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Sample records for addis ababa ethiopia

  1. in Debre Zeit and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University,. P.O.Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia humans are also used in veterinary practices (3,. 6). This may present a public health risk by the transfer of resistant Salmonella and other zoonotic bacterial pathogens or the resistant genes from food animals to humans through consumption of ...

  2. nary Clinics of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, reports on the appropriateness of the prescribing and dispens- ing behaviors of animal health workers are limited. The objectives of this study were to assess the adherence of animal health workers to rational antimicro- bial prescription guidelines. Materials and methods. The study was conducted in Addis Ababa ...

  3. Pattern of bone tumours seen at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Medicine, Black-Lion Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. The study was also aimed at looking into the spectrum of bone tumors referred to BLH. Methods: All bone tumor patients, who presented to all the three departments at BLH between the study periods of December, 2003 – March, 2008 ...

  4. (LBP) among Taxi Drivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Original article. Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain (LBP) among. Taxi Drivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study. Melaku Erjabo Wanamo, Samson ... cultural contribute (1). Lower back which is also ... burden on individuals' families, communities, industries and countries (6, 7).

  5. Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the

  6. Pattern of injuries in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A one-year descriptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of injuries in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A one-year descriptive study. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Methods: A one-year (July 2005-June 2006) retrospective descriptive audit of injuries in a public health facility of Addis Ababa using external causes of injury codes on district health ...

  7. Factors associated with HIV-1 infection among sex workers of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aklilu, M.; Messele, T.; Tsegaye, A.; Biru, T.; Mariam, D. H.; van Benthem, B.; Coutinho, R.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Fontanet, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection among sex workers of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Design and methods: Cross-sectional survey on socio-demographic characteristics, behaviours, and HIV serological status of sex workers attending two health centres of Addis Ababa.

  8. Patterns of caesarean-section delivery in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibeltal T. Bayou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Setting: The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Specifically, it was conducted in all healthcare facilities offering maternity and obstetric services. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the patterns of caesarean-section (CS delivery in Addis Ababa. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014. The population for the study were women aged between 15 and 19 years of age who had given birth in the last 1–3 years before the date of data collection. The Census and Survey Processing System software was used for data capturing and analysing both descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Results: Amongst the 835 women who delivered at health facilities, 19.2% had given birth by CS. The prevalence of CS based on medical indication was 91.3%. However, 6.9% of CS performed had no medical indication. Private health facilities performed more CSs than public health facilities, 41.1% and 11.7% respectfully. CS was high amongst women of higher socioeconomic standing. Conclusion: Overall, CS deliveries rate in Ethiopia is above the rate recommended by the World Health Organisation. Because socio-economic factors influence CS delivery, governments should play a key role in regulating performance of CSs in private institutions.

  9. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  10. Retrospective Assessment of Antibiotics Prescribing at Public Primary Healthcare Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Worku, Fikru; Tewahido, Dagmawit

    2018-01-01

    Background. Antibiotic overprescribing is the major driving force for the emergence of antibiotics resistance. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotics prescribing at primary healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. The study was conducted in six public health centers found in Addis Ababa City. Data was collected retrospectively from a total of 900 prescriptions and selected medical charts of patients in the health centers in 2016. Data was entered and analyzed using EP...

  11. Determinants of age at first marriage in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high unemployment rate and increased cost of living in the city had tended to delay the timing of family formation in Addis Ababa. However, educated women, though delayingtheir marriage for the purposes of pursuing their education goal, had a better chance of getting married. Keywords: Age, first marriage, delayed ...

  12. Network Science Center Research Teams Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    electrical engineer who previously worked at a Government Institute. 3 months ago he formed a company that develops Radio-Frequency Identification ( RFID ...he believes that the RFID capabilities will be in great demand. To his knowledge, there are no other firms in this business. He is currently...coordinating to test his system in several warehouses in the Addis Ababa area. He also emphasized that he believes by creating a successful business, he

  13. The Links between Academic Research and Economic Development in Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Nega Kahsay

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the major issues concerning the links between academic research and economic development in Ethiopia by considering the Addis Ababa University as a case. The paper is based on two premises. The first pertains to the idea that universities being one of the actors in knowledge production plays a central role in enhancing…

  14. Over one century of rainfall and temperature observations in addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Declan Conway, D.; Mould, C.; Bewket, W.

    2004-01-01

    A detailed historical reconstruction and analysis is presented of the longest record of climate observations for Ethiopia, from 1898 to 2002 in Addis Ababa. Prior to 1951 the record comprises rainfall and minimum and maximum temperatures recorded in different locations by different observers. The

  15. Factors Affecting Quality of Laboratory Services in Public and Private Health Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mesfin, Eyob Abera; Taye, Binyam; Belay, Getachew; Ashenafi, Aytenew; Girma, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Background Quality laboratory service is an essential component of health care system but in Sub-Saharan Africa such as Ethiopia, laboratories quality system remains weak due to several factors and it needs more attention to strengthen its capacity and quality system. Methodology A cross sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire to assess factors affecting the quality of laboratory service at private and public health institutions in Addis Ababa. Results A total of 213 laboratory pr...

  16. Perceived Principals' Leadership Styles and Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Is There a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrat Zeleke, Frew

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of higher education faculty can be affected by the kind of leadership style practiced by leaders of an institution. This study examined perceived principals' leadership styles related to faculty job satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa (HTIAA), Ethiopia. Leadership style in this study was defined as…

  17. Road Crashes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Empirical Findings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Key Words: Road Crash; Fatalities; Serious Injuries; Minor Injuries; Safety. Introduction. Road crashes nowadays are becoming a global public health concern, especially in. African countries. According to a World Health Organization report in 2015, Ethiopia is one of the 50 countries with the deadliest roads in the world ...

  18. Factors affecting performance of public hospital nurses in Addis Ababa region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Nebiat; Berehe, Costantinos

    2016-03-01

    Nurses have a major role to play in providing timely, quality health services in hospitals. It is important to identify factors influencing the performance of nurses to improve the quality of healthcare delivered in healthcare organizations. The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing job performance of nurses in public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June 2010 to December 2010 in five public hospitals in Addis Ababa. Among 658 nurses meeting the inclusion criteria, the estimated sample size of 290 nurses was selected using a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. A total of 230 (80%) questionnaires were returned of the 290 questionnaires distributed to respondents. The results of the study indicated that nurses have rated the following as below average: job performance (mean=2.71, SD=0.48), job satisfaction (mean=2.55, SD=0.39), and organizational commitment (mean=2.45, SD=0.36). Organizational commitment (β=0.69, Pcareer development (β=0.39, Pfactors that contribute to job satisfaction and organizational commitments to improve nurses' job performance.

  19. Retrospective Assessment of Antibiotics Prescribing at Public Primary Healthcare Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikru Worku

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antibiotic overprescribing is the major driving force for the emergence of antibiotics resistance. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotics prescribing at primary healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. The study was conducted in six public health centers found in Addis Ababa City. Data was collected retrospectively from a total of 900 prescriptions and selected medical charts of patients in the health centers in 2016. Data was entered and analyzed using EPI Info 7 and SPSS 20, respectively. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results. One or more antibiotics were prescribed in 56.0% of the prescriptions. Antibiotics accounted for 46.0% of the total cost of medicines prescribed. Amoxicillin was the most frequently (44.8% prescribed antibiotic and upper respiratory tract infection was the most common (24.5% diagnosis for prescribing antibiotics. Laboratory investigation was done for only about 27% of the cases for which antibiotics were prescribed. Conclusion. There was a high rate of antibiotics prescribing in the health centers often empirically which might exacerbate the antimicrobial resistance situation in the country. Large-scale study should be conducted to fully understand the prescribing pattern and identify the associated factors thereby design and implement appropriate interventions.

  20. The burden of road traffic injuries in an emergency department in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Hedt-Gauthier, B.; Silkondez, W.; Abebe, D.; Deressa, W.; Enquessilase, F.; Edwards, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: The emergency department (ED) of Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Objective: To document the proportion, trend, characteristics and outcomes of road traffic injury (RTI) related ED admissions (⩾15 years) between 2014 and 2015. Design: A retrospective, cross-sectional study using routinely collected ED data. Results: Of 10 007 ED admissions, 779 (8%) were RTI cases; this proportion peaked in the month of January (11%). Medical records were available for 522 (67%) of these RTI cases. The median age was 28 years and 69% were males. The majority were pedestrians (69%) injured by an automobile (78%). On triage, 32% were classified as needing urgent/immediate intervention. Head injuries (20%) were the second most common injury after lower limb injuries (36%). ED outcomes were as follows: discharged (68%), hospitalised (17%), referred (17%) and died (1%). Among the 78 hospitalised cases, respectively 62% and 16% were admitted to the surgical and orthopaedic departments. Of 146 RTI cases with head injuries, 25% were hospitalised, of whom 82% were admitted to the surgical department. Conclusion: Our findings can guide policy makers in referral hospitals in improving the planning of hospital resources and the prioritisation of public health needs linked to further urban development. A comprehensive plan to prevent RTIs, particularly among pedestrians in Addis Ababa, is urgently needed. PMID:27358798

  1. Private sector participation in solid waste collection in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) by involving micro-enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilaye, Mesfin; van Dijk, Meine Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Privatization of urban services focuses often on the involvement of foreign enterprises. This contribution deals with micro-privatization, the partial transfer of government responsibility for solid waste collection to micro-enterprises. It tries to shed light on whether the current private sector participation (PSP) of micro-enterprises in solid waste collection service is the best way to capture the expected advantages of private sector involvement. The article examines the relations of the micro-enterprises with beneficiaries and the public sector by focusing on the contract procedure, the tariff-setting process, the cost recovery mechanism and institutionalizing of market principles for micro-enterprises. The research was carried out using secondary and primary data sources. Primary data were collected through the interviewing of public sector officials at different levels, focus group discussions with community groups and micro-enterprises, and observation. A survey was conducted among 160 micro-enterprises in the city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using a standard questionnaire. What are some of the factors contributing to the results of PSP in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia? Policies at higher levels of government definitely produced an overall climate conducive to micro-privatization and recognized the need to develop micro-enterprises, but it is not clear what role the micro-enterprises are to play in solid waste management. New opportunities were created by formalization and taken up by communities and micro-enterprises. Coverage and waste collected both increased. The initiation and institutionalization of the formalization process was not without problems. The public sector over-stressed the autonomy of micro-enterprises. The fate of the micro-enterprises is largely determined by the reforms undertaken at local government level. The rapid changes in policies at the local level made waste-collecting micro-enterprises lose confidence and more dependent

  2. Urinary tract infection among fistula patients admitted at Hamlin fistula hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereje, Matifan; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinesh; Asrat, Daneil; Ayenachew, Fekade

    2017-02-16

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) causes a serious health problem and affects millions of people worldwide. Patients with obstetric fistula usually suffer from incontinence of urine and stool, which can predispose them to frequent infections of the urinary tract. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the etiologic agents, drug resistance pattern of the isolates and associated risk factor for urinary tract infection among fistula patients in Addis Ababa fistula hospital, Ethiopia. Across sectional study was conducted from February to May 2015 at Hamlin Fistula Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Socio-demographic characteristics and other UTI related risk factors were collected from study participants using structured questionnaires. The mid-stream urine was collected and cultured on Cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient agar and blood agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by using disc diffusion method and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Out of 210 fistula patients investigated 169(80.5%) of the patient were younger than 25 years. Significant bacteriuria was observed in 122/210(58.1%) and 68(55.7%) of the isolates were from symptomatic cases. E.coli 65(53.7%) were the most common bacterial pathogen isolated followed by Proteus spp. 31(25.4%). Statistical Significant difference was observed with history of previous UTI (P = 0.031) and history of catheterization (P = 0.001). Gram negative bacteria isolates showed high level of resistance (>50%) to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, while all gram positive bacteria isolated were showed low level of resistance (20-40%) to most of antibiotic tested. The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection among fistula patient is 58.1%. This study showed that the predominant pathogen of UTI were E.coli followed by Proteus spp. It also showed that amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was a drug of choice for urinary tract

  3. Personal, Social and Environmental Risk Factors of Problematic Gambling Among High School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Tariku A.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Adal, Tamirie A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among students (N?=?422) ranging from 12 to 21?years of age. Results from the cross-sectional survey showed that personal feelings (e.g., self-esteem, false perceptions about winning, drug abuse), socia...

  4. Cross-generational sexual relationship in Addis Ababa: A qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to fill this gap. This study therefore explored cross generational sexual relationships and their perceived effects in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: Qualitative research with a phenomenological study design was carried out in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2014. Individuals who had personal experience of ...

  5. Burden of mental disorders and unmet needs among street homeless people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte; Gebre-Eyesus, Emebet; Agedew, Melkamu; Solomon, Haddis; Teferra, Solomon; Gebre-Eyesus, Tsehaysina; Baheretibeb, Yonas; Medhin, Girmay; Shibre, Teshome; Workneh, Abraham; Tegegn, Teketel; Ketema, Alehegn; Timms, Philip; Thornicroft, Graham; Prince, Martin

    2014-08-20

    The impact of mental disorders among homeless people is likely to be substantial in low income countries because of underdeveloped social welfare and health systems. As a first step towards advocacy and provision of care, we conducted a study to determine the burden of psychotic disorders and associated unmet needs, as well as the prevalence of mental distress, suicidality, and alcohol use disorder among homeless people in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among street homeless adults. Trained community nurses screened for potential psychosis and administered standardized measures of mental distress, alcohol use disorder and suicidality. Psychiatric nurses then carried out confirmatory diagnostic interviews of psychosis and administered a locally adapted version of the Camberwell Assessment of Needs Short Appraisal Schedule. We assessed 217 street homeless adults, about 90% of whom had experienced some form of mental or alcohol use disorder: 41.0% had psychosis, 60.0% had hazardous or dependent alcohol use, and 14.8% reported attempting suicide in the previous month. Homeless people with psychosis had extensive unmet needs with 80% to 100% reporting unmet needs across 26 domains. Nearly 30% had physical disability (visual and sensory impairment and impaired mobility). Only 10.0% of those with psychosis had ever received treatment for their illness. Most had lived on the streets for over 2 years, and alcohol use disorder was positively associated with chronicity of homelessness. Psychoses and other mental and behavioural disorders affect most people who are street homeless in Addis Ababa. Any programme to improve the condition of homeless people should include treatment for mental and alcohol use disorders. The findings have significant implications for advocacy and intervention programmes, particularly in similar low income settings.

  6. Destructive vaginal deliveries at a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Amir; Abdella, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    To assess the incidence, indications and complications of destructive vaginal deliveries. Retrospective study on the incidence, methods used, and outcomes of destructive vaginal deliveries (DVDs) performed by residents in obstetrics-gynecology from 1997 to 2002. Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Overall, there were 7.8 DVDs per 1000 deliveries, with an increasing trend during the five years of the study. Craniotomy was the most common (94%) DVD-procedure mainly used for cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD), accounting for 89% of the craniotomies. The proportion of craniotomy to all the DVDs used was significantly more (p-value Sidamo hospital (3243 g)), the average birth weight of the fetuses in the craniotomy group (2957 g) found in this study ivas smaller. This may indicate that, in Ethiopia, the role of small pelvic size in CPD is more important than fetal weight. To alleviate the painful and difficult travel of laboring mothers to major hospitals, training of general practitioners in destructive vaginal delivery, pre- and post procedure care need to be strengthened

  7. Pattern of Fatal Injuries in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A One-year Audit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Injury continues to account for a large number of clients attending emergency department in Addis Ababa. Reliable information on causes of death is essential to the development of health policies for prevention and control. The aim of this atudy was to identify the pattern and common causes of fatal injuries.

  8. The Practice of Student Assessment: The Case of College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soromessa, Teshome

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to assess the practice of student assessment in the College of Natural Science of Addis Ababa University, specifically aimed at investigating whether or not science instructors are well aware of test blue-print, general principles of evaluation and rule of test construction as anticipated in the new education and training…

  9. Factors Influencing Women’s Preferences for Places to Give Birth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibeltal Tebekaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine factors determining women’s preference for places to give birth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A quantitative and cross-sectional community based study design was employed. Data was collected using structured questionnaire administered to 901 women aged 15–49 years through a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique. Multinomial logistic regression model was employed to identify predictors of delivery care. More than three-fourth of slum women gave birth at public healthcare facilities compared to slightly more than half of the nonslum residents. Education, wealth quintile, the age of respondent, number of children, pregnancy intention, and cohabitation showed net effect on women’s preference for places to give birth. Despite the high number of ANC attendances, still many pregnant women especially among slum residents chose to deliver at home. Most respondents delivered in public healthcare institutions despite the general doubts about the quality of services in these institutions. Future studies should examine motivating factors for continued deliveries at home and whether there is real significant difference between the quality of maternal care service offered at public and private health facilities.

  10. Contraceptive use among women seeking repeat abortion in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Holston, Martine; Fraser, Ashley; Melkamu, Yilma

    2013-12-01

    Limited access to modern contraceptives in populations that desire smaller families can lead to repeat unintended pregnancy and repeat abortions. We conducted an analysis of the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion-related services in public and private facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from October 2008 to February 2009. We examined the characteristics of initial and repeat abortion clients including prior contraceptive use and subsequent method selection. The incidence of repeat abortion was 30%. Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives and they were nearly twice as likely to leave the facility with a method. However, repeat abortion clients were significantly more likely to have ever used short-term reversible methods and to choose short-term methods post-abortion. Contraceptive counseling services for repeat abortion clients' should address reasons for previous contraceptive failure, discontinuation, or non-use. Post-abortion family planning services should be strengthened to help decrease repeat abortion.

  11. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    company that develops Radio-Frequency Identification ( RFID ) inventory applications and is a member of iceaddis. Yonas believes that there is...growth of the Ethiopian manufacturing and construction sectors, he believes that the RFID capabilities will be in great demand. To his knowledge, there...are no other firms in this business. He is currently coordinating to test his system in several warehouses in the Addis Ababa area. He also

  12. Factors Affecting Quality of Laboratory Services in Public and Private Health Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Binyam; Belay, Getachew; Ashenafi, Aytenew; Girma, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Background Quality laboratory service is an essential component of health care system but in Sub-Saharan Africa such as Ethiopia, laboratories quality system remains weak due to several factors and it needs more attention to strengthen its capacity and quality system. Methodology A cross sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire to assess factors affecting the quality of laboratory service at private and public health institutions in Addis Ababa. Results A total of 213 laboratory professionals participated in the study and 131 (61.5%) participants had bachelor degree. Majority, 133 (62.4%), of the professionals did not attend any work related training. Seventy five (35.2%) respondents believed that their laboratories did not provide quality laboratory services and the major reported factors affecting provision of quality services were shortage of resources (64.3%), poor management support (57.3%), poor equipment quality (53.4%), high workload (41.1%), lack of equipment calibration (38.3%) and lack of knowledge (23.3%). Moreover logistic regression analysis showed that provision of quality laboratory service was significantly associated with result verification (AOR=9.21, 95% CI=2.26, 37.48), internal quality control (AOR= 6.11, 95% CI=2.11, 17.70), turnaround time (AOR=5.11, 95% CI=1.94, 13.46), shortage of equipment (AOR=7.76, 95% CI=2.55, 23.66), communication with clinicians (AOR=3.24, 95% CI=1.25, 8.41) and lack of job description (AOR=3.67, 95% CI=1.319, 10.22). Conclusion In conclusion, the major factors that affecting the quality of laboratory service were associated with poor human resource management, poor resources provision, poor management commitment, ineffective communication system and lack of well-established quality management system. PMID:29075171

  13. Factors Affecting Quality of Laboratory Services in Public and Private Health Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesfin, Eyob Abera; Taye, Binyam; Belay, Getachew; Ashenafi, Aytenew; Girma, Veronica

    2017-10-01

    Quality laboratory service is an essential component of health care system but in Sub-Saharan Africa such as Ethiopia, laboratories quality system remains weak due to several factors and it needs more attention to strengthen its capacity and quality system. A cross sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire to assess factors affecting the quality of laboratory service at private and public health institutions in Addis Ababa. A total of 213 laboratory professionals participated in the study and 131 (61.5%) participants had bachelor degree. Majority, 133 (62.4%), of the professionals did not attend any work related training. Seventy five (35.2%) respondents believed that their laboratories did not provide quality laboratory services and the major reported factors affecting provision of quality services were shortage of resources (64.3%), poor management support (57.3%), poor equipment quality (53.4%), high workload (41.1%), lack of equipment calibration (38.3%) and lack of knowledge (23.3%). Moreover logistic regression analysis showed that provision of quality laboratory service was significantly associated with result verification (AOR=9.21, 95% CI=2.26, 37.48), internal quality control (AOR= 6.11, 95% CI=2.11, 17.70), turnaround time (AOR=5.11, 95% CI=1.94, 13.46), shortage of equipment (AOR=7.76, 95% CI=2.55, 23.66), communication with clinicians (AOR=3.24, 95% CI=1.25, 8.41) and lack of job description (AOR=3.67, 95% CI=1.319, 10.22). In conclusion, the major factors that affecting the quality of laboratory service were associated with poor human resource management, poor resources provision, poor management commitment, ineffective communication system and lack of well-established quality management system.

  14. Barriers and enablers in the management of tuberculosis treatment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjune Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-adherence to tuberculosis (TB treatment is an important barrier for TB control programs because incomplete treatment may result in prolonged infectiousness, drug resistance, relapse, and death. The aim of the present study is to explore enablers and barriers in the management of TB treatment during the first five months of treatment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Qualitative study which included 50 in-depth interviews and two focus groups with TB patients, their relatives and health personnel. Results We found that loss of employment or the possibility to work led to a chain of interrelated barriers for most TB patients. Daily treatment was time-consuming and physically demanding, and rigid routines at health clinics reinforced many of the emerging problems. Patients with limited access to financial or practical help from relatives or friends experienced that the total costs of attending treatment exceeded their available resources. This was a barrier to adherence already during early stages of treatment. A large group of patients still managed to continue treatment, mainly because relatives or community members provided food, encouragement and sometimes money for transport. Lack of income over time, combined with daily accumulating costs and other struggles, made patients vulnerable to interruption during later stages of treatment. Patients who were poor due to illness or slow progression, and who did not manage to restore their health and social status, were particularly vulnerable to non-adherence. Such patients lost access to essential financial and practical support over time, often because relatives and friends were financially and socially exhausted by supporting them. Conclusion Patients' ability to manage TB treatment is a product of dynamic processes, in which social and economic costs and other burdens change and interplay over time. Interventions to facilitate adherence to TB treatment needs to address both

  15. Exploration of over the counter sales of antibiotics in community pharmacies of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: pharmacy professionals’ perspective

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    Gebremedhin Beedemariam Gebretekle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the counter sale of antibiotics is a global problem and it is increasingly recognized as a source of antibiotic misuse and is believed to increase treatment costs, adverse effects of treatment and emergence of resistance. The increasing trend of over the counter sale of antibiotics in Ethiopia calls for exploration of why such dispensing is practiced. This study aims to explore reasons for over the counter sale of antibiotics in the community pharmacies of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted in five randomly selected community pharmacies of Addis Ababa. One pharmacy professional from each pharmacy were interviewed at the spot using semi-structured, open-ended interview checklist. Besides, observation of professionals’ dispensing practice was made for at least one hour in the same community pharmacies using an observation checklist. Findings were categorized into specific themes that were developed following the objectives. This was facilitated by use of OpenCode 3.6 software. Results All participants pointed out that antibiotics were frequently dispensed without prescription and contend that the trend of such dispensing has been increasing. The findings indicated that the nonprescription sales of antibiotics were common for Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin and Cotrimoxazole. The poor, less educated and younger groups of the population were reported to frequently request antibiotics without prescription. The main reasons for nonprescription sale of antibiotics by pharmacy professionals were found to be related to pharmacy owner’s influence to maximize revenue, customer’s pressure, weak regulatory mechanism and professional conflicts of interest. Conclusion The study shows that nonprescription sale of antibiotics was common practice at least in Addis Ababa. The main reasons for this malpractice were the need to maximize revenue and weak regulatory mechanism. Hence, strong

  16. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011

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    Debere Mesfin Kote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public, were selected using simple random sampling method for this work. Data was recorded by using an appropriately designed questionnaire, which was completed for the period of two months. The calculations were based on the weights of the health care wastes that were regularly generated in the selected hospitals over a one week period during the year 2011. Average generation indexes were determined in relation to certain important factors, like the type of hospitals (public vs private. Results The median waste generation rate was found to be varied from 0.361- 0.669 kg/patient/day, comprised of 58.69% non-hazardous and 41.31% hazardous wastes. The amount of waste generated was increased as the number of patients flow increased (rs=1. Public hospitals generated high proportion of total health care wastes (59.22% in comparison with private hospitals (40.48%. The median waste generation rate was significantly vary between hospitals with Kruskal-Wallis test (X2=30.65, p=0.0001. The amount of waste was positively correlated with the number of patients (p Conclusion These findings revealed that the management of health care waste at hospitals in Addis Ababa city was poor.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasites, salmonella and shigella among apparently health food handlers of Addis Ababa University student's cafeteria, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Aklilu, Addis; Kahase, Daniel; Dessalegn, Mekonnen; Tarekegn, Negatu; Gebremichael, Saba; Zenebe, Seyfe; Desta, Kassu; Mulugeta, Gebru; Mamuye, Yeshiwodim; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2015-01-24

    Food contamination may occur at any point during its journey through production, processing, distribution, and preparation. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are a public health problem in developed and developing countries like Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers in Addis Ababa student's cafeteria from January to May 2013. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic data and associated risk factors. Stool specimens were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Biochemical tests were done to identify the species of bacterial isolates. Sensitivity testing was done using Kirby- Baur disk diffusion method. A total of 172 food handlers were enrolled in the study. The majority of study participants were females 134 (77.9%). About 78 (45.3%) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entameoba histolytica/dispar 68 (70.8%) followed by Giardia lamblia 18 (18.8%), Taenia species 5 (5.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 2 (2.1%), hookworm 2 (2.1%) and Trichuris trichiura 1 (1.1%). Stool cultures revealed 3.5% of Salmonella isolates (Sero-grouping on Salmonella isolate was not done), while Shigella species was not isolated from any of the stool samples obtained from Food handlers. All isolates of Salmonella were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin but resistant to ampicillin, clindamycin, and erythromycin. The present study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasite in asymptomatic (apparently health) food handlers. Such infected food handlers can contaminate food, drinks and could serve as source of infection to consumers via food chain.

  18. Fungal keratitis in patients with corneal ulcer attending Minilik II Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Kibret, Tihtina; Bitew, Adane

    2016-08-30

    Fungal keratitis is an important cause of corneal blindness all over the world. Although there are several reports on fungal keratitis from developing and developed countries, fungal keratitis in Ethiopia is poorly known. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fungal keratitis and spectrum of fungi implicated in causing the infection. The present study was a single institutional cross-sectional study carried out in Minilik II Memorial Hospital eye clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from September 2014 to August 2015. Corneal scraping was obtained under aseptic condition with sterile 21 gauge needle by an ophthalmologist from patients suspected of microbial keratitis. Each scraping was inoculated onto Sabouraud Dextrose Agar in C-shaped streaks and incubated at 25 °C aerobically for four weeks. Cultures of mycelia fungi were identified by examining macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Yeasts were identified by employing biochemical and assimilation test procedures and using CHROMagar Candida culture. All data were coded, double entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of 153 cases of microbial keratitis, fungi were recovered from 69 patients giving fungal keratitis prevalence of 45.1. Patients from rural areas were significantly affected than patients in urban regions (P = 0.005). Age groups of 25-34 (P = 0.017) and 15-24 years (P = 0.008) were significantly affected. Fungal keratitis was significantly associated with farmers (P = 0.0001), daily laborers (P = 0.0001), unemployed (P = 0001) and students (P = 0.004). Fungal keratitis was statistically associated with trauma (P = 0.006), and diabetes (P = 0.024). Seventy six fungal isolates were recovered, of which molds accounted 63 (82.9 %) of the total isolates. Fusarium and Aspergillus species were the two predominant molds accounting 27.6 and 25 % of the total isolates respectively. Yeast isolates accounted only 17.1 %. High

  19. Dimensions of patient satisfaction with comprehensive abortion care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Mossie Chekol, Bekalu; Abera Abdi, Dame; Andualem Adal, Tamirie

    2016-12-07

    Patient satisfaction is a measure of the extent to which a patient is content with the health care received from health care providers. It has been recognized as one of the most vital indicators of quality. Hence, it has been studied and measured extensively as part of service quality and as a standalone construct. In spite of this, there has been limited or no studies in Ethiopia that describe factors of abortion care contributed to women's satisfaction. This study aimed to identifying the underlying factors that contribute to patient satisfaction with comprehensive abortion care and at exploring relationships between total satisfaction scores and socio-demographic and care-related variables in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. At the beginning of the study in-depth interviews with 16 participants and a focus group discussion of 8 participants were conducted consecutively at the time of discharge to generate questions used to evaluate women's satisfaction with abortion care. Following generation of the perceived indicators, expert review, pilot study, and item analysis were performed in order to produce the reduced and better 26 items used to measure abortion care satisfaction. A total sample size of 450 participants from eight health facilities completed the survey. Principal component exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted respectively to identify and confirm the factors of abortion care contributing to women's satisfaction. Mean satisfaction scores were compared across socio demographic and care-related variables such as age, educational level, gestational age (first trimester and second trimester), and facility type using analysis of variance. Exploratory factor analysis of the 26 items indicated that satisfaction with abortion care consisted of five main components accounting for 60.48% of the variance in total satisfaction scores. Factor loadings of all items were found to be greater than 0.4. These factors are named as follows

  20. Salmonella serotypes and their antimicrobial susceptibility in apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Kiflu, Bitsu; Alemayehu, Haile; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Negash, Yohannes; Eguale, Tadesse

    2017-05-19

    The close bond between pet animals and family members poses risk of infection with zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella. No data is available on occurrence of Salmonella in dogs in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from feces of apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Of the total 360 dogs examined, 42 (11.7%; 95% Confidence limit of 8.5%-15.4%) were positive for Salmonella. Fourteen serotypes were detected and the predominant ones were S. Bronx (n = 7; 16.7%), S. Newport (n = 6; 14.3%), followed by S. Typhimurium, S. Indiana, S. Kentucky, S. Saintpaul and S. Virchow (n = 4; 9.5%) each. Salmonella infection status was significantly associated with history of symptom of diarrhea during the past 60 days (OR = 3.78; CI = 1.76-8.13; p = 0). Highest resistance rates were found for oxytetracycline (59.5%), neomycin (50%), streptomycin (38.1%), cephalothin (33.3%), doxycycline (30.9%), ampicillin (30.9%) and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (26.2%). Thirty eight (90.5%) of the isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to two or more antimicrobials was detected in 30 (71.4%) of the isolates. Resistance to three or more antimicrobials was detected in 19 (45.2%) of the isolates. This study demonstrated high carriage rate of Salmonella serotypes known for causing human salmonellosis and large proportion of them were resistant to antimicrobials used in public and veterinary medicine for management of various bacterial infections, suggesting the possible risk of infection of human population in close contact with these dogs by drug resistant pathogens. Therefore, it is vital to work on raising public awareness on zoonotic canine diseases prevention measures and good hygienic practices.

  1. Quality of family planning counseling among women attending prenatal care at a hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Teshome, Abel; Birara, Malede; Rominski, Sarah D

    2017-05-01

    To assess the quality of family planning counseling among women attending a prenatal clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between February and April, 2015, at the prenatal care clinic of Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pregnant women in their third trimester were interviewed about their experience of family planning counseling. Data were collected via a questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of satisfaction with the counseling service. During the study period, 400 women were interviewed. Only 139 women (34.8%) were counseled about family planning. Among those counseled, 126 (90.6%) decided to use a contraceptive method after delivery and 46 (36.7%) decided to use an injectable contraceptive. Women were more likely to report high satisfaction when their provider asked about their partner's attitude toward contraceptive methods (adjusted odds ratio 6.6; Pfamily planning methods (adjusted odds ratio 5.1; Pfamily planning counseling to improve satisfaction and quality of care. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. "Sexual Violence Is Not Good for Our Country's Development". Students' Interpretations of Sexual Violence in a Secondary School in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mat, Marielle L. J.

    2016-01-01

    It has been increasingly recognised that sexual violence in schools is one of the major concerns with regard to promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper examines how boys and girls define, experience, and interpret sexual violence in a secondary school in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and considers from their perspectives, how…

  3. Decline in prevalence of HIV-1 infection and syphilis among young women attending antenatal care clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: results from sentinel surveillance, 1995-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsegaye, Aster; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Mekonnen, Yared; Beyene, Asfaw; Aklilu, Mathias; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Abebe, Almaz; Coutinho, Roel; Sanders, Eduard; Fontanet, Arnaud L.

    2003-01-01

    From 1995 to 2001, five rounds of sentinel surveillance were carried out for young women attending antenatal care clinics at four health centers in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, to monitor trends in the prevalence of HIV infection and syphilis. Serum samples were tested for antibodies

  4. Decline in prevalence of HIV-1 infection and syphilis among young women attending antenatal care clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Results from sentinel surveillance, 1995-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsegaye, Aster; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Mekonnen, Yared; Beyene, Asfaw; Aklilu, Mathias; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Abebe, Almaz; Coutinho, Roel; Sanders, Eduard; Fontanet, Arnaud L.

    2002-01-01

    From 1995 to 2001, five rounds of sentinel surveillance were carried out for young women attending antenatal care clinics at four health centers in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, to monitor trends in the prevalence of HIV infection and syphilis. Serum samples were tested for antibodies

  5. Retention in care, viral suppression, treatment adherence and quality of life in a public antiretroviral therapy program in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekuria, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    In his thesis, Legese A. Mekuria presents the results of a PhD study which was undertaken in 10 health-care facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The overall aim was to estimate retention in HIV care, viral suppression, medication adherence and patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). An

  6. Evaluation of the Eiken latex agglutination test for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection among factory workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldemichael, T.; Fontanet, A. L.; Sahlu, T.; Gilis, H.; Messele, T.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.; Yeneneh, H.; Coutinho, R. A.; van Gool, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sera from 170 factory workers aged 18-45 years enrolled in a pilot study of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, were screened for anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G antibodies by the Sabin-Feldman test (reference standard) and the Eiken latex agglutination test

  7. Substance use and its predictors among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia.

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    Deressa, Wakgari; Azazh, Aklilu

    2011-08-22

    Substance use remains high among Ethiopian youth and young adolescents particularly in high schools and colleges. The use of alcohol, khat and tobacco by college and university students can be harmful; leading to decreased academic performance, increased risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. However, the magnitude of substance use and the factors associated with it has not been investigated among medical students in the country. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of substance use and identify factors that influenced the behavior among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study using a pre-tested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was conducted in June 2009 among 622 medical students (Year I to Internship program) at the School of Medicine. The data were entered into Epi Info version 6.04d and analyzed using SPSS version 15 software program. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Differences in proportions were compared for significance using Chi Square test, with significance level set at p students. About 9% of the respondents (10.6% males vs. 4.6% females, p = 0.014) reported ever use of cigarette smoking, and 1.8% were found to be current smokers. Using multiple logistic regression models, being male was strongly associated with alcohol use in the last 12 months (adjusted OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.22-3.76). Students whose friends currently consume alcohol were more likely to consume alcohol (adjusted OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.50-4.08) and whose friends' use tobacco more likely to smoke (adjusted OR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.83-8.30). Khat use within the past 12 months was strongly and positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted OR = 15.11, 95% CI = 4.24-53.91). Similarly, ever use of cigarette was also significantly associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted OR = 8.65, 95% CI = 3.48-21.50). Concordant use of

  8. Substance use and its predictors among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia

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    Azazh Aklilu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use remains high among Ethiopian youth and young adolescents particularly in high schools and colleges. The use of alcohol, khat and tobacco by college and university students can be harmful; leading to decreased academic performance, increased risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. However, the magnitude of substance use and the factors associated with it has not been investigated among medical students in the country. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of substance use and identify factors that influenced the behavior among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study using a pre-tested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was conducted in June 2009 among 622 medical students (Year I to Internship program at the School of Medicine. The data were entered into Epi Info version 6.04d and analyzed using SPSS version 15 software program. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Differences in proportions were compared for significance using Chi Square test, with significance level set at p Results In the last 12 months, alcohol was consumed by 22% (25% males vs. 14% females, p = 0.002 and khat use was reported by 7% (9% males vs. 1.5% females, p Khat use within the past 12 months was strongly and positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted OR = 15.11, 95% CI = 4.24-53.91. Similarly, ever use of cigarette was also significantly associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted OR = 8.65, 95% CI = 3.48-21.50. Conclusions Concordant use of alcohol, khat and tobacco is observed and exposure to friends' use of substances is often implicated. Alcohol consumption or khat use has been significantly associated with tobacco use. While the findings of this study suggest that substance use among the medical students was not alarming, but its trend increased among students

  9. Job satisfaction and determinant factors among midwives working at health facilities in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekru, Eyasu Tamru; Cherie, Amsale; Anjulo, Antehun Alemayehu

    2017-01-01

    Midwives are the primary source of care and support for mothers and newborns at the most vulnerable time in their lives.The Ethiopian National Reproductive Health Strategy targeted reduction of Maternal Mortality rate to 267/100,000 live births in the years 2006-2015. Midwives play a crucial role in the care of pregnant women, from the first antenatal visit right through to the delivery and the postpartum period. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2015 to April 2015 in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among midwives working at government health facilities. A total of 234 midwives were involved from 84 health centers and 8 governmental hospitals proportional to the size of health centers and hospitals using simple random sampling method. A total of 175 and 59 midwives were taken from health centers and government hospitals respectively. Different variables like Socio demographic, Job related domain and Organizational domain were collected using pre structured questionnaire after getting written consent. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS 21.00. Binary logistic regression was used to determine factors affecting job satisfaction. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. From 234 eligible respondents 221 midwives participated in this study which makes a response rate of 94.44%. The overall mean job satisfaction was 52.9%. Independent predictors of job satisfaction includes Sex [AOR = 4.07 (95%CI: 1.36-12.37)], working unit [AOR = 0.04 (95%CI:(0.001-0.45)], Educational status [AOR = 5.74(95%CI: 1.48-40.47)], Marital status [AOR = 3.48 [1.01-11.97)], supervision [AOR = 4.33 (95%CI: 1.53-20.22)], standard of care[AOR 4.80, (3.38-50.10)] and work load [AOR 8.94, (95%CI 2.37-22.65)]. Midwives were least satisfied from salary, extrinsic reward and professional opportunity subscales while they were most satisfied from coworker relation and the standard of care they

  10. Job satisfaction and determinant factors among midwives working at health facilities in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekru, Eyasu Tamru; Cherie, Amsale; Anjulo, Antehun Alemayehu

    2017-01-01

    Background Midwives are the primary source of care and support for mothers and newborns at the most vulnerable time in their lives.The Ethiopian National Reproductive Health Strategy targeted reduction of Maternal Mortality rate to 267/100,000 live births in the years 2006–2015. Midwives play a crucial role in the care of pregnant women, from the first antenatal visit right through to the delivery and the postpartum period. Methodology Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2015 to April 2015 in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among midwives working at government health facilities. A total of 234 midwives were involved from 84 health centers and 8 governmental hospitals proportional to the size of health centers and hospitals using simple random sampling method. A total of 175 and 59 midwives were taken from health centers and government hospitals respectively. Different variables like Socio demographic, Job related domain and Organizational domain were collected using pre structured questionnaire after getting written consent. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS 21.00. Binary logistic regression was used to determine factors affecting job satisfaction. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Result From 234 eligible respondents 221 midwives participated in this study which makes a response rate of 94.44%. The overall mean job satisfaction was 52.9%. Independent predictors of job satisfaction includes Sex [AOR = 4.07 (95%CI: 1.36–12.37)], working unit [AOR = 0.04 (95%CI:(0.001–0.45)], Educational status [AOR = 5.74(95%CI: 1.48–40.47)], Marital status [AOR = 3.48 [1.01–11.97)], supervision [AOR = 4.33 (95%CI: 1.53–20.22)], standard of care[AOR 4.80, (3.38–50.10)] and work load [AOR 8.94, (95%CI 2.37–22.65)]. Midwives were least satisfied from salary, extrinsic reward and professional opportunity subscales while they were most satisfied from

  11. Job satisfaction and determinant factors among midwives working at health facilities in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia.

