Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew
CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the
Mashalla, Yohana J.S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria
Setting The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Specifically, it was conducted in all healthcare facilities offering maternity and obstetric services. Objective The objective of the study was to explore the patterns of caesarean-section (CS) delivery in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014. The population for the study were women aged between 15 and 19 years of age who had given birth in the last 1–3 years before the date of data collection. The Census and Survey Processing System software was used for data capturing and analysing both descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Results Amongst the 835 women who delivered at health facilities, 19.2% had given birth by CS. The prevalence of CS based on medical indication was 91.3%. However, 6.9% of CS performed had no medical indication. Private health facilities performed more CSs than public health facilities, 41.1% and 11.7% respectfully. CS was high amongst women of higher socio-economic standing. Conclusion Overall, CS deliveries rate in Ethiopia is above the rate recommended by the World Health Organisation. Because socio-economic factors influence CS delivery, governments should play a key role in regulating performance of CSs in private institutions.
Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera
An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.
Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Wild, S.; Evans, G. R.; Hughes, J. G.
In Ethiopia and other parts of East Africa, interannual variability of seasonal precipitation is dependent on variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales. The majority of research into large-scale atmospheric controls and predictability has focused on the heavier summer rains and the establishment of links to large-scale modes of climate variability such as ENSO. By contrast, relatively little work has focused on the potential for predictability of rainfall during the spring months, which is of great importance to much of southern Ethiopia. Additionally, failure of the spring rains may have important agricultural implications, particularly for crops requiring the full extent of the spring-summer growing season. Here, we analyse the links between Pacific SST and precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for a century-long period (1900-2004). A tripole correlation pattern between spring precipitation and SST is found in the Pacific basin. We develop regression-based models to estimate spring precipitation from Pacific SST with a lead time of 2-3 months. When subject to a rigorous cross-validation, models based on principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) calibrated on Pacific SST during December show good skill in reproducing observed temporal variability in Addis Ababa precipitation during February (r = 0.48) and March (r = 0.40), and the period spanning February to April (r = 0.44). Reconstructed precipitation is correlated with temperature and specific humidity in the surrounding region; estimates of heavy spring precipitation are associated with anomalously warm, moist conditions across the western Indian Ocean. Our findings suggest that inclusion of Pacific SST in predictive models may benefit drought forecasting across Ethiopia. The relationships identified provide a potential basis for forecasting models for spring rainfall and further analysis may focus on drought forecasting using ROC
Background Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosiscontrol programs in Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. Results The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Conclusion Interventions thatreduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity. PMID:27054714
Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...
Gemechu, Tufa; Tinsae, Mihrete; Ashenafi, Senait; Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Lori, Alfredo; Collins, Michelle; Hurford, Rosemary; Haimanot, Rahel; Sandoval, Melissa; Mehari, Enawgaw; Langford, T. Dianne
In Ethopia, like many developing countries, autopsy is rare unless conducted in the medico-legal arena, making vital statistics that include sparse pathological diagnoses. To determine the most common factors contributing to death among individuals who died from natural or injury-related events in Ethiopia in 2006, 200 consecutive autopsies were conducted at the Forensic Medico-legal Pathology Department, Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The results describe significant pathologica...
Debere Mesfin Kote; Gelaye Kassahun Alemu; Alamdo Andamlak Gizaw; Trifa Zemedu Mehamed
Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public), were selected using s...
Bayou, Yibeltal T.; Mashalla, Yohana S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria
Background There are recent efforts made to eliminate inequalities in the utilisation of basic health care services. More emphasis is given for improvement of health in developing countries including maternal and child health. However, disparities for the fast-growing population of urban poor are masked by the urban averages. The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of antenatal care adequacy among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods This was a quantitative and cross-se...
Cherie Amsale; Berhane Yemane
Abstract Background Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A mul...
Abdo Abdurahman; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S
Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes ...
Hayal Desta; Hailu Worku; Aramde Fetene
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is one of the most fundamental issues in the contemporary urban environments particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia. Huge generation of MSW coupled with unbalanced waste management services is the major challenges facing the City of Addis Ababa. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) practices in Addis Ababa. Both quantitative and qualitative sampling methods were employed through primary and ...
This study was undertaken to assess the extent of pollution of water and contamination of vegetables grown by irrigation with polluted river water. The study was done in the Akaki and Mekanisa areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2002. The need to investigate the extent of contamination of vegetables is valid because of repeated occurrence of food-born disease outbreaks in many restaurants in the city of Addis Ababa. This might be partly attributed to the consumption of such contaminated raw ...
Fikru Tesfaye, MD, MPH, PhD; Peter Byass, PhD; Yemane Berhane, MD, MPH, PhD; Ruth Bonita, PhD; Stig Wall, PhD
Introduction We assessed the prevalence of substance use and its association with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods We employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. The World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance of risk factors for chronic diseases was applied on a probabilistic sample of 4001 men and women aged 25 to 64 years in Addis Ababa. We determined the prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and khat (Catha edulis ...
Aklilu, Addis; Kahase, Daniel; Dessalegn, Mekonnen; Tarekegn, Negatu; Gebremichael, Saba; Zenebe, Seyfe; Desta, Kassu; Mulugeta, Gebru; Mamuye, Yeshiwodim; Mama, Mohammedaman
Background Food contamination may occur at any point during its journey through production, processing, distribution, and preparation. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are a public health problem in developed and developing countries like Ethiopia. Method A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers in Addis Ababa student’s cafeteria ...
Abdi, T.A.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Adal, T.A.
Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among
Eticha, Begna Tulu; Sisay, Zufan; Alemayehu, Addisu; Shimelis, Techalew
Objective To determine the prevalence of syphilis and its risk factors among people with HIV at a hospital in Ethiopia. Design A hospital-based cross-sectional study. Setting This study was conducted at one of the largest public hospitals in Addis Ababa , Ethiopia. Participants A consecutive 306 HIV-positive patients were recruited prospectively from January to March 2010. For comparative purposes, 224 HIV-negative consecutive attendees at the voluntary counselling and testing centre in the s...
The AIDS epidemic has been recognized as the most pressing national health problem in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Zenebe argues that HIV/AIDS prevention programs in Ethiopia are not producing expected results because they are not based on understanding the distinctive characteristics of the people’s sexual cultures shaped by relations of power, by history, and by differentiated traditions within the particular society. The focus of the thesis is on how dominant medical discourses about prevention ...
Burnett, Delia; Aronson, Jane; Asgary, Ramin
Data on oral health status in Ethiopia are scarce. We assessed the prevalence of dental decay and gum disease and oral health practices and its barriers. We performed a cross-sectional study using comprehensive questionnaires and oral examination of 132 children aged 6-15 years in Addis Ababa. Mean age was 10 years and 50% were females. A significant number of children were HIV positive and orphaned. Forty-eight percent did not brush teeth and 43% brushed only once daily. The majority consumed sugary food despite knowing its relationship with dental decay. Seventy-four percent had between 1 and 13 dental caries and 52% showed evidence of bleeding upon brushing. Seventy-eight percent did not clean between teeth and were more likely to consume sugary food (p resources, improving access to local preventive tools and provision of oral care by training community health workers in the World Health Organization basic oral care package. PMID:25713009
Tadesse, Menelik Legesse; Kumie, Abera
Background Healthcare wastes are hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The waste disposal management in Addis Ababa city is seen unscientific manner. The waste management practice in the health facilities are poor and need improvement. This study will help different organizations, stakeholders and policy makers to correct and improve the existing situation of healthcare waste legislation and enforcement and training of staff in the healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa. The study aimed to as...
Worku, Amelmal; Mekonnen Abebe, Solomon; Wassie, Molla Mesele
Background Dietary management which is considered to be one of the cornerstones of diabetes care is based on the principle of healthy eating in the context of social, cultural and psychological influences on food choice. In Ethiopia, there is lack of data on the dietary practice of diabetic patients which underestimates its role in the management of diabetes. Hence, this study assesses the level of dietary practices and their associated factors among Type 2 diabetic patients in Addis Ababa, E...
Abdi, Tariku A.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.; Adal, Tamirie A.
Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among students (N = 422) ranging from 12 to 21 years of age. Results from the cross-sectional survey showed that personal feelings (e.g., self-esteem, false perceptions about winning, drug abuse), socia...
Gebretekle, Gebremedhin Beedemariam; Serbessa, Mirgissa Kaba
Background Over the counter sale of antibiotics is a global problem and it is increasingly recognized as a source of antibiotic misuse and is believed to increase treatment costs, adverse effects of treatment and emergence of resistance. The increasing trend of over the counter sale of antibiotics in Ethiopia calls for exploration of why such dispensing is practiced. This study aims to explore reasons for over the counter sale of antibiotics in the community pharmacies of Addis Ababa, Ethiopi...
Asemahagn, Mulusew Andualem
Background Health professionals need updated health information from credible sources to improve their knowledge and provide evidence based health care services. Various types of medical errors have occurred in resource-limited countries because of poor knowledge and experience sharing practices among health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge-sharing practices and determinants among health professionals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods An institutional based cross-s...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia is encountering a growing burden of non-communicable diseases along with infectious diseases, perinatal and nutritional problems that have long been considered major problems of public health importance. This retrospective analysis was carried out to examine the mortality patterns from communicable diseases and non communicable diseases in public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa. Methods Approximately 47,153 deaths were captured over eight years (2002–2010 in forty three public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data collectors (43 hospital clerks and coordinators (3 nurses had been extensively trained on how to review hospital death records. Information obtained included: dates of admission and death, age, sex, address, and principal cause of death. Only the diseases responsible for deaths are taken as the cause of death. Cause of death was coded using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 and data were double entered. Diseases were classified into: Group I (communicable diseases, maternal conditions and nutritional deficiencies; Group II (non-communicable causes; and Group III (injuries. Percentages, proportional mortality ratios, 95% confidence intervals (CI and Adjusted odd ratios (OR were calculated. Results Overall, 59% of the deaths were attributed to Group I diseases, and 31% to Group II diseases and 12% to injuries. Nearly 56% of the males and 68% of the females deaths were due to five leading causes (conditions arising during perinatal period, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, cardiovascular diseases and respiratory infections. Significantly larger proportions of females died from Group I (67% and Group II diseases (32% compared with males (where the respective proportions were 52% and 30%. Significantly higher proportion of males (17% than females (6% were dying from Group III diseases. Deaths due to Group I diseases decreased while those due to Group II diseases increased with age
Tilaye, Mesfin; van Dijk, Meine Pieter
Privatization of urban services focuses often on the involvement of foreign enterprises. This contribution deals with micro-privatization, the partial transfer of government responsibility for solid waste collection to micro-enterprises. It tries to shed light on whether the current private sector participation (PSP) of micro-enterprises in solid waste collection service is the best way to capture the expected advantages of private sector involvement. The article examines the relations of the micro-enterprises with beneficiaries and the public sector by focusing on the contract procedure, the tariff-setting process, the cost recovery mechanism and institutionalizing of market principles for micro-enterprises. The research was carried out using secondary and primary data sources. Primary data were collected through the interviewing of public sector officials at different levels, focus group discussions with community groups and micro-enterprises, and observation. A survey was conducted among 160 micro-enterprises in the city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using a standard questionnaire. What are some of the factors contributing to the results of PSP in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia? Policies at higher levels of government definitely produced an overall climate conducive to micro-privatization and recognized the need to develop micro-enterprises, but it is not clear what role the micro-enterprises are to play in solid waste management. New opportunities were created by formalization and taken up by communities and micro-enterprises. Coverage and waste collected both increased. The initiation and institutionalization of the formalization process was not without problems. The public sector over-stressed the autonomy of micro-enterprises. The fate of the micro-enterprises is largely determined by the reforms undertaken at local government level. The rapid changes in policies at the local level made waste-collecting micro-enterprises lose confidence and more dependent
This study attempted to assess the practice of student assessment in the College of Natural Science of Addis Ababa University, specifically aimed at investigating whether or not science instructors are well aware of test blue-print, general principles of evaluation and rule of test construction as anticipated in the new education and training…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of acquiring tuberculosis by People living with HIV (PLHIV could significantly be reduced through provision of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT. In Ethiopia, it is neither practiced well nor researched in depth. Our objective was to assess IPT provision and awareness among PLHIV in Addis Ababa City Administration. Methods Between February 2008 and May 2008, a cross sectional facility-based survey was conducted by exit interview of 406 PLHIV from six health facilities. The findings were analyzed and described in this report. Results The proportion of PLHIV ever had been provided with IPT were 74 of 231 TB free PLHIV (32.0% and the proportion of having information about IPT among study participants was 29.8%. Females were about two times more informed about the provision of IPT in their health facilities than males [AOR (95%CI: 2.18 (1.31-3.61]. Conclusions We conclude that the practice of provision of IPT for PLHIV is high, but there is room for improvement. Provision of INH for TB free PLHIV has to be strengthened with better diagnostic facilities to certainly rule out active TB cases.
Full Text Available Yenenesh Tadesse Gebresilase Programme Quality Department, Vita, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract: Research on obstetric fistula has paid limited attention to the lived experiences of survivors. This qualitative study explored the evolution of survivors' perceptions of their social relationships and health since developing this obstetric complication. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight survivors who were selected based on purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Thematic categorization and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The resultant themes included participants' understanding of factors predisposing to fistula, challenges they encounter, their coping responses, and the meaning of their experiences. First, the participants had a common understanding of the factors that predisposed them to obstetric fistula. They mentioned poor knowledge about pregnancy, early marriage, cultural practices, and a delay in or lack of access to emergency obstetric care. Second, the participants suffered from powerlessness experienced during their childhood and married lives. They also faced prolonged obstructed labor, physical injury, emotional breakdown, depression, erosion of social capital, and loss of healthy years. Third, to control their negative emotions, participants reported isolating themselves, having suicidal thoughts, positive interpretation about the future, and avoidance. To obtain relief from their disease, the women used their family support, sold their properties, and oriented to reality. Fourth, the participants were struggling to keep going, to accept their changed reality, and to change their perspectives on life. In conclusion, obstetric fistula has significant physical, psychosocial, and emotional consequences. The study participants were not passive victims but rather active survivors of these challenges. Adequate support was not provided by their formal or informal support systems. To prevent and manage obstetric
Bjerkli, Camilla Louise
This thesis explores the management of solid waste in Addis Ababa, with the objective of understanding the underlying reasons for the poor solid waste management situation that the city is faced with today. Accordingly, governance and urban political ecology are used as a theoretical framework. Governance was chosen because currently it dominates the development discourse and governance policies are implemented by governments aiming to improve urban services, whereas urban political ecology i...
Bjerkli, Camilla Louise
This thesis explores the management of solid waste in Addis Ababa, with the objective of understanding the underlying reasons for the poor solid waste management situation that the city is faced with today. Accordingly, governance and urban political ecology are used as a theoretical framework. Governance was chosen because currently it dominates the development discourse and governance policies are implemented by governments aiming to improve urban services, whereas urban political ecology i...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-adherence to tuberculosis (TB treatment is an important barrier for TB control programs because incomplete treatment may result in prolonged infectiousness, drug resistance, relapse, and death. The aim of the present study is to explore enablers and barriers in the management of TB treatment during the first five months of treatment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Qualitative study which included 50 in-depth interviews and two focus groups with TB patients, their relatives and health personnel. Results We found that loss of employment or the possibility to work led to a chain of interrelated barriers for most TB patients. Daily treatment was time-consuming and physically demanding, and rigid routines at health clinics reinforced many of the emerging problems. Patients with limited access to financial or practical help from relatives or friends experienced that the total costs of attending treatment exceeded their available resources. This was a barrier to adherence already during early stages of treatment. A large group of patients still managed to continue treatment, mainly because relatives or community members provided food, encouragement and sometimes money for transport. Lack of income over time, combined with daily accumulating costs and other struggles, made patients vulnerable to interruption during later stages of treatment. Patients who were poor due to illness or slow progression, and who did not manage to restore their health and social status, were particularly vulnerable to non-adherence. Such patients lost access to essential financial and practical support over time, often because relatives and friends were financially and socially exhausted by supporting them. Conclusion Patients' ability to manage TB treatment is a product of dynamic processes, in which social and economic costs and other burdens change and interplay over time. Interventions to facilitate adherence to TB treatment needs to address both
Debere Mesfin Kote
Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public, were selected using simple random sampling method for this work. Data was recorded by using an appropriately designed questionnaire, which was completed for the period of two months. The calculations were based on the weights of the health care wastes that were regularly generated in the selected hospitals over a one week period during the year 2011. Average generation indexes were determined in relation to certain important factors, like the type of hospitals (public vs private. Results The median waste generation rate was found to be varied from 0.361- 0.669 kg/patient/day, comprised of 58.69% non-hazardous and 41.31% hazardous wastes. The amount of waste generated was increased as the number of patients flow increased (rs=1. Public hospitals generated high proportion of total health care wastes (59.22% in comparison with private hospitals (40.48%. The median waste generation rate was significantly vary between hospitals with Kruskal-Wallis test (X2=30.65, p=0.0001. The amount of waste was positively correlated with the number of patients (p Conclusion These findings revealed that the management of health care waste at hospitals in Addis Ababa city was poor.
Tamrat Zeleke, Frew
The job satisfaction of higher education faculty can be affected by the kind of leadership style practiced by leaders of an institution. This study examined perceived principals' leadership styles related to faculty job satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa (HTIAA), Ethiopia. Leadership style in this study was defined…
Fikru Tesfaye, MD, MPH, PhD
Full Text Available IntroductionWe assessed the prevalence of substance use and its association with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.MethodsWe employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. The World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance of risk factors for chronic diseases was applied on a probabilistic sample of 4001 men and women aged 25 to 64 years in Addis Ababa. We determined the prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and khat (Catha edulis Forsk chewing. We measured blood pressure by using a digital device and determined mean levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.ResultsSmoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and chewing khat were widely prevalent among men. Among men, the prevalence of current daily smoking was 11.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5%–12.5%. Binge drinking of alcohol was reported by 10.4% (95% CI, 9.0%–11.9% of men. Similarly, 15.9% (95% CI, 14.1%–17.6% of men regularly chewed khat. Consequently, 26.6% of men and 2.4% of women reported practicing one or more of the behaviors. Current daily smoking and regular khat chewing were significantly associated with elevated mean diastolic blood pressure (β = 2.1, P = .03 and β = 1.9, P = .02, respectively.ConclusionCigarette smoking and khat chewing among men in Addis Ababa were associated with high blood pressure, an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Health promotion interventions should aim to prevent proliferation of such behaviors among young people and adoption by women. Surveillance for risk factors for cardiovascular disease should be implemented nationwide to provide information for policy decisions and to guide prevention and control programs.
Conclusion: Prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is higher than that reported from other countries. Efforts to describe risk factors for toxoplasma infection among Ethiopians should focus in children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use remains high among Ethiopian youth and young adolescents particularly in high schools and colleges. The use of alcohol, khat and tobacco by college and university students can be harmful; leading to decreased academic performance, increased risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. However, the magnitude of substance use and the factors associated with it has not been investigated among medical students in the country. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of substance use and identify factors that influenced the behavior among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study using a pre-tested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was conducted in June 2009 among 622 medical students (Year I to Internship program at the School of Medicine. The data were entered into Epi Info version 6.04d and analyzed using SPSS version 15 software program. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Differences in proportions were compared for significance using Chi Square test, with significance level set at p Results In the last 12 months, alcohol was consumed by 22% (25% males vs. 14% females, p = 0.002 and khat use was reported by 7% (9% males vs. 1.5% females, p Khat use within the past 12 months was strongly and positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted OR = 15.11, 95% CI = 4.24-53.91. Similarly, ever use of cigarette was also significantly associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted OR = 8.65, 95% CI = 3.48-21.50. Conclusions Concordant use of alcohol, khat and tobacco is observed and exposure to friends' use of substances is often implicated. Alcohol consumption or khat use has been significantly associated with tobacco use. While the findings of this study suggest that substance use among the medical students was not alarming, but its trend increased among students
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health care system of Ethiopia is facing a serious shortage of health workforce. While a number of strategies have been developed to improve the training and retention of medical doctors in the country, understanding the perceptions and attitudes of medical students towards their training, future practice and intent to migrate can contribute in addressing the problem. This study was carried out to assess the attitudes of Ethiopian medical students towards their training and future practice of medicine, and to identify factors associated with the intent to practice in rural or urban settings, or to migrate abroad. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2009 among 600 medical students (Year I to Internship program of the Faculty of Medicine at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. A pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Degree of association was measured by Chi Square test, with significance level set at p Results Only 20% of the students felt ‘excellent’ about studying medicine; followed by ‘very good’ (19%, ‘good’ (30%, ‘fair’ (21% and ‘bad’ (11%. About 35% of respondents responded they felt the standard of medical education was below their expectation. Only 30% of the students said they would like to initially practice medicine in rural settings in Ethiopia. However, students with rural backgrounds were more likely than those with urban backgrounds to say they intended to practice medicine in rural areas (adjusted OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.18-5.26. Similarly, students in clinical training program preferred to practice medicine in rural areas compared to pre-clinical students (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.12-2.99. About 53% of the students (57% males vs. 46% females, p = 0.017 indicated aspiration to emigrate following graduation, particularly to the
Getahun Fenta Kebede
Full Text Available It is widely recognized that social capital constitutes an important form of social regulation in informal sector and it is the major component of the asset portfolios of the urban poor.Nevertheless, the potential contribution of social capital in the informal sector remains under-investigated in African cities. Applying the network approach, this study examinedthe economic returns of social capital to microenterprises in the informal sector. To do so, the personal networks of street vendors in Addis Ababa were examined. Multi-stagesampling procedures involving purposive and systematic random-walk techniques were applied to draw samples. Data were collected through position generator surveys. The datawere analyzed using OLS and Instrumental Variable Estimators. By controlling the potential endogeneity, the estimation results revealed that network resources are positive and significant predictors of enterprise profit. But their benefit is less for married vendors than unmarried ones. The human capital measures such as education, vocational training, and business experience are not significant predictors of enterprise profit.Key Words: Social Capital, Social Networks, Informal Sector, Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Michael Emru Tadesse
Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the benefits and challenges of practicing Taekwondo (TKD to adolescents in Addis Ababa. In so doing, the study investigated the nature of TKD training, benefits of practicing TKD, and challenges/problems related with practicing TKD. A descriptive concurrent mixed methods research design was used. Accordingly, the quantitative part of the study had 108 TKD adolescent participants while the qualitative part had 12 participants (eight TKD adolescents and four TKD coaches, from four TKD clubs in Addis Ababa. Both one-stage cluster sampling technique and purposive sampling technique were employed to select participants for the quantitative and qualitative parts of the study, respectively. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to collect data from participants. Results of the study indicated: (1 the TKD training provided by the four TKD clubs was more of a modern/sport form of TKD; (2 TKD adolescents and coaches perceived that the benefits of TKD for adolescents are multifaceted, i.e., social benefits, physical benefits, mental benefits, self-defense, addiction avoidance, and other benefits; and (3 though majority (63.6% of the respondents claimed that they did not face any problem as a result of practicing TKD, the following were identified as major problems that could threaten the wellbeing of TKD adolescents: family-related problems, community-related problems, and competition-related problems. In general, results show that the training of TKD can have a multifaceted positive contribution to adolescents’ wellbeing.
Tilahun Birkneh; Worku Bogale; Tachbele Erdaw; Terefe Simegn; Kloos Helmut; Legesse Worku
Abstract Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica) in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were us...
Hagos Amare Gebreyesus
Full Text Available Background: Prediabetes is a substantial risk factor for developing type-2 diabetes mellitus and its sequel, which include heart disease, stroke, nephropathy and retinopathy. Apart from the genetic and lifestyle risk factors, antiretroviral drugs aggravate the predisposition. Thus, detecting this condition can allow for the provision of better care for HIV-1-infected patients. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of prediabetes in HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted in HIV-1 infected patients enrolled in ART program in a tertiary hospital ART clinic in Addis Ababa. A total of 134 subjects taking HAART were included in the study. 61 (45.5% were males and 73(54.5% were females. The age of the participants range from 20-69 with a median of 40 years. The median duration of HAART intake was 58 months. The prevalence of prediabetes was found to be 22.4%. Among the total study subjects, 19.4% of them had overweight. 50.5% of males and 41% females had a WHR of ≥0.90 and ≥0.85, respectively indicating a high prevalence of central obesity and future risk of cardiovascular problem among this group. Conclusion: Pre-diabetes is common in HIV-1-infected patients receiving ART; putting this group at substantial risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, there was an estimated number of 287,000 maternal deaths in 2010. Eighty five percent (245,000 of these deaths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Among the causes of these deaths were obstructed and prolonged labour which could be prevented by cost effective and affordable health interventions like the use of the partograph. The Use of the partograph is a well-known best practice for quality monitoring of labour and subsequent prevention of obstructed and prolonged labour. However, a number of cases of obstructed labour do happen in health facilities due to poor quality of intrapartum care. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative study assessed knowledge and utilization of partograph among obstetric care givers in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia using a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with knowledge and use of partograph among obstetric care givers. Results Knowledge about the partograph was fair: 189 (96.6% of all the respondents correctly mentioned at least one component of the partograph, 104 (53.3% correctly explained the function of alert line and 161 (82.6% correctly explained the function of action line. The study showed that 112 (57.3% of the obstetric care givers at public health institutions reportedly utilized partograph to monitor mothers in labour. The utilization of the partograph was significantly higher among obstetric care givers working in health centres (67.9% compared to those working in hospitals (34.4% [Adjusted OR = 3.63(95%CI: 1.81, 7.28]. Conclusions A significant percentage of obstetric care givers had fair knowledge of the partograph and why it is necessary to use it in the management of labour and over half of obstetric care givers reported use of the partograph to monitor mothers in labour. Pre-service and
Hailemariam Tewodros G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software. Results A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as “maintaining the relationship” as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as “Entering in-to a transition” (knowing HIV serostatus and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as “dealing with discordancy” such as entertaining partner’s interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship. Conclusions
Michael Emru Tadesse
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of taekwondo (TKD training on the subjective well-being (SWB of adolescents (12-18 years old in Addis Ababa city. A cross-sectional survey method was used; self-administered questionnaire was the main data collection tool. A total number of 162 adolescents (108 TKD adolescents from four randomly selected TKD clubs and 54 non-TKD adolescents from a randomly selected public high school, participated in the study. The study sought to determine TKD adolescents’ level of SWB as measured by the Personal Wellbeing Index – School Children (PWI-SC. Besides, adolescents in different groups (TKD adolescents in three groups according to rank/belt level and TKD adolescents and non-TKD adolescents were compared based on their score of PWI-SC. Results of the study showed that: (1 TKD adolescents had high level (mean points of SWB as measured by the PWI-SC, i.e., 81.95 (95%CI: 79.70 to 84.20; (2 there was no significant difference in SWB among the three groups of TKD adolescents (lower, middle and high level belts (F(2, 81 = 1.58, p > .05.; and (3 when compared with non-TKD adolescents, TKD adolescents were found to have a significantly higher mean points of SWB, (t = 4.25(77.97, p < 0.001; d = 0.79. Overall, the results of this study indicated the training of TKD can have a positive contribution to adolescents’ well-being.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoniazide preventive therapy (IPT is given to individuals with latent infection of tuberculosis (TB to prevent the progression to active disease. One of the primary reasons for failure of IPT is poor adherence. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in four hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was done to identify predictors of IPT. Results A total of 319 (97.5% individual participated in this study. Within seven days recall period, self-reported dose adherence rate was 86.5%. Individual who received explanation about IPT from health care providers (OR = 7.74; 95%CI: 3.144, 19.058; who had good feeling/comfortable to take IPT in front of other people [OR = 5.981, 95%CI (2.308, 15.502] and who attended clinical appointment regularly (OR = 4.0; 95%CI: 1.062, 15.073 were more likely to adhere to IPT. Participants who developed IPT related adverse effect were 93% less likely to adhere to the prescribed doses (OR = 0.065; 95%CI: 0.024, 0.179. Conclusion The prevalence of self reported dose adherence over the past 7 days was higher. Non-adherence was observed among respondent who were not provided with sufficient information about IPT. The health care providers need to strengthen their educational and counseling efforts to convince the patient before putting them on IPT. To enhance adherence, health education efforts should focus on the importance of IPT, the details of the regimen and adverse effects.
Abdi, Tariku A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Adal, Tamirie A
Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among students (N = 422) ranging from 12 to 21 years of age. Results from the cross-sectional survey showed that personal feelings (e.g., self-esteem, false perceptions about winning, drug abuse), social factors (e.g., peer influence, parental gambling), and environmental factors (e.g., accessibility of gambling venues, advertisements) were significant correlates of problematic gambling. The study also revealed that men were more at risk for severe problematic gambling than females. Among the identified types of gambling activities, the most prevalent ones were playing cards followed by flipping coin and pool gambling while internet gambling was among the least reported gambling activities. By identifying personal, social and environmental correlates of risky gambling activities this study provides evidence-based information for the systematic design and evaluation of educational interventions to prevent problematic gambling in young people. PMID:25859576
Demise, Asrat; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Worku, Bogale; Spector, Jonathan M
Mortality audits are being used with increasing frequency to improve health outcomes by pinpointing precisely where deficiencies in clinical care exist. We conducted a prospective audit of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths at Tikur Anbessa Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as part of a broader initiative to reduce perinatal mortality in the labor room and neonatal intensive care unit. Out of 1,225 deliveries that took place during the six-month study period, there were 30 stillbirths and 31 early neonatal deaths (PMR 50/1,000). A multi-disciplinary Audit Team was established and convened monthly to review standardized data collection forms that were completed for each death. It was determined that avoidable factors were present in 70% of perinatal deaths. Health worker-related factors were the most common avoidable factors identified (accounting for 84% of avoidable factors identified), followed by patient-related factors (11%) and administrative-related factors (5%). Based on the study findings, quality improvement programs that target gaps in care are being implemented on the hospital's labor room and in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:27337856
Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew
Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of
Full Text Available Problem statement: TB and HIV have lethal combination making the fight against the diseases harder. Ethiopia is one of the highly affected countries in the world. Poor knowledge & practice of people on TB is believed to pose major challenge on the control program.Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, associated factors to knowledge and practice related to tuberculosis of HIV positive people living in Addis Ababa. Methods: A health facility based cross-sectional survey using a structured & pretested questionnaire was conducted from January to February, 2011 on PLHIV in Addis Ababa. The study subjects were selected by multistage probability sampling. Univariate, Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done. Results: Complete data was collected from 636 study subjects, response rate of 96.2%. Out of which 624 (98.1 %; 95%CI: 96.8%-98.9% have heard about TB and 50.2% (95% CI: 46.3%-54.0% were found to have satisfactory overall knowledge on TB. Those who have Primary education [Adjusted OR (95%CI = 1.74 (1.15, 2.62] and secondary & above [Adjusted OR (95%CI = 4.08 (2.62, 6.35] were highly likely to have satisfactory knowledge than illiterates. Of the 624 respondent, 64.1% didn’t often open windows of cars during travel. Of those who had pulmonary TB (194, 22.7% didn’t cover mouth & nose during coughing and sneezing & their main reason was “not giving attention”. From those who got medical treatment for TB (228, 14.5% didn’t complete it and from those who took preventive treatment (231, 8.7% didn’t complete it. The frequently mentioned reason was drug side effect. The intended health seeking practice was 96.8%. Conclusion and Recommendation: This study suggests that PLHIV in Addis Ababa have some gaps in knowledge and acceptable practices. Therefore, a very clear and target oriented health promotion, that takes illiterates in to consideration, for the PLHIV is necessary. Aims and
S. Takele Kenea; G. Mengistu Tsidu; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.; Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.
Since May 2009, high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra have been recorded at Addis Ababa (9.01° N latitude, 38.76° E longitude, 2443 m altitude above sea level), Ethiopia. The vertical profiles and total column amounts of ozone (O3) are deduced from the spectra by using the retrieval code PROFFIT (V9.5) and regularly determined instrumental line shape (ILS). A detailed error analysis of the O3 retrieval is performed. Averaging kernels of t...
Mekuria, L.A. (Legese A.)
In his thesis, Legese A. Mekuria presents the results of a PhD study which was undertaken in 10 health-care facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The overall aim was to estimate retention in HIV care, viral suppression, medication adherence and patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). An additional aim was to investigate the predictors of attrition, detectable viremia, sub-optimal adherence and poor HRQoL. A total of 870 patients who initiated cART between May 2009 and April 2012 were...
