewal to...

  16. Assessing the Impact of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) assesses the impacts of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed case studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of impacts. Many of these…

  17. Who attends a UK diabetes screening programme? Findings from the ADDITION-Cambridge study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, LA; Simmons, RK; Barling, RS; Butler, R; Williams, KM; Prevost, AT; Kinmonth, AL; Wareham, NJ; Griffin, SJ

    2012-01-01

    Aims One of the factors influencing the cost-effectiveness of population screening for type 2 diabetes may be uptake. We examined attendance and practice- and individual-level factors influencing uptake at each stage of a diabetes screening programme in general practice. Methods A stepwise screening programme was undertaken among 135,825 people aged 40-69 years without known diabetes in 49 general practices in East England. The programme included a score based on routinely available data (age, sex, BMI and prescribed medication) to identify those at high risk who were offered random capillary blood glucose (RBG) and glycosylated haemoglobin tests. Those screening positive were offered fasting capillary blood glucose (FBG) and confirmatory oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Results 33,539 high risk individuals were invited for a RBG screening test; 24,654 (74%) attended. 94% attended the follow-up FBG test and 82% the diagnostic OGTT. 70% of individuals completed the screening programme. Practices with higher GP staff complements and those located in more deprived areas had lower uptake for RBG and FBG tests. Male sex and a higher BMI were associated with lower attendance for RBG testing. Older age, prescription of antihypertensive medication and a higher risk score were associated with higher attendance for FBG and RBG tests. Conclusions High attendance rates can be achieved by targeted stepwise screening of individuals assessed as high risk by data routinely available in general practice. Different strategies may be required to increase initial attendance, ensure completion of the screening programme, and reduce the risk that screening increases health inequalities. PMID:20722672

  18. The Cambridge-Cambridge x-ray serendipity survey. 2: Classification of x-ray luminous galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, B. J.; Mcmahon, R. G.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, Martin

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of an intermediate-resolution (1.5 A) spectroscopic study of 17 x-ray luminous narrow emission-line galaxies previously identified in the Cambridge-Cambridge ROSAT Serendipity Survey and the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. Emission-line ratios reveal that the sample is composed of ten Seyfert and seven starburst galaxies. Measured linewidths for the narrow H alpha emission lines lie in the range 170 - 460 km s(exp -1). Five of the objects show clear evidence for asymmetry in the (OIII) lambda 5007 emission-line profile. Broad H alpha emission is detected in six of the Seyfert galaxies, which range in type from Seyfert 1.5 to 2. Broad H beta emission is only detected in one Seyfert galaxy. The mean full width at half maximum for the broad lines in the Seyfert galaxies is FWHM = 3900 +/- 1750 km s(exp -1). Broad (FWHM = 2200 +/- 600 km s(exp -1) H alpha emission is also detected in three of the starburst galaxies, which could originate from stellar winds or supernovae remnants. The mean Balmer decrement for the sample is H alpha / H beta = 3, consistent with little or no reddening for the bulk of the sample. There is no evidence for any trend with x-ray luminosity in the ratio of starburst galaxies to Seyfert galaxies. Based on our previous observations, it is therefore likely that both classes of object comprise approximately 10 percent of the 2 keV x-ray background.

  19. Findings from the Harvard Medical School Cambridge Integrated Clerkship, a Year-Long Longitudinal Psychiatry Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Elisa; Hirsh, David; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Griswold, Todd; Wesley Boyd, J

    2017-06-23

    The Harvard Medical School Cambridge Integrated Clerkship is a longitudinal integrated clerkship that has provided an alternative clinical model for medical education in psychiatry since its inception in 2004. This study was undertaken in an effort to better understand the student experience of the Cambridge Integrated Clerkship and how it may have impacted students' perceptions of and interest in psychiatry, as well as performance. Qualitative surveys were sent via e-mail to the first 11 student cohorts who had completed the Cambridge Integrated Clerkship (from 2004 to 2014) and for whom we had e-mail addresses (N = 100), and the free-text responses were coded thematically. All available standardized scoring data and residency match data for Cambridge Integrated Clerkship graduates were obtained. From 2006 to 2014, 12 out of 73 Cambridge Integrated Clerkship students who entered the match chose a psychiatry residency (16.4%), four times more than students in traditional clerkships at Harvard Medical School (3.8% of 1355 students) or the national average (4.1% of 146,066 US applicants). Thirty of the 100 surveyed Cambridge Integrated Clerkship graduates (30%) responded to the qualitative survey with free-text remarks on a number of themes. Cambridge Integrated Clerkship students compared positively to their classmates in terms of standardized test performance. Their fourfold higher match rate into psychiatry compared to other students raises intriguing questions as to what role a longitudinal clerkship might have played in developing interest in psychiatry as a career.

  20. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women’s daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women.

  1. The hermeneutics of mental symptoms in the Cambridge School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Aragona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current Psychiatry is in crisis. Decades of neuroscientific research have not yet delivered adequate explanations or treatments. One reason for this failure may be the wrongness of its central assumption, namely that mental symptoms and disorders are natural kinds. The Cambridge School has proposed that a new Epistemology must be constructed for Psychiatry, and that this should start with the development of a new model of mental symptom-formation. ‘Mental symptoms’ should be considered as hermeneutic co-constructions occurring in a intersubjective space created by the dialogue between sufferer and healer. Subjective experiences (caused either by neurobiological or psychosocial upheaval penetrate the awareness of sufferers causing perplexity and/or distress. To understand, handle and communicate these experiences, sufferers proceed to configure them by means of templates borrowed from their own culture. Importantly, however, the same neurobiological information can be configured into different symptoms; and different neurobiological information into the same symptom. Therefore, ‘mental symptoms’ are dissimilar hybrid combinations of neurobiological and cultural information. To be ethical, therapeutic interventions must take into account such dissimilarities. Blind manipulation of the brain in all cases should be considered as counterproductive.

  2. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women.

  3. Who Needs a Revision? 20 Years of Cambridge Shunt Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czosnyka, Zofia; Czosnyka, Marek; Pickard, John D; Chari, Aswin

    2016-01-01

    Shunt testing independent of manufacturers provides knowledge that can significantly improve the management of patients with hydrocephalus. The Cambridge Shunt Evaluation Laboratory was created 20 years ago. Thanks to financial support from the Department of Health (1993-1998), all shunts in use in the UK were systematically evaluated, with "blue reports" being published. Later new devices were tested as they appeared in public domain.Twenty-six models have been evaluated. The majority of the valves had a non-physiologically low hydrodynamic resistance that may result in over-drainage, both related to posture and during nocturnal cerebral vasogenic waves. A long distal catheter increases the resistance of these valves by 100-200 %. Drainage through valves without a siphon-preventing mechanism is very sensitive to body posture. Shunts with siphon-preventing accessories offer a reasonable resistance to negative outlet pressure. Bench parameters were used to test shunt performance in vivo using infusion tests. A criterion for correctly performing a shunt procedure was established. Pressure measured in the shunt prechamber during the plateau phase of infusion should not remain more than 5 mmHg above the le shunt's operating pressure plus hydrodynamic resistance of the valve multiplied by the infusion rate. "Critical levels" for every shunt and every performance level have been used in the shunt testing wizard of ICM+ software.

  4. Development and current status of the "Cambridge" loudness models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-13

    This article reviews the evolution of a series of models of loudness developed in Cambridge, UK. The first model, applicable to stationary sounds, was based on modifications of the model developed by Zwicker, including the introduction of a filter to allow for the effects of transfer of sound through the outer and middle ear prior to the calculation of an excitation pattern, and changes in the way that the excitation pattern was calculated. Later, modifications were introduced to the assumed middle-ear transfer function and to the way that specific loudness was calculated from excitation level. These modifications led to a finite calculated loudness at absolute threshold, which made it possible to predict accurately the absolute thresholds of broadband and narrowband sounds, based on the assumption that the absolute threshold corresponds to a fixed small loudness. The model was also modified to give predictions of partial loudness-the loudness of one sound in the presence of another. This allowed predictions of masked thresholds based on the assumption that the masked threshold corresponds to a fixed small partial loudness. Versions of the model for time-varying sounds were developed, which allowed prediction of the masked threshold of any sound in a background of any other sound. More recent extensions incorporate binaural processing to account for the summation of loudness across ears. In parallel, versions of the model for predicting loudness for hearing-impaired ears have been developed and have been applied to the development of methods for fitting multichannel compression hearing aids.

  5. 1919: psychology and psychoanalysis, Cambridge and London - Myers, Jones and MacCurdy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, John

    2008-01-01

    Viewing the reception of psychoanalysis in Britain from Cambridge, the paper examines the intertwining histories of the post-War British Psychological Society and the founding of the British Psycho-Analytical Society, following the initiatives of the two principal psychological entrepreneurs of the era, Charles Myers and Ernest Jones, Reforms in Cambridge in which psychoanalysis played a significant part are analysed, including the foundation of a Clinic for Nervous Diseases and the establishment of a separate Department of Experimental Psychology. The career of J. T. MacCurdy, Jones's student and Lecturer in Psychopathology at Cambridge, is discussed.

  6. Home-based exercise rehabilitation in addition to specialist heart failure nurse care: design, rationale and recruitment to the Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake Maximisation study for patients with congestive heart failure (BRUM-CHF: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingram Jackie T

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise has been shown to be beneficial for selected patients with heart failure, but questions remain over its effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and uptake in a real world setting. This paper describes the design, rationale and recruitment for a randomised controlled trial that will explore the effectiveness and uptake of a predominantly home-based exercise rehabilitation programme, as well as its cost-effectiveness and patient acceptability. Methods/design Randomised controlled trial comparing specialist heart failure nurse care plus a nurse-led predominantly home-based exercise intervention against specialist heart failure nurse care alone in a multiethnic city population, served by two NHS Trusts and one primary care setting, in the United Kingdom. 169 English speaking patients with stable heart failure, defined as systolic impairment (ejection fraction ≤ 40%. with one or more hospital admissions with clinical heart failure or New York Heart Association (NYHA II/III within previous 24-months were recruited. Main outcome measures at 1 year: Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire, incremental shuttle walk test, death or admission with heart failure or myocardial infarction, health care utilisation and costs. Interviews with purposive samples of patients to gain qualitative information about acceptability and adherence to exercise, views about their treatment, self-management of their heart failure and reasons why some patients declined to participate. The records of 1639 patients managed by specialist heart failure services were screened, of which 997 (61% were ineligible, due to ejection fraction>40%, current NYHA IV, no admission or NYHA II or more within the previous 2 years, or serious co-morbidities preventing physical activity. 642 patients were contacted: 289 (45% declined to participate, 183 (39% had an exclusion criterion and 169 (26% agreed to randomisation. Discussion Due to safety considerations

  7. 75 FR 38128 - Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division, Formerly Known As Airpax Corp., Cambridge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division, Formerly Known..., 2010, applicable to workers of Sansata Technologies MA, Incorporated, Power Controls Division, formerly... under the control of the Cambridge, Maryland location of Sensata Technologies MA, Incorporated,...

  8. Cambridge Polytrauma Pathway: Are we making appropriately guided decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynell-Mayow, William; Guevel, Borna; Quansah, Benjamin; O'Leary, Ronan; Carrothers, Andrew D

    2016-10-01

    Addenbrooke's Hospital, the Major Trauma Centre for the East of England Trauma Network, received 1070 major trauma patients between 1st January and 31st December 2014. In order to improve care, an audit was performed of 59 patients meeting our own selection criteria for orthopaedic polytrauma between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2013. The Cambridge Polytrauma Pathway was devised through NCEPOD guidelines, literature review, internal and external discussion. It facilitates provision of best practice Early Appropriate Care, encompassing - multidisciplinary consultant decisions around the patient in our Neurological and Trauma Critical Care Unit, early full body trauma CT scans, serial measurements of lactate and fibrinogen levels, and out-of-hours orthopaedic theatre reserved for life-and-limb threatening injuries. Re-audit was conducted of 15 patients meeting selection criteria, admitted between 1st October 2014 and 31st March 2015. Significant improvements in recording of lactate and fibrinogen were demonstrated, both on admission (lactate - p<0.000, fibrinogen - p=0.015), and preoperatively (lactate - p=0.003, fibrinogen - p=0.030). Time to trauma CT was unchanged (p=0.536) with a median time to CT of 0.53h at re-audit (IQR 0.48-0.75). The number of patients receiving definitive orthopaedic intervention out-of-hours reduced from 8 to zero (p=0.195). The approach of facilitating management decisions to be made at early daytime MDT meetings has been adopted. It is anticipated that this pathway will improve outcomes in orthopaedic polytrauma patients and it is recommended that either the GOS-E, or the EQ-5D scoring systems be introduced to assess this. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plastination in Anatomy Learning: An Experience at Cambridge University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Rafael; Bainbridge, David; Tavernor, Angie; López Albors, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of objective data, the benefits of using plastination in combination with wet dissection in teaching gross anatomy are unknown. The aim of this study was to obtain objective evidence from students regarding the effectiveness of combining plastinated specimens (PS) with an established gross anatomy education program at Cambridge University that uses wet cadaver dissection and small-group tutorials. For a complete academic year, a total of 135 PS were used alongside wet cadaver dissections. The PS were also available for small-group tutorials. An anonymous closed questionnaire, using a 5-point numerical-estimation Likert scale, was used to gather information relating to the effectiveness of the PS. The level of student satisfaction with the combined use of wet dissections and PS was high, although higher (p<.05) for second-year students (98.4%) than for first-year students (95.5%). Students felt the specimens allowed them to see details that were often more difficult to identify in their dissections, for instance nerves. Voluntary use of PS was higher (p<.01) for second-year students (96.9%), who had previously experienced anatomy teaching with cadaver dissection alone, than for first-year students (77.7%). Overall, 97.7% of all students thought that the PS helped them understand and learn anatomy. All students surveyed (100%) recommended the use of PS in the future. Students considered the use of PS in the dissection room combined with wet cadaver dissection to be beneficial when learning anatomy, particularly when combined with their use during small-group tutorials.

  10. Testing the Cambridge Quality Checklists on a review of disrupted families and crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, Darrick; Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David; Vannick, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews of the relationship between non-manipulated factors (e.g. low empathy) and offending are becoming more common, and it is important to consider the methodological quality of studies included in such reviews. Aims To assess aspects of the reliability and validity of the Cambridge Quality Checklists, a set of three measures for examining the methodological quality of studies included in systematic reviews of risk factors for offending. Methods All 60 studies in a systematic review of disrupted families and offending were coded on the CQC and codes compared with the effect sizes derived from the studies. Results Overall, the CQC was easy to score, and the relevant information was available in most studies. The scales had high inter-rater reliability. Only 13 studies scored high on the Checklist of Correlates, 18 scored highly on the Checklist of Risk Factors and none scored highly on the Checklist of Causal Risk Factors. Generally, studies that were of lower quality had higher effect sizes. Conclusions The CQC could be a useful method of assessing the methodological quality of studies of risk factors for offending but might benefit from additional conceptual work, changes to the wording of some scales and additional levels for scoring. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23192977

  11. Effect on HBs antigen clearance of addition of pegylated interferon alfa-2a to nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy versus nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy alone in patients with HBe antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B and sustained undetectable plasma hepatitis B virus DNA: a randomised, controlled, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlière, Marc; Rabiega, Pascaline; Ganne-Carrie, Nathalie; Serfaty, Lawrence; Marcellin, Patrick; Barthe, Yoann; Thabut, Dominique; Guyader, Dominique; Hezode, Christophe; Picon, Magali; Causse, Xavier; Leroy, Vincent; Bronowicki, Jean Pierre; Carrieri, Patrizia; Riachi, Ghassan; Rosa, Isabelle; Attali, Pierre; Molina, Jean Michel; Bacq, Yannick; Tran, Albert; Grangé, Jean Didier; Zoulim, Fabien; Fontaine, Hélène; Alric, Laurent; Bertucci, Inga; Bouvier-Alias, Magali; Carrat, Fabrice

    2017-03-01

    Findings from uncontrolled studies suggest that addition of pegylated interferon in patients with HBe antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B receiving nucleos(t)ide analogues with undetectable plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA might increase HBs antigen (HBsAg) clearance. We aimed to assess this strategy. In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we enrolled patients aged 18-75 years with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B and documented negative HBV DNA while on stable nucleos(t)ide analogue regimens for at least 1 year from 30 hepatology tertiary care wards in France. Patients had to have an alanine aminotransferase concentration of less than or equal to five times the upper normal range, no hepatocellular carcinoma, and a serum α fetoprotein concentration of less than 50 ng/mL, normal dilated fundus oculi examination, and a negative pregnancy test in women. Patients with contraindications to pegylated interferon were not eligible. A centralised randomisation used computer-generated lists of random permuted blocks of four with stratification by HBsAg titres (sida et les hépatites virales (France Recherche Nord&sud Sida-vih Hepatites). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnosing prosopagnosia in East Asian individuals: Norms for the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Elinor; Wan, Lulu; Robbins, Rachel; Crookes, Kate; Liu, Jia

    2017-09-14

    The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) is widely accepted as providing a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing prosopagnosia (inability to recognize people's faces). Previously, large-sample norms have been available only for Caucasian-face versions, suitable for diagnosis in Caucasian observers. These are invalid for observers of different races due to potentially severe other-race effects. Here, we provide large-sample norms (N = 306) for East Asian observers on an Asian-face version (CFMT-Chinese). We also demonstrate methodological suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for prosopagnosia diagnosis (high internal reliability, approximately normal distribution, norm-score range sufficiently far above chance). Additional findings were a female advantage on mean performance, plus a difference between participants living in the East (China) or the West (international students, second-generation children of immigrants), which we suggest might reflect personality differences associated with willingness to emigrate. Finally, we demonstrate suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for individual differences studies that use correlations within the normal range.

  13. Assessing the efficacy of oral immunotherapy for the desensitisation of peanut allergy in children (STOP II): a phase 2 randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Islam, Sabita; King, Yvonne; Foley, Loraine; Pasea, Laura; Bond, Simon; Palmer, Chris; Deighton, John; Ewan, Pamela; Clark, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Small studies suggest peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) might be effective in the treatment of peanut allergy. We aimed to establish the efficacy of OIT for the desensitisation of children with allergy to peanuts. Methods We did a randomised controlled crossover trial to compare the efficacy of active OIT (using characterised peanut flour; protein doses of 2–800 mg/day) with control (peanut avoidance, the present standard of care) at the NIHR/Wellcome Trust Cambridge Clinical...

  14. Increasing recruitment to randomised trials: a review of randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgerson David J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor recruitment to randomised controlled trials (RCTs is a widespread and important problem. With poor recruitment being such an important issue with respect to the conduct of randomised trials, a systematic review of controlled trials on recruitment methods was undertaken in order to identify strategies that are effective. Methods We searched the register of trials in Cochrane library from 1996 to end of 2004. We also searched Web of Science for 2004. Additional trials were identified from personal knowledge. Included studies had to use random allocation and participants had to be allocated to different methods of recruitment to a 'real' randomised trial. Trials that randomised participants to 'mock' trials and trials of recruitment to non-randomised studies (e.g., case control studies were excluded. Information on the study design, intervention and control, and number of patients recruited was extracted by the 2 authors. Results We identified 14 papers describing 20 different interventions. Effective interventions included: telephone reminders; questionnaire inclusion; monetary incentives; using an 'open' rather than placebo design; and making trial materials culturally sensitive. Conclusion Few trials have been undertaken to test interventions to improve trial recruitment. There is an urgent need for more RCTs of recruitment strategies.

  15. Combination of Insecticide Treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying in Northern Tanzania Provides Additional Reduction in Vector Population Density and Malaria Transmission Rates Compared to Insecticide Treated Nets Alone: A Randomised Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Wright, Alexandra; West, Philippa A; Tigererwa, Robinson; Mosha, Franklin W; Kisinza, William; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rowland, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) combined with insecticide treated nets (ITN) has been implemented together in several sub-Saharan countries with inconclusive evidence that the combined intervention provides added benefit. The impact on malaria transmission was evaluated in a cluster randomised trial comparing two rounds of IRS with bendiocarb plus universal coverage ITNs, with ITNs alone in northern Tanzania. From April 2011 to December 2012, eight houses in 20 clusters per study arm were sampled monthly for one night with CDC light trap collections. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were identified to species using real time PCR Taq Man and tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. ITN and IRS coverage was estimated from household surveys. IRS coverage was more than 85% in two rounds of spraying in January and April 2012. Household coverage with at least one ITN per house was 94.7% after the universal coverage net campaign in the baseline year and the proportion of household with all sleeping places covered by LLIN was 50.1% decreasing to 39.1% by the end of the intervention year. An.gambiae s.s. comprised 80% and An.arabiensis 18.3% of the anopheline collection in the baseline year. Mean An.gambiae s.l. density in the ITN+IRS arm was reduced by 84% (95%CI: 56%-94%, p = 0.001) relative to the ITN arm. In the stratum of clusters categorised as high anopheline density at baseline EIR was lower in the ITN+IRS arm compared to the ITN arm (0.5 versus 5.4 per house per month, Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.10, 95%CI: 0.01-0.66, p-value for interaction rate compared to ITN alone in an area of moderate coverage of LLIN and high pyrethroid resistance in An.gambiae s.s.

  16. Brief history of the Cambridge STEM aberration correction project and its progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L. Michael [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Batson, Philip E. [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Department of Materials Science, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Dellby, Niklas [Nion Company, 11515 NE 118th Street, Kirkland, WA 98034 (United States); Krivanek, Ondrej L. [Nion Company, 11515 NE 118th Street, Kirkland, WA 98034 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We provide a brief history of the project to correct the spherical aberration of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) that started in Cambridge (UK) and continued in Kirkland (WA, USA), Yorktown Heights (NY, USA), and other places. We describe the project in the full context of other aberration correction research and related work, partly in response to the incomplete context presented in the paper “In quest of perfection in electron optics: A biographical sketch of Harald Rose on the occasion of his 80th birthday”, recently published in Ultramicroscopy. - Highlights: • We provide a brief history of the Cambridge project to correct the spherical aberration of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). • We describe the project in the full context of other aberration correction work and related research. • We summarize our corrector development work that followed the Cambridge project, and which was the first to reach higher spatial resolution than any non-corrected electron microscope.

  17. Taxonomic review of the New World spider genus Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 (Araneae, Clubionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Regiane; Bonaldo, Alexandre Bragio

    2015-11-23

    Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 is characterized and redescribed, including 49 species occurring from the United States to Argentina. Thirty seven previously known species are redescribed: Elaver achuca (Roddy, 1966) revalidated, E. balboae (Chickering, 1937), E. barroana (Chickering, 1937), E. calcarata (Kraus, 1955), E. carlota (Bryant, 1940), E. chisosa (Roddy, 1966), E. crinophora (Franganillo, 1934), E. crocota (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896), E. albicans (Franganillo, 1930) name restored, E. depuncta O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. elaver (Bryant, 1940), E. excepta (L. Koch, 1866), E. grandivulva (Mello-Leitão, 1930), E. hortoni (Chickering, 1937), E. implicata (Gertsch, 1941), E. juana (Bryant, 1940), E. kohlsi (Gertsch & Jellison, 1939), E. linguata (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900), E. madera (Roddy, 1966), E. mirabilis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) new. comb., E. mulaiki (Gertsch, 1935), E. multinotata (Chickering, 1937), E. orvillei (Chickering, 1937), E. placida O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. portoricensis (Petrunkevitch, 1930), E. quadrata (Kraus, 1955), E. richardi (Gertsch, 1941), E. sericea O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. sigillata (Petrunkevitch, 1925), E. simplex (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896), E. texana (Gertsch, 1933), E. tigrina O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 name restored, E. tricuspis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900), E. tristani (Banks, 1909), E. tumivulva (Banks, 1909), E. valvula (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) and E. wheeleri (Roewer, 1933). Ten new species are described: E. candelaria n. sp. and E. helenae n. sp. from Mexico; E. arawakan n. sp. from Haiti; E. lizae n. sp. from Costa Rica; E. darwichi n. sp. from Ecuador; E. juruti n. sp., E. tourinhoae n. sp. and E. vieirae n. sp. from Brazil; E. shinguito n. sp. from Peru and E. beni n. sp. from Bolivia. The female of E. hortoni is described for the first time. Lectotypes are designated for E. sigillata and its actual female is described for the first time. Four new synonyms are proposed: E. languida

  18. Combination of Insecticide Treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying in Northern Tanzania Provides Additional Reduction in Vector Population Density and Malaria Transmission Rates Compared to Insecticide Treated Nets Alone: A Randomised Control Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Protopopoff

    Full Text Available Indoor residual spraying (IRS combined with insecticide treated nets (ITN has been implemented together in several sub-Saharan countries with inconclusive evidence that the combined intervention provides added benefit. The impact on malaria transmission was evaluated in a cluster randomised trial comparing two rounds of IRS with bendiocarb plus universal coverage ITNs, with ITNs alone in northern Tanzania. From April 2011 to December 2012, eight houses in 20 clusters per study arm were sampled monthly for one night with CDC light trap collections. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were identified to species using real time PCR Taq Man and tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. ITN and IRS coverage was estimated from household surveys. IRS coverage was more than 85% in two rounds of spraying in January and April 2012. Household coverage with at least one ITN per house was 94.7% after the universal coverage net campaign in the baseline year and the proportion of household with all sleeping places covered by LLIN was 50.1% decreasing to 39.1% by the end of the intervention year. An.gambiae s.s. comprised 80% and An.arabiensis 18.3% of the anopheline collection in the baseline year. Mean An.gambiae s.l. density in the ITN+IRS arm was reduced by 84% (95%CI: 56%-94%, p = 0.001 relative to the ITN arm. In the stratum of clusters categorised as high anopheline density at baseline EIR was lower in the ITN+IRS arm compared to the ITN arm (0.5 versus 5.4 per house per month, Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.10, 95%CI: 0.01-0.66, p-value for interaction <0.001. This trial provides conclusive evidence that combining carbamate IRS and ITNs produces major reduction in Anopheles density and entomological inoculation rate compared to ITN alone in an area of moderate coverage of LLIN and high pyrethroid resistance in An.gambiae s.s.

  19. Water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, 2005-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-8, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, measured concentrations of sodium and chloride, plant nutrients, commonly used pesticides, and caffeine in base-flow and stormwater samples collected from 11 tributaries in the Cambridge drinking-water source area. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, to establish a baseline for future comparisons, and to describe trends in surface-water quality. The data also were used to assess the effects of watershed characteristics on surface-water quality and to inform future watershed management.

  20. Analysis and Assessment of Cambridge English Skills Real Reading 2 within the Scope of Communicative Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张润霞

    2015-01-01

    this essay analyzes and assesses Cambridge English Skills Real Reading 2 from the perspective of communicative approach.The first part analyzes the theoretical basis of the textbook,including the organizational,pragmatic competence.The second part analyzes the syllabus contents.The last part analyzes the material and tasks of it.In summary,Cambridge English Skills Real Reading 2 is mainly communicative textbook from several aspects based on the detailed assessment and explanation.It can be helpful to the designing of reading textbooks.

  1. The resisted rise of randomisation in experimental design: British agricultural science, c.1910-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Dominic

    2015-09-01

    The most conspicuous form of agricultural experiment is the field trial, and within the history of such trials, the arrival of the randomised control trial (RCT) is considered revolutionary. Originating with R.A. Fisher within British agricultural science in the 1920s and 1930s, the RCT has since become one of the most prodigiously used experimental techniques throughout the natural and social sciences. Philosophers of science have already scrutinised the epistemological uniqueness of RCTs, undermining their status as the 'gold standard' in experimental design. The present paper introduces a historical case study from the origins of the RCT, uncovering the initially cool reception given to this method by agricultural scientists at the University of Cambridge and the (Cambridge based) National Institute of Agricultural Botany. Rather than giving further attention to the RCT, the paper focuses instead on a competitor method-the half-drill strip-which both predated the RCT and remained in wide use for at least a decade beyond the latter's arrival. In telling this history, John Pickstone's Ways of Knowing is adopted, as the most flexible and productive way to write the history of science, particularly when sciences and scientists have to work across a number of different kinds of place. It is shown that those who resisted the RCT did so in order to preserve epistemic and social goals that randomisation would have otherwise run a tractor through.

  2. The German adaptation of the Cambridge pulmonary hypertension outcome review (CAMPHOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cima Katharina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH experience severely impaired quality of life. A disease-specific outcome measure for PH, the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR was developed and validated in the UK and subsequently adapted for use in additional countries. The aim of this study was to translate and assess the reliability and validity of the CAMPHOR for German-speaking populations. Methods Three main adaptation stages involved; translation (employing bilingual and lay panels, cognitive debriefing interviews with patients and validation (assessment of the adaptation’s psychometric properties. The psychometric evaluation included 107 patients with precapillary PH (60 females; age mean (standard deviation 60 (15 years from 3 centres in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Results No major problems were found with the translation process with most items easily rendered into acceptable German. Participants in the cognitive debriefing interviews found the questionnaires relevant, comprehensive and easy to complete. Psychometric analyses showed that the adaptation was successful. The three CAMPHOR scales (symptoms, activity limitations and quality of life had excellent test-retest reliability correlations (Symptoms = 0.91; Activity limitations = 0.91; QoL = 0.90 and internal consistency (Symptoms = 0.94; Activity limitations = 0.93; QoL = 0.94. Predicted correlations with the Nottingham Health Profile provided evidence of the construct validity of the CAMPHOR scales. The CAMPHOR adaptation also showed known group validity in its ability to distinguish between participants based on perceived general health, perceived disease severity, oxygen use and NYHA classification. Conclusions The CAMPHOR has been shown to be valid and reliable in the German population and is recommend for use in clinical practice.

  3. Evaluation of a brief anti-stigma campaign in Cambridge: do short-term campaigns work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Claire

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the high costs of mass-media campaigns, it is important to understand whether it is possible for a media campaign to have significant population effects over a short period of time. This paper explores this question specifically in reference to stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems using the Time to Change Cambridge anti-stigma campaign as an example. Methods 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Results Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p If a friend had a mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05 in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions. Conclusions Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1 Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2 Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3 Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.

  4. The Cambridge Breast Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy Trial: Comparison of Clinician- versus Patient-reported Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh, M B; Qian, W; Wah Hak, C C; Wilkinson, J S; Barnett, G C; Moody, A M; Wilson, C; Coles, C E

    2016-06-01

    Breast radiotherapy-associated toxicity is often reported using clinical and photographic assessments. The addition of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is becoming more common. This study investigated the concordance between clinician- and patient-reported outcomes. The Cambridge Breast Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) trial prospectively collected data on clinician assessment and PROMs at 2 and 5 years after breast radiotherapy. Clinician assessment included physical examination and photographic assessment. PROMs included European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) BR23 questionnaire and four breast radiotherapy-specific questions. The correlation between patient and clinician scores were analysed on an independent patient basis using percentage agreement, Cohen's kappa coefficient (k) and Bowker's test of symmetry. The analysis was repeated after stratifying patients based on age, baseline Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) and baseline body image score. At 2 and 5 years, a weak level of concordance was seen between the clinician-based assessment and PROMS for all the five toxicity end points (k = 0.05-0.21), with individual patient-based agreement of 32.9-78.3% and a highly discordant Bowker's test of symmetry (P < 0.001). The most frequently reported moderate-severe toxicity by patients was change in breast appearance (14% at both 2 and 5 years), whereas it was breast induration (36% and 25% at 2 and 5 years, respectively) by the clinicians. The lack of concordance was not affected by patient's age, baseline HADS and baseline body image score. This study found that moderate-severe toxicity reported by patients is low and the overall concordance between clinicians and patients is low. This could be due to methodological limitations or alternatively reflects the subjective nature of PROMs. Incorporation of a patient's perception on treatment-related toxicity will have important implications for treatment

  5. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Cambridge Primary Review: A Response to R. J. Campbell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to R.J. Campbell's critique of the "Cambridge Primary Review," which was published in the autumn of 2009. The author argues that Campbell's description of the "Review's" central proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking and inadequately theorised" is so misjudged as to call for a…

  6. Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

  7. Measuring Impairments in Memory and Executive Function in Older People Using the Revised Cambridge Cognitive Examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Mimpen, G.; Melis, R.J.F.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The Revised Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG-R) is a cognitive screen that has been used to discriminate individuals with dementia from cognitively intact older people. It consists of items assessing various cognitive domains, but the construct validity of the cognitive subscores

  8. Measuring impairments in memory and executive function in older people using the Revised Cambridge Cognitive Examination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Mimpen, G.; Melis, R.J.F.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Revised Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG-R) is a cognitive screen that has been used to discriminate individuals with dementia from cognitively intact older people. It consists of items assessing various cognitive domains, but the construct validity of the cognitive subscores

  9. Up the Garden Path: A Chemical Trail through the Cambridge University Botanic Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Kyd, Gwenda O.; Groom, Colin R.; Allen, Frank H.; Day, Juliet; Upson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The living world is a rich source of chemicals with many medicines, dyes, flavorings, and foodstuffs having their origins in compounds produced by plants. We describe a chemical trail through the plant holdings of the Cambridge University Botanic Gardens. Visitors to the gardens are provided with a laminated trail guide with 22 stopping points…

  10. The Target of the Question: A Taxonomy of Textual Features for Cambridge University "O" Levels English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Shanti Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the typical textual features that are most frequently targeted in short-answer reading comprehension questions of the Cambridge University "O" Level English Paper 2. Test writers' awareness of how textual features impact on understanding of meanings in text decisions will determine to great extent their decisions…

  11. The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level General Paper Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nurul Huda; Shih, Chih-Min

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level General Paper (GP) examination. As a written test that is administered to preuniversity students, the GP examination is internationally recognised and accepted by universities and employers as proof of English competence. In this article, the…

  12. Legacies, Policies and Prospects: One Year on from the Cambridge Primary Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This article features the "Cambridge Primary Review." The "Review" has been supported from the beginning by Esmee Fairbairn Foundation, and this has given it the independence which is essential to its credibility. Its remit was to investigate, report and make recommendations on the condition and future of primary education in…

  13. Up the Garden Path: A Chemical Trail through the Cambridge University Botanic Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Kyd, Gwenda O.; Groom, Colin R.; Allen, Frank H.; Day, Juliet; Upson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The living world is a rich source of chemicals with many medicines, dyes, flavorings, and foodstuffs having their origins in compounds produced by plants. We describe a chemical trail through the plant holdings of the Cambridge University Botanic Gardens. Visitors to the gardens are provided with a laminated trail guide with 22 stopping points…

  14. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Cambridge Primary Review: A Response to R. J. Campbell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to R.J. Campbell's critique of the "Cambridge Primary Review," which was published in the autumn of 2009. The author argues that Campbell's description of the "Review's" central proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking and inadequately theorised" is so misjudged as to call for a…

  15. The Target of the Question: A Taxonomy of Textual Features for Cambridge University "O" Levels English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Shanti Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the typical textual features that are most frequently targeted in short-answer reading comprehension questions of the Cambridge University "O" Level English Paper 2. Test writers' awareness of how textual features impact on understanding of meanings in text decisions will determine to great extent their decisions…

  16. A Comparison of the Abilities Measured by the Cambridge and Educational Testing Service EFL Test Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The abilities measured by the First Certificate of English (FCE) administered by the Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate are compared with the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) administered by the Educational Testing Service. The analyses suggest that the FCE and TOEFL appear to measure the same common aspect of language…

  17. What To Look for in ESL Admission Tests: Cambridge Certificate Exams, IELTS, and TOEFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Turner, Carolyn E.

    2000-01-01

    Familiarizes test users with issues to consider when employing assessments for screening and admission purposes. Examines the purpose, content, and scoring methods of three English-as-a-Second-Language admissions tests--the Cambridge certificate exams, International English Language Teaching System, and Test of English as a Foreign…

  18. Ideology, Class and Rationality: A Critique of Cambridge International Examinations' "Thinking Skills" Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leonel

    2012-01-01

    This article undertakes a critique of the aims and objectives of "Thinking Skills", one of the most widely and internationally used curricula in the teaching of thinking, offered by the University of Cambridge International Examinations. By engaging in a critical discourse analysis of how political and class biases are (re-)produced in the forms…

  19. Legacies, Policies and Prospects: One Year on from the Cambridge Primary Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This article features the "Cambridge Primary Review." The "Review" has been supported from the beginning by Esmee Fairbairn Foundation, and this has given it the independence which is essential to its credibility. Its remit was to investigate, report and make recommendations on the condition and future of primary education in England. Its scope…

  20. The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level General Paper Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nurul Huda; Shih, Chih-Min

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level General Paper (GP) examination. As a written test that is administered to preuniversity students, the GP examination is internationally recognised and accepted by universities and employers as proof of English competence. In this article, the…

  1. Linguistic Turn and Gendering Language in the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimbi, Diah A.; Kwary, Deny A.

    2016-01-01

    Language constructs how humans perceive things. Since language is a human construction, it tends to be biased as it is mainly men's construction. Using gender perspectives, this paper attempts to discuss the imbalance in gender representations found in the examples given in an English learner's dictionary, that is, the "Cambridge Advanced…

  2. Group sequential designs for stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayling, Michael J; Wason, James Ms; Mander, Adrian P

    2017-06-01

    The stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial design has received substantial attention in recent years. Although various extensions to the original design have been proposed, no guidance is available on the design of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. In an individually randomised trial setting, group sequential methods can provide notable efficiency gains and ethical benefits. We address this by discussing how established group sequential methodology can be adapted for stepped-wedge designs. Utilising the error spending approach to group sequential trial design, we detail the assumptions required for the determination of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. We consider early stopping for efficacy, futility, or efficacy and futility. We describe first how this can be done for any specified linear mixed model for data analysis. We then focus on one particular commonly utilised model and, using a recently completed stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, compare the performance of several designs with interim analyses to the classical stepped-wedge design. Finally, the performance of a quantile substitution procedure for dealing with the case of unknown variance is explored. We demonstrate that the incorporation of early stopping in stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial designs could reduce the expected sample size under the null and alternative hypotheses by up to 31% and 22%, respectively, with no cost to the trial's type-I and type-II error rates. The use of restricted error maximum likelihood estimation was found to be more important than quantile substitution for controlling the type-I error rate. The addition of interim analyses into stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials could help guard against time-consuming trials conducted on poor performing treatments and also help expedite the implementation of efficacious treatments. In future, trialists should consider incorporating early stopping of some kind into

  3. Mime, Music and Drama on the Eighteenth-Century Stage. The Ballet d'Action. Edward Nye, Cambridge-New York, Cambridge University Press, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Onesti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mime, Music and Drama on the Eighteenth-Century Stage by Edward Nye (Cambridge University Press, 2011 has the merit of inspiring a strong reflection on ballet d'action, connected with cultural, literaturary and philosophic environment of Eighteenth century. The author, with brilliant insight and careful historical research, explores the most debated issues of the new genre, providing an unusual interpretation. The review traces the focal points and the structure of the book, developing further consideration of some of the most challenging aspects offered by the text.

  4. An Improved Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology to Obtain More Accurate Water and “Tar” Values: In Situ Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations by others and internal investigations at Philip Morris International (PMI have shown that the standard trapping and extraction procedure used for conventional cigarettes, defined in the International Standard ISO 4387 (Cigarettes -- Determination of total and nicotine-free dry particulate matter using a routine analytical smoking machine, is not suitable for high-water content aerosols. Errors occur because of water losses during the opening of the Cambridge filter pad holder to remove the filter pad as well as during the manual handling of the filter pad, and because the commercially available filter pad holder, which is constructed out of plastic, may adsorb water. This results in inaccurate values for the water content, and erroneous and overestimated values for Nicotine Free Dry Particulate Matter (NFDPM. A modified 44 mm Cambridge filter pad holder and extraction equipment which supports in situ extraction methodology has been developed and tested. The principle of the in situ extraction methodology is to avoid any of the above mentioned water losses by extracting the loaded filter pad while kept in the Cambridge filter pad holder which is hermetically sealed by two caps. This is achieved by flushing the extraction solvent numerous times through the hermetically sealed Cambridge filter pad holder by means of an in situ extractor. The in situ methodology showed a significantly more complete water recovery, resulting in more accurate NFDPM values for high-water content aerosols compared to the standard ISO methodology. The work presented in this publication demonstrates that the in situ extraction methodology applies to a wider range of smoking products and smoking regimens, whereas the standard ISO methodology only applies to a limited range of smoking products and smoking regimens, e.g., conventional cigarettes smoked under ISO smoking regimen. In cases where a comparison of yields between the PMI HTP and

  5. The Imperial College Cambridge Manchester (ICCAM) platform study: An experimental medicine platform for evaluating new drugs for relapse prevention in addiction. Part A: Study description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Louise M; Flechais, Remy S A; Murphy, Anna; Reed, Laurence J; Abbott, Sanja; Boyapati, Venkataramana; Elliott, Rebecca; Erritzoe, David; Ersche, Karen D; Faluyi, Yetunde; Faravelli, Luca; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Kalk, Nicola J; Kuchibatla, Shankar S; McGonigle, John; Metastasio, Antonio; Mick, Inge; Nestor, Liam; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Smith, Dana G; Suckling, John; Tait, Roger; Taylor, Eleanor M; Waldman, Adam D; Robbins, Trevor W; Deakin, J F William; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2015-09-01

    Drug and alcohol dependence are global problems with substantial societal costs. There are few treatments for relapse prevention and therefore a pressing need for further study of brain mechanisms underpinning relapse circuitry. The Imperial College Cambridge Manchester (ICCAM) platform study is an experimental medicine approach to this problem: using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and selective pharmacological tools, it aims to explore the neuropharmacology of putative relapse pathways in cocaine, alcohol, opiate dependent, and healthy individuals to inform future drug development. Addiction studies typically involve small samples because of recruitment difficulties and attrition. We established the platform in three centres to assess the feasibility of a multisite approach to address these issues. Pharmacological modulation of reward, impulsivity and emotional reactivity were investigated in a monetary incentive delay task, an inhibitory control task, and an evocative images task, using selective antagonists for µ-opioid, dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) and neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors (naltrexone, GSK598809, vofopitant/aprepitant), in a placebo-controlled, randomised, crossover design. In two years, 609 scans were performed, with 155 individuals scanned at baseline. Attrition was low and the majority of individuals were sufficiently motivated to complete all five sessions (n=87). We describe herein the study design, main aims, recruitment numbers, sample characteristics, and explain the test hypotheses and anticipated study outputs.

  6. The Cambridge Car Memory Test: a task matched in format to the Cambridge Face Memory Test, with norms, reliability, sex differences, dissociations from face memory, and expertise effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Tavashmi, Raka; Hall, Ashleigh; Pidcock, Madeleine; Edwards, Mark; Duchaine, Bradley

    2012-06-01

    Many research questions require a within-class object recognition task matched for general cognitive requirements with a face recognition task. If the object task also has high internal reliability, it can improve accuracy and power in group analyses (e.g., mean inversion effects for faces vs. objects), individual-difference studies (e.g., correlations between certain perceptual abilities and face/object recognition), and case studies in neuropsychology (e.g., whether a prosopagnosic shows a face-specific or object-general deficit). Here, we present such a task. Our Cambridge Car Memory Test (CCMT) was matched in format to the established Cambridge Face Memory Test, requiring recognition of exemplars across view and lighting change. We tested 153 young adults (93 female). Results showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .84) and a range of scores suitable both for normal-range individual-difference studies and, potentially, for diagnosis of impairment. The mean for males was much higher than the mean for females. We demonstrate independence between face memory and car memory (dissociation based on sex, plus a modest correlation between the two), including where participants have high relative expertise with cars. We also show that expertise with real car makes and models of the era used in the test significantly predicts CCMT performance. Surprisingly, however, regression analyses imply that there is an effect of sex per se on the CCMT that is not attributable to a stereotypical male advantage in car expertise.

  7. PET/MRI in the infarcted mouse heart with the Cambridge split magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonincontri, Guido, E-mail: gb396@cam.ac.uk [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Box 65, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Sawiak, Stephen J. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Box 65, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Methner, Carmen; Krieg, Thomas [Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hawkes, Robert C.; Adrian Carpenter, T. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Box 65, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-21

    Chronic heart failure, as a result of acute myocardial infarction, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Combining diagnostic imaging modalities may aid the direct assessment of experimental treatments targeting heart failure in vivo. Here we present preliminary data using the Cambridge combined PET/MRI imaging system in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction. The split-magnet design can deliver uncompromised MRI and PET performance, for better assessment of disease and treatment in a preclinical environment.

  8. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Ball L; Crowley J; Laur C; Rajput-Ray M; Gillam S; Ray S

    2014-01-01

    Lauren Ball,1 Jennifer Crowley,2 Celia Laur,3 Minha Rajput-Ray,3 Stephen Gillam,4 Sumantra Ray3 1Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Allied Health Sciences, Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 2Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of Public Health and Primary C...