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    Eyasu Tamru Bekru

    Full Text Available Midwives are the primary source of care and support for mothers and newborns at the most vulnerable time in their lives.The Ethiopian National Reproductive Health Strategy targeted reduction of Maternal Mortality rate to 267/100,000 live births in the years 2006-2015. Midwives play a crucial role in the care of pregnant women, from the first antenatal visit right through to the delivery and the postpartum period.Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2015 to April 2015 in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among midwives working at government health facilities. A total of 234 midwives were involved from 84 health centers and 8 governmental hospitals proportional to the size of health centers and hospitals using simple random sampling method. A total of 175 and 59 midwives were taken from health centers and government hospitals respectively. Different variables like Socio demographic, Job related domain and Organizational domain were collected using pre structured questionnaire after getting written consent. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS 21.00. Binary logistic regression was used to determine factors affecting job satisfaction. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.From 234 eligible respondents 221 midwives participated in this study which makes a response rate of 94.44%. The overall mean job satisfaction was 52.9%. Independent predictors of job satisfaction includes Sex [AOR = 4.07 (95%CI: 1.36-12.37], working unit [AOR = 0.04 (95%CI:(0.001-0.45], Educational status [AOR = 5.74(95%CI: 1.48-40.47], Marital status [AOR = 3.48 [1.01-11.97], supervision [AOR = 4.33 (95%CI: 1.53-20.22], standard of care[AOR 4.80, (3.38-50.10] and work load [AOR 8.94, (95%CI 2.37-22.65]. Midwives were least satisfied from salary, extrinsic reward and professional opportunity subscales while they were most satisfied from coworker relation and the standard of

  12. Mass concentrations and elemental composition of urban atmospheric aerosols in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    E. Sahle-Demissie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol samples were collected from 22 February 2008 to 15 April 2008 and 17 June 2008 to 23 July 2008 in urban and peri-urban areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with the aim to assess the spatial and temporal aspects of total suspended particulate (TSP and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10 and their composition in terms of metallic elements. Sixty six filter samples were collected from seven distinct sites using I.O.M. multi fraction dust samplers and fiber glass filter papers. The mass of each particulate matter sample was measured gravimetrically and the composition of PM10 samples was analyzed using ICP-OAES and SEM-EDAX. The concentration of TSP was in the range of 17-556 μg/m3 and that of PM10 was in the range of 17-285 μg/m3. The highest TSP and PM10 peak values were observed in February 2008 at two sites, whereas the lowest TSP and PM10 values were observed in June and July 2008 at two sites. The mean TSP concentration surpassed the WHO safe guideline value of 150 μg/m3 and 79 % of the PM10 values were below the WHO guideline value. The PM10 to TSP mass ratio was in the range 0.26-0.59 and PM10 mass contributed about 39% to the TSP mass. The average element concentration in PM10 filter sample was in the order of Ca > Na > K > Zn > Sb > B > Al > V > Mg > S > Fe. All the analyzed elements contributed about 0.1% to the PM10 mass. SEM-EDAX analysis of PM10 samples showed that Si, Al, Na, Zn, Ba, K and C were the predominant species. Crustal materials contributed 76-95% of the filter mass, and C and Cu represented 5-24%. The size distribution of aerosol particles as derived from SEM analysis was in 0.43-9.3 μm range.

  13. Attitudes of undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University towards medical practice and migration, Ethiopia

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    Deressa Wakgari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health care system of Ethiopia is facing a serious shortage of health workforce. While a number of strategies have been developed to improve the training and retention of medical doctors in the country, understanding the perceptions and attitudes of medical students towards their training, future practice and intent to migrate can contribute in addressing the problem. This study was carried out to assess the attitudes of Ethiopian medical students towards their training and future practice of medicine, and to identify factors associated with the intent to practice in rural or urban settings, or to migrate abroad. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2009 among 600 medical students (Year I to Internship program of the Faculty of Medicine at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. A pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Degree of association was measured by Chi Square test, with significance level set at p  Results Only 20% of the students felt ‘excellent’ about studying medicine; followed by ‘very good’ (19%, ‘good’ (30%, ‘fair’ (21% and ‘bad’ (11%. About 35% of respondents responded they felt the standard of medical education was below their expectation. Only 30% of the students said they would like to initially practice medicine in rural settings in Ethiopia. However, students with rural backgrounds were more likely than those with urban backgrounds to say they intended to practice medicine in rural areas (adjusted OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.18-5.26. Similarly, students in clinical training program preferred to practice medicine in rural areas compared to pre-clinical students (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.12-2.99. About 53% of the students (57% males vs. 46% females, p = 0.017 indicated aspiration to emigrate following graduation, particularly to the

  14. Attitudes of undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University towards medical practice and migration, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deressa, Wakgari; Azazh, Aklilu

    2012-08-06

    The health care system of Ethiopia is facing a serious shortage of health workforce. While a number of strategies have been developed to improve the training and retention of medical doctors in the country, understanding the perceptions and attitudes of medical students towards their training, future practice and intent to migrate can contribute in addressing the problem. This study was carried out to assess the attitudes of Ethiopian medical students towards their training and future practice of medicine, and to identify factors associated with the intent to practice in rural or urban settings, or to migrate abroad. A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2009 among 600 medical students (Year I to Internship program) of the Faculty of Medicine at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. A pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Degree of association was measured by Chi Square test, with significance level set at p education was below their expectation. Only 30% of the students said they would like to initially practice medicine in rural settings in Ethiopia. However, students with rural backgrounds were more likely than those with urban backgrounds to say they intended to practice medicine in rural areas (adjusted OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.18-5.26). Similarly, students in clinical training program preferred to practice medicine in rural areas compared to pre-clinical students (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.12-2.99). About 53% of the students (57% males vs. 46% females, p = 0.017) indicated aspiration to emigrate following graduation, particularly to the United States of America (42%) or European countries (15%). The attitude towards emigration was higher among Year IV (63%) and Internship (71%) students compared to Year I to Year III students (45-54%). Male students were more likely to say they would emigrate than females (adjusted OR = 1.57, 95% CI

  15. High prevalence of anti-toxoplasma antibodies and absence of Toxoplasma gondii infection risk factors among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Woyneshet Gelaye

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is higher than that reported from other countries. Efforts to describe risk factors for toxoplasma infection among Ethiopians should focus in children.

  16. Benefits and challenges of practicing taekwondo to adolescents in Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia

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    Michael Emru Tadesse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the benefits and challenges of practicing Taekwondo (TKD to adolescents in Addis Ababa. In so doing, the study investigated the nature of TKD training, benefits of practicing TKD, and challenges/problems related with practicing TKD. A descriptive concurrent mixed methods research design was used. Accordingly, the quantitative part of the study had 108 TKD adolescent participants while the qualitative part had 12 participants (eight TKD adolescents and four TKD coaches, from four TKD clubs in Addis Ababa. Both one-stage cluster sampling technique and purposive sampling technique were employed to select participants for the quantitative and qualitative parts of the study, respectively. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to collect data from participants. Results of the study indicated: (1 the TKD training provided by the four TKD clubs was more of a modern/sport form of TKD; (2 TKD adolescents and coaches perceived that the benefits of TKD for adolescents are multifaceted, i.e., social benefits, physical benefits, mental benefits, self-defense, addiction avoidance, and other benefits; and (3 though majority (63.6% of the respondents claimed that they did not face any problem as a result of practicing TKD, the following were identified as major problems that could threaten the wellbeing of TKD adolescents: family-related problems, community-related problems, and competition-related problems. In general, results show that the training of TKD can have a multifaceted positive contribution to adolescents’ wellbeing.

  17. Isolation and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in foods of animal origin in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Gebretsadik, Simon; Kassa, Tesfu; Alemayehu, Haile; Huruy, Kahsay; Kebede, Nigatu

    2011-03-01

    Listeriosis is a disease of humans and animals, in which it is one of the important emerging bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Among the different species of the genus Listeria, Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is known to cause listeriosis in humans and animals with low incidence but high case fatality rate. Information on the occurrence and distribution of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species is very limited both in the veterinary and public health sectors in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species from foods of animal origin (cottage cheese, raw beef, raw milk and liquid whole egg) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 391 food samples of animal origin were collected randomly, using a cross-sectional study design from November 2008 to March 2009. L. monocytogenes isolation and characterization were performed according to mainly the United States Food and Drug Administration procedures. Of the samples examined, 102 (26.1%) were found to be positive for Listeria. Listeria species were isolated in 39 (51.3%), 37 (32.2%), 22 (22%) and 4 (4%) of the raw beef, liquid whole egg, raw milk and cottage cheese samples respectively. L. monocytogenes was detected in 5.4% of the samples analyzed. It was isolated mainly from raw milk (13%) and liquid whole egg (4.3%) followed by raw beef (2.6%) and cottage cheese (1%). In addition to L. monocytogenes, other Listeria species were identified as L. innocua (60.8%), L. welshimeri (6.9%), L. seeligeri (3.9%), L. murrayi (2.9%) and L. grayi (2.9%) and L. ivanovii (1.9%). It was shown that L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species are widely spread in occurrence in foods of animal origin in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Copyright © 2010 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Tilahun, Birkneh; Worku, Bogale; Tachbele, Erdaw; Terefe, Simegn; Kloos, Helmut; Legesse, Worku

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica) in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were us...

  19. Cross Sectional Study Evaluating Routine Contact Investigation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Missed Opportunity to Prevent Tuberculosis in Children.

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    Assefa, Dawit; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Yosef, Genet

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 global roadmap for childhood tuberculosis calls for countries to implement contact screening and provide preventive therapy to children younger than 5 years. Therefore, this study designed to evaluate the implementation status of child contact screening and management in the health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Smear positive TB patients living with children attending daily observed treatment at the TB clinic and health care workers providing service were approached to address the study objective. Structured questionnaires were administered to smear positive index cases living with children whether they were requested to bring children age five year and below for TB screening and to health care providers in HIV, TB and child health clinics to assess their knowledge and practice on contact screening and management. Double data entry and analysis was done using EpiData software 3.1. In 27 health centres, 688 smear-positive index tuberculosis patients were approached of whom 203 (29.5%) reported to have children five years and below in their household. A total of 48 (23.6%) index cases had been requested by the health care workers to bring their children for tuberculosis screening and 45 (93.8%) had complied with this request. Of 230 children living with index smear positive tuberculosis patient, 152 (66.1%) were not screened for tuberculosis, 78 (33.9%) children screened, 2 had tuberculosis, 76 screened negative of which 3 (3.8%) received preventive treatment. None of the health care workers indicated to routinely record and report on child contact management. Household child contact screening and preventive intervention was sub-optimal in Addis Ababa. An important opportunity lost to prevent tuberculosis in young children. Training of health care workers, availing simple symptom based screening tool, and proper documentation could improve implementation.

  20. Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from New Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Adane Mihret

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is needed for a better understanding of the epidemiology of TB and could have implications for the development of new diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines. M. tuberculosis isolates were characterized using spoligotyping and were compared with the SpoIDB4 database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. A total of 53 different patterns were identified among 192 isolates examined. 169 of the isolates were classified into one of the 33 shared SITs, whereas the remaining 23 corresponded to 20 orphan patterns. 54% of the isolates were ascribed to the T family, a family which has not been well defined to date. Other prominent families were CAS, Haarlem, LAM, Beijing, and Unknown comprising 26%, 13%, 2.6%, 0.5%, and 2.1%, respectively. Among HIV-positive patients, 10 patterns were observed among 25 isolates. The T (38.5%, H (26.9%, and CAS (23.1% families were the most common among HIV-positive individuals. The diversity of the M. tuberculosis strains found in this study is very high, and there was no difference in the distribution of families in HIV-positive and HIV-negative TB patients except the H family. Tuberculosis transmission in Addis Ababa is due to only the modern M. tuberculosis families (CAS, LAM, T, Beijing, Haarlem, and U.

  1. Quality of Tuberculosis Care in Private Health Facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Gezahegn Gebrekidan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring provision of good quality tuberculosis (TB care, especially in private for profit health facilities, is an important component of TB control strategy to reduce poor medical practice which results in multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB. The aim of this study was to investigate quality of TB care in private health facilities of Addis Ababa. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted based on Donabedian’s structure-process-outcome model of health care quality. Quality of care was determined by adherence to National TB Program guidelines, treatment success rate, and client satisfaction. Exit interview was conducted on 292 patients on the intensive phase of treatment and 384 patient records were reviewed in eight private health facilities. Initial diagnostic AFB test was done for 95.4% of pulmonary TB patients. Most important components of TB care recommended by national guidelines were delivered for a significant proportion of patients. Majority (75% of the clients were found to be satisfied with each component of TB care. The treatment success rate was 90.9%. The quality of TB care was fairly good. However, only 77.7% of the patients were counseled for HIV testing. Strengthening HIV counseling and testing, tackling shortage of streptomycin and laboratory reagent at private TB clinic is crucial.

  2. Sexual life and fertility desire in long-term HIV serodiscordant couples in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a grounded theory study

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    Hailemariam Tewodros G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software. Results A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as “maintaining the relationship” as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as “Entering in-to a transition” (knowing HIV serostatus and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as “dealing with discordancy” such as entertaining partner’s interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship. Conclusions

  3. Knowledge and utilization of partograph among obstetric care givers in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Yisma Engida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, there was an estimated number of 287,000 maternal deaths in 2010. Eighty five percent (245,000 of these deaths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Among the causes of these deaths were obstructed and prolonged labour which could be prevented by cost effective and affordable health interventions like the use of the partograph. The Use of the partograph is a well-known best practice for quality monitoring of labour and subsequent prevention of obstructed and prolonged labour. However, a number of cases of obstructed labour do happen in health facilities due to poor quality of intrapartum care. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative study assessed knowledge and utilization of partograph among obstetric care givers in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia using a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with knowledge and use of partograph among obstetric care givers. Results Knowledge about the partograph was fair: 189 (96.6% of all the respondents correctly mentioned at least one component of the partograph, 104 (53.3% correctly explained the function of alert line and 161 (82.6% correctly explained the function of action line. The study showed that 112 (57.3% of the obstetric care givers at public health institutions reportedly utilized partograph to monitor mothers in labour. The utilization of the partograph was significantly higher among obstetric care givers working in health centres (67.9% compared to those working in hospitals (34.4% [Adjusted OR = 3.63(95%CI: 1.81, 7.28]. Conclusions A significant percentage of obstetric care givers had fair knowledge of the partograph and why it is necessary to use it in the management of labour and over half of obstetric care givers reported use of the partograph to monitor mothers in labour. Pre-service and

  4. Minimum dietary diversity and associated factors among children aged 6-23 months in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Solomon, Dagmawit; Aderaw, Zewdie; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw

    2017-10-12

    Dietary diversity has long been recognized as a key element of high quality diets. Minimum Dietary Diversity (MDD) is the consumption of four or more food groups from the seven food groups. Globally, only few children are receiving nutritionally adequate and diversified foods. More than two-thirds of malnutrition related child deaths are associated with inappropriate feeding practice during the first two years of life. In Ethiopia, only 7 % of children age 6-23 months had received the minimum acceptable diet. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to determine the level of minimum dietary diversity practice and identify the associated factors among children aged 6-23 months in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A health facility based cross sectional study was undertaken in the three sub-cities of Addis Ababa from 26th February to 28th April, 2016. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to sample the 352 study participants or mothers who had children aged 6-23 months. Data were collected by using a structured and pretested questionnaire, cleaned and entered into Epi info 7 and analyzed using SPSS 24 software. Logistic regression was fitted and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) with p-value less than 0.05 was used to identify factors associated with minimum dietary diversity. In this study, the overall children with minimum dietary diversity score were found to be 59.9%. Mother's educational attainment and a higher household monthly income were positively associated with the minimum dietary diversity practice. Similarly, mothers' knowledge on dietary diversity and child feeding was positively associated with minimum dietary diversity child feeding practice, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.98 (95% CI: 1.11-3.53). In this study, the consumption of minimum dietary diversity was found to be high. In spite of this, more efforts need to be done to achieve the recommended minimum dietary diversity intake for all children aged between 6 and 23 months.

  5. Predictors of adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy among HIV positive adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Mindachew Mesele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoniazide preventive therapy (IPT is given to individuals with latent infection of tuberculosis (TB to prevent the progression to active disease. One of the primary reasons for failure of IPT is poor adherence. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in four hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was done to identify predictors of IPT. Results A total of 319 (97.5% individual participated in this study. Within seven days recall period, self-reported dose adherence rate was 86.5%. Individual who received explanation about IPT from health care providers (OR = 7.74; 95%CI: 3.144, 19.058; who had good feeling/comfortable to take IPT in front of other people [OR = 5.981, 95%CI (2.308, 15.502] and who attended clinical appointment regularly (OR = 4.0; 95%CI: 1.062, 15.073 were more likely to adhere to IPT. Participants who developed IPT related adverse effect were 93% less likely to adhere to the prescribed doses (OR = 0.065; 95%CI: 0.024, 0.179. Conclusion The prevalence of self reported dose adherence over the past 7 days was higher. Non-adherence was observed among respondent who were not provided with sufficient information about IPT. The health care providers need to strengthen their educational and counseling efforts to convince the patient before putting them on IPT. To enhance adherence, health education efforts should focus on the importance of IPT, the details of the regimen and adverse effects.

  6. The role of taekwondo training on the subjective wellbeing of adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Michael Emru Tadesse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of taekwondo (TKD training on the subjective well-being (SWB of adolescents (12-18 years old in Addis Ababa city. A cross-sectional survey method was used; self-administered questionnaire was the main data collection tool. A total number of 162 adolescents (108 TKD adolescents from four randomly selected TKD clubs and 54 non-TKD adolescents from a randomly selected public high school, participated in the study. The study sought to determine TKD adolescents’ level of SWB as measured by the Personal Wellbeing Index – School Children (PWI-SC. Besides, adolescents in different groups (TKD adolescents in three groups according to rank/belt level and TKD adolescents and non-TKD adolescents were compared based on their score of PWI-SC. Results of the study showed that: (1 TKD adolescents had high level (mean points of SWB as measured by the PWI-SC, i.e., 81.95 (95%CI: 79.70 to 84.20; (2 there was no significant difference in SWB among the three groups of TKD adolescents (lower, middle and high level belts (F(2, 81 = 1.58, p > .05.; and (3 when compared with non-TKD adolescents, TKD adolescents were found to have a significantly higher mean points of SWB, (t = 4.25(77.97, p < 0.001; d = 0.79. Overall, the results of this study indicated the training of TKD can have a positive contribution to adolescents’ well-being.

  7. Sex, tensions and pills : Young people’s use of contemporary reproductive and sexual health technologies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Both, R.E.C.

    2017-01-01

    This study sheds light on why some young men and women from diverse backgrounds in Addis Ababa use emergency contraceptive pills (ECs) and sildenafil citrate (Viagra) repeatedly, sometimes in a routinized manner. It unravels the reasons behind the frequent yet secretive purchasing of these two

  8. Personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Abdi, Tariku A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Adal, Tamirie A

    2015-03-01

    Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among students (N = 422) ranging from 12 to 21 years of age. Results from the cross-sectional survey showed that personal feelings (e.g., self-esteem, false perceptions about winning, drug abuse), social factors (e.g., peer influence, parental gambling), and environmental factors (e.g., accessibility of gambling venues, advertisements) were significant correlates of problematic gambling. The study also revealed that men were more at risk for severe problematic gambling than females. Among the identified types of gambling activities, the most prevalent ones were playing cards followed by flipping coin and pool gambling while internet gambling was among the least reported gambling activities. By identifying personal, social and environmental correlates of risky gambling activities this study provides evidence-based information for the systematic design and evaluation of educational interventions to prevent problematic gambling in young people.

  9. Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Susceptibility Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Selected Referral Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Walelign Dessie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in hospitals is becoming a challenge for surgeons to treat hospital acquired infections. Objective. To determine bacterial pathogens and drug susceptibility isolated from surgical site infections at St. Paul Specialized Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit 12 Referral Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 on 107 surgical site infected patients. Wound specimens were collected using sterile cotton swab and processed as per standard operative procedures in appropriate culture media; and susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. From a total of 107 swabs collected, 90 (84.1% were culture positive and 104 organisms were isolated. E. coli (24 (23.1% was the most common organism isolated followed by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter species (23 (22.1%. More than 58 (75% of the Gram negative isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance ≥ 5 drugs. Pan-antibiotic resistance was noted among 8 (34.8% Acinetobacter species and 3 (12.5% E. coli. This calls for abstinence from antibiotic abuse. Conclusion. Gram negative bacteria were the most important isolates accounting for 76 (73.1%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, cephazoline, and tetracycline showed resistance while gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were relatively effective antimicrobials.

  10. The Prevalence of Visual Acuity Impairment among School Children at Arada Subcity Primary Schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Darge, Haile Fentahun; Shibru, Getahun; Mulugeta, Abiy; Dagnachew, Yinebeb Mezgebu

    2017-01-01

    Visual impairment and blindness are major public health problems in developing countries where there is no enough health-care service. To determine the prevalence of visual impairment among school children. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted between 15 June 2015 and 30 November 2015 at Arada subcity primary schools, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Two schools were selected randomly, and 378 students were screened from grades 1 to 8 using systematic random sampling method. Snellen chart was used for visual acuity test. Students who had visual acuity of ≤6/12 were further examined by an ophthalmologist to diagnose the reason for low vision. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. A total of 378 students were screened, and 192 (50.8%) were females and the remaining 186 (49.2%) were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VA) of ≤6/12 on either eye was 5.8%, VA visual acuity impairment. The prevalence of visual impairment among school children in the study area was 5.8% and school screening is recommended.

  11. The Prevalence of Visual Acuity Impairment among School Children at Arada Subcity Primary Schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Haile Fentahun Darge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Visual impairment and blindness are major public health problems in developing countries where there is no enough health-care service. Objective. To determine the prevalence of visual impairment among school children. Materials and Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted between 15 June 2015 and 30 November 2015 at Arada subcity primary schools, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Two schools were selected randomly, and 378 students were screened from grades 1 to 8 using systematic random sampling method. Snellen chart was used for visual acuity test. Students who had visual acuity of ≤6/12 were further examined by an ophthalmologist to diagnose the reason for low vision. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 378 students were screened, and 192 (50.8% were females and the remaining 186 (49.2% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VA of ≤6/12 on either eye was 5.8%, VA < 6/18 on either eye was 1.1%, and VA < 6/18 on the better eye was 0.53%. In this study, color blindness [OR: 19.65, 95% CI (6.01–64.33] was significantly associated with visual acuity impairment. Conclusion. The prevalence of visual impairment among school children in the study area was 5.8% and school screening is recommended.

  12. Measles burden in urban settings: characteristics of measles cases in Addis Ababa city administration, Ethiopia, 2004-2014.

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    Mersha, Amare Mengistu; Braka, Fiona; Gallagher, Kathleen; Tegegne, Aysheshim Ademe; Argay, Aron Kassahun; Mekonnen, Mekonnen Admassu; Aragaw, Merawi; Abegaz, Debritu Mengesha; Worku, Etsehiwot Zeamlak; Baynesagn, Mekonen Getahun

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, measles was a major cause of morbidity and mortality before the wide spread use of measles vaccine. The purpose of this study was to describe measles burden in an urban setting, Addis Ababa- since the implementation of measles case-based surveillance in Ethiopia. We analyzed measles surveillance data for 2004 -2014. Incidence of measles was described by sub city, by year and by age groups. Age specific incidence rate were calculated. Logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of confirmed measles cases. Of 4220 suspected measles cases 39% were confirmed cases. Males and females were equally affected. The mean affected age was 7.59 years. Measles cases peaked in 2010 and 2013-2014. Incidence of measles is higher among children less than five years old. Outer sub cities were more affected by measles in all years. Sub cities bordering with Oromia Regional State were more affected by measles. Older age groups were more affected than younger age groups (age ≤ five years old). Efforts to close immunity gaps against measles and further strengthen surveillance in urban settings, particularly among children below five years old, should be prioritized.

  13. Family planning use and its associated factors among women in the extended postpartum period in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Gebremedhin, Almaz Yirga; Kebede, Yigzaw; Gelagay, Abebaw Addis; Habitu, Yohannes Ayanaw

    2018-01-01

    Postpartum period is an important entry point for family planning service provision; however, women in Ethiopia are usually uncertain about the use of family planning methods during this period. Limited studies have been conducted to assess postpartum family planning use in Addis Ababa, in particular and in the country in general. So, this study was conducted to assess postpartum family planning use and its associated factors among women in extended postpartum period in Kolfe Keranyo sub city of Addis Ababa. A community-based cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2015 on 803 women who have had live births during the year (2014) preceding the data collection in the sub city. The multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were collected by interviewer administered structured questionnaire, entered into EPI INFO version 7 and analyzed by SPSS Version 20. Bivariable and Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to see the presence and strength of the association between the dependent and independent variables by computing the odds ratios with a 95% confidence intervals and p -values. The prevalence of postpartum family planning use was 80.3% (95% CI: 74.5, 83.1). Marriage, (AOR 0.09, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22), menses resumption after birth, (AOR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.37, 3.41), length of time after delivery, (AOR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.75), and history of contraceptive use before last pregnancy, (AOR 0.12, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.18) were the factors associated with postpartum family planning use. The prevalence of postpartum family planning use was high and the main factors associated with it were marriage, menses resumption, length of time after delivery, and history of previous contraceptive use. Therefore women should get appropriate information about the possibility of exposure to pregnancy prior to menses resumption by giving special emphasis to those who had no previous history of contraceptive use and exposure to

  14. Retrieval and satellite intercomparison of O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR Spectrometer at Equatorial Station: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    T. von Clarmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since May 2009, high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectra have been recorded at Addis Ababa (9.01° N latitude, 38.76° E longitude, 2443 m altitude above sea level, Ethiopia. The vertical profiles and total column amounts of ozone (O3 are deduced from the spectra by using the retrieval code PROFFIT (V9.5 and regularly determined instrumental line shape (ILS. A detailed error analysis of the O3 retrieval is performed. Averaging kernels of the target gas shows that the major contribution to the retrieved information comes from the measurement. The degrees of freedom for signals is found to be 2.1 on average for the retrieval of O3 from the observed FTIR spectra. The ozone Volume Mixing Ratio (VMR profiles and column amounts retrieved from FTIR spectra are compared with the coincident satellite observations of Microwave Limb Sounding (MLS, Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS, Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, Atmospheric Infrared Sounding (AIRS and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2 instruments. The mean relative differences in ozone profiles of FTIR from MLS and MIPAS are generally lower than 15% within the altitude range of 27 to 36 km, whereas difference from TES is lower than 1%. Comparisons of measurements of column amounts from the satellite and the ground-based FTIR show very good agreement as exhibited by relative differences within +0.2% to +2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2; and −0.9 to −9.0% for FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS. The corresponding standard deviations are within 2.0 to 2.8% for FTIR versus MLS and GOME-2 comparisons whereas that of FTIR versus OMI, TES and AIRS are within 3.5 to 7.3%. Thus, the retrieved O3 VMR and column amounts from a tropical site, Addis Ababa, is found to exhibit very good agreement with all coincident satellite observations over an approximate 3-yr period.

  15. Assessment Of Knowledge And Practices Related To Tuberculosis And Associated Factors Among HIV Positive People In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Rahel Abebe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: TB and HIV have lethal combination making the fight against the diseases harder. Ethiopia is one of the highly affected countries in the world. Poor knowledge & practice of people on TB is believed to pose major challenge on the control program.Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, associated factors to knowledge and practice related to tuberculosis of HIV positive people living in Addis Ababa. Methods: A health facility based cross-sectional survey using a structured & pretested questionnaire was conducted from January to February, 2011 on PLHIV in Addis Ababa. The study subjects were selected by multistage probability sampling. Univariate, Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done. Results: Complete data was collected from 636 study subjects, response rate of 96.2%. Out of which 624 (98.1 %; 95%CI: 96.8%-98.9% have heard about TB and 50.2% (95% CI: 46.3%-54.0% were found to have satisfactory overall knowledge on TB. Those who have Primary education [Adjusted OR (95%CI = 1.74 (1.15, 2.62] and secondary & above [Adjusted OR (95%CI = 4.08 (2.62, 6.35] were highly likely to have satisfactory knowledge than illiterates. Of the 624 respondent, 64.1% didn’t often open windows of cars during travel. Of those who had pulmonary TB (194, 22.7% didn’t cover mouth & nose during coughing and sneezing & their main reason was “not giving attention”. From those who got medical treatment for TB (228, 14.5% didn’t complete it and from those who took preventive treatment (231, 8.7% didn’t complete it. The frequently mentioned reason was drug side effect. The intended health seeking practice was 96.8%. Conclusion and Recommendation: This study suggests that PLHIV in Addis Ababa have some gaps in knowledge and acceptable practices. Therefore, a very clear and target oriented health promotion, that takes illiterates in to consideration, for the PLHIV is necessary. Aims and

  16. REFERRAL OF EMERGENCY SURGICAL PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL, ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Engida; Teshome, Henok; Bekele, Mahteme

    2016-10-01

    picture of referrals among hospitals in Addis Ababa.

  17. Integration opportunities for HIV and family planning services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: an organizational network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C; Reynolds, Heidi; Bevc, Christine; Tsegaye, Ademe

    2014-01-18

    Public health resources are often deployed in developing countries by foreign governments, national governments, civil society and the private health clinics, but seldom in ways that are coordinated within a particular community or population. The lack of coordination results in inefficiencies and suboptimal results. Organizational network analysis can reveal how organizations interact with each other and provide insights into means of realizing better public health results from the resources already deployed. Our objective in this study was to identify the missed opportunities for the integration of HIV care and family planning services and to inform future network strengthening. In two sub-cities of Addis Ababa, we identified each organization providing either HIV care or family planning services. We interviewed representatives of each of them about exchanges of clients with each of the others. With network analysis, we identified network characteristics in each sub-city network, such as referral density and centrality; and gaps in the referral patterns. The results were shared with representatives from the organizations. The two networks were of similar size (25 and 26 organizations) and had referral densities of 0.115 and 0.155 out of a possible range from 0 (none) to 1.0 (all possible connections). Two organizations in one sub-city did not refer HIV clients to a family planning organization. One organization in one sub-city and seven in the other offered few HIV services and did not refer clients to any other HIV service provider. Representatives from the networks confirmed the results reflected their experience and expressed an interest in establishing more links between organizations. Because of organizations not working together, women in the two sub-cities were at risk of not receiving needed family planning or HIV care services. Facilitating referrals among a few organizations that are most often working in isolation could remediate the problem, but the

  18. (BPR) on human resource management in Addis Ababa City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, Addis Ababa City Administration is implementing business process reengineering in order to improve the performance of its public institutions. During the period June to October 2008, experts drawn from different sectors participated in the redesigning and organizing of business processes through shifting from ...

  19. Beyond Knowledge : Patterns of Sexuality and Correlates of High Risk Behaviour among Urban Youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tiruneh, Yordanos Mequanint

    2004-01-01

    A community based cross-sectional study inquiring into determinants and correlates of sexual risk taking was conducted from June to December 2003. The objective of the study was describing sexual behavior and assessing socio-economic and cultural correlates of high-risk sexual behavior among urban youth in Addis Ababa. A multi-systemic perspective, an approach that focuses on the reciprocal relations among the personal, family, and extra family systems on sexual behavior was employed. Data we...

  20. Premarital Sexual Practice among Unmarried First Year Undergraduate Students in Alkan University College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Endalew Gemechu Sendo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premarital sexual practice among unmarried College students has markedly increased recently in Ethiopia. College students are recognized as one of the age groups most affected by sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, little has been explored about the magnitude of premarital sexual activity and predisposing factors in the circumstance of private higher education institutions in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the magnitude of premarital sexual practice and predisposing factors among unmarried undergraduate first year students in Alkan University College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted in April-May 2013. Study participants were selected by stratified random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 207 unmarried first year undergraduate students, and was analyzed using SPSS V.16.0. Multi-variate logistic regression was used to see association between variables. Results were summarized in frequencies and percentages and presented in tables. RESULTS: A total of 207 students took part in the survey. The mean age of respondents was 21.8 ±2.0 years. More than half of survey respondents (60.9% reported that they have had premarital sex. Multi-variate logistic regression analysis showed that male respondents were more than seven times to ever have sexual intercourse as compared to female respondents (AOR= 7.6; 95%CI: 4.51, 34.87. However, age less than 18 years was found to be protective against premarital sexual practice (AOR=0.42.; 95%CI: 0.27-0.73. Compared to respondents who do not use alcohol, those who are alcohol users after joining college were 3.8 times (AOR 3.05, 95% CI: 1.51-4.32 as likely to begin premarital sex. Similarly, ever chewing khat after joining college was found to be positively associated with premarital sex in this study. (AOR=2.60.; 95%CI: 0.62-1.43. CONCLUSION: A significant number of students had started

  1. Premarital Sexual Practice among Unmarried First Year Undergraduate Students in Alkan University College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalew Gemechu Sendo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Premarital sexual practice among unmarried College students has markedly increased recently in Ethiopia. College students are recognized as one of the age groups most affected by sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, little has been explored about the magnitude of premarital sexual activity and predisposing factors in the circumstance of private higher education institutions in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE To investigate the magnitude of premarital sexual practice and predisposing factors among unmarried undergraduate first year students in Alkan University College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted in April-May 2013. Study participants were selected by stratified random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 207 unmarried first year undergraduate students, and was analyzed using SPSS V.16.0. Multi-variate logistic regression was used to see association between variables. Results were summarized in frequencies and percentages and presented in tables. RESULTS A total of 207 students took part in the survey. The mean age of respondents was 21.8 ±2.0 years. More than half of survey respondents (60.9% reported that they have had premarital sex. Multi-variate logistic regression analysis showed that male respondents were more than seven times to ever have sexual intercourse as compared to female respondents (AOR= 7.6; 95%CI: 4.51, 34.87. However, age less than 18 years was found to be protective against premarital sexual practice (AOR=0.42.; 95%CI: 0.27- 0.73. Compared to respondents who do not use alcohol, those who are alcohol users after joining college were 3.8 times (AOR 3.05, 95% CI: 1.51- 4.32 as likely to begin premarital sex. Similarly, ever chewing khat after joining college was found to be positively associated with premarital sex in this study. (AOR=2.60.; 95%CI: 0.62-1.43. CONCLUSION A significant number of students had started pre

  2. First aid knowledge, attitude, practice, and associated factors among kindergarten teachers of Lideta sub-city Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganfure, Gemechu; Ameya, Gemechu; Tamirat, Ababe; Lencha, Bikila; Bikila, Dereje

    2018-01-01

    Injuries are very common and can occur at any point of time in a day. Unintended injuries in kindergarten children are the most common and need immediate life saving care which is known as first aid. This study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitude, practice, and associated factors of first aid among kindergarten teachers of Lideta sub-city Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among kindergarten teachers. Data was collected using pretested, structured and self-administered questionnaire S1 File. The collected data was entered in to Epi Data version 3.1 software and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify association between kindergarten teachers' knowledge and attitudes towards first aid and different variables. Odds ratios with 95% CI and pfirst aid. Eighty percent of teachers encountered with children in need of first aid. Kindergarten teachers older than 35 years [AOR = 4.2, 95%CI: (1.02, 16.9)], five years' experience [AOR = 3.1, 95%CI: (1.2, 7.6)], having previous first aid training [AOR = 3.1, 95%CI: (1.2, 7.7)], source of first aid information and teachers serving in private kindergarten are associated with having knowledge of first aid. Long time experience, type of kindergarten, previous training, and exposure to children in need of first aid were positive association with attitude towards first aid. Low first aid knowledge and high positive attitude among kindergarten teachers. Having long time experience, being older age, previous first aid training, and serving in private kindergarten were positively associated with first aid knowledge and positive attitude. Creating awareness and including first aid courses in the kindergarten teachers' curriculum need to be considered.

  3. Factors Associated with Treatment Delay among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Public and Private Health Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Getinet Shewaseged Adenager

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB and the timely commencement of antituberculosis (anti-TB treatment are the parts of efficient tuberculosis prevention and control program. Delay in the commencement of anti-TB treatment worsens the prognosis and increases the risk of death and the chance of transmission in the community and among health care workers. Objective. To assess tuberculosis treatment delay and associated factors among pulmonary TB patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 public and 10 private health facilities that provide TB treatment. The data were collected from 425 newly registered pulmonary TB patients using pretested structured questionnaire from April to June 2012. Data were entered in EPI info version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Findings. The median durations of a patient, health care system, and total treatment delays were 17, 9, and 35 days, respectively. Overall 179 (42.1%, 233 (54.8%, and 262 (61.6% of patients experienced patient delay, health care system delay, and total treatment delay, respectively. Distance more than 2.5 km from TB treatment health facility [AOR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.1–2.5] and the presence of TB-associated stigma [AOR = 2.1, 95% CI (1.3, 3.4] indicate higher odds of patient delay, whereas, being unemployed, patients with the hemoptysis symptom complain indicated lower odds of health care system delay [AOR = 0.41, 95% CI (0.24, 0.70] and [AOR = 0.61 (0.39, 0.94], respectively. Conclusions. A significant proportion of clients experienced patient and health care system delay. Thus, there is a need for designing and implementing appropriate strategies to decrease the delays. Efforts to reduce delays should give focus on integrating prevention programs such as active case detection and expanding access to TB care.

  4. Women's satisfaction with intrapartum care in St Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College Addis Ababa Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, Tangute; Getinet, Tewodros; Bekele, Delayehu; Gishu, Teshome; Birara, Malede; Abeje, Yemesrach

    2017-07-28

    Satisfaction during intrapartum care is the most influential attribute on maternal health service return behaviors and utilization. Measuring satisfaction of women with intrapartum care helps to address the problems and improves the quality of delivery services. The aim of this study is to assess women's level of satisfaction during intrapartum care. A hospital based, analytic, cross sectional study was conducted at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College (SPHMMC), Addis Ababa Ethiopia, from May to June 2015. Data collectors administered a structured and pretested questionnaire to collect data and then analyzed it using SPSS version 20.0 software. Binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with women's intrapartum care satisfaction. A total of 394 women of mean age 25.98 years with a standard deviation of ±4.72were included in the study. Only 19% of the women were satisfied with the intrapartum care they received. The variables which were significantly associated with satisfaction of intrapartum care were; opportunity to talk Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) (95% CI) 2.44 (1.12, 5.29); Pain Management AOR (95% CI) 3.37 (1.83, 6.21); Short Length of Time Taken for Admission After Seen by Health Professionals AOR (95% CI)0 .97 (0.93, 0.99), and Short Length of Stay in the Hospital AOR (95% CI) 0.91 (0.87, 0.96). The women's overall satisfaction with intrapartum care was low. Multiple factors influence their satisfaction. Health professionals, policy makers and health administrators should give emphasis to factors that contribute to low satisfaction of women with intrapartum care. They should also strengthen their efforts to deliver quality and easily accessible maternal health service to improve women's overall satisfaction with the maternal health service.