Endalew Gemechu Sendo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premarital sexual practice among unmarried College students has markedly increased recently in Ethiopia. College students are recognized as one of the age groups most affected by sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, little has been explored about the magnitude of premarital sexual activity and predisposing factors in the circumstance of private higher education institutions in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the magnitude of premarital sexual practice and predisposing factors among unmarried undergraduate first year students in Alkan University College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted in April-May 2013. Study participants were selected by stratified random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 207 unmarried first year undergraduate students, and was analyzed using SPSS V.16.0. Multi-variate logistic regression was used to see association between variables. Results were summarized in frequencies and percentages and presented in tables. RESULTS: A total of 207 students took part in the survey. The mean age of respondents was 21.8 ±2.0 years. More than half of survey respondents (60.9% reported that they have had premarital sex. Multi-variate logistic regression analysis showed that male respondents were more than seven times to ever have sexual intercourse as compared to female respondents (AOR= 7.6; 95%CI: 4.51, 34.87. However, age less than 18 years was found to be protective against premarital sexual practice (AOR=0.42.; 95%CI: 0.27-0.73. Compared to respondents who do not use alcohol, those who are alcohol users after joining college were 3.8 times (AOR 3.05, 95% CI: 1.51-4.32 as likely to begin premarital sex. Similarly, ever chewing khat after joining college was found to be positively associated with premarital sex in this study. (AOR=2.60.; 95%CI: 0.62-1.43. CONCLUSION: A significant number of students had started
A community based cross-sectional study inquiring into determinants and correlates of sexual risk taking was conducted from June to December 2003. The objective of the study was describing sexual behavior and assessing socio-economic and cultural correlates of high-risk sexual behavior among urban youth in Addis Ababa. A multi-systemic perspective, an approach that focuses on the reciprocal relations among the personal, family, and extra family systems on sexual behavior was employed. Data we...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases worldwide. Ninty five percent of TB cases and 98% of deaths due to TB occur in developing countries. Globally, the mortality rate has declined with the introduction of effective anti TB chemotherapy. Nevertheless, some patients with active TB still die while on treatment for their disease. In Ethiopia, little is known on survival and risk factors for mortality among a cohort of TB patients. The objective of the study is to determine the magnitude and identify risk factors associated with time to death among TB patients treated under DOTS programme in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. Data was obtained by assessing medical records of TB patients registered from June 2004 to July 2009 G.C and treated under the DOTS strategy in three randomly selected health centers. A step-wise multivariable Cox's regression model and Kaplan- Meier curves were used to model the outcome of interest. Mortality was used as an outcome measure. Person-years of observation (PYO were calculated from the date of starting anti-TB treatment to date of outcome and was calculated as the number of deaths/100 PYO. Statistical analysis SPSS version 16 was used for data analysis and results were reported significant whenever P-value was less than 5%. Results From a total of 6,450 registered TB patients 236(3.7% were died. More than 75% death occurred within eight month of treatment initiation. The mean and median times of survival starting from the date of treatment initiation were 7.2 and 7.9 months, respectively. Comparison of survival curves using Kaplan Meier curves method with log-rank test showed that the survival status was significantly different between patient categories as well as across treatment centers (P Conclusions Most of the patients were died at the end of treatment period. This underlines the need for devising a mechanism of
Schmitz, Karen; Kempker, Russell R.; Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward; Abebe, Engida; Tadesse, Lia; Jirru, Ermias Kacha; Blumberg, Henry M.
Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care...
Tegegne, Minale Tareke; Mossie, Tilahun Belete; Awoke, Andargie Abate; Assaye, Ashagre Molla; Gebrie, Belete Temitm; Eshetu, Desalegn Asmare
Background Although depression and anxiety disorders are very common in people with epilepsy; there are no studies that assessed the magnitude and associated factors among epileptic people in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study determined prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety disorders in people with epilepsy. Method An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2013, among 423 people with epilepsy from the outpatient department of Amanuel Menta...
Full Text Available This article presents the major roles of long distance bus transport that radiates from Addis Ababa to the hinterland. The purpose is to assess and identify the major roles of Long Distance Bus Transport in Addis Ababa. The methodology is focused on both primary and secondary sources. The primary informants, who were principally distinguished from the passengers, operators, and key government officials from the transport office, include the head of bus terminal and Association, and selected experts. In terms of analysis, the qualitative approach was used by applying a thick description of the issue. The findings revealed that the availability of towns comes mainly because of the routes which give access and distribution of road passenger transport. The LDB (Long Distance Bus along the line has played a great role in the making of metropolitan linkage. The presence of these routes contributes more to the rise of urbanization and it has also played a role in the creation of towns and rural areas found around certain radius at the two sides of highways. Thus, it has a high probability for the expansion of urban sprawl and formation of conurbation in the future. The prescription for this study is to work with stakeholders to reduce the congestion of passengers in the terminals and the association also should serve the society 24/7 or 18/7.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopian people have been using traditional medicine since time immemorial with 80% of its population dependent on traditional medicines. However, the documentation of traditional healers' clinics contribution to modern public health system in cosmopolitan cities is scanty. Studies conducted so far are limited and focused on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 to assess the contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa. Materials and methods Ten traditional healers who were willing to participate in the study and 306 patients who were visiting these traditional healers' clinics were interviewed using two types of semi-structured questionnaires. Data were summarized using percentages, tables and bar chart. Results The diseases mostly treated by traditional healers were wound, inflammation, herpes zoster, hemorrhoids, fracture, paralysis, back-pain, liver diseases, cancer and eczema. This study showed that traditional healers' clinics considerably contribute to public health care in Addis Ababa. Fifty two percent of patients reported that traditional healers' clinics were their first choice when they faced health problems. The reasons for visiting these clinics were 175 (57.2% efficacy, 109 (35.6% dissatisfaction with modern medicine, 10 (3.3% dissatisfaction with modern medicine and efficacy, 6 (2.0% cost and 6 (2.0% dissatisfaction and cost. Females (55.2%, young age (20-40 years, 65.0%, never married (56.9%, orthodox (73.9%, Amhara (52.3%, educational status above grade 12 (34.6% and government employees (29.4% were frequent visitors. Healers reported that there was no form of cooperation with modern health professionals. The reasons were lack of motivation to collaborate and communicate with modern health service workers. Family based
A combined application of PV and polymer thermal solar collector (PVT) of solar energy for residential electricity and thermal demand can be harnessed sustainably with effective means at a time where long sun duration and most consistent solar irradiation throughout the year is available, in place like Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Due to frequent power shedding though out the country which Addis Ababa is part of problem, because of the energy demand in the country is increasing and a source of elect...
Disclosure experience to partner and its effect on intention to utilize prevention of mother to child transmission service among HIV positive pregnant women attending antenatal care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Sendo, Endalew Gemechu; Cherie, Amsale; Erku, Tadese Asfaw
Background Disclosure of HIV status has become an entry criterion for prevention of mother to child transmission programs in resource-constrained countries. However, little has been explored about the prevalence of, barriers to, outcomes and factors associated with HIV status disclosure among HIV positive pregnant women in Ethiopia. Method Cross- sectional study was conducted among 107 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care in public centers from April to June 2011 in Addis Ababa ca...
Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P
Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia. PMID:22857007
This paper examines the non-prescription use of the sexual enhancement drug Viagra by young men in Addis Ababa. Data was collected through repeated in-depth interviews with 14 Viagra users - heterosexual men between the ages of 21 and 35 - and focus-group discussions with 21 male and 22 female university students. Study participants turned to Viagra to impress lovers, as a 'support mechanism' when feeling weak or tired, to counteract the effects of chewing the stimulant plant khat and to satisfy what they perceived as a psychological 'addiction'. More generally, young men used Viagra to quell anxieties about what they perceived as women's growing expectations about their sexual performance - informed by changing gender relations and sexual expectations, constructions of masculinity that emphasise sexual prowess, and a misreading of women's sexual desires largely fuelled by the emergence of pornography as a new standard for sexual performance. While some men gained sexual confidence by using Viagra, others - particularly those who used Viagra regularly - paradoxically experienced feelings of loss of manhood. PMID:26555512
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding remains normative and vital for child survival in the developing world. However, knowledge of the risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV transmission through breastfeeding has brought to attention the controversy of whether breastfeeding can be safely practiced by HIV positive mothers. Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT programs provide prevention services to HIV positive mothers including infant feeding counseling based on international guidelines. This study aimed at exploring infant feeding choices and how breastfeeding and the risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding was interpreted among HIV positive mothers and their counselors in PMTCT programs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods The study was conducted in the PMTCT clinics in two governmental hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using qualitative interviews and participant observation. Twenty two HIV positive mothers and ten health professionals working in PMTCT clinics were interviewed. Results The study revealed that HIV positive mothers have developed an immense fear of breast milk which is out of proportion compared to the evidence of risk of transmission documented. The fear is expressed through avoidance of breastfeeding or, if no other choice is available, through an intense unease with the breastfeeding situation, and through expressions of sin, guilt, blame and regret. Health professionals working in the PMTCT programs seemed to largely share the fear of HIV positive mother's breast milk, and their anxiety was reflected in the counseling services they provided. Formula feeding was the preferred infant feeding method, and was chosen also by HIV positive women who had to beg in the streets for survival. Conclusions The fear of breast milk that seems to have developed among counselors and HIV positive mothers in the wake of the HIV epidemic may challenge a well established breastfeeding culture and calls for public health
Weldegebriel, Yirgaalem; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh; Wondimu, Taddese
Samples of vegetables, water and soil were collected from four vegetable farms in Addis Ababa to evaluate the extent and trend of metal accumulation in these systems and health risk concerns to consumers. Vegetable samples were digested in HNO(3) and HClO(4), soil samples in Aqua Regia and water samples were pre-concentrated with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) using the chelating agent ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC). All the samples were analyzed for Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of Cd (0.12-1.13 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (0.11-0.89 mg kg(-1)) in the vegetables surpassed the maximum recommended levels. The total metal concentrations in soils were (mg kg(-1)): Cr, 9.9-22.8; Co, 28.0-47.3; Cu, 25.1-51.4, Mn, 1000-1054; Ni, 16.4-55.8; Zn, 146-149; Cd, 1.4-1.8 and Pb, 22.0-50.7. The trace metals Cd, Co, Cu, Mn and Ni in most of the water samples collected from Goffa, Kera and Akaki farms also surpassed irrigation water guideline limits, which might be a case for high accumulation of metals in the soils. However, the soil pH (6.5-7.6) and high cation exchange capacity (CEC), 38.41-50.18, coupled with high clay content, 37-51%, of the soil seemed to limit metal uptake by the vegetables. The physical parameters, pH (7.43-7.89) and electrical conductivity (0.33-1.54 dS/m) of irrigation waters measured at 25°C were found within the acceptable range. PMID:22062152
The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the attitudes and components of attitude of the students towards algebra with their algebra achievements. The population for this study consists of all government tenth grade students and their mathematics teachers in Addis Ababa city administration. Sixteen tenth grade sections were…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated.
Kelemu Tilahun Kibret
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB is a leading morbidity and mortality, and the first presenting sign in majority of people living with Human Immune deficiency Virus (PLWH. Determinants of active TB among HIV patients on anti retroviral treatment (ART are not well described in resource limited settings. The aim of this study was to assess determinant factors for the occurrence of TB among people living with HIV after ART initiation in public hospitals and health centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A case control study was conducted from December 2011 to February 2012 in 2 public hospitals and 13 health centers in Addis Ababa. The study population consisted of 204 cases and 409 controls. Cases were adult people living with HIV who developed TB after ART initiation and controls were adult people living with HIV who did not develop TB after ART initiation. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect information. After adjustment for potential confounders, presence of isoniazid prophylaxis (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.125, 0.69 and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (AOR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.62 had protective benefit against risk of TB. In contrary, bedridden (AOR = 9.36; 95% CI: 3.39, 25.85, having World Health Organization (WHO clinical stage III/IV (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.69, 6.87 and hemoglobin level <10 mg/dl (AOR = 7.43; 95% CI; 3.04, 18.31 at enrollment to ART care were predictors for increased risk of tuberculosis in PLWH after ART initiation. CONCLUSION: Increasing coverage of isoniazid preventive therapy and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy reduced risk of TB among HIV patients who started treatment. All PLWH should be screened for TB, but for patients who have advanced disease condition (WHO clinical stage III/IV, being bedridden and having hemoglobin level <10 mg/dl intensified screening is highly recommended during treatment follow up.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.
A comprehensive investigative study was implemented in 2002, on the status, and development of urban mobility in three Sub-Saharan African cities - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Nairobi, Kenya; and, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Its purpose was to gather information in terms of size, regional spread, and availability data, that would allow identification of issues affecting urban mobility in the relat...
Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC and oral Candida carriage are common problem in HIV-infected populations. Early detection of oral carriage of Candida\tspecies\tis\timportant\tfor\tidentification\tof\tpatients\twith\tthe\ttendency\tfor rapid progression of HIV infection since oral carriage may influence the development\tof\tclinically\tsignificant\tcandidiasis\tin\tthese\timmunocompromised patients. This study investigated the prevalence and level of oral Candida carriage\trate\tamong\tHIV-infected\tand\tnon-infected\tindividuals\tin\tTikurAnbessa Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Oral rinse sample was collected from\t71\tHIV\tinfected\tand\t50\tHIV\tnon\tinfected\tindividuals.\tOut\tof\tthe\ttotal\t121 study participants 85(70.2% were females and 36(29.8% were males with male to female ratio of 0.4:1. It was found that 66(54.5% of the study participants were carriers of oral Candida species from which 49(74.3% were HIV positive.\tOral\tCandida carriage rate among\tHIV\tinfected participants\twas 49(69%\twhere\tas\tin\tHIV\tnon\tinfected\tparticipants\tit\twas\t17(34%.\tSix\tCandida species were identified; C. albicanswas the predominant Candida species accounted\tfor\t53(80.3%,\tfollowed\tby\tC.\tparapsilosis\t5(7.6%\tand\tthree\tsamples revealed\twith\tmore\tthan\tone\tCandida\tspecies.\tMean\tcolony\tdensity\tof\tCandida in HIV positive and HIV negative study participants were 2,145.68+3395.12 CFU/ml\tand\t684.71+1941.520\tCFU/ml respectively.\tIn\tconclusion,\tnot\tonly\toral\tCandida\tcarriage\tbut\talso\tthe density of Candida colony was higher in HIV infected than non infected populations. C. albicans was the predominant\tspecies\tfollowed\tby\tC.\tparapsilosis.
Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel
Introduction Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV
Full Text Available Introduction: Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods: A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results: For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65 and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81 from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47, knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51 and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97. For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94, knowledge of a place to test
Alemayehu, Elias Yitbarek
About eighty percent of Addis Ababa’s settlements are considered “slum”. The study examines the phenomenon of urban upgrading in tenant-dominated non-planned inner-city settlements of the city. It focuses on tenants’ responses and spatial transformations. The phenomenon is investigated through the analysis of case studies located in three localities. The data are primarily collected through qualitative techniques supplemented by a quantitative technique. The investigation is carried out from ...
Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Surur, Abdrrahman Shemsu; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku
Purpose This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional observational study design was used to sample 31 pharmacies, 25 drug stores, and two rural drug vendors from August 11, 2015, to October 21, 2015, through a simple random sampling method. A simulated-patient method of visit was implemented to collect data. Requests of six tracer prescription-only medicines (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid capsule, amitriptyline, captopril, glibenclamide [also known as glyburide], omeprazole capsule, and sildenafil citrate) and upper respiratory tract infection were selected as the simulated clinical scenario. Results Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule was dispensed when requested in 87.93% of the dispensaries. All of the CDROs dispensed omeprazole upon request. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) was in stock in 96.55% of the CDROs, all of which issued the requested number of tablets without asking why or for whom the drug was needed. Amitriptyline, captopril, and glibenclamide (glyburide) were dispensed in 84.48%, 89.65%, and 87.93% of CDROs upon the provision of an empty container. Antibiotics were obtained from 75.86% of CDROs for presentation of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. Among the dispensed antibiotics, the most common was amoxicillin (93.18%), followed by amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule (72.72%), and azithromycin (50%). Only 4.5% of the dispensaries asked about drug allergies, and 15.9% of the CDROs informed the simulated patient about the possible side effects of the drugs. Conclusion This study revealed a very high rate of dispensing of prescription-only medicines without a prescription. Antimicrobials and drugs for chronic diseases were obtained with ease from almost all of the randomly sampled CDROs. Putting good dispensing practice into effect and adhering to the existing national
Christopher C Smitson
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on clinical outcomes of ART-experienced patients with cryptococcal antigenemia. We assessed clinical outcomes of a predominantly asymptomatic, ART-experienced cohort of HIV+ patients previously found to have a high (8.4% prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia. METHODS: The study took place at All Africa Leprosy, Tuberculosis and Rehabilitative Training Centre and Black Lion Hospital HIV Clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A retrospective study design was used to perform 12-month follow-up of 367 mostly asymptomatic HIV-infected patients (CD4<200 cells/µl with high levels of antiretroviral therapy use (74% who were previously screened for cryptococcal antigenemia. Medical chart abstraction was performed approximately one year after initial screening to obtain data on clinic visit history, ART use, CD4 count, opportunistic infections, and patient outcome. We evaluated the association of cryptococcal antigenemia and a composite poor outcome of death and loss to follow-up using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 323 (88% patients were alive, 8 (2% dead, and 36 (10% lost to follow-up. Among the 31 patients with a positive cryptococcal antigen test (titers ≥1∶8 at baseline, 28 were alive (all titers ≤1∶512, 1 dead and 2 lost to follow-up (titers ≥1∶1024. In multivariate analysis, cryptococcal antigenemia was not predictive of a poor outcome (aOR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.3-4.8. A baseline CD4 count <100 cells/µl was associated with an increased risk of a poor outcome (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.7 while an increasing CD4 count (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.1-0.3 and receiving antiretroviral therapy at last follow-up visit (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.02-0.2 were associated with a reduced risk of a poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike prior ART-naïve cohorts, we found that among persons receiving ART and with CD4 counts <200 cells/µl, asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia was not predictive of a poor outcome.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART improves the immune function and decreases morbidity, mortality and opportunistic infections (OIs in HIV-infected patients. However, since the use of HAART, immune restoration disease (IRD has been described in association with many OIs. Our objective was to determine the proportion of IRD, changes in CD4+ T-cell count and possible risk factors of IRD in HIV-infected patients. Methods A retrospective study of all HIV- infected patients starting HAART between September 1, 2005 and August 31, 2006 at Zewditu memorial hospital HIV clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was conducted. All laboratory and clinical data were extracted from computerized clinic records and patient charts. Results A total of 1166 HIV- infected patients with mean ± SD age of 36 ± 9.3 years were on HAART. IRD was identified in 170 (14.6% patients. OIs diagnosed in the IRD patients were tuberculosis (66.5%, 113/170, toxoplasmosis (12.9%, 22/170, herpes zoster rash (12.9%, 22/170, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (4.1%, 7/170, and cryptococcosis (3.5%, 6/170. Of the 170 patients with IRD, 124 (72.9% patients developed IRD within the first 3 months of HAART initiation. Low baseline CD4+ T-cell count (odds ratio [OR], 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.19-4.58 and baseline extra pulmonary tuberculosis (OR, 7.7, 95% CI, 3.36-17.65 were associated with development of IRD. Twenty nine (17.1% of the IRD patients needed to use systemic anti-inflammatory treatment where as 19(11.2% patients required hospitalization associated to the IRD occurrence. There was a total of 8 (4.7% deaths attributable to IRD. Conclusions The proportion and risk factors of IRD and the pattern of OIs mirrored reports from other countries. Close monitoring of patients during the first three months of HAART initiation is important to minimize clinical deterioration related to IRD.
Derra, F. A.; Karlsmose, Susanne; Monga, D. P.;
this study was to investigate the occurrence, antimicrobial profiles, and genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes from raw meat and dairy products (raw milk, cottage cheese, cream cake), collected from the capital and five neighboring towns in Ethiopia. Methods. Two hundred forty food samples were...
Biadgilign Sibhatu; Ameni Gobena; Getahun Belete; Medhin Girmay
Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases worldwide. Ninty five percent of TB cases and 98% of deaths due to TB occur in developing countries. Globally, the mortality rate has declined with the introduction of effective anti TB chemotherapy. Nevertheless, some patients with active TB still die while on treatment for their disease. In Ethiopia, little is known on survival and risk factors for mortality among a cohort of TB patients. The o...
Full Text Available Background. The Akaki River in Ethiopia has been found to contain elevated levels of several metals. Our objectives were to characterize metals exposures of residents living near the Akaki River and to assess metal levels in their drinking water. Methods. In 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 101 households in Akaki-Kality subcity (near the Akaki River and 50 households in Yeka subcity (distant to the Akaki River. One willing adult in each household provided urine, blood, and drinking water sample. Results. Urinary molybdenum (p<0.001, tungsten (p<0.001, lead (p<0.001, uranium (p<0.001, and mercury (p=0.049 were higher in Akaki-Kality participants compared to Yeka participants. Participants in both subcities had low urinary iodine; 45% met the World Health Organization (WHO classification for being at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. In Yeka, 47% of households exceeded the WHO aesthetic-based reference value for manganese; in Akaki-Kality, only 2% of households exceeded this value (p<0.001. There was no correlation between metals levels in water samples and clinical specimens. Conclusions. Most of the exposures found during this investigation seem unlikely to cause acute health effects based on known toxic thresholds. However, toxicity data for many of these metals are very limited.
Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold
Full Text Available Background. The emotional consequences of diabetes have been scrutinized by a number of investigative teams and there are varying reports about the association of depression with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited data about this in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of comorbid depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients. Methods and Materials. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted on a random sample of 276 type 2 diabetic outpatients from Black Lion General Specialized Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to get these individual patients from 920 type 2 diabetic outpatients who have an appointment during the data collection period. Patients’ depression status was measured using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9. Result. Totally 264 type 2 diabetic outpatients were interviewed with a response rate of 95.6%. The prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients was 13%. Based on PHQ 9 score, 28.4% (75 fulfilled the criteria for mild depression, 12.1% (32 for moderate depression, 2.7% (7 for moderately severe depression, and 1.5% (4 for severe depression. But 45.8% (121 of patients had no clinically significant depression. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that depression is a common comorbid health problem in type 2 diabetic outpatients with a prevalence rate of 13%.
In addition to their ability to reach distant learners, interactive e-learning environments have the potential to make the teaching-learning process more effective. This paper highlights some of the e-learning implementation efforts at the Addis Ababa Institute of Technology (AAiT) in Ethiopia. This case study shows that limited resources do not deter a developing nation to exploit the power of e-learning. Based on feedback from participants in the first national videoconferencing program hel...
Gian Nicola Francesconi; Ruerd Ruben
During the last decade Ethiopia has been witnessing a return to agricultural cooperatives as means to unleash the national agri-food market. Using primary bio-economic data from Ethiopia, this study evaluates the impact of cooperative membership on milk production, productivity, quality and safety. To do so we compare the performance of cooperative and individual milk farmers sampled from the dairy belt of Addis Ababa. We use both instrumental variable regression and propensity score matching...
Full Text Available Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64% (8 bovines and 5 ovines were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92% comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69% of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals.
Desale, Adino; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Nigatu, Alemayehu
Introduction Logistics management information system for health commodities remained poorly implemented in most of developing countries. To assess the status of laboratory logistics management information system for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory commodities in public health facilities in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from September 2010-January 2011 at selected public health facilities. A stratified random sampling method was used to include a total of 43 facilities which, were investigated through quantitative methods using structured questionnaires interviews. Focus group discussion with the designated supply chain managers and key informant interviews were conducted for the qualitative method. Results There exists a well-designed logistics system for laboratory commodities with trained pharmacy personnel, distributed standard LMIS formats and established inventory control procedures. However, majority of laboratory professionals were not trained in LMIS. Majority of the facilities (60.5%) were stocked out for at least one ART monitoring and TB laboratory reagents and the highest stock out rate was for chemistry reagents. Expired ART monitoring laboratory commodities were found in 25 (73.5%) of facilities. Fifty percent (50%) of the assessed hospitals and 54% of health centers were currently using stock/bin cards for all HIV/AIDS and TB laboratory commodities in main pharmacy store, among these only 25% and 20.8% of them were updated with accurate information matching with the physical count done at the time of visit for hospitals and health centers respectively. Conclusion Even though there exists a well designed laboratory LMIS, keeping quality stock/bin cards and LMIS reports were very low. Key ART monitoring laboratory commodities were stock out at many facilities at the day of visit and during the past six months. Based on findings, training of laboratory personnel's managing laboratory commodities and keeping
Over the past two decades a body of scholarship on the Global South has begun to present new ways to conceptualize African cities and their spatio-temporal specificity. Despite this, the city of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia is moving towards the reestablishment of its faded glory through means of aspatial modernization. The city’s aspirations for distinction and visibility can be seen as responses to the variable scales of contemporary urban systems. As ‘place’ is arguably no longer a singular con...
Predictors of HIV-test utilization in PMTCT among antenatal care attendees in government health centers: institution-based cross-sectional study using health belief model in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013
Full Text Available Fikremariam Workagegn, Getachew Kiros, Lakew Abebe Health Education and Behavioral Sciences Department, Public and Medical Sciences College, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is the most dramatic epidemic of the century that has claimed over two decades more than 3 million deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily affected and accounts for nearly 70% of all cases. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is responsible for 20% of all HIV transmissions. With no preventive interventions, 50% of HIV infections are transmitted from HIV-positive mothers to newborns. HIV-testing is central to prevent vertical transmission. Despite, awareness campaigns, prevention measures, and more recently, promotion of antiviral regimens, the prevalence of cases and deaths is still rising and the prevalence of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT voluntary counseling test (VCT use remains low. This study identifies predictors and possible barriers of HIV-testing among antenatal care attendees based on the health belief model (HBM in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: The study was an institution-based cross-sectional survey conducted from September 1 to September 30, 2013. A total of 308 individuals were interviewed using structured questionnaires adopted and modified from similar studies. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. A logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HIV-test use. Results: In spite of satisfactory knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission, participants are still at high risk of contracting the infection, wherein only 51.8% tested for HIV; among the married, only 84.1% and among the gestational age of third trimester, 34.1% mothers tested for HIV. Based on the HBM, failure to use PMTCT-HIV-test was related to its perceived lack of net benefit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.34, confidence interval [CI] [0.19–0.58], P<0.001, but
Dejene Mamo BEKANA
This study was proposed to explore the determinants of consumer preferences in Addis Ababa restaurants. Using consumer behavior literatures and theories it was hypothesized that disposable income, price, quality, hygiene practices, friendliness of restaurant staff, safety of food and range or menu variety are important determinants of consumer choice for restaurants. Primary data were generated from 265 customers of 55 restaurants randomly selected with the use of questionnaire of which 258 o...
This study attempts to explore the livelihoods and survival strategies of migrant children who live on the street or make a living on street based activities in Addis Ababa. It also depicts and analyses the forces behind children’s migration, their encounters and experiences while attempting to cope with the new environment. Structuration theory and livelihood approach were employed as a theoretical framework to address the research problem. Children form a part of the structure of the societ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Methods Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25–64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. Results A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index ≥ 25 kg/m2, with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11% of the females being obese (body-mass-index ≥ 30 kg/m2. Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury or diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9 among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9 among females. Conclusion High blood pressure is widely
Full Text Available In addition to their ability to reach distant learners, interactive e-learning environments have the potential to make the teaching-learning process more effective. This paper highlights some of the e-learning implementation efforts at the Addis Ababa Institute of Technology (AAiT in Ethiopia. This case study shows that limited resources do not deter a developing nation to exploit the power of e-learning. Based on feedback from participants in the first national videoconferencing program held in Ethiopian higher education system between October 2011 and June 2012, the paper addresses the lessons learned and recommended actions for moving forward to a successful implementation of e-learning in Ethiopia, particularly in a videoconferencing mode.
Girgira, Timketa; Tilahun, Birkneh; Bacha, Tigist
Background Children are vulnerable to abuse and violence because their level of development makes them unable to protect themselves. Such adversities during early childhood may have a negative impact on the future lives of the victims. This study was done to determine the delay to hospital presentation, clinical manifestations and immediate health effects of child sexual abuse in two tertiary care hospitals in Ethiopia. Methods We reviewed records of all cases of child sexual and physical abu...
Minten, Bart; Tamru, Seneshaw; Engida, Ermias; Kuma, Tadesse
Urbanization is quickly increasing in Africa, raising important questions on how food value chains to cities function and what the implications of urban growth are for the local food trade and farm sector. We study the rural–urban value chain of teff in Ethiopia, by value its most important staple value chain. Relying on unique large-scale surveys at different levels in this value chain, we find—in contrast to conventional wisdom—that value chains are relatively short and that average farmers...
Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan
Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other
Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis) is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsul...
Dejene Mamo BEKANA
Full Text Available This study was proposed to explore the determinants of consumer preferences in Addis Ababa restaurants. Using consumer behavior literatures and theories it was hypothesized that disposable income, price, quality, hygiene practices, friendliness of restaurant staff, safety of food and range or menu variety are important determinants of consumer choice for restaurants. Primary data were generated from 265 customers of 55 restaurants randomly selected with the use of questionnaire of which 258 of the questionnaire ended usable. The non parametric hypothesis testing statistical tool, chi –square tests, and measures of variation were used for statistical analysis purposes. The anticipation of the researcher was that the hypothesis testing results would be significant in parallel with the hypothesized facts. The findings of the research suggest that income has insignificant impact up on quality price trade of among consumers of different income categories. Other hypothesis associated with price, quality, friendliness of restaurant staff, quick table service and range or menu varieties are found to be statistically significant. Over all, the research results suggest that restaurateurs should design marketing strategy that integrates the attributes used in this study to satisfy the needs and wants of their customers and differentiation of their products and services on the basis of the variables scored as they are significant considerations by consumers.
Zeleke, Aytaged Sisay
This paper aims to explore the practice of continuous assessment at Unity University College and Addis Ababa University. It has also investigated constraints instructors say they have been facing in implementing continuous assessment. Students' attitudes about the practice of this assessment mode towards their course achievements were…
Tegbaru Belete; Tadesse Endale; Tebeje Mekashaw; Shimelis Techalew; Terefe Ashenafi
Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose ...
Mirkuzie Alemnesh H; Sisay Mitike M; Moland Karen; Åstrøm Anne N
Abstract Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009...
Kaba M; Bulto T; Tafesse Z; Lingerh W; Ali I
Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Obj...
Streatfeild, K A; Gebremeskel, A
Addis Ababa is situated at an altitude of approximately 8500 ft and has a barometric pressure of close to 570 mmHg. Arterial blood gas values during the administration of anaesthesia with spontaneous ventilation have not been extensively studied. During the period January to July 1993, oxygen saturation was determined in 46 unpremedicated patients prior to minor surgery. Following this, patients received diazepam 0.1-0.2 mg/kg and ketamine 2 mg/kg during which a clear airway was maintained and peripheral oximetry was monitored continuously. The SpO2 was recorded for each patient at one minute intervals until 5 minutes and thence at 7, 10 and 15 minutes. The average SpO2 decreased below 90% at 2, 3 and 4 minutes and of the 46 patients, 8 (17.3%) required additional oxygen when their saturation fell below 80%. It is concluded that airway management and supplemental oxygen should be available when using this technique. PMID:11961876
Ballard, Karen; Atnafu,Habtamu; Belete,Zelalem; Kinfu,Hirut; Tadesse,Mebkyou; Amin, Mohammed
Habtamu Atnafu, Zelalem Belete, Hirut Kinfu, Mebkyou Tadesse, Mohammed Amin, Karen D Ballard Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia, Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaObjective: To measure the impact of a maternal health package on health facility delivery and stillbirth rates.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia where a maternal package was integrated into eight health centers across three regions. The package included trained midwives with a mentoring program, transport fo...
Oli, K; Porteous, J
One of the objectives of this large scale cross-sectional study of school children of the Addis Ababa city was to assess the status of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) prophylaxis among rheumatic heart disease patients identified during the survey. Awareness about the presence of the illness in those affected and reasons for poor coverage, when detected, were also assessed. Sixty of the 9388 school children surveyed were found to have rheumatic heart disease. On interviewing parents of the children with rheumatic heart disease, ten acknowledged being informed of their children's cardiac illness. Of these parents, 15% (or 9/60) had some idea that their children had heart disease related to some form of infection. However, only two of the nine (22%) children whose parents had some idea about their disease were on regular monthly benzathine penicillin prophylaxis in the previous 12 months preceding the interview. Three (33%) of the nine children had six or fewer injections in the 12 months preceding the interview. The remaining 4 parents (44%) reported that their children took treatment that included injections only at the time of initial diagnosis several years earlier and had not had any follow up since then. Their reasons for not seeking medical care for their children included lack of information on prophylaxis, inability to pay for the treatment and distance of the health facilities. The lack of awareness and the extremely low rate of regular prophylaxis, therefore, highlight the need for an urgent control programme that takes active case detection, treatment access and health education into consideration. PMID:11957312
Akala, A. O.; Somoye, E. O.; Adewale, A. O.; Ojutalayo, E. W.; Karia, S. P.; Idolor, R. O.; Okoh, D.; Doherty, P. H.