  9. Sir Joseph Barcroft, Cambridge placental and fetal research (1933-1966) and inter-generational Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert; Boyd, C A Richard

    2010-01-01

    The nature of Cambridge (UK) placental and fetal research in the middle third of the twentieth century is reviewed on the basis of published literature and personal recollection. Joseph Barcroft is a central figure who came to fetal research late in an extremely productive career which is briefly sketched. Contemporaneous Cambridge academics in the field included J.D. Boyd (the authors father), J. Hammond, F.H.A. Marshall, R.A. McCance, J. Needham, A.S. Parkes and Elsie Widdowson. The then current Cambridge academic geography is explained and features of its scientific life such as funding, institutional structure and ethos, teaching and clinical duties, domestic and gender roles, and political context, including war and empire, are briefly considered. The testing of research findings against general principles and use of quantitative thinking are identified as important features. Intergenerational connections, often within individual families, are identified as a striking feature. The long-term impact of Cambridge work of this period; locally, in current trophoblast and feto-placental genetic research, in Oxford in probably influencing G.S. Dawes research leadership, and internationally, especially through D.H. Barron, and through him to the Denver School, is considered. That human placental and embryological specimens collected by J.D. Boyd have received a new lease of life as the "Boyd Collection", including use by Allen Enders is noted. Mechanisms for the maintenance of scientific quality and productivity during the period, mainly through the scientist himself relying on an internalised sense of "obligation", are contrasted with those current in the UK and more widely; formal peer-review at frequent intervals, with subsequent allocation of short-term funding. The strengths and weaknesses of each are considered.

  10. Inequality and growth in neo-Kaleckian and Cambridge growth theory

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas I. Palley

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between inequality and growth in the neo-Kaleckian and Cambridge growth models. The paper explores the channels whereby functional and personal income distribution impact growth. The growth - inequality relationship can be negative or positive, depending on the economy's characteristics. Contrary to widespread claims, inequality per se does not impact growth through macroeconomic channels. Instead, both growth and inequality are impacted by changes in the ...

  11. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lauren; Crowley, Jennifer; Laur, Celia; Rajput-Ray, Minha; Gillam, Stephen; Ray, Sumantra

    2014-01-01

    Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1) the approach to medical nutrition education, 2) evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3) areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the recommended UK medical nutrition education curriculum. This paper is intended to inform other institutions in ongoing efforts in medical nutrition education.

  12. Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race: Performance, Pacing and Tactics Between 1890 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Andrew M; Guy, Joshua H; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-10-01

    Currently no studies have examined the historical performances of Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race crews in the context of performance, pacing and tactics which is surprising as the event has routinely taken place annually for over 150 years on the same course. The purpose of this study was twofold, to firstly examine the historical development of performances and physical characteristics of crews over 124 years of the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race between 1890 and 2014 and secondly to investigate the pacing and tactics employed by crews over that period. Linear regression modelling was applied to investigate the development of performance and body size for crews of eight male individuals over time from Boat Race archive data. Performance change over time was further assessed in 10-year clusters while four intra-race checkpoints were used to examine pacing and tactics. Significant correlations were observed between performance and time (1890-2014) for both Oxford (r = -0.67; p Cambridge (r = -0.64; p Cambridge (1168 ± 89.8 s) during 1890-2014. Crew performance times improved over time with significant gains from baseline achieved in the 1950s (Cambridge) and the 1960s (Oxford), which coincided with significant change in the physicality of the competing crews (p < 0.01). There was no tactical advantage from commencing on either the Surrey or Middlesex station beyond chance alone; however, all crews (n = 228) adopted a fast-start strategy, with 81 % of victories achieved by the crew leading the race at the first intra-race checkpoint (24 % of total distance). Crews leading the race at the final checkpoint (83 % of total distance; 1143 m) achieved victory on 94 % of occasions. Performances and physical characteristics of the crews have changed markedly since 1890, with faster heavier crews now common. Tactically, gaining the early lead position with a fast-start strategy seems particularly meaningful to success in the Boat Race throughout the years

  13. Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa-Santana, Claudia; Paramei, Galina V; Nishi, Mauro; Gualtieri, Mirella; Costa, Marcelo F; Ventura, Dora F

    2010-09-01

    Color vision impairment emerges at early stages of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and may precede diabetic retinopathy or the appearance of vascular alterations in the retina. The aim of the present study was to compare the evaluation of the color vision with two different tests - the Lanthony desaturated D-15d test (a traditional color arrangement test), and the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT) (a computerized color discrimination test) - in patients diagnosed with DM2 without clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy (DR), and in sex- and age-matched control groups. Both color tests revealed statistically significant differences between the controls and the worst eyes of the DM2 patients. In addition, the degree of color vision impairment diagnosed by both tests correlated with the disease duration. The D-15d outcomes indicated solely tritan losses. In comparison, CCT outcomes revealed diffuse losses in color discrimination: 13.3% for best eyes and 29% for worst eyes. In addition, elevation of tritan thresholds in the DM2 patients, as detected by the Trivector subtest of the CCT, was found to correlate with the level of glycated hemoglobin. Outcomes of both tests confirm that subclinical losses of color vision are present in DM2 patients at an early stage of the disease, prior to signs of retinopathy. Considering the advantages of the CCT test compared to the D-15d test, further studies should attempt to verify and/or improve the efficiency of the CCT test.

  14. Hydrogen-bond landscapes, geometry and energetics of squaric acid and its mono- and dianions: a Cambridge Structural Database, IsoStar and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank H; Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J; Wood, Peter A; Bardwell, David A

    2013-10-01

    As part of a programme of work to extend central-group coverage in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre's (CCDC) IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions, we have studied the hydrogen-bonding abilities of squaric acid (H2SQ) and its mono- and dianions (HSQ(-) and SQ(2-)) using the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) along with dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations for a range of hydrogen-bonded dimers. The -OH and -C=O groups of H2SQ, HSQ(-) and SQ(2-) are potent donors and acceptors, as indicated by their hydrogen-bond geometries in available crystal structures in the CSD, and by the attractive energies calculated for their dimers with acetone and methanol, which were used as model acceptors and donors. The two anions have sufficient examples in the CSD for their addition as new central groups in IsoStar. It is also shown that charge- and resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds involving H2SQ and HSQ(-) are similar in strength to those made by carboxylate COO(-) acceptors, while hydrogen bonds made by the dianion SQ(2-) are somewhat stronger. The study reinforces the value of squaric acid and its anions as cocrystal formers and their actual and potential importance as isosteric replacements for carboxylic acid and carboxylate functions.

  15. A preliminary validity study of the cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery for the assessment of executive function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Sun; An, Yong Min; Kwon, Jun Soo; Shin, Min-Sup

    2014-10-01

    Although the executive function subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) have been used to assess cognitive function in diverse psychiatric illnesses, few studies have verified the validity of this battery for Korean psychiatric patients. Therefore, this preliminary study evaluated the construct and concurrent validity of the executive function subtests of the CANTAB for Korean psychiatric patients by comparing it with subtests of the Computerized Neuropsychological Test (CNT). Three subtests of the CANTAB and three subtests of the CNT were administered to 36 patients diagnosed with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Subtests of the CANTAB included the Intra/Extra-Dimensional Set Shift (IED), Stockings of Cambridge (SOC), and Spatial Working Memory (SWM). Differences between groups on each subtest as well as correlations between the subtests of the CANTAB and the CNT were assessed. The schizophrenia group performed significantly more poorly on the IED and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) compared with the bipolar disorder group. Additionally, correlation analyses revealed a significant correlation between the IED and the WCST; a positive correlation between the SOC and the Trail Making Test, Part B and the Stroop test; and a significant correlation between the SWM and the Stroop test. This study verified the construct and concurrent validity of the executive function subtests of the CANTAB for Korean psychiatric patients and suggests that the subtests of this battery would be useful and appropriate for assessing deficits in executive function in Korean clinical settings.

  16. Discrimination thresholds of normal and anomalous trichromats: Model of senescent changes in ocular media density on the Cambridge Colour Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomori, Keizo; Panorgias, Athanasios; Werner, John S

    2016-03-01

    Age-related changes in chromatic discrimination along dichromatic confusion lines were measured with the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT). One hundred and sixty-two individuals (16 to 88 years old) with normal Rayleigh matches were the major focus of this paper. An additional 32 anomalous trichromats classified by their Rayleigh matches were also tested. All subjects were screened to rule out abnormalities of the anterior and posterior segments. Thresholds on all three chromatic vectors measured with the CCT showed age-related increases. Protan and deutan vector thresholds increased linearly with age while the tritan vector threshold was described with a bilinear model. Analysis and modeling demonstrated that the nominal vectors of the CCT are shifted by senescent changes in ocular media density, and a method for correcting the CCT vectors is demonstrated. A correction for these shifts indicates that classification among individuals of different ages is unaffected. New vector thresholds for elderly observers and for all age groups are suggested based on calculated tolerance limits.

  17. Innovations and challenges in renal cell carcinoma: summary statement from the Second Cambridge Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Michael B; Ernstoff, Marc S; Figlin, Robert A; Flaherty, Keith T; George, Daniel J; Kaelin, William G; Kwon, Eugene D; Libermann, Towia A; Linehan, W Marston; McDermott, David F; Ochoa, Augusto C; Pantuck, Allan J; Rini, Brian I; Rosen, Mark A; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Sukhatme, Vikas P; Vieweg, Johannes W; Wood, Christopher G; King, Laura

    2007-01-15

    Innovations and Challenges in Renal Cancer, chaired by Michael B. Atkins, was held April 28 to 29, 2006 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The conference brought together leading experts in the fields of cancer research, medical oncology, urology, immunology, radiology, and immunotherapy, with the goal of advancing the field of renal cancer treatment by critiquing new data from ongoing clinical trials and stimulating communication among those involved in basic and clinical research. The conference proceedings published in this educational supplement to Clinical Cancer Research are intended to provide timely information and recommendations on important aspects of renal cancer genetics and biology and advances in prognostic classification and treatment.

  18. Brief history of the Cambridge STEM aberration correction project and its progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L Michael; Batson, Philip E; Dellby, Niklas; Krivanek, Ondrej L

    2015-10-01

    We provide a brief history of the project to correct the spherical aberration of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) that started in Cambridge (UK) and continued in Kirkland (WA, USA), Yorktown Heights (NY, USA), and other places. We describe the project in the full context of other aberration correction research and related work, partly in response to the incomplete context presented in the paper "In quest of perfection in electron optics: A biographical sketch of Harald Rose on the occasion of his 80th birthday", recently published in Ultramicroscopy.

  19. Do the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery episodic memory measures discriminate amnestic mild cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Pereiro, Arturo X; Facal, David; Reboredo, Alba; Lojo-Seoane, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    Although visual recognition memory and visuospatial paired associates learning has been shown to be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), the sensitivity and specificity of the visual memory tests used to identify aMCI are not well defined. The current study attempted to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of three visual episodic memory tests (Pattern Recognition Memory [PRM], Delayed Matching to Sample [DMS], and Paired Associated Learning [PAL]) from the CANTAB, in differentiating aMCI patients from control healthy participants. Seventy seven aMCI patients and 85 cognitive normal controls aged over 50 years performed the PRM, DMS, and PAL tests. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to study the relationships between aMCI and visual memory measures. The three Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery measures significantly predicted aMCI. The optimal predictive model combined the total percent correct responses for PRM and DMS with the PAL total errors (six shapes adjusted), with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 83%, and achieved predictive accuracy of 80%. Visual episodic memory tasks such as those involved in the PRM, DMS, and PAL tests (included in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) may sensitively discriminate aMCI patients from normal controls. These tests may be useful for correct diagnosis of aMCI. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The factors influencing car use in a cycle-friendly city: the case of Cambridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carse, Andrew; Goodman, Anna; Mackett, Roger L; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2013-04-01

    Encouraging people out of their cars and into other modes of transport, which has major advantages for health, the environment and urban development, has proved difficult. Greater understanding of the influences that lead people to use the car, particularly for shorter journeys, may help to achieve this. This paper examines the predictors of car use compared with the bicycle to explore how it may be possible to persuade more people to use the bicycle instead of the car. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the socio-demographic, transport and health-related correlates of mode choice for work, shopping and leisure trips in Cambridge, a city with high levels of cycling by UK standards. The key findings are that commuting distance and free workplace parking were strongly associated with use of the car for work trips, and car availability and lower levels of education were associated with car use for leisure, shopping and short-distanced commuting trips. The case of Cambridge shows that more policies could be adopted, particularly a reduction in free car parking, to increase cycling and reduce the use of the car, especially over short distances.

  1. Clinica use of platelet additive solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhenen, Dick J

    2007-12-01

    Randomised clinical trial (RCT) to study the clinical efficacy and safety of new platelet products using platelet additive solutions are scarce. In this paper a number of recent RCT's is discussed. It can be the start of a development where new transfusion products enter a RCT before the product is applied in clinical practice.

  2. The afterlife of Laurence Sterne (1713-1768): Body snatching, dissection and the role of Cambridge anatomist Charles Collignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Jenna M; Mitchell, Piers D

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to highlight the practice of body snatching from graves in the 1700s for the purpose of providing corpses for anatomical dissection, and for stocking anatomy museums. To do this, we examine the exhumation and dissection of the famous eighteenth-century novelist Laurence Sterne and explore the involvement of Charles Collignon, Professor of Anatomy at the University of Cambridge. We also show that osteological and cut-mark analysis of a skull purported to be that of Sterne, currently housed in the Duckworth Collection at Cambridge, provides the key to solving the mystery surrounding why Sterne was resurrected. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Comparability: manufacturing, characterization and controls, report of a UK Regenerative Medicine Platform Pluripotent Stem Cell Platform Workshop, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 14-15 September 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David J; Archer, Richard; Archibald, Peter; Bantounas, Ioannis; Baptista, Ricardo; Barker, Roger; Barry, Jacqueline; Bietrix, Florence; Blair, Nicholas; Braybrook, Julian; Campbell, Jonathan; Canham, Maurice; Chandra, Amit; Foldes, Gabor; Gilmanshin, Rudy; Girard, Mathilde; Gorjup, Erwin; Hewitt, Zöe; Hourd, Paul; Hyllner, Johan; Jesson, Helen; Kee, Jasmin; Kerby, Julie; Kotsopoulou, Nina; Kowalski, Stanley; Leidel, Chris; Marshall, Damian; Masi, Louis; McCall, Mark; McCann, Conor; Medcalf, Nicholas; Moore, Harry; Ozawa, Hiroki; Pan, David; Parmar, Malin; Plant, Anne L; Reinwald, Yvonne; Sebastian, Sujith; Stacey, Glyn; Thomas, Robert J; Thomas, Dave; Thurman-Newell, Jamie; Turner, Marc; Vitillio, Loriana; Wall, Ivan; Wilson, Alison; Wolfrum, Jacqueline; Yang, Ying; Zimmerman, Heiko

    2016-07-01

    This paper summarizes the proceedings of a workshop held at Trinity Hall, Cambridge to discuss comparability and includes additional information and references to related information added subsequently to the workshop. Comparability is the need to demonstrate equivalence of product after a process change; a recent publication states that this 'may be difficult for cell-based medicinal products'. Therefore a well-managed change process is required which needs access to good science and regulatory advice and developers are encouraged to seek help early. The workshop shared current thinking and best practice and allowed the definition of key research questions. The intent of this report is to summarize the key issues and the consensus reached on each of these by the expert delegates.

  4. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in organic chemistry and crystal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank H; Motherwell, W D Samuel

    2002-06-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and its associated software systems have formed the basis for more than 800 research applications in structural chemistry, crystallography and the life sciences. Relevant references, dating from the mid-1970s, and brief synopses of these papers are collected in a database, DBUse, which is freely available via the CCDC website. This database has been used to review research applications of the CSD in organic chemistry, including supramolecular applications, and in organic crystal chemistry. The review concentrates on applications that have been published since 1990 and covers a wide range of topics, including structure correlation, conformational analysis, hydrogen bonding and other intermolecular interactions, studies of crystal packing, extended structural motifs, crystal engineering and polymorphism, and crystal structure prediction. Applications of CSD information in studies of crystal structure precision, the determination of crystal structures from powder diffraction data, together with applications in chemical informatics, are also discussed.

  5. Fiftieth Anniversary of the Cambridge Structural Database and Thirty Years of Its Use in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić-Prodić B.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the memory of Dr. F. H. Allen and the 50th anniversary of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC; the world-renowned centre for deposition and control of crystallographic data including atomic coordinates that define the three-dimensional structures of organic molecules and metal complexes containing organic ligands. The mission exposed at the web site (http://www.ccdc.cam.ac.uk is clearly stated: “The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC is dedicated to the advancement of chemistry and crystallography for the public benefit through providing high quality information, software and services.” The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD, one among the first established electronic databases, nowadays is one of the most significant crystallographic databases in the world. In the International Year of Crystallography 2014, the CSD announced in December over 750,000 deposited structures. The use of the extensive and rapidly growing database needs support of sophisticated and efficient software for checking, searching, analysing, and visualising structural data. The seminal role of the CSD in researches related to crystallography, chemistry, materials science, solid state physics and chemistry, (biotechnology, life sciences, and pharmacology is widely known. The important issues of the CCDC are the accuracy of deposited data and development of software for checking the data. Therefore, the Crystallographic Information File (CIF is introduced as the standard text file format for representing crystallographic information. Among the most important software for users is ConQuest, which enables searching all the CSD information fields, and the web implementation WebCSD software. Mercury is available for visualisation of crystal structures and crystal morphology including intra- and intermolecular interactions with graph-set notations of hydrogen bonds, and analysis of geometrical parameters. The CCDC gives even

  6. The Cambridge Structural Database: a quarter of a million crystal structures and rising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank H

    2002-06-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) now contains data for more than a quarter of a million small-molecule crystal structures. The information content of the CSD, together with methods for data acquisition, processing and validation, are summarized, with particular emphasis on the chemical information added by CSD editors. Nearly 80% of new structural data arrives electronically, mostly in CIF format, and the CCDC acts as the official crystal structure data depository for 51 major journals. The CCDC now maintains both a CIF archive (more than 73,000 CIFs dating from 1996), as well as the distributed binary CSD archive; the availability of data in both archives is discussed. A statistical survey of the CSD is also presented and projections concerning future accession rates indicate that the CSD will contain at least 500,000 crystal structures by the year 2010.

  7. Reginald Crundall Punnett: first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics, Cambridge, 1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A W F

    2012-09-01

    R. C. Punnett, the codiscoverer of linkage with W. Bateson in 1904, had the good fortune to be invited to be the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, in 1912 when Bateson, for whom it had been intended, declined to leave his new appointment as first Director of the John Innes Horticultural Institute. We here celebrate the centenary of the first professorship dedicated to genetics, outlining Punnett's career and his scientific contributions, with special reference to the discovery of "partial coupling" in the sweet pea (later "linkage") and to the diagram known as Punnett's square. His seeming reluctance as coauthor with Bateson to promote the reduplication hypothesis to explain the statistical evidence for linkage is stressed, as is his relationship with his successor as Arthur Balfour Professor, R. A. Fisher. The background to the establishment of the Professorship is also described.

  8. Debate on Bruce Bimber´s Book Information and American Democracy. Cambridge University Press, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpf, David

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availablePresentation José Manuel Robles Abstract of Information and American Democracy. Cambridge University Press, 2003 Bruce Bimber From Regimes to Ecologies: Globalizing Bruce Bimber’s Model of Information and Politics Steven Livingston Internet, new forms of power and democracy José Luís Garcia Internet: A Technological Tool and Changes in Political Power Liu Gang Information and American Democracy in the era of web 2.0 Lorenzo Mosca What Comes Next?: Bimber’s Information Revolutions and Institutional Disruptions David Karpf Online Political Information and Online Political Participation José Manuel Robles Digital Media and Political Change: A Response to Garcia, Karpf, Livingston, Liu, Mosca, and Robles Bruce Bimber

  9. Cambridge Rocketry Simulator – A Stochastic Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Rocket Flight Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J. Eerland

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cambridge Rocketry Simulator can be used to simulate the flight of unguided rockets for both design and operational applications. The software consists of three parts: The first part is a GUI that enables the user to design a rocket. The second part is a verified and peer-reviewed physics model that simulates the rocket flight. This includes a Monte Carlo wrapper to model the uncertainty in the rocket’s dynamics and the atmospheric conditions. The third part generates visualizations of the resulting trajectories, including nominal performance and uncertainty analysis, e.g. a splash-down region with confidence bounds. The project is available on SourceForge, and is written in Java (GUI, C++ (simulation core, and Python (visualization. While all parts can be executed from the GUI, the three components share information via XML, accommodating modifications, and re-use of individual components.

  10. Possessing History and American Innocence: James Baldwin, William F. Buckley, Jr., and the 1965 Cambridge Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Robert McClure

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1965 debate at Cambridge University between James Baldwin and William F. Buckley, Jr., posed the question: “Has the American Dream been achieved at the Expense of the American Negro?” Within the contours of the debate, Baldwin and Buckley wrestled with the ghosts of settler colonialism and slavery in a nation founded on freedom and equality. Framing the debate within the longue durée, this essay examines the deep cultural currents related to the American racial paradox at the height of the Civil Rights movement. Underscoring the changing language of white resistance against black civil rights, the essay argues that the Baldwin and Buckley debate anticipated the ways the U.S. would address racial inequality in the aftermath of the civil rights era and the dawn of neoliberalism in the 1970s.

  11. Cheminformatics Research at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Science Informatics Cambridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Julian E; Bender, Andreas; Glen, Robert C

    2015-09-01

    The Centre for Molecular Informatics, formerly Unilever Centre for Molecular Science Informatics (UCMSI), at the University of Cambridge is a world-leading driving force in the field of cheminformatics. Since its opening in 2000 more than 300 scientific articles have fundamentally changed the field of molecular informatics. The Centre has been a key player in promoting open chemical data and semantic access. Though mainly focussing on basic research, close collaborations with industrial partners ensured real world feedback and access to high quality molecular data. A variety of tools and standard protocols have been developed and are ubiquitous in the daily practice of cheminformatics. Here, we present a retrospective of cheminformatics research performed at the UCMSI, thereby highlighting historical and recent trends in the field as well as indicating future directions.

  12. Analysis of residue conformations in peptides in Cambridge structural database and protein-peptide structural complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavender, Upadhyayula Surya

    2017-03-01

    A comprehensive statistical analysis of the geometric parameters of peptide chains in a reduced dataset of protein-peptide complexes in Protein Data Bank (PDB) is presented. The angular variables describing the backbone conformations of amino acid residues in peptide chains shed insights into the conformational preferences of peptide residues interacting with protein partners. Nonparametric statistical approaches are employed to evaluate the interrelationships and associations in structural variables. Grouping of residues based on their structure into chemical classes reveals characteristic trends in parameter relationships. A comparison of canonical amino acid residues in free peptide structures in Cambridge structural database (CSD) with identical residues in PDB complexes, suggests that the information can be integrated from both the structural repositories enabling efficient and accurate modeling of biologically active peptides. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Reginald Crundall Punnett: First Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics, Cambridge, 1912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A. W. F.

    2012-01-01

    R. C. Punnett, the codiscoverer of linkage with W. Bateson in 1904, had the good fortune to be invited to be the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, in 1912 when Bateson, for whom it had been intended, declined to leave his new appointment as first Director of the John Innes Horticultural Institute. We here celebrate the centenary of the first professorship dedicated to genetics, outlining Punnett’s career and his scientific contributions, with special reference to the discovery of “partial coupling” in the sweet pea (later “linkage”) and to the diagram known as Punnett’s square. His seeming reluctance as coauthor with Bateson to promote the reduplication hypothesis to explain the statistical evidence for linkage is stressed, as is his relationship with his successor as Arthur Balfour Professor, R. A. Fisher. The background to the establishment of the Professorship is also described. PMID:22964834

  14. Does the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) Distinguish Between Cognitive Domains in Healthy Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Megan E; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Summers, Jeffery J; Vickers, James C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a semiautomated computer interface for assessing cognitive function. We examined whether CANTAB tests measured specific cognitive functions, using established neuropsychological tests as a reference point. A sample of 500 healthy older (M = 60.28 years, SD = 6.75) participants in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project completed battery of CANTAB subtests and standard paper-based neuropsychological tests. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four factors: processing speed, verbal ability, episodic memory, and working memory. However, CANTAB tests did not consistently load onto the cognitive domain factors derived from traditional measures of the same function. These results indicate that five of the six CANTAB subtests examined did not load onto single cognitive functions. These CANTAB tests may lack the sensitivity to measure discrete cognitive functions in healthy populations or may measure other cognitive domains not included in the traditional neuropsychological battery.

  15. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik. Cambridge 8.-12. IX. 1969. [Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, Dec. 8-12, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Peter

    This paper is a summary report on the Second International Congress of Applied Linguistics held in Cambridge, England in September 1969. Because of the large number of papers delivered, only a selection of the papers delivered in any one section of the Congress are considered, and the author attempts to identify current interests and trends in…

  16. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik. Cambridge 8.-12. IX. 1969. [Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, Dec. 8-12, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Peter

    This paper is a summary report on the Second International Congress of Applied Linguistics held in Cambridge, England in September 1969. Because of the large number of papers delivered, only a selection of the papers delivered in any one section of the Congress are considered, and the author attempts to identify current interests and trends in…

  17. A survey on worries of pregnant women - testing the German version of the Cambridge Worry Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gensichen Jochen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is a transition period in a woman's life characterized by increased worries and anxiety. The Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS was developed to assess the content and extent of maternal worries in pregnancy. It has been increasingly used in studies over recent years. However, a German version has not yet been developed and validated. The aim of this study was (1 to assess the extent and content of worries in pregnancy on a sample of women in Germany using a translated and adapted version of the Cambridge Worry Scale, and (2 to evaluate the psychometric properties of the German version. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study and enrolled 344 pregnant women in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Women filled out structured questionnaires that contained the CWS, the Spielberger-State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI, as well as questions on their obstetric history. Antenatal records were also analyzed. Results The CWS was well understood and easy to fill in. The major worries referred to the process of giving birth (CWS mean value 2.26 and the possibility that something might be wrong with the baby (1.99, followed by coping with the new baby (1.57, going to hospital (1.29 and the possibility of going into labour too early (1.28. The internal consistency of the scale (0.80 was satisfactory, and we found a four-factor structure, similar to previous studies. Tests of convergent validity showed that the German CWS represents a different construct compared with state and trait anxiety but has the desired overlap. Conclusions The German CWS has satisfactory psychometric properties. It represents a valuable tool for use in scientific studies and is likely to be useful also to clinicians.

  18. Activity Limitation in Glaucoma: Objective Assessment by the Cambridge Glaucoma Visual Function Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Simon E; McAlinden, Colm; Khatib, Tasneem; Anthony, Louise May; Sim, Sing Yue; Martin, Keith R; Goldberg, Ivan; McCluskey, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We design and evaluate a computer-based objective simulation of activity limitation related to glaucoma. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 70 glaucoma patients and 14 controls. Mean age was 69.0 ± 10.2 years; 49 (58.3%) were male. The Cambridge Glaucoma Visual Function Test (CGVFT) was administered to all participants. Rasch analysis and criterion, convergent, and divergent validity tests assessed the psychometric properties of the CGVFT. Regression modeling was used to determine factors predictive of CGVFT person measures. Sociodemographic information, better and worse eye visual field parameters, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and the Rasch-analyzed Glaucoma Activity Limitation-9 (GAL-9) and Visual Function Questionnaire Utility Index (VFQUI) questionnaire responses were recorded. From 139 pilot CGVFT items, 59 had acceptable fit to the Rasch model, with acceptable precision (person separation index, 2.13) and targeting. Cambridge Glaucoma Visual Function Test person measure (logit) scores increased between controls (-0.20 ± 0.08) and patients with mild (-0.15 ± 0.08), moderate (-0.13 ± 0.10), and severe (-0.05 ± 0.10) glaucoma (P < 0.001, ANOVA) indicating good criterion validity. Correlation coefficients of 0.455 (P < 0.001) between CGVFT and GAL-9 person measures and 0.399 (P = 0.005) between CGVFT and VFQUI person measures demonstrated convergent validity. Divergent validity was suboptimal. On multivariable analysis, lower better eye mean deviation and greater age were associated with worsening CGVFT person measures (P ≤ 0.001). The CGVFT is a computerized visual challenge test administered to a cohort of glaucoma patients. It may benefit glaucoma patients, careers, health care providers, and policy makers, providing increased awareness of activity limitation due to glaucoma.

  19. The release of wastewater contaminants in the Arctic: A case study from Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Barquero, Luis G; Luong, Kim Hoang; Mundy, C J; Knapp, Charles W; Hanson, Mark L; Wong, Charles S

    2016-11-01

    The treatment of municipal wastewater in the Arctic is challenging due to a variety of financial, operational, climatic and technical issues. To better understand the efficacy of current wastewater treatment in this region and the hazard posed to receiving waters, we assessed the occurrence of nutrients and contaminants (i.e., pharmaceuticals, antibiotic resistance genes) as they moved through a lagoon-based treatment system in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada. Wastewater treatment in this community is performed by the use of a lagoon-tundra wetland system that is discharged into the marine environment and is representative of current common practices throughout the region. In 2014, samples were collected before and during lagoon discharge from two locations in the main lagoon, one location downstream from the lagoon effluent and three locations offshore. Grab samples were collected to measure nutrients (e.g., total nitrogen and phosphorus) and the presence of antibiotic resistance gene-bearing microbes, and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were deployed to collect passively organic contaminants in all locations. A total of six pharmaceuticals were detected from a screen of twenty-eight analytes during the study: atenolol, carbamazepine, clarithromycin, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The greatest concentrations of nutrients, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and pharmaceuticals were found in sampling locations within the treatment lagoon. Offshore of the release point, we observed limited to no detection of pharmaceuticals and ARGs, but no change in total nitrogen and phosphorus from pre-release. We conclude that the current concentrations of monitored pharmaceuticals do not pose a significant hazard at this time to aquatic organisms in Cambridge Bay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the Impact of the Cambridge International Acceleration Program on U.S. University Determinants of Success: A Multi-Level Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart; Warren, Jayne; Gill, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the research being conducted by Cambridge International Examinations (Cambridge) to ensure that its international assessments prepare students as well as other acceleration programs for continued study in U.S. colleges and universities. The study, which builds on previous freshman GPA data modeling work using data supplied…

  1. Assessing the Impact of the Cambridge International Acceleration Program on U.S. University Determinants of Success: A Multi-Level Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart; Warren, Jayne; Gill, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the research being conducted by Cambridge International Examinations (Cambridge) to ensure that its international assessments prepare students as well as other acceleration programs for continued study in U.S. colleges and universities. The study, which builds on previous freshman GPA data modeling work using data supplied…

  2. Tartu Ülikooli teadur kaitses Cambridgeì Ülikoolis doktorikraadi / Krõõt Nõges

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõges, Krõõt

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli filosoofia osakonna teadur ja eetikakeskuse stipendiaat Eva Piirimäe kaitses Cambridgeì Ülikoolis doktorikraadi ideede ajaloo erialal doktoritööga "Thomas Abbt (1738-1766) and the Philosophical Genesis of German Nationalism"

  3. Tartu Ülikooli teadur kaitses Cambridgeì Ülikoolis doktorikraadi / Krõõt Nõges

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõges, Krõõt

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli filosoofia osakonna teadur ja eetikakeskuse stipendiaat Eva Piirimäe kaitses Cambridgeì Ülikoolis doktorikraadi ideede ajaloo erialal doktoritööga "Thomas Abbt (1738-1766) and the Philosophical Genesis of German Nationalism"

  4. M-DCPS Student Performance in International Baccalaureate and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education Programs. Research Brief. Volume 1102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2011-01-01

    This Research Brief summarizes the performance of M-DCPS students participating in the International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education (AICE) programs. Outcome data are provided for the eight M-DCPS schools offering the two programs and corresponding examinations. Participation in international…

  5. Degrees of Influence: The Politics of Honorary Degrees in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 1900-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Michael; Jons, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The universities of Oxford and Cambridge had developed different attitudes towards the award of honorary degrees through the early and middle decades of the twentieth century. Recently, both have adopted a similar cautious and apolitical stance. This essay describes the role of honorary degrees in the production and reproduction of their cultural…

  6. Characteristic conformation of Mosher's amide elucidated using the cambridge structural database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Akio; Ono, Hiroshi; Mikata, Yuji

    2015-07-16

    Conformations of the crystalline 3,3,3-trifluoro-2-methoxy-2-phenylpropanamide derivatives (MTPA amides) deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) were examined statistically as Racid-enantiomers. The majority of dihedral angles (48/58, ca. 83%) of the amide carbonyl groups and the trifluoromethyl groups ranged from -30° to 0° with an average angle θ1 of -13°. The other conformational properties were also clarified: (1) one of the fluorine atoms was antiperiplanar (ap) to the amide carbonyl group, forming a staggered conformation; (2) the MTPA amides prepared from primary amines showed a Z form in amide moieties; (3) in the case of the MTPA amide prepared from a primary amine possessing secondary alkyl groups (i.e., Mosher-type MTPA amide), the dihedral angles between the methine groups and the carbonyl groups were syn and indicative of a moderate conformational flexibility; (4) the phenyl plane was inclined from the O-Cchiral bond of the methoxy moiety with an average dihedral angle θ2 of +21°; (5) the methyl group of the methoxy moiety was ap to the ipso-carbon atom of the phenyl group.

  7. Characteristic Conformation of Mosher’s Amide Elucidated Using the Cambridge Structural Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Ichikawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Conformations of the crystalline 3,3,3-trifluoro-2-methoxy-2-phenylpropanamide derivatives (MTPA amides deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD were examined statistically as Racid-enantiomers. The majority of dihedral angles (48/58, ca. 83% of the amide carbonyl groups and the trifluoromethyl groups ranged from –30° to 0° with an average angle θ1 of −13°. The other conformational properties were also clarified: (1 one of the fluorine atoms was antiperiplanar (ap to the amide carbonyl group, forming a staggered conformation; (2 the MTPA amides prepared from primary amines showed a Z form in amide moieties; (3 in the case of the MTPA amide prepared from a primary amine possessing secondary alkyl groups (i.e., Mosher-type MTPA amide, the dihedral angles between the methine groups and the carbonyl groups were syn and indicative of a moderate conformational flexibility; (4 the phenyl plane was inclined from the O–Cchiral bond of the methoxy moiety with an average dihedral angle θ2 of +21°; (5 the methyl group of the methoxy moiety was ap to the ipso-carbon atom of the phenyl group.

  8. Item response theory analyses of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Wilmer, Jeremy; Herzmann, Grit; McGugin, Rankin Williams; Fiset, Daniel; Van Gulick, Ana E; Ryan, Kaitlin F; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). First, we assessed the dimensionality of the test with a bifactor exploratory factor analysis (EFA). This EFA analysis revealed a general factor and 3 specific factors clustered by targets of CFMT. However, the 3 specific factors appeared to be minor factors that can be ignored. Second, we fit a unidimensional item response model. This item response model showed that the CFMT items could discriminate individuals at different ability levels and covered a wide range of the ability continuum. We found the CFMT to be particularly precise for a wide range of ability levels. Third, we implemented item response theory (IRT) differential item functioning (DIF) analyses for each gender group and 2 age groups (age ≤ 20 vs. age > 21). This DIF analysis suggested little evidence of consequential differential functioning on the CFMT for these groups, supporting the use of the test to compare older to younger, or male to female, individuals. Fourth, we tested for a gender difference on the latent facial recognition ability with an explanatory item response model. We found a significant but small gender difference on the latent ability for face recognition, which was higher for women than men by 0.184, at age mean 23.2, controlling for linear and quadratic age effects. Finally, we discuss the practical considerations of the use of total scores versus IRT scale scores in applications of the CFMT.

  9. Swift observations of unidentified radio sources in the revised Third Cambridge Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, A.; Massaro, F.; Cusumano, G.; La Parola, V.; Harris, D. E.; Paggi, A.; Liuzzo, E.; Tremblay, G. R.; Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated a group of unassociated radio sources included in the Third Cambridge Catalogue (3CR) to increase the multifrequency information on them and possibly obtain an identification. We have carried out an observational campaign with the Swift satellite to observe with the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) the field of view of 21 bright NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources within the positional uncertainty region of the 3CR sources. Furthermore, we have searched in the recent AllWISE Source Catalogue for infrared sources matching the position of these NVSS sources. We have detected significant emission in the soft X-ray band for nine of the investigated NVSS sources. To all of them, and in four cases with no soft X-ray association, we have associated a Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared counterpart. Eight of these infrared candidates have not been proposed earlier in the literature. In the five remaining cases our candidate matches one among a few optical candidates suggested for the same 3CR source in previous studies. No source has been detected in the UVOT filters at the position of the NVSS objects, confirming the scenario that all of them are heavily obscured. With this in mind, a spectroscopic campaign, preferably in the infrared band, will be necessary to establish the nature of the sources that we have finally identified.

  10. Marrying content and process in clinical method teaching: enhancing the Calgary-Cambridge guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Suzanne; Silverman, Jonathan; Benson, John; Draper, Juliet

    2003-08-01

    Communication skills training is now internationally accepted as an essential component of medical education. However, learners and teachers in communication skills programs continue to experience problems integrating communication with other clinical skills, ensuring that clinical faculty support and teach communication beyond the formal communication course, extending communication training coherently into clerkship and residency, and applying communication skills in medical practice at a professional level of competence. One factor contributing to these problems is that learners confront two apparently conflicting models of the medical interview: a communication model describing the process of the interview and the "traditional medical history" describing the content of the interview. The resulting confusion exacerbates the above dilemmas and interferes with learners using communication skills training to advantage in real-life practice. The authors propose a comprehensive clinical method that explicitly integrates traditional clinical method with effective communication skills. To implement this more comprehensive approach, they have modified their own Calgary-Cambridge guides to the medical interview by developing three diagrams that visually and conceptually improve the way communication skills teaching is introduced and that place communication process skills within a comprehensive clinical method; devising a content guide for medical interviewing that is more closely aligned with the structure and process skills used in communication skills training; and incorporating patient-centered medicine into both process and content aspects of the medical interview. These enhancements help resolve ongoing difficulties associated with both teaching communication skills and applying them effectively in medical practice.

  11. Prevention of retinal detachment in Stickler syndrome: the Cambridge prophylactic cryotherapy protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Gregory S; Pasea, Laura; Carroll, Christopher; McNinch, Annie M; Poulson, Arabella V; Richards, Allan J; Scott, John D; Snead, Martin P

    2014-08-01

    The Stickler syndromes are the most common causes of inherited and childhood retinal detachment; however, no consensus exists regarding the effectiveness of prophylactic intervention. We evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the Cambridge prophylactic cryotherapy protocol, a standardized retinal prophylactic treatment developed to prevent retinal detachment arising from giant retinal tears in type 1 Stickler syndrome. Retrospective comparative case series. Four hundred eighty seven patients with type 1 Stickler syndrome. Time to retinal detachment was compared between patients who received bilateral prophylaxis and untreated controls, with and without individual patient matching. Patients receiving unilateral prophylaxis (after fellow eye retinal detachment) were similarly compared with an appropriate control subgroup. Individual patient matching ensured equal age and follow-up between groups and that an appropriate control (who had not suffered a retinal detachment before the age at which their individually matched treatment patient underwent prophylactic treatment) was selected. Matching was blinded to outcome events. Individual patient matching protocols purposely weighted bias against the effectiveness of treatment. All treatment side effects are reported. Time to retinal detachment and side effects occurring after prophylactic treatment. The bilateral control group (n = 194) had a 7.4-fold increased risk of retinal detachment compared to the bilateral prophylaxis group (n = 229) (hazard ratio [HR], 7.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.53-12.08; PCambridge prophylactic cryotherapy protocol is safe and markedly reduces the risk of retinal detachment. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Normal range of cambridge low contrast test; a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Heravian, Javad; Abdolahinia, Tahereh; Norouzi Rad, Reza; Asgari, Soheila; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    To determine the range of contrast sensitivity (CS) and its determinants in a normal population, Mashhad, Iran. In this cross-sectional population based study, 4,453 individuals were invited of whom 3,132 persons agreed to participate (response rate, 70.4%). CS data from 2,449 eligible individuals were analyzed. CS was determined using the Cambridge low contrast square-wave grating test, and its associations with age, gender, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) refractive error, were analyzed. Mean age of the participants was 29.1±17.3 (range, 4-89) years and 66.4% were female. Mean CS was 239.6±233.3 and 234.6±228.6 cps in right and left eyes, respectively. Mean binocular CS was 310.9±249.0 cps. Multiple linear regression showed that CS was inversely correlated with older age (β=-1.1, PCambridge low-contrast grating test reported herein may serve as a reference for the general population in Iran. Our findings can be used for both research and clinical applications, particularly for evaluations of the outcomes of refractive surgery. In the current study, CS was lower in older subjects, myopic individuals and patients with lower BCVA.

  13. Face recognition performance of individuals with Asperger syndrome on the Cambridge Face Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn

    2011-12-01

    Although face recognition deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome (AS), are widely acknowledged, the empirical evidence is mixed. This in part reflects the failure to use standardized and psychometrically sound tests. We contrasted standardized face recognition scores on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) for 34 individuals with AS with those for 42, IQ-matched non-ASD individuals, and age-standardized scores from a large Australian cohort. We also examined the influence of IQ, autistic traits, and negative affect on face recognition performance. Overall, participants with AS performed significantly worse on the CFMT than the non-ASD participants and when evaluated against standardized test norms. However, while 24% of participants with AS presented with severe face recognition impairment (>2 SDs below the mean), many individuals performed at or above the typical level for their age: 53% scored within +/- 1 SD of the mean and 9% demonstrated superior performance (>1 SD above the mean). Regression analysis provided no evidence that IQ, autistic traits, or negative affect significantly influenced face recognition: diagnostic group membership was the only significant predictor of face recognition performance. In sum, face recognition performance in ASD is on a continuum, but with average levels significantly below non-ASD levels of performance.

  14. The Cambridge Face Tracker: Accurate, Low Cost Measurement of Head Posture Using Computer Vision and Face Recognition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter B. M.; Baltrušaitis, Tadas; Robinson, Peter; Vivian, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We validate a video-based method of head posture measurement. Methods The Cambridge Face Tracker uses neural networks (constrained local neural fields) to recognize facial features in video. The relative position of these facial features is used to calculate head posture. First, we assess the accuracy of this approach against videos in three research databases where each frame is tagged with a precisely measured head posture. Second, we compare our method to a commercially available mechanical device, the Cervical Range of Motion device: four subjects each adopted 43 distinct head postures that were measured using both methods. Results The Cambridge Face Tracker achieved confident facial recognition in 92% of the approximately 38,000 frames of video from the three databases. The respective mean error in absolute head posture was 3.34°, 3.86°, and 2.81°, with a median error of 1.97°, 2.16°, and 1.96°. The accuracy decreased with more extreme head posture. Comparing The Cambridge Face Tracker to the Cervical Range of Motion Device gave correlation coefficients of 0.99 (P < 0.0001), 0.96 (P < 0.0001), and 0.99 (P < 0.0001) for yaw, pitch, and roll, respectively. Conclusions The Cambridge Face Tracker performs well under real-world conditions and within the range of normally-encountered head posture. It allows useful quantification of head posture in real time or from precaptured video. Its performance is similar to that of a clinically validated mechanical device. It has significant advantages over other approaches in that subjects do not need to wear any apparatus, and it requires only low cost, easy-to-setup consumer electronics. Translational Relevance Noncontact assessment of head posture allows more complete clinical assessment of patients, and could benefit surgical planning in future. PMID:27730008

  15. The Cambridge Face Tracker: Accurate, Low Cost Measurement of Head Posture Using Computer Vision and Face Recognition Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter B M; Baltrušaitis, Tadas; Robinson, Peter; Vivian, Anthony J

    2016-09-01

    We validate a video-based method of head posture measurement. The Cambridge Face Tracker uses neural networks (constrained local neural fields) to recognize facial features in video. The relative position of these facial features is used to calculate head posture. First, we assess the accuracy of this approach against videos in three research databases where each frame is tagged with a precisely measured head posture. Second, we compare our method to a commercially available mechanical device, the Cervical Range of Motion device: four subjects each adopted 43 distinct head postures that were measured using both methods. The Cambridge Face Tracker achieved confident facial recognition in 92% of the approximately 38,000 frames of video from the three databases. The respective mean error in absolute head posture was 3.34°, 3.86°, and 2.81°, with a median error of 1.97°, 2.16°, and 1.96°. The accuracy decreased with more extreme head posture. Comparing The Cambridge Face Tracker to the Cervical Range of Motion Device gave correlation coefficients of 0.99 (P Cambridge Face Tracker performs well under real-world conditions and within the range of normally-encountered head posture. It allows useful quantification of head posture in real time or from precaptured video. Its performance is similar to that of a clinically validated mechanical device. It has significant advantages over other approaches in that subjects do not need to wear any apparatus, and it requires only low cost, easy-to-setup consumer electronics. Noncontact assessment of head posture allows more complete clinical assessment of patients, and could benefit surgical planning in future.