  5. Molecular determination of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from raw meat in Addis Ababa and Bishoftu, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messele, Yohannes Equar; Abdi, Reta Duguma; Yalew, Shimels Tikuye; Tegegne, Desiye Tesfaye; Emeru, Bezina Arega; Werid, Gebremeskel Mamu

    2017-08-15

    Consumption of meat contaminated by E. coli causes a serious illness and even death to affected individuals. Recently the emerging of antibiotic resistant foodborne E. coli poses serious public health risks worldwide. However, little is known about the antibiotic resistance profile of E. coli in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) status of E. coli isolated from different type of meat. Overall 292 samples were collected from December 2015 to April 2016 from slaughterhouses to determine the prevalence and AMR of E. coli isolated from raw beef, mutton, chevon and chicken meat from Addis Ababa and Bishoftu, Ethiopia. The isolates were screened for AMR against commonly used antibiotics circulating in the Ethiopian market. Both phenotypic and genotypic approach were employed for AMR detection using disc diffusion test and PCR respectively. The prevalence of E. coli was 63 (21.6%), indicating one sample in every five samples harbors E. coli. Among these, the highest E. coli isolates was observed in chicken meat samples (37.0%; 27), followed by mutton (23.3%; 17), chevon (20.6%; 15) and beef (5.5%; 4). Results of disk diffusion test on the 63 isolates showed that only 4.8% of them were not resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to ≥3 drugs) was 46.0%. Significantly high resistance to ampicillin (71.4%) and tetracycline (47.6%) was observed. Identification of genes associated with AMR was also done using PCR. The prevalence of E. coli isolates harboring resistance gene responsible for tetracycline (tet(A)), beta lactams (blaCMY) and sulphanamide (sulI) antibiotics were found 65.1, 65.1 and 54.0%, respectively. Twenty-five out of the 63 (39.7% %) E. coli isolates have got antimicrobial resistance gene to three or more classes of drugs. The associations of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and resistance genes was also determined. The detection of resistance trait against

  6. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS diagnostic disclosure to HIV infected children receiving HAART: a multi-center study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhatu Biadgilign

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic disclosure of HIV/AIDS to a child is becoming an increasingly common issue in clinical practice. Nevertheless, some parents and health care professionals are reluctant to inform children about their HIV infection status. The objective of this study was to identify the proportion of children who have knowledge of their serostatus and factors associated with disclosure in HIV-infected children receiving HAART in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.A cross-sectional study was conducted in five hospitals in Addis Ababa from February 18, 2008-April 28, 2008. The study populations were parents/caretakers and children living with HIV/AIDS who were receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1 statistical software.A total of 390 children/caretaker pairs were included in the study. Two hundred forty three children (62.3% were between 6-9 years of age. HIV/AIDS status was known by 68 (17.4% children, 93 (29% caretakers reported knowing the child's serostatus two years prior to our survey, 180 (46.2% respondents said that the child should be told about his/her HIV/AIDS status when he/she is older than 14 years of age. Children less than 9 years of age and those living with educated caregivers are less likely to know their results than their counterparts. Children referred from hospital's in-patient ward before attending the HIV clinic and private clinic were more likely to know their results than those from community clinic.The proportion of disclosure of HIV/AIDS diagnosis to HIV-infected children is low. Strengthening referral linkage and health education tailored to educated caregivers are recommended to increase the rate of disclosure.

  7. Supply chain analysis of peri-urban dairy chain around Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Despite this large number of animals in Ethiopia, the consumption of milk per capita is amongst the lowest in the continent. There is an unmet and growing demand for fresh milk in urban centres whilst processing plants still operate at under-capacity. To ease this problem, donors and NGO’s undertake

  8. Nutritional aspects in the EDGET project : Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; report of a mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van M.

    2014-01-01

    A mission was implemented to advise SNV project management and project staff on how to integrate human nutritional considerations into the EDGET project that aims at increasing the production of milk and dairy products in selected areas in Ethiopia. The EDGET project already also identified the

  9. HIV related risk behaviours among taxi drivers and their assistants in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: descriptive cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk taking behaviours in relation to HIV among the mobile population is a growing public health concern in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to describe risky sexual behaviours and associated factors among male taxi drivers and assistants in Addis Ababa. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey design with multistage cluster sampling procedure was employed to select 615 individuals for interview. Results Seventy six percent of the respondents were sexually active. Nearly 31% of the respondents reported casual sex and 7% of them did not use a condom with their most recent casual sex partner. More than half (58.5%) of the respondents had no condom use efficacy. Condom breakage and/or slippage during sex had been encountered by 44% of respondents with casual partners and sex during menstruation had ever occurred among 17% of respondents. Eleven percent had experienced sex with female sex workers. Thirty-three percent of the respondents were unfaithful to their spouse/steady partners. Multivariate analysis revealed that living with parents [AOR 95% CI; 2(1.14-3.60)], non-khat chewers [AOR 95% CI; 3.7(2.13-6.31)], never taken VCT [AOR 95% CI; 3.5(1.84-6.72)], middle-class monthly cash gain [AOR 95% CI; 0.5(0.25-0.98)] and more years of experience working on a taxi [AOR 95% CI; 0.17(0.60-0.47)] were statistically significant to influence lifetime abstinence. Non-khat chewers [AOR 95% CI; 0.53(0.37-0.78)], never taken VCT [AOR 95% CI; 0.54(0.36-0.88)] and higher monthly cash gain [AOR 95% CI; 2.9(1.14-7.19)] had a statistically significant association with condom use efficacy. Living with parents [AOR 95% CI; 2(1.31-3.72)], living with friends [AOR 95% CI; 6.4(3.13-12.89)] and non-khat chewers [AOR 95% CI; 2(1.34-3.53)] were risk factors found to be associated with faithfulness. Conclusions Risky sexual behaviours in this sub-population were considerable and associated factors were found to be multidimensional

  10. The Major Roles Of Long Distance Bus Transport In Developing Countries With Emphasis On Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Kassa Fekadu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the major roles of long distance bus transport that radiates from Addis Ababa to the hinterland. The purpose is to assess and identify the major roles of Long Distance Bus Transport in Addis Ababa. The methodology is focused on both primary and secondary sources. The primary informants, who were principally distinguished from the passengers, operators, and key government officials from the transport office, include the head of bus terminal and Association, and selected experts. In terms of analysis, the qualitative approach was used by applying a thick description of the issue. The findings revealed that the availability of towns comes mainly because of the routes which give access and distribution of road passenger transport. The LDB (Long Distance Bus along the line has played a great role in the making of metropolitan linkage. The presence of these routes contributes more to the rise of urbanization and it has also played a role in the creation of towns and rural areas found around certain radius at the two sides of highways. Thus, it has a high probability for the expansion of urban sprawl and formation of conurbation in the future. The prescription for this study is to work with stakeholders to reduce the congestion of passengers in the terminals and the association also should serve the society 24/7 or 18/7.

  11. Customers' perceptions of and satisfaction with medicine retail outlet services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregeorgise, Dawit T; Mohammed, Tofik A; Redi, Zebiba S; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2017-07-24

    The aim of this study was to assess customers' perceptions of and satisfaction with MRO services in Addis Ababa and to explore factors associated with their satisfaction and reasons for visits. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among customers selected from 28 MROs in Addis Ababa, using multi-stage sampling techniques. Simple descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression at 95% confidence interval were used for the analysis. Of 396 respondents, 324 (81.8%) visited MROs to purchase prescription medicines. A majority (338/396; 85.4%) of them perceived that pharmacists and druggists (pharmacy professionals) play a major role in healthcare delivery. A third (140/396; 35.4%) of the respondents agreed with the statement that pharmacy professionals are more concerned about patient care than about their business. Regarding reasons for visiting, being married was positively associated with buying over-the-counter, higher educational status was linked with more satisfaction. Overall, 56.8% (225/396) of the respondents reported that they were satisfied with the service provided by MROs. Customers of MROs had mixed perceptions of and satisfaction with the current service. Marital status and age were associated with the reason for visiting, while the educational level was associated with the level of satisfaction. The overall positive perceptions and satisfaction about MROs should be taken as an opportunity to promote and improve pharmaceutical services rendered in MROs, to ensure that the public is receiving maximum benefit. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Assessment of the Landfill Situation of Addis Ababa City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the Addis Ababa City landfill system with respect to the standard requirement for a landfill. This qualitative study was conducted during March 2001 at the Addis Ababa landfill site found at the southwestern end of Addis Ababa commonly called 'Repi'. The methods employed were ...

  13. Modeling the patient and health system impacts of alternative xpert® MTB/RIF algorithms for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Abraham; Fiseha, Daniel; Assefa, Dawit; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Balanco, Silvia; Langley, Ivor

    2017-05-02

    To reduce global tuberculosis (TB) burden, the active disease must be diagnosed quickly and accurately and patients should be treated and cured. In Ethiopia, TB diagnosis mainly relies on spot-morning-spot (SMS) sputum sample smear analysis using Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques (ZN). Since 2014 targeted use of xpert has been implemented. New diagnostic techniques have higher sensitivity and are likely to detect more cases if routinely implemented. The objective of our study was to project the effects of alternative diagnostic algorithms on the patient, health system, and costs, and identify cost-effective algorithms that increase TB case detection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. An observational quantitative modeling framework was applied using the Virtual Implementation approach. The model was designed to represent the operational and epidemiological context of Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. We compared eight diagnostic algorithm with ZN microscopy, light emitting diode (LED) fluorescence microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF. Interventions with an annualized cost per averted disability adjusted life year (DALY) of less than the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita are considered cost-effective interventions. With a cost lower than the average per-capita GDP (US$690 for Ethiopia) for each averted disability adjusted life year (DALY), three of the modeled algorithms are cost-effective. Implementing them would have important patient, health system, and population-level effects in the context of Addis Ababa ❖ The full roll-out of Xpert MTB/RIF as the primary test for all presumptive TB cases would avert 91170 DALYs (95% credible interval [CrI] 54888 - 127448) with an additional health system cost of US$ 11.6 million over the next 10 years. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is $370 per DALY averted. ❖ Same day LED fluorescence microscopy for all presumptive TB cases combined with Xpert MTB/RIF targeted to HIV-positive and High multidrug resistant

  14. Adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications and factors associated for hypertensive patients attending chronic follow-up units of selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Tibebu A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abel Tibebu,1 Daniel Mengistu,2 Lemma Negesa1 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, Haramaya University College of Health and Medical Sciences, Harar, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: One of the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases is hypertension (HTN. The availability of effective antihypertensive medications does not result in the expected outcomes in terms of controlling blood pressure. The rationale for these and other findings of uncontrolled HTN points toward poor adherence. The most neglected causes of uncontrolled HTN are unhealthy lifestyles. Few studies have been conducted to show the gap and magnitude of self-management adherence.Objective: This study aimed to assess adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications of hypertensive patients undergoing follow-up at chronic follow-up units of public health hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2016.Methods: Institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four public health hospitals which were selected by drawing lots. Systematic random sampling was used to select study subjects. The results of the descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages and frequencies. Associations between lifestyle modification and independent variables were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The study was conducted from February 15, 2016 to April 15, 2016.Results: The study included 404 respondents with a 97% response rate; 210 (52% were male and the mean age was 54.00±10.77 years. The respondents’ adherence to lifestyle modifications was 23%. The lifestyle adherence was found to be better in females, patients who had comorbidities, and had been knowledgeable about the disease and was poor among young adult respondents.Conclusion: The rates of adherence to lifestyle changes were generally found to be low. Educational sessions that especially focus on lifestyle

  15. High Mortality from Blood Stream Infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Is Due to Antimicrobial Resistance.

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    Teshale Seboxa

    Full Text Available Managing blood stream infection in Africa is hampered by lack of bacteriological support needed for antimicrobial stewardship, and background data needed for empirical treatment. A combined pro- and retrospective approach was used to overcome thresholds in clinical research in Africa.Outcome and characteristics including age, HIV infection, pancytopenia and bacteriological results were studied in 292 adult patients with two or more SIRS criteria using univariate and confirming multivariate logistic regression models. Expected randomly distributed resistance covariation was compared with observed co-resistance among gram-negative enteric bacteria in 92 paediatric blood culture isolates that had been harvested in the same hospital during the same period of time.Mortality was fivefold increased among patients with positive blood culture results [50.0% vs. 9.8%; OR 11.24 (4.38-25.88, p < 0.0001], and for this group of patients mortality was significantly associated with antimicrobial resistance [OR 23.28 (3.3-164.4, p = 0.002]. All 11 patients with Enterobacteriaceae resistant to 3rd. generation cephalosporins died. Eighty-nine patients had pancytopenia grade 3-4. Among patients with negative blood culture results, mortality was significantly associated with pancytopenia [OR 3.12 (1.32-7.39, p = 0.01]. HIV positivity was not associated with increased mortality. Antimicrobial resistance that concerned gram-negative enteric bacteria, regardless of species, was characterized by co-resistance between third generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole.Mortality was strongly associated with growth of bacteria resistant to empirical treatment, and these patients were dead or dying when bacteriological reports arrived. Because of co-resistance, alternative efficient antibiotics would not have been available in Ethiopia for 8/11 Enterobacteriaceae-infected patients with isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins

  16. Ambulance use is not associated with patient acuity after road traffic collisions: a cross-sectional study from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Yonas; Dida, Tolesa; Yisma, Engida; Silvestri, David M

    2018-02-13

    Africa accounts for one sixth of global road traffic deaths-most in the pre-hospital setting. Ambulance transport is expensive relative to other modes of pre-hospital transport, but has advantages in time-sensitive, high-acuity scenarios. Many countries, including Ethiopia, are expanding ambulance fleets, but clinical characteristics of patients using ambulances remain ill-defined. This is a cross-sectional study of 662 road traffic collisions (RTC) patients arriving to a single trauma referral center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, over 7 months. Emergency Department triage records were used to abstract clinical and arrival characteristics, including acuity. The outcome of interest was ambulance arrival. Secondary outcomes of interest were inter-facility referral and referral communication. Descriptive and multivariable statistics were computed to identify factors independently associated with outcomes. Over half of patients arrived with either high (13.1%) or moderate (42.2%) acuity. Over half (59.0%) arrived by ambulance, and nearly two thirds (65.9%) were referred. Among referred patients, inter-facility communication was poor (57.7%). Patients with high acuity were most likely to be referred (aOR 2.20, 95%CI 1.16-4.17), but were not more likely to receive ambulance transport (aOR 1.56, 95%CI 0.86-2.84) or inter-facility referral communication (aOR 0.98, 95%CI 0.49-1.94) than those with low acuity. Nearly half (40.2%) of all patients were referred by ambulance despite having low acuity. Despite ambulance expansion in Addis Ababa, ambulance use among RTC patients remains heavily concentrated among those with low-acuity. Inter-facility referral appears a primary contributor to low-acuity ambulance use. In other contexts, similar routine ambulance monitoring may help identify low-value utilization. Regional guidelines may help direct ambulance use where most valuable, and warrant further evaluation.

  17. Review paper on research ethics in Ethiopia: experiences and lessons learnt from Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feleke, Yeweyenhareg; Addissie, Adamu; Wamisho, Biruk L; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Health research in Ethiopia is increasing both in volume and type, accompanied with expansion of higher education and research since the past few years. This calls for a proportional competence in the governance of medical research ethics in Ethiopia in the respective research and higher learning institutes. The paper highlights the evolution and progress ofthe ethics review at Addis Ababa University - College of Health Sciences (AAU-CHS) in the given context of health research review system in Ethiopia. Reflections are made on the key lessons to be drawnfrom the formative experiences of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and their implications to the Ethiopian health research review system. This article is a review paper based on review of published and un published documents on research ethics in Ethiopia and the AAU-CHS (2007-2012). Thematic summaries of review findings are presented in thematic areas - formation of ethics review and key factors in the evolution of ethics review and implications. The IRB at AAU-CHS has been pivotal in providing review and follow-up for important clinical studies in Ethiopia. It has been one of the first IRBs to get WHO/SIDCER recognition from Africa and Ethiopia. Important factors in the successes of the IRB among others included leadership commitment, its placement in institutional structure, and continued capacity building. Financial challenges and sustainability issues need to be addressed for the sustained gains registered so far. Similar factors are considered important for the new and younger IRBs within the emergent Universities and research centers in the country.

  18. City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    working days. The measurements were performed by total dust samplers (37 mm Millipore plastic cassette with a. PVC filter) attached to the breathing zone of the ... their weight that is drawn by gravity. The smaller particles (<10 µm), however, remain suspended in the air for long (2) and might thus be inhaled. The health-.

  19. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    about 1-3/1000 live births on average. The main components of the deformity are: forefoot adduction, hind foot varus, inverted calcaneus under equinus talus, and medial displacement of navicular and cuboid bones. New molecular- biology studies confirmed that the deforming genes are active at the 2nd trimester; hence it ...

  20. Proceedings of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference 17-22 November 2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: plenaries and oral presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mwesiga, Allan; Kamadjeu, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    Biennially, trainees and graduates of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) are presented with a platform to share investigations and projects undertaken during their two-year training in Applied Epidemiology. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference, is a perfect opportunity for public health professionals from various sectors and organizations to come together to discuss issues that impact on public health in Africa. This year's conference was organized by the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in collaboration with the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), Ethiopia Field Epidemiology Training Program (EFETP), Addis Ababa University (AAU), Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET) and AFENET. Participants at this year's conference numbered 400 from over 20 countries including; Angola, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe. The topics covered in the 144 oral presentations included: global health security, emergency response, public health informatics, vaccine preventable diseases, immunization, outbreak investigation, Millennium Development Goals, Non-Communicable Diseases, and public health surveillance. The theme for the 5th AFENET Scientific Conference was; "Addressing Public Health Priorities in Africa through FELTPs." Previous AFENET Scientific conferences have been held in: Accra, Ghana (2005), Kampala, Uganda (2007), Mombasa, Kenya (2009) and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2011).

  1. Sanitation facilities, hygienic conditions, and prevalence of acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Baseline survey of a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Bezatu; Kloos, Helmut; Medhin, Girmay; Mulat, Worku

    2017-01-01

    Background In developing countries, children under the age of five years who live in slums are highly vulnerable to diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions to acute diarrhea among under-five children in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study examines the sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions in the slums of Addis Ababa and identifies the main factors significantly associated with acute diarrhea among children aged 0–50 months in those slums. Methods A community-based cross-sectional household survey was carried out between September and November 2014, that then served as the baseline survey of a longitudinal study. For this survey, 697 children aged 0–50 months were recruited from two slum districts in Addis Ababa. A pre-tested structured questionnaire and an observational checklist were used for data collection. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sanitation facilities and hygiene-related factors that were significantly associated with acute diarrhea by controlling potential confounding effects of selected socio-demographic factors. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to quantify the strength of association. Main findings The prevalence of acute diarrhea among children aged 0–50 months in the study area was 11.9% and 94.6% of the sanitation facilities were unimproved. Sharing of a sanitation facility by six or more households (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.4–9.4), proximity of sanitation facilities within 15 meters of homes (AOR = 6.6; 95% CI: 2.5–17.0), presence of feces (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.5–10.3) and flies (AOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3–5.0) on the floor of and/or around sanitation facilities, and presence of uncollected garbage inside house compounds (AOR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2–8.4) were significantly associated with acute diarrhea. Conclusion This study reveals the slum

  2. Assessing the outcome of Strengthening Laboratory Management Towards Accreditation (SLMTA) on laboratory quality management system in city government of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Abay; Mindaye, Tedla; Tesfaye, Abrham; Abera, Eyob; Desale, Adino

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) is a competency-based management training programme designed to bring about immediate and measurable laboratory improvement. The aim of this study is to assess the outcome of SLMTA on laboratory quality management system in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study used an Institutional based cross sectional study design that employed a secondary and primary data collection approach on the participated institution of medical laboratory in SLMTA. The study was conducted in Addis Ababa city government and the data was collected from February 'April 2014 and data was entered in to EPI-data version 3.1 and was analyzed by SPSS version 20. The assessment finding indicate that there was a significant improvement in average scores (141.4; range of 65-196, 95%CI=86.275-115.5, p=0.000) at final with 3 laboratories become 3 star, 6 laboratories were at 2 star, 11 were 1 star. Laboratory facilities respondents which thought getting adequate and timely manner mentorship were found 2.5 times more likely to get good success in the final score(AOR=2.501, 95% CI=1.109-4.602) than which did not get it. At the end of SLMTA implementation,3 laboratories score 3 star, 6 laboratories were at 2 star, 11 were at 1 star. The most important contributing factor for not scoring star in the final outcome of SLMTA were not conducting their customer satisfaction survey, poor staff motivation, and lack of regular equipment service maintenance. Mentorship, onsite and offsite coaching and training activities had shown a great improvement on laboratory quality management system in most laboratories.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose level among members of federal police commission residing in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Tariku; Shikur, Bilal; Shimels, Tariku; Firdu, Naod

    2016-11-28

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and factors associated with it, nowadays, are increasing in alarming rates among different occupational groups. Of these occupational groups are Police officers that, often, are exposed to unique life styles and stressful situations which may lead to diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular diseases. Due to this reason, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence and factors associated with diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose level among members of federal police commission residing in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was conducted from April to May 2015. Multistage and systematic random sampling techniques were employed to select the study participants. The study population was federal police commission members living in Addis Ababa and served for at least a year. The data were collected using structured questionnaire, physical examinations and blood samples, based on the WHO stepwise approach. Data were entered in to SPSS version 20.0 and descriptive statistics and logistics regression were used for analysis. Out of the 1003 eligible subjects, 936 (93.3%) police officers have participated in this study. The prevalence of overall impaired glucose homeostasis (IGH) was 120 (13%) of which 47 (5%) were diabetes and 73 (8%) were impaired fasting glucose. Whereas police rank, history of first degree relative who suffered from diabetes, hypertension and waist hip ratio showed a statistical significance with prevalence of diabetes mellitus, age, family history, hypertension, BMI and waist hip ratio were found to be associated with impaired fasting glucose. The study identified a high prevalence of IGH among the police officers. A priority should be given on preventive strategies of diabetes mellitus, as that of communicable diseases, by Federal Police Commission Health Service Directorate, Federal Ministry of Health and other concerned partners.

  4. An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia.

  5. EFL reading goals of grade 11 students across public and non-public schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Tekle Ferede

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the EFL reading goals of Grade 11 students across public and non-public schools in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa. To this end, quantitative data were collected from 556 (375 public and 181 non-public students via pre-tested structured questionnaire and analyzed into means, medians, standard deviations, ranges and Mann-Whitney U test scores. The results show that non-public school students were found better than public school students in possessing components of both extrinsic and intrinsic goals for reading. The notable exception in this regard is that public school students had higher social motivation for reading than their non-public school counterparts. Based on this finding, it has been concluded that non-public school students have a better chance of evolving as persistent self-initiated EFL readers since they have various goals which urge them to engage in reading a range of texts. It is thus recommended that English language teachers in public schools should constantly take actions to enable their students to develop appropriate EFL reading goals.

  6. Mass dog poisoning operation in Addis Ababa can have severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    -mass-dog-killing-concerns-hit-addis-ababa.html and leads on discussion groups of mass dog killing in Addis Ababa from Anteneh Shimelis, I have attempted to verify the news. I have been able to visit the veterinary office of the Addis.

  7. Relapse and hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at the St Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a comparative quantitative cross-sectional study

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    Ayano G

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Getnet Ayano,1 Bereket Duko2 1Research and Training Department, St Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: Relapse and hospital admission are common among, and carry a heavy burden in, patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of relapse and hospitalizations in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at the St Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Patients and methods: A hospital-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2016. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 521 (260 schizophrenia cases and 261 bipolar disorder cases study participants. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained psychiatry professionals. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR criteria and Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV (SCID were used.Results: The risk of relapse and hospitalizations was slightly higher in patients with bipolar disorder than in patients with schizophrenia. A majority of schizophrenic (213 [81.92%] and bipolar (215 [82.37%] patients had a history of hospital admission, and 228 (87.69% schizophrenic and 230 (88.12% bipolar patients had a history of relapse. Patients who had a history of hospitalizations also had co-occurring substance use disorders compared to those who had no history of hospitalizations for schizophrenia (81.5% vs 37.9% and bipolar disorder (82.56% vs 38.2%, respectively. Similarly, those patients who had a history of relapse had high comorbid substance use disorders than those who had no history of relapse for both schizophrenia (87.88% vs 47.37% and bipolar disorder (88.37% vs 47.19%, respectively.Conclusion: It is vital that, in the local context, mental health professionals strengthen their therapeutic

  8. Effects of peer education intervention on HIV/AIDS related sexual behaviors of secondary school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Takele; Ali, Ahmed; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-09-07

    Worldwide, about 50% of all new cases of HIV occur in youth between age 15 and 24 years. Studies in various sub-Saharan African countries show that both out of school and in school adolescents and youth are engaged in risky sexual behaviors. School-based health education has been a cornerstone of youth-focused HIV prevention efforts since the early 1990s. In addition, peer-based interventions have become a common method to effect important health-related behavior changes and address the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of peer education on changing HIV related risky sexual behaviors among school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A quasi experimental study with peer education intervention was conducted in purposively selected four secondary schools (two secondary schools for the intervention and other two for the control group) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Five hundred sixty students from randomly selected sections of grade 11 were assessed through anonymous questionnaires conducted in pre- and post-intervention periods. Pertinent data on socio-demographic and sexual behavior related factors were collected. The statistical packages used for data entry and analysis were epi-info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 20.0 respectively. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regressions were used for testing association between peer education intervention and sexual behaviors of students. In addition to testing association between dependent and independent variables, multi-variable analysis was employed to control for the effects of confounding variables. When the pre and post intervention data of each group were compared, comprehensive Knowledge of HIV (P-Values =0.004) and willingness to go for HIV counseling and testing (P-value = 0.01) showed significant differences among intervention group students during post intervention period. Moreover, students in the intervention group were more likely to use condoms during post

  9. Concentration levels of metals in vegetables grown in soils irrigated with river water in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldegebriel, Yirgaalem; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh; Wondimu, Taddese

    2012-03-01

    Samples of vegetables, water and soil were collected from four vegetable farms in Addis Ababa to evaluate the extent and trend of metal accumulation in these systems and health risk concerns to consumers. Vegetable samples were digested in HNO(3) and HClO(4), soil samples in Aqua Regia and water samples were pre-concentrated with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) using the chelating agent ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC). All the samples were analyzed for Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of Cd (0.12-1.13 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (0.11-0.89 mg kg(-1)) in the vegetables surpassed the maximum recommended levels. The total metal concentrations in soils were (mg kg(-1)): Cr, 9.9-22.8; Co, 28.0-47.3; Cu, 25.1-51.4, Mn, 1000-1054; Ni, 16.4-55.8; Zn, 146-149; Cd, 1.4-1.8 and Pb, 22.0-50.7. The trace metals Cd, Co, Cu, Mn and Ni in most of the water samples collected from Goffa, Kera and Akaki farms also surpassed irrigation water guideline limits, which might be a case for high accumulation of metals in the soils. However, the soil pH (6.5-7.6) and high cation exchange capacity (CEC), 38.41-50.18, coupled with high clay content, 37-51%, of the soil seemed to limit metal uptake by the vegetables. The physical parameters, pH (7.43-7.89) and electrical conductivity (0.33-1.54 dS/m) of irrigation waters measured at 25°C were found within the acceptable range. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 'Sexual violence is not good for our country’s development' : Students’ interpretations of sexual violence in a secondary school in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Mat, M.L.J.

    2016-01-01

    It has been increasingly recognised that sexual violence in schools is one of the major concerns with regard to promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper examines how boys and girls define, experience, and interpret sexual violence in a secondary school in Addis Ababa,

  11. Examining critical factors affecting graduate retention from an emergency medicine training program in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a qualitative study of stakeholder perspectives

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    Meredith Jane Kuipers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ethiopia, improvement and innovation of the emergency care system is hindered by lack of specialist doctors trained in emergency medicine, underdeveloped emergency care infrastructure, and consumable resource limitations. Our aim was to examine the critical factors affecting retention of graduates from the Addis Ababa University (AAU post-graduate emergency medicine (EM training program within the Ethiopian health care system. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with current AAU EM residents and stakeholders in Ethiopian EM. Mixed-methods inductive thematic analysis was performed. Results: Resident and stakeholder participants identified critical factors in three domains: the individual condition, the occupational environment, and the national context. Within each domain, priority themes emerged from the responses, including the importance of career satisfaction over the career continuum (individual condition, the opportunity to be involved in the developing EM program and challenges associated with resource, economic, and employment constraints (occupational environment, and perceptions regarding the state of awareness of EM and the capacity for change at the societal level (national context. Conclusions: This work underscores the need to resolve multiple systemic and cultural issues within the Ethiopian health care landscape in order to address EM graduate retention. It also highlights the potential success of a retention strategy focused on the career ambitions of keen EM doctors.

  12. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Tilahun Birkneh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated.

  13. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Birkneh; Worku, Bogale; Tachbele, Erdaw; Terefe, Simegn; Kloos, Helmut; Legesse, Worku

    2012-03-16

    Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica) in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated.

  14. Acute poisonings during pregnancy and in other non-pregnant women in emergency departments of four government hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyasu, Mebrahtu; Dida, Tolesa; Worku, Yoseph; Worku, Solomon; Shafie, Mensur

    2017-10-01

    To characterise acute poisonings in pregnant and non-pregnant women treated at emergency departments of government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between 2010 and 2015. All data for acutely poisoned women were retrospectively collected from patient medical charts at the emergency departments of Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Ras Desta Memorial Hospital, Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College and Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Data were collected by extraction questionnaire and analysed using SPSSv. 20 statistical software. During the study period, 998 cases of acutely poisoned women were listed in the hospital registries. Of these, complete data for inclusion in the study were available for 592. 36.3% of the study participants were in the age group of 20-24, with a mean (±SD) age of 23.03 (±6.3) years. 80.9% were from Addis Ababa; 4.6% were pregnant. The mean arrival time of all cases was 4.14 h. 85.5% of all study cases were due to intentional self-poisoning, of whom 42.1% were discharged without complications. The most common poisons were bleach and organophosphates; 25.9% of pregnant cases and 32.6% of non-pregnant cases were poisoned by bleach; and 18.5% of pregnant cases and 18.9% of non-pregnant cases had organophosphate poisoning. 0.7% had a history of poisoning; all were non-pregnant women. The common route of poison exposure was oral, and the case fatality rate of organophosphate poisoning in pregnant and non-pregnant women was 20 and 1.87%, respectively. The pre-hospital intervention for the majority of the women was milk, in 12.0% of cases. Acute poisoning remains a public health problem in our community. Bleach is the most common poisons. Our present findings indicate the necessity of educational programmes on preventable reasons of acute poisonings and their outcomes on pregnant and non-pregnant women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Magnitude of Neural Tube Defects and Associated Risk Factors at Three Teaching Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Abel Gedefaw

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is scarcity of data on prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs in lower-income countries. Local data are important to understand the real burden of the problem and explore risk factors to design and implement preventive approaches. This study aimed to determine prevalence and risk factors of NTDs. A hospital-based cross-sectional and unmatched case-control study was conducted at three teaching hospitals of Addis Ababa University. NTDs were defined as cases of anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele based on ICD-10 criteria. The prevalence of NTDs was calculated per 10,000 births for both birth and total prevalence. During seven months, we observed 55 cases of NTDs out of 8677 births after 28 weeks of gestation—birth prevalence of 63.4 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval (CI, 51–77. A total of 115 cases were medically terminated after 12 weeks of gestation. Fifty-six of these terminations (48.7% were due to NTDs. Thus, total prevalence of NTDs after 12 weeks’ gestation is 126 per 10,000 births (95% CI, 100–150. Planned pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24–0.92, male sex (aOR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33–0.94, normal or underweight body mass index (aOR, 0.49; 95%, 0.29–0.95, and taking folic acid or multivitamins during first trimester (aOR, 0.47; 95%, 0.23–0.95 were protective of NTDs. However, annual cash family income less than $1,300 USD (aOR, 2.5; 95%, 1.2–5.5, $1,300–1,800 USD (aOR, 2.8; 95%, 1.3–5.8, and $1,801–2,700 USD (aOR, 2.6; 95%, 1.2–5.8 was found to be risk factors compared to income greater than $2,700 USD. The prevalence of NTDs was found to be high in this setting. Comprehensive preventive strategies focused on identified risk factors should be urgently established. More studies on prevention strategies, including folic acid supplementations, should be conducted in the setting.

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus in dairy farms, abattoir and humans in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Takele; Hayishe, Halefom; Gizaw, Fikru; Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa; Abunna, Fufa; Mammo, Bedaso; Ayana, Dinka; Waktole, Hika; Abdi, Reta Duguma

    2017-04-28

    Staphylococcus species cause mastitis and wound infection in livestock and food poisoning in humans through ingestion of contaminated foods, including meat and dairy products. They are evolving pathogens in that they readily acquire drug resistance, and multiple drug-resistant (MDR) isolates are increasing in human and veterinary healthcare. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococci and their drug resistance in dairy farms and abattoir settings of Addis Ababa. In this cross-sectional study, 193 samples of milk, meat, equipment and humans working in the dairy farms and abattoir were collected (dairy farms = 72 and abattoir sources = 121). Staphylococcus isolation and identification at the species level was done according to ISO-6888-3 using biochemical characteristics. An antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted for 43 of the isolates using 15 antimicrobial agents commonly used for humans and livestock by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. Staphylococcus organism were isolated from 92 (47.7%) of the total 193 samples, 50% in the dairy farms and 46.3% in the abattoir. The isolated species were S. aureus (n = 31; 16.1%), S. intermedius (n = 21; 10.9%), S. hyicus (n = 16; 8.3%), and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) (n = 24; 12.4%). Gentamycin was effective drug as all isolates (n = 43; 100%) were susceptible to it and followed by kanamycin (n = 39; 90.7%). However, the majority of the isolates showed resistance to penicillin-G (95.3%), nalidixic acid (88.4%), cloxacillin (79.1%), vancomycin (65.1%) and cefoxitin (55.8%). Of the 15 S. aureus tested for drug susceptibility, 73.3% of them were phenotypically resistant to vancomycin (VRSA) and all of the 15 isolates showed multi-drug resistance (MDR) to >3 drugs. Also, all of the tested CNS (100%), S. hyicus (100%) and the majority of S. intermedius isolates (88.9%) developed MDR. Alarmingly, the Staphylococcus isolates

  17. Sero-prevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

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    Tegbaru Belete

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.

  18. The status of medical laboratory towards of AFRO-WHO accreditation process in government and private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesfin, Eyob Abera; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Ashenafi, Aytenew

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) introduces a step wise incremental accreditation approach to improving quality of laboratory and it is a new initiative in Ethiopia and activities are performed for implementation of accreditation program. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in 30 laboratory facilities including 6 laboratory sections to determine their status towards of accreditation using WHO AFRO accreditation checklist and 213 laboratory professionals were interviewed to assess their knowledge on quality system essentials and accreditation in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Out of 30 laboratory facilities 1 private laboratory scored 156 (62%) points, which is the minimum required point for WHO accreditation and the least score was 32 (12.8%) points from government laboratory. The assessment finding from each section indicate that 2 Clinical chemistry (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Hematology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Serology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Microbiology (55.2% & 62.4%), 1 Parasitology (62.8%) & 1 Urinalysis (61.6%) sections scored the minimum required point for WHO accreditation. The average score for government laboratories was 78.2 (31.2%) points, of these 6 laboratories were under accreditation process with 106.2 (42.5%) average score, while the private laboratories had 71.2 (28.5%) average score. Of 213 respondents 197 (92.5%) professionals had a knowledge on quality system essentials whereas 155 (72.8%) respondents on accreditation. Although majority of the laboratory professionals had knowledge on quality system and accreditation, laboratories professionals were not able to practice the quality system properly and most of the laboratories had poor status towards the WHO accreditation process. Thus government as well as stakeholders should integrate accreditation program into planning and health policy.

  19. Overview of Rabies in and around Addis Ababa, in Animals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of stray dogs in Addis Ababa are estimated to be 250,000 and 120,000, respec- tively. Data Collection. Animal rabies data in and around Addis Ababa between 2003 and 2009 col- lected from the annual reports of Zoonoses research team of the Ethiopian. Health and Nutrition Research Institute were used for analysis.

  20. Extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a simulated-patient study

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    Erku DA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Asfaw Erku,1 Abebe Basazn Mekuria,2 Abdrrahman Shemsu Surur,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study design was used to sample 31 pharmacies, 25 drug stores, and two rural drug vendors from August 11, 2015, to October 21, 2015, through a simple random sampling method. A simulated-patient method of visit was implemented to collect data. Requests of six tracer prescription-only medicines (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid capsule, amitriptyline, captopril, glibenclamide [also known as glyburide], omeprazole capsule, and sildenafil citrate and upper respiratory tract infection were selected as the simulated clinical scenario.Results: Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule was dispensed when requested in 87.93% of the dispensaries. All of the CDROs dispensed omeprazole upon request. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra was in stock in 96.55% of the CDROs, all of which issued the requested number of tablets without asking why or for whom the drug was needed. Amitriptyline, captopril, and glibenclamide (glyburide were dispensed in 84.48%, 89.65%, and 87.93% of CDROs upon the provision of an empty container. Antibiotics were obtained from 75.86% of CDROs for presentation of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. Among the dispensed antibiotics, the most common was amoxicillin (93.18%, followed by amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule (72.72%, and azithromycin (50%. Only 4.5% of the dispensaries asked about drug allergies, and 15.9% of the CDROs informed the simulated patient about the possible side effects of the drugs.Conclusion: This study revealed a very high

  1. Magnitude of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pediatric HIV/AIDS Patients Attending Zewditu Memorial Hospital ART Clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Hylemariam Mihiretie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anemia is one of the most commonly observed hematological abnormalities and an independent prognostic marker of HIV disease. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of anemia and associated factors among pediatric HIV/AIDS patients attending Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH ART Clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pediatric HIV/AIDS patients of Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH between August 05, 2013, and November 25, 2013. A total of 180 children were selected consecutively. Stool specimen was collected and processed. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and associated risk factors. Data were entered into EpiData 3.1.1. and were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between explanatory factors and outcome variables. Results. The total prevalence of anemia was 22.2% where 21 (52.5%, 17 (42.5%, and 2 (5.0% patients had mild, moderate, and severe anemia. There was a significant increase in severity and prevalence of anemia in those with CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/μL (P<0.05. Having intestinal parasitic infections (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI, 1.1–7.2, having lower CD4+ T cell count (AOR = 3.8, 95% CI, 1.6–9.4, and being HAART naïve (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI, 1.6–9.4 were identified as significant predictors of anemia. Conclusion. Anemia was more prevalent and severe in patients with low CD4+ T cell counts, patients infected with intestinal parasites/helminthes, and HAART naïve patients. Therefore, public health measures and regular follow-up are necessary to prevent anemia.

  2. Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among People with Schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study

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    Berhanu Boru Bifftu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While effective treatments are available for people with schizophrenia, presence of perceived stigma prevents them from accessing and receiving the help they need to get. Objectives. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among people with schizophrenia attending the Outpatient Department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 411 subjects using an Amharic version of the perceived devaluation and discrimination scale. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to identify the association factors of outcome variables. Results. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be 83.5%. Education status (not able to read and write (AOR=2.64, 95% CI: 1.118, 6.227, difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic drug (AOR=4.49, 95% CI: 2.309, 8.732, and duration of illness less than one year (AOR=3.48, 95% CI: 2.238, 5.422 were factors associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion. Overall, the prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be high. Education status (not able to read and write, difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, and duration of illness were factors associated with perceived stigma. Adherence to antipsychotic medication particularly during the early stage of the illness and strengthening the educational status of the participants were suggested in the clinical care setting.