This study presents Global Positioning System-Total Electron Content (GPS-TEC) observations over Addis Ababa (Lat: 9.03°N Lon: 38.77°E Mag. lat: 0.18°N) and an evaluation of the accuracy of International Reference Ionosphere-2012 (IRI-2012) model predictions during 2010-2013. Generally, on a diurnal scale, TEC recorded minimum values at 0400-0600 LT and maximum at 1400-1600 LT. Seasonally, TEC recorded maximum values during December solstice and September equinox, and minimum during June solstice. On a year-by-year basis, 2013 recorded the highest values of TEC for both the observed and the model measurements, while 2010 recorded the lowest, implying the solar activity dependence of TEC. Furthermore, we observed discrepancies in the comparison of the GPS-TEC measurements with those derived from IRI-2012 model, after the exclusion of the contributions of plasmaspheric electron content (PEC) from the GPS-observed TEC. All the three options of IRI-2012 model overestimated TEC during early morning and post-sunset hours. Comparatively, of the three options of IRI-2012 model, NeQuick appears to be the most accurate for TEC estimation over Addis Ababa, although at a very close performance capability with the IRI01 CORR option, while IRI2001 is the least accurate.
Gebertsadik A; Worku A; Berhane Y
Achamyelesh Geberetsadik,1 Alemayehu Worku,2 Yemane Berhane3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 3Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) remains the major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Various factors are associated with its occurrence and vary by context. However, available large-scale, population-based data ...
Gebertsadik Tekle, Achamyelesh
Achamyelesh Geberetsadik,1 Alemayehu Worku,2 Yemane Berhane31School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 3Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) remains the major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Various factors are associated with its occurrence and vary by context. However, available large-scale, population-based data ar...
Mirkuzie Alemnesh H
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of reliable data, antenatal HIV surveillance has been used to monitor the HIV epidemic since the late 1980s. Currently, routine data from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes are increasingly available. Evaluating whether the PMTCT programme reports provide comparable HIV prevalence estimates with the antenatal surveillance reports is important. In this study, we compared HIV prevalence estimates from routine PMTCT programme and antenatal surveillance in Addis Ababa with the aim to come up with evidence based recommendation. Methods Summary data were collected from PMTCT programmes and antenatal surveillance reports within the catchment of Addis Ababa. The PMTCT programme data were obtained from routine monthly reports from 2004 to 2009 and from published antenatal HIV surveillance reports from 2003 to 2009. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results In Addis Ababa, PMTCT sites had increased from six in 2004 to 54 in 2009. The site expansion was accompanied by an increased number of women testing. There were marked increases in the rate of HIV testing following the introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing approach. Paralleling these increases, the HIV prevalence showed a steady decline from 10.0% in 2004 to 4.5% in 2009. There were five antenatal surveillance sites from 2003 to 2007 in Addis Ababa and they increased to seven by 2009. Four rounds of surveillance data from five sites showed a declining trend in HIV prevalence over the years. The overall antenatal surveillance data also showed that the HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees had declined from 12.4% in 2003 to 5.5% in 2009. The HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme were 6.2% and 4.5% and from antenatal surveillance 6.1 and 5.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Conclusions There were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme and from antenatal surveillance reports. Both data sources
Urban Agriculture (UA) has the potential for achieving, food sovereignty, food security, and increased quality of life for many people in Addis Ababa. However, urban farming is faced with many barriers such as lack of access to land, input and extension services that make it less productive. Moreover, Stakeholders have different perceptions and priorities for UA. The objective of this study was therefore, initiated to understand the problematic situations by analyzing and evaluating of the po...
Amenu Wesen Denegetu; Bethabile Lovely Dolamo
BACKGROUND: Collaborative TB/HIV management is essential to ensure that HIV positive TB patients are identified and treated appropriately, and to prevent tuberculosis (TB) in HIV positive patients. The purpose of this study was to assess HIV case finding among TB patients and Co-trimoxazole Preventive Therapy (CPT) for HIV/TB patients in Addis Ababa. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional, facility-based survey was conducted between June and July 2011. Data was collected by interviewing 834 T...
Berhane A; Enquselassie F
Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients’ experi...
Abegaz TM; Belachew SA; Abebe TB; Gebresilassie BM; Teni FS; Woldie HG
Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarr...
Mekonnen, Adugnaw Berhane
Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients&rsquo...
Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum
Kidanu Gebremariam,1 Demeke Assefa,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal3 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 2Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (...
Mirkuzie Alemnesh H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes have great potential to achieve virtual elimination of perinatal HIV transmission provided that PMTCT recommendations are properly followed. This study assessed mothers and infants adherence to medication regimen for PMTCT and the proportions of exposed infants who were followed up in the PMTCT programme. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among 282 HIV-positive mothers attending 15 health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and mulitivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results Of 282 mothers enrolled in the cohort, 232 (82%, 95% CI 77-86% initiated medication during pregnancy, 154 (64% initiated combined zidovudine (ZDV prophylaxis regimen while 78 (33% were initiated lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART. In total, 171 (60%, 95% CI 55-66% mothers ingested medication during labour. Of the 221 live born infants (including two sets of twins, 191 (87%, 95% CI 81-90% ingested ZDV and single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP at birth. Of the 219 live births (twin births were counted once, 148 (68%, 95% CI 61-73% mother-infant pairs ingested their medication at birth. Medication ingested by mother-infant pairs at birth was significantly and independently associated with place of delivery. Mother-infant pairs attended in health facilities at birth were more likely (OR 6.7 95% CI 2.90-21.65 to ingest their medication than those who were attended at home. Overall, 189 (86%, 95% CI 80-90% infants were brought for first pentavalent vaccine and 115 (52%, 95% CI 45-58% for early infant diagnosis at six-weeks postpartum. Among the infants brought for early diagnosis, 71 (32%, 95% CI 26-39% had documented HIV test results and six (8.4% were HIV positive. Conclusions We found a progressive decline in medication adherence across the perinatal period. There is a big gap between mediation initiated during pregnancy and actually
Violence appears to be a global problem as society in every nation is in a state of rapid transformation across a range of humans life domains ,such as social, economical, familial , school and political conditions. In this line of thought there is a general agreement that violence prevails in schools for different reasons and with varying degrees of prevalence. In Ethiopia as a result of different catastrophes in th...
Full Text Available This research attempts to look into what practical changes the broadcasting media in Ethiopia have experienced in light of media regulation policies, and if the intended changes have not taken place, attempts to point to reasons. The period after the coming into power of EPRDF (Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front, 1991 and onwards, marked a change in Ethiopian media politics. Of the reforms EPRDF made was liberalizing the media through granting different freedoms. This was done through various laws and policies. The 1992 press law that gave citizens the freedom to exercise freedom of expression through private print media, the 1999 broadcast proclamation, the 2003 press law and the newly endorsed broadcast proclamation of the year 2007 are the major policies introduced with regard to the media. The 1995 Ethiopian Constitution also is a monumental document for reinforcing freedom of expression in Ethiopia. Article 29 of the Constitution confirms that all citizens have the right to “seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in prints in the form of art, or through any idea of his/her choice” (FDRE Constitution, Art 29. After eight years of the endorsement of the first Broadcast Proclamation in 1999, which further affirms the full grant of the right to own a private broadcasting station, there is no private television station, and radio stations are still under the control of the control of the government in one way or another. Why are the broadcast media regulated severely while full freedom of expression is granted on other arenas? Data for the study was acquired from documents and personal interviews with actors in the media industry. The conclusion of the research include: private broadcasters and licensees do not work together; the new broadcasting regulation policy gives broadcasters a chance to appeal and imprisonment is excluded from the punitive
Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values < 0.05 was considered significant and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used for the odds ratio. Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining
Mirkuzie Alemnesh H
Full Text Available Abstract Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining actual HIV testing. This low explanatory power of TPB was mainly due
Tufa, Gemechu Beker
The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…
Johnson, Jennifer Wolfe
Compared with male entrepreneurs, women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia have a lower stock of all of the resources of symbolic power: economic, cultural, and social capital. Based on interviews with 23 women entrepreneurs in Addis Ababa and more than twenty other individuals in the NGO, government, and private sector development space, I identify four key challenges facing women entrepreneurs. I argue that entrepreneurship development programmes that focus on building women’s business networks have...
Tilaye, Mesfin; Dijk, Meine Pieter
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Privatization of urban services focuses often on the involvement of foreign enterprises. This contribution deals with micro-privatization, the partial transfer of government responsibility for solid waste collection to micro-enterprises. It tries to shed light on whether the current private sector participation (PSP) of micro-enterprises in solid waste collection service is the best way to capture the expected advantages of private sector involvement. The article ...
Child and young domestic workers have been included in social science research in recent years. Most of this research, however, is one sided in which abuses and exploitations are considered as the only features of the lives of these girls. Moreover, domestic workers are considered as mere victims and their agency is overlooked. In these researches employers are considered as abusive and exploitative without discrimination.This study looks into the lives of young domestic workers in the capita...
Mekonnen TT; Woldeyohannes SM; Yigzaw T
Tensae Tadesse Mekonnen,1 Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes,2 Tegbar Yigzaw3 1Department of Midwifery, Tseda Health Science College, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, 3Jhpiego-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Women with diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of pregnancy complications, including those from surgical delivery and their offspring are at risk for congenital anomalies. Thus, diabetic and hyperten...
Birhanu Zewdie; Abdissa Alemseged; Belachew Tefera; Deribew Amare; Segni Hailemariam; Tsu Vivien; Mulholland Kim; Russell Fiona M
Abstract Background Although cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality among women in Ethiopia, there is lack of information regarding the perception of the community about the disease. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with men, women, and community leaders in the rural settings of Jimma Zone southwest Ethiopia and in the capital city, Addis Ababa. Data were captured using voice recorders, and field notes were transcribed verbatim from the loca...
Atsede Tesfaye Hailemariam; Brigitte Kroon
This paper describes how women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia define success in their own terms. Semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 women entrepreneurs from various sectors in Addis Ababa. The interview formats allowed the women to tell their life history and define success in their own terms. A common stereotype is that women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia operate businesses out of necessity and therefore women measure success in terms of financial rewards than personal rewards...
Full Text Available Ménélik II et Haylé Sellasé, les deux principaux souverains éthiopiens du xxe siècle, ont tous deux connu des fins de règne et de vie troubles, caractérisées par l’absence de funérailles au moment de leur disparition. Différentes sources endogènes et exogènes sont disponibles pour mieux appréhender leur histoire, au nombre desquelles des monuments visibles aujourd’hui dans la capitale éthiopienne. Le croisement des sources et des regards éthiopiens et étrangers permet de démêler l’écheveau des circonstances de la disparition de Ménélik II et les raisons de la dissimulation du corps du roi défunt. Il permet aussi de comprendre comment son successeur, Haylé Sellasé, a géré politiquement le corps – et, partant, la mémoire – de son prédécesseur, en plaçant également au cœur de sa politique symbolique son propre futur lieu de sépulture. Les monuments d’Addis Abeba transmettent nombre d’informations sur l’histoire des funérailles royales en Éthiopie au xxe siècle, mais aussi sur la place du corps des souverains défunts dans le système politico-religieux de la royauté éthiopienne contemporaine.Menelik II and Haile Selassie, the two major Ethiopian sovereigns during the 20th century, both experienced troubles in their lives and at the end of their reigns: no funeral ceremonies were held at the time of their death. Various sources are available for understanding these historical events, among them the monuments that can still be seen in the country’s capital. By crossing sources and viewpoints, both Ethiopian and foreign, we can unravel the set of circumstances surrounding the death of Menelik II and the reasons for concealing the body of the deceased. We thus understand how his successor, Haile Selassie, politically managed his predecessor’s corpse (and the memory of him by placing his own future place of burial at the center of this political symbolism. The monuments in Addis Ababa
1970s. The government considers the current rate of population growth not satisfactory as it is too high. This is a marked departure from the previous perception which regarded the growth rate as satisfactory. The government considers the level and trends of morbidity and mortality to be unacceptable. It also considers the current level of fertility as not satisfactory because it is too high. The government regards levels and trends of immigration to be not significant and thus satisfactory. Ethiopia is basically an agrarian country, but in the last 30 years the urban population has been growing rapidly. The government considers the trends in the population distribution within the national territory to be inappropriate. Concern covers the rapid population growth in Addis Ababa and Asmara and the population pressure in the northern plateau. PMID:12340412
Fana Gebresenbet; Institute for Peace and Security Studies, Addis Ababa University
This paper argues that development through large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) in Gambella, western Ethiopia, belies a state-remaking project under a dispossessive political economy. This argument is based on fieldwork in Gambella, Addis Ababa, and Minneapolis and is situated within the broader development agenda pursued by Ethiopia’s ruling party. The political economy of LSLAs tells us that the deals are not occurring in a predominantly economic manner; rather, extra-economic state interv...
Almedom, Astier M.
This thesis examines inter-relationships between the feeding, health, and growth of infants (aged 0-24 months) in low-income households in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Mixed-longitudinal data were collected from a sample of 113 infants and their mothers in Kebele 11, Keftegna 24 from November 1987 to April 1988. Breastfeeding is the culturally esteemed mode of infant feeding. The culture-specific concept of weaning places the emphasis on the termination of breastfeeding, with ...
Habteyes Hailu Tola; Davoud Shojaeizadeh; Gholamreza Garmaroudi; Azar Tol; Mir Saeed Yekaninejad; Luche Tadesse Ejeta; Abebaw Kebede; Mehrdad Karimi; Desta Kassa
Background: Psychological distress is the major comorbidity among tuberculosis (TB) patients. However, its magnitude, associated factors, and effect on treatment outcome have not been adequately studied in low-income countries. Objective: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological distress and its effect on treatment outcome among TB patients on treatment. Design: A follow-up study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May to December 2014. Patients (N=330) diagnosed ...
Dessalegn Gachena; Amsalu Mitiku
This study tries to analyze the spatial price transmission of coffee between Bench Maji Zone and Addis Ababa markets. Monthly prices data (September 2006 to August 2011) for producer and central market prices were collected from Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia. The Engle and Granger procedure was employed to test for co-integration between prices. The ADF test for unit root was applied for individual price series. The results of stationarity tests indicate...
Gebrewahid, Gebreyohannes Gebreslassie
Purpose: the purpose of this research was to identify the export barriers that affect the export competitiveness of the Ethiopian leather footwear-manufacturing firms, with a special emphasis on the SMEs. SMEs occupy a prominent position in the development agenda of many developing countries like Ethiopia. Hence, this study investigated the export barriers of SMEs in ELFMFs. Research Methodology: A survey of 15 manufacturing firms was conducted in Ethiopian, Addis Ababa. Out of 100 sampled...
An Occupational Therapy Needs Assessment for an organization attending to children with autism spectrum disorder in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia : To identify the occupational therapy needs for an organization attending to children with autism spectrum disorder in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Syfte: Att identifiera behovet för arbetsterapi i Nehemiah Autism Center genom att utföra en behovsanalys. Metod: Mixad-metod användas för att utveckla en passande behovsanalys för att identifiera behovet för arbetsterapi. Resultat: Alla områden där en arbetsterapeut kan bidrag till valdes. Kommunikation och sociala färdigheter rapporterades mest frekvent och beteende förvaltning rankades som viktigast bland vårdnadshavare. Bland anställda, fritid och lek rapporterades mest frekve...
Full Text Available Background. Dermatophytosis is common worldwide and continues to increase. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and the spectrum of ringworm fungi in patients attending a tertiary hospital. Methods. Samples were collected from 305 patients. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud’s dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Dermatophyte isolates were identified by studying macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Result. Of 305 samples, fungi were detected in 166 (54.4% by KOH of which 95 were dermatophytes while 242 (79.4% samples were culture positive of which 130 isolates were dermatophytes. Among dermatophyte isolates T. violaceum was the most common (37.7% cause of infection. Tinea unguium was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 51.1% of the cases. Patients with age group 25–44 and 45–64 years were more affected. T. violaceum was the most common pathogen in tinea unguium and tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea pedis. Conclusion. Further intensive epidemiological studies of ring worm fungus induced dermatophytosis which have public health significance are needed.
Full Text Available Background. Despite recommendations by guidelines to avoid combinations of antipsychotics unless after multiple trials of antipsychotic monotherapy, it is quite a common practice to use combinations. This practice leads to unnecessary expenses and exposes the patient to severe drug adverse effects. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 study subjects. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associated factors of antipsychotic polypharmacy among schizophrenia outpatients. Result. The overall prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be 28.2%. Extra pyramidal side effects (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.38, 5.71, repeated psychiatric hospitalization (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.45, 5.50, history of substance use (AOR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.36, 5.88, longer duration of treatment (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.87, and drug nonadherence (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.98 were found to be significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion. Prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be high among the current study participants. Individuals who had extra pyramidal side effects, admission, substance use, duration of treatment, and drug nonadherence were associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy.
The application of Mathematics in this modern world of information technology is becoming more and more crucial. Bearing this idea in mind and the contribution it can have to the development of the country, the Ethiopian government has given emphasis to the teaching of Mathematics in the Ethiopian schools. However, in spite of this understanding of its importance the overall performance of students in Mathematics is unsatisfactory. The objective of this research was to assess some of the p...
Introduction: In many countries of Africa, same-sex practicing men are described as ‘hidden’ populations. A common interpretation of this is that it is difficult to find ways of engaging with such men, for example, when pursuing HIV-related research and interventions. Despite the fact that a number of HIV-related studies have been conducted worldwide over the past decades, until recently little had been done to study the lives and circumstances of same-sex attracted men in African settings. R...
Teklebirhan, Gebreabiezgi; Bitew, Adane
Background. Dermatophytosis is common worldwide and continues to increase. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and the spectrum of ringworm fungi in patients attending a tertiary hospital. Methods. Samples were collected from 305 patients. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Dermatophyte isolates were identified by studying macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Result. Of 305 samples, fungi were detected in 166 (54.4%) by KOH of which 95 were dermatophytes while 242 (79.4%) samples were culture positive of which 130 isolates were dermatophytes. Among dermatophyte isolates T. violaceum was the most common (37.7%) cause of infection. Tinea unguium was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 51.1% of the cases. Patients with age group 25-44 and 45-64 years were more affected. T. violaceum was the most common pathogen in tinea unguium and tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea pedis. Conclusion. Further intensive epidemiological studies of ring worm fungus induced dermatophytosis which have public health significance are needed. PMID:26448763
Objective: While traumatic parental loss presents an undeniable risk factor for maladaptive outcomes, some groups of children appear to manifest successful adaptation and do not follow a negative developmental pathway. The purpose of the present study was to test to what degree children orphaned by AIDS demonstrate resilience. Method: The self-report version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire for children age ranging from 11-16 (SDQ S11-16), and a background information inventor...
Alemu Agersew; Moges Feleke; Shiferaw Yitayal; Tafess Ketema; Kassu Afework; Anagaw Belay; Agegn Abebe
Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common health problem among pregnant women. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent serious life threatening condition and morbidity due to urinary tract infection that can occur in pregnant women. Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6 % and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bac...
Fekadu Wolde-Giorgis, Daniel
Background: Child labour is a very common global problem. There are an estimated over 250 million in the world, and about 7.5 million child labourers in Ethiopia. Most of the studies available to date focus on the social, political, and economical issues, but very little on mental health or psychosocial problems of child labourers. There is no study describing the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders among this group of children. Aims: 1. to assess the level of awareness and attitude of an u...
People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that...... grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of...... Addis Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999....
Mekonen, Seblework; Argaw, Roba; Simanesew, Aklilu; Houbraken, Michael; Senaeve, David; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter
Access to safe and reliable drinking water is vital for a healthy population. However, surface water may be contaminated with pesticides because of the nearby agricultural areas as well as from household application. Water samples were collected from water sources in Jimma zone and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The extraction and clean up of the samples were undertaken using liquid-solid and liquid-liquid methods. Human exposure was assessed by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides in water and compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the acute reference dose (ARfD). The mean concentrations of 2,4-D, malathion, diazinon and fenpropimorph were 1.59-13.90 μg/l and 0.11-138 µg/l in Jimma and Addis Ababa water sources, respectively. The residue level of some of the pesticides were above the European drinking water guide line values, which is an indication of an illegal use of pesticides in the study areas. Concerning human health risk estimation, there was no acute risk (EDI ADI) for Jimma and Addis Ababa populations, respectively. A comprehensive monitoring is required to reduce the level of pesticide residues in the water and to minimize particularly the long term human health risks. PMID:27501312
Full Text Available Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods: We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%. After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01], and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74] were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion: Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use
According to Dr. Kebede Tadesse, Minister of Social and Administrative Affairs, as stated in a speech before the Consultative Group Meeting in Addis Ababa in December 1996, the health status of Ethiopia is one of the worst in the world because of "backward socio-economic development, poor environmental quality, high fertility rate, repeated natural and man-made disasters, and inadequate health services." An article in the April 11, 1997, Addis Tribune supports this claim by describing the horrific conditions found in a public hospital in Addis Ababa. Patients returned home to die because of the shortage of beds. Dr. Kebede gave the following statistics: the average daily per capita food intake is 1750 calories, 80% of that recommended; 5% of children show signs of wasting; 64% of children have stunted growth; 17% of pregnant and lactating women are anemic; the average national fertility rate is 6.1%; the percentage of AIDS cases per 100,000 people is 10.7; 18% of people have access to potable water; 14% of births are attended; 16% of people receive antenatal care; 40% of the population is immunized; 8% of the population receives family planning services; the infant mortality rate is 130/1000 live births; the maternal mortality rate is 500-700/100,000 live births; there is 1 physician per 33,333 Ethiopians; and the life expectancy at birth is 48 years. The article recommended the following "basic principles and guidelines" to improve the situation: 1) the population should be educated about good hygiene; 2) family planning should be popularized by the government; 3) the health budget should be increased to meet overall demand for health services and to target diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis; 4) private investment in health care is needed; 5) a safe drinking water supply must be made available; and 6) domestic conditions should be made favorable so that Ethiopian doctors educated abroad will return to practice in Ethiopia. PMID:12320872
Tilahun, E; Whittaker, L R
A prospective study of the accuracy of real time ultrasonography in the detection of gallstones was undertaken in 180 patients from February 1987 to February 1988. The ultrasound findings were compared with single dose oral cholecystography (OCG), and with the surgical findings where surgery was undertaken. Ultrasonography gave more accurate results than OCG, with an overall accuracy in the surgically proven patients of 97.1%, no false positive findings and a 2.9% false negative rate. OCG gave an accuracy of 80% with no false positive findings and a 20% false negative rate. Ultrasound was particularly valuable where there was non visualisation of the gall bladder at OCG, giving an overall accuracy of 93.3% in such patients. Ultrasonography is a non invasive, simple, safe and economic diagnostic test of high accuracy in the diagnosis of cholelithiasis and of particular benefit in those patients unsuited for OCG. PMID:2191856
Kalayou Kidanu Berhe*, Asrat Demissie , Alemayoh Bayeray Kahsay and Haftu Berhe Gebru
Background: Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders that affect the body’s ability to process and use sugar (glucose) for energy. Type 2 diabetes mellitus resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate insulin secretion. The success of long-term maintenance therapy for diabetes depends largely on the patients’ adherence with self-care practices.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess diabetes self-care practices and associated factors among type 2 dia...
Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse
Background Schizophrenia is one of the most disabling and severely stigmatized mental disorders. Together with social stigma, internalized stigma and perceived stigma can trigger a vicious cycle and diminishes the stigma resistance abilities of individual. Helping patients to cope up with perceived and internalized stigma play crucial role in fighting stigma. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of stigma resistance among people with schizophrenia attending the out...
Blystad Astrid; Moland Karen; Koricho Absera T
Abstract Background Breastfeeding remains normative and vital for child survival in the developing world. However, knowledge of the risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission through breastfeeding has brought to attention the controversy of whether breastfeeding can be safely practiced by HIV positive mothers. Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs provide prevention services to HIV positive mothers including infant feeding counseling based on international g...
Tegegne, Dessie; Desta, Kassu; Tegbaru, Belete; Tilahun, Tesfaye
Background Hepatitis B Virus is a major public health problem worldwide. In 2012 alone, over 350 million chronic carriers and 1. 2 million annual deaths were occurred. Hepatitis B Virus causes 60 to 80% of the world’s primary liver cancer and nearly 90% infants infected due to vertical transmission are at higher risk of developing chronic liver disease and cancer. Hence determining the burden of maternal and neonatal Hepatitis B Virus infection is a priority. Methods A cross sectional study w...
Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human T-lymphotrophic Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the p...
Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mwesiga, Allan; Stanley, Claire; Borchert, Jeff; Mensah, George; Bejtullahu, Armand; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Kebede, Amha; Berhane, Yemane; Jocker, Mathew Lado; Ebontane, Ndode Corlins; Feyissa, Daba; Yeshitila, Kidanie; Mehari, Goitom; Beffa, Gemechu
Biennially, trainees and graduates of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) are presented with a platform to share investigations and projects undertaken during their two-year training in Applied Epidemiology. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference, is a perfect opportunity for public health professionals from various sectors and organizations to come together to discuss issues that impact on public health in Africa. This year's conference...
Koricho, Absera Teshome
Background: Breastfeeding remains normative and vital for child survival in the developing world. However, the knowledge of HIV transmission through breastfeeding has become an enormous public health dilemma, and has brought to the forefront of attention the controversy linked to whether breastfeeding can safely be promoted in high HIV epidemic areas. Exclusive replacement feeding can fully prevent postnatal transmission of HIV infection in children, however, it is neither acceptable nor a fe...
It is a great pleasure for me to address this Second Conference of States Parties to the Treaty of Pelindaba. I compliment the countries of Africa for their tenacity in pursuing the goal of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone for decades, until the Treaty finally entered into force in 2009. Nuclear-weapon-free zones are a highly effective means of non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament. The five nuclear-weapon-free zones in existence today cover a total of 113 countries. Each has its own special characteristics, but they also have many important elements in common. All nuclear-weapon-free zones prohibit the development, stationing or testing of nuclear weapons in their respective regions. They all cover large inhabited areas. They provide for IAEA verification of the non-diversion of nuclear material. Nuclear-weapon-free zones have brought real security benefits, both regionally and to the whole world. The Treaty of Pelindaba incorporates a number of special features, including some measures which go beyond undertakings assumed by States Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) . For example, it makes provision for the dismantling and destruction of nuclear explosive devices manufactured by a Party to the Treaty before the Treaty entered into force. It prohibits attacks on nuclear installations in the nuclear-weapon-free zone. It bars the dumping of radioactive waste within the zone. In addition, the Treaty of Pelindaba contains a commitment to promote the use of nuclear science and technology for economic and social development. Parties are encouraged to make use of the assistance of the IAEA. They also pledge to maintain the highest standards of security and physical protection of nuclear material, facilities and equipment. In the Preamble to the Treaty, the Parties recognise that the establishment of other nuclear-weapon-free zones, especially in the Middle East, would enhance their security. Last November, I hosted an IAEA Forum on Experience of Possible Relevance to the Creation of a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in the Middle East. There is broad international support for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East. But there are long-standing differences among countries of that region, and beyond, about how the issue should be approached. That is why it took 11 years to secure agreement to hold the IAEA Forum. The Forum provided an opportunity for Member States to engage in a constructive exchange of views. However, because of the fundamental differences of views which I mentioned, it was not possible to make further progress on this important issue. Nevertheless, I was encouraged by the positive spirit in which the Middle East Forum was conducted. One of the key lessons which I took away was that it is possible to have a constructive dialogue on the establishment of a nuclear- weapon-free zone, despite the complexity of the issue and significant differences of views among States concerned. Mistrust between key parties can be overcome in time and be replaced by mutual confidence and cooperation. It is up to countries of the region concerned to decide whether to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone. But if they decide to do so, a multilateral component can be very helpful. The IAEA will continue to assist with the establishment of new nuclear-weapon-free zones, in the Middle East and elsewhere. I believe that a successful Conference on the establishment of a Middle East zone free of nuclear weapons and all other weapons of mass destruction would be an important step forward. (IAEA)
Full Text Available Achamyelesh Geberetsadik,1 Alemayehu Worku,2 Yemane Berhane3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 3Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI remains the major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Various factors are associated with its occurrence and vary by context. However, available large-scale, population-based data are not fully exploited to identify locally relevant risk factors. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with ARI in children under the age of 5 years in Ethiopia.Methods: Further analysis of the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey was carried out involving 11,645 children under the age of 5 years and their mothers. Information relevant to the current study was extracted from the main data set and a working data set was prepared. A complex survey logistic regression analysis was applied.Results: Acute ARI in this study was associated with severe malnutrition. Children who were severely wasted were highly likely to develop ARI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.5. ARI was less likely to occur in children from families with an educated father and professional mother (AOR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2–0.6 and AOR 0.1; 95% CI 0.01–0.6, respectively.Conclusion: Malnourished children from a lower socioeconomic category are more likely to suffer from ARI. Targeting disadvantaged children for effective interventions can help reduce the burden of morbidity and death due to ARI. Keywords: acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, severe malnutrition, children, Ethiopia
Full Text Available Firehiwot Mesfin,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1Department of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, 3School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Stunting is a serious impediment to child survival and developing a full learning capacity. Despite several decades of efforts, stunting remained a major public health concern in Ethiopia. Thus, periodic assessment of the factors associated with stunting is imperative.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among school-age children in Eastern Ethiopia. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to the World Health Organization standard procedures. A child was identified as stunted if height-for-age z score is <−2 standard deviations of the median of the reference population. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with stunting. Clustering of stunting within schools was controlled during analysis using cluster option in STATA syntax.Results: The prevalence of stunting among school-aged children was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.6–10.3; of which 2% had severe stunting. The risk of stunting was 1.71 times greater for children born to working mothers than those born to housewives (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.71; 95% CI: 1.08–2.72. Those children whose families did not use a bed net in their home were 1.76 times more likely to be stunted as children than those whose families used insecticide-treated nets (AOR =1.76; 95% CI: 1.22–2.52. Moreover, the risk of stunting was 1.59 times greater for children who had suffered from illness within the last 2 weeks than children who were apparently healthy (AOR =1.59; 95% CI: 1.04–2.40. On the other hand, the risk of stunting was 30% lower for children born to an older mother than a younger one.Conclusion: Stunting, which is indicative of chronic
Full Text Available Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients’ experiences regarding their rights in hospital settings in northern Ethiopia.Patients and methods: Data were collected using semistructured interviews of 22 patients, who have had experience of health care service in the hospital setting. The patients were selected from the outpatient and inpatient departments of referral and district hospitals in northern Ethiopia. The interview data were tape-recorded, transcribed, translated, reviewed, and analyzed using a phenomenographic approach. Categories of descriptions were constructed based on the patients’ conceptions and ways of understanding the phenomenon of patients’ rights practice.Results: The findings revealed four main qualitatively different ways of understanding patients’ rights practice from the patients’ perspective. These main categories of description were patient-centered practice, being secured, respecting patients’ dignity, and getting referral.Conclusion: The different conceptions of patient rights give us a deeper understanding of how patients may experience patients’ rights practice. The result provides a foundation for developing health care practice that equips the patient with a positive experience, thus contributing in drafting patients’ bill of rights in the local context.Keywords: patient rights, phenomenography, hospital health care, patient experience
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy has been widely used to estimate causes of death in settings with inadequate vital registries, but little is known about its validity. This analysis was part of Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program to examine the validity of verbal autopsy for determining causes of death compared with hospital medical records among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia. Methods This validation study consisted of comparison of verbal autopsy final diagnosis with hospital diagnosis taken as a “gold standard”. In public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, 20,152 adult deaths (15 years and above were recorded between 2007 and 2010. With the same period, a verbal autopsy was conducted for 4,776 adult deaths of which, 1,356 were deceased in any of Addis Ababa hospitals. Then, verbal autopsy and hospital data sets were merged using the variables; full name of the deceased, sex, address, age, place and date of death. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values with 95% confidence interval. Results After merging, a total of 335 adult deaths were captured. For communicable diseases, the values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of verbal autopsy diagnosis were 79%, 78% and 68% respectively. For non-communicable diseases, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 69%, specificity 78% and positive predictive value 79%. Regarding injury, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 70%, specificity 98% and positive predictive value 83%. Higher sensitivity was achieved for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, but lower specificity with relatively more false positives. Conclusion These findings may indicate the potential of verbal autopsy to provide cost-effective information to guide policy on communicable and non communicable diseases double burden among adults in Ethiopia. Thus, a well structured verbal autopsy method, followed by qualified physician reviews could be capable of
Franey, Cara; Evensen, Ann; Bethune, Cheri; Zemenfes, Daniel
Family Medicine (FM) is a new specialty in Ethiopia. The first seven family physicians graduated in February 2016 from the inaugural residency programme at Addis Ababa University. Cooperation amongst Ethiopian and expatriate decision-makers and physicians was needed to begin the programme. Intentional replacement of expatriates with Ethiopian family physicians has begun. Barriers include lack of understanding of FM and the human and financial resources needed for scaling up the programme. Regular programme review with resident physician involvement has allowed the FM training programme to adapt and fit the Ethiopian context. Further successes will result from ongoing support and advocacy from the Federal Ministry of Health and other Ethiopian, African, and international primary care organisations. PMID:27254792
Gossa W; Wondimagegn D; Mekonnen D; Eshetu W; Abebe Z; Fetters MD
Weyinshet Gossa,1,2 Dawit Wondimagegn,3 Demeke Mekonnen,4 Wondwossen Eshetu,5 Zerihun Abebe,6 Michael D Fetters2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 4Department of Pediatrics, Jimma University, Jimma, 5Federal Ministry of Health, 6St Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Ad...