  16. Additivity dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned. In support of this, skim milk (with major subtraction of fat is rated as more natural than whole milk with a small amount of natural vitamin D added. It is also noted that ``additives'' is a common word, with a synonym reported by a native speaker in 17 of 18 languages, whereas ``subtractive'' is lexicalized in only 1 of the 18 languages. We consider reasons for additivity dominance, relating it to omission bias, feature positive bias, and notions of purity.

  17. Crystal structures of four δ-keto esters and a Cambridge Structural Database analysis of cyano-halogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Kulsoom; Maurya, Hardesh K; Gupta, Atul; Vasudev, Prema G

    2015-10-01

    The revived interest in halogen bonding as a tool in pharmaceutical cocrystals and drug design has indicated that cyano-halogen interactions could play an important role. The crystal structures of four closely related δ-keto esters, which differ only in the substitution at a single C atom (by H, OMe, Cl and Br), are compared, namely ethyl 2-cyano-5-oxo-5-phenyl-3-(piperidin-1-yl)pent-2-enoate, C19H22N2O3, (1), ethyl 2-cyano-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-oxo-3-(piperidin-1-yl)pent-2-enoate, C20H24N2O4, (2), ethyl 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-cyano-5-oxo-3-(piperidin-1-yl)pent-2-enoate, C19H21ClN2O3, (3), and the previously published ethyl 5-(4-bromophenyl)-2-cyano-5-oxo-3-(piperidin-1-yl)pent-2-enoate, C19H21BrN2O3, (4) [Maurya, Vasudev & Gupta (2013). RSC Adv. 3, 12955-12962]. The molecular conformations are very similar, while there are differences in the molecular assemblies. Intermolecular C-H...O hydrogen bonds are found to be the primary interactions in the crystal packing and are present in all four structures. The halogenated derivatives have additional aromatic-aromatic interactions and cyano-halogen interactions, further stabilizing the molecular packing. A database analysis of cyano-halogen interactions using the Cambridge Structural Database [CSD; Groom & Allen (2014). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53, 662-671] revealed that about 13% of the organic molecular crystals containing both cyano and halogen groups have cyano-halogen interactions in their packing. Three geometric parameters for the C-X...N[triple-bond]C interaction (X = F, Cl, Br or I), viz. the N...X distance and the C-X...N and C-N...X angles, were analysed. The results indicate that all the short cyano-halogen contacts in the CSD can be classified as halogen bonds, which are directional noncovalent interactions.

  18. A robust method of measuring other-race and other-ethnicity effects: the Cambridge Face Memory Test format.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor McKone

    Full Text Available Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony. Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA and a new Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese (CFMT-Chinese, with European and Asian observers, we report a race-of-face by race-of-observer interaction that was highly significant despite modest sample size and despite observers who had quite high exposure to the other race. We attribute this to high statistical power arising from the very high internal reliability of the tasks. This power also allows us to demonstrate a much smaller within-race other ethnicity effect, based on differences in European physiognomy between Boston faces/observers and Australian faces/observers (using the CFMT-Australian.

  19. John Howard Marsden (1803–1891 First Disney Professor of Archaeology at the University of Cambridge 1851–1865

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leach

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although there were ten chairs of archaeology at universities in Germany, and one in France, by the mid-nineteenth century, in Great Britain it was the amateur societies and museums (the British Museum in particular that encouraged the study of this subject. In 1851 John Disney established the first university chair in Great Britain at Cambridge University. His proposal was initially received with considerable caution by the governing body of the university, and was only accepted by the narrowest margin of eight votes to seven. His agreement with the University of Cambridge stipulated that six lectures a year should be given on the subject of ‘Classical, Medieval, and other Antiquities, the Fine Arts and all matters and things connected therewith’ (Clark 1904, 222–225. However university archaeology was slow to establish its academic credibility nationally, and it was more than thirty years before Oxford University established its chair of classical archaeology. The Cambridge Board of Anthropological Studies, which included instruction in prehistoric archaeology, was not created until 1915, and as late as 1945 there were still only a few university lecturers in archaeology in Great Britain. It was not until 1946 that Oxford University appointed a Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology (Wilson 2002, 153; Daniel 1976, 6–12; Smith 2004, 4–5, 53–54.

  20. A robust method of measuring other-race and other-ethnicity effects: the Cambridge Face Memory Test format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Elinor; Stokes, Sacha; Liu, Jia; Cohan, Sarah; Fiorentini, Chiara; Pidcock, Madeleine; Yovel, Galit; Broughton, Mary; Pelleg, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony). Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA) and a new Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese (CFMT-Chinese), with European and Asian observers, we report a race-of-face by race-of-observer interaction that was highly significant despite modest sample size and despite observers who had quite high exposure to the other race. We attribute this to high statistical power arising from the very high internal reliability of the tasks. This power also allows us to demonstrate a much smaller within-race other ethnicity effect, based on differences in European physiognomy between Boston faces/observers and Australian faces/observers (using the CFMT-Australian).

  1. Supported employment: randomised controlled trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Louise M.; Heslin, Margaret; Leese, Morven; McCrone, Paul; Rice, Christopher; Jarrett, Manuela; Spokes, Terry; Huxley, Peter; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Background There is evidence from North American trials that supported employment using the individual placement and support (IPS) model is effective in helping individuals with severe mental illness gain competitive employment. There have been few trials in other parts of the world. Aims To investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IPS in the UK. Method Individuals with severe mental illness in South London were randomised to IPS or local traditional vocational services (treatment as usual) (ISRCTN96677673). Results Two hundred and nineteen participants were randomised, and 90% assessed 1 year later. There were no significant differences between the treatment as usual and intervention groups in obtaining competitive employment (13% in the intervention group and 7% in controls; risk ratio 1.35, 95% CI 0.95–1.93, P = 0.15), nor in secondary outcomes. Conclusions There was no evidence that IPS was of significant benefit in achieving competitive employment for individuals in South London at 1-year follow-up, which may reflect suboptimal implementation. Implementation of IPS can be challenging in the UK context where IPS is not structurally integrated with mental health services, and economic disincentives may lead to lower levels of motivation in individuals with severe mental illness and psychiatric professionals. PMID:20435968

  2. Arvustus. Katri Lõhmus. Caring Autonomy. European Human Rights Law and the Challenge of Individualism. Cambridge University Press 2015, 246 lk / Lauri Mälksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälksoo, Lauri, 1975-

    2016-01-01

    Arvustus: Katri Lõhmus. Caring Autonomy. European Human Rights Law and the Challenge of Individualism. Cambridge University Press 2015, 246 lk. Euroopa inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni artikli 8 sisustamisest

  3. Potlining Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  4. Adaptation and Validation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) for Use in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Camacho, Aldo; Stepanous, Jessica; Blanco-Donoso, Luis M; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Wilburn, Jeanette; González-Saiz, Laura; McKenna, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is a patient-reported outcome measure of health-related quality of life and quality of life specific to individuals with pulmonary hypertension (PH). This questionnaire has demonstrated superiority over other instruments assessing similar domains. The objective of the present study was to adapt and validate the Spanish version of the questionnaire. The adaptation consisted of 3 stages: translation from English to Spanish using bilingual and lay panels, cognitive debriefing interviews with patients, and assessment of psychometric properties by means of a postal validation survey. The translation panels produced a version of the CAMPHOR that was considered suitable for use by Spanish PH patients. The relevance, comprehensiveness, and acceptability of this version were confirmed in interviews with PH patients. Finally, the validation survey (n = 70) revealed that the 3 CAMPHOR scales (Symptoms, Activities, and Quality of life) showed strong psychometric properties. The internal consistency (Cronbach α) coefficients of the scales were above 0.89, and the test-retest reliability was above 0.87. The convergent and known group validity of the CAMPHOR scales was also demonstrated. The Spanish version of the CAMPHOR is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of health-related quality of life and quality of life in Spanish PH patients. Therefore, it is recommended for use in future research and clinical practice in the Spanish population of PH patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (Hong Kong Chinese version) for people with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, David W K; Chan, M K L; Yip, C C K

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate a Hong Kong Chinese version of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT-HKCV). Thirty-three subjects at least one year post-stroke participated in the study. They were simultaneously rated on version A of the CAMPROMPT-HKCV by two testers to establish its internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. Raters used the parallel versions of the test (A and B), in rating 10 patients within 2 weeks to establish the parallel form reliability. Another 10 were also assessed on the same day using both version A of the CAMPROMPT-HKCV and the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test-Chinese version (RBMT-CV) to establish concurrent validity. A new group of 40 stroke patients and 44 healthy controls was recruited to establish its sensitivity and specificity. Results indicated that test-retest reliability on time-based, event-based and total scores, and inter-rater reliability for versions A and B of the test were high. Cronbach's alpha of the event-based score was higher than that of the time-based score. The reliability and concurrent validity of the parallel forms were established. There was a significant difference in performance on CAMPROMPT-HKCV (version A) between the stroke group and the healthy control group. ROC analysis showed that the ability of the cut-off CAMPROMPT-HKCV (total score) to differentiate PM problems was 20.5 (out of 36) with sensitivity at 95.5% and specificity at 55.9%. Further study in developing stratified norms across different age groups in Chinese-speaking stroke patients is recommended.

  6. Bone remodeling around the Cambridge cup: a DEXA study of 50 hips over 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Richard E; Cronin, Michael D; Singh, Parminder J; Burtenshaw, Christine; Rushton, Neil

    2006-10-01

    In a prospective 2-year study we have used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) following implantation of a novel, "physiological", acetabular component designed using composite materials. The acetabular components were implanted in hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-removed options. They were implanted in conjunction with a cemented femoral component in 50 female patients who presented with displaced, subcapital, fractures of the neck of the femur. Regions of interest (ROI) were defined according to De Lee and Charnley. BMD during follow-up was compared with immediate postoperative values for the affected limb. The mean precision error (CV%) was 1.01%, 2.26% and 1.12%, for ROI I, II and III respectively. The mean change in BMD, for both cups, was analyzed. There was no significant difference between the BMD changes induced with the HA- and non-HA-coated cups. After an initial fall in BMD in all 3 ROI at 6 months, ROI I and ROI II showed return to baseline BMD by 2 years. ROI III showed no significant decrease in BMD beyond 6 months, but did not return to baseline levels. Statistical analysis revealed no significant decrease in BMD in ROI I and ROI II at 2 years, compared with immediate postoperative values. The changes in BMD reflect a pattern of maximally reduced stress in the non-weight-bearing zone (ROI III), with preservation of bone density in weight bearing zones ROI I and ROI II. These results support the design principles of the Cambridge cup.

  7. Hindi translation and validation of Cambridge-Hopkins Diagnostic Questionnaire for RLS (CHRLSq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restless legs syndrome also known as Willis-Ekbom′s Disease (RLS/WED is a common illness. Cambridge-Hopkins diagnostic questionnaire for RLS (CHRLSq is a good diagnostic tool and can be used in the epidemiological studies. However, its Hindi version is not available. Thus, this study was conducted to translate and validate it in the Hindi speaking population. Materials and Methods: After obtaining the permission from the author of the CHRLSq, it was translated into Hindi language by two independent translators. After a series of forward and back translations, the finalized Hindi version was administered to two groups by one of the authors, who were blinded to the clinical diagnosis. First group consisted of RLS/WED patients, where diagnosis was made upon face to face interview and the other group - the control group included subjects with somatic symptoms disorders or exertional myalgia or chronic insomnia. Each group had 30 subjects. Diagnosis made on CHRLSq was compared with the clinical diagnosis. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v 21.0. Descriptive statistics was calculated. Proportions were compared using chi-square test; whereas, categorical variables were compared using independent sample t-test. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the translated version of questionnaire were calculated. Results: Average age was comparable between the cases and control group (RLS/WED = 39.1 ± 10.1 years vs 36.2 ± 11.4 years in controls; P = 0.29. Women outnumbered men in the RLS/WED group (87% in RLS/WED group vs 57% among controls; χ2 = 6.64; P = 0.01. Both the sensitivity and specificity of the translated version was 83.3%. It had the positive predictive value of 86.6%. Conclusion: Hindi version of CHRLSq has positive predictive value of 87% and it can be used to diagnose RLS in Hindi speaking population.

  8. Additivity dominance

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA) that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned....

  9. Sulfite Additives

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The CMA recommends that sulfites be banned as food preservatives when satisfactory and safe alternatives are available. When there is no suitable substitute strict labelling requirements on foods should be imposed for sulfite additives. The association supports the efforts of the Health Protection Branch of the Department of National Health and Welfare to regulate sulfites in the food and drug industry to prevent adverse reactions in people sensitive to sulfites. The CMA recommends that the D...

  10. Cambridge-Cranfield High Performance Computing Facility (HPCF) purchases ten Sun Fire(TM) 15K servers to dramatically increase power of eScience research

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The Cambridge-Cranfield High Performance Computing Facility (HPCF), a collaborative environment for data and numerical intensive computing privately run by the University of Cambridge and Cranfield University, has purchased 10 Sun Fire(TM) 15K servers from Sun Microsystems, Inc.. The total investment, which includes more than $40 million in Sun technology, will dramatically increase the computing power, reliability, availability and scalability of the HPCF" (1 page).

  11. Reliability and validity of the Cambridge Worry Scale in pregnant Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Emine Yigit; Gul, Asiye

    2015-03-01

    this study examined the psychometric properties of the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) and assessed worries in pregnant Turkish women. a descriptive, cross sectional study. the 35 Family Health Centres located in the Yıldırım sub-province of Bursa. the data were collected using the 'Pregnant Information Form', which determines the individual characteristics of the women and the 'CWS', which determines worries. The CWS is a Likert-type scale that consists of 16 items and has four sub-dimensions including the women's own health, relationships, socio-medical and socio-economic conditions. In the CWS, the total score is not calculated, and each article is evaluated in itself. 200 pregnant women were recruited from December 2010 to November 2011. The mean age of the pregnant women was 25.92 ± 5.33, 43.0% had completed primary school, and 69.0% were not in paid employment. It has been determined that the content validity index for the Turkish form is 0.98 and that the internal consistency of Cronbach's alpha value of the scale is 0.795. As a result of exploratory factor analysis, it has been concluded that the factor loadings of the scale from 0.435 to 0.902, and it can be used in a particular dimension that is not divided into the components of the scale. On the basis of the confirmatory factor analysis, it has been determined that the Goodness of Fit Index of the one-factor structure is better than four-factor structure, but the values of the goodness fit index in each model are under 0.85 and the inaccuracy of the fit index is high. the Turkish form of the CWS is an appropriate measurement tool in terms of language and content validity, and its single-factor structure can be applied to Turkish culture and can correctly identify the worries of pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tropisetron in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraishi Tetsuya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are associated with psychosocial deficits that are primarily responsible for the poor long-term outcome of this disease. Auditory sensory gating P50 deficits are correlated with neuropsychological deficits in attention, one of the principal cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia. Our studies suggest that the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR agonist tropisetron might be a potential therapeutic drug for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Therefore, it is of particular interest to investigate the effects of tropisetron on the cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Methods A randomised, placebo-controlled trial of tropisetron in patients with schizophrenia was performed. A total of 40 patients with chronic schizophrenia who had taken risperidone (2 to 6 mg/day were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to a fixed titration of tropisetron (n = 20, 10 mg/day or placebo (n = 20 in an 8-week double-blind trial. Auditory sensory gating P50 deficits and Quality of Life Scale (QLS, Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS scores were measured. Results In all, 33 patients completed the trial. Tropisetron was well tolerated. Administration of tropisetron, but not placebo, significantly improved auditory sensory gating P50 deficits in non-smoking patients with schizophrenia. The score on the rapid visual information processing (sustained visual attention task of CANTAB was significantly improved by tropisetron treatment. Total and subscale scores of PANSS were not changed by this trial. QLS scores in the all patients, but not non-smoking patients, were significantly improved by tropisetron trial. Conclusions This first randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial supports the safety and efficacy of adjunctive tropisetron for treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  13. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  14. Associations between active commuting and physical activity in working adults: Cross-sectional results from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Panter, Jenna; Griffin, Simon J.; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective To quantify the association between time spent in active commuting and in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a sample of working adults living in both urban and rural locations. Methods In 2009, participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study were sent questionnaires enquiring about sociodemographic characteristics and weekly time spent in active commuting. They were also invited to wear an accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were used to compute the time spent in MVPA. Multiple regression models were used to examine the association between time spent in active commuting and MVPA. Results 475 participants (70% female) provided valid data. On average, participants recorded 55 (SD: 23.02) minutes of MVPA per day. For women, reporting 150 or more minutes of active commuting per week was associated with an estimated 8.50 (95% CI: 1.75 to 51.26, p = 0.01) additional minutes of daily MVPA compared to those who reported no time in active commuting. No overall associations were found in men. Conclusions Promoting active commuting might be an important way of increasing levels of physical activity, particularly in women. Further research should assess whether increases in time spent in active commuting are associated with increases in physical activity. PMID:22964003

  15. Lack of associations between modifiable risk factors and dementia in the very old: findings from the Cambridge City over-75s cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Kay; Köhler, Sebastian; van Boxtel, Martin; Verhey, Frans; Brayne, Carol; Fleming, Jane

    2017-02-02

    To investigate the association between modifiable risk and protective factors and severe cognitive impairment and dementia in the very old. Additionally, the present study tests the predictive validity of the 'LIfestyle for BRAin health' (LIBRA) score, an index developed to assess an individual's dementia prevention potential. Two hundred seventy-eight individuals aged 85 years or older from the Cambridge City over-75s cohort study were followed-up until death. Included risk and protective factors were: diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, depression, smoking, low-to-moderate alcohol use, high cognitive activity, and physical inactivity. Incident severe cognitive impairment was based on the Mini-Mental State Examination (score: 0-17) and incident dementia was based on either post-mortem consensus clinical diagnostic assessments or death certificate data. Logistic regressions were used to test whether individual risk and protective factors and the LIBRA score were associated with severe cognitive impairment or dementia after 18 years follow-up. None of the risk and protective factors or the LIBRA score was significantly associated with increased risk of severe cognitive impairment or dementia. Sensitivity analyses using a larger sample, longer follow-up period, and stricter cut-offs for prevalent cognitive impairment showed similar results. Associations between well-known midlife risk and protective factors and risk for severe cognitive impairment or dementia might not persist into very old age, in line with suggestions that targeting these factors through lifestyle interventions should start earlier in life.

  16. Construct and concurrent validity of the Cambridge neuropsychological automated tests in Portuguese older adults without neuropsychiatric diagnoses and with Alzheimer's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos Gonçalves, Marta; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Simões, Mário R

    2017-02-28

    We aimed to analyze the construct and concurrent validity of the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP), Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Reaction Time (RTI), and Spatial Working Memory (SWM) tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB®). Inclusion criteria were checked in a first session. The CANTAB and additional pencil-and-paper tests were administered within 1 week. The participants (aged 69-96 years) were 137 Portuguese adults without neuropsychiatric diagnoses and 37 adults with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease dementia. Comparisons were made between the CANTAB tests and between these tests and the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), Verbal Fluency (VF) test, and some Wechsler Memory Scale-III and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III subtests. Most intra-test correlations were stronger than the CANTAB inter-test correlations. The RVP correlated more with VF animals (.44), the PAL with RCFT immediate recall (-.52), the RTI with RVP mean latency (.42), and the SWM with Spatial Span backward (-.39).

  17. Decision-making deficits in patients diagnosed with disordered gambling using the Cambridge Gambling task: the effects of substance use disorder comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zois, Evangelos; Kortlang, Noreen; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Lemenager, Tagrid; Beutel, Martin; Mann, Karl; Fauth-Bühler, Mira

    2014-07-01

    Disordered gambling (DG) has often been associated with impaired decision-making abilities, suggesting a dysfunction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). To our knowledge, no previous study has accurately considered the effect of substance use disorder (SUD) comorbidity (including nicotine dependence) on decision-making impairments in DG. We employed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) to assess a big cohort of patients diagnosed with DG (N = 80) against matched healthy controls (HCs) (N = 108). The cohort included DG patients with nicotine and alcohol dependence, alcohol dependence only and 12 "pure" nonsmokers with only DG diagnosis. Pure nonsmoking, nicotine dependent as well as alcoholic DGs with current nicotine dependence, demonstrated a decision making profile, characterized by poor decision-making abilities and failure to make right choices (rational), closely resembling that of patients with vmPFC damage. This suggests that DGs with and without SUD comorbidity are equally affected in that domain of decision making abilities. Additionally, gambling diagnosis combined with alcohol and nicotine dependence involves a group of gambling patients with a relatively riskier decision making profile, showing that these patients apart from making irrational decisions take also more risks. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for SUD comorbidities with useful implications for future research and therapy. Limitations of the current investigation are discussed.

  18. La Escuela de Cambridge: Historia del Pensamiento Político. Una búsqueda metodológica

    OpenAIRE

    Rabasa Gamboa, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    El artículo se centra en el análisis de la revolución metodológica que se generó el siglo pasado en la Universidad de Cambridge, Inglaterra, en la disciplina de Historia del Pensamiento Político con el fin de darle una nueva base filosófica y mayor rigor científico. Consistió en sustituir el textualismo como interpretación subjetiva de los textos clásicos, por el enfoque contextualista que explora las condiciones históricas (incluyendo el lenguaje) que determinaron el surgimiento de las ideas...

  19. Cyrtarachne keralensis Jose, 2011 is a junior synonym of Anepsion maritatum (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877) (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamel, Jobi J; Sankaran, Pradeep M; Joseph, Mathew M; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2015-11-05

    The Indo-pacific araneid genus Anepsion, with A. rhomboides (L. Koch, 1867) as the type species, was erected by Strand in 1929. He proposed the name Anepsion as a replacement name for Anepsia L. Koch, 1871, preoccupied by Anepsia Gistl, 1848, a dipteran genus (OBIS Australia, 2015). The genus was revised by Chrysanthus (1961, 1969) and currently has 16 described species and 1 subspecies (World Spider Catalog 2015). In the present paper, we are reporting the genus from India for the first time and synonymising Cyrtarachne keralensis Jose, 2011 with Anepsion maritatum O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877. A redescription and illustrations of both male and female of A. maritatum are provided.

  20. A Mediterranean Diet to Improve Cardiovascular and Cognitive Health: Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alexandra T; Davis, Courtney R; Dyer, Kathryn A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Keage, Hannah A D; Murphy, Karen J

    2017-02-16

    The Mediterranean diet has demonstrated efficacy for improving cardiovascular and cognitive health. However, a traditional Mediterranean diet delivers fewer serves of dairy and less dietary calcium than is currently recommended in Australia, which may limit long-term sustainability. The present study aims to evaluate whether a Mediterranean diet with adequate dairy and calcium can improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in an at-risk population, and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive decline. A randomised, controlled, parallel, crossover design trial will compare a Mediterranean diet supplemented with dairy foods against a low-fat control diet. Forty participants with systolic blood pressure above 120 mmHg and at least two other risk factors of CVD will undertake each dietary intervention for eight weeks, with an eight-week washout period between interventions. Systolic blood pressure will be the primary measure of interest. Secondary outcomes will include measures of cardiometabolic health, dietary compliance, cognitive function, assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), psychological well-being and dementia risk. This research will provide empirical evidence as to whether the Mediterranean diet can be modified to provide recommended dairy and calcium intakes while continuing to deliver positive effects for cardiovascular and cognitive health. The findings will hold relevance for the field of preventative healthcare and may contribute to revisions of national dietary guidelines.

  1. A Mediterranean Diet to Improve Cardiovascular and Cognitive Health: Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alexandra T.; Davis, Courtney R.; Dyer, Kathryn A.; Hodgson, Jonathan M.; Woodman, Richard J.; Keage, Hannah A. D.; Murphy, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has demonstrated efficacy for improving cardiovascular and cognitive health. However, a traditional Mediterranean diet delivers fewer serves of dairy and less dietary calcium than is currently recommended in Australia, which may limit long-term sustainability. The present study aims to evaluate whether a Mediterranean diet with adequate dairy and calcium can improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in an at-risk population, and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive decline. A randomised, controlled, parallel, crossover design trial will compare a Mediterranean diet supplemented with dairy foods against a low-fat control diet. Forty participants with systolic blood pressure above 120 mmHg and at least two other risk factors of CVD will undertake each dietary intervention for eight weeks, with an eight-week washout period between interventions. Systolic blood pressure will be the primary measure of interest. Secondary outcomes will include measures of cardiometabolic health, dietary compliance, cognitive function, assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), psychological well-being and dementia risk. This research will provide empirical evidence as to whether the Mediterranean diet can be modified to provide recommended dairy and calcium intakes while continuing to deliver positive effects for cardiovascular and cognitive health. The findings will hold relevance for the field of preventative healthcare and may contribute to revisions of national dietary guidelines. PMID:28212320

  2. “In my end is my beginning”. Una discussione sul caso trascurato dei Cambridge Ritualists fra antropologia comparativa, filosofia e pensiero scientifico - “In my end is my beginning”. An argument on the Cambridge Ritualists’ neglected case, on the wave of comparative anthropology, philosophy and scientific thought

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danila Cinellu

    2015-01-01

    ... Wilson’s biophilia hypothesis and Rappaport’s engaged anthropology as springboards, this article wants to cast light on how two anthropologically undervalued manifestos of the Cambridge School – Harrison’s Themis (1912...

  3. The Cambridge Face Memory Test for Children (CFMT-C): a new tool for measuring face recognition skills in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croydon, Abigail; Pimperton, Hannah; Ewing, Louise; Duchaine, Brad C; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition ability follows a lengthy developmental course, not reaching maturity until well into adulthood. Valid and reliable assessments of face recognition memory ability are necessary to examine patterns of ability and disability in face processing, yet there is a dearth of such assessments for children. We modified a well-known test of face memory in adults, the Cambridge Face Memory Test (Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006, Neuropsychologia, 44, 576-585), to make it developmentally appropriate for children. To establish its utility, we administered either the upright or inverted versions of the computerised Cambridge Face Memory Test - Children (CFMT-C) to 401 children aged between 5 and 12 years. Our results show that the CFMT-C is sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate age-related gains in the recognition of unfamiliar upright and inverted faces, does not suffer from ceiling or floor effects, generates robust inversion effects, and is capable of detecting difficulties in face memory in children diagnosed with autism. Together, these findings indicate that the CFMT-C constitutes a new valid assessment tool for children's face recognition skills.

  4. Diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge classification): Comparative study using secretin injection-magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of secretin injection MRCP for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: Sixteen patients having mild chronic pancreatitis according to the Cambridge classification and 12 control subjects with no abnormal findings on the pancreatogram were examined for the diagnostic accuracy of secretin injection-MRCP regarding abnormal branch pancreatic ducts associated with mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge Classification), using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for comparison. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for abnormal branch pancreatic ducts determined by two reviewers were respectively 55%-63% and 75%-83% in the head, 57%-64% and 82%-83% in the body, and 44%-44%and 72%-76% in the tail of the pancreas. The sensitivity and specificity for mild chronic pancreatitis were 56%-63% and 92%-92%, respectively. Interobserver abnormal branch pancreatic duct and of mild chronic pancreatitis was good to excellent. CONCLUSION: Secretin injection-MRCP might be useful for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis.

  5. Nano Si preparation by constant cell voltage electrolysis of FFC-Cambridge Process in molten CaCl2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji; Zhao; Shengmei; Lu; Linyan; Hu; Can; Li

    2013-01-01

    Using FFC-Cambridge Process to prepare Si from SiO2 is a promising method to prepare nanostructured and highly pure silicon for solar cells.However,the method still has many problems unsolved and the controlling effect of the cell voltage on silicon product is not clear.Here we report in this article that nano cluster-like silicon product with purity of 99.95%has been prepared by complete conversion of raw material SiO2,quartz glass plate,using constant cell voltage electrolysis FFC-Cambridge Process.By analysis of XRD,EDS,TEM,HRTEM and ICP-AES as well as the discussion from the thermodynamics calculation,the morphology and components of the product based on the change of cell voltage are clarified.It is clear that pure silicon could be prepared at the cell voltage of 1.7 2.1 V in this reaction system.The silicon material have cluster-like structure which are made of silicon nanoparticles in 20 100 nm size.Interestingly,the cluster-like nano structure of the silicon can be tuned by the used cell voltage.The purity,yield and the energy cost of silicon product prepared at the optimized cell voltage are discussed.The purity of the silicon product could be further improved,hence this method is promising for the preparation of solar grade silicon in future.

  6. Uma revisão das controvérsias sobre a Equação de Cambridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Oreiro

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to make a critical evaluation of the controversies about the Cambridge Equation both in the initial phase - when Pasinetti, Kaldor, Meade, Samuelson and Modigliani got involved - and in the second round that followed the publication of Steedman´s article, which contends that the Cambridge Equation still holds even in the case of a balanced government budget. In this setting we will argue that (i the Meade-Samuelson-Modigliani theorem (MSM theorem does not depend on specific hypotheses about the shape of the production function, being fully compatible with the problems of re-switching of techniques raised by the "Capital Controversy", which are only relevant for the stability of the golden-age equilibrium growth path; (ii the Pasinetti-Theorem is, however, more general than the MSM theorem since (a it holds true even after the relaxation of some simplifying hypotheses of its original version, which does not occur with the MSM theorem, and (b Kaldor´s version of the Pasinetti theorem holds true even in the case of the "euthanasia of capitalists".

  7. Intensive cisplatin/oral etoposide for epithelial ovarian cancer: the Cambridge Gynae-Oncology Centre experience: too toxic for relapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounaris, Ioannis; Iddawela, Mahesh; Parkinson, Christine; Pratt, Jennie; Hatcher, Helen; Basu, Bristi; Tan, Li Tee; Brenton, James D; Earl, Helena M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive cisplatin and oral etoposide for relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), commonly known as the van der Burg (VDB) protocol, has been reported to improve response rates and progression-free survival. We report on all patients with relapsed EOC treated on the VDB protocol at the Cambridge Gynae-Oncology Centre. From the institutional databases, we identified all patients treated since 2001. We extracted demographic, clinical, treatment, and toxicity data and outcomes. We used Cox regression to identify predictors of survival. A total of 35 patients were treated on the VDB protocol. Toxicity was significant, with grade 3/4 fatigue, nausea and vomiting affecting 46, 46 and 29% of patients, respectively. Six patients had grade 3/4 infection and four (11%) deaths occurred on treatment. Efficacy was encouraging, with a radiological response rate of 43%, a median progression-free survival of 5.8 months and a median overall survival of 14.1 months. No significant difference in efficacy was seen between platinum-resistant and sensitive patients. We report significant activity of the VDB protocol in a routine clinical setting. However, the high rates of serious toxicity and treatment-related deaths among patients treated with palliative intent proved unacceptable. The Cambridge Gynae-Oncology Centre no longer uses this regimen in women with relapsed EOC.

  8. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  9. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, True Color Orthophotography for Cambridge, Hurlock, Secretary, and Vienna - 4" pixles, 2006., Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2006. True Color Orthophotography for Cambridge, Hurlock, Secretary, and Vienna - 4" pixles,...

  10. Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R; Ogilvie, David

    2012-06-01

    Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009-2010). Even in Britain's leading 'cycling city', cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a 'park-and-ride' site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could 'afford' to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio

  11. The Filistatidae in the Caribbean region, with a description of the new genus Antilloides, revision of the genus Filistatoides F. O. P.-Cambridge and notes on Kukulcania Lehtinen (Arachnida, Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez; Garcia, Giraldo Alayón

    2016-07-07

    A synopsis of Caribbean filistatid diversity is recorded herein. A new genus, Antilloides, is proposed for five new species exclusively found in the Antilles: A. abeli n. sp., A. cubitas n. sp., and A. mesoliticus n. sp. from Cuba; A. haitises n. sp. from the Dominican Republic; and A. zozo n. sp. from the U. S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. The genus Filistatoides is revised and includes four species: the type species F. insignis F.O.P. Cambridge, which occurs only in Guatemala; the female is described here for the first time; F. polita Franganillo sp. reval., comb. nov., which occurs only in Cuba; F. xichu n. sp. described from Mexico; and F. milloti (Zapfe) which does not appear to belong to the genus based on morphological structures. Additionally, Kukulcania isolinae Alayón is synonymized with Kukulcania hibernalis (Hentz), and new records of its distribution are included for the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

  12. Education and coronary heart disease: mendelian randomisation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Taavi; Vaucher, Julien; Okbay, Aysu; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Malyutina, Sofia; Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Fischer, Krista; Veronesi, Giovanni; Palmer, Tom; Bowden, Jack; Davey Smith, George; Bobak, Martin; Holmes, Michael V

    2017-08-30

    Objective To determine whether educational attainment is a causal risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease.Design Mendelian randomisation study, using genetic data as proxies for education to minimise confounding.Setting The main analysis used genetic data from two large consortia (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D and SSGAC), comprising 112 studies from predominantly high income countries. Findings from mendelian randomisation analyses were then compared against results from traditional observational studies (164 170 participants). Finally, genetic data from six additional consortia were analysed to investigate whether longer education can causally alter the common cardiovascular risk factors.Participants The main analysis was of 543 733 men and women (from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D and SSGAC), predominantly of European origin.Exposure A one standard deviation increase in the genetic predisposition towards higher education (3.6 years of additional schooling), measured by 162 genetic variants that have been previously associated with education.Main outcome measure Combined fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease (63 746 events in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D).Results Genetic predisposition towards 3.6 years of additional education was associated with a one third lower risk of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.77; P=3×10(-8)). This was comparable to findings from traditional observational studies (prevalence odds ratio 0.73, 0.68 to 0.78; incidence odds ratio 0.80, 0.76 to 0.83). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with a causal interpretation in which major bias from genetic pleiotropy was unlikely, although this remains an untestable possibility. Genetic predisposition towards longer education was additionally associated with less smoking, lower body mass index, and a favourable blood lipid profile.Conclusions This mendelian randomisation study found support for the hypothesis that low education is a causal risk factor in the

  13. Physical therapy plus general practitioners' care versus general practitioners' care alone for sciatica: a randomised clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Luijsterburg, Pim; Verhagen, Arianne; Ostelo, Raymond; Hoogen, Hans; Peul, Wilco; Avezaat, Cees; Koes, Bart

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA randomised clinical trial in primary care with a 12-months follow-up period. About 135 patients with acute sciatica (recruited from May 2003 to November 2004) were randomised in two groups: (1) the intervention group received physical therapy (PT) added to the general practitioners' care, and (2) the control group with general practitioners' care only. To assess the effectiveness of PT additional to general practitioners' care compared to general practitioners' care alone, in pa...

  14. A teaching skills assessment tool inspired by the Calgary-Cambridge model and the patient-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Johanna; Lanier, Cédric; Perron, Noelle Junod; Nendaz, Mathieu; Clavet, Diane; Audétat, Marie-Claude

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a descriptive tool for peer review of clinical teaching skills. Two analogies framed our research: (1) between the patient-centered and the learner-centered approach; (2) between the structures of clinical encounters (Calgary-Cambridge communication model) and teaching sessions. During the course of one year, each step of the action research was carried out in collaboration with twelve clinical teachers from an outpatient general internal medicine clinic and with three experts in medical education. The content validation consisted of a literature review, expert opinion and the participatory research process. Interrater reliability was evaluated by three clinical teachers coding thirty audiotaped standardized learner-teacher interactions. This tool contains sixteen items covering the process and content of clinical supervisions. Descriptors define the expected teaching behaviors for three levels of competence. Interrater reliability was significant for eleven items (Kendall's coefficient pteaching skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) Smoking Regimen Data Comparisons in Tobacco Product Marketing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Changyu; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the differences in TNCO (tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide) smoke yields generated under the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) smoking regimens. Twenty-nine commercial cigarette products from the US marketplace were acquired in 2015 and tested by measuring the TNCO smoke yields generated under these 2 nonintense smoking regimens. Data obtained demonstrated a linear relationship between the TNCO yields produced under the 2 smoking regimens (R(2) > 0.99). TNCO yields produced by each product were higher under the CFT smoking regimen than the ISO smoking regimen. We found that tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields were consistently 10% to 13% higher under the CFT smoking regimen than under the ISO smoking regimen. This strong correlation indicates that the 2 smoking regimens can be used to apply a correlation correction to CFT TNCO data and allow its comparison to ISO TNCO data in tobacco product marketing applications.

  16. Is the randomised controlled trial the best?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is taken out of the analysis, or to the exaggeration of effect; in a large study, for ... randomisation was 64 years; yet most often hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is ... in labour, and not the aggressive syntocinon augmentation, in the highly ...

  17. A comparison of three infant skinfold reference standards: Tanner-Whitehouse, Cambridge Infant Growth Study, and WHO Child Growth Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M

    2015-10-01

    As researchers increasingly focus on early infancy as a critical period of development, there is a greater need for methodological tools that can address all aspects of infant growth. Infant skinfold measures, in particular, are measurements in need of reliable reference standards that encompass all ages of infants and provide an accurate assessment of the relative fatness of a population. This report evaluates three published reference standards for infant skinfold measurements: Tanner-Whitehouse, Cambridge Infant Growth Study, and the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards. To assess these standards, triceps skinfolds from a population of rural Kenyan infants (n = 250) and triceps skinfolds and subscapular skinfolds from infants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 (NHANES; n = 1197) were calculated as z-scores from the lambda-mu-sigma curves provided by each reference population. The Tanner-Whitehouse standards represented both the Kenyan and US populations as lean, while the Cambridge standards represented both populations as overfat. The distribution of z-scores based on the WHO standards fell in the middle, but excluded infants from both populations who were below the age of 3 months. Based on these results, the WHO reference standard is the best skinfold reference standard for infants over the age of 3 months. For populations with infants of all ages, the Tanner-Whitehouse standards are recommended, despite representing both study populations as underfat. Ideally, the WHO will extend their reference standard to include infants between the ages of 0 and 3 months.

  18. Anatomic variations of the pancreatic duct and their relevance with the Cambridge classification system: MRCP findings of 1158 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibelli, Zehra Hilal; Adatepe, Mustafa; Imamoglu, Cetin; Esen, Ozgur Sipahi; Erkan, Nazif; Yildirim, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the frequencies of the anatomic variations and the gender distributions of these variations of the pancreatic duct and their relevance with the Cambridge classification system as morphological sign of chronic pancreatitis using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). We retrospectively reviewed 1312 consecutive patients who referred to our department for MRCP between January 2013 and August 2015. We excluded 154 patients from the study because of less than optimal results due to imaging limitations or a history of surgery on pancreas. Finally a total of 1158 patients were included in the study. Among the 1158 patients included in the study, 54 (4.6%) patients showed pancreas divisum, 13 patients (1.2%) were defined as ansa pancreatica. When we evaluated the course of the pancreatic duct, we found the prevalence 62.5% for descending, 30% for sigmoid, 5.5% for vertical and 2% for loop. The most commonly observed pancreatic duct configuration was Type 3 in 528 patients (45.6%) where 521 patients (45%) had Type 1 configuration. Vertical course (p = 0.004) and Type 2 (p = 0.03) configuration of pancreatic duct were more frequent in females than males. There were no statistically significant differences between the gender for the other pancreatic duct variations such as pancreas divisium, ansa pancreatica and course types other than vertical course (p > 0.05 for all). Variants of pancreas divisum and normal pancreatic duct variants were not associated with morphologic findings of chronic pancreatitis by using the Cambridge classification system. The ansa pancreatica is a rare type of anatomical variation of the pancreatic duct, which might be considered as a predisposing factor to the onset of idiopathic pancreatitis.

  19. Hydrogen-bond landscapes, geometry and energetics of squaric acid and its mono- and dianions: a Cambridge Structural Database, IsoStar and computational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H. Allen; A.J. Cruz-Cabeza; P.A. Wood; D.A. Bardwell

    2013-01-01

    As part of a programme of work to extend central-group coverage in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre's (CCDC) IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions, we have studied the hydrogen-bonding abilities of squaric acid (H(2)SQ) and its mono-and dianions (HSQ(-) and SQ(2-)) using th

  20. Decline of Executive Function in a Clinical Population: Age, Psychopathology, and Test Performance on the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.T.L.; Aken, L. van; Mey, H.R.A. De; Witteman, C.L.M.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a cross-sectional examination of the age-related executive changes in a sample of adults with a history of psychiatric illness using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. A total of 406 patients, aged 18 to 72 years old, completed executive function tests of wo

  1. Trajectories of Offending and Their Relation to Life Failure in Late Middle Age: Findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that over the life course, criminal offending varies with problems in other domains, including life failure and physical and mental health. To examine this issue, the authors use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males first studied at age 8…

  2. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 4. Examples of Discovery-Based Learning Using the Complete Cambridge Structural Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…

  3. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 2. Teaching Units that Utilize an Interactive Web-Accessible Subset of the Cambridge Structural Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    A series of online interactive teaching units have been developed that illustrate the use of experimentally measured three-dimensional (3D) structures to teach fundamental chemistry concepts. The units integrate a 500-structure subset of the Cambridge Structural Database specially chosen for their pedagogical value. The units span a number of key…

  4. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 3. The Cambridge Structural Database System: Information Content and Access Software in Educational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…

  5. Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Function in People with Autistic Disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Cook, Ian; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Joseph, Robert M.; Klin, Ami; McMahon, William M.; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging work, as well as neuropathology and neuropsychology studies, provide strong empirical support for the involvement of frontal cortex in autism. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-administered set of neuropsychological tests developed to examine specific components…

  6. Hydrogen-bond landscapes, geometry and energetics of squaric acid and its mono- and dianions: a Cambridge Structural Database, IsoStar and computational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, F.H.; Cruz-Cabeza, A.J.; Wood, P.A.; Bardwell, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a programme of work to extend central-group coverage in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre's (CCDC) IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions, we have studied the hydrogen-bonding abilities of squaric acid (H(2)SQ) and its mono-and dianions (HSQ(-) and SQ(2-)) using

  7. Proceedings of the Aircraft Wake Vortices Conference, March 15-17, 1977, held at the Transportation Systems Center, Kendall Square, Cambridge, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    CA. Jan. 1977. 309 -1.A IM ASSESSMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF AIRCRAFT WAKE VORTICES PAUL B. MACCREADY. JR. AND PETER B.S. LISSAMAN...Transportation Systems Center Civil Aviation Authority Kendall Square London Space House Cambridge MA 02142 Kingsway WC2 England Pitchford . Lynn D. Lockheed

  8. Update on the Status of the On-Going Range Dependent Low Frequency Active Sonar Model Benchmarking Effort : From Cambridge to Kos [abstract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampolli, M.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, a symposium in Memory of David Weston was held at Clare College in Cambridge (UK). International researchers from academia and research laboratories met to discuss two sets of test problems for sonar performance models, one aimed at understanding mammal echolocation sonar („Problem AI

  9. Comparative Coh-Metrix Analysis of Reading Comprehension Texts: Unified (Russian) State Exam in English vs. Cambridge First Certificate in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnyshkina, Marina I.; Harkova, Elena V.; Kiselnikov, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    The article summarizes the results of the comparative study of Reading comprehension texts used in B2 level tests: Unified (Russia) State Exam in English (EGE) and Cambridge First Certificate in English (FCE). The research conducted was mainly focused on six parameters measured with the Coh-Metrix, a computational tool producing indices of the…

  10. The structure of N-arylindazoles and their aza-derivatives in the solid state: A systematic analysis of the Cambridge Structural Database coupled with DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2017-06-01

    A search in the Cambridge Structural Database for N-aryl indazoles and their aza derivatives affords 227 structures (183 1-aryl and 44 2-aryl). To discuss their structures, DFT calculations on 20 model compounds were carried out. The geometry of the five-membered ring (the pyrazole) and the conformation if the N-aryl substituent were analyzed.