  3. Injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a prospective hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Mohammed; Azazh, Aklilu; Enquselassie, Fikre; Yisma, Engida

    2015-05-20

    Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally, and the leading cause of death for young people. More than a million people die each year on the world's roads, and the risk of dying as a result of a road traffic injury is highest in Africa. A prospective hospital based study was undertaken to assess injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of fatalities among the road traffic crash victims. A total of 230 road traffic accident victims were studied. The majority of the study subjects were men 165 (71.7%) and the male/female ratio was 2.6:1. The victims' ages ranged from 14 to 80 years with the mean and standard deviations of 32.15 and ± 14.38 years respectively. Daily laborers (95 (41.3%)) and students (28 (12.2%)) were the majority of road traffic accident victims. Head (50.4%) and musculoskeletal (extremities) (47.0%) were the most common body region injured. Fractures (78.0%) and open wounds (56.5%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. The overall length of hospital stay (LOS) ranged from 1 day to 61 days with mean (± standard deviation) of 7.12 ± 10.5 days and the mortality rate was 7.4%. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age of the victims (ß = 0.16, p road traffic accident is a major public health problem. Urgent road traffic accident preventive measures and prompt treatment of the victims are warranted in order to reduce morbidity and mortality among the victims.

  4. Establishment of Immunohematological Reference Values among HIV Sero-negative Pregnant Women at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College (SPHMMC), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshanew, Addisu Gize; GebreSilasie, Yeshwondm Mamuye; Mengesha, Hirut Tadesse

    2017-11-01

    Normal pregnancy is characterized by profound changes in almost every organ and system. Immunohematological parameters are important in clinical practice for the assessment of health and disease. Therefore, this study was aimed to establish immunohematological reference range among HIV sero-negative pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV sero-negative pregnant women at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College (SPHMMC), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 20/1-30/6/ 2016. Whole blood was collected and immunological and hematological parameters were measured following the standard procedure. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 3.5, checked for completeness and exported to SPSS version 20 software for analysis. The mean ± SD and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) values were calculated for different immunohematological parameters. A total of 400 women with mean age ±SD (27.3 ±4.7) ranging from 18-40 years were enrolled. The mean ± SD reference value of white blood cells count with 95% CI was 8.3 ±2.3 (8.1-8.6) ×10 9 cells/L and for CD4 + , CD8 + , and CD4 to CD8 ratio cells absolute count with 95% CI were 906 ±404 (867-946), 698± 378 (662-736) cell/µl, and 1.5±0.9 (1.4-1.6), respectively.The mean ± SD reference values for red blood cells count with 95% CI was 4.5±0.5(4.4-4.5) 10 12 /L, for hemoglobin 14±7.2(13.3-14.7) gm/dl, and for hematocrite was 39.5± 4(39-39.9). These values were lower than the one from developed countries but not lower than the one from other African studies. It suggests the need for further large study.

  5. Status of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, K; Hussein, D; Asseged, B; Wondwossen, T; Gebeyehu, M

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the status of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, by a comparative intradermal tuberculin test of 1,869 animals in 106 farms. Epidemiological information was also collected, taking into account factors chosen for their epidemiological significance and local livestock husbandry characteristics. In addition, milk samples were collected from tuberculin reactors for mycobacterial isolation and characterisation. Chi-square statistic, simple regression and multiple stepwise logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Of the 106 farms examined, 46 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.8% to 53.4%) contained comparative skin test reactors. Of the 1,869 animals, 443 (95% CI: 21.8% to 25.7%) were comparative skin test reactors. Furthermore, about 8.5% of tuberculin sensitive cows (12 of a sample of 141) secreted acid-fast bacteria in their milk. The microbes are described in more detail in the paper. Factors identified as possibly increasing the risk of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa were herd size (large herd), farming (housing) condition (poor), and age (older animals). Similarly, as body condition scores improved from poor to medium and then to good, the likelihood of positive results significantly decreased (OR = 0.54; p < 0.01). Other factors including breed, sex, and physiological status of animals did not seem to significantly contribute to tuberculin sensitivity. The finding that large-size and intensively (often poorly) managed herds were at greater risk of bovine tuberculosis suggests that the significance of bovine tuberculosis is increasing in Addis Ababa parallel to an increasing dairy operation. If measures are not taken promptly, the impact on the economy and public health could be enormous.

  6. Risky HIV sexual behavior and utilization of voluntary counseling and HIV testing and associated factors among undergraduate students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Desalegn Woldeyohannes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. University students are often a young and sexually active group that is at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. We assessed risky HIV sexual behaviors and utilization of voluntary counseling and testing services among undergraduate students at Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June, 2013. Standardized semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling technique was use to select departments from each school. All students in the selected departments were the study participants. Data were entered into EPI-Info and analyzed using SPPS statistical packages. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Of the total 602 students selected, an overall response rate of 557 (92.6% were registered. Among the participants 361 (60% were males. The student ages’ were ranged from 17 up to 25 years with mean age of 20.3 ± 1.6. Around 385 (64% of them were in the age group of 17 up to 20 years. Among the study participants, 161 (26.8% had sexual contact and the mean age of first sexual encounter was 17.4 (SD =2.3 years. About 443 (76% of students knew that condoms can prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs. Among sexually active students, 74 (46% had not used condom during first time sex. Among those responded, 488 (83.4% had heard information about VCT; however, 52% had not ever used VCT service. The overall mean score of knowledge and attitude of students towards risk perception on HIV was around 66% and 57%, respectively. Students who enrolled in health science departments had almost three time more knowledge [AOR(95%CI = 2.83 (1.67, 4.80] and two and half times more favorable [AOR (95% CI = 2.55 (1.60, 4.06] attitudes towards HIV risk reduction strategies than students in non-health related departments

  7. Risky HIV sexual behavior and utilization of voluntary counseling and HIV testing and associated factors among undergraduate students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Asmamaw, Yehenew; Sisay, Solomon; Hailesselassie, Werissaw; Birmeta, Kidist; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2017-01-25

    HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. University students are often a young and sexually active group that is at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. We assessed risky HIV sexual behaviors and utilization of voluntary counseling and testing services among undergraduate students at Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June, 2013. Standardized semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling technique was use to select departments from each school. All students in the selected departments were the study participants. Data were entered into EPI-Info and analyzed using SPPS statistical packages. P-value sexual contact and the mean age of first sexual encounter was 17.4 (SD =2.3) years. About 443 (76%) of students knew that condoms can prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Among sexually active students, 74 (46%) had not used condom during first time sex. Among those responded, 488 (83.4%) had heard information about VCT; however, 52% had not ever used VCT service. The overall mean score of knowledge and attitude of students towards risk perception on HIV was around 66% and 57%, respectively. Students who enrolled in health science departments had almost three time more knowledge [AOR(95%CI) = 2.83 (1.67, 4.80)] and two and half times more favorable [AOR (95% CI) = 2.55 (1.60, 4.06)] attitudes towards HIV risk reduction strategies than students in non-health related departments. Some students were engaged in risky sexual behaviour even though they had heard about HIV/AIDS. The perception of risk for acquisition of HIV infection and utilization of VCT were low. HIV prevention and control strategies including education in the areas of HIV/AIDS as part of university programs curriculum, specially non-health students, and strengthening health institutions to provide youth-friendly VCT services for HIV with "know

  8. Current Efavirenz (EFV or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r use correlates with elevate markers of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected subjects in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Rudolph L Gleason

    Full Text Available HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy have shown elevated incidence of dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Most studies, however, focus on cohorts from developed countries, with less data available for these co-morbidities in Ethiopia and sub-Saharan Africa.Adult HIV-negative (n = 36, treatment naïve (n = 51, efavirenz (EFV-treated (n = 91, nevirapine (NVP-treated (n = 95, or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r-treated (n=44 subjects were recruited from Black Lion Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Aortic pressure, augmentation pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV were measured via applanation tonometry and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and carotid arterial stiffness, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD were measured via non-invasive ultrasound. Body mass index, waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR, skinfold thickness, and self-reported fat redistribution were used to quantify lipodystrophy. CD4+ cell count, plasma HIV RNA levels, fasting glucose, total-, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, hsCRP, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, leptin and complete blood count were measured.PWV and normalized cIMT were elevate and FMD impaired in EFV- and LPV/r-treated subjects compared to NVP-treated subjects; normalized cIMT was also elevated and FMD impaired in the EFV- and LPV/r-treated subjects compared to treatment-naïve subjects. cIMT was not statistically different across groups. Treated subjects exhibited elevated markers of dyslipidemia, inflammation, and lipodystrophy. PWV was associated with age, current EFV and LPV/r used, heart rate, blood pressure, triglycerides, LDL, and hsCRP, FMD with age, HIV duration, WHR, and glucose, and cIMT with age, current EFV use, skinfold thickness, and blood pressure.Current EFV- or LPV/r-treatment, but not NVP-treatment, correlated with elevated markers of atherosclerosis, which may involve mechanisms distinct from traditional risk factors.

  9. High prevalence of anti-toxoplasma antibodies and absence of Toxoplasma gondii infection risk factors among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Woyneshet; Kebede, Tadesse; Hailu, Asrat

    2015-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is acquired mainly by eating raw or undercooked meat containing Toxoplasma gondii tissue cyst, eating food or water contaminated with oocyst, and acquiring congenital infection through the placenta. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and assess possible risk factors associated with the infection among pregnant women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Cross sectional study was designed, and 288 serum samples were collected from November 1(st) 2010 to January 2011. The serum samples were tested for anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using latex agglutination test. The risk factors were tested for significance using Bivariate and multivariate analysis. P-value Toxoplasma gondii antibody. No significant association was observed between seroprevalence and age, gestational age, socio demographic characters, history of abortion, consumption of raw or undercooked meat, consumption of raw vegetable, owning of cat, and blood transfusion. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is higher than that reported from other countries. Efforts to describe risk factors for toxoplasma infection among Ethiopians should focus in children. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors associated with HIV counseling and testing and correlations with sexual behavior of teachers in primary and secondary schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Takele; Ali, Ahmed; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic is a global crisis that affects the lives of millions of people. Although HIV counseling and testing (HCT) serves as the entry point for HIV prevention, treatment, and care, it remains a low priority in many settings. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the factors associated with HCT and their correlation with the sexual behavior of primary and secondary school teachers in Addis Ababa. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A multistage sampling technique was used to select a representative sample of 1,136 teachers. HCT and sexual health behavior-related data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was employed to examine the relationships between HCT, sociodemographics, and risky sexual behavior-related variables. Of the 1,136 eligible study participants, 1,034 (91.0%) teachers completed the self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The proportion of teachers who had ever tested for HIV was 739/1,034 (71.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 69.1-74.2). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being male (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.63; 95% CI 0.44-0.90) was associated with a 37% decrease in odds of being ever tested for HIV compared with being female. Married teachers were less likely to have had HIV testing (AOR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19-0.47) compared with unmarried teachers. Being aged ≥45 years (AOR 4.05; 95% CI 1.82-9.03), having high HCT-related knowledge (AOR 3.56; 95% CI 1.73-7.32), and having a perceived risk of HIV (AOR 1.43; 95% CI 1.04-1.96) were positively associated with HCT. Moreover, regarding the correlation of HCT with the sexual behavior of teachers, those teachers who never had HCT were more likely to have multiple sexual partners than those who had ever had HCT (AOR 1.85; 95% CI 1.08-3.15). In contrast, teachers who had ever been tested for HIV were less likely to have used condoms

  11. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents' vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants' increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 290% (AOR: 3.9 (1

  12. Knowledge and attitudes towards antiretroviral therapy among factory workers participating in a cohort on HIV and AIDS, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degefa, Ambaye; Sanders, Eduard J.; Mekonnen, Yared; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Wolday, Dawit; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien; Mekonnen, Walelgne; Schaap, Ab; Dukers, Nicole H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates barriers that may pose a threat to a successful implementation of an antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in Ethiopia. As prelude to the provision of ART among factory workers participating in a cohort study on HIV and AIDS in Ethiopia, we measured knowledge and attitudes

  13. Clinical Characteristics of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Helen Siyoum Atkilt

    Full Text Available Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA is one of the most serious acute complications of type 1 diabetes (T1D and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with T1D. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of DKA in children with newly diagnosed T1D in Addis Ababa.A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa. Children below the age of 12 years with DKA who were admitted to the pediatric ward in the selected hospitals between January 2009 and December 2014 and the residence of Addis Ababa were included. DKA was defined as children below the age of 12 years who have blood glucose level ≥250mg/dl, ketonuria, and ketonemia and diagnosed being T1D patient for the first time. Descriptive statistics was performed using frequency distribution, mean, median, tables, and graphs. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with the prevalence of DKA in children with newly diagnosed T1D.Of 395 DKA patients who were hospitalized during the five-year period, 142(35.8% presented with DKA at first diagnosis of diabetes. On the other hand 253 (64.2% children with DKA had longstanding T1D. Independent factors associated with DKA include: Age category 2-4.49years, 7-9.49 years and ≥9.5years (Adjusted odd ratio (AOR = 3.14[1.21,8.06], 3.44(1.39,8.49 and 4.02(1.68,9.60, respectively; parents' knowledge on the sign and symptoms of DKA (AOR = 0.51[0.27, 0.95]; sign and symptoms of DKA before the onset of DKA (AOR = 0.35[0.21, 0.59] and infection prior to DKA onset (AOR = 3.45[1.97, 6.04].The overall proportion of children diagnosed with DKA and new onset of T1D in Addis Ababa was high. In particular, children between 9-12 years of age and children whose parents did not know the sign and symptoms of DKA had a high risk of DKA at primary diagnosis of T1D.

  14. Co-Creating a Psychiatric Resident Program with Ethiopians, for Ethiopians, in Ethiopia: The Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Atalay; Pain, Clare; Araya, Mesfin; Hodges, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Globalization in medical education often means a "brain drain" of desperately needed health professionals from low- to high-income countries. Despite the best intentions, partnerships that simply transport students to Western medical schools for training have shockingly low return rates. Ethiopia, for example, has sent…

  15. HIV/AIDS related commodities supply chain management in public health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanemeskel, Eyerusalem; Beedemariam, Gebremedhin; Fenta, Teferi Gedif

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of pharmaceutical products are needed for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. However, interrupted supplies and stock-outs are the major challenges in the supply chain of ARV medicines and related commodities. The aim of this study was to assess the supply chain management of HIV/AIDS related commodities in public health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A descriptive cross-sectional survey complemented by qualitative method was conducted in 24 public health facilities (4 hospitals and 20 health centers). A semi-structured questionnaire and observation check list were used to collect data on HIV/AIDS related service, reporting and ordering; receiving, transportation and storage condition of ARV medicines and test kits; and supportive supervision and logistics management information system. In addition, in-depth interview with flexible probing techniques was used to complement the quantitative data with emphasis to the storage condition of ARV medicines and test kits. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS version-20. Analysis of qualitative data involved rigorous reading of transcripts in order to identify key themes and data was analyzed using thematic approach. The study revealed that 16 health centers and one hospital had recorded and reported patient medication record. Six months prior to the study, 14 health centers and 2 hospitals had stopped VCT services for one time or more. Three hospitals and 18 health centers claimed to have been able to submit the requisition and report concerning ARV medicines to Pharmaceutical Fund and Supply Agency according to the specific reporting period. More than three-fourth of the health centers had one or more emergency order of ARV medicines on the day of visit, while all of hospitals had emergency order more than 3 times within 6 months prior to the study. All of the hospitals and nearly half of the health centers had an emergency order of test kits more than 3 times in the past 6

  16. No association of cryptococcal antigenemia with poor outcomes among antiretroviral therapy-experienced HIV-infected patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Smitson

    Full Text Available There are limited data on clinical outcomes of ART-experienced patients with cryptococcal antigenemia. We assessed clinical outcomes of a predominantly asymptomatic, ART-experienced cohort of HIV+ patients previously found to have a high (8.4% prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia.The study took place at All Africa Leprosy, Tuberculosis and Rehabilitative Training Centre and Black Lion Hospital HIV Clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A retrospective study design was used to perform 12-month follow-up of 367 mostly asymptomatic HIV-infected patients (CD4<200 cells/µl with high levels of antiretroviral therapy use (74% who were previously screened for cryptococcal antigenemia. Medical chart abstraction was performed approximately one year after initial screening to obtain data on clinic visit history, ART use, CD4 count, opportunistic infections, and patient outcome. We evaluated the association of cryptococcal antigenemia and a composite poor outcome of death and loss to follow-up using logistic regression.Overall, 323 (88% patients were alive, 8 (2% dead, and 36 (10% lost to follow-up. Among the 31 patients with a positive cryptococcal antigen test (titers ≥1∶8 at baseline, 28 were alive (all titers ≤1∶512, 1 dead and 2 lost to follow-up (titers ≥1∶1024. In multivariate analysis, cryptococcal antigenemia was not predictive of a poor outcome (aOR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.3-4.8. A baseline CD4 count <100 cells/µl was associated with an increased risk of a poor outcome (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.7 while an increasing CD4 count (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.1-0.3 and receiving antiretroviral therapy at last follow-up visit (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.02-0.2 were associated with a reduced risk of a poor outcome.Unlike prior ART-naïve cohorts, we found that among persons receiving ART and with CD4 counts <200 cells/µl, asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia was not predictive of a poor outcome.

  17. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in retail meat and dairy products in the area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derra, F. A.; Karlsmose, Susanne; Monga, D. P.

    2013-01-01

    L. monocytogenes isolates showed low occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among eight different PFGE types. Discussion and Conclusions. The findings in this study correspond to similar research undertaken in Ethiopia by detecting L. monocytogenes with similar prevalence rates. Public education......Background. Listeriosis, a bacterial disease in humans and animals, is mostly caused by ingestion of Listeria monocytogenes via contaminated food and/or water, or by a zoonotic infection. Globally, listeriosis has in general a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. Objective. The objective...... of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antimicrobial profiles, and genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes from raw meat and dairy products (raw milk, cottage cheese, cream cake), collected from the capital and five neighboring towns in Ethiopia. Methods. Two hundred forty food samples were purchased...

  18. Prevalence of fertility desire and its associated factors among 15- to 49-year-old people living with HIV/AIDS in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilo TM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Takele Menna Adilo,1 Hirut Megerssa Wordofa2 1Department of Public Health, 2School of Nursing, St Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: The magnitude of unprotected sex to satisfy the desire for fertility among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV may rise more due to the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART in most HIV-affected countries. This could, however, have the risk of passing on HIV to sexual partners and children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the magnitude and factors associated with the fertility desire of reproductive-age PLHIV in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for research-based and timely actions.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from April to June 2016 among 442 randomly selected, reproductive-age PLHIV who had been attending ART clinics in Addis Ababa. Twelve experienced and trained nurses collected the data. The questionnaire was pretested and interviewer-administered, and the interview was executed after obtaining voluntary consent from each study subject. The data were then cleaned and analyzed by using Epi Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 20.0, respectively. Binary logistic regression was done in order to describe the association of fertility desire with some sociodemographic and sexual behavior-related factors.Results: Among the total 441 respondents, 54.6% reported the desire for fertility, 87% disclosed their HIV status, 24.3% had two or more sexual partners in the earlier year, and only 55.6% used a condom during their last sexual intercourse. In addition, current health status (AOR=2.03; 95% CI: 1.01–4.07 and partner being tested for HIV (AOR=6.31; 95% CI: 1.35–29.64 showed statistically significant associations with fertility desire during multivariate logistic regression analysis.Conclusion: A considerable number of PLHIV in the study area reported a desire for having children. Current health status and partner being tested for HIV were

  19. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in retail meat and dairy products in the area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derra, Firehiwot Abera; Karlsmose, Susanne; Monga, Dharam P; Mache, Abebe; Svendsen, Christina Aaby; Félix, Benjamin; Granier, Sophie A; Geyid, Abera; Taye, Girum; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2013-06-01

    Listeriosis, a bacterial disease in humans and animals, is mostly caused by ingestion of Listeria monocytogenes via contaminated food and/or water, or by a zoonotic infection. Globally, listeriosis has in general a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antimicrobial profiles, and genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes from raw meat and dairy products (raw milk, cottage cheese, cream cake), collected from the capital and five neighboring towns in Ethiopia. Two hundred forty food samples were purchased from July to December 2006 from food vendors, shops, and supermarkets, using a cross-sectional study design. L. monocytogenes were isolated and subjected to molecular serotyping. The genetic relatedness and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and minimum inhibitory concentration determinations. Of 240 food samples tested, 66 (27.5%) were positive for Listeria species. Of 59 viable isolates, 10 (4.1%) were L. monocytogenes. Nine were serotype 4b and one was 2b. Minimum inhibitory concentration determination and PFGE of the 10 L. monocytogenes isolates showed low occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among eight different PFGE types. The findings in this study correspond to similar research undertaken in Ethiopia by detecting L. monocytogenes with similar prevalence rates. Public education is crucial as regards the nature of this organism and relevant prevention measures. Moreover, further research in clinical samples should be carried out to estimate the prevalence and carrier rate in humans, and future investigations on foodborne outbreaks must include L. monocytogenes.

  20. Determinants of supply chain coordination of milk and dairy industries in Ethiopia: a case of Addis Ababa and its surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemma, Habtamu Regassa; Singh, Rajwinder; Kaur, Navjot

    2015-01-01

    Coordination of different business activities among units becomes vital as organizations pay much attention to their core activities. Thus, their fruitfulness constantly relies on their capacity to coordinate their internal and external activities in the supply chain outside their own boundaries. Giving consideration to these obvious reasons, this paper aims to investigate the determinants of supply chain coordination of milk and dairy industries. The data were collected from 330 milk suppliers, processors, and retailers in the central part of Ethiopia. The structural equation modeling has been employed to develop the structural relationship between key constructs and measured variables. In total, 15 measured variables for coordination in the supply chain have been identified. These are further grouped into four factors namely, non-price coordination, price coordination, relationships and product development decision. It has been observed that the implementation of these factors could maximize the coordination linkage among supply chain members. Thus, dairy sectors should take the identified coordination factors into account in each of their business dealings.

  1. Prevalence of Depression among Type 2 Diabetic Outpatients in Black Lion General Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emotional consequences of diabetes have been scrutinized by a number of investigative teams and there are varying reports about the association of depression with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited data about this in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of comorbid depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients. Methods and Materials. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted on a random sample of 276 type 2 diabetic outpatients from Black Lion General Specialized Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to get these individual patients from 920 type 2 diabetic outpatients who have an appointment during the data collection period. Patients’ depression status was measured using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9. Result. Totally 264 type 2 diabetic outpatients were interviewed with a response rate of 95.6%. The prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients was 13%. Based on PHQ 9 score, 28.4% (75 fulfilled the criteria for mild depression, 12.1% (32 for moderate depression, 2.7% (7 for moderately severe depression, and 1.5% (4 for severe depression. But 45.8% (121 of patients had no clinically significant depression. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that depression is a common comorbid health problem in type 2 diabetic outpatients with a prevalence rate of 13%.

  2. Metals Exposures of Residents Living Near the Akaki River in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Ellen Yard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Akaki River in Ethiopia has been found to contain elevated levels of several metals. Our objectives were to characterize metals exposures of residents living near the Akaki River and to assess metal levels in their drinking water. Methods. In 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 101 households in Akaki-Kality subcity (near the Akaki River and 50 households in Yeka subcity (distant to the Akaki River. One willing adult in each household provided urine, blood, and drinking water sample. Results. Urinary molybdenum (p<0.001, tungsten (p<0.001, lead (p<0.001, uranium (p<0.001, and mercury (p=0.049 were higher in Akaki-Kality participants compared to Yeka participants. Participants in both subcities had low urinary iodine; 45% met the World Health Organization (WHO classification for being at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. In Yeka, 47% of households exceeded the WHO aesthetic-based reference value for manganese; in Akaki-Kality, only 2% of households exceeded this value (p<0.001. There was no correlation between metals levels in water samples and clinical specimens. Conclusions. Most of the exposures found during this investigation seem unlikely to cause acute health effects based on known toxic thresholds. However, toxicity data for many of these metals are very limited.

  3. Work-related stress and associated factors among nurses working in public hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salilih, Selamawit Zewdu; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu

    2014-08-01

    Work-related stress is a pattern of reactions to work demands unmatched to nurses' knowledge, skills, or abilities; these challenges exceed their ability to cope, resulting in burnout, turnover, and low quality patient care. An institution-based cross-sectional study of 343 nurses was conducted in public hospitals of Addis Ababa in 2012. Data were collected by pretested and self-administered questionnaires using a nursing stress scale. One hundred twenty-one (37.8%) (95% confidence interval: 34.3 to 39.1) nurses reported experiencing occupational stress. Significant associations were found between nurses' stress and gender, work shift, illness, marital status, and worksite or unit. Prevalence of work-related stress was higher than expected and opportunities exist for stake holders to design stress reduction and management programs for nurses. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes, antimicrobial resistance and co-infection with parasites among patients with diarrhea and other gastrointestinal complaints in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguale, Tadesse; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Asrat, Daniel; Alemayehu, Haile; Gunn, John S; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2015-11-04

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important public health problem worldwide. Consumption of animal-derived food products and direct and/or indirect contact with animals are the major routes of acquiring infection with NTS. Published information, particularly on the serotype distribution of NTS among human patients with gastroenteritis and associated risk factors, is scarce in Ethiopia. This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella species among diarrheic out-patients attending health centers in Addis Ababa and patients with various gastrointestinal complaints at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). Stool samples were cultured for Salmonella species according to the WHO Global Foodborne Infections Network laboratory protocol. Salmonella serotyping was conducted using slide agglutination and microplate agglutination techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 59 (6.2 %) stool samples, out of 957 were culture positive for Salmonella species. Fifty-five (7.2 %) of 765 diarrheic patients from health centers and 4 (2.1 %) of 192 patients from TASH were culture positive for Salmonella species. Multivariable logistic regression analysis after adjusting for all other variables revealed statistically significant association of Salmonella infection with consumption of raw vegetables (OR = 1.91, 95 % CI = 1.29-2.83, χ(2) = 4.74, p = 0.025) and symptom of watery diarrhea (OR = 3.3, 95 % CI = 1.23-8.88, χ(2) = 10.54, p = 0.005). Eleven serotypes were detected, and the most prominent were S. Typhimurium (37.3 %), S. Virchow (34 %), and S. Kottbus (10.2 %). Other serotypes were S. Miami, S. Kentucky, S. Newport, S. Enteritidis, S. Braenderup, S. Saintpaul, S. Concord and S. V:ROUGH-O. Resistance to three or more antimicrobials was detected in 27 (40.3 %) of the

  5. intention in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    after the present abortion. Conclusion: education and provision of family planning counseling and methods. 2003';17(3):167-174] ... cause serious short, term and long-time negative health consequences including death (3). Studies done in ..... financial contribution. We thank Dr. Shabbir. Ismail for kind technical assistance.

  6. Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa. Fasil Mengistu1, Kedir Hussen1, Abraham Ali1, Goroma Getahun1, Dessalegn Sifer1. Abstract. Introduction: Animal bites and scratches represent the most important public health issue related to dogs and cats because of the risk of rabies transmission associated with ...

  7. Prediction of Swelling Behavior of Addis Ababa Expansive Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study a simple hyperbolic mathematical model is used to predict the swelling behavior of an expansive soil from Addis Ababa. The main parameters that are needed to run the model are the applied pressure and initial dry density. The other parameters of the model including the initial slope of the swell-time curve, the ...

  8. Malaria in Addis Ababa and its environs: assessment of magnitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Records on cases of malaria seen at outpatient departments of 20 health centers in the six administrative zones of Addis Ababa were reviewed. An epidemic report compiled relatively recently was as well used as a source of additional information. Results: Rise in the number of malaria cases treated at outpatient ...

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study in Addis Ababa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-06-02

    Jun 2, 2017 ... design, we interviewed 273 HIV-infected adolescents receiving ART from three hospitals in Addis Ababa. ... encouraged, more targeted adherence support should be planned for those who present at an early stage of their illness. ... acquired infection, adolescents and young adults are vulnerable to.

  10. PREVALENCE OF SYPHILIS IN PREGNANCY IN ADDIS ABABA E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-04-04

    Apr 4, 2000 ... Objective: To assess the extent of syphilis seropositivity in pregnant women, identify the risk factors associated with it and re-evaluate the need for routine antenatal care screening for syphilis. Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Three teaching hospitals of Addis Ababa University Faculty of ...

  11. Overview of Rabies in and around Addis Ababa, in Animals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective data on the number of confirmed animal rabies cases and applied rabies control measures over the period 2003-2009 were collected and analyzed to elucidate the situation of animal rabies in and around Addis Ababa. Over the last seven years, 2517 animals brain tissue samples from Dogs, Cats, Cattle, ...

  12. Knowledge, Risk Perception and Practice Regarding Tuberculosis Transmission among Long Distance Bus Drivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Tesfamichael, Fessahaye Alemseged

    2017-11-01

    Window opening during bus transportation is recommended as a tuberculosis prevention strategy.Yet, drivers are affected by lack knowledge and risk perception of passengers and assistants. Boosting knowledge of and notifying the high risk of tuberculosis transmission for every passenger could be too costly. However, strategies targeting bus drivers as key agents unlike targeting all passengers might be less costly for window opening. Data were collected from November 18/2014 to December 21/2014 in inter-region bus stations of Addis Ababa using cross sectional study design. Samples of 306 participants were selected using simple random sampling, and data were collected through face-to-face interview. Data were entered into Epi-data version 3.1 andanalyzed using IBM SPSS version 21. From a sample of 306 bus drivers, 303 were interviewed. Nine in ten and nearly half of participants believed in the need for opening all windows and avoiding overcrowding of passengers as TB preventive measures respectively. Few bus drivers (7.3%) believed that bus drivers and their assistants could be at risk of tuberculosis. The majority (85.7%) of bus drivers opened side window the whole day without precondition. Hearing tuberculosis related information from radio was a promoting factor for tuberculosis preventive measures among bus drivers. Tuberculosis preventive practices and knowledge of bus drivers seempositive (opportunities), despite their low risk perception (challenge). Using the opportunity, further empowering bus drivers to persuade passengers and assistants to open all the rest of the windows is needed.

  13. Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella from Slaughtered Bovines and Ovines in Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64% (8 bovines and 5 ovines were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92% comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69% of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  14. Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella from Slaughtered Bovines and Ovines in Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Abe; Kemal, Jelalu; Alemayehu, Haile; Habte Mariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64%) (8 bovines and 5 ovines) were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92%) comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69%) of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  15. Assessment of laboratory logistics management information system practice for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory commodities in selected public health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desale, Adino; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Nigatu, Alemayehu

    2013-01-01

    Logistics management information system for health commodities remained poorly implemented in most of developing countries. To assess the status of laboratory logistics management information system for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory commodities in public health facilities in Addis Ababa. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from September 2010-January 2011 at selected public health facilities. A stratified random sampling method was used to include a total of 43 facilities which, were investigated through quantitative methods using structured questionnaires interviews. Focus group discussion with the designated supply chain managers and key informant interviews were conducted for the qualitative method. There exists a well-designed logistics system for laboratory commodities with trained pharmacy personnel, distributed standard LMIS formats and established inventory control procedures. However, majority of laboratory professionals were not trained in LMIS. Majority of the facilities (60.5%) were stocked out for at least one ART monitoring and TB laboratory reagents and the highest stock out rate was for chemistry reagents. Expired ART monitoring laboratory commodities were found in 25 (73.5%) of facilities. Fifty percent (50%) of the assessed hospitals and 54% of health centers were currently using stock/bin cards for all HIV/AIDS and TB laboratory commodities in main pharmacy store, among these only 25% and 20.8% of them were updated with accurate information matching with the physical count done at the time of visit for hospitals and health centers respectively. Even though there exists a well designed laboratory LMIS, keeping quality stock/bin cards and LMIS reports were very low. Key ART monitoring laboratory commodities were stock out at many facilities at the day of visit and during the past six months. Based on findings, training of laboratory personnel's managing laboratory commodities and keeping accurate inventory control procedures

  16. DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER PREFERENCES IN ADDIS ABABA RESTAURANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dejene Mamo BEKANA

    2010-01-01

    This study was proposed to explore the determinants of consumer preferences in Addis Ababa restaurants. Using consumer behavior literatures and theories it was hypothesized that disposable income, price, quality, hygiene practices, friendliness of restaurant staff, safety of food and range or menu variety are important determinants of consumer choice for restaurants. Primary data were generated from 265 customers of 55 restaurants randomly selected with the use of questionnaire of which 258 o...

  17. Predictors of HIV-test utilization in PMTCT among antenatal care attendees in government health centers: institution-based cross-sectional study using health belief model in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workagegn F

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fikremariam Workagegn, Getachew Kiros, Lakew Abebe Health Education and Behavioral Sciences Department, Public and Medical Sciences College, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is the most dramatic epidemic of the century that has claimed over two decades more than 3 million deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily affected and accounts for nearly 70% of all cases. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is responsible for 20% of all HIV transmissions. With no preventive interventions, 50% of HIV infections are transmitted from HIV-positive mothers to newborns. HIV-testing is central to prevent vertical transmission. Despite, awareness campaigns, prevention measures, and more recently, promotion of antiviral regimens, the prevalence of cases and deaths is still rising and the prevalence of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT voluntary counseling test (VCT use remains low. This study identifies predictors and possible barriers of HIV-testing among antenatal care attendees based on the health belief model (HBM in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: The study was an institution-based cross-sectional survey conducted from September 1 to September 30, 2013. A total of 308 individuals were interviewed using structured questionnaires adopted and modified from similar studies. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. A logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HIV-test use. Results: In spite of satisfactory knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission, participants are still at high risk of contracting the infection, wherein only 51.8% tested for HIV; among the married, only 84.1% and among the gestational age of third trimester, 34.1% mothers tested for HIV. Based on the HBM, failure to use PMTCT-HIV-test was related to its perceived lack of net benefit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.34, confidence interval [CI] [0.19–0.58], P<0.001, but

  18. Shigellosis outbreak at Addis Ababa University: March-April 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Mer'awi; Tafese, Tilahun; Beyene, Zayeda; Hailemariam, Zegeye; Azaze, Aklilu; Luce, Richard; Addissie, Adamu

    2011-10-01

    Between 2006 and 2008, there have been various reports of diarrhea with blood in Ethiopia and also reports of Shigelloses outbreaks in some parts of the country. In March 2010, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Technology Campus reported occurrence of an outbreak of diarrheal illness among students. The study was conducted to identify the causative agent and the possible source of the diarrhea outbreak that occurred at Technology Campus. Active case finding and review of medical records were undertaken to characterize the outbreak. The investigation consisted of a case-control study with laboratory testing and environmental assessment. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using Epi-info (v3.3.2). A total of 104 suspected cases were identified, based on the case definition, with an attack rate of 6.8%. Stool culture confirmed Shigella flexneri species in 5/11 (45%) of specimens tested. Risk factors associated with illness included eating specific foods at specific meal times. Food items served on Friday March 26, at lunch time (OR: 3.59, CI: 1.0- 12.7, p = 0.04) and on Saturday March 27, during dinner (OR: 2.89 CI: 1.0- 8.2, p = 0.04) were significantly associated with increased odds of illness. Water stored in a tank in the cafeteria had evidence of fecal contamination (fecal coliform count > 161 Mpn /100ml) and the hygiene and sanitary conditions in the cafeteria, kitchen, living area were unsatisfactory. Food-borne transmission and water contamination were suspected as the sources of infection. Regular supervision and inspection of the campus' food handling facilities and practices were recommended to improve food hygiene and sanitation. Improved water storage, correcting periodic water shortages in the latrine facility and promotion of hand washing could reduce potential future outbreaks.

  19. Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Fikru; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2009-08-23

    The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25-64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index > or = 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index > or = 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females. High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent

  20. Intestinal parasitosis in relation to CD4+T cells levels and anemia among HAART initiated and HAART naive pediatric HIV patients in a Model ART center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengist, Hylemariam Mihiretie; Taye, Bineyam; Tsegaye, Aster

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites (IPs) are major concerns in most developing countries where HIV/AIDS cases are concentrated and almost 80% of AIDS patients die of AIDS-related infections. In the absence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV/AIDS patients in developing countries unfortunately continue to suffer from the consequences of opportunistic and other intestinal parasites. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to CD4+ T cells levels and anemia among HAART initiated and HAART naïve pediatric HIV patients in a Model ART center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A prospective comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among HAART initiated and HAART naive pediatric HIV/AIDS patients attending a model ART center at Zewditu Memorial Hospital between August 05, 2013 and November 25, 2013. A total of 180 (79 HAART initiated and 101 HAART naïve) children were included by using consecutive sampling. Stool specimen was collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated risk factors. CD4+ T cells and complete blood counts were performed using BD FACScalibur and Cell-Dyn 1800, respectively. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16 software. Logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between explanatory factors and outcome variables. P values intestinal parasites significantly differed by HAART status and cryptosporidium species were found only in HAART naïve patients with low CD4+ T cell counts. Anemia was also more prevalent and significantly associated with IPs in non-HAART patients. This study identified some environmental and associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections. Therefore, Public health measures should continue to emphasize the importance of environmental and personal hygiene to protect HIV/AIDS patients from

  1. Evaluation of a point-of-care ultrasound scan list in a resource-limited emergency centre in Addis Ababa Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Stachura

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: In this urban, low-resource, academic EC in Ethiopia, POCUS provided clinically relevant information for patient management, particularly for polytrauma, undifferentiated shock and undifferentiated dyspnea. Results have subsequently been used to develop a locally relevant emergency department ultrasound curriculum for Ethiopia’s first emergency medicine residency program.