Full Text Available Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Objective: The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11.Results: Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited
Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years). Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 2.30, 13.00; p Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.
The non-linear inversion technique known as hedgehog is utilized to define the average crustal structure of North and North-Eastern Ethiopia. To accomplish the task a two dimensional frequency-time analysis is performed to obtain Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves. Six earthquakes recorded by the broad-band digital seismograph installed at the Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa University are utilized. The crustal structure between the Gulf of Tadjura (western Gulf of Aden) and Addis Ababa crossing southern Afar (path I) can be approximated by a total thickness of about 22 km with average S-wave velocity in the range 2.3 - 3.9 km/s. The crust-mantle transition is poorly developed at greater depths and the shear wave velocity ranges from 4.0 km/s to 4.3 km/s. If the effect of the plateau part is taken into account the average total crustal thickness is found to be less than 18 km and the average S-wave velocity varies in the range 2.4 - 3.9 km/s. The low shear wave velocity under the Afar crust is consistent with the result of other geophysical studies. For path II, which passes through the border of the Western Ethiopian plateau, the average crustal structure is found to be approximated by a thickness of about 40 km and average S-wave velocity between 3.0 km/s and 3.9 km/s. The crust overlies a lithospheric mantle with a shear wave velocity in the range 4.1-4.4 km/s. (author). 37 refs, 11 figs, 4 tabs
Manhart, Andreas [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Amera, Tadesse; Belay, Mehari [PAN (Ethiopia)
The generation and management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) is an increasing concern in many African countries. Attempts to bridge the digital divide as well as rapid economic development continue to boost the market penetration of many types of electricity powered devices. This also leads to rapidly increasing e-waste volumes, which are mostly not yet managed in an environmentally sound manner. In order to build a strong foundation for the development of Ethiopia's e-waste management strategy, it was deemed necessary to generate reliable data on e-waste volumes and current management practices and options, as well as to investigate possibilities for improved e-waste management and other relevant aspects. This study, financed by the Solving the E-waste Problem (StEP) Initiative under a grant of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA), was jointly carried out by the Oeko-Institut e.V. and PAN-Ethiopia. It aims to fill key knowledge gaps and provide a more solid base for further decision making for both, national decision-makers and co-operation projects in this field. The information contained in this report is derived from existing literature sources and statistics, interviews conducted in Ethiopia, and field assessments in Addis Ababa in August 2012.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for a comprehensive global verification regime that includes International Monitoring System (IMS). Ethiopia is expected to contribute to the system through a seismic station to be upgraded and a radionuclide station to be established yet. The capacity built at and the experience gained by the geographical observatory of the Addis Ababa University seismic monitoring makes it the leading institution on implementing activities related to verification of the treaty in Ethiopia. Assessment of the current situation indicates that the implementation is going on at a relatively slow rate. There is a general understanding that the country's contribution to and the benefits to be gained from the CTBT implementation related activities would be enhanced if it works in close collaborartion with other East and Southern African countries. However, this could be realised if and only if higher priorities are accorded to the establishment and strengthening of national monitoring and data processing capabilities and the cooperation program is provided with adequate funding. (author)
Mungube, E O; Tenhagen, B A; Kassa, T; Regassa, F; Kyule, M N; Greiner, M; Baumann, M P O
This study, with the objective of assessing the effect of risk factors on dairy cow mastitis in the central highlands of Ethiopia, was undertaken between February and September 2001 in the urban and peri-urban areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A prevalence study and questionnaire survey were carried out simultaneously. Clinical examination of lactating udders and California mastitis test (CMT) determined clinical and subclinical mastitis, respectively. Risk factors for subclinical and clinical mastitis were identified from data on animals and farm management by chi-square analysis and subsequent logistic regression. Cows aged at least 8 years, with poor body condition, with at least 8 parities and in at least the eighth month of lactation had a significantly higher risk for subclinical mastitis (p mastitis (p <0.05). The risk was reduced by the use of separate towels for udder cleaning and by drying off at the end of lactation. Most of the risk factors were in agreement with previous reports. However, stage of lactation and drying-off style were in contrast to others. Further research is needed to identify the interrelationship between production level, specific pathogens and management risk factors. PMID:15449836
Berhanu, Della; Go, Vivian F; Ruff, Andrea; Celentano, David D; Bishaw, Tewabech
Khat (Catha edulis, a natural stimulant), has been used in Ethiopia for centuries. Over the past few decades, however, its use has dramatically increased, with recent research linking khat use to HIV status. Using qualitative methods, we explored the individual and micro-environmental characteristics of khat use and the social and physical contexts influencing type, acceptability and consequences of khat use. Among khat chewers attending an HIV voluntary counselling and testing centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, we found that chewing typically starts at an early age (15-18 years). The majority of users are young (aged 18-35) and chew for pleasure, primarily in social settings. Over 25 types of khat, with varying effects were reported. Approximately half of the participants perceived khat to enhance sexual desire, while the rest claimed the effect on sexual desire to be the opposite. Alcohol use among chewers was high. Our findings suggest the need for culturally appropriate interventions that highlight the factors associated with khat use and the potential interplay between khat, alcohol and risky sexual behaviour. PMID:22988913
Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among caregivers of patients with severe mental illness in the outpatient unit of Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013: Cross-sectional study
Sintayehu, Mezinew; Mulat, Haregwoin; Yohannis, Zegeye; Adera, Tewodros; Fekade, Maereg
Abstracts Background Caregivers like family members or other relatives are central and provide not only practical help and personal care but also give emotional support, and they are suffering from plenty of challengeable tasks. These, eventually, cast out family caregivers into multidimensional problems prominently for mental distress like depression, anxiety, sleep problem and somatic disorder which are followed by physiologic changes and impaired health habits that ultimately lead to illne...
Water Resources Programme involvement in Ethiopian projects since 1991 has been extensive. The information and training provided have equipped the country to better resolve its water resource issues. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working with the Ethiopian government in the areas of agriculture, nutrition, nuclear medicine and isotope hydrology over the last four decades. Eight national and four regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects on isotope hydrology have been carried out in collaboration with various Ethiopian institutions over the last two decades (1991-2011). The IAEA has also been analyzing the monthly isotopic composition of rainfall samples collected from a meteorological station in Addis Ababa since 1961. Environmental isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O, 13C and 14C) have been used as complementary tools in water resource assessment and management and in geothermal studies. These isotopes have been implemented mainly to trace recharge provenance, estimate recharge rates and investigate lake- groundwater interaction in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Nitrogen-15 isotopes were also used to trace the source of nitrate pollution in Diredawa, which lies in Ethiopia's south-east.
Full Text Available Kassahun Demissie,1 Shifera Asfaw,2 Lakew Abebe,2 Getachew Kiros2 1Addis Ababa Regional Laboratory, Ethiopia; 2Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Ethiopia Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome is one of the major public health problems throughout the world. Nowadays, antiretroviral treatment (ART is available in health institutions and HIV-positive individuals who are eligible for ART are taking it. But studies show reinfection of HIV is occurring in them for unknown reasons. Purpose: This study aimed to assess risky sexual practice and associated factors among HIV-positive ART attendees. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was employed in ten randomly selected health centers in Addis Ababa, between October 05 and November 05, 2013. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select 376 respondents for face-to-face interviews from ART registration book. After the data collection process, data were entered and analyzed using the SPSS version 20 statistical package. Then the effect of each variable was observed by regression analysis to identify the predictors for risky sexual practice at a significant level of P<0.05. Results: A total of 376 respondents were included in the study, with 100% response rate. The mean age of the total respondents was 35.28±8.94 (standard deviation. Of the 376 respondents, 30.4% had a history of risky sexual practice, which was inconsistent condom use in the last 3 months prior to the study period. Factors associated with risky sexual practice included alcohol consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.01, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.77, being single (AOR =0.29, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.59 and widowed (AOR =0.32, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.77 respondents, and the gender of the respondents, with an AOR of 1.55 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.33, shows a significant relationship with risky sexual behavior. Conclusion
Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey
Getachew Tesfaye; Daniel Asrat; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Messele Gizaw
Objectives:To isolate and identify the bacterial etiologic agents,including their antibiotic susceptibility pat-tern isolated from patients with discharging ear infections.Methods:Between September 2006 and February 2007,178 patients with discharging ear visiting ENT clinics of St.Paul and Tikur Anbessa University Hospi-tals Addis Ababa,Ethiopia were investigated.Results:Of the patients investigated,52.8% were males and 47.2% were females resulting in an overall male to female ratio of 1.1:1.Ear discharge was the commonest clinical finding followed by hearing problem (91.2%),otalgia (ear pain)(74.7%),fever (17.9%)and itching of external ear (5.1%).S.aureus accounted for 30.2% of the total isolates followed by Proteus ssp. (P.mirabilis,P.vulgaris )(25.4%),and P.aeruginosa (13.4%).Both gram positive and negative bac-teria isolated from ear infections showed low resistance rates to most antimicrobial agents tested.Overall ceftri-axone and ciprofloxacin were the most effective drugs when compared to other drugs tested against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Conclusion:Otitis media was the most common clinical finding in pa-tients with ear infection.With discharging ear,the gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates.The susceptibility pattern of isolates from the study showed that ceftriaxone,ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective drugs.It is recommended that treatment of ear infections should be based on culture and sensi-tivity at the study sites.Therefore,efforts should be directed towards early diagnosis and treatment of acute ear infection and continued re-evaluation of the resistant patterns of organisms to optimize treatments and reduce complications.
Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Taddesse, Mieraf; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Abdullah, Muna; Miljeteig, Ingrid
Reproductive health services are crucial for maternal and child health, but universal health coverage is still not within reach in most societies. Ethiopia's goal of universal health coverage promises access to all necessary services for everyone while providing protection against financial risk. When moving towards universal health coverage, health plans and policies require contextualized knowledge about baseline indicators and their distributions. To understand more about the factors that explain coverage, we study the relationship between socioeconomic and geographic factors and the use of reproductive health services in Ethiopia, and further explore inequalities in reproductive health coverage. Based on these findings, we discuss the normative implications of these findings for health policy. Using population-level data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (2011) in a multivariate logistic model, we find that family planning and use of antenatal care are associated with higher wealth, higher education and being employed. Skilled attendance at birth is associated with higher wealth, higher education, and urban location. There is large variation between Addis Ababa (the capital) and other administrative regions. Concentration indices show substantial inequalities in the use of reproductive health services. Decomposition of the concentration indices indicates that difference in wealth is the most important explanatory factor for inequality in reproductive health coverage, but other factors, such as urban setting and previous health care use, are also associated with inequalities. When aiming for universal health coverage, this study shows that different socioeconomic factors as well as health-sector factors should be addressed. Our study re-confirms the importance of a broader approach to reproductive health, and in particular the importance of inequality in wealth and geography. Poor, non-educated, non-employed women in rural areas are
Sisay, Zufan; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Berhe, Nega; Belay, Gurja; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku; Njahira, Moses N; Wang, Q H; Saif, Linda J
Viral gastroenteritis is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, very limited studies have been done on the epidemiology of enteropathogenic viruses. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs) from acute gastroenteritis patients of all ages. Fecal samples were collected from diarrheic patients (n = 213) in five different health centers in Addis Ababa during June-September 2013. The samples were screened for caliciviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using universal and genogroup-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the sequences of the PCR products. Of the clinical samples, 25.3 % and 4.2 % were positive for NoV and SaV RNA, respectively. Among the norovirus positives, 22 were sequenced further, and diverse norovirus strains were identified: GI (n = 4), GII (n = 17) and GIV (n = 1). Most strains were GII (n = 17/22: 77.2 %), which were further divided into three different genotypes (GII.4, GII.12/GII.g recombinant-like and GII.17), with GII.17 being the dominant (7/17) strain detected. GI noroviruses, in particular GI.4 (n = 1), GI.5 (n = 2) and GI.8 (n = 1), were also detected and characterized. The GIV strain detected is the first from East Africa. The sapoviruses sequenced were also the first reported from Ethiopia. Collectively, this study showed the high burden and diversity of noroviruses and circulation of sapoviruses in diarrheic patients in Ethiopia. Continued surveillance to assess their association with diarrhea is needed to define their epidemiology, disease burden, and impact on public health. PMID:27193022
Hodes, R M; Kloos, H
Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and
Woldehanna, T.; Mekonnen, A.; Jones, N.
The paper uses data from a 2002 survey of 1000 rural and urban households with eight-year old children sampled from food insecure communities in Tigray, Amhara, Oromia, SNNP and Addis Ababa Regional States. Using a probit regression model, we investigated external factors associated with child enrol
The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of supplying electricity from a solar-wind hybrid system to a remotely located model community detached from the main electricity grid in Ethiopia. The wind energy potential of four typical locations has been assessed in a previous article. The solar potential has also been investigated and the results are presented in detail in an accompanying article awaiting publication. For one of the sites, Addis Ababa, the results of the investigation are given here in detail. For the other sites, the results are given as sensitivity diagrams only. Based on the findings of the studies into energy potential, a feasibility study has been carried out on how to supply electricity to a model community of 200 families, which comprises 1000 people in total. The community is equipped with a community school and a health post. The electric load consists of both primary and deferrable types and comprises lighting, water pumps, radio receivers, and some clinical equipment. A software tool, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) is used for the analysis. The result of the analysis is a list of feasible power supply systems, sorted according to their net present cost. Furthermore, sensitivity diagrams, showing the influence of wind speeds, PV costs, and diesel prices on the optimum solutions are also provided. (author)
Full Text Available Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children <5 years of age globally. The indispensable role of community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia.Methods: A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance.Results: Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69% of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90
Full Text Available Demewoz Haile,1 Tesfaye Setegn,2 Sibhatu Biadgilign31Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia; 2Department of Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 3Independent Public Health Research Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Breastfeeding reduces major causes of infant mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, it is a major mode of vertical HIV transmission. In developing countries like Ethiopia, HIV positive mothers are advised to continue breastfeeding up to 12 months. But there is scarce literature regarding the mothers' adherence to continued breastfeeding recommendations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess HIV positive mothers' adherence to the infant feeding recommendations of the new World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for HIV-exposed infants aged ≥6 months. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in health institutions with antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother to child transmission facilities in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Health institutions were considered as clusters and cluster sampling technique was employed. A total of 184 HIV positive mothers with their infants registered at respective health institutions were recruited and assessed for their infant breastfeeding practices. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, median, and standard deviation were computed to describe the breastfeeding practices of HIV positive mothers. Result: Almost all (181 [98.4%] of the HIV-exposed infants were “ever breastfed”. Among those mothers who had ever breastfed, 158 (87.3% initiated breastfeeding within an hour of delivery and 157 (85.8% had fed their babies colostrum while 31 (16.8% gave prelacteal food to their infants. The prevalence of continued breastfeeding at 1 year was (54.5% (46.9% for urban mothers and 75% for rural
The study area is located in the northern part of Ethiopia, Horn of Africa. It is Bounded by NW Ethiopian plateau in the west and Afar rift to the east. The study area is intermountain with volcanic rock and the graben is covered with thick sediments. The average elevation for the highland is 2200 m a.s.l, where as average elevation for the central graben and eastern highland is 1600m a.s.l. Bimodal rainfall pattern is observed in the study area. The western highland is classified as humid and the central graben is semiarid climatic condition based on UNESCO, 1979. Primary data collected during the field work includes Rainfall samples, Lake Sample, Deep well samples, Hand dug well samples, and others. Systematic sampling of water for Isotopic analysis. Secondary Isotopic data is adopted from previous study Mamo, 2007. All samples were analysed by Liquid Water Isotope analyser for oxygen-18 and deuterium in the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of Addis Ababa University.
Full Text Available Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are among the widely used drugs and are often used by pregnant women. However, they can have significant teratogenic effects. The aim of the study was to investigate pregnant women′s knowledge about NSAIDs use during pregnancy and their perception and consumption pattern. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross sectional study on women waiting for a consultation in the selected maternity hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The pregnant women were selected randomly and then interviewed by using standardized questionnaires. Result : A total of 224 pregnant women were involved in the study. Out of those, 203 (90.6% of them have taken NSAIDs since the beginning of their pregnancy. About 201 (89.7%, 198 (88.4% and 189 (84.4% of the pregnant women considered that ibuprofen, diclofenac and aspirin are not NSAIDs respectively. Regarding analgesic effect of NSAIDs, 97 (43.3% of the pregnant women believed that NSAIDs are effective for treating pain. Acetaminophen was considered as the most effective treatment for pain by 84 (37.50% of the patients. Conclusion: Acetaminophen is the most common analgesic that was taken by most pregnant women. The knowledge of pregnant women about NSAIDs is poor.
G. Mengistu Tsidu
Full Text Available Water vapour is one of the most important green house gases. Long-term changes in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere need to be monitored not only for its direct role as a green house gas but also because of its role in amplifying other feedbacks in general circulation models. In recent decades, monitoring of water vapour on regular and continuous basis is becoming possible as a result of increase in the number of deployed Global Positioning Satellite (GPS ground-based receivers at a faster pace. However, Horn of Africa region remains a data void region in this regard until recently when some GPS ground-receiver stations have been deployed to monitor tectonic movements in the Great Rift Valley. This study seizes this opportunity and the installation of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR at Addis Ababa to assess the quality and comparability of Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV from GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and ERA-Interim over Ethiopia. The PWVs from the three instruments and reanalysis show good correlation in the range from 0.83 to 0.92. The radiosonde PWV shows dry bias with respect to other observations and reanalysis. ERA-Interim PWV shows wet bias with respect to all while GPS PWV exhibits wet bias with respect to FTIR. The intercomparison between GPS and ERA-Interim is extended to seven other GPS stations in the country. Despite the sensitivity of GPS PWV to uncertainty in surface pressure in general, observed surface pressure is used only at four GPS stations. The gain obtained from using observed surface pressure in terms of reducing bias and strengthening correlation is significant but shows some variations among the GPS sites. In contrast to comparison at Addis Ababa, the comparison between GPS and ERA-Interim PWVs over seven other GPS stations shows difference in the magnitude and sign of bias of ERA-Interim with respect to GPS PWV from station to station. This variation is also visible across different seasons. The
Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.
Water vapour is one of the most important green house gases. Long-term changes in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere need to be monitored not only for its direct role as a green house gas but also because of its role in amplifying other feedbacks in general circulation models. In recent decades, monitoring of water vapour on regular and continuous basis is becoming possible as a result of increase in the number of deployed Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) ground-based receivers at a faster pace. However, Horn of Africa region remains a data void region in this regard until recently when some GPS ground-receiver stations have been deployed to monitor tectonic movements in the Great Rift Valley. This study seizes this opportunity and the installation of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) at Addis Ababa to assess the quality and comparability of Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV) from GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and ERA-Interim over Ethiopia. The PWVs from the three instruments and reanalysis show good correlation in the range from 0.83 to 0.92. The radiosonde PWV shows dry bias with respect to other observations and reanalysis. ERA-Interim PWV shows wet bias with respect to all while GPS PWV exhibits wet bias with respect to FTIR. The intercomparison between GPS and ERA-Interim is extended to seven other GPS stations in the country. Despite the sensitivity of GPS PWV to uncertainty in surface pressure in general, observed surface pressure is used only at four GPS stations. The gain obtained from using observed surface pressure in terms of reducing bias and strengthening correlation is significant but shows some variations among the GPS sites. In contrast to comparison at Addis Ababa, the comparison between GPS and ERA-Interim PWVs over seven other GPS stations shows difference in the magnitude and sign of bias of ERA-Interim with respect to GPS PWV from station to station. This variation is also visible across different seasons. The main cause of the
Terje S. Skjerdal
Full Text Available Journalism programmes across the African continent have different attitudes to the issue of universal vs.
local values in journalism. This article discusses the issue in light of a post-graduate journalism
programme that opened at Addis Ababa University in 2004. In its 5-year implementation phase, the
programme engaged educators from Europe and North America in addition to local instructors. Thus, one
could expect a potential conflict between Western and Ethiopian approaches to journalism. However, on
the basis of experiences with the Addis Ababa programme, the present study questions the assumed
dichotomy between Western and Ethiopian (or African journalism discourses. Tensions did indeed come
to the fore when the programme was planned and implemented, but they were defined by determinants
such as professional background and personal preferences of the instructors involved rather than by
geographical and cultural origin.
Full Text Available Tensae Tadesse Mekonnen,1 Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes,2 Tegbar Yigzaw3 1Department of Midwifery, Tseda Health Science College, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, 3Jhpiego-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Women with diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of pregnancy complications, including those from surgical delivery and their offspring are at risk for congenital anomalies. Thus, diabetic and hypertensive women of reproductive age are advised to use valid contraceptive methods for reducing unwanted pregnancy and its complications. However, contraceptive use among these segments of the population had not been previously assessed in Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess contraceptive use and associated factors among diabetic and hypertensive women of reproductive age on chronic follow-up care at University of Gondar and Felege Hiwot Hospitals.Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2012 among diabetic and hypertensive women on follow-up at the chronic illness care center. The sample size calculated was 403. Structured and pretested questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were collected using interview supplemented by chart review. The data were entered using EPI info Version 2000 and analyzed using SPSS Version 16. Frequencies, proportion, and summary statistics were used to describe the study population in relation to relevant variables. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were run to see the association of each independent variable with contraceptive practice.Results: A total of 392 married women on chronic follow-up care were interviewed making the response rate of 93.3%. The contraceptive prevalence rate was found to be 53.8%. Factors such as age 25–34 years (adjusted odds ratio, AOR [95% confidence interval, CI] =3.60 [1.05–12.36], (AOR [95% CI] =2.29 [1.15–4.53], having middle
Skjerdal, Terje S
Journalism programmes across the African continent have different attitudes to the issue of universal vs.
local values in journalism. This article discusses the issue in light of a post-graduate journalism
programme that opened at Addis Ababa University in 2004. In its 5-year implementation phase, the
programme engaged educators from Europe and North America in addition to local instructors. Thus, one
could expect a potential conflict between Wester...
Analysis of the influence of tectonics on the evolution valley network based on the SRTM DEM and the relationship of automatically extracted lineaments and the tectonic faults, Jemma River basin, Ethiopia
visualization in GIS identifies a larger number of shorter lineaments than lineaments by visual interpretation. Key words: valley network, lineaments, faults, azimuth, Jemma River basin, Ethiopian Highlands GANI, N., D., ABDELSALAM, M., G., GERA, S., GANI, M., R. (2009): Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Blue Nile Basin, Northweastern Ethiopian Plateau. Geologic Journal, 44, s. 30-56. KAZMIN, V. (1975): Geological Map of Ethiopia. Geological Survey of Ethiopia, Adrie Ababa, Ethiopia. MANGESHA, T., CHERNET, T., HARO, W. (1996): Geological Map Of Ethiopia (1: 250,000). Geological Survey of Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PIK, R., MARTY, B., CARIGNAN, J., LAVÉ, J. (2003): Stability of the Upper Nile drainage network (Ethiopia) deduces from (U/Th)/He thermochronometry: implications for uplift and erosion of the Afar plume dome. and Planetary Science Letters, 215, s. 73 - 88.
Abegaz, Teferi; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Assrat, Abebe; Assefa, Abebayehu
The severity of injury from vehicle crash is a result of a complex interaction of factors related to drivers' behavior, vehicle characteristics, road geometric and environmental conditions. Knowing to what extent each factor contributes to the severity of an injury is very important. The objective of the study was to assess factors that contribute to crash injury severity in Ethiopia. Data was collected from June 2012 to July 2013 on one of the main and busiest highway of Ethiopia, which extends from the capital Addis Ababa to Hawassa. During the study period a total of 819 road crashes was recorded and investigated by trained crash detectors. A generalized ordered logit/partial proportional odds model was used to examine factors that might influence the severity of crash injury. Model estimation result suggested that, alcohol use (Coef.=0.5565; p-value=0.017), falling asleep while driving (Coef.=1.3102; p-value=0.000), driving at night time in the absence of street light (Coef.=0.3920; p-value=0.033), rainfall (Coef.=0.9164; p-value=0.000) and being a minibus or vans (Coef.=0.5065; p-value=0.013) were found to be increased crash injury severity. On the other hand, speeding was identified to have varying coefficients for different injury levels, its highest effects on sever and fatal crashes. In this study risky driving behaviors (speeding, alcohol use and sleep/fatigue) were a powerful predictor of crash injury severity. Therefore, better driver licensing and road safety awareness campaign complimented with strict police enforcement can play a pivotal role to improve road safety. Further effort needed as well to monitor speed control strategies like; using the radar control and physical speed restraint measures (i.e., rumble strips). PMID:24866353
Full Text Available Aklilu Habte Watiro,1 Worku Awoke,2 1Médecins Sans Frontières OCA (MSF Holland Ethiopia Mission, Addis Ababa, 2Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Malaria remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Consequently, Ethiopia designed the 2011–2015, Malaria Prevention and Control Strategic Plan to fight the vector. It was discovered that most of the studies conducted on the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs were not in line with the strategic plan of the country. This study aimed to assess ITN ownership and utilization, and includes barriers related to its use among the target-area population at household (HH level. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional design was employed in Itang for this study. Data were collected by trained nurses through face-to-face interview and observation. A total of 845 participants were selected through multistage sampling, and the size was determined by using a single-population proportion formula. EPI Info and SPSS was used for analysis, and all necessary statistical association was computed in order to explain the outcome variable through explanatory variables of this study. Results: Among 845 HHs interviewed, 81.7% (690 had at least one ITN, while 52.3% (361 had used the ITN the night preceding the data-collection day. HH awareness of malaria prevention, number of ITNs, family size, number of family members sharing sleeping area/beds, sleeping patterns of adolescents, HH-head age, and inconvenience of using ITNs were found to be barriers to the use of ITNs in this study. Conclusion and recommendation: The study concluded that very few HHs owned ITNs and there was very low usage of ITNs. In recommendation, the regional health bureau and district health office should consider bigger nets that can accommodate family members who share the same sleeping area/bed in the area. Keywords: consistent
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM and region of difference (RD deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7 and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67. In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello
Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was
Moges, Tamirat; Gedlu, Etsegenet; Isaakidis, Petros; Kumar, Ajay; Den, Rafael Van; Khogali, Mohammed; Mekasha, Amha; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund
Introduction Infective endocarditis is an infection of the endocardial lining of the heart mainly associated with congenital and rheumatic heart disease. Although it is a rare disease in children, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality; death due to infective endocarditis has been reported to be as high as 26% in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods This was a retrospective review of routinely collected data from patient records. Results A total of 40 children (71% female) with 41 episodes...
In most societies, heterosexuality is the dominant way of expressing sexuality and masculinity and those men outside of it are stigmatised and discriminated against. This paper explores the sexual lives of men who have sex with men and the personal and social conflicts that arise as they attempt to both live up to societal expectations and manage their sexual desires. It critically explores how an overriding heteronormativity structures and influences men's perception and understanding of sexuality and masculinity/femininity. The paper draws on data from 24 in-depth/life history interviews, one focus group discussion and ethnographic observation conducted between July 2006 and June 2007. The study reveals that powerful and dominating beliefs about heteronormativity and masculinity result in men who have sex with men dealing with a number of issues of personal conflict and contradiction resulting in uncertainty, resentment, ambivalence, worry and discomfort. Heteronormativity or the expectations of parents, community and society at large is far more influential on the sexuality of men who have sex with men than their own individual desires and needs. The paper concludes that there is little room for individuality for Ethiopian men who have sex with men with their sexual bodies 'belonging' to parents, families and to society at large. PMID:21246428
Gediwon Negash; Yonathan Kebede; Segewkal Hawaze
Background: The emergency unit is a high risk environment for inappropriate medication use due to stressors and time sensitive nature of the service. Objective: To assess incidence and type of Medication Errors in Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on the interventions by prescribing physicians and attending nurses for patients seen at the emergency unit of Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital from May 2-20, 2011. Data ...
Conclusion: Incidence and types of medication errors committed in Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital Adult Emergency Unit were substantiated; moreover, necessary information on factors within the healthcare delivery system that predispose healthcare professionals to commit errors have been pointed, which should be addressed by healthcare professionals through multidisciplinary efforts and involvement of decision makers at national level.
Full Text Available Street children worldwide do not have the information, skills, health services, and support they need to go through sexual development during adolescence. This study is undertaken to systematically investigate the fit between street children’s sexual and reproductive health needs and the existing services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 street children and four service providers. About 72.5% of the respondents were sexually active during data collection and 84.3% of males and 85.7% of females tended to have multiple sexual partners. More than two-thirds (67.3% of the participants had used at least one type of substance. History of substance use (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.42–4.56 and being on the street for the first one to three years (OR = 5.9; 95% CI = 1.41–7.22 increased the likelihood of having sexual activity. More than half (64.9% of the street children did not attend any kind of sexual or reproductive health education programs. Lack of information on available services (26.5% was the biggest barrier for utilization of local sexual and reproductive health services. From the individual interview with coordinator, the financial and networking problems were hindering the service delivery for street children. In conclusion, street children who are special high risk group have not been targeted and hence continue to remain vulnerable and lacking in sexual and reproductive health services and sexual health services are poorly advertised and delivered to them.
Demelash Habtamu; Addisie Adamu
Street children worldwide do not have the information, skills, health services, and support they need to go through sexual development during adolescence. This study is undertaken to systematically investigate the fit between street children's sexual and reproductive health needs and the existing services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 street children and four service providers. About 72.5% of the respondents were sexually active during data collection and 84.3% of males and...
Mungube, E O; Tenhagen, B A; Regassa, F; Kyule, M N; Shiferaw, Y; Kassa, T; Baumann, M P O
The objective of the study was to estimate the losses associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM) in crossbred dairy cows in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. A split udder investigation was performed with 30 cows to determine production losses associated with SCM. Each quarter of the study cows was examined using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and quarter milk production was measured over a period of 8 days. Production losses were determined for different CMT scores by comparing production of quarters with CMT score 0 to quarters with CMT scores trace, 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using data from a recently published study, economic losses were determined for different farm sizes and production subsystems by multiplying the prevalence of the respective CMT scores with the production losses associated with these CMT scores. Mean quarter milk production was 0.82 +/- 0.40 kg per milking in the split udder trial. Milk production was reduced by 1.2%, 6.3%, and 33% in quarters with CMT scores 1+, 2+, and 3+, respectively. Using data from the published study, a quarter with SCM lost an average of 17.2% of its milk production. Production losses associated with SCM were estimated at 5.6% for the Addis Ababa Milk Shed. Stratified losses were highest (9.3%) in urban dairy farms (UDF) and small-scale farms (6.3%). The estimates of the financial losses ranged from US dollars 29.1 in dairy herds in secondary towns (DHIST) to US dollars 66.6 in UDF. A total loss of US dollars 38 was estimated for each cow per lactation. Reducing mastitis in UDF (highest prevalence) to the level of DHIST (lowest prevalence) could reduce the loss by US dollars 35. As this does not include costs associated with treatment or culling of diseased cows, this figure probably underestimates the possible benefits of control measures. PMID:16248222
The application of Nuclear Techniques in Ethiopia started in the early sixties in the medical field and through time has gradually expanded to other areas. Following this growth the practice of Occupational Radiation Protection in Ethiopia dates back over 15 years. Radiation Protection service was initiated as a result of the introduction of irradiation techniques for biological researches at the University of Addis Ababa. The service was extended to the users of ionizing radiation mostly for workers in x-ray departments of hospitals in the country with out any regulatory mandate and legal infrastructure. Radiation Protection Legislation 79/1993 was promulgated in December 1993, which has established an Autonomous Regulatory Authority to control and supervise the introduction and conduct of any practice involving ionizing radiation and inter-alia to ensure Occupational Radiation Protection. Since 1998 the National Radiation Protection Authority has made a remarkable progress in terms of building a National Radiation Protection Infrastructure and is in a full swing transformation process towards a dynamic credible and competent regulatory Authority. The regulatory activities are designed in line with the main regulatory instruments, Notification, Authorization, Inspection and Enforcement. NRPA has a national inventory system and fully implemented the Regulatory Authority Information System (RAIS), which provides a systemic integration and will be instrumental to enhance the effectiveness of the regulatory system. A substantial progress has been made in the development and provision of support and technical services in the areas of Metrology and Calibration Services, Instrument maintenance service, Individual Monitoring of Personnel, Environmental and Food Monitoring and Interim Storage Facility for spent sources. Development of a national system for emergency preparedness and response is the top agenda of NRPA. Towards ensuring the occupational Radiation Protection
Krömer, Pavel; Snasel, Vaclav
This volume contains accepted papers presented at AECIA2014, the First International Afro-European Conference for Industrial Advancement. The aim of AECIA was to bring together the foremost experts as well as excellent young researchers from Africa, Europe, and the rest of the world to disseminate latest results from various fields of engineering, information, and communication technologies. The first edition of AECIA was organized jointly by Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa University, and VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic and took place in Ethiopia's capital, Addis Ababa.