  11. Association of resistance to activated protein with the presence of Leiden and Cambridge Factor V mutations in Mexican patients with primary thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala Hernández, César; Hernández Zamora, Edgar; Martínez Murillo, Carlos; Arenas Sordo, María de la Luz; González Orozco, Ana Elena; Reyes Maldonado, Elba

    2010-01-01

    Leiden and Cambridge factor V coagulation mutations and activated protein C resistance (RaPC) are alterations related with vein and artery thrombosis. In this study we aimed to determine whether RaPC is associated with the presence of Leiden and Cambridge mutation and the frequency of these mutations in the racially mestizo Mexican population. We included 150 Mexican patients with primary thrombophilia and 100 healthy subjects in this study. RaPC was determined using commercial methods and genotypes FV Leiden and FV Cambridge with PCR-RFLPs. RaPC was positive in four patients and in one control individual; however, there was no presence of Leiden or Cambridge mutation in the studied group; thus, RaPC was not correlated with the presence of any of the studied mutations. These results indicate that there are other primary or secondary causes different from those studied, which condition the presence of RaPC. Furthermore, the frequency obtained for RaPC in our thrombophilic population of racially mixed Mexicans is lower compared to that obtained in the Caucasian population, most probably because they are genetically different populations.

  12. Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

    OpenAIRE

    Panter, J; Griffin, S.; Jones, A; MacKett, R; Ogilvie, D

    2011-01-01

    Environmental perceptions and psychological measures appear to be associated with walking and cycling behaviour; however, their influence is still unclear. We assessed these associations using baseline data from a quasi-experimental cohort study of the effects of major transport infrastructural developments in Cambridge, UK.

  13. Changing cluster composition in cluster randomised controlled trials: design and analysis considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Neil; Bankart, Michael J G; Gray, Laura J; Smith, Karen L

    2014-05-24

    There are many methodological challenges in the conduct and analysis of cluster randomised controlled trials, but one that has received little attention is that of post-randomisation changes to cluster composition. To illustrate this, we focus on the issue of cluster merging, considering the impact on the design, analysis and interpretation of trial outcomes. We explored the effects of merging clusters on study power using standard methods of power calculation. We assessed the potential impacts on study findings of both homogeneous cluster merges (involving clusters randomised to the same arm of a trial) and heterogeneous merges (involving clusters randomised to different arms of a trial) by simulation. To determine the impact on bias and precision of treatment effect estimates, we applied standard methods of analysis to different populations under analysis. Cluster merging produced a systematic reduction in study power. This effect depended on the number of merges and was most pronounced when variability in cluster size was at its greatest. Simulations demonstrate that the impact on analysis was minimal when cluster merges were homogeneous, with impact on study power being balanced by a change in observed intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC). We found a decrease in study power when cluster merges were heterogeneous, and the estimate of treatment effect was attenuated. Examples of cluster merges found in previously published reports of cluster randomised trials were typically homogeneous rather than heterogeneous. Simulations demonstrated that trial findings in such cases would be unbiased. However, simulations also showed that any heterogeneous cluster merges would introduce bias that would be hard to quantify, as well as having negative impacts on the precision of estimates obtained. Further methodological development is warranted to better determine how to analyse such trials appropriately. Interim recommendations include avoidance of cluster merges where

  14. Post-treatment CIN: Randomised clinical trial using hrHPV testing for prediction of residual/recurrent disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bais, AG; Eijkemans, M.J.; Rebolj, M.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Verheijen, R.H.; Ballegooijen, van M.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Helmerhorst, T.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated in a randomised clinical trial whether addition (if hrHPV testing (high-risk human papillomavirus) to cytological follow-up after treatment for high-grade CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 213) can lead to a better selection of women at risk for residual/recurrent CIN. We inclu

  15. Randomised controlled trials: important but overrated?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boylan, J F

    2012-02-01

    Practising physicians individualise treatments, hoping to achieve optimal outcomes by tackling relevant patient variables. The randomised controlled trial (RCT) is universally accepted as the best means of comparison. Yet doctors sometimes wonder if particular patients might benefit more from treatments that fared worse in the RCT comparisons. Such clinicians may even feel ostracised by their peers for stepping outside treatments based on RCTs and guidelines. Are RCTs the only acceptable evaluations of how patient care can be assessed and delivered? In this controversy we explore the interpretation of RCT data for practising clinicians facing individualised patient choices. First, critical care anaesthetists John Boylan and Brian Kavanagh emphasise the dangers of bias and show how Bayesian approaches utilise prior probabilities to improve posterior (combined) probability estimates. Secondly, Jane Armitage, of the Clinical Trial Service Unit in Oxford, argues why RCTs remain essential and explores how the quality of randomisation can be improved through systematic reviews and by avoiding selective reporting.

  16. Razors versus clippers. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tracy; Tanner, Judith

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this randomised controlled trial was to determine if patients showed a preference for preoperative hair removal with razors or clippers and to identify if one method was associated with more trauma or postoperative infections. The trial took place in a day surgery unit with patients who were having a range of surgical procedures including hernias and varicose veins. This study was sponsored by an award from the NATN/3M Clinical Fellowship.

  17. Randomised controlled trial of the effects of physical activity feedback on awareness and behaviour in UK adults: the FAB study protocol [ISRCTN92551397

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marteau Theresa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there are increasing data implicating poor recognition of physical inactivity as a potential barrier to healthy behaviour change, the efficacy of feedback to promote physical activity is uncertain. Using a randomised controlled trial nested within a population-based cohort study, we plan to test three variations of physical activity feedback against a control group. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of physical activity feedback in promoting physical activity behaviour change. Secondary objectives are to determine the influence of feedback on physical activity awareness and cognitions, and to compare behavioural effects by type of feedback. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 500 healthy participants aged 30 to 55 years from the ongoing Fenland Study (Cambridge, UK. Following careful phenotyping during baseline measurement (anthropometric, clinical, body composition and fitness measurements, as well as questionnaires assessing self-reported and self-rated physical activity, psychosocial correlates of physical activity behaviour, diet, lifestyle and general health, participants wear a combined heart rate and movement sensor (Actiheart® for six continuous days and nights. After receipt of the physical activity data (around 2 weeks later, participants are randomly allocated to either a control group (no feedback or one of three types of personalised physical activity feedback ('simple', 'visualised' or 'contextualised', and complete repeat measures of self-rated physical activity and psychosocial correlates. Approximately five weeks after receiving feedback, all participants wear the Actiheart® for another six-day follow-up period and complete repeat questionnaires. Values at outcome, adjusted for baseline, will be compared between randomised groups. Discussion Given the randomised trial design and use of objective measure of physical activity, this study is likely to provide valuable insights into the

  18. Conformer generation with OMEGA: algorithm and validation using high quality structures from the Protein Databank and Cambridge Structural Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Paul C D; Skillman, A Geoffrey; Warren, Gregory L; Ellingson, Benjamin A; Stahl, Matthew T

    2010-04-26

    Here, we present the algorithm and validation for OMEGA, a systematic, knowledge-based conformer generator. The algorithm consists of three phases: assembly of an initial 3D structure from a library of fragments; exhaustive enumeration of all rotatable torsions using values drawn from a knowledge-based list of angles, thereby generating a large set of conformations; and sampling of this set by geometric and energy criteria. Validation of conformer generators like OMEGA has often been undertaken by comparing computed conformer sets to experimental molecular conformations from crystallography, usually from the Protein Databank (PDB). Such an approach is fraught with difficulty due to the systematic problems with small molecule structures in the PDB. Methods are presented to identify a diverse set of small molecule structures from cocomplexes in the PDB that has maximal reliability. A challenging set of 197 high quality, carefully selected ligand structures from well-solved models was obtained using these methods. This set will provide a sound basis for comparison and validation of conformer generators in the future. Validation results from this set are compared to the results using structures of a set of druglike molecules extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). OMEGA is found to perform very well in reproducing the crystallographic conformations from both these data sets using two complementary metrics of success.

  19. Robust associations between the 20-item prosopagnosia index and the Cambridge Face Memory Test in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a neurodevelopmental condition, characterized by lifelong face recognition deficits. Leading research groups diagnose the condition using complementary computer-based tasks and self-report measures. In an attempt to standardize the reporting of self-report evidence, we recently developed the 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20), a short questionnaire measure of prosopagnosic traits suitable for screening adult samples for DP. Strong correlations between scores on the PI20 and performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) appeared to confirm that individuals possess sufficient insight into their face recognition ability to complete a self-report measure of prosopagnosic traits. However, the extent to which people have insight into their face recognition abilities remains contentious. A lingering concern is that feedback from formal testing, received prior to administration of the PI20, may have augmented the self-insight of some respondents in the original validation study. To determine whether the significant correlation with the CFMT was an artefact of previously delivered feedback, we sought to replicate the validation study in individuals with no history of formal testing. We report highly significant correlations in two independent samples drawn from the general population, confirming: (i) that a significant relationship exists between PI20 scores and performance on the CFMT, and (ii) that this is not dependent on the inclusion of individuals who have previously received feedback. These findings support the view that people have sufficient insight into their face recognition abilities to complete a self-report measure of prosopagnosic traits.

  20. Robust associations between the 20-item prosopagnosia index and the Cambridge Face Memory Test in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katie L H; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a neurodevelopmental condition, characterized by lifelong face recognition deficits. Leading research groups diagnose the condition using complementary computer-based tasks and self-report measures. In an attempt to standardize the reporting of self-report evidence, we recently developed the 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20), a short questionnaire measure of prosopagnosic traits suitable for screening adult samples for DP. Strong correlations between scores on the PI20 and performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) appeared to confirm that individuals possess sufficient insight into their face recognition ability to complete a self-report measure of prosopagnosic traits. However, the extent to which people have insight into their face recognition abilities remains contentious. A lingering concern is that feedback from formal testing, received prior to administration of the PI20, may have augmented the self-insight of some respondents in the original validation study. To determine whether the significant correlation with the CFMT was an artefact of previously delivered feedback, we sought to replicate the validation study in individuals with no history of formal testing. We report highly significant correlations in two independent samples drawn from the general population, confirming: (i) that a significant relationship exists between PI20 scores and performance on the CFMT, and (ii) that this is not dependent on the inclusion of individuals who have previously received feedback. These findings support the view that people have sufficient insight into their face recognition abilities to complete a self-report measure of prosopagnosic traits.

  1. Applicability of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to Dog and Cat Owners for Teaching Veterinary Clinical Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned.

  2. Impact of a web-based tool (WebCONSORT) to improve the reporting of randomised trials: results of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Sally; Boutron, Isabelle; Altman, Douglas G; Barbour, Ginny; Moher, David; Montori, Victor; Schriger, David; Cook, Jonathan; Gerry, Stephen; Omar, Omar; Dutton, Peter; Roberts, Corran; Frangou, Eleni; Clifton, Lei; Chiocchia, Virginia; Rombach, Ines; Wartolowska, Karolina; Ravaud, Philippe

    2016-11-28

    The CONSORT Statement is an evidence-informed guideline for reporting randomised controlled trials. A number of extensions have been developed that specify additional information to report for more complex trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using a simple web-based tool (WebCONSORT, which incorporates a number of different CONSORT extensions) on the completeness of reporting of randomised trials published in biomedical publications. We conducted a parallel group randomised trial. Journals which endorsed the CONSORT Statement (i.e. referred to it in the Instruction to Authors) but do not actively implement it (i.e. require authors to submit a completed CONSORT checklist) were invited to participate. Authors of randomised trials were requested by the editor to use the web-based tool at the manuscript revision stage. Authors registering to use the tool were randomised (centralised computer generated) to WebCONSORT or control. In the WebCONSORT group, they had access to a tool allowing them to combine the different CONSORT extensions relevant to their trial and generate a customised checklist and flow diagram that they must submit to the editor. In the control group, authors had only access to a CONSORT flow diagram generator. Authors, journal editors, and outcome assessors were blinded to the allocation. The primary outcome was the proportion of CONSORT items (main and extensions) reported in each article post revision. A total of 46 journals actively recruited authors into the trial (25 March 2013 to 22 September 2015); 324 author manuscripts were randomised (WebCONSORT n = 166; control n = 158), of which 197 were reports of randomised trials (n = 94; n = 103). Over a third (39%; n = 127) of registered manuscripts were excluded from the analysis, mainly because the reported study was not a randomised trial. Of those included in the analysis, the most common CONSORT extensions selected were non-pharmacologic (n = 43; n

  3. Ukrain – a new cancer cure? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ukrain is an anticancer drug based on the extract of the plant Chelidonium majus L. Numerous pre-clinical and clinical investigations seem to suggest that Ukrain is pharmacologically active and clinically effective. We wanted therefore to critically evaluate the clinical trial data in the form of a systematic review. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched for all relevant randomised clinical trials. Data were extracted and validated by both authors, tabulated and summarised narratively. The methodological quality was assessed with the Jadad score. Results Seven trials met our inclusion criteria. Without exception, their findings suggest that Ukrain has curative effects on a range of cancers. However, the methodological quality of most studies was poor. In addition, the interpretation of several trials was impeded by other problems. Conclusion The data from randomised clinical trials suggest Ukrain to have potential as an anticancer drug. However, numerous caveats prevent a positive conclusion, and independent rigorous studies are urgently needed.

  4. Ukrain – a new cancer cure? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E; Schmidt, K

    2005-01-01

    Background Ukrain is an anticancer drug based on the extract of the plant Chelidonium majus L. Numerous pre-clinical and clinical investigations seem to suggest that Ukrain is pharmacologically active and clinically effective. We wanted therefore to critically evaluate the clinical trial data in the form of a systematic review. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched for all relevant randomised clinical trials. Data were extracted and validated by both authors, tabulated and summarised narratively. The methodological quality was assessed with the Jadad score. Results Seven trials met our inclusion criteria. Without exception, their findings suggest that Ukrain has curative effects on a range of cancers. However, the methodological quality of most studies was poor. In addition, the interpretation of several trials was impeded by other problems. Conclusion The data from randomised clinical trials suggest Ukrain to have potential as an anticancer drug. However, numerous caveats prevent a positive conclusion, and independent rigorous studies are urgently needed. PMID:15992405

  5. Adaptación y validación al castellano de la escala de despersonalización de Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Castillo, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La Escala de Despersonalización de Cambridge es un cuestionario autoadministrativo cuyo objetivo es evaluar la frecuencia y duración de los síntomas de despersonalización en los últimos seis meses. El instrumento ha mostrado ser válido y fiable y está siendo utilizado tanto en la clínica como en la investigación neurobiológica. MÉTODOS: Este trabajo presenta la adaptación y validación al castellano de la Escala de Despersonalización de Cambridge, así como su aplicación en el ...

  6. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  7. Observer bias in randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Emanuelsson, Frida;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of non-blinded outcome assessment on estimated treatment effects in randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes.......To evaluate the impact of non-blinded outcome assessment on estimated treatment effects in randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes....

  8. Observer bias in randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Emanuelsson, Frida

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of non-blinded outcome assessment on estimated treatment effects in randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes.......To evaluate the impact of non-blinded outcome assessment on estimated treatment effects in randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes....

  9. Factor V Leiden, factor V Cambridge, factor II GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatnia, Mohammad; Salehi, Mansour; Movahedian, Ahmad; Shariat, Seyed Ziaeddin Samsam; Salari, Mehri; Tajmirriahi, Marzieh; Asadimobarakeh, Elham; Salehi, Rasoul; Amini, Gilda; Ebrahimi, Homa; Kheradmand, Ehsan

    2015-06-01

    Factor V G1691A (FV Leiden), FII GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutations are the most common genetic risk factors for thromboembolism in the Western countries. However, there is rare data in Iran about cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of common genetic thrombophilic factors in CVST patients. Forty consequently CVST patients from two University Hospital in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences aged more than 15 years from January 2009 to January 2011 were recruited. In parallel, 51 healthy subjects with the same age and race from similar population selected as controls. FV Leiden, FII GA20210, MTHFR C677T, and FV Cambridge gene mutations by polymerase chain reaction technique were evaluated in case and control groups. FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge gene mutations had very low prevalence in both case (5%, 2%, 0%) and control (2.5%, 0%, 0%) and were not found any significant difference between groups. MTHFR C677T mutations was in 22 (55%) of patients in case group and 18 (35.5%) of control group (P = 0.09). This study showed that the prevalence of FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge were low. Laboratory investigations of these mutations as a routine test for all patients with CVST may not be cost benefit.

  10. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW 12), Cambridge, MA, USA, 13 16 December 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Katsavounidis, E.

    2008-09-01

    It was a great pleasure and an honor for us to host the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW) at MIT and the LIGO Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the place where this workshop series started in 1996. This time the conference was held at the conference facilities of the Royal Sonesta Hotel in Cambridge from 13 16 December, 2007. This 12th GWDAW found us with the ground interferometers having just completed their most sensitive search for gravitational waves and as they were starting their preparation to bring online and/or propose more sensitive instruments. Resonant mass detectors continued to observe the gravitational wave sky with instruments that have been operating now for many years. LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, was recently reviewed by NASA's Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee (BEPAC) convened by the National Research Council (NRC) and found that 'on purely scientific grounds LISA is the mission that is the most promising and least scientifically risky…thus, the committee gave LISA its highest scientific ranking'. Even so, JDEM, the Joint Dark Energy Mission, was identified to go first, with LISA following a few years after. New methods, analysis ideas, results from the analysis of data collected by the instruments, as well as Mock Data Challenges for LISA were reported in this conference. While data from the most recent runs of the instruments are still being analyzed, the first upper limit results show how even non-detection statements can be interesting astrophysics. Beyond these traditional aspects of GWDAW though, for the first time in this workshop we tried to bring the non-gravitational wave physics and astronomy community on board in order to present, discuss and propose ways to work together as we pursue the first detection of gravitational waves and as we hope to transition to gravitational wave astronomy in the near future. Overview talks by colleagues leading observations in the electromagnetic

  11. Multiphase composition changes and reactive oxygen species formation during limonene oxidation in the new Cambridge Atmospheric Simulation Chamber (CASC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Peter J.; Mahon, Brendan M.; Wragg, Francis P. H.; Fuller, Stephen J.; Giorio, Chiara; Kourtchev, Ivan; Kalberer, Markus

    2017-08-01

    The chemical composition of organic aerosols influences their impacts on human health and the climate system. Aerosol formation from gas-to-particle conversion and in-particle reaction was studied for the oxidation of limonene in a new facility, the Cambridge Atmospheric Simulation Chamber (CASC). Health-relevant oxidising organic species produced during secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation were quantified in real time using an Online Particle-bound Reactive Oxygen Species Instrument (OPROSI). Two categories of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were identified based on time series analysis: a short-lived component produced during precursor ozonolysis with a lifetime of the order of minutes, and a stable component that was long-lived on the experiment timescale (˜ 4 h). Individual organic species were monitored continuously over this time using Extractive Electrospray Ionisation (EESI) Mass Spectrometry (MS) for the particle phase and Proton Transfer Reaction (PTR) MS for the gas phase. Many first-generation oxidation products are unsaturated, and we observed multiphase aging via further ozonolysis reactions. Volatile products such as C9H14O (limonaketone) and C10H16O2 (limonaldehyde) were observed in the gas phase early in the experiment, before reacting again with ozone. Loss of C10H16O4 (7-hydroxy limononic acid) from the particle phase was surprisingly slow. A combination of reduced C = C reactivity and viscous particle formation (relative to other SOA systems) may explain this, and both scenarios were tested in the Pretty Good Aerosol Model (PG-AM). A range of characterisation measurements were also carried out to benchmark the chamber against existing facilities. This work demonstrates the utility of CASC, particularly for understanding the reactivity and health-relevant properties of organic aerosols using novel, highly time-resolved techniques.

  12. Evidence for non-random sampling in randomised, controlled trials by Yuhji Saitoh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, J B; Loadsman, J A

    2017-01-01

    A large number of randomised trials authored by Yoshitaka Fujii have been retracted, in part as a consequence of a previous analysis finding a very low probability of random sampling. Dr Yuhji Saitoh co-authored 34 of those trials and he was corresponding author for eight of them. We found a number of additional randomised, controlled trials that included baseline data, with Saitoh as corresponding author, that Fujii did not co-author. We used Monte Carlo simulations to analyse the baseline data from 32 relevant trials in total as well as an outcome (muscle twitch recovery ratios) reported in several. We also compared a series of muscle twitch recovery graphs appearing in a number of Saitoh's publications. The baseline data in 14/32 randomised, controlled trials had p sampling. Combining the continuous and categorical probabilities of the 32 included trials, we found a very low likelihood of random sampling: p = 1.27 × 10(-8) (1 in 100,000,000). The high probability of non-random sampling and the repetition of lines in multiple graphs suggest that further scrutiny of Saitoh's work is warranted. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. A randomised trial of the effect of postal reminders on attendance for breast screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Prue C; Maxwell, Anthony J; Hudson, Sue; Offman, Judith; Hutchison, Gillian; Beattie, Cathryn; Tuano-Donnelly, Raquel; Threlfall, Anthony; Summersgill, Tina; Bellis, Lesley; Robinson, Collette; Heaton, Samantha; Patnick, Julietta; Duffy, Stephen W

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some women make an informed choice not to attend breast screening, whereas others may have forgotten about the appointment. We report on a randomised trial that investigates whether a reminder letter affects attendance. Methods: Women scheduled for a breast screening appointment were randomised to either receive a reminder letter a few days before their breast screening appointment in addition to the standard invitation letter (intervention) or not (control). The primary outcome was attendance within 30 days of the first offered appointment. Secondary outcomes were attendance within 90 and 180 days. Results: In all, 11 383 (49.9%) women were randomised to the intervention and 11 445 (50.1%) to the control. In the intervention arm, 7759 (68.2%) attended within 30 days of the first offered appointment compared with 7349 (64.2%) in the control arm. This difference was significant (P<0.001). The odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for the primary end point was 1.19 (1.13–1.26). This was not significantly affected by age, socioeconomic status or type of screen (prevalent or incident). Secondary endpoint analyses supported these results. Results did differ, however, between the different centres studied. Conclusions: This study found that postal reminders increase breast screening uptake, and could be practicable to implement in the NHS Breast Screening Programme. PMID:26784123

  14. Philosophy at Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Newsletter of the Philosophy Faculty. Articles by: Tim Crane, 'From the Chair' ; Huw Price, "Erroneously supposed to do no harm"; Arthur Gibson, 'The Wittgenstein-Skinner Archive; Emily Thomas, 'Elizabeth Anscombe'.

  15. [Mendelian randomisation - a genetic approach to an epidemiological method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensrud, Mats Julius

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND Genetic information is becoming more easily available, and rapid progress is being made in developing methods of illuminating issues of interest. Mendelian randomisation makes it possible to study causes of disease using observational data. The name refers to the random distribution of gene variants in meiosis. The methodology makes use of genes that influence a risk factor for a disease, without influencing the disease itself. In this review article I explain the principles behind Mendelian randomisation and present the areas of application for this methodology.MATERIAL AND METHOD Methodology articles describing Mendelian randomisation were reviewed. The articles were found through a search in PubMed with the combination «mendelian randomization» OR «mendelian randomisation», and a search in McMaster Plus with the combination «mendelian randomization». A total of 15 methodology articles were read in full text. Methodology articles were supplemented by clinical studies found in the PubMed search.RESULTS In contrast to traditional observational studies, Mendelian randomisation studies are not affected by two important sources of error: conventional confounding variables and reverse causation. Mendelian randomisation is therefore a promising tool for studying causality. Mendelian randomisation studies have already provided valuable knowledge on the risk factors for a wide range of diseases. It is nevertheless important to be aware of the limitations of the methodology. As a result of the rapid developments in genetics research, Mendelian randomisation will probably be widely used in future years.INTERPRETATION If Mendelian randomisation studies are conducted correctly, they may help to reveal both modifiable and non-modifiable causes of disease.

  16. PRECISE - pregabalin in addition to usual care for sciatica: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieson, Stephanie; Maher, Christopher G; McLachlan, Andrew J; Latimer, Jane; Koes, Bart W; Hancock, Mark J.; Harris, Ian; Day, Richard O; Pik, Justin; Jan, Stephen; Billot, Laurent; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background Sciatica is a type of neuropathic pain that is characterised by pain radiating into the leg. It is often accompanied by low back pain and neurological deficits in the lower limb. While this condition may cause significant suffering for the individual, the lack of evidence supporting effective treatments for sciatica makes clinical management difficult. Our objectives are to determine the efficacy of pregabalin on reducing leg pain intensity and its cost-effectiveness in patients wi...

  17. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as

  18. Protocol for the Mindful Student Study: a randomised controlled trial of the provision of a mindfulness intervention to support university students' well-being and resilience to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Julieta; Dufour, Geraldine; Benton, Alice; Howarth, Emma; Vainre, Maris; Croudace, Timothy J; Wagner, Adam P; Stochl, Jan; Jones, Peter B

    2016-11-09

    Levels of stress in UK university students are high, with an increase in the proportion of students seeking help in recent years. Academic pressure is reported as a major trigger. Mindfulness training has been shown to reduce stress and is popular among students, but its effectiveness in this context needs to be ascertained. In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we hypothesise that the provision of a preventative mindfulness intervention in universities could reduce students' psychological distress during the examination period (primary outcome), improve their resilience to stress up to at least 1 year later, reduce their use of mental health support services and improve academic performance. At least 550 University of Cambridge students free from active crises or severe mental illness will be randomised to joining an 8-week mindfulness course or to mental health provision as usual (one-to-one allocation rate). Psychological distress will be measured using the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure at baseline, postintervention, examination term and 1-year follow-up. Other outcomes are use of mental health services, inability to sit examinations or special circumstance requests, examination grades, well-being, altruism and coping measured with ecological momentary assessment. Outcome assessment and intention-to-treat primary analysis using linear mixed models adjusted for baseline scores will be blind to intervention allocation. We will also conduct per-protocol, subgroup and secondary outcome analyses. An Independent Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee will be set up. We will systematically monitor for, and react to, possible adverse events. An advisory reference group will comprise student representatives, members of the University Counselling Service and other student welfare staff. Approval has been obtained from Cambridge Psychology Research Ethics Committee (PRE.2015.060). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals. A lay

  19. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers.

  20. Wound healing with honey - a randomised controlled trial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gold Mining and Westonaria Gold Mining from September. 1995 to July 1996 ... glycol20%, starch copolymer 2% and water 78%. ... Table I. Wound types randomised by block for treatment with honey or IntraSite Gel (withdrawn from analysis)*.

  1. The Hawthorne Effect: a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Haselen Robbert

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Hawthorne Effect' may be an important factor affecting the generalisability of clinical research to routine practice, but has been little studied. Hawthorne Effects have been reported in previous clinical trials in dementia but to our knowledge, no attempt has been made to quantify them. Our aim was to compare minimal follow-up to intensive follow-up in participants in a placebo controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba for treating mild-moderate dementia. Methods Participants in a dementia trial were randomised to intensive follow-up (with comprehensive assessment visits at baseline and two, four and six months post randomisation or minimal follow-up (with an abbreviated assessment at baseline and a full assessment at six months. Our primary outcomes were cognitive functioning (ADAS-Cog and participant and carer-rated quality of life (QOL-AD. Results We recruited 176 participants, mainly through general practices. The main analysis was based on Intention to treat (ITT, with available data. In the ANCOVA model with baseline score as a co-variate, follow-up group had a significant effect on outcome at six months on the ADAS-Cog score (n = 140; mean difference = -2.018; 95%CI -3.914, -0.121; p = 0.037 favouring the intensive follow-up group, and on participant-rated quality of life score (n = 142; mean difference = -1.382; 95%CI -2.642, -0.122; p = 0.032 favouring minimal follow-up group. There was no significant difference on carer quality of life. Conclusion We found that more intensive follow-up of individuals in a placebo-controlled clinical trial of Ginkgo biloba for treating mild-moderate dementia resulted in a better outcome than minimal follow-up, as measured by their cognitive functioning. Trial registration Current controlled trials: ISRCTN45577048

  2. Lessons from randomised direct comparative trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Fredrikson, Sten

    2009-02-01

    For over a decade, four immunomodulatory therapies have been available for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. However, few direct comparative data were available to facilitate the choice of treatment. This choice has been influenced by the perception that interferon-beta preparations have greater efficacy than glatiramer acetate, due to apparently more rapid and robust reduction of gadolinium-enhancing lesions seen on magnetic resonance imaging in the pivotal trials of these agents. This situation has changed in the last year, with the outcomes of three randomised clinical trials comparing the efficacy and safety of glatiramer acetate with that of a high-dose interferon-beta in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. These are the REGARD, BEYOND and BECOME trials. In the REGARD trial, 764 patients were randomised to treatment with either interferon-beta 1a sc 44 microg or glatiramer acetate for 96 weeks; no significant difference in the time to first relapse was observed. The largest of the three comparative studies, the BEYOND trial, compared treatment with interferon-beta 1b sc 500 microg, interferon-beta 1b sc 250 microg or glatiramer acetate for two years in 2,244 patients. The hazard ratio for multiple relapses was close to unity for comparisons between all groups, indicating equivalent efficacy in all three treatment arms. Relapse rates (around 0.3 relapses/year) in all these studies were much lower than anticipated and lower than those reported a decade previously in the pivotal trials of beta-interferons and glatiramer acetate. No unexpected safety issues were identified in any of these studies. The completion of these direct comparative studies has considerably enriched the clinical evidence database by contributing large numbers of patients. This provides an invaluable contribution for helping the physician make an informed choice about treatment. The results of the direct comparative studies provide evidence that glatiramer acetate

  3. A randomised controlled trial evaluating family mediated exercise (FAME therapy following stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes Emma

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a leading cause of disability among adults worldwide. Evidence suggests that increased duration of exercise therapy following stroke has a positive impact on functional outcome following stroke. The main objective of this randomised controlled trial is to evaluate the impact of additional family assisted exercise therapy in people with acute stroke. Methods/Design A prospective multi-centre single blind randomised controlled trial will be conducted. Forty patients with acute stroke will be randomised into either an experimental or control group. The experimental group will receive routine therapy and additional lower limb exercise therapy in the form of family assisted exercises. The control group will receive routine therapy with no additional formal input from their family members. Participants will be assessed at baseline, post intervention and followed up at three months using a series of standardised outcome measures. A secondary aim of the project is to evaluate the impact of the family mediated exercise programme on the person with stroke and the individual(s assisting in the delivery of exercises using a qualitative methodology. The study has gained ethical approval from the Research Ethics Committees of each of the clinical sites involved in the study. Discussion This study will evaluate a structured programme of exercises that can be delivered to people with stroke by their 'family members/friends'. Given that the progressive increase in the population of older people is likely to lead to an increased prevalence of stroke in the future, it is important to reduce the burden of this illness on the individual, the family and society. Family mediated exercises can maximise the carry over outside formal physiotherapy sessions, giving patients the opportunity for informal practice. Trial Registration The protocol for this study is registered with the US NIH Clinical trials registry (NCT00666744

  4. Mendelian randomisation in cardiovascular research: an introduction for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Derrick A; Holmes, Michael V

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the causal role of biomarkers in cardiovascular and other diseases is crucial in order to find effective approaches (including pharmacological therapies) for disease treatment and prevention. Classical observational studies provide naïve estimates of the likely role of biomarkers in disease development; however, such studies are prone to bias. This has direct relevance for drug development as if drug targets track to non-causal biomarkers, this can lead to expensive failure of these drugs in phase III randomised controlled trials. In an effort to provide a more reliable indication of the likely causal role of a biomarker in the development of disease, Mendelian randomisation studies are increasingly used, and this is facilitated by the availability of large-scale genetic data. We conducted a narrative review in order to provide a description of the utility of Mendelian randomisation for clinicians engaged in cardiovascular research. We describe the rationale and provide a basic description of the methods and potential limitations of Mendelian randomisation. We give examples from the literature where Mendelian randomisation has provided pivotal information for drug discovery including predicting efficacy, informing on target-mediated adverse effects and providing potential new evidence for drug repurposing. The variety of the examples presented illustrates the importance of Mendelian randomisation in order to prioritise drug targets for cardiovascular research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of pivagabine in neurasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolato, G; Cagnin, A; Mancia, D; Caffarra, P; Avanzi, S; Copelli, S; Ciappina, C; Lo Presti, F; Spilimbergo, P G; D'Antonio, E; Di Costanzo, E; Matrango, M; Pastres, P; Urbani, P P; Signorino, M; Simoncelli, M; Provinciali, L; Regnicolo, L; Albano, C; Roccatagliata, G; Rubino, V; Cultrera, S; Fracassi, M

    1997-11-01

    One hundred and eighteen patients with neurasthenia, as defined by ICD 10 (International Classification of Diseases), participated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pivagabine (4-[(2,2-dimethyl-1-oxopropyl)amino]butanoic acid, CAS 69542-93-4, Tonerg). Pivagabine 1800 mg/d was administered orally for four weeks. At the end of the trial, active medication was significantly superior to placebo on the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) improvement of illness scale. In addition, pivagabine treatment reduced the physical and mental fatigability of patients, and increased their sense of well-being.

  6. Impact of autologous blood injections in treatment of mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy: double blind randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Kevin J; Fulcher, Mark L; Rowlands, David S.; Kerse, Ngaire

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of two peritendinous autologous blood injections in addition to a standardised eccentric calf strengthening programme in improving pain and function in patients with mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy. Design Single centre, participant and single assessor blinded, parallel group, randomised, controlled trial. Setting Single sports medicine clinic in New Zealand. Participants 53 adults (mean age 49, 53% men) with symptoms of unilateral mid-portion Achilles ...

  7. One-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial on added splinting to eccentric exercises in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Jonge (Suzan); R.J. de Vos (Robert-Jan); J.T.M. van Schie (Hans); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A. Weir (Adam); J.L. Tol (Johannes)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The study examined whether the addition of a night splint to eccentric exercises is beneficial for functional outcome in chronic mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy. DESIGN: One-year follow-up of a randomised controlled single blinded clinical trial. SETTING: Sports medicine

  8. One-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial on added splinting to eccentric exercises in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Jonge (Suzan); R.J. de Vos (Robert-Jan); J.T.M. van Schie (Hans); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A. Weir (Adam); J.L. Tol (Johannes)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The study examined whether the addition of a night splint to eccentric exercises is beneficial for functional outcome in chronic mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy. DESIGN: One-year follow-up of a randomised controlled single blinded clinical trial. SETTING: Sports medicine dep

  9. Applying the intention-to-treat principle in practice: Guidance on handling randomisation errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Lisa N; Sullivan, Thomas R; Voysey, Merryn; Lee, Katherine J; Cook, Jonathan A; Forbes, Andrew B

    2015-08-01

    The intention-to-treat principle states that all randomised participants should be analysed in their randomised group. The implications of this principle are widely discussed in relation to the analysis, but have received limited attention in the context of handling errors that occur during the randomisation process. The aims of this article are to (1) demonstrate the potential pitfalls of attempting to correct randomisation errors and (2) provide guidance on handling common randomisation errors when they are discovered that maintains the goals of the intention-to-treat principle. The potential pitfalls of attempting to correct randomisation errors are demonstrated and guidance on handling common errors is provided, using examples from our own experiences. We illustrate the problems that can occur when attempts are made to correct randomisation errors and argue that documenting, rather than correcting these errors, is most consistent with the intention-to-treat principle. When a participant is randomised using incorrect baseline information, we recommend accepting the randomisation but recording the correct baseline data. If ineligible participants are inadvertently randomised, we advocate keeping them in the trial and collecting all relevant data but seeking clinical input to determine their appropriate course of management, unless they can be excluded in an objective and unbiased manner. When multiple randomisations are performed in error for the same participant, we suggest retaining the initial randomisation and either disregarding the second randomisation if only one set of data will be obtained for the participant, or retaining the second randomisation otherwise. When participants are issued the incorrect treatment at the time of randomisation, we propose documenting the treatment received and seeking clinical input regarding the ongoing treatment of the participant. Randomisation errors are almost inevitable and should be reported in trial publications. The

  10. Loads and yields of deicing compounds and total phosphorus in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, Massachusetts, water years 2009–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2017-09-12

    The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of the large amount of roadway in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply is affected by the usage of deicing compounds and by other constituents that are flushed from such impervious areas. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1998) through continuous monitoring and the collection of stream-flow samples.In a study conducted by the USGS, in cooperation with the City of Cambridge Water Department, concentrations and loads of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of specific conductance and streamflow for streams and tributaries at 10 continuous water-quality monitoring stations. These data were used to characterize current (2015) water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir Basins. These data also were used to describe how stream-water quality is related to various basin characteristics and provide information to guide future management of the drinking-water source area.Water samples from 2009–15 were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, potassium (K), SO4, and total phosphorus (TP). Values of physical properties and constituent concentrations varied widely, particularly in composite samples of stormflow from tributaries that have high percentages of constructed impervious areas. Median concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, and K in samples collected from the tributaries in the Cambridge Reservoir Basin (27.2, 273, 4.7, 154

  11. The Cambridge Bachelor of Medicine (MB)/Doctor of Philosophy (PhD): graduate outcomes of the first MB/PhD programme in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy M; Brimicombe, James; Wood, Diana F; Peters, D Keith

    2012-12-01

    We reviewed outcomes of the Cambridge Bachelor of Medicine (MB)/Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programme for the period 1989-2010. Of the 90 alumni contacted, 80 (89%; 24 women) completed an anonymous questionnaire. Thirty were academic staff and 35 were in general professional (core) or higher medical training. Of the latter, 11 were specialty registrars, six were academic clinical fellows and three held academic foundation year posts. Eight alumni were overseas, including five in North America. Most (95%) respondents considered that their academic career goals were facilitated by the programme. Sixty-eight of the 80 alumni had conducted further research, 63 (79%) were active in research, and 90% had explicit plans for further full-time research. Twelve graduates had further substantive research support (six clinician scientist awards and three senior fellowships) and two were Wellcome Trust postdoctoral MB/PhD fellows. Alumni included two full university professors, one reader, six senior lecturers, two assistant professors and nine university clinical lecturers. MB/PhD programmes offer an alternative training pathway for clinician-scientists in UK medical schools: the Cambridge programme promotes scientific discovery and sustained academic development within the context of contemporary medicine and clinical practice.

  12. EURAMOS-1, an international randomised study for osteosarcoma: results from pre-randomisation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, J S; Bielack, S S; Marina, N; Smeland, S; Jovic, G; Hook, J M; Krailo, M; Anninga, J; Butterfass-Bahloul, T; Böhling, T; Calaminus, G; Capra, M; Deffenbaugh, C; Dhooge, C; Eriksson, M; Flanagan, A M; Gelderblom, H; Goorin, A; Gorlick, R; Gosheger, G; Grimer, R J; Hall, K S; Helmke, K; Hogendoorn, P C W; Jundt, G; Kager, L; Kuehne, T; Lau, C C; Letson, G D; Meyer, J; Meyers, P A; Morris, C; Mottl, H; Nadel, H; Nagarajan, R; Randall, R L; Schomberg, P; Schwarz, R; Teot, L A; Sydes, M R; Bernstein, M

    2015-02-01

    Four international study groups undertook a large study in resectable osteosarcoma, which included two randomised controlled trials, to determine the effect on survival of changing post-operative chemotherapy based on histological response. Patients with resectable osteosarcoma aged ≤40 years were treated with the MAP regimen, comprising pre-operatively of two 5-week cycles of cisplatin 120 mg/m(2), doxorubicin 75 mg/m(2), methotrexate 12 g/m(2) × 2 (MAP) and post-operatively two further cycles of MAP and two cycles of just MA. Patients were randomised after surgery. Those with ≥10% viable tumour in the resected specimen received MAP or MAP with ifosfamide and etoposide. Those with osteosarcoma study to date in 75 months. Commencing March 2005, 2260 patients were registered from 326 centres across 17 countries. About 1334 of 2260 registered patients (59%) were randomised. Pre-operative chemotherapy was completed according to protocol in 94%. Grade 3-4 neutropenia affected 83% of cycles and 59% were complicated by infection. There were three (0.13%) deaths related to pre-operative chemotherapy. At definitive surgery, 50% of patients had at least 90% necrosis in the resected specimen. New models of collaboration are required to successfully conduct trials to improve outcomes of patients with rare cancers; EURAMOS-1 demonstrates achievability. Considerable regulatory, financial and operational challenges must be overcome to develop similar studies in the future. The trial is registered as NCT00134030 and ISRCTN 67613327. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

  13. 76 FR 38641 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Administration. NSN: 8940-00-NIB-0094--Soup, Shelf-Stable, Cream of Mushroom, Low Sodium. NSN: 8940-00-NIB-0095--Soup, Shelf-Stable, Cream of Chicken. NPA: Cambridge Industries for the Visually Impaired, Somerset, NJ...: Custodial Services, Campbell Industrial, Buildings FTEC 977 & FTEC Trailer, Oahu, HI. Makalapa, Buildings 16...

  14. Evaluation of a smartphone nutrition and physical activity application to provide lifestyle advice to pregnant women: The SNAPP randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Jodie M; Louise, Jennie; Cramp, Courtney; Grivell, Rosalie M; Moran, Lisa J; Deussen, Andrea R

    2017-08-24

    Our objective was to evaluate the impact of a smartphone application as an adjunct to face-to-face consultations in facilitating dietary and physical activity change among pregnant women. This multicentre, nested randomised trial involved pregnant women with a body mass index ≥18.5 kg/m(2) , with a singleton pregnancy between 10 and 20 weeks' gestation, and participating in 2 pregnancy nutrition-based randomised trials across metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. All women participating in the SNAPP trial received a comprehensive dietary, physical activity, and behavioural intervention, as part of the GRoW or OPTIMISE randomised trials. Women were subsequently randomised to either the "Lifestyle Advice Only Group," where women received the above intervention, or the "Lifestyle Advice plus Smartphone Application Group," where women were additionally provided access to the smartphone application. The primary outcome was healthy eating index (HEI) assessed by maternal food frequency questionnaire completed at trial entry, and 28 and 36 weeks' gestation. Analyses were performed using intention-to-treat principles, with statistical significance at p = .05. One hundred sixty-two women participated: 77 allocated to the Lifestyle Advice plus Smartphone Application Group and 85 to the Lifestyle Advice Only Group. Mean difference in HEI score at 28 weeks of pregnancy was 0.01 (CI [-2.29, 2.62]) and at 36 weeks of pregnancy -1.16 (CI [-4.60, 2.28]). There was no significant additional benefit from the provision of the smartphone application in improving HEI score (p = .452). Although all women improved dietary quality across pregnancy, use of the smartphone application was poor. Our findings do not support addition of the smartphone application. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Promoting public awareness of randomised clinical trials using the media: the 'Get Randomised' campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Isla S; Wei, Li; Rutherford, Daniel; Findlay, Evelyn A; Saywood, Wendy; Campbell, Marion K; Macdonald, Thomas M

    2010-02-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Recruitment is key to the success of clinical trials. * Many clinical trials fail to achieve adequate recruitment. * Public understanding and engagement in clinical research could be improved. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS * 'Get Randomised' is the first campaign of its kind in the UK. * It is possible to improve public awareness of clinical research using the media. * Further work is needed to determine whether improved public awareness leads to increased participation in clinical research in the future. AIM To increase public awareness and understanding of clinical research in Scotland. METHODS A generic media campaign to raise public awareness of clinical research was launched in 2008. The 'Get Randomised' campaign was a Scotland-wide initiative led by the University of Dundee in collaboration with other Scottish universities. Television, radio and newspaper advertising showed leading clinical researchers, general practitioners and patients informing the public about the importance of randomised clinical trials (RCTs). 'Get Randomised' was the central message and interested individuals were directed to the http://www.getrandomised.org website for more information. To assess the impact of the campaign, cross-sectional surveys were conducted in representative samples of 1040 adults in Scotland prior to campaign launch and again 6 months later. RESULTS There was an improvement in public awareness of clinical trials following the campaign; 56.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 51.8, 61.6] of the sample recalled seeing or hearing advertising about RCTs following the campaign compared with 14.8% (10.8, 18.9) prior to the campaign launch (difference = 41.4%; 95% CI for difference 35.6, 48.3; P advertising, 49% felt that the main message was that people should take part more in medical research. However, on whether they would personally take part in a clinical trial if asked, there was little difference in response following the campaign

  16. Influence of reported study design characteristics on intervention effect estimates from randomised controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savović, J; Jones, He; Altman, Dg

    2012-01-01

    The design of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) should incorporate characteristics (such as concealment of randomised allocation and blinding of participants and personnel) that avoid biases resulting from lack of comparability of the intervention and control groups. Empirical evidence suggests...

  17. Structured risk assessment and violence in acute psychiatric wards: randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abderhalden, Christoph; Needham, Ian; Dassen, Theo; Halfens, Ruud; Haug, Hans-Joachim; Fischer, Joachim E

    2008-01-01

    .... To assess whether such risk assessments decrease the incidence of violence and coercion. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 14 acute psychiatric admission wards as the units of randomisation, including a preference arm...