  2. Uptake and performance of prevention of mother-to-child transmission and early infant diagnosis in pregnant HIV-infected women and their exposed infants at seven health centres in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Marshet; Wendaferash, Rahel; Shibru, Hailu; Berhane, Yemane; Hoelscher, Michael; Kroidl, Arne

    2017-06-01

    To assess the uptake of WHO-recommended PMTCT procedures in Ethiopia's health services. Prospective observational study of HIV-positive pregnant mothers and their newborns attending PMTCT services at seven health centres in Addis Ababa. Women were recruited during antenatal care and followed up with their newborns at delivery, Day 6 and Week 6 post-partum. Retention to PMCTC procedures, self-reported antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence and HIV infant outcome were assessed. Turnaround times of HIV early infant diagnosis (EID) procedures were extracted from health registers. Of 494 women enrolled, 4.9% did not complete PMTCT procedures due to active denial or loss to follow-up. HIV was first diagnosed in 223 (45.1%) and ART initiated in 321 (65.0%) women during pregnancy. ART was initiated in a median of 1.3 weeks (IQR 0-4.3) after HIV diagnosis. Poor self-reported treatment adherence was higher post-partum than during pregnancy (12.5% vs. 7.0%, P = 0.002) and significantly associated with divorced/separated marital status (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.8), low family income (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.1), low CD4 count (RR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.0) and ART initiation during delivery (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.6). Of 435 infants born alive, 98.6% received nevirapine prophylaxis. The mother-to-child HIV transmission rate was 0.7% after a median of 6.7 weeks (IQR 6.4-10.4), but EID results were received for only 46.6% within 3 months of birth. High retention in PMTCT services, triple maternal ART and high infant nevirapine prophylaxis coverage were associated with low mother-to-child HIV transmission. Declining post-partum ART adherence and challenges of EID linkage require attention. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ecohydrological Perspective of Addis Ababa: Opportunities and Challenges for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidanewold, Belete; Nigusse, Agizew; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    Water resources at the basin scale are the result not only of climatic conditions and geomorphologic structures, but also biological growth and succession. However, the current hydrological system analyses ignore the biological aspect and emphasize on the mechanistic approaches. These over-engineering solutions of anthropogenic modification of the hydrological cycle further aggravated degradation of biological structures and increase the frequency of extreme hydrological events and decline global freshwater availability. Historically, Addis Ababa had good natural vegetation cover with different indigenous tree species that belongs to Afro-montane forest and woodland. With the long year of civilization, most of the Vegetation covers of Addis have changed to asphalts and building. Particularly, with the last one decade with massive infrastructures development, the land cover changed as a consequence the hydrological system radically changed. Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia with its total land area of 520 km2, has a downward topography in north-south direction with elevation ranges from 3200 m.a.s.l at the highest peak to 2200 m.a.s.l at the lowest point. Annually, it receives 1100mm a mean rainfall with 10.7oc -23.3oc mean temperature. The vegetation system at hillsides around the city, wetlands and green parks in the mid of the city and the cultural cemetery systems can be a good base of the city green solution development. In addition, the country constitution, water sector and urban development policies are supportive for sustainable city development. However, it is challenged with technical, environmental, socio-economical and institutional challenges that needs integrated urban development plan and design to excel the opportunities over challenges. Keywords: Ecohydrology, over-Engineering, green solution, sustainable development

  4. Modeling Urban Growth Spatial Dynamics: Case studies of Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnessa, Tebelay; Bitew, Adane

    2016-08-09

    Staphylococcus aureus particularly MRSA strains are one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired bacterial infections. They are also becoming increasingly multi-drug resistant and have recently developed resistance to vancomycin, which has been used successfully to treat MRSA for many years. In-vitro determination of drug resistance patterns of S. aureus is critical for the selection of effective drugs for the treatment of staphylococci infections. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains from different clinical specimens from patients referred for routine culture and sensitivity testing. A cross sectional study was conducted among 1360 participants at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College in Ethiopia from September 2013 to April 2014. Clinical samples from various anatomical sites of study participants were cultured on blood agar and mannitol salt agar and identified to be S. aureus by using catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. S. aureus isolates then were screened for MRSA using 30 μg cefoxitin disc and other 11 antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion procedure, and agar dilution and E tests for vancomycin. All S. aureus isolates examined for beta-lactamase production by employing nitrocefin. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software and logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between dependent and independent variables. Of 1360 clinical specimens analyzed S. aureus was recovered from (194, 14.3 %). Rate of isolation of S. aureus with regard to clinical specimens was the highest in pus (118, 55.4 %).No S. aureus was isolated from CSF and urethral discharge. Out of 194 S. aureus isolates, (34, 17.5 %) were found out to be MRSA and the remaining (160, 82.5 %) were MSSA. Ninety eight (50.5 %) S. aureus were multi drug resistant and the highest isolates were resistant to penicillin (187, 96.4 %) and least resistant for clindamycin (23, 11.9 %) and vancomycin

  6. Standard basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care training in Addis Ababa; trainees reaction and knowledge acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkuzie, Alemnesh H; Sisay, Mitike Molla; Bedane, Mulu Muleta

    2014-09-24

    In 2010, the Federal Ministry of Health of Ethiopia (FMOH) has developed standard Basic Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEmONC) in-service training curricula to respond to the high demand for competency in EmONC. However, the effectiveness of the training curricula has not been well documented. A collaborative intervention project in Addis Ababa has trained providers using the standard BEmONC curricula where this paper presents Krikpartick level 1 and level 2 evaluation of the training. The project has been conducted in 10 randomly selected public health centers (HC) in Addis Ababa. Providers working in the labour wards of the selected HCs have received the standard BEmONC training between May and July 2013. Using standard tools, trainees' reaction to the course and factual knowledge during the immediate post-course and six months after the training were assessed. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were done. Of the total 82 providers who received the training, 30 (36.6%) were male, 61 (74.4%) were midwives. Providers' work experiences ranged from 1 month to 37 years. Seventy-four (89%) providers reported that the training was appropriate for their work, 95% reported that the training have updated their knowledge & skills, while 27 (32.9%) reported that the training facilities & arrangements were unsatisfactory. The mean immediate post-course knowledge score was 83.5% and 33 (40%) providers did not achieve knowledge-based mastery in their first attempt. The midwives were more likely to achieve knowledge-based mastery than the nurses (p standard in-service BEmONC training curriculum, we have identified an important limitation on the course evaluations of the curriculum, which need urgent consideration. The majority of the trainees has reported favourable reaction to the training, but many of them did not achieve knowledge-based mastery in the immediate post training although the knowledge retention six months post training was encouraging.

  7. Intestinal parasitosis in relation to CD4+T cells levels and anemia among HAART initiated and HAART naive pediatric HIV patients in a Model ART center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hylemariam Mihiretie Mengist

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites (IPs are major concerns in most developing countries where HIV/AIDS cases are concentrated and almost 80% of AIDS patients die of AIDS-related infections. In the absence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, HIV/AIDS patients in developing countries unfortunately continue to suffer from the consequences of opportunistic and other intestinal parasites. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to CD4+ T cells levels and anemia among HAART initiated and HAART naïve pediatric HIV patients in a Model ART center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.A prospective comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among HAART initiated and HAART naive pediatric HIV/AIDS patients attending a model ART center at Zewditu Memorial Hospital between August 05, 2013 and November 25, 2013. A total of 180 (79 HAART initiated and 101 HAART naïve children were included by using consecutive sampling. Stool specimen was collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated risk factors. CD4+ T cells and complete blood counts were performed using BD FACScalibur and Cell-Dyn 1800, respectively. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16 software. Logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between explanatory factors and outcome variables. P values < 0.05 were taken as statistically significant.The overall prevalence of IPs was 37.8% where 27.8% of HAART initiated and 45.5% of HAART naive pediatric HIV/AIDS patients were infected (p < 0.05. Cryptosporidium species, E. histolytica/dispar, Hook worm and Taenia species were IPs associated with CD4+ T cell counts <350 cells/μμL in HAART naive patients. The overall prevalence of anemia was 10% in HAART and 31.7% in non-HAART groups. Hook worm, S. stercoralis and H. nana were helminthes

  8. DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER PREFERENCES IN ADDIS ABABA RESTAURANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Mamo BEKANA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was proposed to explore the determinants of consumer preferences in Addis Ababa restaurants. Using consumer behavior literatures and theories it was hypothesized that disposable income, price, quality, hygiene practices, friendliness of restaurant staff, safety of food and range or menu variety are important determinants of consumer choice for restaurants. Primary data were generated from 265 customers of 55 restaurants randomly selected with the use of questionnaire of which 258 of the questionnaire ended usable. The non parametric hypothesis testing statistical tool, chi –square tests, and measures of variation were used for statistical analysis purposes. The anticipation of the researcher was that the hypothesis testing results would be significant in parallel with the hypothesized facts. The findings of the research suggest that income has insignificant impact up on quality price trade of among consumers of different income categories. Other hypothesis associated with price, quality, friendliness of restaurant staff, quick table service and range or menu varieties are found to be statistically significant. Over all, the research results suggest that restaurateurs should design marketing strategy that integrates the attributes used in this study to satisfy the needs and wants of their customers and differentiation of their products and services on the basis of the variables scored as they are significant considerations by consumers.

  9. sexuality among youth in- Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young people's sexuality gave privileges for males to be sexually active, be in control of sexual ... enrolment, and widespread child prostitution .... Some male colleagues of the discussants in fact felt that sexual tension fills their body to the level of. "intoxication" unless relieved in time. But such sense of a sexual urge was ...

  10. psRVOIR IN ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TCU=True colorunit. DISCUSSION. ThemeanCOncentrationofphosphateinthe. reSerVOirWaS 12.48mg/L Sawyer etal (7) indicated thatthe criticalconcentrationof. phOSphate to trigger algal growth could reachtoaminimumof0005mg/1 ﹑ Thus, the COncentration of phosphate 思。 the. TeServoirWasfoundtobeneary2500times.

  11. illegal abortions in addis ababa, ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... Unsafe abortion is one of the greatest neglected problems the latter represent the majority" WHO estimates Fhatmorc of health care in developing countries and a serious than half of the deaths caused by induced-abortion occur concern to women during their reproductive 1ives(2). It is m South and south ...

  12. Bibliography on HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia and Ethiopians in the Diaspora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2mikitser

    1 School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 32812, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; .... the relationships between sexual violence and risk for. HIV and ...... relationships: The case of Arba Minch College for teacher education. MA Thesis: College of Education and Behavioral Studies, Addis Ababa University,. 2011. 28.

  13. Life table estimates of adult HIV/AIDS mortality in Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: With the expansion of antiretroviral treatment in the country, HIV prevalence figures alone, are expected to become insufficient for monitoring the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Objective: To develop life table method for estimating AIDS mortality based on surveillance of deaths at burial sites in Addis Ababa. Methods: An ...

  14. Service quality in education at Addis Ababa University: the case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Economics of Addis Ababa University (Accounting, Economics, Management, Public Administration and Informatics), specific to the extension program. The servqual model is used as an instrument methodology to measure the service quality vis-à-vis Tangibles, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, and Empathy.

  15. Peace at last? Appraisal of the Addis Ababa Peace and Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, the Congolese government and other peace stakeholders in the Great Lakes region and beyond signed the Addis Ababa Peace and Security Cooperation (PSC) Framework in February 2013, paving the way to the adoption, a month later, of Resolution 2098 by the United Nations (UN) Security Council.

  16. Peace at last? Appraisal of the Addis Ababa Peace and Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal of the Addis Ababa Peace and Security Cooperation Framework and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2098 for the Democratic Republic of ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  17. Clinical description of children with HIV/AIDS admitted at a referral hospital in Addis Ababa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, A; Lulseged, S

    2001-07-01

    Seventy-seven definitely HIV infected children were identified at Ethio-Swedish Children's Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between January 1990 and April 2000. There were 39 females and 38 males. Their age ranged from 15 months to 12 years and their median age was 3.8 years. Most commonly diagnosed diseases included disseminated tuberculosis seen in 28 patients, pneumonia in 27, pulmonary tuberculosis in 19, persistent or chronic diarrhoeal disease in 21, otitis media in 17 and marasmus in 17 patients. Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia was considered in 11 patients. One patient was suspected to have lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis. Sixteen children (21%) died in hospital. There was an abandoned child and 20 children were already orphans. All patients presented with clinical opportunistic infections and thus there is a need to develop a pediatric clinical guideline for patient management. Primary prevention of HIV infection in women of the child bearing age is of paramount importance and reduction of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection by antiretroviral drug needs to be considered as a primary prevention for a child.

  18. WOODLAND IN THE RIFT VALLEY OF ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Science, Addil Ababa University, 1999 ISSN: 0379-2897. VEGETATION ... Addis Ababa University, PO Box 3434 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ... the landscape. The landscapes considered showed variation, among other things in altitude, temperature and precipitation. The vegetation under the tree canopies and the ...

  19. Primary dysmenorrhea magnitude, associated risk factors, and its effect on academic performance: evidence from female university students in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Assefa, Nigussie; Demissie,Asrate; Hailemeskel,Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Solomon Hailemeskel,1 Asrate Demissie,2 Nigussie Assefa3 1Department of Midwifery, College of Health Science, Institute of Medicine and Health Science, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia; 2Department of Nursing and Midwifery, School of Allied Health Science, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Department of Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis ...

  20. Emergency medicine program targets "brain drain" in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... "brain drain" in Ethiopia. Dr Dave MacKinnon gives a demonstration on casting to medical residents in Addis Ababa. Over the last three decades, 4,000 doctors have left Ethiopia for specialized training abroad. But very few return home to practice their specialty. Now, thanks to the Toronto-Addis Ababa ...

  1. Family violence in Addis Ababa: Challenges of reconciling culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family violence includes physical, psychological and sexual violations such as pinching, beating, hitting, scolding, yelling and coerced sex. Wife beating and child corporal punishment are major family/domestic violence in Ethiopia. This study focused on wife beating (battering). It has attempted to find out the main causes ...

  2. Teaching Children with Disabilities: ICTs in Bangkok and Addis Ababa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiemer, Margarita; Proyer, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper intends to explore the levels of availability and restrictions in relation to the use of ICTs (information and communication technologies) for educating children with disabilities in Thailand's and Ethiopia's capitals. Design/methodology/approach: In the course of an international research project, parents and teachers of…

  3. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Gebreyohans; Tsegaye, Wondeson; Chanie, Mersha; Abinet, Fisseha

    2011-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on bovine brucellosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms from November 2003 to April 2004. A total of 1,202 blood samples were collected from non-vaccinated, cross-bred dairy cattle. The Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) was used as a screening test. Those serum samples reacting positively to RBPT were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The RBPT detected 30 of 1,202 (2.5%) of the samples as brucellosis positive. The positive sera when further retested using CFT, 18 out of the 30 RBPT positive sera were confirmed to be positive. The prevalence of brucellosis based on CFT in the study area was 1.5%, and all positive sera were from female cattle. Result of the questionnaire survey revealed that percentage of 4.4% abortion and 9.5% retained fetal membranes. Abortion and retained fetal membranes were associated with Brucella antibodies (P brucellosis, only 20.8% wear protective gloves during handling aborted material and 39.6% responded that they consume raw milk. Results of this study showed that prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the study area is low and a test-and-slaughter policy can be used in order to control the diseases in dairy farms of Addis Ababa.

  4. Treatment outcomes of childhood tuberculosis in Addis Ababa: a five-year retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genene Tilahun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB kills one child every 5 min. Childhood TB is given low priority in most national health programmes particularly in TB-endemic areas. TB among children is an indicator of a recent transmission of the disease in the community. Treatment outcome results serve as a proxy of the quality of treatment provided by a health care system. In Ethiopia, data on treatment outcomes of childhood TB are limited. The aim of the study was to determine the treatment outcomes of childhood TB in a hospital setting in Addis Ababa. Methods The study was conducted during June to August 2014. The data of 491 children treated for TB in Zewditu Memorial Hospital during a 5 year (2009–2013 was analysed. TB was diagnosed using standard methods. Demographic and clinical data including type of TB, TB-HIV co-infection and treatment outcomes were collected from registry of the TB clinic. Treatment outcome definitions are used according to the World Health Organization. Results Of the 491 children, 272(55.4 % were females, 107(21.8 % were under 5 year old, 454(92.5 % of them were new cases. The types of TB were extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB 243(49.5 % and 248(50.5 % pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. Of the PTB cases, 42(16.9 % were sputum smear positive. Of the 291 children tested for HIV, 82(28.2 % were positive. The overall treatment success rate was 420(85.5 % and the poor treatment outcome was 71(14.5 %. Of the children with poor treatment outcome, 9(1.8 % died, 3(0.6 % defaulted from treatment, 2(0.4 % were treatment failure and 55(11.2 % were transferred out. Males and females had similar treatment success rates of 85.8 % and 85.3 %, respectively. Infants under one year had significantly lower treatment success rate of 72.7 % compared to those above 1 years of age of 86.5 % (P < 0.001. Treatment success rate ranged from 78.0 to 92.6 % during the study period. Associated factors for treatment outcome were age above

  5. Building emergency medicine in Ethiopia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-05

    Sep 5, 2014 ... Ethiopia faces a critical gap in emergency medical care. Canadian experts have paired with Addis Ababa University to develop a national research and training facility and graduate the country's first emergency medicine specialists.

  6. Keeping silent about emergency contraceptives in Addis Ababa: a qualitative study among young people, service providers, and key stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Rosalijn; Samuel, Fantawork

    2014-11-05

    The growing popularity of emergency contraceptives (ECs) among urban youth in Sub-Saharan Africa is accompanied by debates on morality and health. This study was situated in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and aimed to explore how these debates affect the way in which the product is promoted at a national level, how it is dispensed by service providers, and how young people access, purchase, and get informed about ECs. Data were collected using qualitative methods: observations in pharmacies, administering semi-structured questionnaires to young people in pharmacies (N = 36), informal interviews with young people (N = 65), and in-depth interviews with service providers (N = 8) and key stakeholders (N = 3). Key stakeholders, uncomfortable with high sales of ECs, and service providers, worried about women's health, promiscuity and the neglect of condoms, stay silent about ECs. Most young people had used ECs more than once. In a context where premarital sex is morally sanctioned ECs provide young people with a way of keeping their sexual lives secret and they fit well with their sex lives that often entail infrequent sexual encounters. Young people preferred (but they are also left with no other option than) to seek information from discreet sources, including friends and partners, leaflets and the mass media. In addition, service providers misunderstood young people's purchasing behaviour, characterized by buying ECs quickly and feeling too embarrassed to ask questions, as a rejection of counselling. The resultant lack of information about ECs sometimes led to confusion about how to take the pills. The attitudes and beliefs of key stakeholders and service providers result in a lack of clear information on ECs available to young people. This could be addressed by improving the information leaflet, providing clear instructions of use on blister packages, strategically distributing posters, and service providers adopting a more proactive attitude.

  7. INTRODUCTION OF SIMULATION BASED MEDICAL EDUCATION AT ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES: EXPERIENCE AND CHALLENGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedlu, Etsegenet; Tadesse, Amezene; Cayea, Danelle; Doherty, Meg; Bekele, Abebe; Mekasha, Amha; Derbew, Miliard; Jung, Julianna

    2015-07-01

    As one of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with a low physician to population ratio, Ethiopia has sought to mitigate the problem by increasing the number of students enrolling in the existing medical schools. This increase in enrolment was not accompanied by expansion of clinical training venues, which has resulted in less patient contact time for each student. As part of the solution to fill the gap simulation-based teaching was introduced. To describe the process of introducing Simulation based medical education (SBME) at Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences, school of medicine. Two rounds of intensive training was given by John Hopkins in collaboration with Medical Education partner Initiative (MEPI). to the core clinical educators to introduce them the six-step model of curriculum development for medical education and standardized patient (SP) techniques with the ultimate aim of introducing SPs in the teaching and learning process for medical students. The training included didactic and workshop elements, with group work and created complete educational modules. Each pre and post course assessment of experience and attitude were surveyed. Data was analyzed in aggregate using paired t -test to compare pre and post course means. There were total of 22 faculty members participated in the first group ,the majority of whom had no prior training in curriculum development or SBME and were skeptical of the value of SBME, as evidenced in their survey responses. (3.42/5 in Likert scale 1 = least 5 = most) at the end of the course the participant were comfortable with the concept of curriculum development the rating increased to 4.45/5 (P educational method.

  8. Bibliography on HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia and Ethiopians in the Diaspora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    4School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 32812, Addis Ababa, .... Several studies reported on mental disorders ...... Knowledge, health seeking behavior and perceived stigma towards tuberculosis among tuberculosis suspects in a rural community in southwest Ethiopia.

  9. Quantifying Entrepreneurial Networks: Data Collection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    to have an enjoyable break when Ayib, Alem, and I ate a traditional lunch at a local cafe and then we had coffee at a student coffee hangout located...Development (EiABC). Markos introduced me to two local entrepreneurs and university students , Abiy Hailu and Alem Assefa, who arranged and...These two young men are not only students but are members of a team know as mirtanimations, a group of local tech entrepreneurs who are involved in

  10. Experience with 12 cases in Tikur Anbessa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1957 Armstrong5 and 60 years. There were five males and 7 females. demonstrated that the end product of catecholamines in wine was vanilymanderic acid (VMA). Nearly all the patients presented clinical features related. Phaeochrom~c~tomas, though very rare, are now well to episodic elevation of catecholamines.

  11. meat and milk products in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The CAMP test was undertaken using Staphylococcus aureus (ClP: Collection of Institute of Pasteur, 5710) and. Rhodoccocus equi (CIP 5869). They were streaked in single lines across a sheep blood agar plate so that the two cultures were parallel and diametrically opposite. Test strains were then streaked at right angles ...

  12. Illegal abortion in Addis Ababa Ethiopia | Tadesse | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Abstract. (East African Medical Journal: 2001 78(1): 25-29). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i1.9108 · AJOL African Journals ...

  13. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaba M; Bulto T; Tafesse Z; Lingerh W; Ali I

    2016-01-01

    Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women...

  14. Bibliography on HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia and Ethiopians in the Diaspora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    . The Ethiopian Journal of ..... an issue addressed in the Ethiopian context in the. Treatment, Care and Clinical Research section. Cherie .... students, North Wollo, Ethiopia [MSc thesis]: Addis. Ababa University. 52. Erku TA, Megabiaw B, ...

  15. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from lactating cows and in contact humans in dairy farms of Addis Ababa: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yirsaw Alehegne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella are the major pathogenic bacteria in humans as well as in animals. Salmonella species are leading causes of acute gastroenteritis in several countries and salmonellosis remains an important public health problem worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. The situation is more aggravated by the ever increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance strains. Cattle have been implicated as a source of human infection with antimicrobial resistant Salmonella through direct contact with livestock and through the isolation of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella from raw milk, cheddar cheese, and hamburger meat traced to dairy farms. Despiite the presence of many studies on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella in Ethiopia, nothing has been said on the degree of the situation among apparently healthy lactating cows and in contact humans. Hence this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates from lactating cows and in contact humans in dairy farms of Addis Ababa. Methods a cross sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa by collecting milk and faecal samples from lactating cows and stool samples from humans working in dairy farms. Samples were pre-enriched in buffered peptone water followed by selective enrichment using selenite cysteine and Rapaport-Vassilidis broths. Isolation and identification was made by inoculating the selectively enriched sample on to Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar followed by confirmation of presumptive colonies using different biochemical tests. The Kibry Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial sensitivity testing. Results 10.7% (21/195 of cows and 13.6% (3/22 of the human subjects sheded Salmonella. 83% resistance to two or more antimicrobials and 100% resistance to ampicillin were observed. Most of the isolates were relatively sensitive to ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, and

  16. Comparing HIV prevalence estimates from prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and the antenatal HIV surveillance in Addis Ababa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of reliable data, antenatal HIV surveillance has been used to monitor the HIV epidemic since the late 1980s. Currently, routine data from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes are increasingly available. Evaluating whether the PMTCT programme reports provide comparable HIV prevalence estimates with the antenatal surveillance reports is important. In this study, we compared HIV prevalence estimates from routine PMTCT programme and antenatal surveillance in Addis Ababa with the aim to come up with evidence based recommendation. Methods Summary data were collected from PMTCT programmes and antenatal surveillance reports within the catchment of Addis Ababa. The PMTCT programme data were obtained from routine monthly reports from 2004 to 2009 and from published antenatal HIV surveillance reports from 2003 to 2009. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results In Addis Ababa, PMTCT sites had increased from six in 2004 to 54 in 2009. The site expansion was accompanied by an increased number of women testing. There were marked increases in the rate of HIV testing following the introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing approach. Paralleling these increases, the HIV prevalence showed a steady decline from 10.0% in 2004 to 4.5% in 2009. There were five antenatal surveillance sites from 2003 to 2007 in Addis Ababa and they increased to seven by 2009. Four rounds of surveillance data from five sites showed a declining trend in HIV prevalence over the years. The overall antenatal surveillance data also showed that the HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees had declined from 12.4% in 2003 to 5.5% in 2009. The HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme were 6.2% and 4.5% and from antenatal surveillance 6.1 and 5.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Conclusions There were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme and from antenatal surveillance reports. Both data sources

  17. Treatment of femur shaft fractures using Perkins' traction at Addis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the outcomes of Perkins' technique in the treatment of adult femur shaft fractures from October 2007 – May 2009. Faculty of Medicine, Black-Lion Hospital (BLH), Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, The study also aimed at looking into the spectrum of femur shaft fractures referred to BLH. Design: This ...

  18. Climate Change literacy among postgraduate students of addis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    literacy among graduate students in four programmes at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. To this end, a ..... Natural Sciences, the College of Social Sciences and Humanities and the College of Education .... public media (TV and newspapers), which tend to emphasise effects of climate change and actions that must be ...

  19. l. (pisces: cichlidae) in lake chamo, ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'THE FOOD AND FEEDING HABIT OF OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS. L. (PISCES: CICHLIDAE) IN LAKE CHAMO, ETHIOPIA. Yirgaw Teferi 1, Demeke Admassu2 and Seyoum Mengistou2. 1Animal and Fisheries Resources Development and Regulatory Department. MoA, PO Box 62347, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2Department ...

  20. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACIPH_Admin

    2005;16(2):162-7. 2. Foo LL, Quek SJS, Ng SA, Lim MT, Deurenberg- yap M. Breastfeeding prevalence and practices among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian mothers. Health Promotion International. 2005;20(3):229-37. 3. Federal MoH. National Strategy for Child Survival in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2005. 4.

  1. region, southwestern ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -55. 17. FAQ (Food and Agriculture Organization for United Nations) (1984). Assistance to. Land Use Planing, Ethiopia: Geomorphology and Soils. FAO, Addis Ababa. 18. Foth, H.D. and Turk, L.M. (1972). Fundamentals of Soil Science, 5"I ed.

  2. Religion, spirituality, social support and quality of life: measurement and predictors CASP-12(v2) amongst older Ethiopians living in Addis Ababa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamren, Kidist; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Hyde, Martin

    2015-07-01

    As African populations begin to age developing accurate measures of quality of life (QoL) in later life for use on the continent is becoming imperative. This study evaluates the measurement and predictors of QoL amongst older Ethiopians. The data come from a multi-stage cluster sample of 214 people aged 55 and over living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. QoL was measured using the CASP-12(v2). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the properties of the scale. The relationships between social support, religiosity/spirituality and socio-demographic factors on QoL were tested with linear regression analyses. The CASP subscales exhibited good internal reliability and the CFA provides reasonable support for an 11-item 4-factor model (CFI, 0.954; RMSEA 0.075). Multivariate regression analyses suggest that both religiousness/spirituality and social support have positive relationships with QoL. Older people in Africa can often be socially isolated, marginalised and in extreme poverty. Yet few studies have looked at QoL more generally and there is no accepted gold standard measurement of QoL. Yet such a development would allow researchers to directly compare QoL and the determinants of QoL amongst older Africans and those elsewhere. The results show that a modified 11-item CASP is a meaningful measure of QoL for use with older Ethiopians. Both religiousness/spirituality and social support are positively associated with QoL and might be important buffers against deprivation.

  3. Chest injuries in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa: a three year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of life. Of all trauma deaths, 25% result from chest injuries alone'. A significant number of those who sustain chest trauma, especially with injuries of the heart, pericardium and great vessels, die before. Addia Ababa and in 78% of patients who reportc to Gondar College of Medical School Hospital. In the USA, 85% of patients ...

  4. Bibliography on HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia and Ethiopians in the Diaspora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling refusal by outpatient department clients in Wolaita. Zone, southern Ethiopia: a case control study. BMC Public Health 2016;16:783. 20. Fetene N. Assessment of the effect of youth centers on reduction of risky sexual behaviors among youth in Addis Ababa, 2016. Thesis, Addis.

  5. Creating change through collaboration: a twinning partnership to strengthen emergency medicine at Addis Ababa University/Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital--a model for international medical education partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Heidi; Azazh, Aklilu; Teklu, Sisay; Tupesis, Janis P; Woldetsadik, Assefu; Wubben, Ryan J; Tefera, Girma

    2013-12-01

    Morbidity and mortality due to the lack of an organized emergency medical care system are currently high in Ethiopia. Doctors, nurses, and other medical staff often have limited or no formal training on how to handle emergencies. Because of insufficient human and resource capacity needed to assess and treat acutely ill patients, many who are injured may die unnecessarily, at the site of injury, during transport, or at the hospital. This article describes the development of a twinning partnership between Addis Ababa University (AAU), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), and the nonprofit organization People to People (P2P), to strengthen emergency care at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) and increase the number of trained emergency medical professionals. The partnership applied the six-phase twinning partnership model, with the overall goal of enhancing and strengthening emergency and trauma care by building institutional and human resource capacity. This was achieved by 1) developing local leaders in emergency medicine (EM), 2) creating training modules adapted to the Ethiopian context, 3) launching an emergency training center, and 4) supporting academic program development. The authors evaluated the program's effectiveness based on our achievements toward these goals. Results include: 1) eight Ethiopian faculty completed a condensed EM fellowship in the United States. Now six Ethiopian physicians serve as EM faculty and two as pediatric EM faculty. 2) Nine emergency training modules were adapted to the Ethiopian context. 3) An emergency training center was opened in 2010 and to date has trained over 4,000 Ethiopian medical professionals. 4) Two academic training programs (EM residency and masters nursing programs) were initiated. With many complex factors affecting the burden of emergency care, innovative and interdisciplinary collaborations are needed in Ethiopia to train medical workers, build local leadership capacity, strengthen infrastructure

  6. The role of surgery for peptic ulcer in eastern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I:aculty of Med~cine, University of Addis Ababa. Key words: peptic ulcer, Ethiopia. This was a retrospective study of 90 patients operated on for peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in. Karamara Hospital, Ethiopia, between 1st April. 1994 and 31st March 1995. Seventy-eight patients were admitted with a preliminary diagnosis of ...

  7. The Dynamics of Food Price Convergence in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    in the estimation also suggests the relative version of the law of one price .... test procedures are more relevant than are other methods if the panel is of ... to analyze market integration in Ethiopia and verified that most market prices were cointegrated with Addis Ababa price. After grain trade liberalization in Ethiopia, the ...

  8. Management of club-foot at Tikur Anbessa Hospital; Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: “Club- foot”, congenital talipus equinovarus (CTEV) is a common congenital anomalies encountered in paediatric orthopaedics. This study was aimed at determining the pattern and the short term outcome of management of CTEV in Ethiopian children seen at our Club foot clinic at TAH in Ethiopia. Methods: All ...

  9. Temporal Dynamics of the Driving Factors of Urban Landscape Change of Addis Ababa During the Past Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdie, Meskerem; Worku, Hailu; Bantider, Amare

    2018-01-01

    Mapping and quantifying urban landscape dynamics and the underlying driving factors are crucial for devising appropriate policies, especially in cities of developing countries where the change is rapid. This study analyzed three decades (1984-2014) of land use land cover change of Addis Ababa using Landsat imagery and examined the underlying factors and their temporal dynamics through expert interview using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Classification results revealed that urban area increased by 50%, while agricultural land and forest decreased by 34 and 16%, respectively. The driving factors operated differently during the pre and post-1991 period. The year 1991 was chosen because it marked government change in the country resulting in policy change. Policy had the highest influence during the pre-1991 period. Land use change in this period was associated with the housing sector as policies and institutional setups were permissive to this sector. Population growth and in-migration were also important factors. Economic factors played significant role in the post-1991 period. The fact that urban land has a market value, the growth of private investment, and the speculated property market were among the economic factors. Policy reforms since 2003 were also influential to the change. Others such as accessibility, demography, and neighborhood factors were a response to economic factors. All the above-mentioned factors had vital role in shaping the urban pattern of the city. These findings can help planners and policymakers to better understand the dynamic relationship of urban land use and the driving factors to better manage the city.

  10. Temporal Dynamics of the Driving Factors of Urban Landscape Change of Addis Ababa During the Past Three Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdie, Meskerem; Worku, Hailu; Bantider, Amare

    2018-01-01

    Mapping and quantifying urban landscape dynamics and the underlying driving factors are crucial for devising appropriate policies, especially in cities of developing countries where the change is rapid. This study analyzed three decades (1984-2014) of land use land cover change of Addis Ababa using Landsat imagery and examined the underlying factors and their temporal dynamics through expert interview using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Classification results revealed that urban area increased by 50%, while agricultural land and forest decreased by 34 and 16%, respectively. The driving factors operated differently during the pre and post-1991 period. The year 1991 was chosen because it marked government change in the country resulting in policy change. Policy had the highest influence during the pre-1991 period. Land use change in this period was associated with the housing sector as policies and institutional setups were permissive to this sector. Population growth and in-migration were also important factors. Economic factors played significant role in the post-1991 period. The fact that urban land has a market value, the growth of private investment, and the speculated property market were among the economic factors. Policy reforms since 2003 were also influential to the change. Others such as accessibility, demography, and neighborhood factors were a response to economic factors. All the above-mentioned factors had vital role in shaping the urban pattern of the city. These findings can help planners and policymakers to better understand the dynamic relationship of urban land use and the driving factors to better manage the city.

  11. 'Ethiopia-Netherlands AIDS research project'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, E. J.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.; Fontanet, A. L.; Goudsmit, J.; Miedema, F.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'Ethiopia-Netherlands AIDS Research Project' (ENARP), started in 1994, is a long-term collaboration between AIDS researchers in Amsterdam and the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in Addis Ababa. The ENARP's primary objectives include conducting studies on HIV and AIDS in

  12. Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MY

    2012-06-01

    Jun 1, 2012 ... of shares and other services in the share markets. The financial institutions that played an intermediary role in transferring and delivery of traded shares were the Addis Ababa Bank, the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia and the. Ethiopian Investment Corporation. They provide over-the-counter. 2 share.

  13. Capacidade de Resiliência Urbana: Estudo de Caso da Cidade Addis Ababa na Etiópia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Criscibene Pantaleão

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Com foco no planejamento urbano sustentável, este trabalho tem como objetivo contribuir para a redução do risco de desastres das cidades por meio do desenvolvimento de estratégias que possibilitem a superação de suas vulnerabilidades. Utilizando uma pesquisa aplicada com abordagem qualitativa, o material analisado nas pesquisas de revisão bibliográfica e análise documental foi obtido em sites das organizações e instituições, de revistas científicas e livros físicos. A estratégia de pesquisa aplicada foi um estudo de caso exploratório da cidade Addis Ababa, capital da Etiópia, considerada a de maior importância política e diplomática de todo o continente e com maior probabilidade de avançar em sua posição global nos próximos anos. Avaliando o material levantado nas pesquisas relacionadas à cidade foco do estudo, é possível constatar um alto índice de vulnerabilidade em todos os temas abordados, mas também a existência de um grande potencial de desenvolvimento da capacidade de resiliência urbana com investimentos a serem feitos nas quatro esferas: política, social, ambiental e econômica. Os resultados deste trabalho podem ter um caráter direcionador aos gestores das cidades que desejam desenvolver as capacidades adaptativas em cada realidade, reduzindo os impactos negativos das vulnerabilidades e as transformando em desafios a serem superados. Este trabalho contribui para a área acadêmica com dados importantes para novos estudos relacionados ao tema, assim como traz elementos importantes para tomadores de decisão, formuladores de políticas públicas e para a sociedade, despertando a consciência e o aprendizado de novas possibilidades para o desenvolvimento sustentável das cidades, sociedades e cidadãos.

  14. Prevalence and determinants of road traffic injuries in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    com, MG: misrakg81@gmail.com, GG: geremew2013@gmail.com, FC: feyissawaka@gmail.com, AB: abebe1277belay@gmail.com, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;. 3Ethiopian Public Health Association, E-mail: AB: alemayehubekele2002@yahoo.com, ...

  15. The Current Teacher Education Programs in Ethiopia: Reflection on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Geberew Tulu

    2017-01-01

    This study threw light on the current practice of Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching Program at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. The study focused on the enrolment, graduation and attrition proportion of Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching candidates in the year 2011 and 2015. The 2011 and 2015 academic years have been purposively selected because the…

  16. Smartphone app is improving sustainable cattle farming in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-26

    Jan 26, 2018 ... The research was led by a team from the University of Prince Edward Island and peers based at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture at Addis Ababa University. Together, they used cloud-based service Microsoft Azure to develop the VetAfrica-Ethiopia (VAE) app, a commercial-grade ...

  17. Institutional Interfaces and Actors’ Behavior in Transitional Real Estate Markets of Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Truneh (Frew)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ With the collapse of communism in the early 1990s which heralded the transition from centrally planned economy to free market economy, the issues of property rights and the role of institutions in development have become of paramount importance. However, compared

  18. Prospective assessment of patients with stroke in Tikur Anbessa Specialised Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayalew Zewdie

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: Our study identified hypertension to be the most common risk factor for stroke. The predominant aetiology type in this cohort is haemorrhagic stroke. Lastly, the median arrival time to an emergency centre was 24 h after symptom onset.

  19. Students Talk about Their HIV/AIDS Education Courses: A Case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambe, Mariam M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore how Ethiopian high school students experienced the HIV/AIDS education programs offered in their schools. The project also examined gender differences in the way HIV/AIDS education was perceived and the implications for the instructional design of the programs. A total of 15 high school students (eight…

  20. Spatial metrics and Landsat data for urban landuse change detection: case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bekalo, Mesfin Tadesse

    2009-01-01

    Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies. The rapid development of urbanization coupled with fast demographic change and high demand for land resource requires landuse information for management and planning activities of urban regions. The advent of geospatial tools has great potential to long term monitoring and assessment of urban growth and its associated problems in surrounding landcover...

  1. Medication adherence and its associated factors among diabetic patients at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammed; Alemu, Tigestu; Sada, Oumer

    2017-12-04

    Diabetes is a global problem with devastating human, social and economic impact. Anti-diabetic medications play a major role in the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. However, inadequate adherence compromises safety and treatment effectiveness, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess adherence to anti-diabetic medications and associated factors among patient with diabetes mellitus receiving care at Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Among the total of 146 diabetic patients (mean age 46.5 ± 14.7), the level of adherence to anti diabetic medication was 54.8% (80) whilst 45.2% (66) of the participants were non adherent. Multiple logistic regression showed that knowledge of medication (AOR = 4.905, 95% CI 1.64-14.62, medication availability (AOR = 0.175, 95% CI 0.031-0.987) and education level (AOR = 13.65, 95% CI 1.45-128.456) were reasons for non-adherence.

  2. Customers' perceptions of and satisfaction with medicine retail outlet services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregeorgise, Dawit T; Mohammed, Tofik A; Redi, Zebiba S

    2018-01-01

    for visiting, being married was positively associated with buying over-the-counter, higher educational status was linked with more satisfaction. Overall, 56.8% (225/396) of the respondents reported that they were satisfied with the service provided by MROs. CONCLUSION: Customers of MROs had mixed perceptions...... of and satisfaction with the current service. Marital status and age were associated with the reason for visiting, while the educational level was associated with the level of satisfaction. The overall positive perceptions and satisfaction about MROs should be taken as an opportunity to promote and improve...... pharmaceutical services rendered in MROs, to ensure that the public is receiving maximum benefit....