Mauerhofer, Lukas; Reynard, Emmanuel; Asrat, Asfawossen; Hurni, Hans; Wildlife Conservation Authority, Ethiopian
vulnerable to human encroachment. The educational interest of most sites is high but interpretation facilities are absent. With some minor adjustments, the application of the inventory method (Reynard et al., 2015) to the SMNP has proven successful and can be recommended for application to other areas in developing countries of similar well-documented geomorphology. However, the method could prove too complex for areas where basic knowledge on geomorphology is poor, as is often the case in developing countries. Based on previous studies (in particular Asrat et al. 2012) and results of the current inventory, a road map for SMNP geomorphosite management was proposed. Eight strategic objectives and working tasks were considered, which include the development of geotourism products such as geotourist maps, geo-trails and guidebooks, geo-trekking, geo-sightseeing tours, and interpretive panels as well as the training of geo-guides and capacity building of the park staff and specific management of the Lemalemo site, one of the most accessible geosites in the park. The overall goal is to raise awareness on the rich geomorphological heritage through geotourism development and empowerment of locals and thus to contribute to long-term protection of the geomorphosites. In conclusion the study revealed important potential for sustainable rural development in the Simen. Applied research will be necessary on how exactly the promotion products should be developed. References Asrat, A., Demissie, M., Mogessie, A. (2008). Geotourism in Ethiopia: archaelogical and ancient cities, religious and cultural centres: Yeha, Axum, Wukro, and Lalibela. Addis Ababa: Shama Books. Asrat, A., Demissie, M., Mogessie, A. (2012). Geoheritage conservation in Ethiopia: the case of the Simien Mountains. Quaestiones Geographicae, 31(1), 7-23. doi:10.2478/v10117-012-0001-0. Reynard E., Perret A., Bussard J., Grangier L., Martin S. (2015). Integrated approach for the inventory and management of geomorphological
Effectiveness and Safety of Low Dose Vaginal Misoprostol Compared to Trans Cervical Foley Catheter for Cervical Ripening and Induction of Labor in Post Term Pregnant Women Admitted to Gandi Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa and Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Full Text Available Background: Post term pregnancy is one of the common indications of induction of labor in contemporary obstetric practice. However, the majority of women with post term pregnancy have unfavorable cervices. Therefore, it is mandatory to achieve cervical ripening in this group of women before proceeding to labor induction. These cervical ripening methods often result in onset of labor which makes them also labor inducing agents. There is paucity of studies comparing the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned methods. Thus, this study compared the effectiveness and safety of low dose vaginal misoprostol with trans cervical Foley catheter for cervical ripening and induction of labor in post term pregnant women. Method: The study was conducted from January to December 2014 at Gandi Memorial Hospital and Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital. Quasi-experimental study design was employed and 111 post term pregnant women were enrolled to each group of cervical ripening methods. Foley catheter, number 18 gauge, was inserted trans cervically and inflated with 50 ml of normal saline in women of group I at FHRH. Women in group II received 25 μg of misoprostol vaginally every 6 hrs for a maximum of 2 doses at GMH. Oxytocin infusion began when an indication comes to picture. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Baseline obstetric variables such as gestational age and parity were not statistically different in both groups. Maternal age was found to be statistically significant (28.40 vs. 26.02 yrs; P=0.000. Change in Bishop score is marginally significant in favour of the Foley catheter group even after controlling for maternal age (5.67 vs. 5.33; P=0.040. Vaginal delivery within 24 hours and ripening to delivery intervals were not statistically different in both groups. Rate of vaginal delivery was found to be marginally significant being higher in the Foley catheter group (84.7% vs. 72.2%; P=0.013. When stratified for parity, the significance was in multiparous women (93.4% vs. 78.3%; P=0.012. Need for oxytocin was significantly higher in the Foley catheter group (75.7% vs. 43.2%; P<0.0001. Indications for caesarean section were NRFHRP and failed induction, no statistical difference was seen in both groups. Uterine tachysystole with FHR abnormality (0 vs. 12.6%; P<0.001 and abnormal FHR is significantly higher in the Misoprostol group (6.3% vs. 26.1%; P<0.0001. More importantly 3 cases of uterine rupture with 2 intrapartal fetal loss were encountered in the misoprostol group and all were multiparous women. Both groups were not statistically different for rates of meconium stained amniotic fluid, neonatal birthweight, low APGAR scores and NICU admissions. Furthermore 3 cases and 1 case of ENND occurred in the Misoprostol and Foley catheter group respectively. There were no cases of chorioamnionitis, endomyometritis, uterine atony and maternal death in both groups. Recommendation: Foley catheter is relatively better in ripening the cervix with more need for oxytocin compared to misoprostol in post term pregnancy. Safety issues need to be taken into account while deciding to use misoprostol as a cervical ripening agent especially for multiparous post term pregnant women. Foley catheter with 50 ml volume inflation is used for multiparous post term pregnant women. Either method can be used in nulliparous ones based on individual clinical judgement. Randomized controlled trial with larger sample size needs to be conducted in the future.
Negeri KG; Halemariam D
Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this stud...
Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe
The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common health problem among pregnant women. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent serious life threatening condition and morbidity due to urinary tract infection that can occur in pregnant women. Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6 % and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bacterial profile that causes urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from March 22 to April 30, 2011. Mid stream urine samples were collected and inoculated into Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient medium (CLED. Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of 105/ml of urine or more of pure isolates were regarded as significant bacteriuria for infection. Colony from CLED was sub cultured onto MacConkey agar and blood agar plates. Identification was done using cultural characteristics and a series of biochemical tests. A standard method of agar disc diffusion susceptibility testing method was used to determine susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Results The overall prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 10.4 %. The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli 47.5 % followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci 22.5 %, Staphylococcus aureus 10 %, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 10 %. Gram negative isolates were resulted low susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (51.9 % and tetracycline (40.7 % whereas Gram positive showed susceptibility to ceftriaxon (84.6 % and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (92.3 %. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to two or more drugs was observed in 95 % of the isolates. Conclusion
Shiferaw, Solomon; Spigt, Mark; Tekie, Michael; Abdullah, Muna; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Dinant, Geert-Jan
Background Although there are studies showing that mobile phone solutions can improve health service delivery outcomes in the developed world, there is little empirical evidence that demonstrates the impact of mHealth interventions on key maternal health outcomes in low income settings. Methods A non-randomized controlled study was conducted in the Amhara region, Ethiopia in 10 health facilities (5 intervention, 5 control) together serving around 250,000 people. Health workers in the intervention group received an android phone (3 phones per facility) loaded with an application that sends reminders for scheduled visits during antenatal care (ANC), delivery and postnatal care (PNC), and educational messages on dangers signs and common complaints during pregnancy. The intervention was developed at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. Primary outcomes were the percentage of women who had at least 4 ANC visits, institutional delivery and PNC visits at the health center after 12 months of implementation of the intervention. Findings Overall 933 and 1037 women were included in the cross-sectional surveys at baseline and at follow-up respectively. In addition, the medical records of 1224 women who had at least one antenatal care visit were followed in the longitudinal study. Women who had their ANC visit in the intervention health centers were significantly more likely to deliver their baby in the same health center compared to the control group (43.1% versus 28.4%; Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.98 (95%CI 1.53–2.55)). A significantly higher percentage of women who had ANC in the intervention group had PNC in the same health center compared to the control health centers (41.2% versus 21.1%: AOR: 2.77 (95%CI 2.12–3.61)). Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that a locally customized mHealth application during ANC can significantly improve delivery and postnatal care service utilization possibly through positively influencing the behavior of health workers and their
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604... allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI funds to participating jurisdictions in amounts determined by the formula described in this section. (b) Allocation to states that are...
Tiruneh, Yordanos M.; Galárraga, Omar; Genberg, Becky; Wilson, Ira B.
Background Poor retention in HIV care challenges the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study assessed how well patients stay in care and explored factors associated with retention in the context of an initial ART rollout in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a mixed-methods study at a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cohort of 385 patients was followed for a median of 4.6 years from ART initiation to lost-to-follow-up (LTFU—missing appointments for more than three months after last scheduled visit or administrative censoring). We used Kaplan-Meier plots to describe LTFU over time and Cox-regression models to identify factors associated with being LTFU. We held six focus group discussions, each with 6–11 patients enrolled in care; we analyzed data inductively informed by grounded theory. Results Patients in the cohort were predominantly female (64%) and the median age was 34 years. Thirty percent were LTFU by study’s end; the median time to LTFU was 1,675 days. Higher risk of LTFU was associated with baseline CD4 counts 200 cells/μL (HR = 1.62; 95% CI:1.03–2.55; and HR = 2.06; 95% CI:1.15–3.70, respectively), compared with patients with baseline CD4 counts of 100–200 cells/μL. Bedridden participants at ART initiation (HR = 2.05; 95% CIs [1.11–3.80]) and those with no or only primary education (HR = 1.50; 95% CIs [1.00–2.24]) were more likely to be LTFU. Our qualitative data revealed that fear of stigma, care dissatisfaction, use of holy water, and economic constraints discouraged retention in care. Social support and restored health and functional ability motivated retention. Conclusion Complex socio-cultural, economic, and health-system factors inhibit optimum patient retention. Better tracking, enhanced social support, and regular adherence counseling addressing stigma and alternative healing options are needed. Intervention strategies aimed at changing clinic routines and improving patient–provider communication
This book takes an informal and in-depth look at the five steps of the ADDIE model - Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation - as used in library training programmes. With hints and tips and practical advice from other trainers, the aims of the book are to (1) make the training of library patrons a simple task and (2) to show library staff that training can be rewarding and extremely satisfying. Anyone who has had to design a library training programme will know that it can be quite a daunting task without guidelines, but when it comes to the various learning theories and
Urbaniak, M.; Zerihun Negussie, Y.; Zalewski, M.
The transfer of dioxins along river continuum is a well know process which indicated permanent increase of their content in the river sediments. Despite this, there is still lack of empirical data highlighting the role of lakes and reservoirs in dioxins transfer along river continuum. Using the ecohydrology as a framework for water problem solving, the reduction of dioxins bioaccumulation in aquatic food chain should be based on two steps: 1) a reduction of dioxins emission to the water ecosystems and 2) an understanding of the role that the factors determining dioxins accumulation, transportation and transformation in the river and lake/reservoir system play for implementation of ecohydrological biotechnologies and system solutions. From limnological perspective lakes and reservoirs are considered as traps for organic and mineral sediments and bounded with them nutrients and other polluting substances. As effect of long term ecological succession the amount of sedimented matter, nutrients and loads and concentrations of pollutants usually increases. Such situation was observed in Asella lake, located in the Arsi zone of the Oromia region about 175 kilometers from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. As the results of above processes the high concentration of dioxin concentrations in the sediments was observed, inducing decline in the water resources use. During this study the spatial pattern of dioxins concentration and toxicity (measured as WHO TEQ concentration) in the sediments of Asella river and lake taken before (in 2009) and after (in 2010) construction of Sequentional BioFiltering System (SBFS) were compared. The determination of dioxin concentrations were followed according to US EPA 1613 and 1668 Methods. Among the samples collected in the 2009 year, the contamination of lake sediments amounted for 127.65 ng kg-1 dry weight (d.w.), whereas concentration of dioxins in samples taken at the lake outflow decreased to the value of 26.65 ng kg-1 d.w. The WHO
Background Though child sexual abuse is a universal phenomenon, only reported cases of the incidence are common source of information to get insight on how to understand the problem. Besides, investigating complaints presented by victims themselves would be a stepping stone for designing prevention and rehabilitation programs. The objective of this study was to identify the nature of sexual incidence and experience victims face. Methods The research was conducted by collecting reported child ...
Foster, Andrea L.
Learning is valuable, but in Africa it is more than that: It is prohibitively expensive. In Ethiopia, where the per-capita income is about $100 a year, a single textbook at Addis Ababa University can cost $50. To get more textbooks to students in developing nations, two people are leading an ambitious project to produce and freely distribute 1,000…
Habteyes Hailu Tola
Full Text Available Background: Psychological distress is the major comorbidity among tuberculosis (TB patients. However, its magnitude, associated factors, and effect on treatment outcome have not been adequately studied in low-income countries. Objective: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological distress and its effect on treatment outcome among TB patients on treatment. Design: A follow-up study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May to December 2014. Patients (N=330 diagnosed with all types of TB who had been on treatment for 1–2 months were enrolled consecutively from 15 randomly selected health centers and one TB specialized hospital. Data on sociodemographic variables and economic status were collected using a structured questionnaire. The presence of psychological distress was assessed at baseline (within 1–2 months after treatment initiation and end point (6 months after treatment initiation using the 10-item Kessler (K-10 scale. Alcohol use and tobacco smoking history were assessed using WHO Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Australian Smoking Assessment Checklist, respectively. The current WHO TB treatment outcome definition was used to differentiate the end result of each patient at completion of the treatment. Results: The overall psychological distress was 67.6% at 1–2 months and 48.5% at 6 months after treatment initiation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that past TB treatment history [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 3.76; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.67–8.45], being on anti-TB and anti-HIV treatments (AOR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.83–15.65, being unmarried (AOR: 4.29; 95% CI: 2.45–7.53, having alcohol use disorder (AOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.25–6.99, and having low economic status (AOR: 4.41; 95% CI: 2.44–7.97 were significantly associated with psychological distress at baseline. However, at 6 months after treatment initiation, only being a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patient (AOR: 3
Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tesfaye, Weghata; Anagaw, Belay; Tessema, Belay; Debebe, Tewodrose; Anagaw, Berhanu; Mulu, Andargachew; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most serious public health challenges in Ethiopia. Indeed, Ethiopia ranks 7th among 22 countries with a high burden of TB worldwide. Both pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) are issues of concern. Ethiopia ranks 3rd in terms of the number of EPTB patients worldwide, with TB lymphadenitis (TBL) being the most common. According to the World Health Organization's Global TB Report 2009, the estimated number of TB patients in Ethiopia was 314,267 in 2007, with an estimated incidence rate of 378 patients per 100,000 population. Furthermore, 36% patients suffered from EPTB, with TBL accounting for 80% of these patients. In Ethiopia, pathological services, culture, and drug susceptibility testing for mycobacterium species are not available as routine tests, not even for cases with suspected infection by drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in Ethiopia is currently unsatisfactory. Against this background, a high index of clinical doubt and timely use of diagnostic methods, prompt confirmation of diagnosis, and early initiation of specific anti-TB treatment are the key factors for the successful management of MDR-TB and TBL in Ethiopia. PMID:23883834
Ahmed, Mohamed A. M.; Ehui, Simeon; Yemesrach, Assefa
Ethiopia holds large potential for dairy development due to its large livestock population, the favorable climate for improved, high-yielding animal breeds, and the relatively disease-free environment for livestock. Given the considerable potential for smallholder income and employment generation from high-value dairy products, development of the dairy sector in Ethiopia can contribute significantly to poverty alleviation and nutrition in the country. Like other sectors of the economy, the da...
This article analyzes community health workers' (CHW) capacities for empathic service within an AIDS treatment program in Addis Ababa. I show how CHWs' capacities to build relationships with stigmatized people, reconcile family disputes, and confront death draw on a constellation of values, desires, and emotions encouraged by CHWs' families and religious teachings. I then examine the ways in which the capacities of CHWs were valued by the institutions that deployed them. NGO and government officials recognized that empathic care was crucial to both saving and improving the quality of people's lives. These institutional actors also defended a policy of not financially remunerating CHWs, partly by constructing their capacities as so valuable that they become "priceless" and therefore only remunerable with immaterial satisfaction. Positive change within CHW programs requires ethnographic analysis of how CHWs exercise capacities for empathic care as well as consideration of how global health institutions value these capacities. PMID:25257547
Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.
Water vapour is one of the most important greenhouse gases. Long-term changes in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere need to be monitored not only for its direct role as a greenhouse gas but also because of its role in amplifying other feedbacks such as clouds and albedo. In recent decades, monitoring of water vapour on a regular and continuous basis has become possible as a result of the steady increase in the number of deployed global positioning satellite (GPS) ground-based receivers. However, the Horn of Africa remained a data-void region in this regard until recently, when some GPS ground-receiver stations were deployed to monitor tectonic movements in the Great Rift Valley. This study seizes this opportunity and the installation of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) at Addis Ababa to assess the quality and comparability of precipitable water vapour (PWV) from GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) over Ethiopia. The PWV from the three instruments and the reanalysis show good correlation, with correlation coefficients in the range from 0.83 to 0.92. On average, GPS shows the highest PWV followed by FTIR and radiosonde observations. ERA-Interim is higher than all measurements with a bias of 4.6 mm compared to GPS. The intercomparison between GPS and ERA-Interim was extended to seven other GPS stations in the country. Only four out of eight GPS stations included simultaneous surface pressure observations. Uncertainty in the model surface pressure of 1 hPa can cause up to 0.35 mm error in GPS PWV. The gain obtained from using observed surface pressure in terms of reducing bias and strengthening correlation is significant but shows some variations among the GPS sites. The comparison between GPS and ERA-Interim PWV over the seven other GPS stations shows differences in the magnitude and sign of bias of ERA-Interim with respect to GPS PWV from station to station. This feature is also prevalent in diurnal and seasonal
Sri Adelila Sari; Halimatun Sakdiah
This study aimed to develop a media mind mapping through ADDIE model in teaching the flooding material. The samples that used were students of class X-3 Madrasah Aliyah (MA) Darul Ulum totaling 30 students. This type of study was the Research and Development (R & D) by using ADDIE models. Data collected by using mind mapping sheets that students' work. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results of this study found that in developing mind mapping media through five stages, namely...
This study is published in advance of the major negotiations which will take place during 2015 on reforming concessional financing, most notably the Third International Conference on Financing for Development in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. While this conference aims to address the broader issues of financing, calculating concessionality and what should be considered official development assistance (ODA), by including within it the various financial instruments which boost development finance in a ...
Bashford, Tom; Reshamwalla, Sophie; McAuley, Jacqueline; Allen, Nikole H; McNatt, Zahirah; Gebremedhen, Yohannes D
Background The WHO Surgical Safety Checklist has a growing evidence base to support its role in improving perioperative safety, although its impact is likely to be directly related to the effectiveness of its implementation. There remains a paucity of documented experience from low-resource settings on Checklist implementation approaches. We report an implementation strategy in a public referral hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, based on consultation, local leadership, formal introduction, a...
Kassa, Sophia Chanyalew
This study is about the health seeking behavior of street children and the ways in which government health care system is responding to meeting their needs and rights in Addis Ababa,Ethiopia. More specifically it seeks to explore how health is perceived by street children, identify the major health problems/needs of street children, and examine the commitment of the government in addressing the rights of street children to health care provision, according to UNCRC (United Nations Convention o...
This report summarizes the proceedings from a workshop, the first in the region designed to foster a multi-sectoral approach to development energy services for poverty reduction, held at the Hilton Hotel in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, October 23-25, 2002. It was co-organized by the World Bank-UNDP sponsored Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the World Bank Africa Energy Un...
郭书法; 权继振; 汪田田
After introducing some domestic and overseas researches about the instructional design , this paper integrates ADDIE instructional model into EMP (English for Medical Purposes ) teaching and demonstrates the key elements and their re-lationship in medical students teaching procedure by conducting the case study of ADDIE model in EMP teaching .The results of EMP teaching with ADDIE instructional model are satisfying , the author also suggests that EMP teaching is special in ADDIE model because it is a language teaching process , all the elements in ADDIE model are dynamic and ADDIE instructional model is a generative, responsive and validating process .% 介绍了国内外关教学设计及其模型的相关研究,把ADDIE教学设计模型引入EMP(English for Medical Purposes)教学,旨在分析个变量之间的关系,优化课堂教学效果。通过ADDIE教学设计模型在EMP教学中的实践研究,探讨了EMP教学中ADDIE教学设计模型各要素的内涵和相互关系。研究发现ADDIE教学设计模型在EMP的教学卓有成效,同时指出EMP作为语言的特殊性,ADDIE教学设计环节的动态变化和ADDIE教学设计模型的生成性、回应性及验证性等内在特点。
This Report on Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) provides a review of the accounting and auditing practices and the institutions underpinning the accounting and auditing environment in the corporate sector in Ethiopia. The review drew on best international practices and makes policy recommendations aimed at improving the quality of financial reporting in the country. There are some...
This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development
Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter
smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant for...
The study outlines the development strategy Ethiopia will need to pursue to achieve a balanced regional progress, and indicates some policy areas for attention, as the strategy develops. It examines the recent constitutional structure, government spending, and fiscal imbalances, including the capacity constraints the country faces, and governance issues. In addition, the role of municipali...
Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major health problems in prisons.This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons.A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect.765 (4.9% TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67% and 20 (2.8% new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000. Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa.The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates.
World Bank Group
In 2000 Ethiopia had one of the highest poverty rates in the world, with 56 percent of the population living on less than United States (U.S.) $1.25 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day. Ethiopian households experienced a decade of remarkable progress in wellbeing since then and by the start of this decade less than 30 percent of the population was counted as poor. This poverty assessment d...
Pereznieto, Paola; Jones, Nicola
Ethiopia has one of the lowest primary school enrolment rates and one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world. These rates are significantly lower than those of other similarly low-income countries. There are concerns that education quality is falling due to insufficient spending to provide more teachers and textbooks and reform the curriculum. Other key problems include disparities between regions, between boys and girls, and between rural and urban areas. It remains uncertain whether E...
Józef Razowski; Pasquale Trematerra
Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis subincana sp. n., Megalota lygaria sp. n., Bubonoxena alatheta sp. n., Plutographa xanthala sp. n., Epi...
This document investigates prospects for the use of index based weather insurance in Ethiopia for commercial and semi-commercial farmers. The document first summarizes the impact of risk weather risk in particular on Ethiopian agriculture and the need to balance investments in weather risk mitigation and weather risk management. Because the focus of this document is on risk management in the face of potential weather shocks, this introduction is followed by a summary of the traditional risk...
Wang, Huihui; Tesfaye, Roman; Ramana, Gandham N V; Chekagn, Chala Tesfaye
As a low-income country, Ethiopia has made impressive progress in improving health outcomes. This report examines how Ethiopia’s Health Extension Program (HEP) has contributed to the country’s move toward Univeral Health Coverage (UHC), and to shed light on how other countries may learn from Ethiopia’s experiences of HEP when designing their own path to UHC. HEP is one of the government’s UHC strategies introduced in a context of limited resources and low coverage of essential health ser...
Full Text Available Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis subincana sp. n., Megalota lygaria sp. n., Bubonoxena alatheta sp. n., Plutographa xanthala sp. n., Epinotia anepenthes sp. n., Epinotia latiloba sp. n., Coccothera triorbis sp. n., Coccothera carolae sp. n., Multiquestia aequivoca sp. n., Coniostola separata sp. n., Cydia tytthaspis sp. n., Cydia dinshoi sp. n., Cydia lathetica sp. n., Grapholita insperata sp. n., Thaumatotibia spinai sp. n. Some faunistic data on the known taxa from this country are included. The material examined is too scarce to draw any zoogeographic conclusion but there are some species common to Ethiopia and the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique and Uganda or are very closely related with them. Two Acleris Hübner, 1825 described in this paper are closely allied with the Afghan species.
Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.
This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed system
A Sathiya Susuman
Full Text Available Ethiopia childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussells methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000. The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation.
Full text: Radioactive exploration dates back to 1955 and since then little progress has been made. Few pits and trenches in some places show radioactive anomalies.The Wadera radioactive anomaly occurs within the lower part of Wadera series, Southern Ethiopia. As observed from a trench the anomalous bed has a thickness of 0.9-1.2 m and is made of reddish-grey thin bedded sandstones.The presence of Xenotime in arkosic sandstone points to the sedimentary origin of mineralization. It was noticed that the sandstone in the lower part of Wadera series has at places a radioactivity 2-3 times higher than adjacent gneisses. The presence of a placer of such a type in the Wadera series is probably a clue for the existence of larger deposits in the area. In 2007 geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys were conducted to identify and delineate Uranium mineralization in three localities(Kuro, Kalido and Gueti) of Werri area, southern Ethiopia. Kaolinization, silicification, epidotization and chloritization are the main types of alteration associated with different units in the area. Uranium-bearing grains which are hosted in pegmatite veins and associated with magnetite/or ilmenite were observed in the three localities. Geochemical exploration accompanied by geological mapping and radiometric survey was done by employing heavy mineral concentrate, soil, chip and trench channel sampling. Radiometric readings of total count, U,Th and K were taken using GAD-6.Soil and trench geochemical samples of the localities analyzed by ICP-MS have shown 0.1 to 3.8 ppm and 3.9 to 147 ppm Uranium and 3.5 to 104.7 ppm and 3.9 to 147ppm Thorium respectively. Radiometric reading is higher in pegmatite veins that host Uranium-bearing minerals and some course grained pegmatoidal granite varieties. The areas recognized for Uranium associations need further investigations using state-of-the-art to discover economic deposits for development and utilization of the resource. (author)
Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is...... essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in...
Sri Adelila Sari
Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a media mind mapping through ADDIE model in teaching the flooding material. The samples that used were students of class X-3 Madrasah Aliyah (MA Darul Ulum totaling 30 students. This type of study was the Research and Development (R & D by using ADDIE models. Data collected by using mind mapping sheets that students' work. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results of this study found that in developing mind mapping media through five stages, namely: analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. The study concluded that the media mind mapping that have been developed and validated could be a viable and effective media used in the learning process.
This is a sector report on demographics in Ethiopia. The first part of this study puts the population issue in Ethiopia in perspective. Chapter 1 updates Ethiopia's demographic profile, looking in particular at the size of its population, its age structure, the speed at which it grows and its distribution across space. Chapter 2 explores the relationships between population growth, economi...
Casale, Carolyn Frances
Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…
Weldegebriel, Zerihun Berhane; Prowse, Martin
Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change due to its limited development and dependence on agriculture. Social protection schemes like the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing households’ risk management. This article examines the...
Formal financial institutions in Ethiopia have traditionally focused on the accessible urban towns leaving rural areas, where the majority of the population resides, without access to financial services. Recognizing this problem, a number of development agencies such as Redd Barna and World Vision started to provide access to financial services to the poor in rural areas in the 1980s. They...
The DeMPA is a methodology for assessing public debt management performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of government debt management functions. The DeMPA tool presents debt performance indicators along with a scoring methodology. This report pertains to a debt management performance assessment of Ethiopia in 2013, and provides an overview of strengths...
Full Text Available After thorough planning, an Ethiopian Flora Project has recently been initiated, financed by the Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission from a Swedish grant. The planning was effected by a working group including representatives of the Biology Department at Addis Ababa University and the Institute of Systematic Botany in Uppsala as well as some international experts selected by AETFAT, and was finalized by an Ethiopian Flora Committee. The project leader is Professor Tewolde Berhan G. Egziabher in Addis Ababa, assisted by an Ethiopian secretariat under the Director of the National Herbarium. A European counterpart secretariat, headed by the author, has also been organized with Dr I. Hedberg as co-ordinator. Collecting expeditions to insufficiently known areas, loans from the Addis Ababa Herbarium to collaborating taxonomists, and other activities inside Ethiopia are organized by the Ethiopian secretariat, whereas the Uppsala secretariat is responsible for the initiation and co-ordination of the taxonomic revisions and family accounts needed for the Flora. Collaborators for several of the roughly 200 families of Ethiopian vascular plants have already been secured, but many more remain to be covered. AETFAT members with specialist knowledge of the remaining families are requested to help fill the gaps in our list of contributors.
Full Text Available Catherine M Kress,1 Lisa Sharling,2 Ashli A Owen-Smith,3 Dawit Desalegn,4 Henry M Blumberg,2 Jennifer Goedken1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 3Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Addis Ababa University School of Medicine, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Though cervical cancer incidence has dramatically decreased in resource rich regions due to the implementation of universal screening programs, it remains one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide and has one of the highest mortality rates. The vast majority of cervical cancer-related deaths are among women that have never been screened. Prior to implementation of a screening program in Addis Ababa University-affiliated hospitals in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, risk factors, and screening, as well as attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer screening among women’s health care providers.Methods: Between February and March 2012 an anonymous, self-administered survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cervical cancer and its prevention was distributed to 334 health care providers at three government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and three Family Guidance Association clinics in Awassa, Adama, and Bahir Dar. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square test was used to test differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practices across provider type.Results: Overall knowledge surrounding cervical cancer was high, although awareness of etiology and risk factors was low among nurses and midwives. Providers had no experience performing cervical cancer screening on a routine basis with <40% having performed any type of cervical cancer screening. Reported barriers to performing screening were lack of
Lensink, R.; Asenso-Okyere, K.; Bahiigwa, G.; Cao, De E.; Eriksen, S.; Jemaneh, S.; Gutu, T.; Hansen, N.; Lutz, C.; Tadesse, G.; Tefera, W.; Yirga, C.; Zerfu, E.; Berg, van der M.; Klaver, D.C.; Jacobs, J.; Hofstede, M.; Ingen, van T.; Getew, H.; Tigabu, A.; Babu, S.; Buizer, N.N.; Desalos, C.B.; Kefyalew, D.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Bulte, E.; Pradhan, M.
This report on Ethiopia is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - Eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - A synthesis report (coveri
The judicial and legal sector of Ethiopia presents a variety of significant challenges. The legal system as it exists today combines elements of both civil and common law1 with traditional practices, resulting in multiple layers intermingling and superimposing distinct types of modern, traditional, and religious laws and processes. This report provides an overview of Ethiopia's current leg...
In Ethiopia the centrality of water is clear. With little water resources infrastructure, relatively weak management institutions and capacity, extreme hydrological variability and seasonality, and a highly vulnerable economy, Ethiopia faces an enormous challenge in building the minimum platform of water infrastructure and management capacity needed to achieve water security. But until wat...
MacDonald, A M; Calow, R.C.; Nicol, A.L.; Hope, B.; Robins, N.S.
A map showing groundwater availability during drought for Ethiopia presented at a scale of 1:3,500,000. The map was constructed by combining three factors: (1) rock permeability (derived from the hydrogeology map) (2) the ability of the rock to store water (from the hydrogeology map) (3) recharge to the groundwater (estimated from rainfall data). Areas of high permeability, high storage and high recharge have most groundwater available during drought
González Ruibal, Alfredo
The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agricult...
Seleshe, Semeneh; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Mooha
The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy as...
Full Text Available Interpreting basic chest radiographs is an important skill for internal medicine residents to help them adequately diagnose and manage respiratory diseases. Educators need tools to ensure that they take a systematic approach when creating a curriculum to teach this, as well as other skills, knowledge, or attitudes. Using an instructional design model helps educators accomplish this task by giving them a guide they can follow to ensure that the curriculum meets the needs of the learners. Using the creation of a curriculum to teach chest radiograph interpretation as an example, this paper illustrates how educators can use the ADDIE model of instructional design to help develop their own curricula.