  18. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  19. A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlijn de Roos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Building on previous research with disaster-exposed children and adolescents, a randomised clinical trial was performed in the treatment of trauma-related symptoms. In the current study two active treatments were compared among children in a broad age range and from a wide diversity of ethnic populations. Objective : The primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR. Design : Children (n=52, aged 4–18 were randomly allocated to either CBT (n=26 or EMDR (n=26 in a disaster mental health after-care setting after an explosion of a fireworks factory. All children received up to four individual treatment sessions over a 4–8 week period along with up to four sessions of parent guidance. Blind assessment took place pre- and post-treatment and at 3 months follow-up on a variety of parent-rated and self-report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology, depression, anxiety, and behaviour problems. Analyses of variance (general linear model repeated measures were conducted on the intention-to-treat sample and the completers. Results : Both treatment approaches produced significant reductions on all measures and results were maintained at follow-up. Treatment gains of EMDR were reached in fewer sessions. Conclusion : Standardised CBT and EMDR interventions can significantly improve functioning of disaster-exposed children.For the abstract in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  20. Randomised controlled Trial of Improvisational Music therapy's Effectiveness for children with Autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Gold, Christian

    2012-01-01

    design with first interim look at N = 235 will ensure both power and efficiency. Discussion Responding to the need for more rigorously designed trials examining the effectiveness of music therapy in autism spectrum disorders, this pragmatic trial sets out to generate findings that will be well...... sessions of parent counselling (at 0, 2, and 5 months). In addition, children randomised to the two intervention groups will be offered individual, improvisational music therapy over a period of five months, either one session (low-intensity) or three sessions (high-intensity) per week. Generalised effects...... of music therapy will be measured using standardised scales completed by blinded assessors (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS) and parents (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS) before and 2, 5, and 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated as man years. A group sequential...

  1. THE SCANDCLEFT RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIALS: SPEECH OUTCOMES IN 5-YEAR-OLDS WITH UCLP – consonant proficiency and errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Persson, Christina; Lohmander, Anette

    2017-01-01

    for primary palatal repair. A secondary aim was to estimate burden of care in terms of received additional secondary surgeries and speech therapy. Design: Three parallel group, randomised clinical trials were undertaken as an international multicentre study by 10 cleft teams in five countries: Denmark...... and transcribed phonetically. The main outcome measure was Percent Consonants Correct (PCC) from blinded assessments. Results: In Trial 1, arm A showed statistically significant higher PCC scores (82%) than arm B (78%) (p = .045). No significant differences were found between prevalences in Trial 2, A: 79%, C: 82...... in terms of secondary pharyngeal surgeries, number of fistulae, and speech therapy visits differed. Trial registration: ISRCTN29932826. Keywords: Primary palatal repair, unilateral cleft lip and palate, consonant proficiency, cleft speech characteristics, randomised clinical trial...

  2. Ear Acupuncture versus  local anaestethic for pain relief during perineal repair - a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindberg, Sara

    2007-01-01

    ACUPUNCTURE OR LOCAL ANAESTETICS FOR PAIN RELIEF DURING PERINEAL REPAIR AFTER VAGINAL DELIVERY: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL.   By:  Sara Kindberg. Midwife and PhD student, Sønderborg Hospital, Denmark. Objective: To evaluate acupuncture as a new method of pain relief for postpartum perineal...... are conducted at day 1 or 2, at day 14 and 6 months after delivery. A validated tool for wound healing assessment and pain score is used. Randomisation is stratified on episiotomies and epidural is used for pain during delivery. Main outcome measures: 1. Need for additional pain relief during perineal repair. 2....... Pain experienced during perineal repair reported 1 day after delivery. 3. Wound healing evaluated 1 and 14 days after delivery. 4. Patient satisfaction with the allocated pain relief during perineal repair. Results:  The trial is ongoing until July 2007. Preliminary results will be presented as well...

  3. Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery in assessment of cognitive parameters in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in relation to autoantibody profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaczewicz, Anna; Sobow, Tomasz; Kowalski, Jan; Ząbek, Jakub; Woźniacka, Anna; Bogaczewicz, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    To relate the cognitive parameters of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in remission to their profile of autoantibodies. The study included 32 patients with SLE in remission, with mild disease activity as indicated by SELENA-SLEDAI Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) was applied, using motor screening (MOT), big little circle (BLC), paired associated learning (PAL), stockings of Cambridge (SOC), and graded naming tests (GNT). Detection of autoantibodies against dsDNA, nucleosome (aNuc), Sm, and anticardiolipin (aCL: IgG and IgM) was performed with immunoassays. The SLE patients demonstrated standard scores below norms, matched according to age and gender, in the following tests: GNT (-0.87 ±0.85), SOC PSMM (-0.47 ±0.97), PAL (-1.88 ±3.58), and BLC (-0.31 ±1.90). GNT scores under -0.5 were found significantly more frequently in SLE patients, seen in roughly 66% of test subjects. Values for PAL and mean subsequent thinking time of stockings of Cambridge (SOC MSTT) were found to be lower than -0.5 in approximately half of the patients. Mean error of motor screening (MOT ME) was found to negatively correlate with mean latency of motor screening (MOT ML) (r = -0.55). PAL significantly correlated with SOC MSTT (r = 0.38) and with GNT (r = 0.36). Anti-dsDNA antibody level correlated negatively with MOT ME (r = -0.46). Anti-Nuc antibodies correlated with MOT ML (r = 0.41) but negatively correlated with MOT ME (r = -0.58). The levels of anti-Sm, anti-CL IgM and IgG did not correlate significantly with the outcomes of CANTAB. The age of the patients correlated negatively with MOT ME (r = -0.36), positively with BLC (r = 0.53) and negatively with SOC MSTT (r = -0.43). The level of anti-Nuc antibodies correlated with anti-dsDNA level (r = 0.62) and of anti-CL IgM with anti-Sm (r = 0.39) and anti-CL IgG (r = 0.87). CANTAB reveals a decrease in selected cognitive functions in patients with SLE. ACL IgG and anti-dsDNA antibodies indicated

  4. 40-Godišnjica institucije Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre posvećene pohranjivanju podataka o molekularnim i kristalnim strukturama -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molčanov, K.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to 40th anniversary of The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC, the world-known centre (http://www.ccdc.cam.ac.uk responsible for deposition and control of crystallographic data, including atomic coordinates that define the three-dimensional structures of organic molecules and metal complexes containing organic ligands. Cambride Structural Database (CSD, one among the first established electronic databases, nowadays is the most significant crystallographic database in the world. CSD has about 400,000 deposited structures. The use of the extensive database, which is growing rapidly, needs support of efficient and sophisticated software for searching, analysing and visualising structural data. The seminal role of CSD in the research related to crystallography, chemistry, material sciences, solid state physics and chemistry, life sciences, pharmacology, and in particular in drug design, has been documented in more than 1300 scientific papers. The important issues of CCDC are the accuracy of deposited data and development of software that enables a wide variety of applications. Such demanding project requires higly competent team of experts; thus the article brings into focus the scientific approach of the team based on the long tradition in crystallography, modelling and informatics. The article is not dedicated to 40th anniversary of the centre only, but it also reveals how Cambridge Structural Database can be used in the research and teaching. The use of electronic media and computer graphics makes “data mining" very efficient and useful but also esthetically appealing due to the molecular architecture. At the Rudjer Bošković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia there is The National Affiliated Centre of Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre responsible for communication and dissemination of CSD in Croatia, Slovenia and Macedonia. The use of CSD is illustrated by two examples performed and published by the presenting

  5. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  6. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  7. Persistent occiput posterior: OUTcomes following digital rotation: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kathryn; Phipps, Hala; Hyett, Jon A; Ludlow, Joanne P; Mackie, Adam; Marren, Anthony; De Vries, Bradley

    2014-06-01

    To determine the feasibility of a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to investigate whether digital rotation of the fetal head from occiput posterior (OP) position in the second stage of labour reduces the risk of operative delivery (defined as caesarean section (CS) or instrumental delivery). We conducted the study between December 2010 and December 2011 in a tertiary referral hospital in Australia. A transabdominal ultrasound was performed early in the second stage of labour on women with cephalic, singleton pregnancies to determine the fetal position. Those women with a fetus in the OP position were randomised to either a digital rotation or a sham procedure. In all other ways, participants received their usual intrapartum care. Data regarding demographics, mode of delivery, labour, post natal period and neonatal outcomes were collected. One thousand and four women were consented, 834 achieved full dilatation, and 30 were randomised. An additional portable ultrasound scan and a blinded 'sham' digital rotation were acceptable to women and staff. Operative delivery rates were 13/15 in the digital rotation (four CS and nine instrumental) and 12/15 in the sham (three CS and nine instrumental) groups, respectively. A large double-blinded multicentre RCT would be feasible and acceptable to women and staff. Strategies to improve recruitment such as consenting women with an effective epidural in active labour should be considered. This would be the first RCT to answer a clinically important question which could significantly affect the operative delivery rate in Australia and internationally. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Educational outreach to general practitioners reduces children's asthma symptoms: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladden Michael

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood asthma is common in Cape Town, a province of South Africa, but is underdiagnosed by general practitioners. Medications are often prescribed inappropriately, and care is episodic. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of educational outreach to general practitioners on asthma symptoms of children in their practice. Methods This is a cluster randomised trial with general practices as the unit of intervention, randomisation, and analysis. The setting is Mitchells Plain (population 300,000, a dormitory town near Cape Town. Solo general practitioners, without nurse support, operate from storefront practices. Caregiver-reported symptom data were collected for 318 eligible children (2 to 17 years with moderate to severe asthma, who were attending general practitioners in Mitchells Plain. One year post-intervention follow-up data were collected for 271 (85% of these children in all 43 practices. Practices randomised to intervention (21 received two 30-minute educational outreach visits by a trained pharmacist who left materials describing key interventions to improve asthma care. Intervention and control practices received the national childhood asthma guideline. Asthma severity was measured in a parent-completed survey administered through schools using a symptom frequency and severity scale. We compared intervention and control group children on the change in score from pre-to one-year post-intervention. Results Symptom scores declined an additional 0.84 points in the intervention vs. control group (on a nine-point scale. p = 0.03. For every 12 children with asthma exposed to a doctor allocated to the intervention, one extra child will have substantially reduced symptoms. Conclusion Educational outreach was accepted by general practitioners and was effective. It could be applied to other health care quality problems in this setting.

  9. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  10. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. More on the spider genus Xeropigo O.P.-Cambridge (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae): seven new species and new records from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Leonardo S; Shimano, Yulie; Candiani, David F; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2016-05-17

    Seven new species of the spider genus Xeropigo O. P.-Cambridge are described from Brazil, increasing the genus member list up to 16 species. X. piripiri n. sp., X. aitatu n. sp., and X. cajuina n. sp. are described from the state of Piauí. X. crispim n. sp. is described from the states of Ceará, Piauí, and Maranhão. X. oxente n. sp. is described from the state of Rio Grande do Norte. X. canga n. sp. is described from the state of Minas Gerais. X. ufo n. sp. is described from the state of Mato Grosso. The geographical distribution of X. tridentiger, X. camilae, X. pachitea, and X. perene is updated. A key to all species of Xeropigo is presented and possible relationships among all species of the genus are discussed.

  12. Promoting childbirth companions in South Africa: a randomised pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Helen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most women delivering in South African State Maternity Hospitals do not have a childbirth companion; in addition, the quality of care could be better, and at times women are treated inhumanely. We piloted a multi-faceted intervention to encourage uptake of childbirth companions in state hospitals, and hypothesised that lay carers would improve the behaviour of health professionals. Methods We conducted a pilot randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote childbirth companions in hospital deliveries. We promoted evidence-based information for maternity staff at 10 hospitals through access to the World Health Organization Reproductive Health Library (RHL, computer hardware and training to all ten hospitals. We surveyed 200 women at each site, measuring companionship, and indicators of good obstetric practice and humanity of care. Five hospitals were then randomly allocated to receive an educational intervention to promote childbirth companions, and we surveyed all hospitals again at eight months through a repeat survey of postnatal women. Changes in median values between intervention and control hospitals were examined. Results At baseline, the majority of hospitals did not allow a companion, or access to food or fluids. A third of women were given an episiotomy. Some women were shouted at (17.7%, N = 2085, and a few reported being slapped or struck (4.3%, N = 2080. Despite an initial positive response from staff to the childbirth companion intervention, we detected no difference between intervention and control hospitals in relation to whether a companion was allowed by nursing staff, good obstetric practice or humanity of care. Conclusion The quality and humanity of care in these state hospitals needs to improve. Introducing childbirth companions was more difficult than we anticipated, particularly in under-resourced health care systems with frequent staff changes. We were unable to determine whether the presence

  13. Additive Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duvenaud, David; Rasmussen, Carl Edward

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a Gaussian process model of functions which are additive. An additive function is one which decomposes into a sum of low-dimensional functions, each depending on only a subset of the input variables. Additive GPs generalize both Generalized Additive Models, and the standard GP models which use squared-exponential kernels. Hyperparameter learning in this model can be seen as Bayesian Hierarchical Kernel Learning (HKL). We introduce an expressive but tractable parameterization of the kernel function, which allows efficient evaluation of all input interaction terms, whose number is exponential in the input dimension. The additional structure discoverable by this model results in increased interpretability, as well as state-of-the-art predictive power in regression tasks.

  14. Experience of University of Cambridge and Its Implications to Jiangsu%英国剑桥大学技术转移经验及江苏借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈瑾秋; 陈艳

    2016-01-01

    技术转移是实施国家创新驱动战略和提升创新核心能力的重要途径,而高校是推动技术转移、科技创新的重要力量,加快发展高校技术转移尤为重要。剑桥大学是世界级的研究型大学,其以独特的产学研模式,不断创造新产业,是欧洲高端要素最集中的地区之一。文章深入总结分析英国剑桥大学在技术转移方面的主要做法,并具体阐述对于江苏省技术转移的主要启示与建议。%Technology transfer is an important way to implement the national innovation-driven strategy and enhance the core innovation competence, and colleges and universities are the important force to promote technology transfer and scientific and technical innovation. Therefore, accelerating the development of technology transfer in colleges and universities is particularly important. Cambridge, a world-grade research university, which continuously creates new industries with its unique research model. This paper deeply analyzes the main practices of Cambridge University in technology transfer, and specifically addresses its main inspiration and advice for technology transfer of Jiangsu Province.

  15. The jumping spider genus Thiodina Simon, 1900 reinterpreted, and revalidation of Colonus F.O.P-Cambridge, 1901 and Nilakantha Peckham & Peckham, 1901 (Araneae: Salticidae: Amycoida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Abel A; Maddison, Wayne P; Ruiz, Gustavo R S

    2015-09-02

    In this paper we call attention to the identity of the type species of Thiodina Simon, 1900, T. nicoleti Roewer, 1951. When Simon proposed the genus, he characterized it based on morphological features found in species he described, but not found in the type species he designated, and whose type specimens, apparently, he had not examined. Nicolet's original description makes it clear that the type species is not closely related to the more familiar species placed in the genus. This misinterpretation was followed by contemporary researchers and survives until today. Here we designate and describe a neotype for T. nicoleti. We revalidate Colonus F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901 and Nilakantha Peckham & Peckham, 1901 to transfer most species formerly placed in Thiodina. The combinations Colonus puerperus (Hentz, 1846), Nilakantha cockerelli Peckham & Peckham, 1901 and N. peckhami Bryant, 1940 are restored. The following new combinations are established: Colonus branicki (Taczanowski, 1871) new comb., C. candidus (Mello-Leitão, 1922) new comb., C. germaini (Simon, 1900) new comb., C. hesperus (Richman & Vetter, 2004) new comb., C. melanogaster (Mello-Leitão, 1917) new comb., C. pallidus (C.L. Koch, 1846) new comb., C. pseustes (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) new comb., C. punctulatus (Mello-Leitão, 1917) new comb., C. rishwani (Makhan, 2006) new comb., C. robustus (Mello-Leitão, 1945) new comb., C. sylvanus (Hentz, 1846) new comb., C. vaccula (Simon, 1900) new comb., C. vellardi (Soares & Camargo, 1948) new comb., Nilakantha beugelorum (Wolff, 1990) new comb., N. crucifera (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) new comb., and N. inerma (Bryant, 1940) new comb. Thiodina setosa Mello-Leitão, 1947 is tentatively transferred to Cotinusa Simon, 1900.

  16. Chinese herbal medicine for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C-X; Yan, L-J; Lewith, G; Liu, J-P

    2013-12-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss has great impact on quality of life. Many clinical trials using Chinese herbal medicine for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss have been conducted and reported beneficial results. However, there is no critical appraised evidence on efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss to inform clinical use. To assess the beneficial effect and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Seven electronic databases and two trial registries were searched for all eligible trials from inception to January 2013. Two authors independently selected trials and extracted data. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was utilised to assess the methodological quality of the included trials. revman 5.2 software was applied for data analysis with effect estimate presented as risk ratio and mean difference with its 95% confidence interval. Forty-one randomised clinical trials involving 3560 participants were identified. Five kinds of Chinese herbal medicine were trialed. All trials compared conventional therapies of steroids, vasodilators, anticoagulants, nutritional supplements or hyperbaric oxygen with or without herbal medicine. No trial was identified that compared herbal medicine alone with placebo. No trial was identified that blinded the participants or the observers to their herbal medication. Only one trial adequately reported its method of randomisation. No trial reported the sample size calculated to show an effect. All trials had material other defects giving a high likelihood of bias. Because of the overall poor quality of all 41 trials, it was concluded that there was no level-one evidence to support the use of Chinese herbal medicine, alone or in addition to conventional therapies, to improve the hearing in adults with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Two trials reported adverse

  17. Lovastatin for adult patients with dengue: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehorn James

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral infection of man, with approximately 2 billion people living in areas at risk. Infection results in a range of manifestations from asymptomatic infection through to life-threatening shock and haemorrhage. One of the hallmarks of severe dengue is vascular endothelial disruption. There is currently no specific therapy and clinical management is limited to supportive care. Statins are a class of drug initially developed for lipid lowering. There has been considerable recent interest in their effects beyond lipid lowering. These include anti-inflammatory effects at the endothelium. In addition, it is possible that lovastatin may have an anti-viral effect against dengue. Observational data suggest that the use of statins may improve outcomes for such conditions as sepsis and pneumonia. This paper describes the protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating a short course of lovastatin therapy in adult patients with dengue. Methods/design A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will investigate the effects of lovastatin therapy in the treatment of dengue. The trial will be conducted in two phases with an escalation of dose between phases if an interim safety review is satisfactory. This is an exploratory study focusing on safety and there are no data on which to base a sample size calculation. A target sample size of 300 patients in the second phase, enrolled over two dengue seasons, was chosen based on clinical judgement and feasibility considerations. In a previous randomised trial in dengue, about 10% and 30% of patients experienced at least one serious adverse event or adverse event, respectively. With 300 patients, we will have 80% power to detect an increase of 12% (from 10% to 22% or 16% (from 30% to 46% in the frequency of adverse events. Furthermore, this sample size ensures some power to explore the efficacy of statins. Discussion The development of a

  18. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  19. Testing the activitystat hypothesis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomersall Sjaan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activitystat hypothesis proposes that when physical activity or energy expenditure is increased or decreased in one domain, there will be a compensatory change in another domain to maintain an overall, stable level of physical activity or energy expenditure. To date, there has been no experimental study primarily designed to test the activitystat hypothesis in adults. The aim of this trial is to determine the effect of two different imposed exercise loads on total daily energy expenditure and physical activity levels. Methods This study will be a randomised, multi-arm, parallel controlled trial. Insufficiently active adults (as determined by the Active Australia survey aged 18–60 years old will be recruited for this study (n=146. Participants must also satisfy the Sports Medicine Australia Pre-Exercise Screening System and must weigh less than 150 kg. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups using a computer-generated allocation sequence. Participants in the Moderate exercise group will receive an additional 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week for six weeks, and those in the Extensive exercise group will receive an additional 300 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week for six weeks. Exercise targets will be accumulated through both group and individual exercise sessions monitored by heart rate telemetry. Control participants will not be given any instructions regarding lifestyle. The primary outcome measures are activity energy expenditure (doubly labeled water and physical activity (accelerometry. Secondary measures will include resting metabolic rate via indirect calorimetry, use of time, maximal oxygen consumption and several anthropometric and physiological measures. Outcome measures will be conducted at baseline (zero weeks, mid- and end-intervention (three and six weeks with three (12 weeks and six month (24 week follow-up. All assessors will be

  20. Food additives data book

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jim; Hong-Shum, Lily

    2011-01-01

    .... Compiled by food industry experts with a proven track record of producing high quality reference work, this volume is the definitive resource for technologists using food additives"-- "The use...

  1. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  2. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  3. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  4. Data-driven high-throughput prediction of the 3-D structure of small molecules: review and progress. A response to the letter by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre

    2011-12-27

    A response is presented to sentiments expressed in "Data-Driven High-Throughput Prediction of the 3-D Structure of Small Molecules: Review and Progress. A Response from The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre", recently published in the Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, (1) which may give readers a misleading impression regarding significant impediments to scientific research posed by the CCDC.

  5. Randomised crossover trial of telemonitoring in chronic respiratory patients (TeleCRAFT trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin, M; Hawkins, G; Panicchia, L; Woods, A; Hanak, A; Lucas, R; Baker, E; Ramhamdany, E; Mann, B; Riley, J; Cowie, M R; Simonds, A K

    2016-04-01

    Randomised crossover trial with 6 months of standard best practice clinical care (control group) and 6 months with the addition of telemonitoring. 68 patients with chronic lung disease (38 with COPD; 30 with chronic respiratory failure due to other causes), who had a hospital admission for an exacerbation within 6 months of randomisation and either used long-term oxygen therapy or had an arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) of telemonitoring (second-generation system) via broadband link to a hospital-based care team. Primary outcome measure was time to first hospital admission for an acute exacerbation. Secondary outcome measures were hospital admissions, general practitioner (GP) consultations and home visits by nurses, quality of life measured by EuroQol-5D and hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale, and self-efficacy score (Stanford). Median (IQR) number of days to first admission showed no difference between the two groups—77 (114) telemonitoring, 77.5 (61) control ( p=0.189). Hospital admission rate at 6 months increased (0.63 telemonitoring vs 0.32 control p=0.026). Home visits increased during telemonitoring; GP consultations were unchanged. Self-efficacy fell, while HAD depression score improved marginally during telemonitoring. Telemonitoring added to standard care did not alter time to next acute hospital admission, increased hospital admissions and home visits overall, and did not improve quality of life in chronic respiratory patients. NCT02180919 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

  6. Randomised controlled trial of qigong in the treatment of mild essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, B M Y; Lo, J L F; Fong, D Y T; Chan, M Y; Wong, S H T; Wong, V C W; Lam, K S L; Lau, C P; Karlberg, J P E

    2005-09-01

    Exercise and relaxation decrease blood pressure. Qigong is a traditional Chinese exercise consisting of breathing and gentle movements. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to study the effect of Guolin qigong on blood pressure. In all, 88 patients with mild essential hypertension were recruited from the community and randomised to Goulin qigong or conventional exercise for 16 weeks. The main outcome measurements were blood pressure, health status (SF-36 scores), Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventory scores. In the qigong group, blood pressure decreased significantly from 146.3+/-7.8/93.0+/-4.1 mmHg at baseline to 135.5+/-10.0/87.1+/-7.7 mmHg at week 16. In the exercise group, blood pressure also decreased significantly from 140.9+/-10.9/93.1+/-3.5 mmHg to 129.7+/-11.1/86.0+/-7.0 mmHg. Heart rate, weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, renin and 24 h urinary albumin excretion significantly decreased in both groups after 16 weeks. General health, bodily pain, social functioning and depression also improved in both groups. No significant differences between qigong and conventional exercise were found. In conclusion, Guolin qigong and conventional exercise have similar effects on blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. While no additional benefits were identified, it is nevertheless an alternative to conventional exercise in the nondrug treatment of hypertension.

  7. Replicability of sight word training and phonics training in poor readers: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G McArthur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of effective treatments for children with reading impairment, paired with growing concern about the lack of scientific replication in psychological science, the aim of this study was to replicate a quasi-randomised trial of sight word and phonics training using a randomised controlled trial (RCT design. One group of poor readers (N = 41 did 8 weeks of phonics training (i.e., phonological decoding and then 8 weeks of sight word training (i.e., whole-word recognition. A second group did the reverse order of training. Sight word and phonics training each had a large and significant valid treatment effect on trained irregular words and word reading fluency. In addition, combined sight word and phonics training had a moderate and significant valid treatment effect on nonword reading accuracy and fluency. These findings demonstrate the reliability of both phonics and sight word training in treating poor readers in an era where the importance of scientific reliability is under close scrutiny.

  8. Individual music therapy for mental health care clients with low therapy motivation: multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Mössler, Karin; Grocke, Denise; Heldal, Tor Olav; Tjemsland, Lars; Aarre, Trond; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Rittmannsberger, Hans; Stige, Brynjulf; Assmus, Jörg; Rolvsjord, Randi

    2013-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) has been shown to be efficacious for mental health care clients with various disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and substance abuse. Referral to MT in clinical practice is often based on other factors than diagnosis. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of resource-oriented MT for mental health care clients with low motivation for other therapies. This was a pragmatic parallel trial. In specialised centres in Norway, Austria and Australia, 144 adults with non-organic mental disorders and low therapy motivation were randomised to 3 months of biweekly individual, resource-oriented MT plus treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone. TAU was typically intensive (71% were inpatients) and included the best combination of therapies available for each participant, excluding MT. Blinded assessments of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and 15 secondary outcomes were collected before randomisation and after 1, 3 and 9 months. Changes were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis using generalised estimating equations in longitudinal linear models, controlling for diagnosis, site and time point. MT was superior to TAU for total negative symptoms (SANS, d = 0.54, p avoidance through music, and vitality (all p < 0.01). Individual MT as conducted in routine practice is an effective addition to usual care for mental health care clients with low motivation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system vs. usual medical treatment for menorrhagia: an economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Sanghera

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To undertake an economic evaluation alongside the largest randomised controlled trial comparing Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device ('LNG-IUS' and usual medical treatment for women with menorrhagia in primary care; and compare the cost-effectiveness findings using two alternative measures of quality of life. METHODS: 571 women with menorrhagia from 63 UK centres were randomised between February 2005 and July 2009. Women were randomised to having a LNG-IUS fitted, or usual medical treatment, after discussing with their general practitioner their contraceptive needs or desire to avoid hormonal treatment. The treatment was specified prior to randomisation. For the economic evaluation we developed a state transition (Markov model with a 24 month follow-up. The model structure was informed by the trial women's pathway and clinical experts. The economic evaluation adopted a UK National Health Service perspective and was based on an outcome of incremental cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY estimated using both EQ-5D and SF-6D. RESULTS: Using EQ-5D, LNG-IUS was the most cost-effective treatment for menorrhagia. LNG-IUS costs £100 more than usual medical treatment but generated 0.07 more QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for LNG-IUS compared to usual medical treatment was £1600 per additional QALY. Using SF-6D, usual medical treatment was the most cost-effective treatment. Usual medical treatment was both less costly (£100 and generated 0.002 more QALYs. CONCLUSION: Impact on quality of life is the primary indicator of treatment success in menorrhagia. However, the most cost-effective treatment differs depending on the quality of life measure used to estimate the QALY. Under UK guidelines LNG-IUS would be the recommended treatment for menorrhagia. This study demonstrates that the appropriate valuation of outcomes in menorrhagia is crucial.

  10. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  11. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  12. Radiotherapy for Graves' orbitopathy : randomised placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MP; van Kempen-Harteveld, ML; Garcia, MBG; Koppeschaar, HPF; Tick, L; Terwee, CB

    2000-01-01

    Background The best treatment (steroids, irradiation, or both) for moderately severe Graves' orbitopathy, a self-limiting disease is not known. We tested the efficacy of external beam irradiation compared with sham-irradiation. Methods In a double-blind randomised clinical trial, 30 patients with

  13. Authenticity of instruction and student performance: a prospective randomised trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochelle, J.S. La; Durning, S.J.; Pangaro, L.N.; Artino, A.R.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Schuwirth, L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the authenticity of instructional formats and outcome measures within a pre-clerkship clinical reasoning course. METHODS: We conducted a randomised, prospective, crossover study with Year 2 medical students taking a pre-clerkship c

  14. The SafeBoosC Phase II Randomised Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer, Adelina; Greisen, Gorm; Benders, Manon

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived regional tissue oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (rStO2) reflects venous oxygen saturation. If cerebral metabolism is stable, rStO2 can be used as an estimate of cerebral oxygen delivery. The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial hypothesises that the bur...

  15. Radiotherapy for Graves' orbitopathy : randomised placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MP; van Kempen-Harteveld, ML; Garcia, MBG; Koppeschaar, HPF; Tick, L; Terwee, CB

    2000-01-01

    Background The best treatment (steroids, irradiation, or both) for moderately severe Graves' orbitopathy, a self-limiting disease is not known. We tested the efficacy of external beam irradiation compared with sham-irradiation. Methods In a double-blind randomised clinical trial, 30 patients with mo

  16. Yoga in schizophrenia : a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vancampfort, D.; Vansteelandt, K.; Scheewe, T.; Probst, M.; Knapen, J.; De Herdt, A.; De Hert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Vancampfort D, Vansteelandt K, Scheewe T, Probst M, Knapen J, De Herdt A, De Hert M. Yoga in schizophrenia: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary treatment on general psychopa

  17. Yoga in schizophrenia : a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vancampfort, D.; Vansteelandt, K.; Scheewe, T.; Probst, M.; Knapen, J.; De Herdt, A.; De Hert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Vancampfort D, Vansteelandt K, Scheewe T, Probst M, Knapen J, De Herdt A, De Hert M. Yoga in schizophrenia: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary treatment on general psychopa

  18. A prospective, randomised, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... reactivity to carbon dioxide and autoregulation.1,2 ... Capnography [end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2)]. ... The patients were randomised into two groups using a random ... 67% N2O in oxygen in group A, and 33% oxygen in air in group B,.

  19. The effect of orthodontic referral guidelines: A randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Conboy, Frances; O'Brien, K.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of referral guidelines for the referral of orthodontic patients to consultant and specialist practijioner orthodontists. Design Single centre randomised controlled trial with random allocation of referral guidelines for orthodontic treatment to general dental practitioners. Setting Hospital orthodontic departments and specialist orthodontic practices in Manchester and Stockport. Subjects General dental practitioners and the patients they ref...

  20. The PRO-AGE study: an international randomised controlled study of health risk appraisal for older persons based in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmann Martin D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the study protocol, the recruitment, and base-line data for evaluating the success of randomisation of the PRO-AGE (PRevention in Older people – Assessment in GEneralists' practices project. Methods/Design A group of general practitioners (GPs in London (U.K., Hamburg (Germany and Solothurn (Switzerland were trained in risk identification, health promotion, and prevention in older people. Their non-disabled older patients were invited to participate in a randomised controlled study. Participants allocated to the intervention group were offered the Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O instrument with a site-specific method for reinforcement (London: physician reminders in electronic medical record; Hamburg: one group session or two preventive home visits; Solothurn: six-monthly preventive home visits over a two-year period. Participants allocated to the control group received usual care. At each site, an additional group of GPs did not receive the training, and their eligible patients were invited to participate in a concurrent comparison group. Primary outcomes are self-reported health behaviour and preventative care use at one-year follow-up. In Solothurn, an additional follow-up was conducted at two years. The number of older persons agreeing to participate (% of eligible persons in the randomised controlled study was 2503 (66.0% in London, 2580 (53.6% in Hamburg, and 2284 (67.5% in Solothurn. Base-line findings confirm that randomisation of participants was successful, with comparable characteristics between intervention and control groups. The number of persons (% of eligible enrolled in the concurrent comparison group was 636 (48.8% in London, 746 (35.7% in Hamburg, and 1171 (63.0% in Solothurn. Discussion PRO-AGE is the first large-scale randomised controlled trial of health risk appraisal for older people in Europe. Its results will inform about the effects of implementing HRA-O with

  1. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  2. From additivity to synergism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Christian; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2014-01-01

    Interest in synergistic or antagonistic effects through mixture experiments has grown immensely over the past two decades, not the least within in pharmacology and toxicology. Several definitions of reference models exist; one commonly used reference model is concentration or dose addition, which...... assumes compounds, when administrated simultaneously, do not interfere with each other at the site of action. We focus on statistical modelling that allows evaluation of dose addition. We will describe several statistical approaches that are suitable for analysis mixture data where synergistic...... or antagonistic effects may be present. The statistical models are defined and explained and some of the approaches exemplified. Code in open-source software is provided....

  3. Additives for the Axe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On May 1,China will begin to ban the production and use of two food additives commonly used to "bleach" flour,benzoyl peroxide and calcium peroxide.The decision was made after 10 years of wrangling between the policy makers,manufacturers,scientists and consumers.The Ministry of Health said in a statement it was applying the ban in response to consumers’ concerns about chemical substances in food,and technical improvements that had made the two additives unnecessary in flour processing.Minister of Health Chen Zhu has also said

  4. Alcohols as gasoline additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1982-12-01

    This paper showed that, when using alcohol octane-boosting additives to gasoline, one attains several goals at the same time: (a) there is an increased saving in petroleum crude, since the alcohol is not merely a substitute for gasoline but rather a substitute for the octane-boosting additives used in the manufacture of unleaded gasoline; and (b) the production of fermentation ethanol for a fuel purpose can help revitalize the agricultural sector in different economics systems, thus becoming a road to economic development.

  5. Treatment of missing data in follow-up studies of randomised controlled trials: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas R; Yelland, Lisa N; Lee, Katherine J; Ryan, Philip; Salter, Amy B

    2017-08-01

    After completion of a randomised controlled trial, an extended follow-up period may be initiated to learn about longer term impacts of the intervention. Since extended follow-up studies often involve additional eligibility restrictions and consent processes for participation, and a longer duration of follow-up entails a greater risk of participant attrition, missing data can be a considerable threat in this setting. As a potential source of bias, it is critical that missing data are appropriately handled in the statistical analysis, yet little is known about the treatment of missing data in extended follow-up studies. The aims of this review were to summarise the extent of missing data in extended follow-up studies and the use of statistical approaches to address this potentially serious problem. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed to identify extended follow-up studies published from January to June 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the original randomised controlled trial results were also published and if the main objective of extended follow-up was to compare the original randomised groups. We recorded information on the extent of missing data and the approach used to treat missing data in the statistical analysis of the primary outcome of the extended follow-up study. Of the 81 studies included in the review, 36 (44%) reported additional eligibility restrictions and 24 (30%) consent processes for entry into extended follow-up. Data were collected at a median of 7 years after randomisation. Excluding 28 studies with a time to event primary outcome, 51/53 studies (96%) reported missing data on the primary outcome. The median percentage of randomised participants with complete data on the primary outcome was just 66% in these studies. The most common statistical approach to address missing data was complete case analysis (51% of studies), while likelihood-based analyses were also well represented (25%). Sensitivity analyses around

  6. Methodological considerations for a randomised controlled trial of podiatry care in rheumatoid arthritis: lessons from an exploratory trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helliwell Philip S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst evidence exists to support the use of single treatments such as orthoses and footwear, the effectiveness of podiatry-led care as a complex intervention for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA related foot problems is unknown. The aim of this study was to undertake an exploratory randomised controlled parallel arm clinical trial (RheumAFooT to inform the design and implementation of a definitive trial and to understand the potential benefits of this care. Methods Patients with a definite diagnosis of RA, stable drug management 3 months prior to entry, and a current history of foot problems (pain, deformity, stiffness, skin or nail lesions, or footwear problems were recruited from a hospital outpatient rheumatology clinic and randomised to receive 12 months of podiatry treatment or no care. The primary outcome was change in foot health status using the impairment/footwear (LFISIF and activity limitation/participation restriction (LFISAP subscales of the Leeds Foot Impact Scale. Disease Activity Score (DAS, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ score and walking speed (m/s were also recorded. Results Of the 80 patients identified, 64 patients were eligible to participate in the pilot and 34 were recruited. 16 patients were randomised to receive podiatry led foot care and 18 received no care. Against a backdrop of stable disease (DAS and HAQ scores, there was a statistically significant between group difference in the change in foot health status for foot impairment (LFISIF but not activity/participation (LFISAP or function (walking speed over 12 months. In the podiatry arm, 1 patient declined treatment following randomisation (did not want additional hospital visits and 3 self-withdrew (lost to follow-up. Patients received an average of 3 consultations for assessment and treatment comprising routine care for skin and nail lesions (n = 3, foot orthoses (n = 9, footwear referral to the orthotist (n = 5, and ultrasound

  7. Biobased lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  8. Effects of patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting in general practice : A cluster randomised trial a cluster randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, Natasha J.; Langelaan, Maaike; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagner, Cordula; Zwart, Dorien L M

    2015-01-01

    Background: A constructive safety culture is essential for the successful implementation of patient safety improvements. Aim: To assess the effect of two patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting as a proxy of safety culture. Design and setting: A three-arm cluster randomised trial

  9. Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Jenna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Environmental perceptions and psychological measures appear to be associated with walking and cycling behaviour; however, their influence is still unclear. We assessed these associations using baseline data from a quasi-experimental cohort study of the effects of major transport infrastructural developments in Cambridge, UK. Methods Postal surveys were sent to adults who travel to work in Cambridge (n = 1582. Questions asked about travel modes and time spent travelling to and from work in the last week, perceptions of the route, psychological measures regarding car use and socio-demographic characteristics. Participants were classified into one of two categories according to time spent walking for commuting ('no walking' or 'some walking' and one of three categories for cycling ('no cycling', '1-149 min/wk' and ' ≥ 150 min/wk'. Results Of the 1164 respondents (68% female, mean (SD age: 42.3 (11.4 years 30% reported any walking and 53% reported any cycling to or from work. In multiple regression models, short distance to work and not having access to a car showed strong positive associations with both walking and cycling. Furthermore, those who reported that it was pleasant to walk were more likely to walk to or from work (OR = 4.18, 95% CI 3.02 to 5.78 and those who reported that it was convenient to cycle on the route between home and work were more likely to do so (1-149 min/wk: OR = 4.60, 95% CI 2.88 to 7.34; ≥ 150 min/wk: OR = 3.14, 95% CI 2.11 to 4.66. Positive attitudes in favour of car use were positively associated with time spent walking to or from work but negatively associated with cycling to or from work. Strong perceived behavioural control for car use was negatively associated with walking. Conclusions In this relatively affluent sample of commuters, a range of individual and household characteristics, perceptions of the route environment and psychological measures relating to car use were associated with

  10. Theory of planned behaviour variables and objective walking behaviour do not show seasonal variation in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stefanie L; French, David P

    2014-02-05

    Longitudinal studies have shown that objectively measured walking behaviour is subject to seasonal variation, with people walking more in summer compared to winter. Seasonality therefore may have the potential to bias the results of randomised controlled trials if there are not adequate statistical or design controls. Despite this there are no studies that assess the impact of seasonality on walking behaviour in a randomised controlled trial, to quantify the extent of such bias. Further there have been no studies assessing how season impacts on the psychological predictors of walking behaviour to date. The aim of the present study was to assess seasonal differences in a) objective walking behaviour and b) Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) variables during a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote walking. 315 patients were recruited to a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote walking in primary care. A series of repeated measures ANCOVAs were conducted to examine the effect of season on pedometer measures of walking behaviour and TPB measures, assessed immediately post-intervention and six months later. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess whether season moderated the prediction of intention and behaviour by TPB measures. There were no significant differences in time spent walking in spring/summer compared to autumn/winter. There was no significant seasonal variation in most TPB variables, although the belief that there will be good weather was significantly higher in spring/summer (F = 19.46, p behaviour, or moderate the effects of TPB variables on intention or behaviour. Seasonality does not influence objectively measured walking behaviour or psychological variables during a randomised controlled trial. Consequently physical activity behaviour outcomes in trials will not be biased by the season in which they are measured. Previous studies may have overestimated the extent of

  11. Randomised prior feedback modulates neural signals of outcome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Wilkie, Richard M; Mon-Williams, Mark A; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2016-01-15

    Substantial evidence indicates that decision outcomes are typically evaluated relative to expectations learned from relatively long sequences of previous outcomes. This mechanism is thought to play a key role in general learning and adaptation processes but relatively little is known about the determinants of outcome evaluation when the capacity to learn from series of prior events is difficult or impossible. To investigate this issue, we examined how the feedback-related negativity (FRN) is modulated by information briefly presented before outcome evaluation. The FRN is a brain potential time-locked to the delivery of decision feedback and it is widely thought to be sensitive to prior expectations. We conducted a multi-trial gambling task in which outcomes at each trial were fully randomised to minimise the capacity to learn from long sequences of prior outcomes. Event-related potentials for outcomes (Win/Loss) in the current trial (Outcomet) were separated according to the type of outcomes that occurred in the preceding two trials (Outcomet-1 and Outcomet-2). We found that FRN voltage was more positive during the processing of win feedback when it was preceded by wins at Outcomet-1 compared to win feedback preceded by losses at Outcomet-1. However, no influence of preceding outcomes was found on FRN activity relative to the processing of loss feedback. We also found no effects of Outcomet-2 on FRN amplitude relative to current feedback. Additional analyses indicated that this effect was largest for trials in which participants selected a decision different to the gamble chosen in the previous trial. These findings are inconsistent with models that solely relate the FRN to prediction error computation. Instead, our results suggest that if stable predictions about future events are weak or non-existent, then outcome processing can be determined by affective systems. More specifically, our results indicate that the FRN is likely to reflect the activity of positive

  12. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Luz Maurício Antônio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Pilates exercises can be performed with or without specific equipment. These two types of Pilates exercises have never been compared on a high-quality randomised controlled trial. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor will evaluate eighty six patients of both genders with chronic low back pain, aged between 18 and 60 years, from one Brazilian private physiotherapy clinic. The patients will be randomly allocated into two groups: Mat Group will perform the exercises on the ground while the Equipment-based Group will perform the Pilates method exercises on the following equipment: Cadillac, Reformer, Ladder Barrel, and Step Chair. The general and specific disability of the patient, kinesiophobia, pain intensity and global perceived effect will be evaluated by a blinded assessor before randomisation and at six weeks and six months after randomisation. In addition, the expectation of the participants and their confidence with the treatment will be evaluated before randomisation and after the first treatment session, respectively. Discussion This will be the first study aiming to compare the effectiveness of Mat and Equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. The results may help health-care professionals in clinical decision-making and could potentially reduce the treatment costs of this condition. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials RBR-7tyg5j

  13. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Pilates exercises can be performed with or without specific equipment. These two types of Pilates exercises have never been compared on a high-quality randomised controlled trial. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor will evaluate eighty six patients of both genders with chronic low back pain, aged between 18 and 60 years, from one Brazilian private physiotherapy clinic. The patients will be randomly allocated into two groups: Mat Group will perform the exercises on the ground while the Equipment-based Group will perform the Pilates method exercises on the following equipment: Cadillac, Reformer, Ladder Barrel, and Step Chair. The general and specific disability of the patient, kinesiophobia, pain intensity and global perceived effect will be evaluated by a blinded assessor before randomisation and at six weeks and six months after randomisation. In addition, the expectation of the participants and their confidence with the treatment will be evaluated before randomisation and after the first treatment session, respectively. Discussion This will be the first study aiming to compare the effectiveness of Mat and Equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. The results may help health-care professionals in clinical decision-making and could potentially reduce the treatment costs of this condition. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials RBR-7tyg5j PMID:23298183

  14. “In my end is my beginning”. Una discussione sul caso trascurato dei Cambridge Ritualists fra antropologia comparativa, filosofia e pensiero scientifico - “In my end is my beginning”. An argument on the Cambridge Ritualists’ neglected case, on the wave of comparative anthropology, philosophy and scientific thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Cinellu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Somehow rounding off an intellectual season in which humanities strongly lament the loss of Darwinian incitements, while exploiting both Wilson’s biophilia hypothesis and Rappaport’s engaged anthropology as springboards, this article wants to cast light on how two anthropologically undervalued manifestos of the Cambridge School – Harrison’s Themis (1912 and Cornford’s From Religion to Philosophy (1912 – laid the foundation of post-modern science. It highlights, in other words, how within evolutionary anthropology, to which we owe the birth of the comparative study of religions, were surreptitiously raised significant issues against eco-systemic disfunctionalities due to the scientific pattern rooted in Atomism and modern Cartesianism itself. In order to counteract the conventional belief that evolutionary anthropology was entirely shaped by the kind of Positivism of Illuministic inspiration, the association between the “mystic” and the “savage” will be once more taken into consideration. In this regard, a quite unreleased focus on Lévi-Strauss’ paradigm “le totémism du dedans” is deemed also essential. As a consequence, the unfairly forgotten Cambridge Ritualists, Harrison and Cornford, will be especially rehearsed in the light of their adoption of the philosophical Bergsonian concept of durée as a means of probing into the monist vision enshrined in the mysteric religion of Ancient Greece. It is basically the special attention allotted to the mystic’s incorporation of a limitless cyclic time which helps us to detect the extent to which both Harrison and Cornford aimed at propounding an ethical anthropology eager to denounce the forward end because of the obdurate human projection outside the sphere of Life itself. What this essay thus propounds is not a rehearsal of the Cambridge School for the sake of it. While advocating cumulative knowledge around the very same foundation of the “scientific study of

  15. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary.