  3. Private sector participation in solid waste collection in addis ababa (Ethiopia) by involving Micro-enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tilaye (Mesfin); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Privatization of urban services focuses often on the involvement of foreign enterprises. This contribution deals with micro-privatization, the partial transfer of government responsibility for solid waste collection to micro-enterprises. It tries to shed light on

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and practice about epilepsy among teachers at Ethio-National School, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, Tesfaye; Yihun, Bethlehem; Abebe, Emebet; Abera, Hailu

    2017-05-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders and is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its dramatic clinical manifestations, has resulted in a strong social stigma. Since teachers have a key role in society as educators, the purpose of this study was to find out the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards epilepsy among school teachers. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of 135 teachers about epilepsy using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered into IBM SPSS version 20.0 and analyzed. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, means, and standard deviations were used to describe the data. Associations were computed using a chi-square test and p-valueepilepsy. Only 41% of the respondents had good knowledge about epilepsy whereas 26.8% and 32.3% had fair and poor knowledge about the disease, respectively. About 74% of them had a positive attitude about epilepsy. Only 60.3% of the respondents had proper first aid training. Literacy status and years of experience were not significantly associated with the level of knowledge about epilepsy. A significant proportion of teachers had deficits in terms of general knowledge, attitude, and the appropriate management of epilepsy in the classroom. Therefore, it is important to train and update teachers on epilepsy by the responsible health authorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Serological survey of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsega, E; Mengesha, B; Nordenfelt, E; Hansson, B G; Lindberg, J

    1988-10-01

    A serological survey was conducted on 1754 people in various parts of Ethiopia from 1982-1987, with no HIV positive findings until 1984. The problem of Aids reached epidemic proportion in North America and Central Africa in the early 1980s. The reasons for delayed appearance and the source of HIV infection in Ethiopia are not clear. There were 4 groups of subjects tested. The 1st from 1982-83 consisted of 500 patients: 100 each from Asmara, Harar, Addis Ababa, Yirga Alem, and Nekemte; the 2nd in 1983 consisted of 459 volunteer blood donors in Addis Ababa; the 3rd in 1984 consisted of 167 patients with Bell's palsy, and 100 others; the 4th from 1985-87 consisted of 528 patients of the liver clinic of Tikur Anbessa Hospital. The 1st 2 HIV positive sera appeared in group 3 during 1984, and since then 13 patients examined for liver and gastrointestinal conditions were found to be positive. It may be speculated that the new and delayed introduction of HIV infection into Ethiopia is part of the transcontinental spread, caused by migration of refugees, frequent visits to existing harbors by sailors, and the influx of many international organizations to Addis Ababa where prostitution is common. Considering the high prevalence of HIV infection among prostitutes, promiscuity might be the major mode of transmission in this population. The multiple use of inadequately sterilized hypodermics and blood transfusions without screening also contribute to the spread of HIV infection.

  6. in Addis Ababa, April 2000

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Violence against women is an important public health problem not only because of the physical injury that may result ... The data were analyzed using EPI6 and SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Results: The quantitative ... phenomena in any society but have been part of the history of civilization ...

  7. An Occupational Therapy Needs Assessment for an organization attending to children with autism spectrum disorder in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia : To identify the occupational therapy needs for an organization attending to children with autism spectrum disorder in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarlund, Silje

    2015-01-01

    Syfte: Att identifiera behovet för arbetsterapi i Nehemiah Autism Center genom att utföra en behovsanalys. Metod: Mixad-metod användas för att utveckla en passande behovsanalys för att identifiera behovet för arbetsterapi. Resultat: Alla områden där en arbetsterapeut kan bidrag till valdes. Kommunikation och sociala färdigheter rapporterades mest frekvent och beteende förvaltning rankades som viktigast bland vårdnadshavare. Bland anställda, fritid och lek rapporterades mest frekve...

  8. Distance Education for Development. Proceedings of an International Seminar (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, September 13-15, 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakemulder, Jan R., Ed.

    An extensive final report of the proceedings of an international seminar on distance education in developing nations of Africa includes presented papers, discussion proceedings, and views of several participants. Contents include the following: notes on the origin of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa's initiative in distance…

  9. Prevalence of Dermatophytic Infection and the Spectrum of Dermatophytes in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebreabiezgi Teklebirhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dermatophytosis is common worldwide and continues to increase. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and the spectrum of ringworm fungi in patients attending a tertiary hospital. Methods. Samples were collected from 305 patients. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud’s dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Dermatophyte isolates were identified by studying macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Result. Of 305 samples, fungi were detected in 166 (54.4% by KOH of which 95 were dermatophytes while 242 (79.4% samples were culture positive of which 130 isolates were dermatophytes. Among dermatophyte isolates T. violaceum was the most common (37.7% cause of infection. Tinea unguium was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 51.1% of the cases. Patients with age group 25–44 and 45–64 years were more affected. T. violaceum was the most common pathogen in tinea unguium and tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea pedis. Conclusion. Further intensive epidemiological studies of ring worm fungus induced dermatophytosis which have public health significance are needed.

  10. Seroepidemiology Study of Cytomegalovirus and Rubella among Pregnant Women at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshwondm, Mamuye; Balkachew, Nigatu; Delayehu, Bekele; Mekonen, Getahun

    2016-09-01

    Maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) and rubella infections have adverse neonatal outcomes. Both CMV and rubella are more widespread in developing countries and in communities with lower socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to investigate sero-prevalence of CMV and rubella infection and associated possible risk factors. Using cross sectional study design a total of 200 pregnant women were consecutively recruited starting from June and July 2014. Blood samples were collected, and structured questions were used to gather socio-demographic and risk factor related data. ELISA was used to detect CMV (IgG, IgM) and rubella IgM. SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data, and regression was also performed. Out of 200 pregnant women, 88.5%, 30(15.5%) and 4(2.0%) were CMV-IgG, CMV-IgM, and rubella-IgM positive, respectively. Women who were immune/positive only for IgG were 73.5%. The second group was those with primary infection [IgG (+) plus IgM (+)] and this consisted of 15.0% participants. Eleven percent of the participants were at high risk for primary infection during their pregnancy. One pregnant woman was identified as having a recent primary infection. In this study, no statistically significant association was detected between CMV infection with idependent factors (p-value>0.05). In addition to detection of high prevalence of CMV, detecting recent infection of rubella worsens the outcome of the disease. Rubella vaccine should be taken into consideration after large scale surveillance. However, screening of all pregnant women for CMV infection may not be cost-effective as in the countries with high seropositivity.

  11. High level of virological suppression among HIV-infected adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekuria, Legese A.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Yalew, Alemayehu W.; Sprangers, Mirjam Ag; Prins, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma viral load (pVL) is a key indicator of therapeutic response in HIV-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but is often unavailable in routine clinical care in resource-limited settings. Previous model-based simulation studies have suggested that the benefits of

  12. Resilience among children exposed to traumatic loss : a study of children orphaned by AIDS in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Agaje, Solomon Worku

    2008-01-01

    Objective: While traumatic parental loss presents an undeniable risk factor for maladaptive outcomes, some groups of children appear to manifest successful adaptation and do not follow a negative developmental pathway. The purpose of the present study was to test to what degree children orphaned by AIDS demonstrate resilience. Method: The self-report version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire for children age ranging from 11-16 (SDQ S11-16), and a background information inventor...

  13. Determinants of patient satisfaction with outpatient health services at public and private hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayue Tateke

    2012-08-01

    Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from 27 March to 30 April 2010. The study included 5 private and 5 public hospitals. Participants were selected using systematic random sampling. A pre-tested and contextually prepared structured questionnaire was used to conduct interviews. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, factor analysis and multiple linear regressions were performed using computer software (SPSS 16.0. Results: About 18.0% of the patients at the public hospitals were very satisfied whilst 47.9% were just satisfied with the corresponding proportions a bit higher at private hospitals. Selfjudged health status, expectation about the services, perceived adequacy of consultation duration, perceived providers’ technical competency, perceived welcoming approach and perceived body signalling were determinants of satisfaction at both public and private hospitals. Conclusions: Although patients at the private hospitals were more satisfied than those at the public hospitals with the health care they received, five of the predictors of patient satisfaction in this study were common to both settings. Thus, hospitals in both categories should work to improve the competencies of their employees, particularly health professionals, to win the interests of the clients and have a physical structure that better fits the expectations of the patients.

  14. Establishment of reference intervals of thyroid function tests from cord blood of neonates in two selected hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehari, Aman; Challa, Feyssa; Gebreyesus, Goitom; Alemayehu, Dereje; Seifu, Daniel

    2016-08-02

    Reference intervals are affected by different factors such as lifestyle, ethnicity, age/developmental stage, gender, nutrition and other environmental factors (Clin Biochem Rev: 29,2008). Therefore, it is obvious that it should be established for every population in different regions even within a country. Then the aim of this study is to establish population specific reference intervals of thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine and free triidothyronine levels of cord blood. One hundred twenty three cord blood samples collected from the umbilical cord of newborns were analyzed for thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine and free triidothyronine values. The birth weights ranged between 2500 and 4700 g with mean (SD) value of 3241.46 (459.495) gram. Their gestational age ranged between 37 and 44 weeks with an average of 39.74 weeks. The 2.5(th) and 97.5(th) percentiles of values were found to be 3.48 mIU/L and 27.57 mIU/L for thyroid stimulating hormone, 0.89 ng/dl and 1.53 ng/dl for free thyroxine and 1.19 pg/ml and 2.51 pg/ml for free triidothyronine respectively. In the present study the reference intervals of thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine and free triidothyronine were established and based on the results obtained, were 3.48-27.56 mIU/L for thyroid stimulating hormone, 0.89-1.53 ng/dl for free thyroxine and 1.19-2.51 pg/ml for free triidothyronine. It has been concluded that the result can provide us with an important baseline to establish population specific reference intervals for our country using large scale studies.

  15. The Economic Returns of Network Resources to the Urban Informal Economy: Evidence from Street Vendors in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Getahun Fenta Kebede; Francesca Odella

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that social capital constitutes an important form of social regulation in informal sector and it is the major component of the asset portfolios of the urban poor.Nevertheless, the potential contribution of social capital in the informal sector remains under-investigated in African cities. Applying the network approach, this study examinedthe economic returns of social capital to microenterprises in the informal sector. To do so, the personal networks of street vendors ...

  16. Cross Sectional Study Evaluating Routine Contact Investigation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Missed Opportunity to Prevent Tuberculosis in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assefa, Dawit; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Yosef, Genet

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 global roadmap for childhood tuberculosis calls for countries to implement contact screening and provide preventive therapy to children younger than 5 years. Therefore, this study designed to evaluate the implementation status of child contact screening and management in the health

  17. Prevalence of Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Associated Factors among Outpatients with Schizophrenia Attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siranesh Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite recommendations by guidelines to avoid combinations of antipsychotics unless after multiple trials of antipsychotic monotherapy, it is quite a common practice to use combinations. This practice leads to unnecessary expenses and exposes the patient to severe drug adverse effects. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 study subjects. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associated factors of antipsychotic polypharmacy among schizophrenia outpatients. Result. The overall prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be 28.2%. Extra pyramidal side effects (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.38, 5.71, repeated psychiatric hospitalization (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.45, 5.50, history of substance use (AOR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.36, 5.88, longer duration of treatment (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.87, and drug nonadherence (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.98 were found to be significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion. Prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be high among the current study participants. Individuals who had extra pyramidal side effects, admission, substance use, duration of treatment, and drug nonadherence were associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy.

  18. Key informants' perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gossa W

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Weyinshet Gossa,1,2 Dawit Wondimagegn,3 Demeke Mekonnen,4 Wondwossen Eshetu,5 Zerihun Abebe,6 Michael D Fetters2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 4Department of Pediatrics, Jimma University, Jimma, 5Federal Ministry of Health, 6St Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract: As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia's health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by

  19. Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advisory Board. F. Bucar University of Graz, Austria A. Mazumder Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology, India E. Dagne Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia N. Mekonnen Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia M. Djote Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia A. Moustfa Assuit University, Egypt T. Gebre-Mariam Addis Ababa ...

  20. Vertical transmission of group B Streptococcus and associated factors among pregnant women: a cross-sectional study, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadeta TA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta,1 Alemayehu Worku,2 Gudina Egata,3 Berhanu Seyoum,4 Dadi Marami,4 Yemane Berhane5 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 4Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 5Department of Epidemiology, Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Vertically transmitted group B Streptococcus (GBS causes fetal and neonatal infections. However, there is limited information on the vertical transmission of GBS in low-income countries. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the rate of vertical transmission of GBS and associated factors among pregnant women in Eastern Ethiopia.Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional, facility-based study was conducted among pregnant women in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia, from June to October, 2016. GBS positivity of pregnant women was confirmed by culture of rectovaginal swab. Vertical transmission at birth was confirmed by culture on swabs taken from the ear canal, umbilicus, axilla, groin, and nose within 6 hours after birth. Prevalence ratio (PR along with 95% CI was estimated to examine factors associated with vertical transmission using log binomial regression analysis.Results: Out of 231 GBS-colonized pregnant women at delivery, 104 births were identified as GBS colonized with a vertical transmission rate of 45.02% and 95% CI: 38.49, 51.68. Of 104 vertical transmission cases, 65 (62.50% received no intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP, 28 (26.92% received it <4 hours before delivery, and 11 (10.58% received it ≥4 hours before delivery. Pre-labor rupture of membranes at term (PR: 1.93; 95

  1. Distance from health facility and mothers’ perception of quality related to skilled delivery service utilization in northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisseha G

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Girmatsion Fisseha,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku,2,3 Wondwossen Terefe1 1Mekelle University, College of Health Science, School of Public Health, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Epidemiology Department, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Addis Ababa University, School of Public Health, Biostatistics Department, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Poor maternal health service utilization is one of the contributing factors to a high level of maternal and newborn mortality in Ethiopia. The factors associated with utilization of services are believed to differ from one context to another. We assessed the factors associated with skilled delivery service utilization in rural northern Ethiopia.Subjects and methods: A community-based survey was conducted among mothers who gave birth in the 12 months preceding the study period, from January to February 2015, in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Multistage sampling technique was used to select mothers from the identified clusters. Households within a 10 km radius of the health facility were taken as a cluster for a community survey. Data were collected using face-to-face interview at the household level. We compared the mothers who reported giving birth to the index child in a health facility and those who reported delivering at home, in order to identify the predictors of skilled delivery utilization. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of skilled delivery service utilization. The results are presented with odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI.Results: A total of 1,796 mothers participated in the study, with a 100% response rate. Distance to health facilities (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.53 [95% CI: 0.39, 0.71], perception of mothers to the availability of adequate equipment in the delivery service in their catchment area (AOR =1.5 [95% CI: 1.11, 2.13], experiencing any complication during childbirth, using antenatal care, lower

  2. rical Engineering Addis Ababa University Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. A common assumption in' modeling computer uetwolks is that packet arrivals occur as a Poisson ... .that the Poisson process is inadequate as a model of the packet arrival process and that-a fractal process ..... For O

  3. Department of Zoological Sciences, Addis Ababa Univer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... mountains disected by the great East. African Valley. The high mountains include Tullu Deemtu in Bale (4,307 m asl), Kecha (4,245 m asl), Ankole (4,300 m asl) in Arsi, Gra Muleta in Harrarge (3,. 492 m asl) and Badda Roge in Shewa. (3,350 m asl). The wet afromontane forests which are the focuses of the ...

  4. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astatkie A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods: We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%. After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01], and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74] were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion: Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use

  5. Healthcare situation dismal, says government official. International (Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-12

    According to Dr. Kebede Tadesse, Minister of Social and Administrative Affairs, as stated in a speech before the Consultative Group Meeting in Addis Ababa in December 1996, the health status of Ethiopia is one of the worst in the world because of "backward socio-economic development, poor environmental quality, high fertility rate, repeated natural and man-made disasters, and inadequate health services." An article in the April 11, 1997, Addis Tribune supports this claim by describing the horrific conditions found in a public hospital in Addis Ababa. Patients returned home to die because of the shortage of beds. Dr. Kebede gave the following statistics: the average daily per capita food intake is 1750 calories, 80% of that recommended; 5% of children show signs of wasting; 64% of children have stunted growth; 17% of pregnant and lactating women are anemic; the average national fertility rate is 6.1%; the percentage of AIDS cases per 100,000 people is 10.7; 18% of people have access to potable water; 14% of births are attended; 16% of people receive antenatal care; 40% of the population is immunized; 8% of the population receives family planning services; the infant mortality rate is 130/1000 live births; the maternal mortality rate is 500-700/100,000 live births; there is 1 physician per 33,333 Ethiopians; and the life expectancy at birth is 48 years. The article recommended the following "basic principles and guidelines" to improve the situation: 1) the population should be educated about good hygiene; 2) family planning should be popularized by the government; 3) the health budget should be increased to meet overall demand for health services and to target diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis; 4) private investment in health care is needed; 5) a safe drinking water supply must be made available; and 6) domestic conditions should be made favorable so that Ethiopian doctors educated abroad will return to practice in Ethiopia.

  6. ADlll:S ABABA BUS TERMINAL DESIGN COMPETITION.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "Your Excellencies, Mr. President, Members of the. Ethiopian Association of Engineers and Architects. Today at the opening of the First National. Conference of the Ethiopian Association of Engineers and Architects, His Excellency, Dr. Haile Giorgis. Workneh, the Lord Mayor of Addis Ababa, was to be here in order to award ...

  7. Malaria in Ababa and its environs; assessmen manitude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a million of non-immune highlanders to fertile lowland areas in ... implementation of early warning system at different levels is ... malaria. ' Table 1: Age distribution of malaria cases treated at different health facilities in Addis Ababa City between 1993 and 1999. '-Age @up. Year <1 ' 1 to 4 5 to 14 15+ Total (%). 1993 ' 1 2 44 ...

  8. Proceedings of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference 17-22 November 2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: plenaries and oral presentations

    OpenAIRE

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mwesiga, Allan; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Stanley, Claire; Borchert, Jeff; Mensah, George; Bejtullahu, Armand; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Kebede, Amha; Berhane, Yemane; Jocker, Mathew Lado; Ebontane, Ndode Corlins; Feyissa, Daba; Yeshitila, Kidanie; Mehari, Goitom

    2015-01-01

    Biennially, trainees and graduates of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) are presented with a platform to share investigations and projects undertaken during their two-year training in Applied Epidemiology. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference, is a perfect opportunity for public health professionals from various sectors and organizations to come together to discuss issues that impact on public health in Africa. This year's conference...

  9. Herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositivity among urban adults in Africa - Results from two cross-sectional surveys in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihret, Wude; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Petros, Beyene; Mekonnen, Yared; Tsegaye, Aster; Wolday, Dawit; Beyene, Asfaw; Aklilu, Mathias; Sanders, Eduard; Fontanet, Arnaud L.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although several surveys investigating the epidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection using type-specific immunologic assays have been carried out in Africa, none has examined the risk factors for HSV-2 infection in a representative sample from an urban adult

  10. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among People Living with HIV/AIDS at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsay Hailu Gebremariam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS continues to be an underrecognized risk for suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, and completion of suicide. Suicidal ideation and attempt in HIV/AIDS is not only a predictor of future attempted suicide and completed suicide. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-positive patients attending HIV care at Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 423 participants from April to May 2014. Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to collect data. Multivariable logistic regression was computed to assess factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt. Result. Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempt were found to be 22.5% and 13.9%, respectively. WHO clinical stage of HIV, not being on HAART, depression, family history of suicidal attempt, and perceived stigma were associated with suicidal ideation. WHO clinical stage, being female, not being on HAART, use of substance, and depression were associated with suicidal attempt. Conclusion. Early diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infections, depression, and early initiation of ART need to be encouraged in HIV-positive adults. Furthermore, counseling on substance use and its consequences and early identification of HIV-positive people with family history of suicidal ideation have to be considered.

  11. Statement to Second Conference of States Parties to African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty, 12 November 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to address this Second Conference of States Parties to the Treaty of Pelindaba. I compliment the countries of Africa for their tenacity in pursuing the goal of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone for decades, until the Treaty finally entered into force in 2009. Nuclear-weapon-free zones are a highly effective means of non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament. The five nuclear-weapon-free zones in existence today cover a total of 113 countries. Each has its own special characteristics, but they also have many important elements in common. All nuclear-weapon-free zones prohibit the development, stationing or testing of nuclear weapons in their respective regions. They all cover large inhabited areas. They provide for IAEA verification of the non-diversion of nuclear material. Nuclear-weapon-free zones have brought real security benefits, both regionally and to the whole world. The Treaty of Pelindaba incorporates a number of special features, including some measures which go beyond undertakings assumed by States Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) . For example, it makes provision for the dismantling and destruction of nuclear explosive devices manufactured by a Party to the Treaty before the Treaty entered into force. It prohibits attacks on nuclear installations in the nuclear-weapon-free zone. It bars the dumping of radioactive waste within the zone. In addition, the Treaty of Pelindaba contains a commitment to promote the use of nuclear science and technology for economic and social development. Parties are encouraged to make use of the assistance of the IAEA. They also pledge to maintain the highest standards of security and physical protection of nuclear material, facilities and equipment. In the Preamble to the Treaty, the Parties recognise that the establishment of other nuclear-weapon-free zones, especially in the Middle East, would enhance their security. Last November, I hosted an IAEA Forum on Experience of Possible Relevance to the Creation of a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in the Middle East. There is broad international support for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East. But there are long-standing differences among countries of that region, and beyond, about how the issue should be approached. That is why it took 11 years to secure agreement to hold the IAEA Forum. The Forum provided an opportunity for Member States to engage in a constructive exchange of views. However, because of the fundamental differences of views which I mentioned, it was not possible to make further progress on this important issue. Nevertheless, I was encouraged by the positive spirit in which the Middle East Forum was conducted. One of the key lessons which I took away was that it is possible to have a constructive dialogue on the establishment of a nuclear- weapon-free zone, despite the complexity of the issue and significant differences of views among States concerned. Mistrust between key parties can be overcome in time and be replaced by mutual confidence and cooperation. It is up to countries of the region concerned to decide whether to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone. But if they decide to do so, a multilateral component can be very helpful. The IAEA will continue to assist with the establishment of new nuclear-weapon-free zones, in the Middle East and elsewhere. I believe that a successful Conference on the establishment of a Middle East zone free of nuclear weapons and all other weapons of mass destruction would be an important step forward. (IAEA)

  12. Intra-Abdominal Hydatid Cyst: Sociodemographics, Clinical Profiles, and Outcomes of Patients Operated on at a Tertiary Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engida Abebe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hydatid cyst is caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The abdomen, specifically the liver, is the most common site affected. Objective. Determine the presentation patterns, types of surgical management, and outcomes of patients operated for intra-abdominal hydatid cyst (IAHC. Methodology. A retrospective descriptive study of patients admitted and operated for IAHC from September 1, 2011, to August 31, 2015. Results. Forty-two patients whose age ranged from 10 to 65 (mean of 37 years were operated on. Females comprised 27 (64.3% of the patients. The commonest presenting complaint was abdominal pain (41, 97.6%. Abdominal mass was documented in 23 (54.7% cases. Abdominal ultrasound (AUS and CT were the main imaging studies done on 38 (90.5% and 24 (57.1% patients, respectively. Cysts measuring more than 10 cm in diameter were the most common finding in both studies. Liver was the primary site involved, 30 (71.4% cases, the right lobe being the main side, 73%. Thirty-eight (90.5% patients underwent deroofing, evacuation, marsupialization, and omentoplasty (DEMO. There was no perioperative death, but 4 (9.5% of the patients had post-op complications. Conclusion. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting complaint. AUS and CT remain the preferred imaging. DEMO was the most common surgery.

  13. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Ethiopian cats in Addis Ababa, coinfection, and a review of toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human T-lymphotrophic Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the p...

  14. Population growth and settlement expansion in the fringes of Addis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on estimating the rate of urban settlement expansion in the fringes of Addis Ababa, and on examining the causes for this and the impacts it has on the livelihoods of the farming households living there. For this purpose, aerial photographs covering the study area, GIS tools and GPS were used; ...

  15. Afican Health Sciences Vol 10 No 4.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2. Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, ..... In the rabbit and many other species estradiol is the main luteotrophic hormone. Prolactin, FSH and LH contribute to the luteotrophic ...

  16. Land Acquisitions, the Politics of Dispossession, and State-Remaking in Gambella, Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fana Gebresenbet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that development through large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs in Gambella, western Ethiopia, belies a state-remaking project under a dispossessive political economy. This argument is based on fieldwork in Gambella, Addis Ababa, and Minneapolis and is situated within the broader development agenda pursued by Ethiopia’s ruling party. The political economy of LSLAs tells us that the deals are not occurring in a predominantly economic manner; rather, extra-economic state intervention clears the way for, facilitates, and ensures sustained accumulation. This political intervention is “unlocking” and making the lowland resources accessible and extractable by the state, while a concomitant villagisation project is guaranteeing continued accumulation by disempowering the local population by making the community legible, governable, and controllable. Through a combination of these processes, the Ethiopian state is mastering, and building itself in, Gambella’s lowlands.

  17. Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rape among female street adolescents in Addis Ababa was shown to be 15.6% in ... Rape is associated with long and short-term sexual, reproductive, mental and social problems. Sexually transmitted infections; genital and non-genital injuries, pregnancy ... extent of the problem and its impact on the physical, mental and ...

  18. International Clinical Trial Day and clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed

    2014-12-19

    Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

  19. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-11-02

    BORNE PATHOGENS IN ETHIOPIAN STREET VENDED FOODS. D. Muleta, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and M. Ashenafi, PhD, Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  20. ring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3,2-DIAZABORACYCLOALKANE. RING SYSTEM. Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Neilson. 'Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University.

  1. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremariam K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kidanu Gebremariam,1 Demeke Assefa,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal3 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 2Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC among young adult (10–24 years of age females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results: This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%. The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%, had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7% study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion: Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong

  2. Bibliography on HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia and Ethiopians in the Diaspora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    AIDS and related health conditions ...... pattern of supply chain management of HIV/AIDS related commodities in Addis Ababa, while a PhD ...... logistics data, health facilities improve access to medicines: Success story. Arlington, Virginia, JSI.

  3. Validity of verbal autopsy method to determine causes of death among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy has been widely used to estimate causes of death in settings with inadequate vital registries, but little is known about its validity. This analysis was part of Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program to examine the validity of verbal autopsy for determining causes of death compared with hospital medical records among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia. Methods This validation study consisted of comparison of verbal autopsy final diagnosis with hospital diagnosis taken as a “gold standard”. In public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, 20,152 adult deaths (15 years and above) were recorded between 2007 and 2010. With the same period, a verbal autopsy was conducted for 4,776 adult deaths of which, 1,356 were deceased in any of Addis Ababa hospitals. Then, verbal autopsy and hospital data sets were merged using the variables; full name of the deceased, sex, address, age, place and date of death. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values with 95% confidence interval. Results After merging, a total of 335 adult deaths were captured. For communicable diseases, the values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of verbal autopsy diagnosis were 79%, 78% and 68% respectively. For non-communicable diseases, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 69%, specificity 78% and positive predictive value 79%. Regarding injury, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 70%, specificity 98% and positive predictive value 83%. Higher sensitivity was achieved for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, but lower specificity with relatively more false positives. Conclusion These findings may indicate the potential of verbal autopsy to provide cost-effective information to guide policy on communicable and non communicable diseases double burden among adults in Ethiopia. Thus, a well structured verbal autopsy method, followed by qualified physician reviews could be capable of providing reasonable cause

  4. Validity of verbal autopsy method to determine causes of death among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misganaw Awoke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy has been widely used to estimate causes of death in settings with inadequate vital registries, but little is known about its validity. This analysis was part of Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program to examine the validity of verbal autopsy for determining causes of death compared with hospital medical records among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia. Methods This validation study consisted of comparison of verbal autopsy final diagnosis with hospital diagnosis taken as a “gold standard”. In public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, 20,152 adult deaths (15 years and above were recorded between 2007 and 2010. With the same period, a verbal autopsy was conducted for 4,776 adult deaths of which, 1,356 were deceased in any of Addis Ababa hospitals. Then, verbal autopsy and hospital data sets were merged using the variables; full name of the deceased, sex, address, age, place and date of death. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values with 95% confidence interval. Results After merging, a total of 335 adult deaths were captured. For communicable diseases, the values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of verbal autopsy diagnosis were 79%, 78% and 68% respectively. For non-communicable diseases, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 69%, specificity 78% and positive predictive value 79%. Regarding injury, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 70%, specificity 98% and positive predictive value 83%. Higher sensitivity was achieved for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, but lower specificity with relatively more false positives. Conclusion These findings may indicate the potential of verbal autopsy to provide cost-effective information to guide policy on communicable and non communicable diseases double burden among adults in Ethiopia. Thus, a well structured verbal autopsy method, followed by qualified physician reviews could be capable of

  5. Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however.

  6. Point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in two teaching hospitals of Amhara region in Ethiopia

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    Yallew WW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Walelegn Worku Yallew,1 Abera Kumie,2 Feleke Moges Yehuala3 1Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 2School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: Hospital-acquired infection (HAI is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. Methods: A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. All eligible inpatients admitted for at least 48 hours on the day of the survey were included. The survey was conducted in dry and wet seasons of Ethiopia, that is, in March to April and July 2015. Physicians and nurses collected the data according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAIs. Coded and cleaned data were transferred to SPSS 21 and STATA 13 for analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence of HAIs and relationship between explanatory and outcome variables. Results: A total of 908 patients were included in this survey, the median age of the patients was 27 years (interquartile range: 16–40 years. A total of 650 (71.6% patients received antimicrobials during the survey. There were 135 patients with HAI, with a mean prevalence of 14.9% (95% confidence interval 12.7–17.1. Culture results showed that Klebsiella spp. (22.44% and Staphylococcus aureus (20.4% were the most commonly isolated HAI-causing pathogens in these hospitals. The association of patient age and hospital type with the occurrence of HAI was

  7. Establishing space research capability in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosinger, T.; Damtie, B.; Usoskin, I. G.

    It is often considered by various sources and institutions around the world that promotion of space physics activities in a developing country like Ethiopia is a waste of time and resources. It has, of course, some sense: developing countries should put all their efforts in improving the standard of life, infrastructure and basic education. However, it is straightforward to realize that nowadays improvement in any of the basic needs of developing countries is related to high technology (e.g. mobile phones, GPS, remote sensing). This means that a developing country has to take care of recruiting specialists among their own people who can take part in the decision making processes which are increasingly of global nature. Moreover, many citizens of developing countries are studying and working abroad attaining high expertise. As a matter of fact, there are more Ethiopians with PhD in physics working abroad than in the country. These people are lost for the benefit of their own country if there is no need for their profession in their home country. There is no doubt that the main task of improving the standard of living cannot be achieved without development and social transformation of the society, which can take place efficiently in a self-adopting and dynamic process. In line with the above argument, we have initiated the establishment of the Washera Space Physics Laboratory (WASPL) at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. It is a collaboration project between Oulu University and Addis Ababa University. The laboratory is expected to start operation of a pulsation magnetometer and photometer in September 2004. Other types of standard geophysical instruments are to be installed in subsequent missions. The project is of mutual interest of both parties. The equatorial ionosphere is still a poorly investigated region of our near Earth's space. In a first pilot investigation the existence and properties of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) in the equatorial ionosphere

  8. Teaching Teachers in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, D. K.; Moldwin, M.; Rabella-Soares, M.; Reiff, P.; Sumners, C.; Yizengaw, E.

    2008-05-01

    Africa needs to develop a space physics research structure, and a key goal of the United Nations-sponsored International Heliophysical Year (IHY) is to provide support to those efforts. One key focus of IHY is the deployment of networks of small instruments to encourage development of space science research and educational infrastructures in developing nations. In addition to new scientific discoveries and advancing space science research in Africa by establishing scientific collaborations between scientists in developed and developing nations, an IHY objective is to increase the number of space scientists and increase the scientific awareness about the importance of the space science In order to develop space science research infrastructure, space science educational infrastructure also needs to be developed to support the long-term operation and use of the science instrumentation. Developing nations need to develop the necessary training and encouragement of students to enter and excel in scientific fields. In response to these needs, the authors, working under the auspices of the AGU Space Physics and Aeronomy Education and Public Outreach (SPA EPO) Committee, organized a Geophysics Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshop for Ethiopian high school physics educators on 10 November 2007 in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia. The workshop, held in conjunction with the IHY-Africa Space Weather Science and Education Workshop, gathered together 62 high school physics teachers from around the country for a one-day professional development program that focused on fundamental physics concepts relevant to space weather. Our presentation will describe the workshop, the challenges of launching such a program, and present results from the assessment surveys taken by teachers at the end of the workshop.

  9. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Objective: The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11.Results: Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited

  10. Primary dysmenorrhea magnitude, associated risk factors, and its effect on academic performance: evidence from female university students in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailemeskel S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Solomon Hailemeskel,1 Asrate Demissie,2 Nigussie Assefa3 1Department of Midwifery, College of Health Science, Institute of Medicine and Health Science, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia; 2Department of Nursing and Midwifery, School of Allied Health Science, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Department of Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Primary dysmenorrhea (PD is the most common gynecologic compliant among adolescent females. There is a wide variation in the estimate of PD, which ranges from 50% to 90%, and the disorder is the most common cause of work and school absenteeism in adolescent females.Objective: To assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of PD among female university students and understand its effects on students’ academic performance.Methods: A cross-sectional study was employed in 440 research participants. A multistage stratified sampling technique was employed to select the study units. Structured and pretested self-administered questionnaires were used and weight and height measurements were conducted. The severity of dysmenorrheal pain was assessed by using a verbal multidimensional scoring system and visual analog scale. The data were double entered in Epi Info version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were performed.Results: A total of 440 students participated in this study. The prevalence of PD was 368 (85.4%. Of these, 123 (28.5% had mild, 164 (38.1% moderate, and 81 (18.8% severe primary dysmenorrheal pain. Among students with PD, 88.3% reported that PD had a negative effect on their academic performance. Of these, 80% reported school absence, 66.8% reported loss of class concentration, 56.3% reported class absence, 47.4% reported loss of class

  11. The 13th World Health Congress has been conducted between April ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    1 School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. EDITORIAL. Fostering public health leadership in Africa. Damen Haile Mariam1. The 13th. World Health Congress has been conducted between April 23-27, 2012 in Addis. Ababa and the Ethiopian Public Health. Association (EPHA) has ...

  12. Original Research

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    2014-12-23

    Dec 23, 2014 ... 1School of Psychology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box: 33617, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2Jijiga Univerity, P.O. Box: ... parental involvement were found to have significant relationship with self-regulatory behavior, age, socio-economic ..... Ministry of Youth, Culture and Sports, Addis. Ababa. Belay Tefera ...

  13. Ethiopia | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These findings led the World Food Programme to explore the use of iron pots as a sustainable strategy to reduce iron deficiency in emergency and refugee situations. Our support for health research led to the creation of a master's program in public health at Addis Ababa University, with the collaboration of Canada's McGill ...

  14. Salmonella serovars along two beef chains in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiko, Adem; Irsigler, Herlinde; Ameni, Gobena; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Fries, Reinhard

    2016-11-24

    Salmonella has been reported from foods and the food production environment, with outbreaks occurring in the human population worldwide. A survey on Salmonella in two beef production lines (a beef abattoir line and a processing line) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was conducted, with a total of 668 various samples randomly collected from animal-related materials, the environment, and a beef product (mortadella). Overall, a 12.9% prevalence (26.3% from the abattoir line, 5.3% from the processing plant line) was observed. The prevalence in the abattoir line environment (36.6%) was higher than that in animal-related samples (14.7%); the reverse was true for the processing plant line. Out of 86 isolates, 10 serovars were identified, and 8 remained unidentified. The predominant serotypes were S. Saintpaul (32.5%), S. Muenchen (19.8%), and S. Larochelle (12.8%). S. Kastrup and S. London were isolated for the first time in Ethiopia. Data indicate open ports of entry for Salmonella, with possible transfer along the line. Further investigations from farm to fork are recommended in order to identify these positions of entry.

  15. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa Dereje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 2.30, 13.00; p  Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.

  16. Experience of Initial Symptoms of Breast Cancer and Triggers for Action in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, T.D.; Hobden, C.; Reeler, A.; Dye, T.D.; Bogale, S.; Tilahun, Y.; Deressa, T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years). Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed

  17. Sexuality and sexual reproductive health of disabled young people in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Tigist Alemu; Luck, Tobias; Birru, Samuel Kinde; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-10-01

    In Ethiopia, young people with disabilities (YPWD) are often marginalized and not recognized as being sexual, and only little is known about their sexual reproductive health (SRH) status. We therefore aimed to assess the SRH status and associated factors among 426 YPWD in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012. Data were collected by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Fifty-two percent of YPWD ever had sexual intercourse. Seventy-five percent started sex between 15 and 19 years. Only 35% had used contraceptive during their first sexual encounter. Fifty-nine percent of the sexually experienced YPWD had multiple lifetime sexual partners; 19%, a casual sexual partner; and 21%, a commercial sexual partner. Only 48% consistently used condoms with their casual or commercial sexual partners. Twenty-four percent of the sexually experienced YPWD had a history of sexually transmitted infections. Our findings indicate that YPWD in Ethiopia are sexually active, but also highly involved in risky sexual practices. There is a need for in-depth research to better understand the determinants of risky sexual behavior and to propose preventive approaches.

  18. The estimated incidence of induced abortion in Ethiopia, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela; Fetters, Tamara; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Abdella, Ahmed; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Kumbi, Solomon; Audam, Suzette

    2010-03-01

    Unsafe abortion is an important health problem in Ethiopia; however, no national quantitative study of abortion incidence exists. In 2005, the penal code was revised to broaden the indications under which induced abortion is legal. It is important to measure the incidence of legal and illegal induced abortion after the change in the law. A nationally representative survey of a sample of 347 health facilities that provide postabortion or safe abortion services and a survey of 80 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision were conducted in Ethiopia in 2007-2008. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to calculate the incidence of induced abortion. Abortion rates, abortion ratios and unintended pregnancy rates were calculated for the nation and for major regions. In 2008, an estimated 382,000 induced abortions were performed in Ethiopia, and 52,600 women were treated for complications of such abortions. There were an estimated 103,000 legal procedures in health facilities nationwide--27% of all abortions. Nationally, the annual abortion rate was 23 per 1,000 women aged 15-44, and the abortion ratio was 13 per 100 live births. The abortion rate in Addis Ababa (49 per 1,000 women) was twice the national level. Overall, about 42% of pregnancies were unintended, and the unintended pregnancy rate was 101 per 1,000 women. Unsafe abortion is still common and exacts a heavy toll on women in Ethiopia. To reduce rates of unplanned pregnancy and unsafe abortion, increased access to high-quality contraceptive care and safe abortion services is needed.

  19. Using task analysis to generate evidence for strengthening midwifery education, practice, and regulation in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigzaw T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tegbar Yigzaw,1 Catherine Carr,2 Jelle Stekelenburg,3,4 Jos van Roosmalen,5 Hannah Gibson,1 Mintwab Gelagay,1 Azeb Admassu6 1Jhpiego, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2Jhpiego, Washington DC, USA; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Leeuwarden Medical Centre, Leeuwarden, 4Department of Health Sciences, Global Health, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, 5Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 6Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Realizing aspirations for meeting the global reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health goals depends not only on increasing the numbers but also on improving the capability of midwifery workforce. We conducted a task analysis study to identify the needs for strengthening the midwifery workforce in Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of recently qualified midwives in Ethiopia. Purposively selected participants from representative geographic and practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire, making judgments about the frequency of performance, criticality, competence, and location of training for a list of validated midwifery tasks. Using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 20, we computed the percentages and averages to describe participant and practice characteristics. We identified priority preservice education gaps by considering the tasks least frequently learned in preservice, most frequently mentioned for not being trained, and had the highest not capable response. Identification of top priorities for in-service training considered tasks with highest “not capable” and “never” done responses. We determined the licensing exam blueprint by weighing the composite mean scores for frequency and criticality variables and expert rating across practice categories. Results: One hundred and thirty-eight midwives participated in the study. The majority of

  20. Pregnancy outcome in the elderly gravida in Addis Ababa | Marai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-08-30

    ... to August 30, 1998 in the above setting fulfilling inclusion criteria were cases and controls respectively. Main outcome measures: Included current obstetric problems, labour induction, operative delivery, low birthweight, apgar scores, prenatal death, neonatal intensive care admission rates and mean foetal birthweight.

  1. Geomagnetic secular variation at Addis Ababa over the last four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... polynomial fits, have been examined. The horizontal component H has been found to show pseudo-periodicity that would be considered to have parallelism with the 11-year sunspot cycle. Comparison of the observatory data with igrf models for the period 1958—2000 show that the igrf provides an excellent estimation of ...

  2. Bird strike incidence at Addis Ababa Bole International Airport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The time and rate of bird strike incidences, species composition and number of birds involved in strikes, and the behaviour of birds were recorded at Bole International Airport from December 1994 to December 1995. The gut contents of the birds struck by aircraft were analyzed. A total of 33 bird strikes were recorded during ...