Lu, Sheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yu-Chen; Chan, Pi-Tuan
This study is to develop a nursing information system (NIS) training program, and takes a local community teaching hospital in Taiwan for example. We adopt the ADDIE model to develop our NIS training program. We preliminaries followed the framework of the model to design a NIS training program, and implement it for the newcomers' training of nursing information system. After training course, the self-efficacy report has a significant (p<.000) improved compare to pre-test, and 88% of participants passed the pragmatic exam. PMID:27332436
Sherman, Charles B; Carter, E Jane; Braendli, Otto; Getaneh, Asqual; Schluger, Neil W
Despite an extensive burden of lung disease in East Africa, there are remarkably few pulmonary physicians in the region and no pulmonary subspecialty training programs. We developed a unique training program for pulmonary medicine in Ethiopia. The East African Training Initiative (EATI) is a 2-year fellowship program at Tikur Anbessa (Black Lion) Specialized Teaching Hospital, the largest public hospital in Ethiopia and the teaching hospital for the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The first year is devoted to clinical care and procedural skills. Lectures, conferences, daily inpatient and outpatient rounds, and procedure supervision by visiting faculty provide the clinical knowledge foundation. In the second year, training in clinical research is added to ongoing clinical training. Before graduation, fellows must pass rigorous written and oral examinations and achieve high marks on faculty evaluations. Funding derives from several sources. Ethiopian trainees are paid by the Ethiopian Ministry of Health and the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The World Lung Foundation and the Swiss Lung Foundation supply travel and housing costs for visiting faculty, who receive no other stipend. The first two trainees graduated in January 2015, and a second class of three fellows completed training in January 2016. All five presented research abstracts at the annual meetings of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease in 2014 and 2015. The EATI has successfully provided pulmonary medicine training in Ethiopia and has capacity for local leadership. We believe that EATI could be a model for other resource-limited countries. PMID:26991950
Ambaye, Daniel Weldegebriel
This study examines and analyses the expropriation laws and practices in Ethiopia. The objective of the thesis is to analyze and describe the land rights and expropriation laws in Ethiopia and to compare them with the practice in order to determine the fairness of compensation. The study is made against the Ethiopian Constitution and other subsidiary legislations which provide the basic land rights and the nature and details of expropriation. The basic argument made in this thesis is that eve...
Headey, Derek D.
Research does not always provide the results that we expect. At the recent conference on improving nutrition in Ethiopia, Together for Nutrition 2015, we learnt about the rapid progress in Ethiopia in child nutritional outcomes that are linked to improved birth size and, hence, improved maternal health. However, most of the improvement in maternal health seems related to better sanitation, rather than to diet, care, or health factors.
Duguma, R.; Yami, A.; Dana, N.; Hassen, H.H.; Esatu, W.
The prevalence, clinical and pathological manifestations and extent of mortality due to Marek’s disease (MD) was investigated from November 2003 to January 2004 among indigenous chickens of Ethiopia reared under confined management at the Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, central Ethiopia. Cl
Gerdner, Arne; Wickström, Lynn
Background This study investigates test-retest and inter-item consistency of Alcohol Drog Diagnos InStrument (ADDIS), a structured interview to diagnose substance use disorders according to ICD-10, DSM-IV and DSM-5. ADDIS, the Swedish version of SUDDS, is the only instrument in Swedish that produces diagnostic proposals specific to all drug categories, and for all three diagnostic systems. Screening of stressful life events, anxiety, and depression is also included. Methods Thirty patients at...
Return and Sharing memories è un progetto pilota che intende restituire al popolo etiope la memoria storica dell’effimero impero italiano nel Corno d'Africa (1935-1941). Punto di partenza del progetto è duplicare le testimonianze fotografiche raccolte a Modena e donarne copia all’Università di Addis Abeba, mettendole a disposizione di ricercatori e studenti. L’obbiettivo è affrontare gli studi coloniali da una prospettiva diversa, attraverso la co...
Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon
This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.
This article examines recent developments of local authority and 'leadership' among the Surma of southern Ethiopia, where the author carried out field research over the years 1990-1995. The intention is to analyse the nature of 'authority' in a non-State social formation, in which 'chiefs' in the proper sense of the word are absent. The author gives an overview of the three different political systems which have succeeded each other in Ethiopia since the late 19th century: Haile Selassie's fe...
Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo
Based on many years of field work by the two senior authors (Ib Friis and Sebsebe Demissew) and with the application of GIS analyses (by P. van Breugel) 15 major vegetation types in Ethiopia are described and mapped. The book descibes the structure and floristic composition of the vegetation types...... recognised, and the descriptions are illustrated with selected photographs from many parts of Ethiopia. Parts of the book is an atlas with 29 map plates and a legend to signatures. This atlas shows the potential distribution of the 15 natural vegetation types. The book also describes the relation between the...
Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje;
Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...... of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national guidelines for ANC in Ethiopia. Within the health system, the teaching of health professional students...
Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of
Ni Putu Linda Santiari
Full Text Available Attitude is very important in an education, without a good attitude certainly education will not be able to run smoothly, even education can be said to fail if the output of the education did not have a good attitude in the community in the workplace. To determine the value of the attitude in elearning is not easy. In this study will try to create a method or means that can be used to determine the value of the attitude of a student in the learning system elearning. The method to be used is instructional design using ADDIE Model, where the latter begins by determining the parameters to be assessed from that attitude, the parameters used are each - each part of Affective Learning. After determining the parameters are then carried out the design and manufacture of questioner, before this questioner deployed then ever before will be testing the validity and reliability using SPSS. If questioner has valid and reliabl, then the next can be done questioner deployment and then be evaluated. Questioner from spreading to some of the students showed that students that the attitude of the students already Very Good with a total student getting very good value are 96 people with a percentage of 48%.
González Ruibal, Alfredo
Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.
Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.
Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan
The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinal malformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended. PMID:25404975
This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths
General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...
The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as currently
According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constituti
This bibliography on Christianity in Ethiopia covers material published from the early 1960s onwards. It focuses on the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, including the Eritrean Orthodox Church, which became autonomous in 1993, but references on modern missionary and evangelical Christianity, as well as Cat
Full Text Available Return and Sharing memories è un progetto pilota che intende restituire al popolo etiope la memoria storica dell’effimero impero italiano nel Corno d'Africa (1935-1941. Punto di partenza del progetto è duplicare le testimonianze fotografiche raccolte a Modena e donarne copia all’Università di Addis Abeba, mettendole a disposizione di ricercatori e studenti. L’obbiettivo è affrontare gli studi coloniali da una prospettiva diversa, attraverso la condivisione della memoria storica con gli ex-nemici, favorendo lo studio congiunto del passato che accomuna Etiopia e Italia.
Ethiopia is the second most populous nation in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has been a key partner and actor in political and economic affairs of Africa in general and the Horn of Africa in particular. Despite its record of independence, Ethiopia have been struggling up heal battle against persistent human development challenges and troubled internal political history. In recent decades, however, renewed geopolitical factors made Ethiopia attract more and concerted efforts. Ethiopian stakeholders a...
Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay
Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…
Blomne Sopov, M.
This report, requested by the Royal Dutch Embassy in Ethiopia, outlines the modalities of setting up a Business Support Facility in the country with the objectives of: 1. Supporting sector coordination and business partnerships; 2. Brokering business relations between Ethiopia and the Netherlands; 3. Strengthening innovation capacity to ensure technical, business and entrepreneurial know how.
Over the coming decades, land policy and administration, for urban as well as rural areas, will be critical for Ethiopia's development. The vast majority of people making up the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia's (FDRE) predominantly agricultural economy live in rural areas. Finally, land policies and administration can contribute significantly to the objectives of promoting gender ...
Mequaninte, Teferi; Müller, Ulrike
We use Social Network Analysis (SNA) to investigate the networking and knowledge management in the coffee value chain in Ethiopian and Rwanda and its applicability to the agricultural innovation system (AIS). The AIS aims at putting farmers at the center of the knowledge management and innovation system. Results of the SNA show that farmers from both Ethiopia and Rwanda are not at the center of the innovation system. In the Ethiopian coffee value chain, cooperatives are at the center of the k...
Nyssen, Jan; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Zenebe, Amanuel; Poesen, Jean; Deckers, Jozef A.; Haile, Mitiku
Transhumance, the seasonal movement of herds occurring between two points and following precise routes repeated each year, is practiced on a broad scale in the open field areas of Tigray (North Ethiopia). This article presents a characterization of the practice, factors that explain its magnitude, and recent changes. Eleven villages were selected randomly, semistructured interviews were conducted, and data on the sites were collected both in the field and from secondary sources. The transhuma...
According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constitution's explicit reinstatement of ethnicity in law coincides with a politico-economic situation which has made ethnoregional groups more interdependent than ever before, and where the central State ha...
Tadele Eticha; Kalkidan Mesfin
BACKGROUND: Self-medication makes consumers more health conscious, reduces treatment burden on healthcare facilities and curtails the cost and time of obtaining access to treatment. However, it increases risks such as drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, incorrect diagnosis, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and factors associated with self-medication in Mekelle, Tigray region, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertake...
Abstract Wondmeneh Esatu Woldegiorgiss (2015). Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands This thesis considered various approaches to study the potential for improvement of village poultry production system using improved indigenous chicken. The approaches were structured survey questionnaire, village poultry simulation model (VIPOSIM), Heckman two-step model (econometric model), and experiments involving laboratory and field. Fi...
Eticha, Tadele; Mesfin, Kalkidan
Background Self-medication makes consumers more health conscious, reduces treatment burden on healthcare facilities and curtails the cost and time of obtaining access to treatment. However, it increases risks such as drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, incorrect diagnosis, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and factors associated with self-medication in Mekelle, Tigray region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken ...
Caldwell, J. Paul; Kain, Brian F.; Robert C. McDonald
In February 1985, a Canadian medical relief team was established in a northern Ethiopia refugee camp. Volunteer physicians, nurses, and support staff have worked in the camp since February 1985. Their activities range from supervising intensive feeding programs, to controlling infections, to educating patients. About 300-400 patients visit the outpatient clinics daily. Malnutrition, vitamin A and B deficiencies, scurvy, rickets, gastroenteritis, malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, pneumonia, trac...
Yu, Bingxin; Nin-Pratt, Alejandro; Funes, José; Gemessa, Sinafikeh Asrat
The Ethiopian government has been promoting a package-driven extension that combines credit, fertilizers, improved seeds, and better management practices. This approach has reached almost all farming communities, representing about 2 percent of agricultural gross domestic product in recent years. This paper is the first to look at the extent and determinants of the adoption of the fertilizer-seed technology package promoted in Ethiopia using nationally representative data from the Central Sta...
This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyse the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favourable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducat...
Fafchamps, Marcel; Quisumbing, Agnes
This paper examines the determinants of assets at marriage in rural Ethiopia. We find ample evidence of assertive matching at marriage. Assets brought to marriage are distributed in a highly unequal manner. Sorting operates at a variety of levels - wealth, schooling, and work experience - that cannot be summarized into a single additive index. For first unions, assets brought to marriage are positively associated with parents’ wealth, indicating that a bequest motive affects assets at marriag...
Marcel Fafchamps; Agnes Quisumbing
This paper examines the determinants of human and physical capital at marriage. Using detailed data from rural Ethiopia, we find ample evidence of assortative matching at marriage. Assets brought to marriage are distributed in a highly unequal manner. Sorting operates at a variety of levels – wealth, schooling, and work experience – that cannot be summarized into a single additive index. For first unions, assets brought to marriage are positively associated with parents’ wealth, indicating th...
Drost, Sarah; Wijk, Jeroen
textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: coordination group, or CG) for stakeholders of the pineapple value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to improve market access for farmers and small- and mediumsized pineapple companies. To examine the MSP, both its internal, organisational dynamics and its external dynamics, i.e. the changes brought about in key areas...
E. Admasu , Negalign chekol , Temesegen Chekol , Z. Shewamene*, Zelalem Eteffa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vasectomy. A total of 187 study participants were included to this study using single population proportion formula and random sampling technique. Majority of the participants 155 (82.9% never heard about vasectomy as a contraception method. Their knowledge about vasectomy is generally very poor as large proportion of respondents didn’t know how it works, its effectiveness and its effect on their sexual performance. None of the respondents have ever used vasectomy as a modern male contraception method. Misleading information towards its impact on sexual performance/desire was reported as a main reason not to use this method. Among others need of more children, unavailability of services, lack of information, spouse refusal and religious concerns were mentioned as a potential reasons for their negative perception towards vasectomy. Lack of awareness, myths and rumors, limited access to services, and indifference and bias on the part of providers about vasectomy limit its popularity in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is vital to introduce appropriate educational plan to increase awareness and usage of vasectomy in Ethiopia.
van Breugel, Paulo; Friis, Ib; Sebsebe, Demissew
Question: Evergreen bushlands in Ethiopia have been inadequately studied and mapped. We address the question whether there is a transitional semi-ever-green bushland on the eastern escarpment of the Ethiopian Highlands, with unique floristic characteristics that distinguish it from the evergreen...... bushlands in other parts of Ethiopia and eastern Africa. Methods: Based on a review of the recent descriptions of evergreen bushlands in Ethiopia, we hypothesize that there is a distinct zone of natural semi-ever-green bushland, which is restricted to the eastern and southeastern escarpment of the Ethiopian...... Highlands. In contrast, evergreen bushlands in other parts of Ethiopia are considered to be of a secondary nature. To test this hypothesis, we carried out qualitative vegetation surveys in 354 locations across Ethiopia and classified the vegetation in these locations based on the occurrences of indicator...
Full Text Available The paper examines the practices, opportunities and challenges of E-banking services in Ethiopia. Ethiopian banking system is one of the most underdeveloped compared to the rest of the world. In Ethiopia cash is still the most dominant medium of exchange and electronic-banking is not well known, let alone used for transacting banking business. All banks in Ethiopia except Dashen Bank are too late to move with technological advancement and they should clearly chart out the time schedule for their integration and technological advancement.
Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon
This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal of Eastern African Studies devoted to a review of Ethiopia's 20 years of “revolutionary democracy”. The collection brings together 11 articles exploring differing aspects of Ethiopia's political experience since 1991. This introduction begins...... with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and continuity under the ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the importance of...
In two key areas, genetic sexing in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, and mass rearing of the tsetse, Glossina pallidipes, 1998 has been a year of consolidation. For medfly, programme managers now view the use of genetic sexing strains - (GSS) as an integral part of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) for control and/or eradication of this pest. Since its introduction only 4 years ago, this technology is having an increasing impact on the implementation of medfly SIT. For tsetse, a rearing system has been designed and tested which will form the basic rearing module for the mass rearing facility to be built in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The system is cheap, easy to maintain and can be locally constructed. The facility in Addis Ababa will produce sterile G. pallidipes males for the SIT component of a large tsetse eradication programme in the Southern Rift valley. The Unit will continue to play a unique role in the further development of these technology transfer programmes. The Unit continues to maintain many strains of tsetse and medfly which are used to supply numerous institutions and individuals with biological material for research work. In addition, medfly GSS are provided to operational SIT programmes as required. This support provided to Member States, especially in the area of tsetse research, appears to be of increasing importance as the number of requests rise each year. All of this material is provided free of charge
Cao, Van; Berg, van den, M.M.; Tizale, C.Y.; Wondwosen, T.
In the high lands of Ethiopia, almost every plot of farmland is allotted for crop husbandry, leaving no or only road sides and marginal lands for grazing. However, land is scarce in these areas and this limits the role of crop production in poverty alleviation and it also limits the availability of local off-farm employment. Moreover, with the years, livestock feed has become scarce and crop residues are the major feed source for the animals. This feed problem also potentially affects crop pr...
Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter
. This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage...
Geda, Alemayehu; Shimeles, Abebe; Zerfu, Daniel
In this paper, using the rich household panel data of urban and rural Ethiopia that covers the period from 1994 to 2000, we attempted to establish the link between finance and poverty in Ethiopia. Our results show that access to finance is an important factor in consumption smoothing and hence poverty reduction. We also found evidence for a poverty trap due to liquidity constraints that limits the ability of the rural households from consumption smoothing. The empirical findings from this stu...
Tarekegn, Getachew; Ewonetu, Kebede; Negassi, Ameha; Aemro, Terefe Terefe
This experiment is designed to study the characteristics of village chicken husbandry practice, marketing and constraints in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from July in four selected districts in the highlands of eastern Ethiopia (Haramaya, Kersa, Jarso and Meta). A total of 80 chicken owner households were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on characteristics of village chicken production, feeds and feeding practices, housing, management of ch...
Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)
Stellmacher, Till; Grote, Ulrike
The montane rainforests of Ethiopia are the worldwide origin of the Coffea arabica gene-pool. However, the forests witness high rates of depletion and deforestation leading to an irreversible loss of the forest ecosystem and biodiversity. Certification of forest coffee started in Ethiopia in 2002 with the aim to conserve the coffee forests and provide the peasants with a better livelihood. This paper evaluates the forest coffee production and the related human encroachment in the forests ecos...
Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in Ethiopia. The low uptake may be related to the high costs of recommended production methods for these varieties. The objective of this study was to formulate least-cost seed potato production methods for ...
Mogues, Tewodaj; Cohen, Marc J.; Birner, Regina; Lemma, Mamusha; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Tadesse, Fanaye; Paulos, Zelekawork
Drawing on a household survey collected in eight woredas in seven Ethiopian regions in 2009, as well as on qualitative fieldwork in four of the eight woredas, this paper provides analysis of agricultural extension delivery in Ethiopia. While overall extension services are relatively accessible in Ethiopia, there are differences in access between men and women, and particularly stark differences by region. Individual visits by public sector extension agents to household farms are by far the mo...
Mulugeta Lemenih; Habtemariam Kassa
In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha) of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specific...
Ayele Dawit G; Zewotir Temesgen T; Mwambi Henry G
Abstract Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP) regions ...
Colonial concubinage in Ethiopia during the Italian occupation (1936–1941) has not been deeply studied yet. This article explores the peculiarities of the so-called madamato – that was banned under Fascism in 1937 but developed despite the racist legislation – by firstly comparing its practices in Ethiopia with that which took place from the late Nineteenth century in Eritrea. Indeed, on the Eritrean case a small body of significant literature already exists. In addition, by relying on both w...
Aim of this thesis is to critically look at various indicators that play a key role in food scarcity in Africa. These indicators are applied on a case of Ethiopia, a selected country in Africa. Consequently, a multidimensional Index of Sustenance of Ethiopia is created using all relevant indicators. Comparison of researched indicators that contribute to food scarcity is based on data from official sources. In the created Index both economic and non-economic indicators are merged while, based ...
This research presents a qualitative study of Addis Admass (private) and Addis Zemen (state) newspapers from a social constructionist perspective. It asks the questions: How are gender and gender relations represented in the selected newspapers?, How do the selected items depict female and male social actors?, What needs for change regarding gender are represented? What new society do they imagine?, and What narrative strategies do the newspapers use? In addition to performing a detaile...
Schmidt, Emily; Kedir, Mekamu
In comparison to other African countries, Ethiopia has a low urbanization rate. According to the World Bank World Development Report (WDR) 2009, Sub-Sahara Africa is 30% urbanized, whereas Ethiopia is only 10.9% urbanized. Urbanization rates differ according to methodologies and data base utilized: the United Nations classifies Ethiopia as 14.9% urban, while the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia reports a 16% urbanization rate. In an effort to standardize and measure Ethiopian urbanizati...
Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Tol, Azar; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Kebede, Abebaw; Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Kassa, Desta; Klinkenberg, Eveline
Background Treatment non-adherence results in treatment failure, prolonged transmission of disease and emergence of drug resistance. Although the problem widely investigated, there remains an information gap on the effectiveness of different methods to improve treatment adherence and the predictors of non-adherence in resource limited countries based on theoretical models. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of psychological counseling and educational intervention on tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence based on Health Belief Model (HBM). Methodology A cluster randomized control trial was conducted in Addis Ababa from May to December, 2014. Patients were enrolled into study consecutively from 30 randomly selected Health Centers (HCs) (14 HCs intervention and 16 HCs control groups). A total of 698 TB patients, who were on treatment for one month to two months were enrolled. A structured questionnaire was administered to both groups of patients at baseline and endpoint of study. Control participants received routine directly-observed anti-TB therapy and the intervention group additionally received combined psychological counseling and adherence education. Treatment non-adherence level was the main outcome of the study, and multilevel logistic regression was employed to assess the impact of intervention on treatment adherence. Results At enrollment, the level of non-adherence among intervention (19.4%) and control (19.6%) groups was almost the same. However, after intervention, non-adherence level decreased among intervention group from 19.4 (at baseline) to 9.5% (at endpoint), while it increased among control group from 19.4% (baseline) to 25.4% (endpoint). Psychological counseling and educational interventions resulted in significant difference with regard to non-adherence level between intervention and control groups (Adjusted OR = 0.31, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (0.18–0.53), p < 0.001)). Conclusion Psychological counseling and educational interventions
This project developed and tested the 'Mirte' (meaning 'best' or 'excellent'), a low-cost, efficient wood stove in Ethiopia. This included tests on construction materials and the use of non-wood fuels. The project adopted a six-point approach: The identification of household needs, demands and preferences together with a definition of the private sector's abilities to meet those demands; Mirte design and testing - firstly in the laboratory using controlled cooking tests (CCTs), and secondly in households using kitchen performance tests (KPTs) - held in Awasa and Bahr Dar (An Impact Assessment was also carried out with commercial injera bakers using a modified Mirte in Addis Ababa); Producer training and technical assistance; Market trials and acceptability assessment; Full-scale marketing and commercialisation; Acceptability follow-up and adaptation of the product to meet consumer needs. Stoves produced using the new materials proved to be efficient and acceptable to consumers. (author)
Feyisa, Gudina L.; Meilby, Henrik; Darrel Jenerette, G.;
Landsat data were used to assess urbanization-induced dynamics in Land use/cover (LULC), surface thermal intensity, and its relationships with urban biophysical composition. The study was undertaken in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia. Ground-based data and high resolution images were used as reference......–DR approach using eight Landsat images acquired between 1985 and 2010. Two approaches were applied to quantify surface heat intensity (SHIn) and to examine its spatial patterns over 25 years: thermal gradient analysis and hot spot analysis. A Simultaneous Autoregressive Spatial error model (SARerr) was used...... differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The Surface Heat Intensity (SHIn) analysis showed increasing contrast (1985-2010) between urban centers and the outskirt. On average, outskirts were cooler than central urban areas by up to 3.7 °C. We detected statistically significant differences in...
Bleck, Daniela, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Germany (BAuA), Friedrich Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund (Germany); Wettberg, Wieland, E-mail: email@example.com [Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Germany (BAuA), Friedrich Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund (Germany)
Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.
Science education in Africa has been criticized for more than three decades. In response to the wide spread dissatisfaction with the educational system, Ethiopia has administered three different educational reforms to make the curricula relevant to the day to day life of the learners. The question is to what extent this general educational objective has been translated into appropriate content and instructional strategies. This research attempts to qualitatively analyse and reflect on the newly introduced chemistry curriculum for beginners at grade 7 (age 13) in Ethiopian primary schools. Primary school chemistry teachers in Addis Ababa participated in the research project through group discussion and questionnaire. They considered questions of relevance and appropriateness of content to the target pupils. Although science education research seem to influence the formulation of objectives at policy level, its impact on content and methodology is not yet satisfactory.
Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.
En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.......En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009....
Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie; Edmondson, John R.;
Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la...... largamente diffusa e comune specie P. zeylanica e una nuova specie, P. truncata, limitato a sud-ovest dell’Etiopia. Il nome P. truncata non è stato formalmente convalidato. Allora, più collezioni e osservazioni di Plumbago sono state fatte in Etiopia durante e dopo la preparazione del Flora of Ethiopia and...... trattamento del genere Plumbago in Etiopia e Eritrea, tenendo conto delle nuove scoperte secondo le norme della Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The genus Plumbago has a concentration of indigenous species in eastern tropical Africa and Madagascar: nine out of a total of between twelve and twenty-five species...
Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha
livelihood, forest governance and forest conditions in Ethiopia? The study approaches these questions by disentangling outcomes that can be attributed to PFM rather than other factors through quasi-experimental designs. The significance of the study lays in its holistic assessment of the theoretically...... expected outcomes of PFM. In the four articles that form the thesis, the study argues that the PFM programme in Ethiopia contributes to forest conservation compared to other types of management regimes. However, conservation is also challenged mainly by lack of support from the authorities to forest user...... groups. Though various pilot projects have contributed valuable experiences on the performance of PFM in Ethiopia, the programme is currently being scaled up to the national level without taking these into account. Indeed, the PFM up-scaling programme remains based on the discretion of the individual...
Manyazewal, Tsegahun; Sisay, Zufan; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku
Most HIV positive people have not been tested for viral hepatitis and their treatments have not been optimized for possible co-infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the serological pattern of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among antiretroviral (ARV)-naive and -experienced HIV co-infected adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 500 frozen HIV positive serum and plasma samples collected from ARV-naive (n = 250) and -experienced (n = 250) adults were randomly selected and screened for HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg and anti-HCV using rapid two-site sandwich immunochromatographic assay. The test was performed at Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University. Positive specimens for HBsAg and anti-HCV markers were further confirmed using third generation ELISA. Of the 500 specimens tested, 15 (3 %), 58 (11.6 %), 3 (0.6 %), 18 (3.6 %), 3 (0.6 %) and 1 (0.2 %) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HCV, HBsAg and HBeAg, and HBsAg and anti-HBs markers, respectively. No specimen tested positive for both HBeAg and anti-HBs, and 442 (88.4 %) individuals were non-immune to HBV. Of the 250 ARV-naive individuals, 8 (3.2 %), 33 (13.2 %), 2 (0.8 %), 10 (4 %), 2 (0.8 %), and 1 (0.4 %) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HCV, HBsAg and HBeAg, and HBsAg and anti-HBs markers, respectively. Of the 250 ARV-experienced individuals, 7 (2.8 %), 25 (10 %), 1 (0.4 %), 8 (3.2 %), 1 (0.4 %), and 0 (0 %) were positive for HBsAg, Anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HCV, HBsAg and HBeAg, and HBsAg and anti-HBs markers, respectively. In summary, seroprevalence of HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infections was lower in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, than in Sub-Saharan Africa and globally. HBV and HCV infections were not significantly different between HIV positive subjects who were or who were not on ARV. This suggests that the two groups have equal chance of being infected with these two viruses; despite
Dorosh, Paul A.; Ahmed, Hashim
In spite of remarkable growth in Ethiopiaâ€™s agricultural production and overall real incomes (GDP/capita) from 2004/05 to 2008/09, prices of major cereals (teff, maize, wheat and sorghum) have fluctuated sharply in both nominal and real terms. International prices of cereals also fluctuated widely, particularly between 2006 and 2008. However, the links between Ethiopiaâ€™s domestic cereal markets and the international market are by no means straightforward. Among the major staples, only whe...
TB (tuberculosis) clubs were first introduced in the Estie district of South Gonder administrative zone, Amhara region of northwestern Ethiopia in January 1997, in an attempt to improve TB control in rural areas. Before the clubs were introduced, patients who were family members or close neighbors were given different treatment follow-up dates. Walking long distances alone to secure treatment, patients often grew discouraged from continuing treatment once their health began to improve. However, upon the introduction of the TB clubs, neighboring patients, or those in the same family, had their follow-up appointment dates rearranged in the same clinics. Local neighborhoods were also used to group nearby patients in the same follow-up clinic. The patients then formed their own groups (TB clubs) and elected leaders. 3-10 members usually comprise each club, with the club leaders monitoring drug intake and new developments, such as drug side effects and toxic skin reactions. The social ostracism and stigma otherwise experienced by patients have been largely overcome as a result of the TB information disseminated within the communities by the clubs, while patient attendance for treatment has increased from 68% to 98%, according to one study's findings. This intervention has taken place using the long-course treatment protocol (2STH/EH and 10TH/EH). TB clubs are improving patient adherence to treatment, passive case detection, defaulter tracing, TB reporting and recording, and community involvement in health care. PMID:12294916
Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J
The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide. PMID:19548106
Full Text Available Mulugeta Melku,1 Asmarie Kebede,2 Zelalem Addis3 1Department of Hematology and Immuohematology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Nursing, University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, 3Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and syphilis are major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, causing numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of study was to assess the magnitude of HIV and syphilis seroprevalence among pregnant women at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. Method: The study was conducted between March and May, 2012. Sociodemographic data were collected through face-to-face interview. HIV1/2 was tested following current national HIV1/2 testing algorithm. Syphilis infection was also tested using the rapid plasm reagin test for screening and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination as a confirmatory test. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify factors associated with HIV and syphilis seroprevalence from selected sociodemographic variables. Results: Of 300 women, 31 (10.33%, eleven (3.7%, and three (1% were seroreactive for HIV, syphilis, and HIV–syphilis coinfection, respectively. High seroprevalence of HIV was found in women ages 25–30 years (13.4%, and women whose husbands attended primary school (19.7%. Syphilis was high in women occupationally housewives (15.2% and whose husbands were illiterate (11.5%. HIV was associated with husband illiteracy (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] of 4.13, 95% CI [confidence interval] [1.01, 16.95] and primary educational level of husbands (AOR [95% CI] =3.83 [1.50, 9.90], whereas syphilis was associated with illiteracy of husband (AOR [95% CI] =7.25 [1.74, 30.30]. Conclusion: Seroprevalence of HIV and syphilis was high. Low husband educational status was a risk factor for HIV and syphilis
Berhe, A.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.
During the Italian occupation of Ethiopia (1936-1941) a significant indigenous resistance movement, the Patriots' Movement, emerged. The nature and impact of this resistance is reconsidered by highlighting aspects of its role in 'redefining Ethiopia', its internal policy and its position in the glob
Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef
Roč. 54, č. 1 (2013), s. 49-56. ISSN 1681-5556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * Uropodina * Afrotropical * Ethiopia * new species * new synonymy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2013
Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine
This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael
Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…
Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia. The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.
Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia. The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.
Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, NVEA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, TTCA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Buizer, N.N.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, Amref. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Buizer, N.N.
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, FSCE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Buizer, N.N.
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, ECFA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HUNDEE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
In 2005, an estimated 15.2 million people or 80 percent of the total population of the Amhara Region in Ethiopia lived in rural areas where sanitation-related indicators were low. Open defecation was common; hand washing, particularly after defecation, was practiced infrequently; and general housing environments were unsanitary, with cohabitation with animals a common occurrence. There was...
Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Shaw, Vincent; Braa, Jørn
Systems Programme in Nigeria and Ethiopia, the interdependencies between three spheres are identified as being important in scaling health information systems. The three spheres that are explored are the volume of data collected, human resource factors and access to technology. We draw on concepts from...
Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in Ethiopi
Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Hagos, F.
In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes o
Zerfu, Daniel; Donald F. Larson
While the economic returns to using chemical fertilizer in Africa can be large, application rates are low. This study explores whether this is due to missing and imperfect markets. Results based on a panel survey of Ethiopian farmers suggest that while fertilizer markets are not altogether missing in rural Ethiopia, high transport costs, unfavorable climate, price risk, and illiteracy pres...
The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…
The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…
Tesema, G.; Worrell, E.
The cement sector is one of the fast growing economic sectors in Ethiopia. In 2010, it consumed 7 PJ of primary energy. We evaluate the potential for energy savings and CO2 emission reductions. We start by benchmarking the energy performance of 8 operating plants in 2010, and 12 plants under constru
Dercon, S.; Hodinnott, J.; Woldehanna, T.
Improving our understanding of risk and vulnerability is an issue of increasing importance for Ethiopia as it is for much of Africa. A small, but growing, body of evidence, points to the role that risk, shocks and vulnerability in perpetuating poverty. Specifically, uninsured shocks ¿ adverse events
F. Mandefro (Fenta); S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)
textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: Coordination Group, or CG) for stakeholders of the oilseeds and edible oil value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to imp
The National Policy on Women (Women's Policy) formulated in 1993, aimed to create appropriate structures within government offices and institutions to establish equitable and gender-sensitive public policies. The Government of Ethiopia in 1995, under its new constitution, renewed its commitment towards this policy. The government initiated an ambitious and extensive process of regionalizat...
Aguilar, Arturo; Carranza, Eliana; Goldstein, Markus; Kilic,Talip; Oseni, Gbemisola
This paper employs decomposition methods to analyze differences in agricultural productivity between male and female land managers in Ethiopia. It employs data from the 2011-2012 Ethiopian Rural Socioeconomic Survey. An overall 23.4 percent gender differential in agricultural productivity is estimated at the mean in favor of male land managers, of which 10.1 percentage points are explained by ...
The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.