  16. Scandcleft randomised trials of primary surgery for unilateral cleft lip and palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohmander, Anette; Persson, Christina; Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Adequate velopharyngeal function and speech are main goals in the treatment of cleft palate. The objective was to investigate if there were differences in velopharyngeal competency (VPC) and hypernasality at age 5 years in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP......) operated on with different surgical methods for primary palatal repair. A secondary aim was to estimate burden of care in terms of received additional secondary surgeries and speech therapy. DESIGN: Three parallel group, randomised clinical trials were undertaken as an international multicentre study by 10...... cleft teams in five countries: Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway, and the UK. METHODS: Three different surgical protocols for primary palatal repair were tested against a common procedure in the total cohort of 448 children born with a non-syndromic UCLP. Speech audio and video recordings of 391 children...

  17. Scandcleft randomised trials of primary surgery for unilateral cleft lip and palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Lohmander, Anette; Persson, Christina

    2017-01-01

    for primary palatal repair. A secondary aim was to estimate burden of care in terms of received additional secondary surgeries and speech therapy. DESIGN: Three parallel group, randomised clinical trials were undertaken as an international multicentre study by 10 cleft teams in five countries: Denmark......, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the UK. METHODS: Three different surgical protocols for primary palatal repair were tested against a common procedure in the total cohort of 448 children born with non-syndromic UCLP. Speech audio- and video-recordings of 391 children (136 girls and 255 boys) were available...... and transcribed phonetically. The main outcome measure was Percent Consonants Correct (PCC) from blinded assessments. RESULTS: In Trial 1, arm A showed statistically significant higher PCC scores (82%) than arm B (78%) (p = .045). No significant differences were found between prevalences in Trial 2, A: 79%, C: 82...

  18. Spinal manipulative therapy versus Graston Technique in the treatment of non-specific thoracic spine pain: Design of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Walker Bruce; Crothers Amy; French Simon D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The one year prevalence of thoracic back pain has been estimated as 17% compared to 64% for neck pain and 67% for low back pain. At present only one randomised controlled trial has been performed assessing the efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for thoracic spine pain. In addition no high quality trials have been performed to test the efficacy and effectiveness of Graston Technique® (GT), a soft tissue massage therapy using hand-held stainless steel instruments....

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Ferric Carboxymaltose and Other Formulations in Iron-Deficient Patients: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Rognoni, Carla; Venturini, Sergio; Meregaglia, Michela; Marmifero, Melania; Tarricone, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency is very common in a number of medical conditions. Ferric carboxymaltose is a new stable iron preparation that can be administered in single infusions over short periods of time. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy and safety of the novel complex compared with other iron formulations. In addition, the feasibility of a network meta-analysis for indirect comparisons was investigated. Met...

  20. An investigation into the impact of question structure on the performance of first year physics undergraduate students at the University of Cambridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Valerie; Jardine-Wright, Lisa; Bateman, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    We describe a study of the impact of exam question structure on the performance of first year Natural Sciences physics undergraduates from the University of Cambridge. The results show conclusively that a student’s performance improves when questions are scaffolded compared with university style questions. In a group of 77 female students we observe that the average exam mark increases by 13.4% for scaffolded questions, which corresponds to a 4.9 standard deviation effect. The equivalent observation for 236 male students is 9% (5.5 standard deviations). We also observe a correlation between exam performance and A2-level marks for UK students, and that students who receive their school education overseas, in a mixed gender environment, or at an independent school are more likely to receive a first class mark in the exam. These results suggest a mis-match between the problem-solving skills and assessment procedures between school and first year university and will provide key input into the future teaching and assessment of first year undergraduate physics students.

  1. Decline of executive function in a clinical population: age, psychopathology, and test performance on the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Gwenny; van Aken, Loes; De Mey, Hubert; Witteman, Cilia; Egger, Jos

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a cross-sectional examination of the age-related executive changes in a sample of adults with a history of psychiatric illness using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. A total of 406 patients, aged 18 to 72 years old, completed executive function tests of working memory, strategic planning, and set shifting. Using current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition criteria, patients were diagnosed with: (a) affective disorders (N = 153), (b) substance-related disorders (N = 112), (c) personality disorders (N = 82), or (d) pervasive developmental disorders (N = 59). Test performances were compared to those of 52 healthy adults. Similar rates of age-related executive decline were found for patients and healthy participants. However, as adults with a history of psychiatric illness started out with significantly lower baseline levels of executive functioning, they may require less time before reaching a critical threshold where functional deficits emerge. Limitations as well as implications for future research were discussed.

  2. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological tests in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from mild cognitive impairment: can the montreal cognitive assessment be better than the cambridge cognitive examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, José Eduardo; Cecato, Juliana Francisca; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José Maria

    2014-05-01

    Considering the lack of studies on measures that increase the diagnostic distinction between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and on the role of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) in this, our study aims to compare the utility of the CAMCOG, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in helping to differentiate AD from MCI in elderly people with >4 years of schooling. A total of 136 elderly subjects - 39 normal controls as well as 52 AD patients and 45 MCI patients treated at the Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Porto Alegre, Brazil - were assessed using the MMSE, CAMCOG, clock drawing test (CDT), verbal fluency test (VF), Geriatric Depression Scale and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire. The results obtained by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the MoCA is a better screening test for differentiating elderly subjects with AD from those with MCI than the CAMCOG and MMSE as well as other tests such as the CDT and VF. The MoCA, more than the CAMCOG and the other tests, was shown to be able to differentiate AD from MCI, although, as Roalf et al. [Alzheimers Dement 2013;9:529-537] pointed out, further studies might lead to measures that will improve this differentiation.

  3. The Cambridge Mindreading Face-Voice Battery for Children (CAM-C): complex emotion recognition in children with and without autism spectrum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Ofer; Sinai-Gavrilov, Yana; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in recognizing emotions and mental states are central characteristics of autism spectrum conditions (ASC). However, emotion recognition (ER) studies have focused mostly on recognition of the six 'basic' emotions, usually using still pictures of faces. This study describes a new battery of tasks for testing recognition of nine complex emotions and mental states from video clips of faces and from voice recordings taken from the Mindreading DVD. This battery (the Cambridge Mindreading Face-Voice Battery for Children or CAM-C) was given to 30 high-functioning children with ASC, aged 8 to 11, and to 25 matched controls. The ASC group scored significantly lower than controls on complex ER from faces and voices. In particular, participants with ASC had difficulty with six out of nine complex emotions. Age was positively correlated with all task scores, and verbal IQ was correlated with scores in the voice task. CAM-C scores were negatively correlated with parent-reported level of autism spectrum symptoms. Children with ASC show deficits in recognition of complex emotions and mental states from both facial and vocal expressions. The CAM-C may be a useful test for endophenotypic studies of ASC and is one of the first to use dynamic stimuli as an assay to reveal the ER profile in ASC. It complements the adult version of the CAM Face-Voice Battery, thus providing opportunities for developmental assessment of social cognition in autism.

  4. The Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) data repository: Structural and functional MRI, MEG, and cognitive data from a cross-sectional adult lifespan sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jason R; Williams, Nitin; Cusack, Rhodri; Auer, Tibor; Shafto, Meredith A; Dixon, Marie; Tyler, Lorraine K; Cam-Can; Henson, Richard N

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the data repository for the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) initial study cohort. The Cam-CAN Stage 2 repository contains multi-modal (MRI, MEG, and cognitive-behavioural) data from a large (approximately N=700), cross-sectional adult lifespan (18-87years old) population-based sample. The study is designed to characterise age-related changes in cognition and brain structure and function, and to uncover the neurocognitive mechanisms that support healthy cognitive ageing. The database contains raw and preprocessed structural MRI, functional MRI (active tasks and resting state), and MEG data (active tasks and resting state), as well as derived scores from cognitive behavioural experiments spanning five broad domains (attention, emotion, action, language, and memory), and demographic and neuropsychological data. The dataset thus provides a depth of neurocognitive phenotyping that is currently unparalleled, enabling integrative analyses of age-related changes in brain structure, brain function, and cognition, and providing a testbed for novel analyses of multi-modal neuroimaging data. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Italian normative data and validation of two neuropsychological tests of face recognition: Benton Facial Recognition Test and Cambridge Face Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albonico, Andrea; Malaspina, Manuela; Daini, Roberta

    2017-06-21

    The Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT) and Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) are two of the most common tests used to assess face discrimination and recognition abilities and to identify individuals with prosopagnosia. However, recent studies highlighted that participant-stimulus match ethnicity, as much as gender, has to be taken into account in interpreting results from these tests. Here, in order to obtain more appropriate normative data for an Italian sample, the CFMT and BFRT were administered to a large cohort of young adults. We found that scores from the BFRT are not affected by participants' gender and are only slightly affected by participant-stimulus ethnicity match, whereas both these factors seem to influence the scores of the CFMT. Moreover, the inclusion of a sample of individuals with suspected face recognition impairment allowed us to show that the use of more appropriate normative data can increase the BFRT efficacy in identifying individuals with face discrimination impairments; by contrast, the efficacy of the CFMT in classifying individuals with a face recognition deficit was confirmed. Finally, our data show that the lack of inversion effect (the difference between the total score of the upright and inverted versions of the CFMT) could be used as further index to assess congenital prosopagnosia. Overall, our results confirm the importance of having norms derived from controls with a similar experience of faces as the "potential" prosopagnosic individuals when assessing face recognition abilities.

  6. The case for the continuing use of the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) and the standardization of notation in human mitochondrial DNA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Richards, Martin B; Yao, Yong-Gang; Logan, Ian

    2014-02-01

    Since the determination in 1981 of the sequence of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome, the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), has been used as the reference sequence to annotate mtDNA in molecular anthropology, forensic science and medical genetics. The CRS was eventually upgraded to the revised version (rCRS) in 1999. This reference sequence is a convenient device for recording mtDNA variation, although it has often been misunderstood as a wild-type (WT) or consensus sequence by medical geneticists. Recently, there has been a proposal to replace the rCRS with the so-called Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS). Even if it had been estimated accurately, the RSRS would be a cumbersome substitute for the rCRS, as the new proposal fuses--and thus confuses--the two distinct concepts of ancestral lineage and reference point for human mtDNA. Instead, we prefer to maintain the rCRS and to report mtDNA profiles by employing the hitherto predominant circumfix style. Tree diagrams could display mutations by using either the profile notation (in conventional short forms where appropriate) or in a root-upwards way with two suffixes indicating ancestral and derived nucleotides. This would guard against misunderstandings about reporting mtDNA variation. It is therefore neither necessary nor sensible to change the present reference sequence, the rCRS, in any way. The proposed switch to RSRS would inevitably lead to notational chaos, mistakes and misinterpretations.

  7. Test-retest reliability analysis of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Tests for the assessment of dementia in older people living in retirement homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Marta Matos; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Simões, Mário R

    2016-01-01

    The validity of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Tests has been widely studied, but their reliability has not. This study aimed to estimate the test-retest reliability of these tests in a sample of 34 older adults, aged 69 to 90 years old, without neuropsychiatric diagnoses and living in retirement homes in the district of Lisbon, Portugal. The battery was administered twice, with a 4-week interval between sessions. The Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Rapid Visual Information Processing, and Reaction Time tests revealed measures with high-to-adequate test-retest correlations (.71-.89), although several PAL and SWM measures showed susceptibility to practice effects. Two estimated standardized regression-based methods were found to be more efficient at correcting for practice effects than a method of fixed correction. We also found weak test-retest correlations (.56-.68) for several measures. These results suggest that some, but not all, measures are suitable for cognitive assessment and monitoring in this population.

  8. The conquest of vitalism or the eclipse of organicism? The 1930s Cambridge organizer project and the social network of mid-twentieth-century biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erik

    2014-06-01

    In the 1930s, two concepts excited the European biological community: the organizer phenomenon and organicism. This essay examines the history of and connection between these two phenomena in order to address the conventional 'rise-and-fall' narrative that historians have assigned to each. Scholars promoted the 'rise-and-fall' narrative in connection with a broader account of the devitalizing of biology through the twentieth century. I argue that while limited evidence exists for the 'fall of the organizer concept' by the 1950s, the organicism that often motivated the organizer work had no concomitant fall--even during the mid-century heyday of molecular biology. My argument is based on an examination of shifting social networks of life scientists from the 1920s to the 1970s, many of whom attended or corresponded with members of the Cambridge Theoretical Biology Club (1932-1938). I conclude that the status and cohesion of these social networks at the micro scale was at least as important as macro-scale conceptual factors in determining the relative persuasiveness of organicist philosophy.

  9. Sarks as additional fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  10. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  11. Increasing organ donation via anticipated regret (INORDAR: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Carroll Ronan E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the world there is an insufficient supply of donor organs to meet the demand for organ transplantations. This paper presents a protocol for a randomised controlled trial, testing whether a simple, theory-based anticipated regret manipulation leads to a significant increase in posthumous organ donor registrations. Methods We will use a between-groups, prospective randomised controlled design. A random sample of 14,520 members of the adult Scottish general public will be contacted via post. These participants will be randomly allocated into 1 of the 4 conditions. The no questionnaire control (NQC group will simply receive a letter and donor registration form. The questionnaire control (QC arm will receive a questionnaire measuring their emotions and non-cognitive affective attitudes towards organ donation. The theory of planned behavior (TPB group will complete the emotions and affective attitudes questionnaire plus additional items assessing their cognitive attitudes towards organ donation, perceived control over registration and how they think significant others view this action. Finally, the anticipated regret (AR group will complete the same indices as the TPB group, plus two additional anticipated regret items. These items will assess the extent to which the participant anticipates regret for not registering as an organ donor in the near future. The outcome variable will be NHS Blood and Transplant verified registrations as an organ donor within 6 months of receiving our postal intervention. Discussion This study will assess whether simply asking people to reflect on the extent to which they may anticipate regret for not registering as an organ donor increases organ donor registration 6 months later. If successful, this simple and easy to administer theory-based intervention has the potential to save lives and money for the NHS by reducing the number of people receiving treatments such as dialysis. This

  12. A formação de hábitos e a origem das leis na VII conferência de Cambridge, de Ch. S. Peirce = The formation of habits and the origin of laws in the Cambridge conference VII, by Ch. S. Peirce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibri, Ivo Assad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo reflete sobre os argumentos propostos por Charles Sanders Peirce em sua conhecida VII Conferência de Cambridge, proferida em 1898, sob o título “Hábito”, na qual justifica a sua posição acerca de como seria possível explicar a origem do universo através de uma filosofia de caráter genético. Essa explicação toma, no interior de seu complexo sistema arquitetônico de pensamento, a tendência à aquisição de hábitos como o princípio explicativo fulcral sobre a origem e a evolução das Leis da Natureza. Peirce adota tal princípio como aquele que sustentaria uma afinidade entre mente e matéria

  13. Probiotics in the prevention of eczema: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Stephen J; Jordan, Sue; Storey, Melanie; Catherine A Thornton; Gravenor, Michael B.; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Susan F; Wang, Duolao; Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a multistrain, high-dose probiotic in the prevention of eczema. Design A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial. Settings Antenatal clinics, research clinic, children at home. Patients Pregnant women and their infants. Interventions Women from 36 weeks gestation and their infants to age 6 months received daily either the probiotic (Lactobacillus salivarius CUL61, Lactobacillus paracasei CUL08, Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis CUL34 a...

  14. A randomised controlled trial of complete denture impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, T P; Craddock, H L; Gray, J C; Pavitt, S H; Hulme, C; Godfrey, M; Fernandez, C; Navarro-Coy, N; Dillon, S; Wright, J; Brown, S; Dukanovic, G; Brunton, P A

    2014-08-01

    There is continuing demand for non-implant prosthodontic treatment and yet there is a paucity of high quality Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) evidence for best practice. The aim of this research was to provide evidence for best practice in prosthodontic impressions by comparing two impression materials in a double-blind, randomised, crossover, controlled, clinical trial. Eighty-five patients were recruited, using published eligibility criteria, to the trial at Leeds Dental Institute, UK. Each patient received two sets of dentures; made using either alginate or silicone impressions. Randomisations determined the order of assessment and order of impressions. The primary outcome was patient blinded preference for unadjusted dentures. Secondary outcomes were patient preference for the adjusted dentures, rating of comfort, stability and chewing efficiency, experience of each impression, and an OHIP-EDENT questionnaire. Seventy-eight (91.8%) patients completed the primary assessment. 53(67.9%) patients preferred dentures made from silicone impressions while 14(17.9%) preferred alginate impressions. 4(5.1%) patients found both dentures equally satisfactory and 7 (9.0%) found both equally unsatisfactory. There was a 50% difference in preference rates (in favour of silicone) (95%CI 32.7-67.3%, pUnilever Hatton Award of the International Assocation for Dental Research, Capetown, South Africa, June 2014. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Chlorambucil versus observation after anti-Helicobacter therapy in gastric MALT lymphomas: results of the international randomised LY03 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Barry W; Qian, Wendi; Linch, David; Delchier, Jean-Charles; Smith, Paul; Jakupovic, Ira; Burton, Cathy; Souhami, Robert; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Capella, Carlo; Traulle, Catherine; Levy, Michael; Cortelazzo, Sergio; Ferreri, Andres J M; Ambrosetti, Achille; Pinotti, Graziella; Martinelli, Giovanni; Vitolo, Umberto; Cavalli, Franco; Gisselbrecht, Christian; Zucca, Emanuele

    2009-01-01

    Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are uncommon tumours characterised by a tendency to remain localised for long periods. The aetiological association between MALT lymphomas and Helicobacter pylori is well established. The role of additional chemotherapy after H. pylori eradication in localised MALT lymphomas is unclear. The LY03 trial was designed to establish whether chlorambucil after treatment for H. pylori would help prevent recurrence. Patients were treated with antibiotics for H. pylori infection. Those with successful eradication of H. pylori and no evidence of progression of lymphoma were eligible for randomisation to chlorambucil or observation. Two hundred and thirty-one patients were registered. Ninety-seven percent patients had H. pylori eradicated after antibiotics and 59% achieved macroscopically normal gastric mucosa. One hundred and ten patients were randomised. With a median follow-up of 58 months, six patients were dead and 17 had recurrent/progressive disease. The recurrence/progression rates at 5 years were 11% for chlorambucil, and 21% for observation with a difference of 10%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −9% to 29%, P = 0·15. No difference was detected in recurrence/progression-free survival [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0·96, 95% CI = 0·41–2·2, P = 0·91] or overall survival (HR = 1·93, 95% CI = 0·39–9·58, P = 0·42). This is the first randomised trial to show there is no good evidence to support that additional single agent chemotherapy to anti-H. pylori treatment contributes to prevent recurrence in localised gastric MALT lymphomas. PMID:19036078

  16. Assessment of a short hypnosis in a paediatric operating room in reducing postoperative pain and anxiety: A randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duparc-Alegria, Nathalie; Tiberghien, Karine; Abdoul, Hendy; Dahmani, Souhayl; Alberti, Corinne; Thiollier, Anne-Francoise

    2017-04-12

    To assess the impact of a short hypnotic session on postoperative anxiety and pain in major orthopaedic surgery. Despite specific information given before a scheduled paediatric surgery, perioperative anxiety can become important. Randomised Clinical Study. The study is an open single-centre randomised clinical study comparing a "control" group versus a "hypnosis" group receiving a short hypnosis pre-induction session as additional experimental analgesic procedure. The primary endpoint was the postoperative anxiety, blindly assessed using a visual analogue scale. The study involved 120 children (age 10-18 years). The results showed no difference between control group versus hypnosis group. Twenty-four hours after surgery (Day+1), the patient's anxiety score was not different between control and hypnosis groups (median [Q1-Q3]: 1 [0; 3] vs. 0 [0; 3], respectively, p = .17). Each group experienced a significant decrease in anxiety level between the day before surgery (Day-1) and the day after surgery (Day+1) (median ([Q1-Q3]) difference of the anxiety score: 2 [4; 0] and 2 [4; 0], respectively, p < .0001 in each group). The postoperative pain scores were low and not different between groups (median [Q1-Q3]: 2 [0; 3] in control group vs. 3 [1; 3] in hypnosis group, p = .57). This randomised study on a short hypnosis session performed in the operating room prior to a major surgery showed no difference in postoperative anxiety and pain levels. The decrease in anxiety and pain levels may be due to the addition of nurse pre-operative interviews and optimisation in communication in the operating room. As postoperative anxiety level was low in both control and hypnosis groups, nurse pre-operative interviews and nurse training in hypnosis may contribute to the optimisation of global management and decrease the postoperative anxiety level. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. An English Dictionary of Great Popularity-A brief review on The Cambridge International Dictionary of English%一本不可多得的工具书--《剑桥国际英语词典》评介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜利

    2003-01-01

    (The Cambridge International Dictionary of English)是英语剑桥大学出版社近几年推出的一部在世界上颇具影响的英语学习词典.该词典风格独特,编排新颖,内容丰富,简明实用,一经面市,即受到英语学习者的热烈欢迎.

  18. 浅谈社区教育学院剑桥少儿英语项目发展%Brief Talk on Development of Cambridge Young Learners English at Guanhaiwei Community Col ege

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琼

    2013-01-01

      观海卫社区教育学院剑桥少儿英语培训项目自引入始,在短短的三年间已发展成为社区青少年培训的口碑品牌。本文全面探析剑桥少儿英语项目在该镇开展的初衷、现状及发展要求。重点介绍了具有社区教育特色的创新剑桥少儿英语学习系统的发展情况,以及为确保其健康推进所采取的各项教学管理措施。%  It has been three years since the item of Cambridge Young Learners English which has evolved into an excel ent brand of community primary scholars training was introduced into Guanhaiwei Community Col ege. The writer makes an explorative analysis of original intention, present status and development tendency of introducing Cambridge Young Learners English in Guanhaiwei Town. Development of Innovative Cambridge Young Learners English learning system with Characteristic of community education is discussed in detail as well as different kinds of teaching administration measures to ensure it is carried out smoothly.

  19. The Entrepreneurship Education Strategy of High-Level University:The Case of Cambridge University%高水平大学创业教育发展策略--以剑桥大学为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑞

    2015-01-01

    剑桥大学积淀的创业教育理念促使其经历了创业文化的转型与适应,建立了独特的创业教育体系框架,通过“剑桥创业中心”融入英国宏观创业教育体系,借助“创业学习中心”引领和推动多元化创业教育项目实施,依托“赫尔曼·豪瑟专家中心”创立了“中介运行方式”推进全校性创业教育发展。剑桥大学的创业教育发展策略值得深入分析、反思与借鉴。%Driven by the philosophy of entrepreneurship education,the University of Cambridge has experienced a transformation and adaptation of entrepreneurial culture, and has established a unique entrepreneurship education system. Specifically, the university integrated its entrepreneurship education into UK's macroscopic system of entrepreneurship education via Cambridge Entrepreneurship Centre, initiated diversified entrepreneurship education projects via Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning, and developed the intermediary operation mode to promote campus-wide entrepreneurship education via Hermann Hauser Specialist Center. Cambridge's experience is worthy of our study and can be for our reference.

  20. Antithrombin Cambridge II(A384S) mutation frequency and antithrombin activity levels in 120 of deep venous thrombosis and 150 of cerebral infarction patients in a single center in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-sen; Tang, Yang-ming; Tang, Mei-qing; Qing, Zi-Ju; Shu, Chang; Tang, Xiang-qi; Deng, Ming-yang; Tan, Li-ming

    2010-09-01

    Antithrombin Cambridge II(A384S) mutation shows a relatively high frequency in western population. Some studies suggest that the mutation is an independent genetic risk factor both for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and for arterial thrombosis, but whether the mutation has racial difference or has a general significance for thrombophilia remains unclear. In this study we performed an analysis of the prevalence of the mutation in Chinese southern population; Also, the antithrombin activity levels were evaluated in each investigated individual. The studies included 120 patients with DVT, 150 patients with cerebral infarction, and 110 controls. The mutation was detected using polymerase chain reaction/PvuII restrictive fragment length polymorphism procedures. Antithrombin activity assay was done using chromogenic substrate method. The results showed that no antithrombin Cambridge II mutation was detected in all three groups (DVT, cerebral infarction and controls), the incidence was 0/380. Plasma antithrombin activity was 91.37% +/- 16.15% in the DVT patients and 102.68% +/- 13.10% in the controls; the antithrombin activity was significantly reduced in the DVT group (P Cambridge II mutation has a racial difference, and may not be a valuable risk factor of thrombophilia in Asian population, and antithrombin deficiency remains a major genetic risk factor for DVT patients in China.

  1. The effects of crisis plans for patients with psychotic and bipolar disorders: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosenschoon BJ

    2009-07-01

    , insight into illness, recovery style, social support, locus of control, service engagement and coping with crises situations. The interviews take place before randomisation, nine month later and finally eighteen months after randomisation. Discussion This study examines the effects of two types of crisis plans. In addition, the results offer an understanding of the way these advance statements work and whether it is more effective to include a patients' advocate in the process of creating a psychiatric advance statement. These statements may be an intervention to prevent crises and the use of compulsion in mental health care. The strength and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial registration Current Controlled Trails NTR1166.

  2. Use of a DVD to provide dietary and lifestyle information to pregnant women who are overweight or obese: a nested randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmeja, Malgorzata A; Cramp, Courtney; Grivell, Rosalie M; Deussen, Andrea R; Yelland, Lisa N; Dodd, Jodie M

    2014-12-12

    We conducted a nested randomised trial to evaluate the effect of an educational DVD, providing information about healthy food choices and exercise during pregnancy, on diet and physical activity, among pregnant women who were overweight or obese. We conducted a nested randomised trial within the context of the LIMIT randomised trial. Women were eligible with a singleton pregnancy between 10 and 20 weeks gestation, and body mass index at the time of their first antenatal appointment of ≥25 kg/m(2). All women who were randomised to the Lifestyle Advice Group of the LIMIT trial received a series of consultations with both research dieticians and research assistants, in addition to standard written dietary and exercise materials (Standard Materials Group). Women randomised to the DVD Group received the same consultations and written materials, and additionally received an educational DVD (DVD Group). The primary study outcome was the Healthy Eating Index. Other study outcomes included physical activity, and gestational weight gain. Women completed a qualitative evaluation of all the materials provided. 1,108 women in the LIMIT Lifestyle Advice Group participated in the nested trial, with 543 women randomised to the DVD Group, and 565 women to the Standard Materials Group. Women who received the DVD compared with those who did not, had a higher mean Healthy Eating Index at 36 weeks gestation (73.6 vs 72.3; adjusted mean difference 1.2; 95% CI 0.2 to 2.3; p = 0.02), but not at 28 weeks gestation (73.2 vs 73.5; adjusted mean difference -0.1; 95% CI -1.1 to 0.9; p = 0.82). There were no statistically significant differences in physical activity or total gestational weight gain. While most women evaluated the materials positively, frequency of utilisation was poor. Ongoing attention to the delivery of information is required, particularly with the increased use and availability of digital and multi-media interactive technologies. Australian and New Zealand

  3. Development and validation of a preference based measure derived from the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR for use in cost utility analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meads David M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary Hypertension is a severe and incurable disease with poor prognosis. A suite of new disease-specific measures – the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR – was recently developed for use in this condition. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preference based measure from the CAMPHOR that could be used in cost-utility analyses. Methods Items were selected that covered major issues covered by the CAMPHOR QoL scale (activities, travelling, dependence and communication. These were used to create 36 health states that were valued by 249 people representative of the UK adult population, using the time trade-off (TTO technique. Data from the TTO interviews were analysed using both aggregate and individual level modelling. Finally, the original CAMPHOR validation data were used to validate the new preference based model. Results The predicted health state values ranged from 0.962 to 0.136. The mean level model selected for analyzing the data had good explanatory power (0.936, did not systematically over- or underestimate the observed mean health state values and showed no evidence of auto correlation in the prediction errors. The value of less than 1 reflects a background level of ill health in state 1111, as judged by the respondents. Scores derived from the new measure had excellent test-retest reliability (0.85 and construct validity. The CAMPHOR utility score appears better able to distinguish between WHO functional classes (II and III than the EQ-5D and SF-6D. Conclusion The tariff derived in this study can be used to classify an individual into a health state based on their responses to the CAMPHOR. The results of this study widen the evidence base for conducting economic evaluations of interventions designed to improve QoL for patients with PH.

  4. The relationship between back pain and mortality in older adults varies with disability and gender: results from the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort (CC75C) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docking, R E; Fleming, J; Brayne, C; Zhao, J; Macfarlane, G J; Jones, G T

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to determine whether older adults reporting back pain (BP) are at increased risk of premature mortality, specifically, to examine the association with disabling/non-disabling pain separately. Participants aged ≥75 years were recruited to the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort (CC75C) study. Participants answered interviewer-administered questions on BP and were followed up until death. The relationship between BP and mortality was examined using Cox regression, adjusted for potential confounding factors. Separate models were computed for men and women. From 1174 individuals with BP data, the date of death was known for 1158 (99%). A significant association was found between disabling BP and mortality (hazard ratio: 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.8) and this remained, albeit of borderline significance, following adjustment for socio-demographic variables and potential disease markers (1.3; 0.99-1.7). Further, this association was found to vary with sex: women experienced a 40% increase in the risk of mortality associated with disabling BP (1.4; 1.1-1.9), whereas no such increase was observed for men (1.0; 0.5-1.9). Participants with non-disabling BP were not at increased risk of mortality. This study confirmed previous findings regarding the relationship between pain and excess mortality. Further, we have shown that, among older adults, this association is specific to disabling pain and to women. Clinicians should be aware not only of the short-term implications of disabling BP but also the longer-term effects. Future research should attempt to understand the mechanisms underpinning this relationship to avoid excess mortality and should aim to determine why the relationship differs in men and women. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  5. Relationship of γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate+glutamine concentrations in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex with performance of Cambridge Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Kazuyuki; Narita, Kosuke; Suzuki, Yusuke; Takei, Yuichi; Suda, Masashi; Tagawa, Minami; Ujita, Koichi; Sakai, Yuki; Narumoto, Jin; Near, Jamie; Fukuda, Masato

    2015-04-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), consisting of the perigenual ACC (pgACC) and mid-ACC (i.e., affective and cognitive areas, respectively), plays a significant role in the performance of gambling tasks, which are used to measure decision-making behavior under conditions of risk. Although recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the pgACC is associated with decision-making behavior, knowledge regarding the relationship of GABA concentrations in subdivisions of the ACC with gambling task performance is still limited. The aim of our magnetic resonance spectroscopy study is to investigate in 20 healthy males the relationship of concentrations of GABA and glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the pgACC, mid-ACC, and occipital cortex (OC) with multiple indexes of decision-making behavior under conditions of risk, using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). The GABA/creatine (Cr) ratio in the pgACC negatively correlated with delay aversion score, which corresponds to the impulsivity index. The Glx/Cr ratio in the pgACC negatively correlated with risk adjustment score, which is reported to reflect the ability to change the amount of the bet depending on the probability of winning or losing. The scores of CGT did not significantly correlate with the GABA/Cr or Glx/Cr ratio in the mid-ACC or OC. Results of this study suggest that in the pgACC, but not in the mid-ACC or OC, GABA and Glx concentrations play a distinct role in regulating impulsiveness and risk probability during decision-making behavior under conditions of risk, respectively.

  6. Choosing appropriate analysis methods for cluster randomised cross-over trials with a binary outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Katy E; Forbes, Andrew B; Keogh, Ruth H; Jairath, Vipul; Kahan, Brennan C

    2017-01-30

    In cluster randomised cross-over (CRXO) trials, clusters receive multiple treatments in a randomised sequence over time. In such trials, there is usual correlation between patients in the same cluster. In addition, within a cluster, patients in the same period may be more similar to each other than to patients in other periods. We demonstrate that it is necessary to account for these correlations in the analysis to obtain correct Type I error rates. We then use simulation to compare different methods of analysing a binary outcome from a two-period CRXO design. Our simulations demonstrated that hierarchical models without random effects for period-within-cluster, which do not account for any extra within-period correlation, performed poorly with greatly inflated Type I errors in many scenarios. In scenarios where extra within-period correlation was present, a hierarchical model with random effects for cluster and period-within-cluster only had correct Type I errors when there were large numbers of clusters; with small numbers of clusters, the error rate was inflated. We also found that generalised estimating equations did not give correct error rates in any scenarios considered. An unweighted cluster-level summary regression performed best overall, maintaining an error rate close to 5% for all scenarios, although it lost power when extra within-period correlation was present, especially for small numbers of clusters. Results from our simulation study show that it is important to model both levels of clustering in CRXO trials, and that any extra within-period correlation should be accounted for. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Parenting for Autism, Language, And Communication Evaluation Study (PALACES): protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margiad Elen; Hastings, Richard; Charles, Joanna Mary; Evans, Sue; Hutchings, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) often have associated behavioural difficulties that can present a challenge for parents and parenting. There are several effective social learning theory-based parenting programmes for dealing with behavioural difficulties, including the Incredible Years (IY) parent programmes. However, these programmes typically do not specifically target parents of children with ASD. Recently, a new addition to the IY suite of programmes known as the IY Autistic Spectrum and Language Delays (IY-ASLD) parent programme was developed. The main aims of the present study are to examine the feasibility of delivering this programme within child health services and to provide initial evidence for effectiveness and economic costs. Methods and analysis The Parenting for Autism, Language, And Communication Evaluation Study (PALACES) trial is a pragmatic, multicentre, pilot randomised controlled trial comparing the IY-ASLD programme with a wait-list control condition. 72 parents of children with ASD (aged 3–8 years) will be randomly allocated to either the intervention or control condition. Data will be collected prior to randomisation and 6 months postrandomisation for all families. Families in the intervention condition only will also be followed up at 12 and 18 months postrandomisation. This study will provide initial evidence of effectiveness for the newly developed IY-ASLD parenting programme. It will also add to the limited economic evidence for an intervention targeting parents of children with ASD and provide longer term data, an important component for evaluations of parenting programmes. Ethics and dissemination Approval for the study was granted by the Research Ethics Committee at the School of Psychology, Bangor University (reference number: 2016–15768) and the North Wales Research Ethics Committee, UK (reference number: 16/WA/0224). The findings will be disseminated through research conferences and peer

  8. Absorbable versus silk sutures for surgical treatment of trachomatous trichiasis in Ethiopia: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul N Rajak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma causes blindness through an anatomical abnormality called trichiasis (lashes touching the eye. Trichiasis can recur after corrective surgery. We tested the hypothesis that using absorbable sutures instead of silk sutures might reduce the risk of recurrent disease among patients with major trichiasis in a randomised trial.1,300 individuals with major trichiasis from rural villages in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia were recruited and assigned (1:1 by computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive trichiasis surgery using either an absorbable suture (polyglactin-910 or silk sutures (removed at 7-10 days in an otherwise identical surgical technique. Participants were examined every 6 months for 2 years by clinicians masked to allocation. The primary outcome measure was recurrent trichiasis (≥one lash touching the eye at 1 year. There was no difference in prevalence of recurrent trichiasis at 1 year (114 [18.2%] in the absorbable suture group versus 120 [19.7%] in the silk suture group; odds ratio = 0.90, 95% CI 0.68-1.20. The two groups also did not differ in terms of corneal opacification, visual acuity, conjunctival inflammation, and surgical complications.There was no evidence that use of absorbable polyglactin-910 sutures was associated with a lower prevalence of trichiasis recurrence at 1 year postsurgery than silk sutures. However, from a programmatic perspective, polyglactin-910 offers the major advantage that patients do not have to be seen soon after surgery for suture removal. The postoperative review after surgery using absorbable polyglactin-910 sutures can be delayed for 3-6 months, which might allow us to better determine whether a patient needs additional surgery.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00522860.

  9. Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breyer Marie-Kathrin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with COPD progressive dyspnoea leads to a sedentary lifestyle. To date, no studies exist investigating the effects of Nordic Walking in patients with COPD. Therefore, the aim was to determine the feasibility of Nordic Walking in COPD patients at different disease stages. Furthermore we aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of Nordic Walking on COPD patients' daily physical activity pattern as well as on patients exercise capacity. Methods Sixty COPD patients were randomised to either Nordic Walking or to a control group. Patients of the Nordic Walking group (n = 30; age: 62 ± 9 years; FEV1: 48 ± 19% predicted underwent a three-month outdoor Nordic Walking exercise program consisting of one hour walking at 75% of their initial maximum heart rate three times per week, whereas controls had no exercise intervention. Primary endpoint: daily physical activities (measured by a validated tri-axial accelerometer; secondary endpoint: functional exercise capacity (measured by the six-minute walking distance; 6MWD. Assessment time points in both groups: baseline, after three, six and nine months. Results After three month training period, in the Nordic Walking group time spent walking and standing as well as intensity of walking increased (Δ walking time: +14.9 ± 1.9 min/day; Δ standing time: +129 ± 26 min/day; Δ movement intensity: +0.40 ± 0.14 m/s2 while time spent sitting decreased (Δ sitting time: -128 ± 15 min/day compared to baseline (all: p Conclusions Nordic Walking is a feasible, simple and effective physical training modality in COPD. In addition, Nordic Walking has proven to positively impact the daily physical activity pattern of COPD patients under short- and long-term observation. Clinical trial registration Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial - ISRCTN31525632

  10. Outcomes of a randomised controlled trial of a complex genetic counselling intervention to improve family communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jan; Metcalfe, Sylvia; Gaff, Clara; Donath, Susan; Delatycki, Martin B; Winship, Ingrid; Skene, Loane; Aitken, MaryAnne; Halliday, Jane

    2016-03-01

    When an inherited genetic condition is diagnosed in an individual it has implications for other family members. Privacy legislation and ethical considerations can restrict health professionals from communicating directly with other family members, and so it is frequently the responsibility of the first person in a family to receive the diagnosis (the proband) to share this news. Communication of genetic information is challenging and many at-risk family members remain unaware of important information that may be relevant to their or their children's health. We conducted a randomised controlled trial in six public hospitals to assess whether a specifically designed telephone counselling intervention improved family communication about a new genetic diagnosis. Ninety-five probands/parents of probands were recruited from genetics clinics and randomised to the intervention or control group. The primary outcome measure was the difference between the proportion of at-risk relatives who contacted genetics services for information and/or genetic testing. Audit of the family genetic file after 18 months revealed that 25.6% of intervention group relatives compared with 20.9% of control group relatives made contact with genetic services (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval 0.70-2.42, P=0.40). Although no major difference was detected overall between the intervention and control groups, there was more contact in the intervention group where the genetic condition conferred a high risk to offspring (adjusted OR 24.0, 95% confidence interval 3.4-168.5, P=0.001). The increasing sophistication and scope of genetic testing makes it imperative for health professionals to consider additional ways of supporting families in communicating genetic information.

  11. Investigation of prolific sheep from UK and Ireland for evidence on origin of the mutations in BMP15 (FecX(G), FecX(B)) and GDF9 (FecG(H)) in Belclare and Cambridge sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Michael P; Hanrahan, James P; Howard, Dawn J; Powell, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the likely origin of three mutations with large effects on ovulation rate identified in the Belclare and Cambridge sheep breeds; two in the BMP15 gene (FecX(G) and FecX(B)) and the third (FecG(H)) in GDF9. All three mutations segregate in Belclare sheep while one, FecX(B), has not been found in the Cambridge. Both Belclare and Cambridge breeds are relatively recently developed composites that have common ancestry through the use of genetic material from the Finnish Landrace and Lleyn breeds. The development of both composites also involved major contributions from exceptionally prolific ewes screened from flocks in Ireland (Belclare) and Britain (Cambridge) during the 1960s. The objective of the current study was to establish the likely origin of the mutations (FecX(G), FecX(B) and FecG(H)) through analysis of DNA from Finnish Landrace and Lleyn sheep, and Galway and Texel breeds which contributed to the development of the Belclare breed. Ewes with exceptionally high prolificacy (hyper-prolific ewes) in current flocks on Irish farms were identified to simulate the screening of ewes from Irish flocks in the 1960s. DNA was obtained from: prolific ewes in extant flocks of Lleyn sheep (n = 44) on the Lleyn peninsula in Wales; hyper-prolific ewes (n = 41); prolific Galway (n = 41) ewes; Finnish Landrace (n = 124) and Texel (n = 19) ewes. The FecX(G) mutation was identified in Lleyn but not in Finnish Landrace, Galway or Texel sheep; FecX(B) was only found among the hyper-prolific ewes. The FecG(H) mutation was identified in the sample of Lleyn sheep. It was concluded from these findings that the Lleyn breed was the most likely source of the FecX(G) and FecG(H) mutations in Belclare and Cambridge sheep and that the FecX(B) mutation came from the High Fertility line that was developed using prolific ewes selected from commercial flocks in Ireland in the 1960's and subsequently used in the genesis of the Belclare.

  12. Bernard Comrie, Tense. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1985

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En esta obra el autor nos ofrece, desde la perspectiva de la topología de las lenguas y los universales lingüísticos, una excelente introducción a la problemática del tiempo gramatical y, atendiendo a las diferentes maneras como la noción de tiempo (time) se gramaticaliza en distintos sistemas, una teoría general del tiempo lingüístico susceptible a esta variedad y a sus limitaciones. El libro se centra, por tanto, en la topología del tiempo gramatical (tense) y la gama de variedades entre la...