  3. Modern lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is important to have unique insights into the dissemination dynamics and evolutionary genetics of this pathogen and for TB control as it allows the detection of suspected outbreaks and the tracing of transmission chains. Objective: To characterize M.

  4. 1 INVESTIGATIONS ON THE EXPANSIVE SOILS OF ADDIS ABABA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to owners for repair, if the structure is to be salvaged at all. The object of this paper is to study the significant engineering properties of the expans- ive soils and assess the damages on structures as a result of heaving and shrinkage of the soil on which the foundations of the structures are erected. For this purpose samples ...

  5. Chronic osteomyelitis at Tikur Anbessa hospital, Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main isolate was Staph. Aureus and most of the organisms were resistant to the common antibiotics. Sequestrectomy had been done only in 73 (16.5%) of the patients. Conclusion: Osteomyelitis is a common, persistent and serious problem, and attention should be given to the preventable forms. There should be a ...

  6. Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhd.v16i3.9797 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  7. Breast Cancer in an Ethiopian Population, Addis Ababa | Ersumo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is a major life-threatening public health problem of great concern. Long-term increases in the incidence of the disease are being observed in both industrialized and developing world. Methods: During 1995-99, 137 biopsy proven breast cancer cases underwent surgical treatment at Tikur ...

  8. The Child Sexual Abuse Epidemic in Addis Ababa: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On average, 21 children were reported to be sexually abused each month where majority of the sexual abuse incidence were committed against female children in their own home by someone they closely know. The psychological trauma and physical complaints presented by victims include symptoms of anxiety and ...

  9. Extended Roles of Community Pharmacists in Addis Ababa: Extent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    37%) were identified as major contributing factors for respondents' loyalty to a particular community pharmacy. Majority of the respondents gave approval to the possible extended roles of community pharmacists, particularly blood pressure, ...

  10. Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa Univeristy, PO Box 1176

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Borax 400. HPO42- 400. Citrate 40. Oxalate 40. F-. Th4+. Cr3+. Mn2+. Co2+. Ni2+. Cu24. *Masked by fluoride (3000 ppm). **Masked by H202 (2 ml of 30$). iron. The samples were decomposed and iron was determined according to the general procedure described above. The iron content of the blood sample from an ...

  11. Urban Development And Displacement In Addis Ababa: The Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 24, No 2 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Valuing Water Supply Service Improvements In Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... container) above the exiting average tariff of 7.14 cents per bucket as calculated from the tobit and probit model, respectively. The empirical evidence is an important input for strategic planning to ensure that improvements proposed potentially improve cost recovery initiative and increase the level of customer satisfaction.

  13. Cross-generational sexual relationship in Addis Ababa: A qualitative ...

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    user

    from the community about the school. Other places where potential participants in CGSR were thought to have frequented were also visited. Hotels, cafeterias, groceries ... transferred to qualitative data management software. (Open Code), by which ..... inheritance of his property, Because of this, she said, the issue had to be ...

  14. Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological ...

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    Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 3 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Self-Medication Practices In Addis Ababa: A Prospective Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Self-care is a response of individuals to promote or restore their health. Self-medication, one form of self-care, it is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms of illnesses. Although there are arguments for and against self-medication, its contribution in the ...

  16. Perception of Students of Addis Ababa University Institute of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    without obvious critical awareness of what they represented or how they were related. (Barbara J and Janette M, 2011). Hamide. (2004) discussed the effect of use of. Mathematical as a visual aid in introducing basic linear algebra concepts, and the findings support the use of visual instruction in advancing the learning of.

  17. Sexual Violence among Female Street Adolescents in Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Violence against women is an important public health problem not only because of the physical injury that may result but also because of potentially harmful health behaviors that may be triggered in response to violence. The health consequence on women due to gender-based violence is a serious problem ...

  18. Growing up too fast: Rural children working in Addis Ababa ...

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    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Mass dog poisoning operation in Addis Ababa can have severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    and dead dogs) and they told me that there is no system in place for burying the dead dogs. These are left to rot in the open. All this is in the face of the raptors that use the dump as a feeding site not to speak of human beings that collect decaying ...

  20. Challenges in Access to Urban Land for Business ... - Addis Ababa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    ahead envisage agents of such transformation. As good practices throughout ..... institutions, four star and above hotels, and mega real estate developments, to be undertaken by the private sector. ..... 66 “Urban Real Estate Administration Law of the People's Republic of China (adopted by the. 8th meeting of the Standing ...

  1. Lactic Acid Bacterial Vaginosis among Outpatients in Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial syndrome in which a decrease in vaginal acidity and concentration of lactobacilli is accompanied by an increase of other pathogenic micro-organisms. The distribution of lactic acid bacteria in vaginal environment of Ethiopian women has not been documented.

  2. Casual sex-debuts among female adolescents in Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the era of HIV/AIDS epidemic understanding the nature of sexual debuts among female adolescents is critical in developing effective preventive strategies. Objectives: The objectives of the study where to investigate the specific age at sex-debuts, to identify the specific reasons for sex-debuts, and to examine ...

  3. Perception of Civil Engineering Extension Students of Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results from the responses of the students revealed that: the practices of delivery of the course outline, showing the necessary and sufficient conditions when clarifying the concepts in applied mathematics, giving worksheet for each chapter where questions help in developing mathematical concepts, problem solving ...

  4. Cross-generational sexual relationship in Addis Ababa: A qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. Background: Cross-generational sexual practices are considered unsafe sexual behaviors. The risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections including HIV is believed to be high among those involved in cross-generational sexual relationship. However, studies addressing why and how people are engaged in ...

  5. An indigenous malaria transmission in the outskirts of Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In recent years malaria is becoming endemic in highland areas beyond its previously known upper limit of transmission. Assessment of the situation of the disease in such areas is necessary in order to institute appropriate control activities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the ...

  6. Jimma University, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original article. Premenstrual syndrom: prevalence and effect on academic and social performances of students in. Jimma University, Ethiopia. Addis Tenkirl .... hobbies etc. Other most commonly reported psychobehavioral symptoms were: depressed mood by 145(59.9%), becoming easily upset by. 127(52.5%) and ...

  7. Shear wave velocity structure of northern and North-Eastern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebede, F.; Mammo, T.; Panza, G.F.; Vuan, A.; Costa, G.

    1995-10-01

    The non-linear inversion technique known as hedgehog is utilized to define the average crustal structure of North and North-Eastern Ethiopia. To accomplish the task a two dimensional frequency-time analysis is performed to obtain Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves. Six earthquakes recorded by the broad-band digital seismograph installed at the Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa University are utilized. The crustal structure between the Gulf of Tadjura (western Gulf of Aden) and Addis Ababa crossing southern Afar (path I) can be approximated by a total thickness of about 22 km with average S-wave velocity in the range 2.3 - 3.9 km/s. The crust-mantle transition is poorly developed at greater depths and the shear wave velocity ranges from 4.0 km/s to 4.3 km/s. If the effect of the plateau part is taken into account the average total crustal thickness is found to be less than 18 km and the average S-wave velocity varies in the range 2.4 - 3.9 km/s. The low shear wave velocity under the Afar crust is consistent with the result of other geophysical studies. For path II, which passes through the border of the Western Ethiopian plateau, the average crustal structure is found to be approximated by a thickness of about 40 km and average S-wave velocity between 3.0 km/s and 3.9 km/s. The crust overlies a lithospheric mantle with a shear wave velocity in the range 4.1-4.4 km/s. (author). 37 refs, 11 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Comparative Hydrology in Ethiopia: a learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.

  9. review of the chemistry of aloes of africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bull. Cherp. soc. Ethiop' 1996, too 1, sen 03. ISSN 1011-3294. Printed in Ethiopia ° 19% Chemical Society of Ethiopia. REVIEW OF THE CHEMISTRY OF ALOES OF AFRICA. Ermias Dagne. Addis Ababa University, Departimnt of Chemistry. P.O. Box 1176. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 1. INTRODUCTION. The bitter leaf exudaties ...

  10. Factors associated with acceptance of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling among pregnant women in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin KB

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketema Bizuwork Gebremedhin,1 Bingjie Tian,2 Chulei Tang,3 Xiaoxia Zhang,3 Engida Yisma,1,4 Honghong Wang3 1Department of Nursing and Midwifery, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China; 3Department of Fundamental Nursing, Xiangya School of Nursing, Central South University, Changsha, China; 4School of Medicine, Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Introduction: The global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic disproportionately affects sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC is a tool to identify HIV-positive pregnant women and an effective treatment and prevention strategy. However, its success depends upon the willingness of pregnant women to accept HIV testing.Objectives: To describe the level of acceptance of PITC and associated factors among pregnant women attending 8 antenatal care clinics in Adama, Ethiopia.Methods: Trained nursing students and employees from an HIV clinic conducted face-to-face structured interviews in private offices at the clinics from August to September, 2016.Results: Among the 441 respondents, 309 (70.1% accepted PITC. Women with more antenatal care visits (odds ratio [OR] =2.59, 95% CI: 1.01–6.63, reported better quality of the PITC service (OR =1.91, 95% CI: 1.19–3.08, and higher level of knowledge on mother-to-child transmission (OR =1.82, 95% CI: 1.03–3.20, were more likely to accept PITC, while women who were older in age (OR =0.37, 95% CI: 0.19–0.74 and perceived negative attitudes from their partners toward HIV-positive results (OR =0.31, 95% CI: 0.10–0.94 were less likely to accept the PITC service.Conclusion: About one-third of pregnant women are not willing to accept PITC. When designing intervention program to improve the

  11. Concordance between modification of diet in renal disease, chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration and Cockcroft-Gault equations in patients with chronic kidney disease at St. Paul's hospital millennium medical college, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsa, Hunduma; Nedi, Teshome; Berha, Alemseged Beyene

    2017-12-20

    The most commonly used glomerular filtration rate estimating equations for drug dosing are Cockcroft-Gault (CG), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations. However there is still a concern about whether to use MDRD and CKD-EPI interchangeably with CG for drug dosage adjustment. The study was initiated to determine the concordance between MDRD, CKD-EPI and CG equations and associated factors in patients with chronic kidney disease at Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College (SPHMMC). This was a cross sectional study which involved patient chart review and physicians self-administered questionnaire. Serum creatinine level ≥ 1.2 mg/dL was used as a cutoff point in pre-selection of patients. The correctness of the drug dose prescribed for the level of renal function were compared to the drug database (Lexi-Comp) available through Up-to-date version 21.2. Among the total of 422 patients, 249 (59%) were males. Mean age of patients was 46.09 years. The use of MDRD equation for drug dose adjustment by physicians working in the renal clinic of SPHMMC was six out of nine physicians. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the CG with MDRD and CKD-EPI equations was r = 0.94, P  70 years was associated with discordance between CG and MDRD equations for drug dosing recommendation whereas serum creatinine 1.2-3.5 mg/dL, weight  70 years were associated with discordance between the CG with MDRD and CKD-EPI equations for FDA assigned kidney function categories. However, none of the factors associated with discordance between CG and CKD-EPI for drug dosing. MDRD equation can be used interchangeably with CG equation for drug dosing recommended in all adult patients between the age of 18 and 70 years. CKD-EPI can be used interchangeably with CG in all adult Ethiopian patients with CKD.

  12. Essential oil composition of four Artemisia species from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of four Artemisia species, namely A. schimperi Sch. Bip. ex Engl. A. abyssinica Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich., A. afra Jacq. ex Willd., and A. absinthium L. (previously called A. rehan from Ethiopia has been studied. The essential oil obtained from A. absinthium (seedling from Europe grown in two places in Ethiopia (Addis Ababa and Butajira was also analyzed for comparison. Morphological study on the leaves of A. absinthium L. from Ethiopia (previously called A. rehan and A. absinthium (from Europe was also conducted. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Forty three compounds representing 76 to 94% of the oils were identified. The composition of the essential oils of A. schimperi, A. afra and A. abyssinica are mainly dominated by irregular monoterpenes: yogomi alcohol (13.5-37.6%, artemisyl acetate (12.7-35.5%, and artemisia ketone (2.3-13.2%. The composition of the oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan however, differs from the other three species in having camphor (21.2-28.3% and davanone (21.3-26.5% as major components. The composition of A. absinthum (Europe was found to have β-thujone (42.3-66.4% and chamazulene (11.3-24.2% as major components. The study indicated that the composition of the essential oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan is not only different from the other three species but also from A. absinthium from Europe and does not belong to any of the chemotypes described for the species in the literature. The morphological study on the leaves also showed that it differs from that of A. absinthium from Europe. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.11

  13. Cesarean section in Ethiopia: prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisma, Engida; Smithers, Lisa G; Lynch, John W; Mol, Ben W

    2017-11-20

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of cesarean section in Ethiopia. We used data collected for Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 2000, 2005, 2011, and 2016. A two-stage, stratified, clustered random sampling design was used to gather information from women who gave birth within the 5-year period before each of the surveys. We analyzed the data to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with cesarean section using log-Poisson regression models. The national cesarean section rate increased from 0.7% in 2000 to 1.9% in 2016, with increases across seven of the eleven administrative regions of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa had the highest cesarean section rate (21.4%) in 2016 and the greatest increase since 2000. In the adjusted analysis, women who gave birth in private health facility had a 78.0% higher risk of cesarean section (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) (95% CI) 1.78 (1.22, 2.58)) compared with women who gave birth in public health facility. Having four or more births was associated with a lower risk of cesarean section compared with first births (aPR (95% CI) 0.36 (0.16, 0.79)). The Ethiopian national cesarean section rate is about 2%, but the rate varies widely among administrative regions, suggesting unequal access. Cesarean sections were highest among urban mothers, first births, births to women with higher education, and births to women from the richest quintile of household wealth.

  14. Hematological reference intervals determination in adults at Gondar university hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalew, Aregawi; Terefe, Betelihem; Alem, Meseret; Enawgaw, Bamlaku

    2016-11-02

    Hematological reference values are important for the clinical decisions in laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of patients. The correct interpretation of laboratory results depends entirely on the reference intervals that have been established for the locality. But, in sub-Saharan African countries particularly in Ethiopia, locally derived reference intervals were not established and they are forced to use intervals established from western population. Thus this study aimed to establish locally derived hematological reference values that could be used in Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014 with 120 male and 120 female apparently health adult blood donors at Gondar University Hospital. A structured pretested questionnaire was used for socio demographic and clinical data collection. About 4 ml of blood was collected with EDTA test tube and analyzed using Cell-Dyn 1800 to enumerate the hematological parameters. The data were collected and entered into SPSS version 20 for analysis. Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine reference intervals and Harris and Boyd test was used to determine the reference intervals that need partition. The 95th percentile of measurements was taken as a reference interval. Median and 95th percentile of WBC for general population were lower than Caucasian population, Addis Ababa, Burkina Faso and Kenya of similar studies. The RBC, Hgb and PCV lower 95% limit values of both sex were lower than studies in Addis Ababa, Kenya, Burkina Faso and text book. While PCV upper limit values higher than the above countries. MCV values of the current study were higher than those countries while MCHC values were lower. Similarly, the absolute values of neutrophils in the current study were lower than Caucasian and Afro Caribbean but higher than African countries and Jamaica but lymphocyte count was higher. The hematological reference intervals established in this study was different from those reported in

  15. Group versus individual risk choices in female workgroups in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayissa, F.W.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Ruben, R.

    2017-01-01

    A lottery choice task was conducted to examine the risk attitudes of 352 Ethiopian women who were members of 72 female workgroups in the spices processing business in Addis Ababa. The women were asked to make risk choices on their own, and the same choices together with the other members of their

  16. Case of the leather sector in Ethiopia | Tessema | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today's dynamic, global, and challenging business environment requires a firm to be entrepreneurial if it is to survive and grow. Rapidly changing ... This study investigated the degree of Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) of thirty footwear manufacturing Small and Medium scale Enterprises (SMEs) in Addis Ababa. This study ...

  17. Language Policy in Ethiopia: History and Current Trends | Getachew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The historical survey of language use policy was made based on the secondary data (i.e. written documents) from different sources. The study on the implementation of the current language policy of the country focuses mainly on four regional states, namely Amhara, Oromiya and SNNP regional states and the Addis Ababa ...

  18. Thymus species in Ethiopia: Distribution, medicinal value, economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant specimens from these localities were authenticated by experts in the National Herbarium of Addis Ababa University as Thymus serrulatus and Thymus schimperi. The plants were rated by local informants as treatments for ailments like blood pressure (30.7%), general pain syndrome (10%), influenza (10%), ...

  19. The Dichotomy of Capacity Building and Unemployment in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dibie

    2014-09-01

    mechanism for a better and efficient approach to providing youth employment all over Ethiopia and in Addis Ababa in particular. It further suggests that appropriate monetary and fiscal policies are necessary for Ethiopia to effectively address its urban youth capacity building problems.

  20. Decentralised Local Governance and Poverty Reduction in Post-1991 Ethiopia: A Political Economy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshtila Wondemeneh Bekele

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After 1991, Ethiopia has introduced an ethnic federal governance system constituting nine regional states and two autonomous city administrations, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. The restructuring of the state seemingly led to the decentralisation of power to the regions and Woreda (district authority levels local governance structure in 1995 and 2002 respectively. The purpose of this article is to examine the practices of decentralised local governance in Ethiopia in general and the local governance performance at the level of peasant association (Kebele in particular. The article also analyses the link between the local governance and poverty based on three indicators: decentralisation and self-rule (DSR, local capacity for planning (LCP, and effectiveness of local governance system (ELGS. Data was collected from eight selected Kebeles of three different regional states through household survey, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions. The study shows that while the power and control of the central government is well established, the Kebeles lack the capacity and resources to deliver development. The LCP at Kebele level is weak because of organisational incapacity and institutional constraints related to DSR. The ELGS is also poor since Kebeles do not have any fiscal rights and administrative power for the reasons associated with DSR and LCP. The government has been implementing poverty reduction strategies using productive safety net programmes and farmer training centres. These, however, have not had the desired outcome due to organisational and institutional incapacitation of Kebele administrations.

  1. National implementation and regional cooperation from the perspective of Ethiopia: points for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekuriaw, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for a comprehensive global verification regime that includes International Monitoring System (IMS). Ethiopia is expected to contribute to the system through a seismic station to be upgraded and a radionuclide station to be established yet. The capacity built at and the experience gained by the geographical observatory of the Addis Ababa University seismic monitoring makes it the leading institution on implementing activities related to verification of the treaty in Ethiopia. Assessment of the current situation indicates that the implementation is going on at a relatively slow rate. There is a general understanding that the country's contribution to and the benefits to be gained from the CTBT implementation related activities would be enhanced if it works in close collaborartion with other East and Southern African countries. However, this could be realised if and only if higher priorities are accorded to the establishment and strengthening of national monitoring and data processing capabilities and the cooperation program is provided with adequate funding. (author)

  2. The development of a model of training in child psychiatry for non-physician clinicians in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Markos; Abera, Mubarek; Gruber-Frank, Christine; Frank, Reiner

    2014-02-25

    The lack of trained mental health professionals has been an important barrier to establishing mental health services in low income countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of child psychiatry training within a graduate program in mental health for non-physician clinicians in Ethiopia. The existing needs for competent practitioners in child psychiatry were identified through discussions with psychiatrists working in Ethiopia as well as with relevant departments within the Federal Ministry of Health Ethiopia (FMOHE). As part of a curriculum for a two year Master of Science (MSC) in Mental Health program for non-physician clinicians, child psychiatry training was designed and implemented by Jimma University with the involvement of experts from Addis Ababa University (AAU), Ethiopia, and Ludwig-Maximillian's University, (LMU), Germany. Graduates gave feedback after completing the course. The World Health Organization's (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Program (mhGAP) intervention guide (IG) adapted for Ethiopian context was used as the main training material. A two-week child psychiatry course and a four week child psychiatry clinical internship were successfully implemented during the first and the second years of the MSC program respectively. During the two week psychiatry course, trainees learned to observe the behavior and to assess the mental status of children at different ages who had a variety of mental health conditions. Assessment of the trainees' clinical skills was done by the instructors at the end of the child psychiatry course as well as during the subsequent four week clinical internship. The trainees generally rated the course to be 'very good' to 'excellent'. Many of the graduates have become faculty at the various universities in Ethiopia. Child psychiatry training for non-physician mental health specialist trainees was developed and successfully implemented through collaboration with other universities

  3. (coleoptera: curculionidae) to beauveria bassiana and metarhizium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS (MOSTCH.) (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) TO BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AND METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE. Addis Teshome1 and Tadele Tefera 2, ∗. 1 Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Bako Research Centre, PO Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2 Department ...

  4. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among rural women of reproductive age in Abeshige district, Guraghe zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zepre K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kebebush Zepre,1 Mirgissa Kaba2 1Guraghe Zone Health Department, Wolkite, SNNPR, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR is a strategy that helps women to consider all available maternal health care services during pregnancy and prepare for potential complications. Federal Ministry of Health in Ethiopia has taken steps to roll out the strategy at community level. Yet, women in rural communities still do not make use of available services to avoid complications in connection to pregnancy and delivery. Objective: This study aims to assess the current BPCR practice and determine associated factors among rural women of reproductive age in Abeshige district, Guraghe zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out from February to March 2015. A total of 454 women were randomly selected and interviewed using pretested structured questionnaires, while opinion leaders, health extension workers, and selected women in the community were engaged in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, using checklists prepared to guide the interviews. Data from different sources were analyzed, triangulated, and interpreted to respond to the objectives. Results: Thirty-seven percent of the respondents were found to have prepared for birth and its complications. BPCR was higher among women who lived within a 1-hour walk from a health center (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78, 36.79 and who were aware of the danger signs of pregnancy (AOR =1.72, 95% CI: 1.78, 2.94 and postpartum complications (AOR =2.32, 95% CI: 1.32, 4.21. A major source of information was found to be health extension workers and one-to-five women networks (AOR =2.81, 95% CI: 1.34, 6.21 and (AOR =2.52, 95% CI: 1.17, 5.54, respectively. Qualitative finding revealed that lack of transportation and concern over cost of services

  5. Epidemiology of Major Non-communicable Diseases in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Damen Haile; Ali, Ahmed; Araya, Tekebash

    2014-01-01

    Impact of non-communicable diseases is not well-documented in Ethiopia. We aimed to document the prevalence and mortality associated with four major non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Associated risk factors: hypertension, tobacco-use, harmful use of alcohol, overweight/obesity, and khat-chewing were also studied. Systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature between 1960 and 2011 was done using PubMed search engines and local libraries to identify prevalence studies on the four diseases. In total, 32 studies were found, and half of these studies were from Addis Ababa. Two hospital-based studies reviewed the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and found a prevalence of 7.2% and 24%; a hospital-based study reviewed cancer prevalence and found a prevalence of 0.3%; two hospital-based studies reviewed diabetes prevalence and found a prevalence of 0.5% and 1.2%; and two hospital-based studies reviewed prevalence of asthma and found a prevalence of 1% and 3.5%. Few community-based studies were done on the prevalence of diabetes and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease among the population. Several studies reviewed the impact of these diseases on mortality: cardiovascular disease accounts for 24% of deaths in Addis Ababa, cancer causes 10% of deaths in the urban settings and 2% deaths in rural setting, and diabetes causes 5% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease causes 3% of deaths. Several studies reviewed the impact of these diseases on hospital admissions: cardiovascular disease accounts for 3%-12.6% and found to have increased between 1970s and 2000s; cancer accounts for 1.1%-2.8%, diabetes accounts for 0.5%-1.2%, and chronic obstructive diseases account for 2.7%-4.3% of morbidity. Overall, the major non-communicable diseases and related risk factors are highly prevalent, and evidence-based interventions should be designed. PMID:24847587

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rivista di Agricultura Sub- tropicale e Tropicale 77:209—248. Rezene Fessehaie and Parker, C. (1992). Problems and control of parasitic weeds in Ethiopia. In: Proceedings, 2nd Ethiopian Weed Science Workshop, Addis. Ababa, 1988, pp. 61—63. EWSC, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Saghir, A.R. (1979). Different chemicals and ...

  7. opuntia ficus-indica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box. 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Wolaita Sodo University, P.O. Box 138,. Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia. 3Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational of Sciences, University of.

  8. recombinant inbred lines intercropped with oat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Institute of Biodiversity Conservation, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, PO Box 30726. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... Competition is indirect and two plants will not compete with each other, ..... oat 2, tall erect oat' weed'. Values with the same letters are not significantly different while values with different letters are significantly different.

  9. Folate deficiency in women of reproductive age in nine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-13

    Oct 13, 2009 ... Original Research: Folate deficiency in women of reproductive age in nine administrative regions of Ethiopia. 2010;23(3) ... a School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia b Department of Biochemistry, Addis Ababa University Medical Faculty and Ethiopian ... Information on the prevalence.

  10. An Exceptional Case of Spontaneous Fistulization of an Intrahepatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Intrahepatic Biliary Cyst in to the Colon, Operated Tikur. Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia - A Case Report. Nebyou Seyoum, Feron Getachew. 1Department of surgery, Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa. University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Correspondence to: Nebyou Seyoum, mail: nebyouss@yahoo.

  11. Prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment among rural school-age children of Goro District, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedir, Jafer; Girma, Abonesh

    2014-10-01

    Refractive error is one of the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in children; but community based studies are scarce especially in rural parts of Ethiopia. So, this study aims to assess the prevalence of refractive error and its magnitude as a cause of visual impairment among school-age children of rural community. This community-based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2009 in rural villages of Goro district of Gurage Zone, found south west of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. A multistage cluster sampling method was used with simple random selection of representative villages in the district. Chi-Square and t-tests were used in the data analysis. A total of 570 school-age children (age 7-15) were evaluated, 54% boys and 46% girls. The prevalence of refractive error was 3.5% (myopia 2.6% and hyperopia 0.9%). Refractive error was the major cause of visual impairment accounting for 54% of all causes in the study group. No child was found wearing corrective spectacles during the study period. Refractive error was the commonest cause of visual impairment in children of the district, but no measures were taken to reduce the burden in the community. So, large scale community level screening for refractive error should be conducted and integrated with regular school eye screening programs. Effective strategies need to be devised to provide low cost corrective spectacles in the rural community.

  12. Ethiopia's national strategy for improving water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey

  13. Profiling of antibiotic resistance of bacterial species recovered from routine clinical isolates in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hove, Robert-Jan; Tesfaye, Melaku; Ten Hove, Witold Frederik; Nigussie, Mesfin

    2017-06-26

    With the alarming rise in antibiotic resistance in African countries, the need for a surveillance system in the region has become pressing. The rapid expansion of data networks makes it possible to set up healthcare applications that can be both cost-efficient and effective. Large data sets are available for assessment of current antibiotic resistance among Ethiopian patients. Based on the data-presentation, a practical approach is proposed on how diagnostic laboratories can participate remedial action against antibiotic resistance in Ethiopia. In Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), raw data comprising bacterial species name, specimen type and antibiograms covering the period January 2014 to May 2015 was accessed from the laboratory information management system. Using R code, the data was read and fitted into data-frames and analyzed to assess antibiotic resistance in the Ethiopian patient population. Susceptibility to an antibiotic was tested with 14.983 cultures of 54 different bacterial species or subgroups, isolated from 16 types of specimen. Half of the cultures (n = 6444) showed resistance to an antibiotic. Resistance against penicillin was highest with, on average, 91.1% of 79 bacterial cultures showing resistance. Very high resistance rates were also observed for ampicillin, whereas resistance was lowest with cefoxitin. Extraction and analysis of raw-data from the laboratory database is relatively simple and can provide valuable insight into the relationships between type of sample and drug-resistance in countries where such data is still scarce. With the largest number of antibiotic resistance tests described for Ethiopia, a tool is proposed for consistent data collection with specified core variables. Trends in antibiotic resistance can be revealed and treatment failures avoided when used as an easy accessible reference application for healthcare providers.

  14. Household food insecurity is associated with both body mass index and middle upper-arm circumference of mothers in northwest Ethiopia: a comparative study

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    Motbainor A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Achenef Motbainor, Alemayehu Worku, Abera Kumie School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Food insecurity and associated malnutrition result in serious health problems in developing countries. This study determined levels of maternal undernutrition and its association with food insecurity in northwest Ethiopia. Materials and methods: This was a community-based comparative cross-sectional study conducted May 24–July 20, 2013. Multistage random sampling was used to select 4,110 samples. Availability of Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Programme was used for grouping the study areas. A food-security access scale developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistant project was used to measure food security. Sociodemographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. A binary logistic regression model was used to assess the association of food insecurity and maternal undernutrition. Results: From the total participants, 12.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.6%–13.6% had a body mass index (BMI <18.5 kg/m2. Comparison of maternal undernutrition in the two study areas revealed 8.8% (95% CI 7.6%–10.2% in the program area and 16.4% (95% CI 14.8%–18.1% in nonprogram areas were undernourished. Severe food insecurity was ­significantly associated with BMI of mothers (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] 3.6 and 2.31, 95% CI 2.32–5.57 and 1.52–3.5, respectively in both program and nonprogram areas. Mild (AOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.21–2.6 and moderate (AOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.18–2.16 food insecurity significantly associated with maternal undernutrition in nonprogram areas. In the same way, all forms of food insecurity significantly associated with maternal middle upper-arm circumference in both program and nonprogram areas. The odds of mothers who did not exercise decision-making practice on the household income was also 4.13 times higher than those who did (AOR 4.13, 95% CI 2.2

  15. Career Development among Undergraduate Students of Madda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Psychology, Institute of Education and Behavioral Sciences, Ambo University, West Showa,. Oromia, Ethiopia. ... School of Psychology, College of Education and Behavioral Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. ... counselling programmes will be effective in assisting students, along with their parents,.

  16. Parthenium hysterophorus L: DISTRIBUTION, IMPACT, AND POSSIBLE MITIGATION MEASURES IN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemal Abdulkerim-Ute

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of Parthenium hysterophorus weed is very important in Ethiopian agriculture. It is spreading rapidly in the highland and lowland areas since its introduction. Currently, most of the regions are invaded by the weed, even the capital city Addis Ababa. There are several factors favoring its rapid distribution in the environment. Its ability to adapt wide range of climatic condition, its allelopathic effect,  short life cycle, prolific nature and having large seed bank in the soil environment are among the principal factors. Parthenium has the capacity to decrease the composition and diversity of plant species and it has adverse effects on crop yield, as well as animal and human health. Despite its negative effects, the weed has potential uses such as preparing compost, botanical control of insect pests and bio-herbicide. On the other hand, mechanical control, chemical herbicides, phytochemicals, composting and biological control has been pointed out as an effective management ways and eradication of this weed. There is a need for ecologically balanced management of Parthenium weed aiming to enhance the quality of life for farmers and rural communities, especially in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas of Ethiopia. Hence, the objective of this review was to explore the distribution, harmful and beneficial effects as well as the possible controlling practices against P. hysterophorus.

  17. [Emigration-an option for African resident physicians? : Opinions from Tanzania and Ethiopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, K M; Philippin, H; Makupa, W; Nentwich, M M

    2018-03-27

    Globally, the majority of visually impaired persons live in low- and middle-income countries. One of the reasons is a lack of ophthalmologists in the respective countries. Migration of qualified personnel would be an additional strain on ophthalmological patient care. This analysis aimed at evaluating the attitude of African residents in ophthalmology towards working in their home country or migrating abroad and comparing these findings with existing data also with respect to possible interventions. In 2016 and 2017, participants of ophthalmological training courses for residents in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) as well as residents from Moshi (Tanzania) were interviewed on possible migration with the help of a questionnaire. In total 60 questionnaires were analyzed. The main reasons for staying in the home country were: "want to support/serve community", "family" as well as "high demand of specialists". Prime motives for possible migration were: "better income", "better working structure/equipment" and "better education". Links between German and African eye hospitals as they are supported, for example by the working group International Ophthalmology of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) and the German Committee for the Prevention of Blindness (DKVB), can contribute to improve some of the main reasons of migration, such as insufficient education, working structures and equipment and thus help to prevent a brain drain.

  18. Comparative assessment of lowland and highland Smallholder farmers' vulnerability to climate variability in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, D. Y., Sr.; Abshare, M. W. M.; Desta, S. D.; Filho, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Desalegn Yayeh Ayal P.O.BOX 150129 Addis Ababa University Ethiopia Mobil +251910824784 Abstract Smallholder farmers' near term scenario (2010-2039) vulnerability nature and magnitude was examined using twenty-two exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity vulnerability indicators. Assessment of smallholder farmers' vulnerability to climate variability revealed the importance of comprehending exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity induces. Due to differences in level of change in rainfall, temperature, drought frequency, their environmental interaction and variations on adaptive capacity the nature and magnitude of smallholder farmers vulnerability to physical, biological and epidemiological challenges of crop and livestock production varied within and across agro-ecologies. Highlanders' sensitive relates with high population density, erosion and crop disease and pest damage occurrence. Whereas lowlanders will be more sensitive to high crop disease and pest damage, provenance of livestock disease, absence of alternative water sources, less diversified agricultural practices. However, with little variations in the magnitude and nature of vulnerability, both highlanders and lowlanders are victims of climate variability and change. Given the ever increasing population, temperature and unpredictable nature of rainfall variability, the study concluded that future adaptation strategies should capitalize on preparing smallholder farmers for both extremes- excess rainfall and flooding on the one hand and severe drought on the other.

  19. Management of children’s acute diarrhea by community pharmacies in five towns of Ethiopia: simulated client case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abegaz TM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children <5 years of age globally. The indispensable role of community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia.Methods: A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance.Results: Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69% of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90

  20. Open-label trial on efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine against the uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Metema district, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudneh F

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Feven Wudneh,1,2 Ashenafi Assefa,3 Desalegn Nega,3 Hussien Mohammed,3 Hiwot Solomon,4 Tadesse Kebede,2 Adugna Woyessa,3 Yibeltal Assefa,3 Amha Kebede,3 Moges Kassa3 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 2Biomedical Department, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Dilla University, Dilla, 3Malaria and Other Parasitological and Entomological Research Team, Bacterial, Parasitic and Zoonotic Diseases Research Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, 4Malaria Research Team, Disease Prevention and Control Directorate, Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Following the increased Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, Ethiopia adopted artemether/lumefantrine (AL as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum in 2004. According to the recommendation of the World Health Organization, this study was carried out for regular monitoring of the efficacy of AL in treating the uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Metema district, Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.Patients and methods: This is a one-arm prospective 28-day in vivo therapeutic efficacy study among the uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria patients aged 6 months and older. The study was conducted from October 2014 to January 2015, based on the revised World Health Organization protocol of 2009 for surveillance of antimalarial drug therapeutic efficacy study. Standard six-dose regimen of AL was given twice daily for 3 days, and then the treatment outcomes were assessed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and any other unscheduled day for emergency cases.Results: There were 91 study subjects enrolled in this study, of whom 80 study subjects completed the full follow-up schedules and showed adequate clinical and parasitological responses on day 28, with no major adverse event. Per protocol analysis, the unadjusted

  1. The Estimated Incidence of Induced Abortion in Ethiopia, 2014: Changes in the Provision of Services Since 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann M.; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Fetters, Tamara; Wado, Yohannes Dibaba; Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Getachew, Yonas

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT In 2005, Ethiopia’s parliament amended the penal code to expand the circumstances in which abortion is legal. Although the country has expanded access to abortion and postabortion care, the last estimates of abortion incidence date from 2008. METHODS Data were collected in 2014 from a nationally representative sample of 822 facilities that provide abortion or postabortion care, and from 82 key informants knowledgeable about abortion services in Ethiopia. The Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology and the Prospective Morbidity Methodology were used to estimate the incidence of abortion in Ethiopia and assess trends since 2008. RESULTS An estimated 620,300 induced abortions were performed in Ethiopia in 2014. The annual abortion rate was 28 per 1,000 women aged 15–49, an increase from 22 per 1,000 in 2008, and was highest in urban regions (Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa and Harari). Between 2008 and 2014, the proportion of abortions occurring in facilities rose from 27% to 53%, and the number of such abortions increased substantially; nonetheless, an estimated 294,100 abortions occurred outside of health facilities in 2014. The number of women receiving treatment for complications from induced abortion nearly doubled between 2008 and 2014, from 52,600 to 103,600. Thirty-eight percent of pregnancies were unintended in 2014, a slight decline from 42% in 2008. CONCLUSIONS Although the increases in the number of women obtaining legal abortions and postabortion care are consistent with improvements in women’s access to health care, a substantial number of abortions continue to occur outside of health facilities, a reality that must be addressed. PMID:28825902

  2. Adherence to WHO breastfeeding guidelines among HIV positive mothers in Southern Ethiopia: implication for intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haile D

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demewoz Haile,1 Tesfaye Setegn,2 Sibhatu Biadgilign31Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia; 2Department of Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 3Independent Public Health Research Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Breastfeeding reduces major causes of infant mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, it is a major mode of vertical HIV transmission. In developing countries like Ethiopia, HIV positive mothers are advised to continue breastfeeding up to 12 months. But there is scarce literature regarding the mothers' adherence to continued breastfeeding recommendations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess HIV positive mothers' adherence to the infant feeding recommendations of the new World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for HIV-exposed infants aged ≥6 months. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in health institutions with antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother to child transmission facilities in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Health institutions were considered as clusters and cluster sampling technique was employed. A total of 184 HIV positive mothers with their infants registered at respective health institutions were recruited and assessed for their infant breastfeeding practices. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, median, and standard deviation were computed to describe the breastfeeding practices of HIV positive mothers. Result: Almost all (181 [98.4%] of the HIV-exposed infants were “ever breastfed”. Among those mothers who had ever breastfed, 158 (87.3% initiated breastfeeding within an hour of delivery and 157 (85.8% had fed their babies colostrum while 31 (16.8% gave prelacteal food to their infants. The prevalence of continued breastfeeding at 1 year was (54.5% (46.9% for urban mothers and 75% for rural

  3. 2018-02-19T03:07:40Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/54752 2018-02-19T03:07:40Z bcse:ART Hydration structure and water exchange dynamics of Fe(II) ion in aqueous solution M. Mohammed, Ahmed; Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ...

  4. August 2006

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-08

    Aug 8, 2006 ... Setting: Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tikur Anbessa Specialised Hospital, Addis. Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Subjects: A total of 147 children under the age of 13 years admitted for acute appendicitis. Results: A total of 147 cases were analysed. The mean age was 9.3 years ...

  5. electrocardiographic findings in ethiopians on penta valent antimony ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 78 No. 11 November 2001. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN ETHIOPIANS ON PENTA VALENT ANTIMONY THERAPY FOR VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS. N. Berhe, MD, DTMH, Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Y. Abraham, ...

  6. Micro opropa agation ( n of Ph (Endod hytolac d var. cca dod E-44 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    dodecandra) to control the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Lewis, USA. Legesse W, (1993). Endod, a potential natural pesticide for use in developing countries http://collections.infocollections.org/ukedu/en/d/Jid22ie/6.4.html#Jid2. 2ie.6.4 Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis. Ababa, Ethiopia.

  7. X-ray film reject rate analysis at eight selected government hospitals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    1Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa university, Addis Ababa,. Ethiopia, E-mail: dzewdneh@yahoo.com, Tel: ... basis for quality management and quality control mechanisms for managing and operating, ... corrective action should be taken (1, 3). Improper practice renders ...

  8. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Addis Ababa. University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia(*drkvenkateswarlu@gmail.com, **berhanufk@yahoo.co.uk). ABSTRACT. In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra ...

  9. extent and pattern of genetic diversity in ethiopian white lupin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2Addis Ababa University, College of Natural Sciences, Department of Microbial, Cellular and Molecular. Biology, P. O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ..... Plant data were assessed on five plants, randomly taken from each plot. The data were checked for outliers and normality of residuals, using Breeding View of.