Background Improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate are key concerns. One of the eight millennium development goals adopted at the millennium summit, was to improve maternal health in Ethiopia. This leads towards discovering the factors that hinder postnatal care visit in Ethiopia. Methods In this research, knowledge discovery from data (KDD) was applied to identify the factors that hinder postnatal care visits in Ethiopia. Decision tree (using J48 algorithm) and rule in...
Melashu Balew Shiferaw,1 Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs,2 Mulusew Alemneh Sinishaw,3 Yohannes Amede Yesuf,4 1Laboratory Capacity Building Core Process, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology, College of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 3Department of Clinical Chemistry, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 4Department of Laboratory, Africa Service...
Molla, Mitike; Mitiku, Israel; Worku, Alemayehu; Yamin, Alicia Ely
Background: The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods: We conducted interviews with 28 adult fa...
Z. M. Easton; D. R. Fuka; White, E.D.; A. S. Collick; B. Biruk Asharge; M. McCartney; S. B. Awulachew; Ahmed, A A; Steenhuis, T. S.
A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopia...
"In Ethiopia, while superficial examination suggests strong disincentive effects of food aid on labor supply and agricultural activities, these largely vanish under more careful statistical analysis." from Text
Geography: Ethiopia is located between 3o-15o N latitude and 33o-48oE longitude. The total surface area is about 1.1M km2. The highland plateau that ranges between 2000-3000 meters above sea level is dissected by the Great Rift Valley and many other river valleys and escarpments and covered by about a dozen of mountains rising above 4000 meters. Altitude is one of the important factors that influence the distribution of diseases in Ethiopia. Malaria Situation: Malaria affects about 4-5 million people annually, and is prevalent in 75% of the country putting over 40 million people at risk. Generally, areas lying below 2000 meters altitude are malarious whilst the highlands are densely populated and over cultivated. In addition, transmissions of malaria in Ethiopia are closely linked with the rainy seasons. The major transmission season follows the June-September rains and occurs between September-December while the minor transmission season occurs between April-May following the February-March rains. Of the total 350 DLY's/1000 population lost annually, malaria accounts for 10.5%. Epidemiology: All the four Plasmodium parasites are reported in Ethiopia. P. falciparum is the most important one and comprises 60% of all malaria cases in the country. P. vivax makes 40% of the cases. P. malariae and P. ovale constitute less than 1%. P. falciparum has been reported to be resistant to chloroquine. Malaria vectors in Ethiopia include Anopheles arabiensis, An. pharoensis, A. funestus and An. nili; the major vector being An. arabiensis. An. gambiae complex (in which An. arabiensis is a member) is known to be the most frequent and widely distributed species in the country. From the An. gambiae complex only two species, An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus, are reported to exist in Ethiopia. In a five year period (1984-1988) outdoor and indoor collections made at areas representing low, moderate and intense transmissions of malaria in different administrative regions; 75.5% of
Full Text Available The Bank of Abyssinia, established in 1905, was given a 50-years concession by theEmperor Menelek II. This institution was engaged in issuing notes as well as in any kind ofcommercial banking business. Haile Sellassie, after acceding to the throne in 1930, could not acceptthat the country’s issuing bank was a foreign-owned share company and decided for nationalization.The change was implemented, however, in a soft way, providing an adequate compensation toshareholders, and in agreement with the main foreign shareholder, the National Bank of Egypt. TheBank of Abyssinia went, therefore, into liquidation and a new institution, the Bank of Ethiopia, wasestablished in 1931. The new bank, although under full Government control, retained management,staff, premises and clients of the ceased financial institution. Italian occupation of the country, in1936, brought the liquidation of the Bank of Ethiopia.
Alemu, Daniel S.
Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction....
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction....
Akalu Teshome Firew,; Firew, A.T.
Abstract Over the last four decades, the government of Ethiopia and various a consortium of donors have been promoting different land management (LM) practices in the highlands of Ethiopia to halt land degradation. However, the adoption rate of these practices has been low. This is
Temesgen Wayuma Balcha, Zemichael
Zemichael Weldegebriel,1 Yohannes Ejigu,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Public Planning Department, Debark Hospital, Debark, North Gondar, Amhara Region, 2Department of Health Services Management, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between...
K. Tijdens; J. Besamusca; N. Asteraye
This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in Ethiopia, conducted between the 2rd of March and the 20th of May 2013 in all provinces of Ethiopia. In total 2,126 persons were interviewed; 53% were men, 47% women and 48% were under 30 years of age. The
Kippie Kanshie, T.
Key words : Ethiopia, Gedeo, ensete , pacemaker , spacemaker , placemaker, agroforest, agro-ecosystem, sustainability, biodiversity.The present volume is a study of an ancient way of land use, over five thousand years old, by the Gedeo in Ethiopia. The densely
Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a
This note contains a summary, for practitioners, of the World Bank Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy (CWRAS) report: it concerns managing water resources to maximize sustainable growth and focuses on World Bank water resources assistance strategy for Ethiopia (March 2006). Specifically, the note describes the scope and scale of the impacts of hydrological variability on Ethiopia'...
Madhvani, Sonia; Pehu, Eija
The gender and governance in rural services insights from India, Ghana, and Ethiopia report aims to generate policy-relevant knowledge on strategies for improving agricultural service delivery, with a focus on providing more equitable access to these services, especially for women. The project has been implemented in India, Ghana, and Ethiopia. These countries were chosen to capture variat...
Coppock, David Layne
We used results from 120 group interviews collected in 1998 to quantify how inhabitants across northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia perceive and rank various risks to their livelihoods. We also mapped risk patterns using Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates. Respondents recognized 15 sources of risk overall, with the most common being reliable access to food and water. Other risks were not mentioned by a majority of respondents and reflected diversity in local situations. Country of re...
Coppock, David Layne; Desta, Solomon
While economic development has proven elusive in African pastoral systems, change is pervasive. The Kajiado Maasai, for example, have endured declines in terms of per capita livestock holdings and other aspects of human welfare over the past 50 years. Activity diversification has occurred in Maasailand as the population copes with pressure from human population growth. We surveyed up to 317 Borana households during the late 1990s to see if similar patterns occurred in southern Ethiopia. Once ...
Block, P. J.
Numerous hydroclimate forecast models, tools, and guidance exist for application across Ethiopia and East Africa in the agricultural, water, energy, disasters, and economic sectors. This has resulted from concerted local and international interdisciplinary efforts, yet little evidence exists of rapid forecast uptake and use. We will review projected benefits and gains of seasonal forecast application, impediments, and options for the way forward. Specific case studies regarding floods, agricultural-economic links, and hydropower will be reviewed.
Kassa Belay, Habtemariam
The study was conducted to examine the role of livestock in smallholder mixed farming systems, and to determine variations in livestock inventory in relation to changes in socio-economic status and rural population density in the Harar Highlands of Ethiopia. Livestock feed balance, household food adequacy level, and soil humus balance of annually cropped plots were identified as proxy indicators of sustainability. The long-term dynamics of the crop-livestock sub-system within the evolving liv...
Mangham-Jefferies, L; Mathewos, B; Russell, J.; Bekele, A
Background Governments are increasingly reliant on community health workers to undertake health promotion and provide essential curative care. In 2003, the Government of Ethiopia launched the Health Extension Programme and introduced a new cadre, health extension workers (HEWs), to improve access to care in rural communities. In 2013, to inform the government’s plans for HEWs to take on an enhanced role in community-based newborn care, a time and motion study was conducted to understand the r...
Abera, Birhanu Hadush
Trypanosoma evansi in Northern Ethiopia: epidemiology, diversity and alternative diagnostics Animal African trypanosomosis (AAT) is a complex of parasitic diseases of various domestic and wild animal species caused by different species of trypanosomes. Trypanosoma (T.) brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax are transmitted by tsetse flies. Trypanosoma evansi, but also T. vivax, is mechanically transmitted by other biting flies and T. equiperdum is sexually transmitted in Equidae. All these ...
Setegn, Shimelis Gebriye
Lake Tana Basin is of significant importance to Ethiopia concerning water resources aspects and the ecological balance of the area. The growing high demands in utilizing the high potentials of water resource of the Lake to its maximal limit, pictures a disturbing future for the Lake. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of topography, soil, land use and climatic varia-bility on the hydrological and hydrodynamic processes of the Lake Tana Basin. The physically based SWAT mod...
Deribe, Kebede; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Belachew, Tefera; Woldemichael, Kifle
The study explored cultural beliefs and practices contributing to maternal deaths together with maternal deaths reviews as testimonial. Six maternal deaths were retrospectively observed in rural southwest Ethiopia. Four of the 6 deaths occurred due to direct obstetric causes. Substandard primary and referral care, not understanding the severity of the problem, and lack of transport were the major themes identified as contributing factors. The result highlighted the need to improving primary h...
This study analyzes strategic intervention options that can inform the implementation process of Ethiopia s national tourism development policy in an effort to make the sector globally competitive. It also outlines the analytical foundations for technical assistance that will be provided to Ministry of Culture and Tourism (MoCT) by the World Bank-funded Ethiopian Sustainable Tourism Development Program (ESTDP). This study uses the world economic forum tourism and travel competitiveness index ...
Beza, Teshome Abate
A study was conducted to examine land use and land cover change dynamic and spatial pattern of landscape structure in arid and semi-arid rangeland of Borena, Ethiopia. Three multi-temporal satellite (TM, and ETM+) images of 1987, 1995 and 2003 were used. Supervised maximum likelihood classification at pixel level and post-classification comparison of images was used. The landscape structures were calculated using Fragstats3.3 soft ware. Over the past 16 years, the arid and s...
Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan
Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic charact...
In this study the financial returns related to smallholdersâ return on investments in Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) were analyzed for the Kentai sub-watershed in the Tana-Beles Watershed Monitoring and Evaluation project in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. This was accomplished by reviewing the inputs used in activities carried out by smallholders. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze the inputs and outputs realized by different household investment choices. The Net Present Val...
Zenzelima is a small kebele located in the North-western part of Ethiopia, where future climate change is predicted to challenge the farmers’ agricultural systems beyond their coping range. Farmers in Zenzelima will therefore need to adapt to climate change in order to maintain their livelihoods in the future. Adaptation to climate change requires the recognition of the need to adapt and the ability to adapt. This study therefore analyses the farmers’ perception of climate change and their...
Dorosh, Paul A.; Robinson, Sherman; Ahmed, Hashim
Ethiopia enjoyed remarkable economic growth from 2004/05 to 2008/09, in large part due to increases in foreign transfers and capital inflows combined with expanded domestic credit to fund major increases in private and public investments in infrastructure and housing. However, this rapid growth was accompanied by a major appreciation of the real exchange rate (by 34 percent between July 2004 and July 2008) that reduced incentives for domestic production of exportables and non-protected import...
Hagos, Hosaena Ghebru; Holden, Stein
The study uses five rounds of household panel data from Tigray, Ethiopia, collected in the period 1998–2010 to assess the impacts of a land registration and certification program that aimed to strengthen tenure security and how it has contributed to increased food availability and thus food security in this food-deficit region. Our first survey took place just a year before the intervention (the land certification program). Our panel data in combination with the “years of certificate ownershi...
Mengistu Assefa Wendimu; Arne Henningsen; Peter Gibbon
Contract farming is often seen as a panacea to many of the challenges faced by agricultural production in developing countries. Given the large heterogeneity of contract farming arrangements, it is debatable whether all kinds of contract farming arrangements offer benefits to participating smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of ...
Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...
Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.
The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia...
Veale, Angela; Adefrisew, Azeb; Lalor, Kevin
The child is the most precious asset and the focal point of development for any country. However, unless children are brought up in a stimulating and conducive environment getting the best possible care and protection, their physical, mental, emotional and social development is susceptible to permanent damage. Ethiopia, being one of the least developed countries of the world due to interrelated and complex socio-economic factors including man-made and natural calamities, a large portion of ou...
Lalor, Kevin; Veale, Angela; Adefrisew, Azeb; UNICEF; University College Cork
The child is the most precious asset and the focal point of development for any country. However, unless children are brought up in a stimulating and conducive environment getting the best possible care and protection, their physical, mental, emotional and social development is susceptible to permanent damage. Ethiopia, being one of the least developed countries of the world due to interrelated and complex socio-economic factors including man-made and natural calamities, a large portion of ou...
Blessing Uchenna Mberu
Using the 1998 Migration, Gender and Health Survey in Five Regions of Ethiopia, and multivariate regression techniques, this paper examines the relationship between internal migration and household living conditions. The analysis finds significant living condition advantage of permanent and temporary migrants over non-migrants. These advantages are primarily linked to migration selectivity by education and non-agricultural income. Once the independent effects of these variables are controlled...
Woldu, Thomas; Tadesse, Fanaye; Waller, Marie-Katherine
This paper uses a rich dataset from a survey undertaken by the Ethiopian Economic Association (EEA) and the Interna-tional Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in 2009 in eight woredas in seven regions of Ethiopia with a sample of 1,117 households and 73 agricultural cooperatives. Using descriptive statistics and econometric analysis under a critical gender lens, the paper identifies which cooperative, household, and individual level characteristics influence women’s participation in agricu...
Fafchamps, Marcel; Agnes R. Quisumbing
This article examines the determinants of human and physical capital at marriage. Using detailed data from rural Ethiopia, we find that assets brought to marriage are distributed in a highly unequal manner. For first unions, assets brought to marriage are positively associated with parents' wealth, indicating that a bequest motive affects assets at marriage. Parental wealth affects the inheritance of neither groom nor bride. Sibling competition from brothers affects grooms' inheritance, but s...
Nega, Fredu; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Josef; Tollens, Eric
This paper investigates the interactions between gender, social capital and empowerment in the rural areas of northern Ethiopia. We define empowerment narrowly as the power of households to make important decisions that change their course of life. Depending on the degree of control over decisions, the response of households is classified into passive, active and full control. A multinomial logit model is used to analyze empowerment levels of the rural households, first for the full sample of...
Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Dorfman, Jeffrey H.; Fonsah, Esendugue Greg
We estimate a distance function of grains production using generalized method of moments that enables us to accommodate multiple outputs of farmers as well as address the endogeneity issues that are related with the use of distance functions for multi-output production. Using a panel data set of Ethiopian subsistence farmers, we find that the most important factors determining farmers' efficiency in Ethiopia are having access to the public extension system, participation in off-farm activitie...
Hoddinott, John F.; Headey, Derek D.; Dereje, Mekdim
In rural economies encumbered by significant market imperfections, farming decisions may partly be motivated by nutritional considerations, in addition to income and risk factors. These imperfections create the potential for farm assets to have direct dietary impacts on nutrition in addition to any indirect effects via income. We test this hypothesis for the dairy sector in rural Ethiopia, a context in which markets are very thin, own-consumption shares are very high, and milk is an important...
Mutlu Ozdogan; Benjamin F. Zaitchik; Belay Simane
Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 ...
Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark
Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.
Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad
Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (Pspecies of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact. PMID:24360645
Tesfaye Woldeyohannes, Markos; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Medhin, Girmay;
-cultural equivalence of the WHOQOL-HIV when used among people with HIV in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at adapting the WHOQOL-HIV bref for the Ethiopian setting. METHODS: A step-wise adaptation of the WHOQOL-HIV bref for use in Ethiopia was conducted to produce an Ethiopian version.......82, TLI = 0.77 and RMSEA = 0.064). CONCLUSION: The WHOQOL-HIV-BREF-Eth has been shown to be a valid measure of quality of life for use in clinical settings among people with HIV in Ethiopia....
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, little is known about pregnancy among rural women. Proper maternal health care depends on clear understanding of the reproductive health situation. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of unintended pregnancy in rural eastern Ethiopia. Methodology This study was part of pregnancy surveillance at Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center, East Ethiopia. Pregnant women were assessed whether their current pregnancy was intended or not. Data were collected by lay interviewers using uniform questionnaire. Odds Ratio, with 95% confidence interval using multiple and multinomial logistic regression were calculated to detect level of significance. Results Unintended pregnancy was reported by 27.9% (578/2072 of the study subjects. Out of which, 440 were mistimed and 138 were not wanted. Unintended pregnancy was associated with family wealth status (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14, 1.90, high parity (7 + (OR 5.18; 95% CI 3.31, 8.12, and a longer estimated time to walk to the nearest health care facility (OR 2.24; 95% CI: 1.49, 3.39. In the multinomial regression, women from poor family reported that their pregnancy was mistimed (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.27, 2.25. The longer estimated time (80 + minutes to walk to the nearest health care facility influenced the occurrence of mistimed pregnancy (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.65, 4.02. High parity (7+ showed a strong association to mistimed and unwanted pregnancies (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.87, 5.12 and (OR 14.34; 95% CI 5.72, 35.98, respectively. Conclusions The economy of the family, parity, and walking distance to the nearest health care institution are strong predictors of unintended pregnancy. In order to reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy Efforts to reach rural women with family planning services should be strengthened.
Feminist leadership is a matter of grave concern in Ethiopia where educated women appear to be obliged to fight individual battles to sustain their own agendas on the emancipation of women. Being manipulated by the government-led â€˜woman questionâ€™ rhetoric, many fail to come to terms with charting such an independent discourse. What is holding them back? Could it be their ideological make-up that is influenced by state and religious indoctrination? Or perhaps their own shortcomings where m...
S. G. Gebrehiwot; Ilstedt, U.; Gärdenas, A. I.; Bishop, K.
Thirty-two watersheds (31–4350 km2), in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, were hydrologically characterized with data from a study of water and land resources by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) published in 1964. The USBR document contains data on flow, topography, geology, soil type, and land use for the period 1959 to 1963. The aim of the study was to identify watershed variables best explaining the variation in the hydrological regime, with a...
G. G. Ambaye
Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of domestic private investment in Ethiopia using a time series data over the period 1992-2010. The study employed an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model and applied the bounds test approach in modeling the long run determinants of domestic private investment. The study found exchange rate, domestic saving and domestic credit as key factors having negative and significant impact on domestic private investment. External debt and government expenditure are found to have significant and positive effect on domestic private investment. The results imply that government expenditure stimulates domestic private investment while domestic credit and domestic saving have a constrained effect on the sector.
Berhane Tesfay, G.
Key words Microfinance, joint liability, contractual risk, group formation, risk-matching, impact evaluation, Panel data econometrics, dynamic panel probit, trend models, fixed-effects, composite counterfactuals, propensity score matching, farm households, Ethiopia. Lack of access to credit is a
Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia. Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwin
Key words: Climate change, Adaptation, Crop modelling, Uncertainty, Maize (Zea mays), Central Rift Valley. Smallholder farmers in Ethiopia have been facing severe climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall and severe droughts that negativelyaffect their livelihoods.Anticipated
Jan Werner; David Nguyen-Thanh
The following paper examines the different options to finance local public infrastructure in Ethiopia based on the assumption that the federal government of Ethiopia will not provide any guarantees for local borrowing. Besides a detailed description of the local public finance system and the capital market in Ethiopia, the paper also sets out some international successful practices in municipal infrastructure financing. Based on the observation of the Ethiopian case and the consideration of t...
Full Text Available This experiment is designed to study the characteristics of village chicken husbandry practice, marketing and constraints in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from July in four selected districts in the highlands of eastern Ethiopia (Haramaya, Kersa, Jarso and Meta. A total of 80 chicken owner households were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on characteristics of village chicken production, feeds and feeding practices, housing, management of chicken and eggs, Marketing, diseases and constraints of village chicken production system were collected. Scavenging chicken production system is observed in all households of the districts. Average flock size of chickens in the study area was 9.4 birds and varied between 4 and 17 birds. In the present study, 82% of the households provide overnight housing within the family house for their chicken. Scavenging is the only feeding system encountered in all study districts with little grain supplementation. Most of the chicken are owned and managed by women (36.75%. Selling of unprocessed eggs and live chickens is mainly practiced. External parasites (mites, Coccidiosis and Newcastle disease were the most important and prevailing diseases in the study area with 39%, 38% and 34% incidence rates, respectively. The magnitude of occurrence of the parasites and diseases were higher in the wet season. Poor genetic quality, lack of extension service, inadequate veterinary service and poor management were the main constraints of village poultry production in the study area.
Asharaf, Shakeel; Fröhlich, Kristina; Fernandez, Jesus; Cardoso, Rita; Nikulin, Grigory; Früh, Barbara
Truthful and reliable seasonal rainfall predictions have an important social and economic value for the east African countries as their economy is highly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and pastoral systems. Only June to September (JJAS) seasonal rainfall accounts to more than 80% crop production in Ethiopia. Hence, seasonal foresting is a crucial concern for the region. The European Provision of Regional Impact Assessment on a seasonal to decadal timescale (EUPORIAS) project offers a common framework to understand hindcast uncertainties through the use of multi-model and multi-member simulations over east Africa. Under this program, the participating regional climate models (RCMs) were driven by the atmospheric-only version of the ECEARTH global climate model, which provides hindcasts of a five-months period (May to September) from 1991-2012. In this study the RCMs downscaled rainfall is evaluated with respect to the observed JJAS rainfall over Ethiopia. Both deterministic and probabilistic based forecast skills are assessed. Our preliminary results show the potential usefulness of multi-model ensemble simulations in forecasting the seasonal rainfall over the region.
There is considerable controversy about the impact of biofuels on food security in developing countries. A major concern is that biofuels reduce food security by increasing food prices. In this paper we use survey evidence to assess the impact of castor production on poor and food insecure rural households in Ethiopia. About 1/3 of poor farmers have allocated on average 15% of their land to the production of castor beans under contract in biofuel supply chains. Castor production significantly improves their food security: they have fewer months without food and the amount of food they consume increases. Castor cultivation is beneficial for participating households’ food security in several ways: by generating cash income from castor contracts, they can store food for the lean season; castor beans preserve well on the field which allows sales when farmers are in need of cash (or food); spillover effects of castor contracts increases the productivity of food crops. Increased food crop productivity offsets the amount of land used for castor so that the total local food supply is not affected. - Highlights: • We evaluate the impact of biofuel production contracts on farmers’ food security. • We apply endogenous switching regression method on survey data from Ethiopia. • Impact is heterogeneous across groups. • Food security significantly improved for contract participants by 25%. • Spillover effects improve food productivity that offsets the amount of land diverted to biofuel
Adugna, A.; Abegaz, A.; Cerdà, A.
Soil erosion is the main driver of land degradation in Ethiopia, and in the whole region of East Africa. This study was conducted at the Northeast Wollega in West Ethiopia to estimate the soil losses by means of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The purpose of this paper is to identify erosion spot areas and target locations for appropriate development of soil and water conservation measures. Fieldwork and household survey were conducted to identify major determinants of soil erosion control. Six principal factors were used to calculate soil loss per year, such as rainfallerosivity, soil erodiblity, slope length, slope steepness, crop management and erosion-control practices. The soil losses have shown spatio-temporal variations that range from 4.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in forest to 65.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in cropland. Results from the analysis of stepwise multiple linear regression show that sustainable soil erosion control are determined byknowledge of farmers about soil conservation, land tenure security and off-farm income at community level. Thus, policy aim at keeping land productivity will need to focus on terracing, inter-cropping and improved agro-forestry practices.
Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon
A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance. PMID:24069773
Full Text Available In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specifically with regards to area exclosure and afforestation and reforestation, and distills lessons regarding processes, achievements and challenges. The findings show that farmers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are the main players, and that the private sector has so far played only a small role. The role of the government was mixed: supportive in some cases and hindering in others. The challenges of state- and NGO-led re-greening practices are: inadequate involvement of communities; poorly defined rehabilitation objectives; lack of management plans; unclear responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and poor silvicultural practices. The lessons include: a more active role for non-state actors in re-greening initiatives; more attention to market signals; devolution of management responsibility; clear definition of responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and better tenure security, which are all major factors to success.
Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan
The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission. PMID:26232657
Frank van Steenbergen
Full Text Available This paper explores the role of politics in water management, in particular, comparing groundwater management in Yemen and Ethiopia. It tries to understand the precise meaning of the often-quoted term 'political will' in these different contexts and compares the autocratic and oligarchic system in Yemen with the dominant party 'developmental state' in Ethiopia. The links between these political systems and the institutional domain are described as well as the actual management of groundwater on the ground. Whereas the Ethiopian state is characterised by the use of hard power and soft ideational power, the system in Yemen relies at most on soft negotiating power. There is a strong link between the political system, the positioning of different parties and access to power, the role of central and local governments, the propensity to plan and vision, the effectiveness of government organisations, the extent of corruption, the influence of informal governance mechanisms, the scope for private initiative and the political interest in groundwater management and development in general. More important than political will per se is political capacity – the ability to implement and regulate.
For the economic development tourism plays a great role for countries like Ethiopia. As international tourism continues to grow from time to time, it is necessary to maintain the tourism sector for generations. As a result, sustainable tourism becomes the best tool to achieve the goal. The purpose of this study is to measure the sustainable tourism management with regard to tourists’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the service they get while they staying in Ethiopia. The study has used the...
Engida, A. N.; Esteves, Michel
In Ethiopia, available rainfall records are mainly limited to daily time steps. Though rainfall data at shorter time steps are important for various purposes like modeling of erosion processes and flood hydro-graphs, they are hardly available in Ethiopia. The objectives of this study were (i) to study the temporal characteristics of daily rains at two stations in the region of the Upper Blue Nile Basin (UBNB) and (ii) to calibrate and evaluate a daily rainfall disaggregation model. The analys...
Animut Abebe; Gebre-Michael Teshome; Balkew Meshesha; Lindtjørn Bernt
Abstract Background Malaria is a public health problem in Ethiopia, and increasingly so in highland areas, possibly because of global warming. This study describes the distribution, breeding habitat and monthly dynamics of anopheline larvae in Butajira, a highland area in south-central Ethiopia. Methods A study of the abundance and dynamics of Anopheles larvae was undertaken at different sites and altitudes in Butajira from July 2008 to June 2010. The sites included Hobe (1817 m.a.s.l), Diram...
Over the past decade, Ethiopia has achieved high economic growth, averaging 10.7 percent per year. In 2012, Ethiopia was the 12th fastest growing economy in the World. If the country can continue its historically impressive growth performance, it could potentially reach middle income status by 2025. This, in turn, may require an adjustment in economic policy to phase in the private sector ...
Weldegebriel Z; Ejigu Y; Weldegebreal F; Woldie M
Zemichael Weldegebriel,1 Yohannes Ejigu,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Public Planning Department, Debark Hospital, Debark, North Gondar, Amhara Region, 2Department of Health Services Management, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between hea...
The present study focuses on Ethiopia, a country despite facing daunting development challenges, is said to have sustained a notable push towards realizing universal primary education. The study was, therefore, made with an objective of critically assessing and evaluating the right to primary education in the present Ethiopia. Using both qualitative and quantitative method, this study not only attempted to describe the political, economic and legal/policy reforms the Ethiopian Government...
Haji Kedir; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku
Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/o...
Nasir Tajure Wabe; Dargicho Ahmed; Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo
AIM: Self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials occurs among the population in Ethiopian. We studied to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials in Ethiopia and evaluate factors associated with self-medications. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 405 households, selected from Silte Zone in South Ethiopia, using a random sampling technique by employing a pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. ...
Macdonald, David M.J.
This study uses a mapping approach to assess whether readily available spatial datasets and expert knowledge can be used to assess regional potential for self supply in Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia. Self supply can be defined as improvement to water supplies developed largely or wholly through user investment, usually at household level. The study was funded by the RiPPLE Programme (Research-inspired Policy and Practice Learning in Ethiopia and the Nil...
Kidane, Berhane; Van Andel, Tinde; van der Maesen, Laurentius Josephus Gerardus; Asfaw, Zemede
Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussion...
Eshete, Biruhe; Gebre, Thomas
Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a category of international investment that indicates an intention to acquire a lasting interest in an enterprise operating in another economy. This study assesses the development of FDI between EU and Least Developed Countries and also examines investment opportunities in Ethiopia. The primary goal was to examine economical and social contribution of FDI inflow. In addition, this study assesses Ethiopia's business opportunity, FDI policies, incentives ...
Gusdal, Annelie Karin; Obua, Celestino; Andualem, Tenaw; Wahlström, Rolf; Chalker, John; Fochsen, Grethe
Abstract Our aim was to explore peer counselors? work and their role in supporting patients? adherence to ART in resource-limited settings in Ethiopia and Uganda. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counselors and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. Two main categories with related subcategories emerged from the analysis. The first main category, Peer counselors as facilitators of adherence, des...
Dias, Alexandra Magnólia
The border between Eritrea and Ethiopia changed status frequently from the 19th century up to Eritrea’s independence (Triulzi, 2006: 7). With the creation of Eritrea as an Italian colony and prior to the incorporation of Ethiopia into the Italian East African Empire the border was defined according to colonial treaties. However, the border waxed and waned over the decades of their political coexistence. Indeed, the border's status shifted from a mere internal-administrative marker to a coloni...
Behailu Merdekios1, Adebola A Adedimeji2 1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia; 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, New York, USA Background: In Ethiopia, Progress in Reducing Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is being curtailed by behavioral and cultural factors that continue to put unborn children at risk, and mother-to-child transmission is responsible for more than 90% of HIV inf...
Merdekios B; Adedimeji AA
Behailu Merdekios1, Adebola A Adedimeji2 1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia; 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, New York, USA Background: In Ethiopia, Progress in Reducing Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is being curtailed by behavioral and cultural factors that continue to put unborn children at risk, and mother-to-child transmission is responsible for more than 90% of HIV infe...
Birhanu Tarekegn; Bacha Ketema; Ketema Tsige; Petros Beyene
Abstract Background Ethiopia has the highest proportion of vivax malaria, approximately 40% of all malaria infections, in contrast to African countries. Chloroquine (CQ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection in the country, although CQ resistant P. vivax (CRPv) has started to challenge the efficacy of the drug. The present study was conducted to assess the current status of CRPv at Serbo, Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia. Methods A 28-day in vivo therapeutic eff...
Assefa Mulu; Berhanu Geresu; Yeshiwork Beyene; Muluneh Ademe
Background: The impact of resistance to antimalarials is insidious and unless efficacy studies are conducted, resistance may go unrecognized. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine, for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections in Kemisie Health Center, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods: Artemether/lumefantrine efficacy study was conducted in Kemisie Health Center, Northeast Ethiopia from September, 2012 to May, 2013. The study participa...
S Hawaze; Deti, H.; Suleman, S.
The leaves extracts of two indigenous plants of Ethiopia: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentra...
Abstract This paper examines the lessons Ethiopia can learn from East Asia’s growth to sustain its recent economic growth. By an in-depth analysis of the role of government in East Asian’s development it provides recommendations for Ethiopia. The study is based on the experiences of South Korea, Taiwan and Japan in the context of three issues: selective intervention policies, coordination problem and export orientation. Results of the study show that governments in East Asia have used phased ...
Z. M. Easton; D. R. Fuka; White, E.D.; A. S. Collick; B. Biruk Ashagre; M. McCartney; S. B. Awulachew; Ahmed, A A; Steenhuis, T. S.
A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopian Blue ...
Dorosh, Paul A.; Thurlow, James
Ethiopiaâ€™s national development strategy, A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty for 2005/06 to 2009/10 (PASDEP) places a major emphasis on achieving high rates of agricultural and overall economic growth. Consistent with the PASDEP, Ethiopia is also in the process of implementing the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) together with other African governments. As part of CAADP, the country has committed itself to meeting targets of devotin...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of
The author looks at the feasibility and potential of instituting small-scale irrigation dams to reduce Ethiopia s dependence on rainfed agriculture and the associated food insecurity. He develops a theoretical framework to assess the welfare implications of irrigation development programs and provides empirical evidence from microdam construction and reforestation projects in northern Ethiopia. The author pays particular attention to health-related costs of establishing small-scale irrigation...
Wudu Temesgen Jemberu; Wassie Molla; Gizat Almaw; Sefinew Alemu
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that has been prevalent in humans and animals for centuries in Ethiopia and it is often dealt with using traditional practices. There is lack of accurate quantitative information on rabies both in humans and animals in Ethiopia and little is known about the awareness of the people about the disease. In this study, we estimated the incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals, and assessed the people's awareness about the disease in North Gondar z...
Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie
Household food security issues have become the concern of international communities as well as national government of Ethiopia. Social safety nets (like Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia) are programs that offer protection to poor rural people by providing income through transfer programs and employment opportunities. The main objective of this study was to identify the major graduation determinants of Productive safety Net Program beneficiary rural households using a logistic regress...
Allen, Mary; Ní Raghallaigh, Muireann
The World Health Organization's multicountry study of the prevalence rates of intimate partner violence found extremely high rates of violence against women in Ethiopia. This article seeks to develop an understanding of this violence further. By drawing on focus group research conducted with women in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, it explores the types of domestic violence experienced by these women, the impact of this violence, the reasons for it, and the multiple resistanc...