  13. The Cambridge Companion to Dewey. Cambridge Companions to Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Molly

    2010-01-01

    John Dewey (1859-1952) was a major figure of the American cultural and intellectual landscape in the first half of the twentieth century. While not the originator of American pragmatism, he was instrumental to its articulation as a philosophy and the spread of its influence beyond philosophy to other disciplines. His prolific writings encompass…

  14. Water-quality conditions, and constituent loads and yields in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, Massachusetts, water years 2005–07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of ongoing development in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply has the potential to be affected by a wide variety of contaminants. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1997) through continuous monitoring and discrete sample collection and, since 2004, through systematic collection of streamwater samples during base-flow and stormflow conditions at five primary sampling stations in the drinking-water source area. Four primary sampling stations are on small tributaries in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins; the fifth primary sampling station is on the main stem of Stony Brook and drains about 93 percent of the Cambridge drinking-water source area. Water samples also were collected at six secondary sampling stations, including Fresh Pond Reservoir, the final storage reservoir for the raw water supply. Storm runoff and base-flow concentrations of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of streamflow and specific conductance for six monitoring stations, which include the five primary sampling stations. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins. These data also were used to describe how streamwater quality is affected by various watershed characteristics and provide information to guide future watershed management. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Na, and SO4, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP

  15. A randomised clinical trial of the effectiveness of home-based health care with telemonitoring in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Janet E; McClean, Sally; FitzGibbon, Francis; Tate, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    We studied the effect of telemonitoring in addition to usual care compared to usual care alone in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 110 patients with moderate to severe COPD were recruited from a specialist respiratory service in Northern Ireland. Patients had at least two of: emergency department admissions, hospital admissions or emergency general practitioner (GP) contacts in the 12 months before the study. Exclusion criteria were patients who had any respiratory disorder other than COPD, or were cognitively unable to learn the process of monitoring. Patients were randomised to receive six months of home telemonitoring with usual care, or six months of usual care. The primary outcome measure was disease-specific quality of life, as measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD patients (SGRQ-C). Of 100 patients completing the study, 48 patients were randomised to telemonitoring and 52 patients were randomised to the control group. The SGRQ-C scores improved significantly in the intervention group compared to usual care (P = 0.001). The HADS anxiety score was significantly higher in the telehealth group compared to the usual care group (P = 0.01). There were significantly more contacts with the Community Respiratory Team in the telemonitoring group compared to the control group (P = 0.029). There were no significant between group differences in EQ-5D scores, HADS depression scores, GP activity, emergency department visits, hospital admissions or exacerbations. The total cost to the health service of the intervention over the 6-month study period was £2039, giving an estimated ICER of £203,900. In selected patients with COPD, telemonitoring was effective in improving health-related quality of life and anxiety, but was not a cost-effective intervention. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. IVC CLAMP: infrahepatic inferior vena cava clamping during hepatectomy - a randomised controlled trial in an interdisciplinary setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reissfelder Christoph

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraoperative haemorrhage is a known predictor for perioperative outcome of patients undergoing hepatic resection. While anaesthesiological lowering of central venous pressure (CVP by fluid restriction is known to reduce bleeding during transection of the hepatic parenchyma its potential side effects remain poorly investigated. In theory it may have negative effects on kidney function and tissue perfusion and bears the risk to result in severe haemodynamic instability in case of profound intraoperative blood loss. The present randomised controlled trial evaluates efficacy and safety of infrahepatic inferior vena cava (IVC clamping as an alternative surgical technique to reduce CVP during hepatic resection. Methods/Design The proposed IVC CLAMP trial is a single-centre randomised controlled trial with a two-group parallel design. Patients and outcome-assessors are blinded for the treatment intervention. Patients undergoing elective hepatic resection due to any reason are enrolled in IVC CLAMP. All patients admitted to the Department of General-, Visceral-, and Transplant Surgery, University of Heidelberg for elective hepatic resection are consecutively screened for eligibility and written informed consent is obtained on the day before surgery. The primary objective of this trial is to assess and compare the amount of blood loss during hepatic resection in patients receiving surgical CVP reduction by clamping of the IVC as compared to anaesthesiological CVP without infrahepatic IVC clamping reduction. In addition to blood loss a set of general as well as surgical variables are analysed. Discussion This is a randomised controlled patient and observer blinded two-group parallel trial designed to assess efficacy and safety of infrahepatic IVC clamping during elective hepatectomy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials NCT00732979

  17. A randomised clinical trial of intrapartum fetal monitoring with computer analysis and alerts versus previously available monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrapartum fetal hypoxia remains an important cause of death and permanent handicap and in a significant proportion of cases there is evidence of suboptimal care related to fetal surveillance. Cardiotocographic (CTG monitoring remains the basis of intrapartum surveillance, but its interpretation by healthcare professionals lacks reproducibility and the technology has not been shown to improve clinically important outcomes. The addition of fetal electrocardiogram analysis has increased the potential to avoid adverse outcomes, but CTG interpretation remains its main weakness. A program for computerised analysis of intrapartum fetal signals, incorporating real-time alerts for healthcare professionals, has recently been developed. There is a need to determine whether this technology can result in better perinatal outcomes. Methods/design This is a multicentre randomised clinical trial. Inclusion criteria are: women aged ≥ 16 years, able to provide written informed consent, singleton pregnancies ≥ 36 weeks, cephalic presentation, no known major fetal malformations, in labour but excluding active second stage, planned for continuous CTG monitoring, and no known contra-indication for vaginal delivery. Eligible women will be randomised using a computer-generated randomisation sequence to one of the two arms: continuous computer analysis of fetal monitoring signals with real-time alerts (intervention arm or continuous CTG monitoring as previously performed (control arm. Electrocardiographic monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling will be available in both arms. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of fetal metabolic acidosis (umbilical artery pH ecf > 12 mmol/L. Secondary outcome measures are: caesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery rates, use of fetal blood sampling, 5-minute Apgar score Discussion This study will provide evidence of the impact of intrapartum monitoring with computer analysis and real

  18. Applicability and generalisability of published results of randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies evaluating four orthopaedic procedures: methodological systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pibouleau, Leslie; Boutron, Isabelle; Reeves, Barnaby C; Nizard, Rémy; Ravaud, Philippe

    2009-11-17

    To compare the reporting of essential applicability data from randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies evaluating four new orthopaedic surgical procedures. Medline and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials. All articles of comparative studies assessing total hip or knee arthroplasty carried out by a minimally invasive approach or computer assisted navigation system. Items judged to be essential for interpreting the applicability of findings about such procedures were identified by a survey of a sample of orthopaedic surgeons (77 of 512 completed the survey). Reports were evaluated for data describing these "essential" items and the number of centres and surgeons involved in the trials. When data on the number of centres and surgeons were not reported, the corresponding author of the selected trials was contacted. Results 84 articles were identified (38 randomised controlled trials, 46 non-randomised studies). The median percentage (interquartile range) of essential items reported for non-randomised studies compared with randomised controlled trials was 38% (25-63%) versus 44% (38-45%) for items about patients, 71% (43-86%) versus 71% (57-86%) for items considered essential for all interventions, and 38% (25-50%) versus 50% (25-50%) for items about the context of care. More than 80% of both study types were single centre studies, with one or two participating surgeons. The reporting of data related to the applicability of results was poor in published articles of both non-randomised studies and randomised controlled trials and did not differ by study design. The applicability of results from the trials and studies was similar in terms of number of centres and surgeons involved and the reproducibility of the intervention.

  19. The Cambridge Double Star Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEvoy, Bruce; Tirion, Wil

    2015-12-01

    Preface; What are double stars?; The binary orbit; Double star dynamics; Stellar mass and the binary life cycle; The double star population; Detecting double stars; Double star catalogs; Telescope optics; Preparing to observe; Helpful accessories; Viewing challenges; Next steps; Appendices: target list; Useful formulas; Double star orbits; Double star catalogs; The Greek alphabet.

  20. Why raspberries flourish in Cambridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne; Brown, Kerry

    The activities and role of entrepreneurial milieu in fostering novel products are examined in this research. Creative ideas that initiate disjuncture from prevailing paradigms and form from the aggregation of individuals and concentrated efforts coalescing around a common problem are the subject...

  1. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals.

  2. The Cambridge companion to Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    This collection of essays is unparalleled in the depth of its coverage of all facets of Galileo's work. A particular feature of the volume is the treatment of Galileo's relationship with the Church. It will be of particular interest to philosophers, historians of science, cultural historians and those in religious studies. New readers and nonspecialists will find this the most convenient, accessible guide to Galileo available. Advanced students and specialists will find a conspectus of recent developments in the interpretation of Galileo.

  3. Why raspberries flourish in Cambridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne; Brown, Kerry;

    The activities and role of entrepreneurial milieu in fostering novel products are examined in this research. Creative ideas that initiate disjuncture from prevailing paradigms and form from the aggregation of individuals and concentrated efforts coalescing around a common problem are the subject ...

  4. Brief Intervention in Type 1 diabetes – Education for Self-efficacy (BITES: Protocol for a randomised control trial to assess biophysical and psychological effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dromgoole Paul

    2007-09-01

    attend unblinded assessments at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months, in addition to their usual care. After the intervention, usual care would be provided. Ethics approval: York Research Ethics Committee (Ref: 01/08/016 approved the study protocol. Discussion We hope the trial will demonstrate feasibility of a pragmatic randomised trial of BITES and help quantify therapeutic effect. A follow up multi-centre trial powered to detect this effect could provide further evidence. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN75807800

  5. Electronic voting to encourage interactive lectures: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Edward

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic Voting Systems have been used for education in a variety of disciplines. Outcomes from these studies have been mixed. Because results from these studies have been mixed, we examined whether an EVS system could enhance a lecture's effect on educational outcomes. Methods A cohort of 127 Year 5 medical students at the University of Adelaide was stratified by gender, residency status and academic record then randomised into 2 groups of 64 and 63 students. Each group received consecutive 40-minute lectures on two clinical topics. One group received the EVS for both topics. The other group received traditional teaching only. Evaluation was undertaken with two, 15-question multiple-choice questionnaires (MCQ assessing knowledge and problem solving and undertaken as a written paper immediately before and after the lectures and repeated online 8–12 weeks later. Standardised institutional student questionnaires were completed for each lecture and independent observers assessed student behaviour during the lectures. Lecturer's opinions were assessed by a questionnaire developed for this study. Results Two-thirds of students randomised to EVS and 59% of students randomised to traditional lectures attended. One-half of the students in the EVS group and 41% in the traditional group completed all questionnaires. There was no difference in MCQ scores between EVS and traditional lectures (p = 0.785. The cervical cancer lectures showed higher student ranking in favour of EVS in all parameters. The breast cancer lectures showed higher ranking in favour of traditional lectures in 5 of 7 parameters (p Conclusion In this setting, EVS technology used in large group lectures did not offer significant advantages over the more traditional lecture format.

  6. A Randomised Controlled Trial of complete denture impression materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, T.P.; Craddock, H.L.; Gray, J.C.; Pavitt, S.H.; Hulme, C.; Godfrey, M.; Fernandez, C.; Navarro-Coy, N.; Dillon, S.; Wright, J.; Brown, S.; Dukanovic, G.; Brunton, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There is continuing demand for non-implant prosthodontic treatment and yet there is a paucity of high quality Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) evidence for best practice. The aim of this research was to provide evidence for best practice in prosthodontic impressions by comparing two impression materials in a double-blind, randomised, crossover, controlled, clinical trial. Methods Eighty-five patients were recruited, using published eligibility criteria, to the trial at Leeds Dental Institute, UK. Each patient received two sets of dentures; made using either alginate or silicone impressions. Randomisations determined the order of assessment and order of impressions. The primary outcome was patient blinded preference for unadjusted dentures. Secondary outcomes were patient preference for the adjusted dentures, rating of comfort, stability and chewing efficiency, experience of each impression, and an OHIP-EDENT questionnaire. Results Seventy-eight (91.8%) patients completed the primary assessment. 53(67.9%) patients preferred dentures made from silicone impressions while 14(17.9%) preferred alginate impressions. 4(5.1%) patients found both dentures equally satisfactory and 7 (9.0%) found both equally unsatisfactory. There was a 50% difference in preference rates (in favour of silicone) (95%CI 32.7–67.3%, p silicone impressions were preferred by patients. Clinical significance Given the strength of the clinical findings within this paper, dentists should consider choosing silicone rather than alginate as their material of choice for secondary impressions for complete dentures. Trial Registration: ISRCTN 01528038.

 This article forms part of a project for which the author (TPH) won the Senior Clinical Unilever Hatton Award of the International Assocation for Dental Research, Capetown, South Africa, June 2014. PMID:24995473

  7. TREC-SAVE: a randomised trial comparing mechanical restraints with use of seclusion for aggressive or violent seriously mentally ill people: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Marco AV

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thousands of people whose aggression is thought due to serious mental illness are secluded or restrained every day. Without fair testing these techniques will continue to be used outside of a rigorous evidence base. With such coercive treatment this leaves all concerned vulnerable to abuse and criticism. This paper presents the protocol for a randomised trial comparing seclusion with restraints for people with serious mental illnesses. Methods/Design Setting-General psychiatric wards of a large psychiatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants-Anyone aggressive or violent suspected or known to have serious mental illness for whom restriction is felt to be indicated by nursing and medical staff, but also for whom they are unsure whether seclusion or restraint would be indicated. Interventions-The standard care of either strong cotton banding to edge of bed with medications as indicated and close observation or the other standard care of use of a minimally furnished seclusion room but with open but barred windows onto the nursing station. Outcomes-time to restrictions lifted, early change of treatment, additional episodes, adverse effects/events, satisfaction with care during episode. Duration-2 weeks. Identifier: ISRCTN 49454276 http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN49454276

  8. Randomised clinical trials with clinician-preferred treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, E L; Baumrind, S

    1991-01-19

    The standard design for randomised clinical trials may be inappropriate when the clinician believes that one of the treatments being tested is superior for the patient, or when the clinician has a preference for one of the treatments. For such instances the suggestion is that the patient is randomly allocated to treatment only when there is clinical disagreement about treatment of choice for that patient, and then the patient is assigned to a clinician who had thought that the regimen allocated is the one most appropriate for that patient.

  9. The effect of azithromycin in adults with stable neutrophilic COPD: a double blind randomised, placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie L Simpson

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a progressive airway disease characterised by neutrophilic airway inflammation or bronchitis. Neutrophilic bronchitis is associated with both bacterial colonisation and lung function decline and is common in exacerbations of COPD. Despite current available therapies to control inflammation, neutrophilic bronchitis remains common. This study tested the hypothesis that azithromycin treatment, as an add-on to standard medication, would significantly reduce airway neutrophil and neutrophils chemokine (CXCL8 levels, as well as bacterial load. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in COPD participants with stable neutrophilic bronchitis.Eligible participants (n = 30 were randomised to azithromycin 250 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks in addition to their standard respiratory medications. Sputum was induced at screening, randomisation and monthly for a 12 week treatment period and processed for differential cell counts, CXCL8 and neutrophil elastase assessment. Quantitative bacteriology was assessed in sputum samples at randomisation and the end of treatment visit. Severe exacerbations where symptoms increased requiring unscheduled treatment were recorded during the 12 week treatment period and for 14 weeks following treatment. A sub-group of participants underwent chest computed tomography scans (n = 15.Nine participants with neutrophilic bronchitis had a potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated and the median total bacterial load of all participants was 5.22×107 cfu/mL. Azithromycin treatment resulted in a non-significant reduction in sputum neutrophil proportion, CXCL8 levels and bacterial load. The mean severe exacerbation rate was 0.33 per person per 26 weeks in the azithromycin group compared to 0.93 exacerbations per person in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio (95%CI: 0.37 (0.11,1.21, p = 0.062. For participants who underwent chest CT scans, no

  10. Sequential adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in endometrial cancer--results from two randomised studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Thomas; Signorelli, Mauro; de Oliveira, Carlos Freire; Fossati, Roldano; Lissoni, Andrea Alberto; Sorbe, Bengt; Andersson, Håkan; Grenman, Seija; Lundgren, Caroline; Rosenberg, Per; Boman, Karin; Tholander, Bengt; Scambia, Giovanni; Reed, Nicholas; Cormio, Gennaro; Tognon, Germana; Clarke, Jackie; Sawicki, Tomasz; Zola, Paolo; Kristensen, Gunnar

    2010-09-01

    Endometrial cancer patients with high grade tumours, deep myometrial invasion or advanced stage disease have a poor prognosis. Randomised studies have demonstrated the prevention of loco-regional relapses with radiotherapy (RT) with no effect on overall survival (OS). The possible additive effect of chemotherapy (CT) remains unclear. Two randomised clinical trials (NSGO-EC-9501/EORTC-55991 and MaNGO ILIADE-III) were undertaken to clarify if sequential combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy improves progression-free survival (PFS) in high-risk endometrial cancer. The two studies were pooled. Patients (n=540; 534 evaluable) with operated endometrial cancer International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (FIGO) stage I-III with no residual tumour and prognostic factors implying high-risk were randomly allocated to adjuvant radiotherapy with or without sequential chemotherapy. In the NSGO/EORTC study, the combined modality treatment was associated with 36% reduction in the risk for relapse or death (hazard ratio (HR) 0.64, 95%confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.99; P=0.04); two-sided tests were used. The result from the Gynaecologic Oncology group at the Mario Negri Institute (MaNGO)-study pointed in the same direction (HR 0.61), but was not significant. In the combined analysis, the estimate of risk for relapse or death was similar but with narrower confidence limits (HR 0.63, CI 0.44-0.89; P=0.009). Neither study showed significant differences in the overall survival. In the combined analysis, overall survival approached statistical significance (HR 0.69, CI 0.46-1.03; P=0.07) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was significant (HR 0.55, CI 0.35-0.88; P=0.01). Addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to radiation improves progression-free survival in operated endometrial cancer patients with no residual tumour and a high-risk profile. A remaining question for future studies is if addition of radiotherapy to chemotherapy improves the results. Copyright 2010 Elsevier

  11. Falls in advanced old age: recalled falls and prospective follow-up of over-90-year-olds in the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Fiona E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "oldest old" are now the fastest growing section of most western populations, yet there are scarcely any data concerning even the common problem of falls amongst the very old. Prospective data collection is encouraged as the most reliable method for researching older people's falls, though in clinical practice guidelines advise taking a history of any recalled falls. This study set out to inform service planning by describing the epidemiology of falls in advanced old age using both retrospectively and prospectively collected falls data. Methods Design: Re-survey of over-90-year-olds in a longitudinal cohort study – cross-sectional interview and intensive 12-month follow-up. Participants and setting: 90 women and 20 men participating in a population-based cohort (aged 91–105 years, in care-homes and community-dwelling recruited from representative general practices in Cambridge, UK Measurements: Prospective falls data were collected using fall calendars and telephone follow-up for one year after cross-sectional survey including fall history. Results 58% were reported to have fallen at least once in the previous year and 60% in the 1-year follow-up. The proportion reported to have fallen more than once was lower using retrospective recall of the past year than prospective reports gathered the following year (34% versus 45%, as were fall rates (1.6 and 2.8 falls/person-year respectively. Repeated falls in the past year were more highly predictive of falls during the following year – IRR 4.7, 95% CI 2.6–8.7 – than just one – IRR 3.6, 95% CI 2.0–6.3, using negative binomial regression. Only 1/5 reportedly did not fall during either the year before or after interview. Conclusion Fall rates in this representative sample of over-90-year-olds are even higher than previous reports from octogenarians. Recalled falls last year, particularly repeated falls, strongly predicted falls during follow-up. Similar proportions

  12. A Feasibility Randomised Controlled Trial of the New Orleans Intervention for Infant Mental Health: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pritchett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment is associated with life-long social, physical, and mental health problems. Intervening early to provide maltreated children with safe, nurturing care can improve outcomes. The need for prompt decisions about permanent placement (i.e., regarding adoption or return home is internationally recognised. However, a recent Glasgow audit showed that many maltreated children “revolve” between birth families and foster carers. This paper describes the protocol of the first exploratory randomised controlled trial of a mental health intervention aimed at improving placement permanency decisions for maltreated children. This trial compares an infant's mental health intervention with the new enhanced service as usual for maltreated children entering care in Glasgow. As both are new services, the trial is being conducted from a position of equipoise. The outcome assessment covers various fields of a child’s neurodevelopment to identify problems in any ESSENCE domain. The feasibility, reliability, and developmental appropriateness of all outcome measures are examined. Additionally, the potential for linkage with routinely collected data on health and social care and, in the future, education is explored. The results will inform a definitive randomised controlled trial that could potentially lead to long lasting benefits for the Scottish population and which may be applicable to other areas of the world. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NC01485510.

  13. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancawan, Archiel Launch; Pato, Maria Noemi; Abidin, Khamiza Zainol; Asari, A. S. Mohd; Thong, Tran Xuan; Kochhar, Puja; Muganurmath, Chandra; Twynholm, Monique; Barker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n = 235) or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n = 237) for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required) at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7%) was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache) were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7%) in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217. PMID:26300919

  14. Impact of the demand for 'proxy assent' on recruitment to a randomised controlled trial of vaccination testing in care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Paul James; Walwyn, Rebecca; Gaughran, Fiona; Macdonald, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    Legal frameworks are in place to protect those who lack the capacity to consent to research, such as the Mental Capacity Act in the UK. Assent is sought instead from a proxy, usually a relative. However, the same legislation may, perversely, affect the welfare of those who lack capacity and of others by hindering the process of recruitment into otherwise potentially beneficial research. In addition, the onus of responsibility is moved from those who know most about the study (ie, the scientific community) to those who know less (the proxies). In this paper, we describe the characteristics of a sample at different stages of the recruitment process of an influenza vaccine-based randomised control trial in elderly care home residents (the FEVER study). 62% (602/968) of potential subjects lacked capacity but only 29% (80/277) of those actually randomised. Older age, being female and living in an Elderly Mentally Ill care home were the only variables associated with lacking capacity. Considering this was a study based in a care home setting where the prevalence of dementia approximates 80%, the trial, like many others, was thus significantly biased. We believe that difficulties seeking proxy assent contributed significantly to this problem. Further thought should be given to how assent to enter research for those who lack capacity should be provided, and we suggest avenues for further discussion such as independent risk/benefit expert panels.

  15. Two randomised phase II trials of subcutaneous interleukin-2 and histamine dihydrochloride in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, F; Middleton, M; Fode, K

    2005-01-01

    Histamine inhibits formation and release of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, and thereby protects natural killer and T cells against oxidative damage. Thus, the addition of histamine may potentially improve the efficacy of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Two randomised phase II trials of IL-2...... with or without histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) were run in parallel. A total of 41 patients were included in Manchester, UK and 63 in Aarhus, Denmark. The self-administered, outpatient regimen included IL-2 as a fixed dose, 18 MIU s.c. once daily, 5 days...... median survival (18.3 vs 11.4 months, P = 0.07), time to PD (4.5 vs 2.2 months, P = 0.13) and clinical benefit (CR + PR + SD) (58 vs 37%, P = 0.10) in favour of IL-2/HDC, whereas the UK study was negative for all end points. Only three patients had grade 4 toxicity; however, two were fatal. A randomised...

  16. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancawan, Archiel Launch; Pato, Maria Noemi; Abidin, Khamiza Zainol; Asari, A S Mohd; Thong, Tran Xuan; Kochhar, Puja; Muganurmath, Chandra; Twynholm, Monique; Barker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n = 235) or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n = 237) for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required) at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7%) was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache) were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7%) in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217.

  17. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archiel Launch Tancawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n=235 or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n=237 for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7% was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7% in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217.

  18. Pneumatic retinopexy versus scleral buckling: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, A; Fulcher, T; Datta, V; Acheson, R

    1996-01-01

    Pneumatic retinopexy (PR) is a technique for repairing certain retinal detachments which is easier to perform than conventional sceral buckling (SB) surgery but has comparable results. We performed a prospective, randomised, controlled trial to determine for ourselves whether PR is a safe and acceptable procedure. Twenty patients presenting consecutively with retinal detachments which fulfilled the selection criteria were randomised to have their detachments repaired by either PR or SB, ten patients in each group. The suitable patients had a single retinal break or small group of breaks of not greater than one clock hour in size, situated within the superior eight clock hours of retina. Patients with significant proliferative vitreoretinopathy or other fundus disorders were excluded. All patients in the PR group had local anaesthesia while all those in the SB group had general anaesthesia. Successful reattachment of the retina was achieved with one or more procedures in 90 percent of the PR group and in 100 percent of the SB group. We feel that narrowing the selection criteria for PR may further improve the success rate.

  19. Effects of music therapy on drug therapy of adult psychiatric outpatients: A pilot randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Degli Stefani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Framed in the patients’ engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants (n = 27 with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia, F25 (schizoaffective disorders, F31 (bipolar affective disorder, F32 (depressive episode and F60 (specific personality disorders were randomised to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of two hours or standard care only. The clinical measures included dosages of neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilisers and antidepressants. Results: The participants who received group music therapy demonstrated greater improvement in drug dosage relative to neuroleptics than those who did not receive group music therapy. Antidepressants had an increment for both groups that was significant only for the control group. Benzodiazepines and mood stabilisers did not show any significant change in either group. Conclusions: Group music therapy combined with standard drug care is effective for controlling neuroleptic drug dosages in adult psychiatric outpatients who received group music therapy. We discuss the likely applications of group music therapy in psychiatry and the possible contribution of music therapy in improving the psychopathological condition of adult outpatients. In addition, the implications for the patient-centred perspective were also discussed.

  20. A Brief Analysis of the Development Factors of Quantum Theory in Cambridge in Early 20th Century%20世纪初量子理论在剑桥的传入

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹沛; 尹晓冬

    2011-01-01

    This Thesis analyses the impact of development of early--stage quantum theory in Cam- bridge from background, thought transformation, Mathematical Tripos and communication, which may re- veal the development of science in Cambridge in 20th century when the revolution of modern physics hap- pened. I hope it has certain significance because of the comparability with the development of China in mod- ern times.%探讨了20世纪初量子理论在剑桥的传入和发展情况,以及相关因素.

  1. Group therapy for adolescents with repeated self harm: randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J M; Wood, A J; Kerfoot, M J; Trainor, G; Roberts, C; Rothwell, J; Woodham, A; Ayodeji, E; Barrett, B; Byford, S; Harrington, R

    2011-04-01

    To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of group therapy for self harm in young people. Two arm, single (assessor) blinded parallel randomised allocation trial of a group therapy intervention in addition to routine care, compared with routine care alone. Randomisation was by minimisation controlling for baseline frequency of self harm, presence of conduct disorder, depressive disorder, and severity of psychosocial stress. Adolescents aged 12-17 years with at least two past episodes of self harm within the previous 12 months. Exclusion criteria were: not speaking English, low weight anorexia nervosa, acute psychosis, substantial learning difficulties (defined by need for specialist school), current containment in secure care. Setting Eight child and adolescent mental health services in the northwest UK. Manual based developmental group therapy programme specifically designed for adolescents who harm themselves, with an acute phase over six weekly sessions followed by a booster phase of weekly groups as long as needed. Details of routine care were gathered from participating centres. Primary outcome was frequency of subsequent repeated episodes of self harm. Secondary outcomes were severity of subsequent self harm, mood disorder, suicidal ideation, and global functioning. Total costs of health, social care, education, and criminal justice sector services, plus family related costs and productivity losses, were recorded. 183 adolescents were allocated to each arm (total n = 366). Loss to follow-up was low (self harm, proportional odds ratio of group therapy versus routine care adjusting for relevant baseline variables was 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.44, P = 0.95) at 6 months and 0.88 (0.59 to 1.33, P = 0.52) at 1 year. For severity of subsequent self harm the equivalent odds ratios were 0.81 (0.54 to 1.20, P = 0.29) at 6 months and 0.94 (0.63 to 1.40, P = 0.75) at 1 year. Total 1 year costs were higher in the group therapy arm (£21,781) than

  2. The chronic kidney disease Water Intake Trial (WIT): results from the pilot randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William F; Sontrop, Jessica M; Huang, Shih-Han; Gallo, Kerri; Moist, Louise; House, Andrew A; Weir, Matthew A; Garg, Amit X

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Increased water intake may benefit kidney function. Prior to initiating a larger randomised controlled trial (RCT), we examined the safety and feasibility of asking adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to increase their water intake. Design, setting, participants and measurements Beginning in October 2012, we randomly assigned 29 adults with stage 3 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria) to one of the two groups of water intake: hydration (n=18) or standard (n=11). We asked the hydration group to increase their water intake by 1.0–1.5 L/day (in addition to usual intake, depending on sex and weight) for 6 weeks, while the control group carried on with their usual intake. Participants collected a 24 h urine sample at baseline and at 2 and 6 weeks after randomisation. Our primary outcome was the between-group difference in change in 24 h urine volume from baseline to 6 weeks. Results (63%)of participants were men, 81% were Caucasians and the average age was 61 years (SD 14 years). The average baseline eGFR was 40 mL/min/1.73 m2 (SD 11 mL/min/1.73 m2); the median albumin to creatinine ratio was 19 mg/mmol (IQR 6–74 mg/mmol). Between baseline and 6-week follow-up, the hydration group's average 24 h urine volume increased by 0.7 L/day (from 2.3 to 3.0 L/day) and the control group's 24 h urine decreased by 0.3 L/day (from 2.0 to 1.7 L/day; between-group difference in change: 0.9 L/day (95% CI 0.4 to 1.5; p=0.002)). We found no significant changes in urine, serum osmolality or electrolyte concentrations, or eGFR. No serious adverse events or changes in quality of life were reported. Conclusions A pilot RCT indicates adults with stage 3 CKD can successfully and safely increase water intake by up to 0.7 L/day in addition to usual fluid intake. Trial registration Registered with Clinical Trials—government identifier NCT01753466. PMID:24362012

  3. MObile Technology for Improved Family Planning Services (MOTIF): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Providing women with contraceptive methods following abortion is important to reduce repeat abortion rates, yet evidence for effective post-abortion family planning interventions are limited. This protocol outlines the evaluation of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support post-abortion family planning in Cambodia. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial of 500 participants. Clients aged 18 or over, attending for abortion at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia, owning a mobile phone and not wishing to have a child at the current time are randomised to the mobile phone-based intervention or control (standard care) with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The intervention comprises a series of six automated voice messages to remind clients about available family planning methods and provide a conduit for additional support. Clients can respond to message prompts to request a phone call from a counsellor, or alternatively to state they have no problems. Clients requesting to talk to a counsellor, or who do not respond to the message prompts, receive a call from a Marie Stopes International Cambodia counsellor who provides individualised advice and support regarding family planning. The duration of the intervention is 3 months. The control group receive existing standard of care without the additional mobile phone-based support. We hypothesise that the intervention will remind clients about contraceptive methods available, identify problems with side effects early and provide support, and therefore increase use of post-abortion family planning, while reducing discontinuation and unsafe method switching. Participants are assessed at baseline and at 4 months. The primary outcome measure is use of an effective modern contraceptive method at 4 months post abortion. Secondary outcome measures include contraception use, pregnancy and repeat abortion over the 4-month post-abortion period. Risk ratios will be used as

  4. The Additive Hazard Mixing Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Xiao-liang LING

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the aging and dependence properties in the additive hazard mixing models including some stochastic comparisons.Further,some useful bounds of reliability functions in additive hazard mixing models are obtained.

  5. Referee: hyperthermia alone or combined with cisplatin in addition to radiotherapy for advanced uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, O; Mella, O

    2002-01-01

    There are two evidence based therapeutic options for locally advanced cervical cancer: Radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy (cisplatin alone or combined with other drugs) or radiation and hyperthermia, documented in randomised trials. The weight of evidence is less for the most advanced stages. Combination of all three options are currently tested in several centres with good clinical response and acceptable toxicity. Based on a pragmatic approach we propose to proceed with a trial selecting cisplatin concurrent with radiation therapy as the standard arm to be compared with the same regimen with the addition of hyperthermia once a week.

  6. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  7. Systematic tests for position-dependent additive shear bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Edo; Schneider, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We present new tests to identify stationary position-dependent additive shear biases in weak gravitational lensing data sets. These tests are important diagnostics for currently ongoing and planned cosmic shear surveys, as such biases induce coherent shear patterns that can mimic and potentially bias the cosmic shear signal. The central idea of these tests is to determine the average ellipticity of all galaxies with shape measurements in a grid in the pixel plane. The distribution of the absolute values of these averaged ellipticities can be compared to randomised catalogues; a difference points to systematics in the data. In addition, we introduce a method to quantify the spatial correlation of the additive bias, which suppresses the contribution from cosmic shear and therefore eases the identification of a position-dependent additive shear bias in the data. We apply these tests to the publicly available shear catalogues from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) and find evidence for a small but non-negligible residual additive bias at small scales. As this residual bias is smaller than the error on the shear correlation signal at those scales, it is highly unlikely that it causes a significant bias in the published cosmic shear results of CFHTLenS. In CFHTLenS, the amplitude of this systematic signal is consistent with zero in fields where the number of stars used to model the point spread function (PSF) is higher than average, suggesting that the position-dependent additive shear bias originates from undersampled PSF variations across the image.

  8. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  9. A pragmatic cluster randomised trial evaluating three implementation interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rycroft-Malone Jo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation research is concerned with bridging the gap between evidence and practice through the study of methods to promote the uptake of research into routine practice. Good quality evidence has been summarised into guideline recommendations to show that peri-operative fasting times could be considerably shorter than patients currently experience. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of three strategies for the implementation of recommendations about peri-operative fasting. Methods A pragmatic cluster randomised trial underpinned by the PARIHS framework was conducted during 2006 to 2009 with a national sample of UK hospitals using time series with mixed methods process evaluation and cost analysis. Hospitals were randomised to one of three interventions: standard dissemination (SD of a guideline package, SD plus a web-based resource championed by an opinion leader, and SD plus plan-do-study-act (PDSA. The primary outcome was duration of fluid fast prior to induction of anaesthesia. Secondary outcomes included duration of food fast, patients’ experiences, and stakeholders’ experiences of implementation, including influences. ANOVA was used to test differences over time and interventions. Results Nineteen acute NHS hospitals participated. Across timepoints, 3,505 duration of fasting observations were recorded. No significant effect of the interventions was observed for either fluid or food fasting times. The effect size was 0.33 for the web-based intervention compared to SD alone for the change in fluid fasting and was 0.12 for PDSA compared to SD alone. The process evaluation showed different types of impact, including changes to practices, policies, and attitudes. A rich picture of the implementation challenges emerged, including inter-professional tensions and a lack of clarity for decision-making authority and responsibility. Conclusions This was a large, complex study and one of the first

  10. Electronic voting to encourage interactive lectures: a randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Background Electronic Voting Systems have been used for education in a variety of disciplines. Outcomes from these studies have been mixed. Because results from these studies have been mixed, we examined whether an EVS system could enhance a lecture's effect on educational outcomes. Methods A cohort of 127 Year 5 medical students at the University of Adelaide was stratified by gender, residency status and academic record then randomised into 2 groups of 64 and 63 students. Each group received consecutive 40-minute lectures on two clinical topics. One group received the EVS for both topics. The other group received traditional teaching only. Evaluation was undertaken with two, 15-question multiple-choice questionnaires (MCQ) assessing knowledge and problem solving and undertaken as a written paper immediately before and after the lectures and repeated online 8–12 weeks later. Standardised institutional student questionnaires were completed for each lecture and independent observers assessed student behaviour during the lectures. Lecturer's opinions were assessed by a questionnaire developed for this study. Results Two-thirds of students randomised to EVS and 59% of students randomised to traditional lectures attended. One-half of the students in the EVS group and 41% in the traditional group completed all questionnaires. There was no difference in MCQ scores between EVS and traditional lectures (p = 0.785). The cervical cancer lectures showed higher student ranking in favour of EVS in all parameters. The breast cancer lectures showed higher ranking in favour of traditional lectures in 5 of 7 parameters (p lecturer-students interactions were increased in the EVS lecture for one lecturer and reduced for the other. Both lecturers felt that the EVS lectures were difficult to prepare, that they were able to keep to time in the traditional lectures, that the educational value of both lecture styles was similar, and that they were neutral-to-slightly favourably disposed

  11. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, David; Bauld, Linda; Purves, David; Boyd, Kathleen; Sinclair, Lesley; MacAskill, Susan; McKell, Jennifer; Friel, Brenda; McConnachie, Alex; de Caestecker, Linda; Tannahill, Carol; Radley, Andrew; Coleman, Tim

    2015-01-27

    To assess the efficacy of a financial incentive added to routine specialist pregnancy stop smoking services versus routine care to help pregnant smokers quit. Phase II therapeutic exploratory single centre, individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. One large health board area with a materially deprived, inner city population in the west of Scotland, United Kingdom. 612 self reported pregnant smokers in NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde who were English speaking, at least 16 years of age, less than 24 weeks pregnant, and had an exhaled carbon monoxide breath test result of 7 ppm or more. 306 women were randomised to incentives and 306 to control. The control group received routine care, which was the offer of a face to face appointment to discuss smoking and cessation and, for those who attended and set a quit date, the offer of free nicotine replacement therapy for 10 weeks provided by pharmacy services, and four, weekly support phone calls. The intervention group received routine care plus the offer of up to £400 of shopping vouchers: £50 for attending a face to face appointment and setting a quit date; then another £50 if at four weeks' post-quit date exhaled carbon monoxide confirmed quitting; a further £100 was provided for continued validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide after 12 weeks; a final £200 voucher was provided for validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide at 34-38 weeks' gestation. The primary outcome was cotinine verified cessation at 34-38 weeks' gestation through saliva (incentives were documented. Significantly more smokers in the incentives group than control group stopped smoking: 69 (22.5%) versus 26 (8.6%). The relative risk of not smoking at the end of pregnancy was 2.63 (95% confidence interval 1.73 to 4.01) Pincentives need to be offered to achieve one extra quitter in late pregnancy) was 7.2 (95% confidence interval 5.1 to 12.2). The mean birth weight was 3140 g (SD 600 g) in the incentives group

  12. Electronic voting to encourage interactive lectures: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Paul M; Palmer, Edward; Devitt, Peter

    2007-07-27

    Electronic Voting Systems have been used for education in a variety of disciplines. Outcomes from these studies have been mixed. Because results from these studies have been mixed, we examined whether an EVS system could enhance a lecture's effect on educational outcomes. A cohort of 127 Year 5 medical students at the University of Adelaide was stratified by gender, residency status and academic record then randomised into 2 groups of 64 and 63 students. Each group received consecutive 40-minute lectures on two clinical topics. One group received the EVS for both topics. The other group received traditional teaching only. Evaluation was undertaken with two, 15-question multiple-choice questionnaires (MCQ) assessing knowledge and problem solving and undertaken as a written paper immediately before and after the lectures and repeated online 8-12 weeks later. Standardised institutional student questionnaires were completed for each lecture and independent observers assessed student behaviour during the lectures. Lecturer's opinions were assessed by a questionnaire developed for this study. Two-thirds of students randomised to EVS and 59% of students randomised to traditional lectures attended. One-half of the students in the EVS group and 41% in the traditional group completed all questionnaires. There was no difference in MCQ scores between EVS and traditional lectures (p = 0.785). The cervical cancer lectures showed higher student ranking in favour of EVS in all parameters. The breast cancer lectures showed higher ranking in favour of traditional lectures in 5 of 7 parameters (p higher-order lecturer-students interactions were increased in the EVS lecture for one lecturer and reduced for the other. Both lecturers felt that the EVS lectures were difficult to prepare, that they were able to keep to time in the traditional lectures, that the educational value of both lecture styles was similar, and that they were neutral-to-slightly favourably disposed to continue with

  13. Randomised controlled trial of Alexander technique lessons, exercise, and massage (ATEAM) for chronic and recurrent back pain: economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinghurst, Sandra; Sharp, Debbie; Ballard, Kathleen; Barnett, Jane; Beattie, Angela; Evans, Maggie; Lewith, George; Middleton, Karen; Oxford, Frances; Webley, Fran; Little, Paul

    2008-12-11

    An economic evaluation of therapeutic massage, exercise, and lessons in the Alexander technique for treating persistent back pain. Cost consequences study and cost effectiveness analysis at 12 month follow-up of a factorial randomised controlled trial. 579 patients with chronic or recurrent low back pain recruited from primary care. Normal care (control), massage, and six or 24 lessons in the Alexander technique. Half of each group were randomised to a prescription for exercise from a doctor plus behavioural counselling from a nurse. Costs to the NHS and to participants. Comparison of costs with Roland-Morris disability score (number of activities impaired by pain), days in pain, and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Comparison of NHS costs with QALY gain, using incremental cost effectiveness ratios and cost effectiveness acceptability curves. Intervention costs ranged from pound30 for exercise prescription to pound596 for 24 lessons in Alexander technique plus exercise. Cost of health services ranged from pound50 for 24 lessons in Alexander technique to pound124 for exercise. Incremental cost effectiveness analysis of single therapies showed that exercise offered best value ( pound61 per point on disability score, pound9 per additional pain-free day, pound2847 per QALY gain). For two-stage therapy, six lessons in Alexander technique combined with exercise was the best value (additional pound64 per point on disability score, pound43 per additional pain-free day, pound5332 per QALY gain). An exercise prescription and six lessons in Alexander technique alone were both more than 85% likely to be cost effective at values above pound20 000 per QALY, but the Alexander technique performed better than exercise on the full range of outcomes. A combination of six lessons in Alexander technique lessons followed by exercise was the most effective and cost effective option.

  14. Steroids In caRdiac Surgery (SIRS) trial: acute kidney injury substudy protocol of an international randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit X; Vincent, Jessica; Cuerden, Meaghan; Parikh, Chirag; Devereaux, P J; Teoh, Kevin; Yusuf, Salim; Hildebrand, Ainslie; Lamy, Andre; Zuo, Yunxia; Sessler, Daniel I; Shah, Pallav; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Quantz, Mackenzie; Yared, Jean-Pierre; Noiseux, Nicolas; Tagarakis, Georgios; Rochon, Antoine; Pogue, Janice; Walsh, Michael; Chan, Matthew T V; Lamontagne, Francois; Salehiomran, Abbas; Whitlock, Richard

    2014-03-05

    Steroids In caRdiac Surgery trial (SIRS) is a large international randomised controlled trial of methylprednisolone or placebo in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of a cardiopulmonary bypass pump. At the time of surgery, compared with placebo, methylprednisolone divided into two intravenous doses of 250 mg each may reduce the risk of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). With respect to the study schedule, over 7000 substudy eligible patients from 81 centres in 18 countries were randomised in December 2013. The authors will use a logistic regression to estimate the adjusted OR of methylprednisolone versus placebo on the primary outcome of AKI in the 14 days following surgery (a postoperative increase in serum creatinine of ≥50%, or ≥26.5 μmol/L, from the preoperative value). The stage of AKI will also be considered, as will the outcome of AKI in those with and without preoperative chronic kidney disease. After receipt of grant funding, the authors began to record additional perioperative serum creatinine measurements in consecutive patients enrolled at substudy participating centres, and patients were invited to enroll in a 6-month serum creatinine collection. In these trial subpopulations, the authors will consider the outcome of AKI defined in alternate ways, and the outcome of a 6-month change in kidney function from the preoperative value. The authors were competitively awarded a grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for this SIRS AKI substudy. Ethics approval was obtained for additional serum creatinine recordings in consecutive patients enrolled at participating centres. The additional kidney data collection first began for patients enrolled after 1 March 2012. In patients who provided consent, the last 6-month kidney outcome data will be collected in 2014. The results will be reported no later than 2015. Number NCT00427388.

  15. Promotion of physical activity and fitness in sedentary patients with Parkinson's disease : randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, Marlies; Speelman, Arlene D.; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van de Warrenburg, Bart P.; Smulders, Katrijn; Dontje, Manon L.; Borm, George F.; Backx, Frank J. G.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Munneke, Marten

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a multifaceted behavioural change programme increases physical activities in patients with Parkinson's disease. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 community hospitals in the Netherlands, collaborating in a nationwide network (ParkinsonNet). Parti

  16. Promotion of physical activity and fitness in sedentary patients with Parkinson's disease : randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, Marlies; Speelman, Arlene D.; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van de Warrenburg, Bart P.; Smulders, Katrijn; Dontje, Manon L.; Borm, George F.; Backx, Frank J. G.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Munneke, Marten

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a multifaceted behavioural change programme increases physical activities in patients with Parkinson's disease. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 community hospitals in the Netherlands, collaborating in a nationwide network (ParkinsonNet). Parti

  17. Patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil versus epidural analgesia in labour : randomised multicentre equivalence trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freeman, Liv M; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W; Franssen, Maureen T; Papatsonis, Dimitri N; Hajenius, Petra J; Hollmann, Markus W; Woiski, Mallory D; Porath, Martina; van den Berg, Hans J; van Beek, Erik; Borchert, Odette W H M; Schuitemaker, Nico; Sikkema, J Marko; Kuipers, A H M; Logtenberg, Sabine L M; van der Salm, Paulien C M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Lopriore, Enrico; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; le Cessie, Saskia; van Lith, Jan M; Struys, Michel M; Mol, Ben Willem J; Dahan, Albert; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oude Rengerink, K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine women's satisfaction with pain relief using patient controlled analgesia with remifentanil compared with epidural analgesia during labour. DESIGN: Multicentre randomised controlled equivalence trial. SETTING: 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Women with an interm

  18. Practical aspects of conducting a pragmatic randomised trial in primary care: patient recruitment and outcome assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.W.M. van der Windt (Daniëlle); B.W. Koes (Bart); M. van Aarst; M.A. Heemskerk; L.M. Bouter (Lex)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Conducting a pragmatic randomised trial in primary care is often accompanied by practical problems. Such problems are seldom reported and may constitute useful lessons for researchers planning future trials. AIM: To address the difficulties invol

  19. [Effects of a stepwise approach to behavioural problems in dementia: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, M.J.; Francke, A.L.; Steen, J.T. van der; Scherder, E.J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Kovach, C.R.; Achterberg, W.P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether implementation of a stepwise multidisciplinary intervention ('STA OP!' ['STAND UP!']) is effective in reducing behavioural problems and depressive symptoms in nursing home residents with advanced dementia. DESIGN: Cluster randomised controlled trial. METHOD: We

  20. The RESOLVE Trial for people with chronic low back pain: protocol for a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K Bagg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low back pain is the leading worldwide cause of disability, and results in significant personal hardship. Most available treatments, when tested in high-quality randomised, controlled trials

  1. Representation of people with intellectual disabilities in randomised controlled trials on antipsychotic treatment for behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheifes, A.; Stolker, J.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Egberts, A.C.G.; Heerdink, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Behavioural problems are common in people with intellectual disability (ID) and are often treated with antipsychotics. Aim To establish the frequency and characteristics of people with ID included in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on antipsychotic treatment for behavioural problems

  2. Aprotinin and transfusion requirements in orthotopic liver transplantation : a multicentre randomised double-blind study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porte, RJ; Molenaar, IQ; Begliomini, B; Groenland, THN; Januszkiewicz, A; Lindgren, L; Palareti, G; Hermans, J; Terpstra, OT

    2000-01-01

    Background Intraoperative hyperfibrinolysis contributes to bleeding during adult orthotopic liver transplantation. We aimed to find out whether aprotinin, a potent antifibrinolytic agent, reduces blood loss and transfusion requirements. Methods We did a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled tr

  3. Rizatriptan vs. ibuprofen in migraine: a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Yadav, Rama Kant

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of rizatriptan and ibuprofen in migraine. The study was a randomised placebo-controlled trial in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Migraine patients with

  4. Supervised exercise therapy versus usual care for patellofemoral pain syndrome : an open label randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Linschoten, R.; van Middelkoop, M.; Berger, M. Y.; Heintjes, E. M.; Verhaar, J. A. N.; Willemsen, S. P.; Koes, B. W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of supervised exercise therapy compared with usual care with respect to recovery, pain, and function in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Design Open label randomised controlled trial. Setting General practice and sport physician practice. Participants

  5. Supervised exercise therapy versus usual care for patellofemoral pain syndrome : an open label randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Linschoten, R.; van Middelkoop, M.; Berger, M. Y.; Heintjes, E. M.; Verhaar, J. A. N.; Willemsen, S. P.; Koes, B. W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of supervised exercise therapy compared with usual care with respect to recovery, pain, and function in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Design Open label randomised controlled trial. Setting General practice and sport physician practice. Participants

  6. Labour pain with remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia versus epidural analgesia : a randomised equivalence trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtenberg, Slm; Oude Rengerink, K; Verhoeven, C J; Freeman, L M; van den Akker, Esa; Godfried, M B; van Beek, E; Borchert, Owhm; Schuitemaker, N; van Woerkens, Ecsm; Hostijn, I; Middeldorp, J M; van der Post, J A; Mol, B W

    OBJECTIVE: To distinguish satisfaction with pain relief using remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia (RPCA) compared with epidural analgesia (EA) in low-risk labouring women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled equivalence trial. SETTING: Eighteen midwifery practices and six hospitals in the

  7. On the type species of the genus Aetius O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896: The first description of male with notes on cymbial notch and mating plug (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhin, Puthoor Pattammal; Nafin, Karunnappilli Shamsudheen; Simmons, Zoë; Sudhikumar, Ambalaparambil Vasu

    2016-08-23

    The rare ant mimicking sac spider genus Aetius was erected by O. Pickard-Cambridge in 1896 based on an unspecified number of female specimen(s) collected from Sri Lanka. The type species of the genus, A. decollatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896, has been redescribed twice based on the holotype (Majumder & Tikader 1991; Deeleman-Reinhold 2001). Reimoser (1934) recorded the genus for the first time from India, who collected a male specimen from Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu State of southern India. This specimen was identified as A. decollatus, but it was never formally described and was later recognised to be a penultimate male (Dankittipakul & Singtripop 2013). Deeleman-Reinhold (2001) described the second representative of the genus, A. nocturnus, based on a single female specimen from Borneo, 105 years after the establishment of the genus. Dankittipakul & Singtripop (2013) described the male of A. nocturnus, thereby revealing the male genitalia of the genus, but the type species was still known only from the female sex.

  8. Choosing a control intervention for a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djulbegovic Benjamin

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomised controlled clinical trials are performed to resolve uncertainty concerning comparator interventions. Appropriate acknowledgment of uncertainty enables the concurrent achievement of two goals : the acquisition of valuable scientific knowledge and an optimum treatment choice for the patient-participant. The ethical recruitment of patients requires the presence of clinical equipoise. This involves the appropriate choice of a control intervention, particularly when unapproved drugs or innovative interventions are being evaluated. Discussion We argue that the choice of a control intervention should be supported by a systematic review of the relevant literature and, where necessary, solicitation of the informed beliefs of clinical experts through formal surveys and publication of the proposed trial's protocol. Summary When clinical equipoise is present, physicians may confidently propose trial enrollment to their eligible patients as an act of therapeutic beneficence.

  9. Careful science? Bodywork and care practices in randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Astrid Pernille; Bønnelycke, Julie; Eriksen, Hanne Hellerup

    2013-01-01

    the focus to reflect everyday practices would foster better targeted public health campaigns. This article is based on our participation in FINE, a multidisciplinary Danish research project. The core methodology of FINE was a randomised controlled trial in which 61 moderately overweight men were put...... into different exercise groups. In this article we analyse the scientific work of the trial as representing entangled processes of bodywork, where data are extracted and objectified bodies are manipulated and care practices address the emotional, social and mundane aspects of the participants' everyday lives....... Care practices are an inherent part of producing scientific facts but they are removed from the recognised results of scientific practice and thus from common public health recommendations. However, knowledge about the strategic use of care practices in lifestyle interventions is important for public...

  10. Bronchodilators for treatment of mild bronchiolitis: a factorial randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, E E; Milner, R; Allen, U; Maj, H

    1992-01-01

    A randomised double blind trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of inhaled bronchodilators, salbutamol and ipratropium bromide, compared with placebo in the treatment of bronchiolitis. Patients, who were 2 months to 2 years of age and without underlying cardiac or pulmonary disease, received drug 1 (salbutamol or saline placebo) followed one hour later by drug 2 (ipratropium bromide or placebo). Both agents were administered every four hours. The patients were allocated to one of four groups according to a factorial design. The four groups were similar in demographic characteristics, initial oxygenation, and clinical score. The change in oxygen saturation of recipients of both agents was significantly better than that of recipients of salbutamol alone or ipratropium bromide alone. This change, however, was not statistically different from that of the control group. No difference was observed in the clinical score or hospital duration. Inhaled bronchodilators did not improve the condition of hospitalised mild bronchiolitis. PMID:1533504

  11. Reported challenges in nurse-led randomised controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang Vedelø, Tina; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    , nursing research, nursing, research, challenges, barriers, nurse's role, nurse attitude, attitude of health personnel. Findings: The literature on reported challenges and barriers between 1999 and 2009 showed that the most often experienced problems were (i) sufficient patient recruitment, (ii......Aims: The purpose of this integrative literature review was to explore and discuss the methodological challenges nurse researchers report after conducting nurse-led randomised controlled trials in clinical hospital settings. Our research questions were (i) what are the most commonly experienced...... and the clinical nursing staff. Two lessons learned from this integrative review can be highlighted. First, we recommend researchers openly to share their experiences of barriers and challenges. They should describe factors that may have inhibited the desired outcome. Second, efforts to improve the collaboration...

  12. Is voice therapy an effective treatment for dysphonia? A randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie, K.; Millar, A; Wilson, J. A.; Sellars, C.; Deary, I. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the overall efficacy of voice therapy for dysphonia. DESIGN: Single blind randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Outpatient clinic in a teaching hospital. Participants: 204 outpatients aged 17-87 with a primary symptom of persistent hoarseness for at least two months. INTERVENTIONS: After baseline assessments, patients were randomised to six weeks of either voice therapy or no treatment. Assessments were repeated at six weeks on the 145 (71%) patients who continued to thi...

  13. Barriers to the conduct of randomised clinical trials within all disease areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurisic, Snezana; Rath, Ana; Gaber, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised clinical trials are key to advancing medical knowledge and to enhancing patient care, but major barriers to their conduct exist. The present paper presents some of these barriers. METHODS: We performed systematic literature searches and internal European Clinical Research...... and trial methodology; lack of funding; excessive monitoring; restrictive privacy law and lack of transparency; complex regulatory requirements; and inadequate infrastructures. There is a need for more pragmatic randomised clinical trials conducted with low risks of systematic and random errors...

  14. A randomised study evaluating the use of pyridoxine to avoid capecitabine dose modifications

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pyridoxine is frequently used to treat capecitabine-induced hand–foot syndrome (HFS), although the evidence of benefit is lacking. We performed a randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine whether pyridoxine could avoid the need for capecitabine dose modifications and improve outcomes. Methods: A total of 106 patients planned for palliative single-agent capecitabine (53 in each arm, 65%/ 35% colorectal/breast cancer) were randomised to receive either concomitant pyridoxine (...

  15. In veterinary trials reporting and communication regarding randomisation procedures is suboptimal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, N; Giuffrida, M A; Winter, A L; Meursinge Reynders, R

    2017-08-19

    To evaluate randomisation mechanisms in the veterinary literature, all trials defined as 'randomised' were extracted from five leading veterinary journals for the year 2013. Three blinded investigators evaluated (1) if the random sequence generation was actually non-random, and (2) whether method (CONSORT item 8A) and (3) type of randomisation (CONSORT item 8B) were reported. Trialists were contacted via email to establish (1) willingness to respond to questions on randomisation procedures, (2) whether reporting of randomisation improved following a suggestion to use the CONSORT 2010 guideline. Seven per cent ((95 per cent CI 2 to 12 per cent); 8/114) of the trials defined as 'randomised' explicitly used methods that are considered non-random. Almost half of the trials (49 per cent (40 to 59 per cent); 52/106) did not report any mechanism of randomisation. Only 13 trials (12.3 per cent (6 to 19 per cent); 13/106) reported both items. 39 of 114 (34.2 per cent) trialists contacted were willing to respond to further questions on randomisation mechanisms; 4 (3.5 per cent) trialists were unwilling and 71 (62.3 per cent) trialists did not respond. Email correspondence resulted in a mean clarification of 0.7 items (95 per cent CI 0.4 to 1.0) for the 15 trials for trialists that replied. Improved adherence to CONSORT guidelines and trialists communication is imperative to increase the quality of published evidence in veterinary medicine and to reduce research waste. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Early treatment of posterior crossbite - a randomised clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment in contrast to normal growth effects for functional unilateral posterior crossbite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition by means of three-dimensional digital model analysis. Methods This randomised clinical trial was assessed to analyse the orthodontic treatment effects for patients with functional unilateral posterior crossbite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using a two-step procedure: initial maxillary expansion followed by a U-bow activator therapy. In the treatment group 31 patients and in the control group 35 patients with a mean age of 7.3 years (SD 2.1) were monitored. The time between the initial assessment (T1) and the follow-up (T2) was one year. The orthodontic analysis was done by a three-dimensional digital model analysis. Using the ‘Digimodel’ software, the orthodontic measurements in the maxilla and mandible and for the midline deviation, the overjet and overbite were recorded. Results Significant differences between the control and the therapy group at T2 were detected for the anterior, median and posterior transversal dimensions of the maxilla, the palatal depth, the palatal base arch length, the maxillary arch length and inclination, the midline deviation, the overjet and the overbite. Conclusions Orthodontic treatment of a functional unilateral posterior crossbite with a bonded maxillary expansion device followed by U-bow activator therapy in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition is an effective therapeutic method, as evidenced by the results of this RCT. It leads to three-dimensional therapeutically induced maxillary growth effects. Dental occlusion is significantly improved, and the prognosis for normal craniofacial growth is enhanced. Trial registration Registration trial DRKS00003497 on DRKS PMID:23339736

  17. Statistical issues in randomised controlled trials: a narrative synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Emmanuel Egbewale

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Randomised controlled trials (RCT s are gold standard in the evaluation of treatment efficacy in medical investigations, only if well designed and implemented. Till date, distorted views and misapplications of statistical procedures involved in RCTs are still in practice. Hence, clarification of concepts and acceptable practices related to certain statistical issues involved in the design, conduct and reporting of randomised controlled trials is needed. This narrative synthesis aimed at providing succinct but clear information on the concepts and practices of selected statistical issues in RCT s to inform correct applications. The use of tests of significance is no longer acceptable as means to compare baseline similarity between treatment groups and in determining which covariate(s should be included in the model for adjustment. Distribution of baseline attributes simply presented in tabular form is however, rather preferred. Regarding covariate selection, such approach that makes use of information on the degree of correlation between the covariate(s and the outcome variable is more in tandem with statistical principle(s than that based on tests of significance. Stratification and minimisation are not alternatives to covariate adjusted analysis; in fact they establish the need for one. Intention-to-treat is the preferred approach for the evaluation of primary outcome measures and researchers have responsibility to report whether or not the procedure was followed. A major use of results from subgroup analysis is to generate hypothesis for future clinical trials. Since RCT s are gold standard in the comparison of medical interventions, researchers cannot afford the practices of distorted allocation or statistical procedures in this all important experimental design method.

  18. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia: A prospective, randomised study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Spinal anaesthesia has been reported as an alternative to general anaesthesia for performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC. Aims: Study aimed to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost benefit of conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia (SA in comparison to general anaesthesia(GA Settings and Design: A prospective, randomised study conducted over a two year period at an urban, non teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Patients meeting inclusion criteria e randomised into two groups .Group A and Group B received general and spinal anaesthesia by standardised techniques. Both groups underwent standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean anaesthesia time, pneumoperitoneum time and surgery time defined primary outcome measures. Intraoperative events and post operative pain score were secondary outcome measure. Statistical Analysis Used: The Student t test, Pearson′s chi-square test and Fisher exact test. Results: Out of 235 cases enrolled in the study, 114 cases in Group A and 110 in Group B analysed. Mean anaesthesia time appeared to be more in the GA group (49.45 vs. 40.64, P = 0.02 while pneumoperitoneum time and corresponding the total surgery time was slightly longer in the SA group. 27/117 cases who received SA experienced intraoperative events, four significant enough to convert to GA. No postoperative complications noted in either group. Pain relief significantly more in SA group in immediate post operative period (06 and 12 hours but same as GA group at time of discharge (24 hours. No late postoperative complication or readmission noted in either group. Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy done under spinal anaesthesia as a routine anaesthesia of choice is feasible and safe. Spinal anaesthesia can be recommended to be the anaesthesia technique of choice for conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy in hospital setups in developing countries where cost factor is a major factor.

  19. Statistical issues in randomised controlled trials: a narrative synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bolaji; Emmanuel; Egbewale

    2015-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials(RCTs) are gold standard in the evaluation of treatment efficacy in medical investigations, only if well designed and implemented. Till date, distorted views and misapplications of statistical procedures involved in RCTs are still in practice. Hence, clarification of concepts and acceptable practices related to certain statistical issues involved in the design, conduct and reporting of randomised controlled trials is needed. This narrative synthesis aimed at providing succinct but clear information on the concepts and practices of selected statistical issues in RCTs to inform correct applications. The use of tests of significance is no longer acceptable as means to compare baseline similarity between treatment groups and in determining which covariate(s) should be included in the model for adjustment. Distribution of baseline attributes simply presented in tabular form is however, rather preferred. Regarding covariate selection, such approach that makes use of information on the degree of correlation between the covariate(s) and the outcome variable is more in tandem with statistical principle(s) than that based on tests of significance. Stratification and minimisation are not alternatives to covariate adjusted analysis; in fact they establish the need for one. Intention-totreat is the preferred approach for the evaluation of primary outcome measures and researchers have responsibility to report whether or not the procedure was followed. A major use of results from subgroup analysis is to generate hypothesis for future clinical trials. Since RCTs are gold standard in the comparison of medical interventions, researchers cannot afford the practices of distorted allocation or statistical procedures in this all important experimental design method.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial (EVerT trial

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    Stamuli Eugena

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar warts (verrucae are extremely common. Although many will spontaneously disappear without treatment, treatment may be sought for a variety of reasons such as discomfort. There are a number of different treatments for cutaneous warts, with salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen being two of the most common forms of treatment. To date, no full economic evaluation of either salicylic acid or cryotherapy has been conducted based on the use of primary data in a pragmatic setting. This paper describes the cost-effectiveness analysis which was conducted alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised trial evaluating the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus 50% salicylic acid of the treatment of plantar warts. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the clinical effectiveness of 50% salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen at 12 weeks after randomisation of patients. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were expressed as the additional cost required to completely cure the plantar warts of one additional patient. A NHS perspective was taken for the analysis. Results Cryotherapy costs on average £101.17 (bias corrected and accelerated (BCA 95% CI: 85.09-117.26 more per participant over the 12 week time-frame, while there is no additional benefit, in terms of proportion of patients healed compared with salicylic acid. Conclusions Cryotherapy is more costly and no more effective than salicylic acid. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18994246 [controlled-trials.com] and National Research Register N0484189151.

  1. Quarter-dose quadruple combination therapy for initial treatment of hypertension: placebo-controlled, crossover, randomised trial and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clara K; Thakkar, Jay; Bennett, Alex; Hillis, Graham; Burke, Michael; Usherwood, Tim; Vo, Kha; Rogers, Kris; Atkins, Emily; Webster, Ruth; Chou, Michael; Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Salam, Abdul; Patel, Anushka; Neal, Bruce; Peiris, David; Krum, Henry; Chalmers, John; Nelson, Mark; Reid, Christopher M; Woodward, Mark; Hilmer, Sarah; Thom, Simon; Rodgers, Anthony

    2017-03-11

    randomisation and two patients dropped out for administrative reasons. The placebo-corrected reduction in systolic 24-h blood pressure with the quadpill was 19 mm Hg (95% CI 14-23), and office blood pressure was reduced by 22/13 mm Hg (p<0·0001). During quadpill treatment, 18 (100%) of 18 participants achieved office blood pressure less than 140/90 mm Hg, compared with six (33%) of 18 during placebo treatment (p=0·0013). There were no serious adverse events and all patients reported that the quadpill was easy to swallow. Our systematic review identified 36 trials (n=4721 participants) of one drug at quarter-dose and six trials (n=312) of two drugs at quarter-dose, against placebo. The pooled placebo-corrected blood pressure-lowering effects were 5/2 mm Hg and 7/5 mm Hg, respectively (both p<0·0001), and there were no side-effects from either regimen. The findings of our small trial in the context of previous randomised evidence suggest that the benefits of quarter-dose therapy could be additive across classes and might confer a clinically important reduction in blood pressure. Further examination of the quadpill concept is needed to investigate effectiveness against usual treatment options and longer term tolerability. National Heart Foundation, Australia; University of Sydney; and National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pralidoxime in acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning--a randomised controlled trial.

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    Michael Eddleston

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning with organophosphorus (OP insecticides is a major global public health problem, causing an estimated 200,000 deaths each year. Although the World Health Organization recommends use of pralidoxime, this antidote's effectiveness remains unclear. We aimed to determine whether the addition of pralidoxime chloride to atropine and supportive care offers benefit.We performed a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial of pralidoxime chloride (2 g loading dose over 20 min, followed by a constant infusion of 0.5 g/h for up to 7 d versus saline in patients with organophosphorus insecticide self-poisoning. Mortality was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included intubation, duration of intubation, and time to death. We measured baseline markers of exposure and pharmacodynamic markers of response to aid interpretation of clinical outcomes. Two hundred thirty-five patients were randomised to receive pralidoxime (121 or saline placebo (114. Pralidoxime produced substantial and moderate red cell acetylcholinesterase reactivation in patients poisoned by diethyl and dimethyl compounds, respectively. Mortality was nonsignificantly higher in patients receiving pralidoxime: 30/121 (24.8% receiving pralidoxime died, compared with 18/114 (15.8% receiving placebo (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-3.26, p = 0.12. Incorporating the baseline amount of acetylcholinesterase already aged and plasma OP concentration into the analysis increased the HR for patients receiving pralidoxime compared to placebo, further decreasing the likelihood that pralidoxime is beneficial. The need for intubation was similar in both groups (pralidoxime 26/121 [21.5%], placebo 24/114 [21.1%], adjusted HR 1.27 [95% CI 0.71-2.29]. To reduce confounding due to ingestion of different insecticides, we further analysed patients with confirmed chlorpyrifos or dimethoate poisoning alone, finding no evidence of benefit.Despite clear reactivation of

  3. Publishing interim results of randomised clinical trials in peer-reviewed journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Nicholas; Biri, Despina; Fraczek, Joanna; Hackshaw, Allan

    2017-02-01

    Interim analyses of randomised controlled trials are sometimes published before the final results are available. In several cases, the treatment effects were noticeably different after patient recruitment and follow-up completed. We therefore conducted a literature review of peer-reviewed journals to compare the reported treatment effects between interim and final publications and to examine the magnitude of the difference. We performed an electronic search of MEDLINE from 1990 to 2014 (keywords: 'clinical trial' OR 'clinical study' AND 'random*' AND 'interim' OR 'preliminary'), and we manually identified the corresponding final publication. Where the electronic search produced a final report in which the abstract cited interim results, we found the interim publication. We also manually searched every randomised controlled trial in eight journals, covering a range of impact factors and general medical and specialist publications (1996-2014). All paired articles were checked to ensure that the same comparison between interventions was available in both. In all, 63 studies are included in our review, and the same quantitative comparison was available in 58 of these. The final treatment effects were smaller than the interim ones in 39 (67%) trials and the same size or larger in 19 (33%). There was a marked reduction, defined as a ≥20% decrease in the size of the treatment effect from interim to final analysis, in 11 (19%) trials compared to a marked increase in 3 (5%), p = 0.057. The magnitude of percentage change was larger in trials where commercial support was reported, and increased as the proportion of final events at the interim report decreased in trials where commercial support was reported (interaction p = 0.023). There was no evidence of a difference between trials that stopped recruitment at the interim analysis where this was reported as being pre-specified versus those that were not pre-specified (interaction p = 0.87). Published interim

  4. Physical Activity during Cancer Treatment (PACT Study: design of a randomised clinical trial

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    de Wit G Ardine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a major problem of cancer patients. Thirty percent of cancer survivors report serious fatigue three years after finishing treatment. There is evidence that physical exercise during cancer treatment reduces fatigue. This may also lead to an improvement of quality of life. Such findings may result in a decrease of healthcare related expenditures and societal costs due to sick leave. However, no studies are known that investigated these hypotheses. Therefore, the primary aim of our study is to assess the effect of exercise during cancer treatment on reducing complaints of fatigue and on reducing health service utilisation and sick leave. Methods/Design The Physical Activity during Cancer Treatment study is a multicentre randomised controlled trial in 150 breast and 150 colon cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment. Participants will be randomised to an exercise or a control group. In addition to the usual care, the exercise group will participate in an 18-week supervised group exercise programme. The control group will be asked to maintain their habitual physical activity pattern. Study endpoints will be assessed after 18 weeks (short term and after 9 months (long term. Validated questionnaires will be used. Primary outcome: fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Fatigue Quality List and cost-effectiveness, health service utilisation and sick leave. Secondary outcome: health related quality of life (European Organisation Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life questionnaire-C30, Short Form 36 healthy survey, impact on functioning and autonomy (Impact on functioning and autonomy questionnaire, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, physical fitness (aerobic peak capacity, muscle strength, body composition and cognitive-behavioural aspects. To register health service utilisation and sick leave, participants will keep diaries including the EuroQuol-5D. Physical activity level

  5. Randomised trial of once-daily vilanterol in children with asthma on inhaled corticosteroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Amanda J; Covar, Ronina A; Goldfrad, Caroline H; Klein, Ryan M; Pedersen, Søren E; Sorkness, Christine A; Tomkins, Susan A; Villarán, César; Grigg, Jonathan

    2016-04-05

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are effective maintenance treatments for childhood asthma; however, many children remain uncontrolled. Vilanterol (VI) is an inhaled long-acting beta-2 agonist which, in combination with the ICS fluticasone furoate, is being explored as a once-daily treatment for asthma in children. We evaluated the dose-response, efficacy, and safety of once-daily VI (6.25 μg, 12.5 μg and 25 μg) administered in the evening over 4 weeks, on background fluticasone propionate (FP) in children with asthma inadequately controlled on ICS. This was a Phase IIb, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study in children ages 5-11 years with persistent asthma on ICS and as-needed short-acting beta-agonist. The study comprised a 4-week run-in, 4-week treatment period, and 1-week follow-up. From study start, children replaced their current ICS with open-label FP 100 μg twice daily. Children were randomised to receive placebo, VI 6.25 μg, VI 12.5 μg or VI 25 μg once daily. Primary endpoint was treatment difference between VI 25 and placebo groups in mean change from baseline in evening peak expiratory flow averaged over the 4-week treatment. Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at Week 4 and change from baseline in percentage of rescue-free and symptom-free 24-h periods. Safety assessments included incidence of adverse events (AEs) and asthma exacerbations. In total, 456 children comprised the intention-to-treat population. The adjusted treatment difference between VI 25 and placebo groups for the primary endpoint was not statistically significant (p = 0.227) so no statistical inference was made for other VI dose comparisons or other endpoints. No difference in change from baseline in trough FEV1 was observed for any VI treatments versus placebo; however, VI 25 resulted in an additional 0.6 rescue-free days and 0.7 symptom-free days per week versus

  6. Randomised controlled trial evaluation of Tweet2Quit: a social network quit-smoking intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, Cornelia; Delucchi, Kevin; Lakon, Cynthia M; Prochaska, Judith J

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated a novel Twitter-delivered intervention for smoking cessation, Tweet2Quit, which sends daily, automated communications to small, private, self-help groups to encourage high-quality, online, peer-to-peer discussions. A 2-group randomised controlled trial assessed the net benefit of adding a Tweet2Quit support group to a usual care control condition of nicotine patches and a cessation website. Participants were 160 smokers (4 cohorts of 40/cohort), aged 18-59 years, who intended to quit smoking, used Facebook daily, texted weekly, and had mobile phones with unlimited texting. All participants received 56 days of nicotine patches, emails with links to the smokefree.gov cessation website, and instructions to set a quit date within 7 days. Additionally, Tweet2Quit participants were enrolled in 20-person, 100-day Twitter groups, and received daily discussion topics via Twitter, and daily engagement feedback via text. The primary outcome was sustained abstinence at 7, 30 and 60 days post-quit date. Participants (mean age 35.7 years, 26.3% male, 31.2% college degree, 88.7% Caucasian) averaged 18.0 (SD=8.2) cigarettes per day and 16.8 (SD=9.8) years of smoking. Participants randomised to Tweet2Quit averaged 58.8 tweets/participant and the average tweeting duration was 47.4 days/participant. Tweet2Quit doubled sustained abstinence out to 60 days follow-up (40.0%, 26/65) versus control (20.0%, 14/70), OR=2.67, CI 1.19 to 5.99, p=0.017. Tweeting via phone predicted tweet volume, and tweet volume predicted sustained abstinence (p<0.001). The daily autocommunications caused tweeting spikes accounting for 24.0% of tweets. Tweet2Quit was engaging and doubled sustained abstinence. Its low cost and scalability makes it viable as a global cessation treatment. NCT01602536. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Pharmacists’ response to anaphylaxis in the community (PRAC): a randomised, simulated patient study of pharmacist practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Sandra M; Delfante, Brock; de Klerk, Sarah; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate how community pharmacists manage patients with anaphylaxis. Design A randomised, cross-sectional, simulated patient study of community pharmacist practice. Setting 300 metropolitan pharmacies located in Perth Australia, randomised to three groups of 100 pharmacies. Each group corresponded to a different epinephrine autoinjector: original EpiPen, new-look EpiPen or Anapen. Participants 300 pharmacies were visited with 271 simulated patient visits included in the final analysis (88=original EpiPen, 92=new-look EpiPen, 91=Anapen). Outcome measures Primary anaphylaxis preparedness (readiness to treat acute anaphylaxis). Secondary anaphylaxis engagement (willingness to engage the patient in a discussion about their anaphylaxis). Methods Simulated patients approached pharmacists, using a standardised scenario, for assistance with epinephrine autoinjector use and advice about the use of antihistamines in anaphylaxis. Scores for each outcome were obtained based on the number of predefined statements addressed by the pharmacist during the consultation (maximum score=5 for preparedness and 8 for engagement). Results The mean anaphylaxis preparedness score was 2.39 points (SD 1.17). Scores for new-look EpiPen were significantly higher than for original EpiPen and Anapen (2.75 vs 2.38 points, p=0.027; 2.75 vs 2.03 points, pEpiPen were similar to original EpiPen and Anapen (3.11 vs 3.32 points; 3.11 vs 2.90 points, both p=0.42). Engagement was associated with preparedness. For each additional engagement point, preparedness increased by 7% (0.357 points; 95% CI 0.291 to 0.424; p<0.001). Conclusions Pharmacists demonstrated reasonable knowledge of anaphylaxis symptoms and emergency care, but had poor epinephrine autoinjector technique and rarely discussed anaphylaxis action plans. Pharmacists who had a more comprehensive discussion about anaphylaxis with patients, were more prepared for anaphylaxis emergencies. Future research should evaluate the nature and

  8. Early intervention for adolescents with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

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    Rathleff Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported knee pain is highly prevalent among adolescents. As much as 50% of the non-specific knee pain may be attributed to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS. In the short term, exercise therapy appears to have a better effect than patient education consisting of written information and general advice on exercise or compared with placebo treatment. But the long-term effect of exercise therapy compared with patient education is conflicting. The purpose of this study is to examine the short- and long-term effectiveness of patient education compared with patient education and multimodal physiotherapy applied at a very early stage of the condition among adolescents. Methods/Design This study is a single blind pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. Four upper secondary schools have been invited to participate in the study (approximately 2500 students, aged 15-19 years. Students are asked to answer an online questionnaire regarding musculoskeletal pain. The students who report knee pain are contacted by telephone and offered a clinical examination by a rheumatologist. Subjects who fit the inclusion criteria and are diagnosed with PFPS are invited to participate in the study. A minimum of 102 students with PFPS are then cluster-randomised into two intervention groups based on which school they attend. Both intervention groups receive written information and education. In addition to patient education, one group receives multimodal physiotherapy consisting primarily of neuromuscular training of the muscles around the foot, knee and hip and home exercises. The students with PFPS fill out self-reported questionnaires at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after inclusion in the study. The primary outcome measure is perception of recovery measured on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from "completely recovered" to "worse than ever" at 12 months. Discussion This study is designed to investigate the effectiveness of patient

  9. Endovascular therapy for acute ischaemic stroke: the Pragmatic Ischaemic Stroke Thrombectomy Evaluation (PISTE) randomised, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Keith W; Ford, Gary A; Messow, Claudia-Martina; Ford, Ian; Murray, Alicia; Clifton, Andrew; Brown, Martin M; Madigan, Jeremy; Lenthall, Rob; Robertson, Fergus; Dixit, Anand; Cloud, Geoffrey C; Wardlaw, Joanna; Freeman, Janet; White, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Pragmatic Ischaemic Thrombectomy Evaluation (PISTE) trial was a multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial comparing intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) alone with IVT and adjunctive intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in patients who had acute ischaemic stroke with large artery occlusive anterior circulation stroke confirmed on CT angiography (CTA). Design Eligible patients had IVT started within 4.5 hours of stroke symptom onset. Those randomised to additional MT underwent thrombectomy using any Conformité Européene (CE)-marked device, with target interval times for IVT start to arterial puncture of <90 min. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving independence defined by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0–2 at day 90. Results Ten UK centres enrolled 65 patients between April 2013 and April 2015. Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 16 (IQR 13–21). Median stroke onset to IVT start was 120 min. In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in disability-free survival at day 90 with MT (absolute difference 11%, adjusted OR 2.12, 95% CI 0.65 to 6.94, p=0.20). Secondary analyses showed significantly greater likelihood of full neurological recovery (mRS 0–1) at day 90 (OR 7.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 37.2, p=0.010). In the per-protocol population (n=58), the primary and most secondary clinical outcomes significantly favoured MT (absolute difference in mRS 0–2 of 22% and adjusted OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 19.7, p=0.021). Conclusions The trial did not find a significant difference between treatment groups for the primary end point. However, the effect size was consistent with published data and across primary and secondary end points. Proceeding as fast as possible to MT after CTA confirmation of large artery occlusion on a background of intravenous alteplase is safe, improves excellent clinical outcomes and, in the per-protocol population, improves disability

  10. A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial

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    Carla FJ Nooijen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions: For people with subacute spinal cord injury, does rehabilitation that is reinforced with the addition of a behavioural intervention to promote physical activity lead to a more active lifestyle than rehabilitation alone? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinded assessors. Participants: Forty-five adults with subacute spinal cord injury who were undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and were dependent on a manual wheelchair. The spinal cord injuries were characterised as: tetraplegia 33%; motor complete 62%; mean time since injury 150 days (SD 74. Intervention: All participants received regular rehabilitation, including handcycle training. Only the experimental group received a behavioural intervention promoting an active lifestyle after discharge. This intervention involved 13 individual sessions delivered by a coach who was trained in motivational interviewing; it began 2 months before and ended 6 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was physical activity, which was objectively measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor 2 months before discharge, at discharge, and 6 and 12 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. The accelerometry data were analysed as total wheeled physical activity, sedentary time and motility. Self-reported physical activity was a secondary outcome. Results: The behavioural intervention significantly increased wheeled physical activity (overall between-group difference from generalised estimating equation 21 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 35. This difference was evident 6 months after discharge (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 48 and maintained at 12 months after discharge (25 minutes per day, 95% CI 1 to 50. No significant intervention effect was found for sedentary time or motility. Self-reported physical activity also significantly improved. Conclusion: The behavioural

  11. Effects of a training program after surgically treated ankle fracture: a prospective randomised controlled trial

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    Ekdahl Charlotte S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite conflicting results after surgically treated ankle fractures few studies have evaluated the effects of different types of training programs performed after plaster removal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week standardised but individually suited training program (training group versus usual care (control group after plaster removal in adults with surgically treated ankle fractures. Methods In total, 110 men and women, 18-64 years of age, with surgically treated ankle fracture were included and randomised to either a 12-week training program or to a control group. Six and twelve months after the injury the subjects were examined by the same physiotherapist who was blinded to the treatment group. The main outcome measure was the Olerud-Molander Ankle Score (OMAS which rates symptoms and subjectively scored function. Secondary outcome measures were: quality of life (SF-36, timed walking tests, ankle mobility tests, muscle strength tests and radiological status. Results 52 patients were randomised to the training group and 58 to the control group. Five patients dropped out before the six-month follow-up resulting in 50 patients in the training group and 55 in the control group. Nine patients dropped out between the six- and twelve-month follow-up resulting in 48 patients in both groups. When analysing the results in a mixed model analysis on repeated measures including interaction between age-group and treatment effect the training group demonstrated significantly improved results compared to the control group in subjects younger than 40 years of age regarding OMAS (p = 0.028, muscle strength in the plantar flexors (p = 0.029 and dorsiflexors (p = 0.030. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that when adjusting for interaction between age-group and treatment effect the training model employed in this study was superior to usual care in patients under the age of 40. However, as only three

  12. A cluster randomised controlled effectiveness trial evaluating perinatal home visiting among South African mothers/infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus

    Full Text Available Interventions are needed to reduce poor perinatal health. We trained community health workers (CHWs as home visitors to address maternal/infant risks.In a cluster randomised controlled trial in Cape Town townships, neighbourhoods were randomised within matched pairs to 1 the control, healthcare at clinics (n = 12 neighbourhoods; n = 594 women, or 2 a home visiting intervention by CBW trained in cognitive-behavioural strategies to address health risks (by the Philani Maternal, Child Health and Nutrition Programme, in addition to clinic care (n = 12 neighbourhoods; n = 644 women. Participants were assessed during pregnancy (2% refusal and 92% were reassessed at two weeks post-birth, 88% at six months and 84% at 18 months later. We analysed 32 measures of maternal/infant well-being over the 18 month follow-up period using longitudinal random effects regressions. A binomial test for correlated outcomes evaluated overall effectiveness over time. The 18 month post-birth assessment outcomes also were examined alone and as a function of the number of home visits received.Benefits were found on 7 of 32 measures of outcomes, resulting in significant overall benefits for the intervention compared to the control when using the binomial test (p = 0.008; nevertheless, no effects were observed when only the 18 month outcomes were analyzed. Benefits on individual outcomes were related to the number of home visits received. Among women living with HIV, intervention mothers were more likely to implement the PMTCT regimens, use condoms during all sexual episodes (OR = 1.25; p = 0.014, have infants with healthy weight-for-age measurements (OR = 1.42; p = 0.045, height-for-age measurements (OR = 1.13, p<0.001, breastfeed exclusively for six months (OR = 3.59; p<0.001, and breastfeed longer (OR = 3.08; p<0.001. Number of visits was positively associated with infant birth weight ≥2500 grams (OR = 1.07; p = 0

  13. Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant women with Social risk (ELSIPS: a randomised controlled trial

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    Kenyon Sara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes are worse in families from black and ethnic minority groups and disadvantaged backgrounds. There is little evidence on whether lay support improves maternal and infant outcomes among women with complex social needs within a disadvantaged multi-ethnic population in the United Kingdom (UK. Method/Design The aim of this study is to evaluate a lay Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW service for nulliparous women identified as having social risk within a maternity service that is systematically assessing social risks alongside the usual obstetric and medical risks. The study design is a randomised controlled trial (RCT in nulliparous women assessed as having social risk comparing standard maternity care with the addition of referral to the POW support service. The POWs work alongside community midwifery teams and offer individualised support to women to encourage engagement with services (health and social care from randomisation (before 28 weeks gestation until 6 weeks after birth. The primary outcomes have been chosen on the basis that they are linked to maternal and infant health. The two primary outcomes are engagement with antenatal care, assessed by the number of antenatal visits; and maternal depression, assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 8-12 weeks after birth. Secondary outcomes include maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, routine child health assessments, including immunisation uptake and breastfeeding at 6 weeks. Other psychological outcomes (self efficacy and mother-to-infant bonding will also be collected using validated tools. A sample size of 1316 will provide 90% power (at the 5% significance level to detect increased engagement with antenatal services of 1.5 visits and a reduction of 1.5 in the average EPDS score for women with two or more social risk factors, with power in excess of this for women with any social risk factor. Analysis will

  14. Effectiveness of problem gambling interventions in a service setting: a protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M; Bellringer, M; Vandal, A C; Hodgins, D C; Battersby, M; Rodda, S N

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of 2 of the best developed and most promising forms of therapy for problem gambling, namely face-to-face motivational interviewing (MI) combined with a self-instruction booklet (W) and follow-up telephone booster sessions (B; MI+W+B) and face-to-face cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT). Methods and analysis This project is a single-blind pragmatic randomised clinical trial of 2 interventions, with and without the addition of relapse-prevention text messages. Trial assessments take place pretreatment, at 3 and 12 months. A total of 300 participants will be recruited through a community treatment agency that provides services across New Zealand and randomised to up to 10 face-to-face sessions of CBT or 1 face-to-face session of MI+W+up to 5 B. Participants will also be randomised to 9 months of postcare text messaging. Eligibility criteria include a self-perception of having a current gambling problem and a willingness to participate in all components of the study (eg, read workbook). The statistical analysis will use an intent-to-treat approach. Primary outcome measures are days spent gambling and amount of money spent per day gambling in the prior month. Secondary outcome measures include problem gambling severity, gambling urges, gambling cognitions, mood, alcohol, drug use, tobacco, psychological distress, quality of life, health status and direct and indirect costs associated with treatment. Ethics and dissemination The research methods to be used in this study have been approved by the Ministry of Health, Health and Disability Ethics Committees (HDEC) 15/CEN/99. The investigators will provide annual reports to the HDEC and report any adverse events to this committee. Amendments will also be submitted to this committee. The results of this trial will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and as a report to the funding body. Additionally, the results

  15. Oral protein energy supplements for children with cystic fibrosis: CALICO multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poustie, Vanessa J; Russell, Jayne E; Watling, Ruth M; Ashby, Deborah; Smyth, Rosalind L

    2006-03-18

    To determine whether oral protein energy supplements, used long term in children with cystic fibrosis who are moderately malnourished, improve nutritional and other outcomes. Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Seven specialist paediatric cystic fibrosis centres and their associated shared care clinics and seven smaller paediatric cystic fibrosis clinics. 102 children with cystic fibrosis, aged between 2 and 15 years, who were moderately malnourished. Oral protein energy supplements in addition to usual dietary advice compared with dietary advice alone, for 12 months. Change in body mass index centile over one year. Use of supplements was not associated with a change in body mass index centile (mean difference 2.99 centile points, 95% confidence interval -2.70 to 8.68) or other nutritional and spirometric outcomes in this group of children. Long term use of oral protein energy supplements did not result in an improvement in nutritional status or other clinical outcomes in children with cystic fibrosis who were moderately malnourished. Oral protein energy supplements should not be regarded as an essential part of the management of this group of children. ISRCTN: 95744468.

  16. Low intensity, long-term outpatient rehabilitation in COPD: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Hans

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most pulmonary rehabilitation programmes currently involve 2–3 sessions per week as recommended by international guidelines. We aimed to investigate whether relevant improvements in physical capabilities and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD could be achieved by a long-term, low intensity, once weekly rehabilitation programme using limited resources. Methods 100 patients with moderate to severe COPD were randomised to a continuous outpatient interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme or standard care. Physiotherapy-led supervised outpatient training sessions were performed once weekly in addition to educational elements. Outcome measures at baseline and after 26 weeks were 6-minute-walk-test, cycle ergometry, and health-related quality of life. Results 37 patients in the training group and 44 patients in the control group completed the study. After 26 weeks there were clinically significant differences between the groups for 6 minute-walk-distance (+59 m, 95% CI 28–89 m, maximum work load (+7.4 Watt, 95% CI 0.5-13.4 Watt and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score (−5 points, 95% CI −10 to −1 points. Total staff costs of the programme per participant were ≤ €625. Conclusion Clinically meaningful improvements in physical capabilities and health-related quality of life may be achieved using long-term pulmonary rehabilitation programmes of lower intensity than currently recommended. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT01195402.

  17. Protocol for economic evaluation alongside the IMPLEMENT cluster randomised controlled trial

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    McKenzie Joanne E

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent development and publication of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs for acute low back pain (LBP has resulted in evidence-based recommendations that, if implemented, have the potential to improve the quality and safety of care for acute LBP. While a strategy has been specified for dissemination of the CPG for acute LBP in Australia, there is no accompanying plan for active implementation. Evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of active implementation of CPGs for acute LBP is sparse. The IMPLEMENT study will consider the incremental benefits and costs of progressing beyond development and dissemination to implementation. Methods/design Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses alongside the IMPLEMENT cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT from a societal perspective to quantify the additional costs (savings and health gains associated with a targeted implementation strategy as compared with access to the CPG via dissemination only. Discussion The protocol provided here registers our intent to conduct an economic evaluation alongside the IMPLEMENT study, facilitates peer-review of proposed methods and provides a transparent statement of planned analyses. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN012606000098538

  18. Methods for meta-analysis of individual participant data from Mendelian randomisation studies with binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Stephen; Thompson, Simon G

    2016-02-01

    Mendelian randomisation is an epidemiological method for estimating causal associations from observational data by using genetic variants as instrumental variables. Typically the genetic variants explain only a small proportion of the variation in the risk factor of interest, and so large sample sizes are required, necessitating data from multiple sources. Meta-analysis based on individual patient data requires synthesis of studies which differ in many aspects. A proposed Bayesian framework is able to estimate a causal effect from each study, and combine these using a hierarchical model. The method is illustrated for data on C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease (CHD) from the C-reactive protein CHD Genetics Collaboration (CCGC). Studies from the CCGC differ in terms of the genetic variants measured, the study design (prospective or retrospective, population-based or case-control), whether C-reactive protein was measured, the time of C-reactive protein measurement (pre- or post-disease), and whether full or tabular data were shared. We show how these data can be combined in an efficient way to give a single estimate of causal association based on the totality of the data available. Compared to a two-stage analysis, the Bayesian method is able to incorporate data on 23% additional participants and 51% more events, leading to a 23-26% gain in efficiency.

  19. A randomised controlled trial of blended learning to improve the newborn examination skills of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alice; Inglis, Garry; Jardine, Luke; Koorts, Pieter; Davies, Mark William

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the hypotheses that a blended learning approach would improve the newborn examination skills of medical students and yield a higher level of satisfaction with learning newborn examination. Undergraduate medical students at a tertiary teaching hospital were individually randomised to receive either a standard neonatology teaching programme (control group), or additional online access to the PENSKE Baby Check Learning Module (blended learning group). The primary outcome was performance of newborn examination on standardised assessment by blinded investigators. The secondary outcomes were performance of all 'essential' items of the examination, and participant satisfaction. The recruitment rate was 88% (71/81). The blended learning group achieved a significantly higher mean score than the control group (p=0.02) for newborn examination. There was no difference for performance of essential items, or satisfaction with learning newborn examination. The blended learning group rated the module highly for effective use of learning time and ability to meet specific learning needs. A blended learning approach resulted in a higher level of performance of newborn examination on standardised assessment. This is consistent with published literature on blended learning and has implications for all neonatal clinicians including junior doctors, midwifes and nurse practitioners.

  20. Randomised multichannel singular spectrum analysis of the 20th century climate data

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    Teija Seitola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a new algorithm called randomised multichannel singular spectrum analysis (RMSSA, which is a generalisation of the traditional multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA into problems of arbitrarily large dimension. RMSSA consists of (1 a dimension reduction of the original data via random projections, (2 the standard MSSA step and (3 a recovery of the MSSA eigenmodes from the reduced space back to the original space. The RMSSA algorithm is presented in detail and additionally we show how to integrate it with a significance test based on a red noise null-hypothesis by Monte-Carlo simulation. Finally, RMSSA is applied to decompose the 20th century global monthly mean near-surface temperature variability into its low-frequency components. The decomposition of a reanalysis data set and two climate model simulations reveals, for instance, that the 2–6 yr variability centred in the Pacific Ocean is captured by all the data sets with some differences in statistical significance and spatial patterns.