Holden, Stein T.; Deininger, Klaus; Ghebru, Hosaena
There is a renewed interest in whether land reforms can contribute to market development and poverty reduction in Africa. This paper assesses effects on the allocative efficiency of the land rental market of the low-cost approach to land registration and certification of restricted property rights that was implemented in Ethiopia in the late 1990s. Four rounds of a balanced household panel from 16 villages in northern Ethiopia are analysed, showing that land certification initially enhanced l...
Tranvåg, Eirik Joakim; Ali, Merima Abdella; Norheim, Ole Frithjof
Background and objectives: Most studies on health inequalities use average measures, but describing the distribution of health can also provide valuable knowledge. In this paper, we estimate and compare within-group and between-group inequalities in length of life for population groups in Ethiopia in 2000 and 2011.Methods: We used data from the 2011 and 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and the Global Burden of Disease study 2010, and the MODMATCH modified logit life table ...
Amogne, Wondwossen; Bontell, Irene; Grossmann, Sebastian; Aderaye, Getachew; Lindquist, Lars; Sönnerborg, Anders; Neogi, Ujjwal
In this study, we characterize HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) strains at the near full-length genome (NFLG) level and perform genotypic drug resistance testing (GRT) and genotypic tropism testing (GTT) from Ethiopia (HIV-1CET). Plasma samples (n = 150) were obtained from therapy-naive individuals residing in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2008. HIV-NFLG was performed in a subset of patients (n = 30). GRT (pol) and GTT (V3 env) were performed using in-house methods. GTT was analyzed by PhenoSeq-C. The phylogenetic analysis of the NLFG identified two separate clusters of HIV-1CET, although all strains formed one large overarching cluster together. At NFLG, greater diversity was found among HIV-1CET strains compared to HIV-1C strains from other geographical locations. The geographic clustering was weak in the small subgenomic (pol and env) regions. The primary drug-resistant mutations were identified at a low level (<5%). GTT identified that 12% (12/102) of the patients were predicted to be harboring X4-tropic or both R5/X4-tropic viruses. PMID:26881451
Yordanos B Molla
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha woredas (districts in East and West Gojam Zones, respectively. The survey covered all 17,553 households in 20 kebeles (administrative subunits randomly selected from the two woredas. A detailed structured interview was conducted on 1,704 cases of podoconiosis identified in the survey. RESULTS: The prevalence of podoconiosis in the population aged 15 years and above was found to be 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2% to 3.6%. 87% of cases were in the economically active age group (15-64 years. On average, patients sought treatment five years after the start of the leg swelling. Most subjects had second (42.7% or third (36.1% clinical stage disease, 97.9% had mossy lesions, and 53% had open wounds. On average, patients had five episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ALA per year and spent a total of 90 days per year with ALA. The median age of first use of shoes and socks were 22 and 23 years, respectively. More men than women owned more than one pair of shoes (61.1% vs. 50.5%; χ(2 = 11.6 p = 0.001. At the time of interview, 23.6% of the respondents were barefoot, of whom about two-thirds were women. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed high prevalence of podoconiosis and associated morbidities such as ALA, mossy lesions and open wounds in northern Ethiopia. Predominance of cases at early clinical stage of podoconiosis indicates the potential for reversing the swelling and calls for disease prevention interventions.
Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.
Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uraninite, UO2, thorianite, ThO2, thorite, ThSiO4, and the like have been valuable for their uranium and thorium contents which are becoming important energy resources today in many countries where atomic reactors are used. They are also essential ingredients in modern weapon industries for the manufacture of devastating weapons. Uraninite is the chief source of uranium although other minerals are important sources of the element such as carnotite, K2(UO2)2(VO4).3H2O, Tyuyamunite, Ca(UO2)2(VO4).5-8 1/2 H2O, torbernite, Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2.8-12H2O,and autunite (Hurlbut et.al, 1977). Th can substitute for U and a complete series between uraninite and thorianite occurs. Analyses usually show the presence of small amounts of Pb, Ra, Ce, Y, N, He and A. Lead occurs as one of two stable isotopes (Pb206 and Pb207) which result from the radioactive decay of uranium (Hurlbut et.al. 1977). According to Bill Morton, a pioneer in the study of Ethiopian Minerals and Rocks, there are a number of radioactive minerals in Ethiopia, with varying physical properties. The presence of the radioactive minerals can easily be detected using a geiger counter or scintillation counter.These radioactive minerals are mainly found in small amounts in pegmatites and in some sandstones reported from the Hararghe area, south-eastern Ethiopia. Uraninite occurs in a form of pitchblende, which is massive with a banded structure. To date no extensive radioactive mineral deposits have been discovered in Ethiopia. Besides the Uranium and thorium minerals observed in pegmatite veins belonging to gneisses of Hararge, Precambrian granite as well as Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments in the same region, i.e., south eastern Ethiopia, particularly in the Dire-Dawa - Harar area, seem to be favorable host rocks for radioactive minerals (Getaneh Assefa, 1992). There are also reports of occurrences of radioactive minerals in Sidamo (Wadera, Zenbaba and Genale localities), Kaffa
Ashenafi, H; Tadesse, S; Medhin, G; Tibbo, M
An investigation was made into coccidiosis of 190 scavenging indigenous chickens between September 2000 and April 2001 in three selected agroclimatic zones, in central Ethiopia. This was done through clinical, postmortem and microscopic examinations. Data were processed by chi-square and Mantel-Haenzel test. The study indicated that 25.8% (49/190) of the chickens were infected with coccidiosis and found to harbour one to four different species of Eimeria. Of these infected chickens, 30 (15.8%) and 19 (10.0%) were positive for clinical and sub-clinical coccidiosis, respectively. There was a significant altitude difference (chi2 = 14.7, p poultry products in developing countries, knowledge of production constraints in traditional management practices could help devise control strategies for constraints on backyard poultry production systems. PMID:15563030
Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.; Assefa, N.;
Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross......-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of violence by an intimate partner was reported by 166 women (19.6%) and 70.3% of the perpetuators were...... husbands. Ever experience of domestic violence among women was significantly related to Amhara ethnicity and age group 30-49 years. Only 33 (19.9%) women who ever experienced violence had reported it to the legal authorities. Women's reasons for failing to report to the legal system were not wanting...
Full Text Available Studies on the regeneration, structural and uses of some woody species in Chilimo Forest, one of the dry Afromontane Forests of Ethiopia were conducted. To gather vegetation and environmental data from the study forest, a 900 m2 (30 m x 30 m quadrat was laid following the homogeneity of vegetation. All together the plant species recorded from Chilimo Forest are 213 which can be categorised into 83 families. Of these, the highest proportion is the angiosperm (represented by 193 species followed by pteridophyta (16 species; the least represented being the gymnosperms (represented by 2 exotic and 2 indigenous species. To provide a better management and monitoring as well as to maintain the biodiversity, cultural and economic values of the forest unsustainable utility of the forest would be controlled with the various conservation activities in place.
Halima, Hassen; Neser, F W C; van Marle-Koster, E; de Kock, A
Seven indigenous chicken populations were identified and characterized from four administrative zones in northwest Ethiopia. A total of three hundred chickens were characterized under field conditions for qualitative and quantitative traits following standard chicken descriptors. Large phenotypic variability among chicken populations was observed for plumage color. About 25.49, 22.3, and 16.4 % of the chickens have white, grayish and red plumage colors, respectively. The rest showed a considerable heterogeneity like black, multicolor, black with white tips, red brownish and white with red striped plumage colors. The following characteristics were also displayed: plain head shape (51.18%), yellow shank color (64.42%) and pea comb (50.72%). About 97.52% of the chickens did not have feathers on their legs. Variations were also observed on quantitative characters such as shank length, egg size and body weight and other reproductive traits characterized on intensive management system. PMID:17969713
Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for the development of socio-eco- logical systems towards enhanced sustainability. Emphasis is given to the dynamic properties of complex, adaptive social-ecological systems, their structure and to the fundamental role of agriculture. The tangible components that meet the needs of specific projects executed in Kenya and Ethiopia encompass project objectives, innovation, facilitation, continuous recording and analyses of monitoring data, that allow adaptive management and system navigation. Two case studies deal with system navigation through the mitigation of key constraints; they aim to improve human health thanks to anopheline malaria vectors control in Nyabondo (Kenya, and to improve cattle health through tsetse control and antitrypanosomal drug administration to cattle in Luke (Ethiopia. The second case deals with a socio-ecological navigation system to enhance sustainability, establishing a periurban diversified enterprise in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia and developing a rural sustainable social-ecological system in Luke (Ethiopia. The project procedures are briefly described here and their outcomes are analysed in relation to the stated objectives. The methodology for human and cattle disease vector control were easier to implement than the navigation of social-ecological systems towards sustainability enhancement. The achievements considerably differed between key constraints removal and sustainability enhancement projects. Some recommendations are made to rationalise human and cattle health improvement efforts and to smoothen the road towards enhanced sustainability: i technology system implementation should be carried out through an innovation system; ii transparent monitoring information should be continuously acquired and evaluated for assessing the state of the system in relation to stated objectives for (a improving the insight into the systems behaviour and (b rationalizing decision support; iii the
Robinson, W C; Yamazaki, F
This paper deals with the economic development of Ethiopia in the 3 decades between 1950 and 1980. In particular, it examines governmental efforts at agricultural planning during this period compared to the actual experience of the country. The dominant forces governing the changes that occurred in this period were accelerated population growth and the declining availability of arable land, which combined to push a fragile, traditional ecosystem to the brink of disaster. Government planning efforts had little impact in the pre-1974 period, since they were too modest and small scale to affect the highly traditional and primitive mode of peasant cultivation. The sweeping structural changes introduced by the new regime since 1974 seem to have mainly adverse effects and to have decreased both productivity and yields. Ethiopia lacks the basic infrastructure and incentive system to create an environment in which technological change is possible. Presumably the declining agricultural growth rate from 1953 to 1974 suggests that the traditional, prerevolution system was failing to create these favorable conditions and hence was losing the race with population growth. The post-1974 revolutionary government's policy has been, in effect, an effort to jump to an advanced phase of agricultural development, and this seems to have been even less successful. These plans have, in all fairness, been hamstrung since 1981 by drought, famine, and civil war, but have probably themselves contributed to the severity of those events. Overall, Ethiopian agricultural planning has not been notably successful. From 1953-1980, total agricultural production is estimated to have grown at a slowly decreasing rate. The collapse of agriculture due to several years of drought obviously cannot be blamed on government planning, but its severity clearly has been at least partly a function of policy failures. PMID:12280692
Wolela, Ahmed [Department of Petroleum Operations, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Kotebe Branch Office, P. O. Box-486, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)
The gravity of Ethiopian energy problem has initiated studies to explore various energy resources in Ethiopia, one among this is the exploration for coal resources. Studies confirmed the presence of coal deposits in the country. The coal-bearing sediments are distributed in the Inter-Trappean and Pre-Trap volcanic geological settings, and deposited in fluvio-lacustrine and paludal environments in grabens and half-grabens formed by a NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE fault systems. Most significant coal deposits are found in the Inter-Trappean geological setting. The coal and coal-bearing sediments reach a maximum thickness of 4 m and 300 m, respectively. The best coal deposits were hosted in sandstone-coal-shale and mudstone-coal-shale facies. The coal formations of Ethiopia are quite unique in that they are neither comparable to the coal measures of the Permo-Carboniferous Karroo Formation nor to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous of North America or Northwestern Europe. Proximate analysis and calorific value data indicated that the Ethiopian coals fall under lignite to high volatile bituminous coal, and genetically are classified under humic, sapropelic and mixed coal. Vitrinite reflectance studies confirmed 0.3-0.64% Ro values for the studied coals. Palynology studies confirmed that the Ethiopian coal-bearing sediments range in age from Eocene to Miocene. A total of about 297 Mt of coal reserve registered in the country. The coal reserve of the country can be considered as an important alternative source of energy. (author)
Wright, Jeremy; Ayenachew, Fekade; Ballard, Karen D
Objective To examine the incidence and type of obstetric fistula presenting to Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia over a 4-year period. Study design This is a 4-year retrospective survey of obstetric fistula treated at three Hamlin Fistula Hospitals in Ethiopia, where approximately half of all women in the country are treated. The operation logbook was reviewed to identify all new cases of obstetric fistula presenting from 2011 to 2015. New cases of urinary fistula were classified by fistula type (high or low), age, and parity of the woman. Results In total, 2,593 new cases of urinary fistulae were identified in the study period. The number of new cases fell by 20% per year over the 4 years (P<0.001). A total of 1,845 cases (71.1%) were low (ischemic) fistulae, and 804 cases (43.6%) of these had an extreme form of low circumferential fistula. A total of 638 (24.6%) women had a high bladder fistula, which predominantly occurs following surgery, specifically cesarean section or emergency hysterectomy, and 110 (4.2%) women had a ureteric fistula. The incidence of high fistulae increased over the study period from 26.9% to 36.2% (P<0.001). A greater proportion of multiparous women had a high bladder fistula (70.3%) compared with primigravid women (29.7%) (P<0.001). Conversely, a greater proportion of primiparous women experienced a low circumferential fistulae (68.6%) compared with multiparous women (31.4%) (P<0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a decline in the number of Ethiopian women being treated for new obstetric urinary fistulae. However, the type of fistula being presented for treatment is changing, with a rise in high fistulae that very likely occurred following cesarean section and a decline in the classic low fistulae that arise following obstructed childbirth. PMID:27445505
Elizabeth H Bradley
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple interventions have been launched to improve the quality, access, and utilization of primary health care in rural, low-income settings; however, the success of these interventions varies substantially, even within single studies where the measured impact of interventions differs across sites, centers, and regions. Accordingly, we sought to examine the variation in impact of a health systems strengthening intervention and understand factors that might explain the variation in impact across primary health care units. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a mixed methods positive deviance study of 20 Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs in rural Ethiopia. Using longitudinal data from the Ethiopia Millennium Rural Initiative (EMRI, we identified PHCUs with consistently higher performance (n = 2, most improved performance (n = 3, or consistently lower performance (n = 2 in the provision of antenatal care, HIV testing in antenatal care, and skilled birth attendance rates. Using data from site visits and in-depth interviews (n = 51, we applied the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to identify key themes that distinguished PHCUs with different performance trajectories. Key themes that distinguished PHCUs were 1 managerial problem solving capacity, 2 relationship with the woreda (district health office, and 3 community engagement. In higher performing PHCUs and those with the greatest improvement after the EMRI intervention, health center and health post staff were more able to solve day-to-day problems, staff had better relationships with the woreda health official, and PHCU communities' leadership, particularly religious leadership, were strongly engaged with the health improvement effort. Distance from the nearest city, quality of roads and transportation, and cultural norms did not differ substantially among PHCUs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Effective health strengthening efforts may require intensive
Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M
Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to
Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.
An account of the history of the scientific exploration of the flora in Ethiopia and Eritrea, mainly based on experience from the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, but with conclusions from the newest literature also taken into account....
Gebreegziabher, Z.; Gabremedhin, B.; Mekonnen, A.
Land is an essential factor of production. Institutions that govern its efficient use determine the sustainability of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting is said to have resulted in the major degradation of Ethiopia's land resources and diss
Mekonnen, M.M.; Melesse, A.M.; Keesstra, S.D.
Freshwater resources scarcity is becoming a limiting factor for development and sustenance in most parts of Ethiopia. The Debre Mewi watershed, in northwest Ethiopia, is one of such areas where the need for supplemental water supply through rainwater harvesting is essential. Suitable water harvestin
Yayis Rezene; Fitsum Alemayehu; Fikadu Gurmu; Fisseha Negash; Bahilu Banteyirgu; Yasin Goa
Ambericho (IG-51664) with a large and white seeded field pea variety was selected and developed by Areka Agricultural Research Center, southern Ethiopia. This variety was selected from the regional variety trial tested together 15 other test genotypes including local and standard checks at 8 environments. Finally the variety was officially released for wider production in the southern highlands of Ethiopia.
Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin
The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts. PMID:26949190
New K-Ar dates are presented for areas in W and SE Ethiopia. In the west, the dates distinguish the Geba Basalts of 40 to 32 Ma from the Welega Shield Volcanics which are shown to range from 11.2 + -2.2 to 7.8 + - 1.6 Ma. In SE Ethiopia, the Lower Stratoid flood basalts range from 30 + - 4.5 to 23.5 + - 4.5 Ma and are unconformably overlain by the Reira-Sanete shield volcanics which range from c. 15 to c. 2 Ma. The unconformity is marked by a palaeosol as are several of the intervals between the major volcanic stages of Ethiopia
Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces. PMID:25911028
Yeshtila Wondemeneh Bekele
Full Text Available This article analyses state-society relations in Ethiopia with particular emphasis on the post-1991 period. The objective of the study is to identify and analyse the fundamental factors of state-society relations at the national level: property rights, political representation, and the urban-rural elite cleavage. The article views state-society relations at the local level with reference to perception and practice, taking into account symbols, social control, ability to make decisions and control over the means of violence. The study was conducted in eight purposively selected localities in three administrative regions in Ethiopia. The empirical data was collected at national and local levels using key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and a household survey. The analysis shows that state-society relations in Ethiopia are driven by three major factors: property rights, political representations and the urban-rural divide.
It examines the feasibility of using coal from the Delbi-Moya reserve for domestic or institutional cooking, industrial process heating and electricity generation. It indicates as coal can be mined from the Delbi reserve at a cost of EB110/tonne, can be processed for EB400/tonne and transported to Addis Ababa for 150/tonne. The wholesale price of coal briquettes in Addis Ababa would be EB750/tonne. Domestic users can save EB475 per year by switching from charcoal to coal briquettes. And for a 50MW plant annual saving would be of the order of EB30 million per year. 11 tab. 4 figs. 6 appendex
Tatek Abebe : Earning a Living on the Margins: Begging, Street Work, and the socio-Spatial Experiences of Children, in Addis Ababa, Geografiska Annaler,Series B Human Geography, 2008, vol. 90B, n° 1, pp. 271-284. The paper explores the everyday life experiences of boys and girls who beg on the streets in Addis Ababa. Based on seven months of child-focused research, it discusses begging as an often-overlooked but crucial aspect of social reproduction in which children earn resources in order t...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB epidemic under control. The aim of this study was to measure duration of delay among pastoralist TB patients at TB management units in Somali Regional State (SRS of Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study of 226 TB patients with pastoralist identity was conducted in SRS of Ethiopia from June to September 2007. Patients were interviewed using questionnaire based interview. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay, and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (medical provider's delay were analyzed. Both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Result A total of 226 pastoralist TB patients were included in this study; 93 (41.2% were nomadic pastoralists and 133 (58.8% were agro-pastoralists. Median patient delay was found to be 60 days with range of 10–1800 days (83 days for nomadic pastoralists and 57 days for agro-pastoralists. Median health care provider's delay was 6 days and median total delay was 70 days in this study. Patient delay constituted 86% of the total delay. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nomadic pastoralism (aOR. 2.69, CI 1.47–4.91 and having low biomedical knowledge on TB (aOR. 2.02, CI 1.02–3.98 were significantly associated with prolonged patient delay. However, the only observed risk factor for very long patient delay >120 days was distance to health facility (aOR.4.23, CI 1.32–13.54. Extra
Yilebes Addisu Damtie
Full Text Available Besides striving for the increase of production and development, it is also necessary to reduce the losses created by the shocks. The people of Ethiopia are exposed to the impact of both natural and man-made shocks. Following this, policy makers, governmental and non-governmental organizations need to identify the important shocks and their effect and use as an input. This study was conducted to identify the food insecurity shocks and to estimate their effect based on the conceptual framework developed in Ethiopia, Amhara National Regional State of Libo Kemkem District. Descriptive statistical analysis, multiple regression, binary logistic regression, chi-squared and independent sample t-test were used as a data analysis technique. The results showed eight shocks affecting households which were weather variability, weed, plant insect and pest infestation, soil fertility problem, animal disease and epidemics, human disease and epidemics, price fluctuation problem and conflict. Weather variability, plant insect and pest infestation, weed, animal disease and epidemics created a mean loss of 3,821.38, 886.06, 508.04 and 1,418.32 Birr, respectively. In addition, human disease and epidemics, price fluctuation problem and conflict affected 68.11%, 88.11% and 14.59% of households, respectively. Among the sample households 28,1 % were not able to meet their food need throughout the year while 71,9 % could. The result of the multiple regression models revealed that weed existence (β = –0,142, p < 0,05, plant insect and pest infestation (β = –0,279, p < 0,01 and soil fertility problem (β = –0,321, p < 0,01 had significant effect on income. Asset was found significantly affected by plant insect and pest infestation (β = –0,229, p < 0,01, human disease and epidemics (β = 0,145, p < 0,05, and soil fertility problem (β = –0,317, p < 0,01 while food production was affected by soil fertility problem (β = –0,314, p < 0,01. Binary logistic
Blomne Sopov, M.; Sertse, Y.
This project built on the previous work of the Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR in the soy sector development in Ethiopia. As processors were linked more and more to producers in the soy sector, the need arose to explore options to enhance household nutrition security of producers in soy growing areas. One of such option was setting up a pilot microenterprise based on the VitaGoat system at the most successful soy growing cooperative in Ethiopia. The VitaGoat system has been a...
Kippie Kanshie, T.
Key words : Ethiopia, Gedeo, ensete , pacemaker , spacemaker , placemaker, agroforest, agro-ecosystem, sustainability, biodiversity.The present volume is a study of an ancient way of land use, over five thousand years old, by the Gedeo in Ethiopia. The densely populated Gedeo country (500 persons per km 2) covers highlands (range 1200 to 3000m asl) between 5 oand 7 oNorth and 38 oand 40 oEast, in the escarpment of the Rift Valley facing Lake Abaya. Based on perennial cropping, emphasis on tre...
Friis, Ib; Gilbert, Michael G.; Weber, Odile;
During field trips in 2013 and 2014, two distinctive plants belonging to the genus Commicarpus were collected in the Lele Hills, Bale Zone, eastern Ethiopia, on outcrops of sedimentary rock belonging to the Gorrahei Formation with high contents of gypsum. The plants are here described as two new....... leleensis, only known from the type, should remain Data Deficient (DD). Outcrops of gypsum with restricted-range species are well known from eastern Ethiopia and Somalia, but the locality with the two new species of Commicarpus is the most north-western and one of the highest sites recorded so far for...
Abebe Gemeda; Apers Ludwig; Hailmichael Yohannes; Tesfaye Markos; Deribew Amare; Duchateau Luc; Colebunders Robert
Abstract Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face intervie...
Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a cross-sectional study of 305 breastfed infants aged 5-11 mo and their mothers; a double-blind randomised controlled zinc supplementation trial on growth of 200 breastfed infants aged 6-12 mo for 6...
This paper investigates whether the death of a parent during middle childhood affects child schooling and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ethiopia. The data comes from two rounds of the Young Lives survey, conducted in 2002 and 2006, of an initial sample of 1000 children across 20 sentinel sites in Ethiopia. The children were 7 to 8 years of age in 2002 and 11 to 12 years of age in 2006, with around 80 losing a parent between rounds. The research finds that the mother dying reduces school enro...
Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.
Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.
Kemal Abdurahim Ahmed
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate instructional leadership practices in secondary schools of Assosa zone, Ethiopia. In order to address the objectives of the study, a descriptive survey method was employed. The population of the study were 266 teachers and 12 principals. From this number of population, 141 teachers and 12 principals were used as a sample using simple random and comprehensive sampling techniques respectively. Data collected from these respondents was analyzed and interpreted using Percentage, one sample t-test, weighted mean and mean ranking. The finding revealed that, among instructional leadership functions, instructional leaders’ role in communicating school goals, supervision and evaluation of instruction, monitoring of school progress, protection of instructional time, maintaining high visibility, are promoting professional development seemed at a level near to average. Whereas, coordination of the curriculum, providing incentive for teachers, and incentive for students were significantly low performed. Based on findings it is concluded that, instructional leadership practices in the zone seem to be poor. On top of the findings, recommendations are forwarded to address the challenges the principals’ faced in their instructional leadership activities mainly focusing on empowering both principals and schools to foster instructional leadership practices in the secondary schools of the zone.
Asfaw, Berhane; Gilbert, W Henry; Beyene, Yonas; Hart, William K; Renne, Paul R; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Vrba, Elisabeth S; White, Tim D
The genesis, evolution and fate of Homo erectus have been explored palaeontologically since the taxon's recognition in the late nineteenth century. Current debate is focused on whether early representatives from Kenya and Georgia should be classified as a separate ancestral species ('H. ergaster'), and whether H. erectus was an exclusively Asian species lineage that went extinct. Lack of resolution of these issues has obscured the place of H. erectus in human evolution. A hominid calvaria and postcranial remains recently recovered from the Dakanihylo Member of the Bouri Formation, Middle Awash, Ethiopia, bear directly on these issues. These approximately 1.0-million-year (Myr)-old Pleistocene sediments contain abundant early Acheulean stone tools and a diverse vertebrate fauna that indicates a predominantly savannah environment. Here we report that the 'Daka' calvaria's metric and morphological attributes centre it firmly within H. erectus. Daka's resemblance to Asian counterparts indicates that the early African and Eurasian fossil hominids represent demes of a widespread palaeospecies. Daka's anatomical intermediacy between earlier and later African fossils provides evidence of evolutionary change. Its temporal and geographic position indicates that African H. erectus was the ancestor of Homo sapiens. PMID:11907576
In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal
Ketema Deribew; Zinaye Tekeste; Beyene Petros
Objective: To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis, malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases. Methods: Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children (216 males and 171 females) to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia. Results: The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54% and 6.20% respectively. Only 2.84% of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites. There was high percentage of anemic patients (81.81%) in the coinfected cases than in either malaria (33.3%) or schistosomiasis (38.94%) cases. There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected (P0.05). The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs/10 mL urine (r=-0.6) and malaria parasitemia (r=-0.53). Conclusions: The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected. Furthermore, level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia. Therefore, examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.
Ayalew, Amare; Fehrmann, Hartmut; Lepschy, Johann; Beck, Robert; Abate, Dawit
The occurrence of mycotoxins in barley, sorghum, teff (Eragrostis tef) and wheat from Ethiopia has been studied. Samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEN) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and for fumonisins (FUM) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AFB1 and OTA were detected in samples of all the four crops. AFB1 was detected in 8.8% of the 352 samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from trace to 26 microg kg(-1). OTA occurred in 24.3% of 321 samples at a mean concentration of 54.1 microg kg(-1) and a maximum of 2106 microg kg(-1). DON occurred in barley, sorghum and wheat at 40-2340 microg kg(-1) with an overall incidence of 48.8% among the 84 mainly 'suspect' samples analyzed; NIV was co-analyzed with DON and was detected at 40 microg kg(-1) in a wheat sample and at 50, 380, and 490 microg kg(-1) in three sorghum samples. FUM and ZEN occurred only in sorghum samples with low frequencies at concentrations reaching 2117 and 32 microg kg(-1), respectively. The analytical results indicate higher mycotoxin contamination in sorghum, which could be related to the widespread storage of sorghum grain in underground pits leading to elevated seed moisture contents. This is the first report on the occurrence of OTA in teff. PMID:16830193
Wynn, Jonathan G; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K; Wilson, Jessica N
The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965
Johanes U.I. Agbahey
Full Text Available In Ethiopia, less than 40% of farmers use fertilizer and those who do, apply rates significantly below those recommended. This low fertilizer use is primarily due to prices being two to three times higher than prices on the world markets. Reducing the price of fertilizer requires a sound understanding of the product´s supply chain. This study investigates whether fertilizer is delivered to farmers in an efficient way and at the lowest possible costs using an institutional economics framework. It was conducted in the Arsi zone and relied on secondary data as well as primary data collected through interviews. The findings point out the presence of several formal and informal institutions regulating the market. A market monopoly at each stage of the supply chain and a striking correspondence between the central organization of the chain and the rise in left-over stocks were observed. This pinpoints the imperfect structure of the chain and a misallocation of resources locked up in fertilizer stockholding. In order to improve the demand estimation procedure, this study suggests that incentives should be instituted to enhance the reliability of the information transferred along the process. Additionally, expert knowledge used in the process should be well documented, stock inventories should not be limited to central warehouses and stockholding needs to be reduced.
Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, motor pump irrigation is at an earlier stage than in Asia but is growing rapidly in many countries. The focus of both policy and research in Africa to date has been on facilitating supply chains to make pumps available at a reasonable price. In Africa, pump irrigation is mainly based on two sources: shallow groundwater aquifers and small streams and rivers. Both usually have limited and variable yields. We present a case study from Ethiopia where pump irrigation based on small rivers and streams is expanding rapidly, and draw parallels to experiences in Asia and other African countries. We show that while farmers understand the social nature of community-managed irrigation, they share with policymakers a narrow understanding of pump irrigation as being primarily 'technical'. They perceive pumps as liberating them from the 'social' limitations of traditional communal irrigation. However, the rapid expansion of pump irrigation is leading to increasing competition and conflict over the limited water resource. We analyse the wider implications for Africa of this blindness to the social dimension of pump irrigation and offer suggestions on future policy and applied research to address the problem before it becomes a widespread crisis.
Geda, Biftu; Berhane, Yemane; Assefa, Nega; Worku, Alemayehu
Background The type and extent of childhood disability in Ethiopia is unknown due to lack of accurate and reliable data. This study tried to assess the magnitude and types of disabilities among children 0–14 years of age in eastern Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study among households that are under demographic and health surveillance in eastern Ethiopia. The study population consisted of all children aged 0–14 year. A structured questionnaire was used to ass...
Sertse, Y.; Ruijter de Wildt, de M.J.M.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Danse, M.G.
The Ethiopian government is aiming to achieve self-sufficiency in edible oil by 2015. The aim of this research was to develop sustainable business models for millers, increase their competitiveness, and enhance food safety and security in Ethiopia within the changing policy context.
Dijk, van R.A.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Dijk, van R.A.; Gewald, J.B.
Rev. Mensa Otabil, the founder of the International Central Gospel Church in Accra, is considered an influential representative of a new Pentecostal-inspired Pan-Africanist ideology. His book 'Beyond the Rivers of Ethiopia' lays the foundations of a Pentecostal Liberation Theology that proclaims a C
Lemmen, C.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Lengoiboni, M.; Deininger, K.; Burns, T.
Since the start of the 21st century, great progress has been made with rural land certification in Ethiopia. This process, however, has been mainly confined to the so called first phase certificates. These certificates do identify the land holding households (with name etc. and photographs), but lim
Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.
Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…
Kidane, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Andel, van T.; Asfaw, Z.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Livestock production is an integral part of the agricultural system in Ethiopia. Medicinal plants are used and are important for rural communities for the treatment of livestock diseases. We studied and analysed the traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment
An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....
Wassie, A.; Teketay, D.
Church forests are sanctuaries for different organisms, ranging from microbes to large animals, which have almost disappeared in most parts of northern Ethiopia. Despite the actual and potential significance of these forests, studies and documented information on their bio-physical features and soci
The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…
Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.
Proper understanding of the relationship among concern for the environment, waste separation and disposal can contribute to good waste management and safer environment. This is particularly vital in cities of developing countries (such as Ethiopia) where waste separation is poor and there is widespr
Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou
We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…
Morgan, L. E.; Renne, P. R.; Woldegabriel, G.; White, T. D.
In past work at hominid sites in Ethiopia, 40Ar/39Ar dating was used to constrain obsidian from the base of the Upper Herto Member of the Bouri Formation to 160 ± 2 ka. An overlying vitric tuff was then geochemically correlated to one from the Konso region of Ethiopia, which is constrained to be older than 154 ± 7 ka, thus leaving only 6 ± 7 ky between eruption and deposition of the fossils and artifacts at Herto. To continue these studies, we have collected and are currently analyzing obsidian and associated volcanic ashes from Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological and paleontological sites in the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Distinctive geochemical signatures among most obsidian fragments collected (n=20 per site) suggest that obsidian was being derived from a variety of sources. By comparing our geochemical data with that from known obsidian deposits in Ethiopia and elsewhere in East Africa, we hope to determine the source localities for the obsidian and thus gauge the extent of trade networks during the MSA. Thus, by characterizing obsidian using both 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and trace element geochemistry, will make it possible to temporally refine the stratigraphy and prehistory at hominid sites, which in turn improves understanding of hominid behavior and evolution.
Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.
In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…
Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann
This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…
The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...
This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…
Akalu, Girmaw Abebe
The continuing professional development (CPD) of teachers has increasingly come to be considered an important component of teacher policy reforms throughout much of the world. As part of its comprehensive school improvement and teacher development programmes, Ethiopia has recently developed a national policy framework on CPD for teachers. Arguing…