  10. SINET: Erhiop. J. Sci., 24(1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa University. PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, E-mail: maths.aau@telecom.net.et. ABSTRACT: The article gives the ..... SINET for their invaluable and constructive suggestions on the original version of the article. REFERENCES. 1. Borevich, 2.1. and ...

  11. Retrospective review of antiretroviral therapy program data in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrospective review of antiretroviral therapy program data in accredited private hospitals in Addis Ababa City Administration, Ethiopia. ... The aggregate data was obtained from Addis Ababa Regional Health Bureau and consisted of information about patients enrolled for care, those who started ART, and those presently ...

  12. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aDepartment of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University. PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia; bDepartment of Organic Chemistry 2. University of Lund, PO Box 124. S 22100 Lund. Sweden. (Received April 7. 1993; Revised August 4. 1993). ABSTRACT. Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Euclea divinorum resulted.

  13. Investigation on public knowledge, attitude and practices related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiop. Vet. J., 2016, 20 (1), 67-78. Investigation on public knowledge, attitude and practices related to pet management and zoonotic canine diseases in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ... husbandry and diseases control practices in Addis Ababa. ... meat to their dogs and 79.3% of the owners obtained the meat from local unlicensed.

  14. VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION ON CHILD MORBIDITY J. HAIDAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-01-01

    Jan 1, 2003 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 80 No. 1 January 2003. VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION ON CHILD MORBIDITY. J. Haidar, MD, MSc, D. Tsegaye, MSc, Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, D.H. Mariam, MD, PhD, Department of Community. Health, Addis Ababa ...

  15. MEIOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF ERAGROSTIS TEF AND ERAGROSTIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis. Ababa, Ethiopia. Majumdar, S., Banerjee, S. and Kumar, K. 2004. Meiotic behavior of chromosomes in PMCs and karyotype of Trifolium repens L. from drajeeling Himalaya. Acta Biologica. Cracoviensia Series Botanica 46: 217-220. Mulu Ayele, Dolezel, J., Van Duren, M., Brunner,.

  16. Cluster model of s-and p-shell ΛΛ hypernuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Mohammad Shoeb1 2 Alemiye Mamo3 Amanuel Fessahatsion3. Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002, India; Centre for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110 025, India; Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ...

  17. ECAJS 2009 VOL 14 No 1 FINAL EDIT doc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1Senior Surgical Resident, 2Consultant Surgeon, 3Consultant Surgeon, Head dep't of Surgery, St. Paul's Hospital; Addis Ababa University- Medical Faculty. Correspondence to: - Dr Samuel Workneh, P.O.Box 23625/1000, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A patient with left upper quadrant pain, intermittent fever, and weight loss but ...

  18. 27-36, 2014 27 Quality assessment of essential oils of Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2African Laboratory for Natural Products (ALANP), Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O.. Box 30270, Addis Ababa Ethiopia. E-mail: ... purposes. The trend to use essential oils or essential. *Corresponding author .... fashion, the composition of 1,8-cineole of the above two oil samples were found to be 80% ...

  19. Novel approaches toward the development of an oral post-exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 4Institute of Medical Microbiology, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany. 5Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. 6Max-Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany.

  20. First Report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae Causing Needle Blight and Stem Canker Diseases on Araucaria heterophylla in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darge Wendu Admasu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Canker and needle blight of Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island pine trees were observed during the surveys conducted in Addis Ababa and Adama cities (Ethiopia from November to December 2016. The main objective of this study was to investigate fungal pathogens that cause diseases on Araucaria heterophylla trees. Six localities with Araucaria heterophylla plantings were purposively surveyed for disease symptoms. Samples from symptomatic parts of trees were collected, surface sterilized, cultured on PDA and morphologically identified for genus and species. A total of 36 isolates of fungi were identified. Based on macro- and microscopic morphological features of the colonies, the fungal isolates were found to be the genus Diplodia and species Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat. Griffon & Maubl (syn. Botryodiplodia theobromae, the anamorph of Botryosphaeria rhodina (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Arx. The pathogenicity test showed that the isolates of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, caused stem canker and needle blight on Araucaria heterophylla. This finding is important in the study of management options for future prevention and control of diseases in the country.

  1. Applications of δ2H and δ18O to Understand the Groundwater System in the Raya Valley, Northern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GebreEgziabher, Merhawi; Ayenew, Tenalem; Kebede, Seifu

    2011-01-01

    The study area is located in the northern part of Ethiopia, Horn of Africa. It is Bounded by NW Ethiopian plateau in the west and Afar rift to the east. The study area is intermountain with volcanic rock and the graben is covered with thick sediments. The average elevation for the highland is 2200 m a.s.l, where as average elevation for the central graben and eastern highland is 1600m a.s.l. Bimodal rainfall pattern is observed in the study area. The western highland is classified as humid and the central graben is semiarid climatic condition based on UNESCO, 1979. Primary data collected during the field work includes Rainfall samples, Lake Sample, Deep well samples, Hand dug well samples, and others. Systematic sampling of water for Isotopic analysis. Secondary Isotopic data is adopted from previous study Mamo, 2007. All samples were analysed by Liquid Water Isotope analyser for oxygen-18 and deuterium in the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of Addis Ababa University.

  2. Utilization of clean and safe delivery service package of health services extension program and associated factors in rural kebeles of Kafa Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayou, Negalign Berhanu; Gacho, Yohannes Haile Michael

    2013-07-01

    In Ethiopia, 94% of births take place at home unattended by trained persons. The government introduced an innovative strategy, Health Services Extension Program in 2003. Clean and safe delivery service is a component of maternal and child healthcare package of the program. However, little is known about the status of uptake of the service. This study thus aimed to assess utilization of clean and safe delivery service and associated factors in rural kebeles of Kafa Zone, Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in rural kebeles of Kefa Zone from January 21(st) to February 25(th), 2009 using a sample of 229 mothers. Kafa Zone is located 465 kilometres away from Addis Ababa to southwest of Ethiopia. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16. OR and 95% CI were calculated. Pdelivery service was 43(19%). Women with formal schooling and those who knew at least two danger signs of pregnancy and labor were more likely to use the service than their counterparts; (AOR=5.8, 95% CI=2.1, 16) and (AOR=3.0, 95% CI=2.2, 10.6), respectively. Of 108(47.8%) mothers who had at least one antenatal care visit, 36(33.3%), were not advised about danger signs. Women who had at least one ANC visit and those who were advised about the danger signs of pregnancy and labor appeared to be more likely to use the service than their counterparts; (AOR=6.1, 95% CI=1.9, 21.3), and (AOR=5.4, 95%CI= 1.4, 21.7), respectively. Utilization of the service is low and was determined by women's educational status, history of abortion, knowledge of danger signs and antenatal care attendance. Educating women and improving their knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy and labor is recommended. Health extension workers should consider antenatal care visits as opportunities for this purpose.

  3. The development of a model of training in child psychiatry for non-physician clinicians in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of trained mental health professionals has been an important barrier to establishing mental health services in low income countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of child psychiatry training within a graduate program in mental health for non-physician clinicians in Ethiopia. Methods The existing needs for competent practitioners in child psychiatry were identified through discussions with psychiatrists working in Ethiopia as well as with relevant departments within the Federal Ministry of Health Ethiopia (FMOHE). As part of a curriculum for a two year Master of Science (MSC) in Mental Health program for non-physician clinicians, child psychiatry training was designed and implemented by Jimma University with the involvement of experts from Addis Ababa University (AAU), Ethiopia, and Ludwig-Maximillian’s University, (LMU), Germany. Graduates gave feedback after completing the course. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Program (mhGAP) intervention guide (IG) adapted for Ethiopian context was used as the main training material. Results A two-week child psychiatry course and a four week child psychiatry clinical internship were successfully implemented during the first and the second years of the MSC program respectively. During the two week psychiatry course, trainees learned to observe the behavior and to assess the mental status of children at different ages who had a variety of mental health conditions. Assessment of the trainees’ clinical skills was done by the instructors at the end of the child psychiatry course as well as during the subsequent four week clinical internship. The trainees generally rated the course to be ‘very good’ to ‘excellent’. Many of the graduates have become faculty at the various universities in Ethiopia. Conclusion Child psychiatry training for non-physician mental health specialist trainees was developed and successfully

  4. Trends in contraceptive use and distribution of births with demographic risk factors in Ethiopia: a sub-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Solomon; Abdullah, Muna; Mekonnen, Yared; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Akinyemi, Akanni; Amouzou, Agbessi; Friedman, Howard; Barros, Aluisio J D; Hounton, Sennen

    2015-01-01

    Gambela to 72% in the Somali region. The multivariate analysis showed women living in the Somali, Afar and Benishangul-Gumuz regions had significantly higher odds of having avoidable birth risk compared to those in Addis Ababa after controlling for observed covariates. The trend analysis showed there was a significant drop in the proportion of births from women above 34 years between 2000 and 2011. There was no significant decline in births to women less than 18 years between 2000 and 2011. A majority of births in Ethiopia fall in one of the risk categories, with substantial region-to-region variation in the percentage of births with avoidable risk factors, Somali and Afar having the highest burden. The analysis indicated that births in the three regions had significantly higher odds of having one of the avoidable risk factors compared to Addis Ababa, and we suggest family planning programmes need to identify differentials of modern contraceptive use at the sub-national level in order to better address coverage and equity issues.

  5. Occupational exposure to indoor air pollution among bakery workers in Ethiopia; A comparison of electric and biomass cookstoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downward, George S; van der Zwaag, Hugo P; Simons, Leon; Meliefste, Kees; Tefera, Yifokire; Carreon, J Rosales; Vermeulen, Roel; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2018-02-01

    The indoor air pollution (IAP) produced by the domestic combustion of solid fuels is responsible for up to 4 million deaths annually, especially among low and middle income countries. Occupational exposure within the food preparation industries of these nations remains underexplored. We investigated occupational exposure to the IAP produced during the commercial production of injera, a staple of the Ethiopian diet, from bakeries in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Measurements of PM 2.5 , black carbon (via the proxy measure PM 2.5 absorbance) and CO were collected from 30 bakeries and their employees for an average of 4-h per working day. Measurements were compared between bakeries using biomass and electric cookstoves. Further, the respiratory health data of 35 bakery employees were collected by interview-based questionnaire. Personal exposure to PM2.5 from biomass cookstoves was double that of electric cookstoves (430 μg/m3 vs. 216 μg/m3), black carbon exposure was four times higher among biomass users (67 × 10-5m-1 vs. 15 × 10-5m-1), and CO exposure was twenty times higher among biomass users (22 ppm vs. 1 ppm). Mixed effect models indicated that the number of stoves in use and additional solid fuel usage (e.g. coffee brewing) also contributed to exposure levels. These findings indicate that the use of biomass powered cookstoves during commercial injera production significantly contributes to IAP and self-reported respiratory symptoms. As injera is the staple foodstuff of Ethiopia, a widespread conversion to electric cookstoves is likely to have a significant impact. However, as high levels of IAP were also observed within the electric bakeries, further identification of pollution sources is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Medical doctors profile in Ethiopia: production, attrition and retention. In memory of 100-years Ethiopian modern medicine & the new Ethiopian millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Yifru

    2008-01-01

    which time it started to get doubled every five years and reached peak (1658 medical doctors of all type) in 1989 in the public sector. As there was sharp increment in physician number, on the contrary, there was sharp decline in the last 15 years (1990-2006) to nadir 638 doctors in 2006 in the public sector. The last 25 years of Ethiopian modern medical history, in reference to physician number, forms a triangle with the lower and upper base 1980 and 2006, respectively. Since MOH of Ethiopia started registering health professionals with qualifications in 1987, 5743 (76.5% Ethiopian and 23.5% expatriate) medical doctors were registered for the first time. Out of these, 3717 were general practitioners. The three prestigious medical schools (Addis Ababa, Gondar, Jimma) were established in 1964, 1978 and 1984, respectively. Since establishment till 2006, about 3728 medical doctors were graduated with MD degree from the three medical schools. Addis Ababa university medical faculty alone graduated 1890 general practitioners (1964-2006) and 862 clinical specialists (1979-2006). In the 23 years period (1984-2006), the highest and lowest physician to population ratios in the public sector were found to be in 1989 (1:28,000) and 2006 (1:118,000), respectively. In 2006, the physician to population ratio in Amhara, Oromia and SNNPR regional states was computed to be 1:280,000, 1:220,000, and 1:230,000, respectively. The physician deficit analysis in the last 23 years in relation to the WHO standard for developing countries (1:10,000) revealed the lowest record at the national and regional states in the last 12-years. Average physician to hospital ratio in five regional states in December 2006 was 3.6 (Tigray), 4.3 (Amhara), 6.1 (Oromia) and 5.3 (SNNPR). As the December 2006 direct interview with 76 public hospitals outside Addis Ababa showed, there was no specialist in 36 hospitals and no doctor at all in 3 hospitals. Seven public hospitals located in big regional states' town

  7. Intention toward condom use and its associated factors among students of Debre Work Senior Secondary and Preparatory School, East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abera H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Habtamu Abera,1 Fanta Tamiru,2 Getiye Dejenu Kibret2 1Department of Nursing and Midwifery, School of Allied Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa, 2Department of Public Health, College of Health Scienc, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia Objective: The main aim of this research was to investigate the students’ intention toward condom use and associated factors among students in Debre Work Secondary and Preparatory School, 2015.Methods: A survey was carried out in the high school and the preparatory school. The self-administered semistructured questionnaire was distributed to 422 students. Systematic sampling techniques were employed to each class. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 software. Descriptive and analytical data analysis and presentation were used. Logistic regression model was used to check independent associations.Result: Most (80.8% of the respondents were not married. More than half (53.0% and 52.3% of the respondents had low perceived benefit and low perceived self-efficacy of using condom. About 46.79% of respondents had an interest in using condoms and the rest had no intention. Males were 1.96 times more likely to have intention to use condom compared to females (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.96 [1.29, 2.99]. When the intention to use condoms was compared, married respondents were 2.41 times more likely than those who were not married (AOR, 95% CI 2.41 [1.41, 4.14]. Intention to use condoms among respondents who had high perceived benefit of using condom were 1.57 times more compared to those who had low perceived benefit of using condom (AOR, 95% CI 1.57 [1.03, 2.39]. Intention to use condoms among those who had high perceived self-efficacy on condom use was 4.37 times higher compared to those who had low perceived self-efficacy (AOR, 95% CI 4.37 [2.85, 6.71].Conclusion: The level of intention to use condoms among

  8. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Burkina Faso, Africa. African Policy Center, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Civil Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan, ...

  9. Zede Journal - Vol 21 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Real estate developments and the housing supply issue in Ethiopia - Case studies from Addis Ababa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. W Berhanu, 1-27 ...

  10. Predictive accuracy of backpropagation neural network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Burkina Faso, Africa. African Policy Center, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Civil Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan, ...

  11. Preference-based Internet of Things dynamic service selection for smart campus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manqele, L

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available of IEEE AFRICON 2015, UNECA Conference Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 14–17 September 2015 Preference-based Internet of Things dynamic service selection for smart campus 1Lindelweyizizwe Manqele, 2Mqhele Dlodlo Department of Electrical...

  12. Registration of Plant Varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EARO). 2001. Strategy Document for. Fruits. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Registration of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Varieties Hass, Fuerte, Pinkerton,. Bacon, Ettinger, and Nabal. Avocado is evergreen, medium to large sized fruit tree with ...

  13. Participation and significance of self-help groups for social development: exploring the community capacity in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Elias; Zenebe, Mulumebet; Metaferia, Henok; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2014-01-01

    There are various Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in Ethiopia among which the 'Idir' is a social and financial institution widespread both in urban and rural areas of the country. So the objectives of this study is to investigate how women members perceive the contribution of iddirs toward improving their lives and to determine whether and to what extent participation in iddirs has social impacts on their lives. A cross-sectional qualitative study using Key Informant In-Depth Interviews (KII) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) was conducted in Addis Ababa, Addis Ketema Sub-city. Ethiopia. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview questionnaire and FGD guideline. Analysis of the data was made manually using thematic framework analysis method. Though their iddir doesn't provide financial assistance, all the participants revealed the importance of installing credit mechanisms in their iddirs. However, they mentioned the inability of their respective iddirs in assisting members with their financial needs. One major difficulty mentioned was lack of capital. The participants demonstrated that the contribution of iddir in their well-being was more indispensable than the contributions of other voluntary associations they are acquainted with, such as iqub and mahiber. Especially iddir was regarded as crucial and unique in meeting emotional needs. As well, iddirs' meetings are ideal places where women share experience; discuss issues of pressing concern and their worries. Other benefit of iddir include opportunities for social interaction, risk sharing and development of friendships, dispute resolution, Sharing and using timely information more effectively, Lower level of funeral services anxiety, Improvement of self confidence and leadership role, reciprocity and coexistence and trust. Women's iddirs are the viable basis in the creation of social network which plays crucial roles in providing solutions to social and economic challenges women are facing. There

  14. Mental, neurologic, and substance use (MNS) disorders among street homeless people in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Getinet; Assefa, Dawit; Haile, Kibrom; Chaka, Asrat; Solomon, Haddish; Hagos, Petros; Yohannis, Zegeye; Haile, Kelemua; Bekana, Lulu; Agidew, Melkamu; Demise, Seife; Tsegaye, Belachew; Solomon, Melat

    2017-01-01

    About 25-60% of the homeless population is reported to have some form of mental disorder. To our knowledge, there are no studies aimed at the screening, diagnosis, treatment, care, rehabilitation, and support of homeless people with mental, neurologic, and substance use (MNS) disorders in general in Ethiopia. This is the first study of its kind in Africa which was aimed at screening, diagnosis, care, treatment, rehabilitation, and support of homeless individuals with possible MNS disorder. Community-based survey was conducted from January to March 2015. Homeless people who had overt and observable psychopathology and positive for screening instruments (SRQ20, ASSIST, and PSQ) were involved in the survey and further assessed for possible diagnosis by structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnoses and international diagnostic criteria for seizure disorders for possible involvement in care, treatment, rehabilitation services, support, and training. The Statistical Program for Social Science (SPSS version 20) was used for data entry, clearance, and analyses. A total of 456 homeless people were involved in the survey. Majority of the participants were male ( n   =  402; 88.16%). Most of the homeless participants had migrated into Addis Ababa from elsewhere in Ethiopia and Eritrea (62.50%). Mental, neurologic, and substance use disorders resulted to be common problems in the study participants (92.11%; n   =  420). Most of the participants with mental, neurologic, and substance use disorders (85.29%; n   =  354) had psychotic disorders. Most of those with psychosis had schizophrenia (77.40%; n   =  274). Almost all of the participants had a history of substance use (93.20%; n   =  425) and about one in ten individuals had substance use disorders (10.54%; n   =  48). Most of the participants with substance use disorder had comorbid other mental and neurologic disorders (83.33%; n   =  40). Mental, neurologic, and substance use disorders are common (92

  15. Restoring local spiritual and cultural values in science education: The case of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Solomon Belay

    It has been repeatedly observed that home and local context matter in the education of children. A smooth transition between home and classroom prepares children for enjoyable and meaningful life-long learning. Knowledge building in children is influenced by previous experience, values, beliefs and sociocultural factors associated with community. Against this theoretical background, the thesis examined the integration of local spiritual and cultural values to improve science education in Ethiopia. This autoethnographic research used in-depth interviews, supplementary observations and focus group discussion and my biography to identify the perception and practice of common and unique spiritual and cultural values. The study examined whether these values were included and/or excluded in the school curriculum and explored the possibilities for incorporating values in science education and the anticipated tensions resulting from their inclusion. Students, science teachers, parents, employers, curriculum experts, policymakers, elders, and religious leaders participated in the research, conducted in a randomly selected secondary school in Addis Ababa. The sampling followed a kind of snowball method, with a total of twenty key informants participating in interviews, fifteen classroom observations, and one focus group discussion. The data collection aimed at generating stories, which underlie the auto-ethnography methodology. Findings indicated that belief in and fear of God animated and sustained the Ethiopian way of life. Although spiritual teachings derived from sacred writings were the initial foundation for Ethiopian cultural norms, the two merged together later, creating a mosaic pervading every aspect of life in Ethiopia. Education was sustained on this merger of spiritual and cultural norms and values. It was also shown that the now century-old system of formal education did not incorporate those local spiritual and cultural values. Current science education also

  16. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia: Review of Related Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Worku; Asfaw, Araya; Gilliland, Frank; Worku, Alemayehu; Wondimagegn, Mehari; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan; Berhane, Kiros

    2016-01-01

    The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. The materials reviewed in this publication are published scientific papers from online search engines, unpublished government reports and academic theses/dissertations. In addition, interview data obtained from authorities and experts involved in the management of air quality were analyzed, interpreted and reported in the article. Review of the few studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that average concentrations of PM 2.5 reached as high as 280 µg/m 3 for 24-hour measurements (range: 2,417-12,739 µg/m 3 ). Indoor carbon monoxide (CO) levels were universally higher than regulatory limits for the United States and were found to be much higher among households using traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels. The use of traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels was reported in >95% of the households considered. High average levels of NO 2 (97 ppb) were reported in a large longitudinal study. The ambient PM 10 level was below the WHO guideline values in the majority of the samples. About 50% of the on-road CO samples taken from traffic roads in Addis Ababa were found to be less than the guideline values while the number of motor vehicles in Ethiopia is reported to be increasing by more than 9% per annum. There is a very limited air quality monitoring capacity in the country. The co-ordination between stakeholders in this regard is also inadequate. The limited evidence available on health effects of air pollution indicates that the prevalence of acute respiratory illness among children living in households using crude biomass fuels is significantly higher than the national average figures. The limited evidence reviewed and reported in this article indicates high levels of indoor air pollution and trends of

  17. Job satisfaction and motivation among public sector health workers: evidence from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, David R; Banteyerga, Hailom; Tharaney, Manisha

    2015-10-29

    Although human resources for health have received increased attention by health systems decision-makers and researchers in recent years, insufficient attention has been paid to understanding the factors that influence the performance of health workers. This empirical study investigates the factors that are associated with health worker motivation over time among public sector primary health care workers in Ethiopia. The study is based on data from public sector health worker surveys collected through a convenience sample of 43 primary health care facilities in four regions (Addis Ababa, Oromia, Amhara, and Somali) at three points in time: 2003/04, 2006, and 2009. Using a Likert scale, respondents were asked to respond to statements regarding job satisfaction, pride in work, satisfaction with financial rewards, self-efficacy, satisfaction with facility resources, and self-perceived conscientiousness. Inter-reliability of each construct was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, and indices of motivational determinants and outcomes were calculated for each survey round. To explore the associations between motivational determinants and outcomes, bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were carried out based on a pooled dataset. Among the sample public sector health workers, several dimensions of health worker motivation significantly increased over the study period, including two indicators of motivational outcomes-overall job satisfaction and self-perceived conscientiousness-and two indicators of motivational determinants-pride and self-efficacy. However, two other dimensions of motivation-satisfaction with financial rewards and satisfaction with facility resources-significantly decreased. The multivariate analyses found that the constructs of pride, self-efficacy, satisfaction with financial rewards, and satisfaction with facility resources were significantly associated with the motivational outcomes, after controlling for other factors. Overall, the findings

  18. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Ethiopia and the neighboring region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, Atalay

    2017-10-01

    Seismic hazard calculation is carried out for the Horn of Africa region (0°-20° N and 30°-50°E) based on the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) method. The earthquakes catalogue data obtained from different sources were compiled, homogenized to Mw magnitude scale and declustered to remove the dependent events as required by Poisson earthquake source model. The seismotectonic map of the study area that avails from recent studies is used for area sources zonation. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area was divided into small grids of size 0.5° × 0.5°, and the hazard parameters were calculated at the center of each of these grid cells by considering contributions from all seismic sources. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) corresponding to 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years were calculated for all the grid points using generic rock site with Vs = 760 m/s. Obtained values vary from 0.0 to 0.18 g and 0.0-0.35 g for 475 and 2475 return periods, respectively. The corresponding contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values for the two return periods are presented here. Uniform hazard response spectrum (UHRS) for 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years and hazard curves for PGA and 0.2 s spectral acceleration (Sa) all at rock site are developed for the city of Addis Ababa. The hazard map of this study corresponding to the 475 return periods has already been used to update and produce the 3rd generation building code of Ethiopia.

  19. The Addis Ababa Declaration on Global Health Equity: A call to action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    Abstract. Background: Health inequalities occur through differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups. Access to basic health services was affirmed as a fundamental human right by the declaration of Alma-Ata in 1978. The reality is that, in 2012, more than 40 ...

  20. Life table estimates of adult HIV/AIDS mortality in Addis Ababa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    primary concern. For the first year of the surveillance,. 6.3% of the records had missing values for age. Excluding Baytewar, only 1.5% of cases have missing values for age. Age heaping is serious (Whipple Index of. 283) and the ages are therefore grouped into five-year intervals. Cubic spline smoothing is done on the age.

  1. Assessment of Sexual and Reproductive Health Status of Street Children in Addis Ababa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demelash Habtamu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Street children worldwide do not have the information, skills, health services, and support they need to go through sexual development during adolescence. This study is undertaken to systematically investigate the fit between street children’s sexual and reproductive health needs and the existing services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 street children and four service providers. About 72.5% of the respondents were sexually active during data collection and 84.3% of males and 85.7% of females tended to have multiple sexual partners. More than two-thirds (67.3% of the participants had used at least one type of substance. History of substance use (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.42–4.56 and being on the street for the first one to three years (OR = 5.9; 95% CI = 1.41–7.22 increased the likelihood of having sexual activity. More than half (64.9% of the street children did not attend any kind of sexual or reproductive health education programs. Lack of information on available services (26.5% was the biggest barrier for utilization of local sexual and reproductive health services. From the individual interview with coordinator, the financial and networking problems were hindering the service delivery for street children. In conclusion, street children who are special high risk group have not been targeted and hence continue to remain vulnerable and lacking in sexual and reproductive health services and sexual health services are poorly advertised and delivered to them.

  2. Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa | Mengistu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Animal bites and scratches represent the most important public health issue related to dogs and cats because of the risk of rabies transmission associated with physical, psychological trauma and wound infection. Objective: The study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of animal bite of human beings in ...

  3. Peace at last? Appraisal of the Addis Ababa Peace and Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the 2006 elections was that the latter would not only resolve the problem of deficient legitimacy of the ruling ... deployed outside the Kivu region (citing security concerns), followed by their call for a differentiated ..... interveners regard themselves as 'knights in shining armour, seeking to assist. Africa's economic recovery ...

  4. Medication errors in the adult emergency unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Addis Ababa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediwon Negash

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Incidence and types of medication errors committed in Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital Adult Emergency Unit were substantiated; moreover, necessary information on factors within the healthcare delivery system that predispose healthcare professionals to commit errors have been pointed, which should be addressed by healthcare professionals through multidisciplinary efforts and involvement of decision makers at national level.

  5. The Addis Ababa Declaration on Global Health Equity: A call to action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    that include: major health threats, health inequity, migration, fair trade, revised MDGs, development aid and health .... Migration. The divide between poor and wealthy populations leads to previously unseen mass migration within and between countries, often aggravated by .... Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011.

  6. Heteronormativity and 'troubled' masculinities among men who have sex with men in Addis Ababa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadele, Getnet

    2011-04-01

    In most societies, heterosexuality is the dominant way of expressing sexuality and masculinity and those men outside of it are stigmatised and discriminated against. This paper explores the sexual lives of men who have sex with men and the personal and social conflicts that arise as they attempt to both live up to societal expectations and manage their sexual desires. It critically explores how an overriding heteronormativity structures and influences men's perception and understanding of sexuality and masculinity/femininity. The paper draws on data from 24 in-depth/life history interviews, one focus group discussion and ethnographic observation conducted between July 2006 and June 2007. The study reveals that powerful and dominating beliefs about heteronormativity and masculinity result in men who have sex with men dealing with a number of issues of personal conflict and contradiction resulting in uncertainty, resentment, ambivalence, worry and discomfort. Heteronormativity or the expectations of parents, community and society at large is far more influential on the sexuality of men who have sex with men than their own individual desires and needs. The paper concludes that there is little room for individuality for Ethiopian men who have sex with men with their sexual bodies 'belonging' to parents, families and to society at large.

  7. Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: Implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogale Asseged

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM and region of difference (RD deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7 and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67. In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello

  8. Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: Implications for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA) inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA) inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM) and region of difference (RD) deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity) and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD) requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7) and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67). In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello abattoirs, the

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with childhood visual impairment in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezabih, Lidiya; Abebe, Tilaye Workneh; Fite, Robera Olana

    2017-01-01

    Visual impairment is a significant loss of vision. It has an impact on the prosperity of different countries. It has been difficult to plan preventive measures against visual impairment due to the scarcity of data about the extent of the problem. The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and identifying factors associated with visual impairment among school-age children in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used in four randomly selected schools found in Addis Ababa from May 15 to June 14, 2016. A total of 804 school-age students were selected using the simple random sampling method. Bivariable logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression were conducted. A p -value children were visually impaired, of whom 3.9% had low vision and 3.34% had severe visual impairment. Factors associated with visual impairment were being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.50), being in the age group of 10-13 years (AOR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.36-6.22), being in the age group of 14-18 years (AOR, 4.06; 95% CI, 2.17-11.95), being a private school student (AOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.81-4.41), watching television for 2-4 hours/day (AOR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.37-7.34), watching television at 4 hours/day (AOR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.41-9.18), medical visit while experiencing symptoms (AOR, 11.32; 95% CI, 1.80-82.25) and no medical visit experience (AOR, 3.84; 95% CI, 0.46-31.76). The majority of the visually impaired school-age children had low vision. Sex, age, school type, television exposure duration, the distance of television exposure, mobile exposure and medical visit were factors associated with visual impairment. Increasing community awareness about early detection of visual impairment and providing affordable eye health service may decrease the prevalence of visual impairment.

  10. Magnitude of Birth Defects in Central and Northwest Ethiopia from 2010-2014: A Descriptive Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molla Taye

    Full Text Available Birth defects are defined as structural and functional defects that develop during the organogenesis period and present at birth or detected later in life. They are one of the leading causes of infant and child mortality, morbidity, and long term disability. The magnitude of birth defects varies from country to country and from race/ethnicity to race/ethnicity, and about 40-60% of their causes are unknown. The known causes of birth defects are genetic and environmental factors which may be prevented. For various reasons, there is lack of data and research on birth defects in Ethiopia.The major objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude of birth defects in Ethiopia.A hospital based, retrospective, cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted. The subjects were babies/children aged 0-17years who visited selected hospitals between 2010 and 2014. Fourteen hospitals (8 in Addis Ababa, 6 in Amhara Region were selected purposively based on case load. A data retrieving form was developed to extract relevant information from record books.In the hospitals mentioned, 319,776 various medical records of children aged 0-17years were found. Of these, 6,076 (1.9% with 95% CI: 1.85%-1.95% children were diagnosed as having birth defects. The majority (58.5% of the children were male and 41.5% female. A slightly more than half (51.1% of the children were urban dwellers, while 48.9% were from rural areas. Among the participants of the study the proportion of birth defects ranged as follows: orofacial (34.2%, neural tube (30.8%, upper and lower limb (12.8%, cardiovascular system (10.3%, digestive system and abdominal wall (4.8%, unspecified congenital malformations (2.5%, Down syndrome (2%, genitourinary system (2%, head, face, and neck defects (0.4%, and others (0.3%. The trend of birth defects increased linearly over time [Extended Mantel-Haenszel chi square for linear trend = 356.7 (P<0.0001]. About 275 (4.5% of the cases had multiple (associated

  11. More Than Bar Codes: Integrating Global Standards-Based Bar Code Technology Into National Health Information Systems in Ethiopia and Pakistan to Increase End-to-End Supply Chain Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Liuichi; Guirguis, Ramy; Hummel, Keith; Villanueva, Monica

    2017-12-28

    The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) DELIVER PROJECT work together to strengthen public health commodity supply chains by standardizing bar coding under a single set of global standards. From 2015, UNFPA and USAID collaborated to pilot test how tracking and tracing of bar coded health products could be operationalized in the public health supply chains of Ethiopia and Pakistan and inform the ecosystem needed to begin full implementation. Pakistan had been using proprietary bar codes for inventory management of contraceptive supplies but transitioned to global standards-based bar codes during the pilot. The transition allowed Pakistan to leverage the original bar codes that were preprinted by global manufacturers as opposed to printing new bar codes at the central warehouse. However, barriers at lower service delivery levels prevented full realization of end-to-end data visibility. Key barriers at the district level were the lack of a digital inventory management system and absence of bar codes at the primary-level packaging level, such as single blister packs. The team in Ethiopia developed an open-sourced smartphone application that allowed the team to scan bar codes using the mobile phone's camera and to push the captured data to the country's data mart. Real-time tracking and tracing occurred from the central warehouse to the Addis Ababa distribution hub and to 2 health centers. These pilots demonstrated that standardized product identification and bar codes can significantly improve accuracy over manual stock counts while significantly streamlining the stock-taking process, resulting in efficiencies. The pilots also showed that bar coding technology by itself is not sufficient to ensure data visibility. Rather, by using global standards for identification and data capture of pharmaceuticals and medical devices, and integrating the data captured into national and global tracking systems

  12. Assessment of the efficacy of Deltamethrin 1% pours- on (Smash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiop. Vet. J., 2014, 18 (1), 17-27. Assessment of the efficacy of Deltamethrin 1% pours- on (Smash) and Deltamethrin 1% SC (Pali) and com- parison of their mode of applications against ticks in. Ethiopia. Sileshi Mekonnen. Current address: Sileshi.Mekonnen@fao.org; FAO Ethiopia, P.O.Box 5536, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  13. 1st International Afro-European Conference for Industrial Advancement

    CERN Document Server

    Krömer, Pavel; Snasel, Vaclav

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains accepted papers presented at AECIA2014, the First International Afro-European Conference for Industrial Advancement. The aim of AECIA was to bring together the foremost experts as well as excellent young researchers from Africa, Europe, and the rest of the world to disseminate latest results from various fields of engineering, information, and communication technologies.  The first edition of AECIA was organized jointly by Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa University, and VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic and took place in Ethiopia's capital, Addis Ababa.

  14. How a geomorphosite inventory can contribute to regional sustainable development? The case of the Simen Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerhofer, Lukas; Reynard, Emmanuel; Asrat, Asfawossen; Hurni, Hans; Wildlife Conservation Authority, Ethiopian

    2016-04-01

    vulnerable to human encroachment. The educational interest of most sites is high but interpretation facilities are absent. With some minor adjustments, the application of the inventory method (Reynard et al., 2015) to the SMNP has proven successful and can be recommended for application to other areas in developing countries of similar well-documented geomorphology. However, the method could prove too complex for areas where basic knowledge on geomorphology is poor, as is often the case in developing countries. Based on previous studies (in particular Asrat et al. 2012) and results of the current inventory, a road map for SMNP geomorphosite management was proposed. Eight strategic objectives and working tasks were considered, which include the development of geotourism products such as geotourist maps, geo-trails and guidebooks, geo-trekking, geo-sightseeing tours, and interpretive panels as well as the training of geo-guides and capacity building of the park staff and specific management of the Lemalemo site, one of the most accessible geosites in the park. The overall goal is to raise awareness on the rich geomorphological heritage through geotourism development and empowerment of locals and thus to contribute to long-term protection of the geomorphosites. In conclusion the study revealed important potential for sustainable rural development in the Simen. Applied research will be necessary on how exactly the promotion products should be developed. References Asrat, A., Demissie, M., Mogessie, A. (2008). Geotourism in Ethiopia: archaelogical and ancient cities, religious and cultural centres: Yeha, Axum, Wukro, and Lalibela. Addis Ababa: Shama Books. Asrat, A., Demissie, M., Mogessie, A. (2012). Geoheritage conservation in Ethiopia: the case of the Simien Mountains. Quaestiones Geographicae, 31(1), 7-23. doi:10.2478/v10117-012-0001-0. Reynard E., Perret A., Bussard J., Grangier L., Martin S. (2015). Integrated approach for the inventory and management of geomorphological

  15. 2018-02-24T07:24:19Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ethiopia, essential metal, non-essential metal, ouzo The levels of selected metals (Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb) in five different brands (Kokeb, National, Liyu Addis, Victoria and Balezaf) of Ethiopian ouzo sampled from different supermarkets in the capital city Addis Ababa were determined. 10 mL of ...

  16. Effect of health development assistance on health status in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Negeri, Gutema; Haile Mariam,Damen

    2016-01-01

    Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this stud...

  17. bis (trimethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) mediated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10. Morrow, J.R.; Trogler, W.C. Inorg. Chem. 1989, 28, 2330. 11. Zewdu, A. M.Sc. Thesis, Addis Ababa University: Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); 1990. 12. Milbum, R.M.; Gautam-Basak, M.; Tribolet, R.; Siegel, H. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 1985, 107,. 3315. 13. Kenley, R.A.; Fleming, R.A.; Laine, R.M.; Tse, D.S.; Winter, J.S. Inorg. Chem.

  18. A qualitative study exploring newborn care behaviours after home births in rural Ethiopia: implications for adoption of essential interventions for saving newborn lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salasibew, Mihretab Melesse; Filteau, Suzanne; Marchant, Tanya

    2014-12-12

    Ethiopia is among seven high-mortality countries which have achieved the fourth millennium development goal with over two-thirds reduction in under-five mortality rate. However, the proportion of neonatal deaths continues to rise and recent studies reported low coverage of the essential interventions saving newborn lives. In the context of low uptake of health facility delivery, it is relevant to explore routine practices during home deliveries and, in this study, we explored the sequence of immediate newborn care practices and associated beliefs following home deliveries in rural communities in Ethiopia. Between April-May 2013, we conducted 26 semi-structured interviews and 2 focus group discussions with eligible mothers, as well as a key informant interview with a local expert in traditional newborn care practices in rural Basona woreda (district) near the urban town of Debrebirhan, 120 km from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The most frequently cited sequence of newborn care practices reported by mothers with home deliveries in the rural Basona woreda was to tie the cord, immediately bath then dry the newborn, practice 'Lanka mansat' (local traditional practice on newborns), give pre-lacteal feeding and then initiate breastfeeding. For 'Lanka mansat', the traditional birth attendant applies mild pressure inside the baby's mouth on the soft palate using her index finger. This is performed believing that the baby will have 'better voice' and 'speak clearly' later in life. Coverage figures fail to tell the whole story as to why some essential interventions are not practiced and, in this study, we identified established norms or routines within the rural communities that determine the sequence of newborn care practices following home births. This might explain why some mothers delay initiation of breastfeeding and implementation of other recommended essential interventions saving newborn lives. An in-depth understanding of established routines is necessary, and community

  19. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  20. The performance of BD FACSPresto™ for CD4 T-cell count, CD4% and hemoglobin concentration test in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin Gebremicael

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, CD4+ T-cell counting is still required for all patients at baseline before antiretroviral therapy (ART and to determine eligibility and follow-up of opportunistic infection prophylaxis. However, access to CD4+ T cell count in rural health facilities remains a major challenge in Ethiopia like other resource-limited settings.Both capillary and venous blood was drawn from each of 325 study participant recruited in Addis Ababa and surroundings. The CD4+ T-cell count, CD4%, and hemoglobin (Hgb were tested at one of the four study health facilities using capillary blood and BD FACSPresto™ device. These tests were also done at the national HIV reference laboratory, using venous blood with BD FACSCalibur™, Sysmex XT-1800i™, and BD FACSPresto™.BD FACSPresto™ had an absolute mean bias of -13.3 cells/ul (-2.99% and 28.3 cells/μl (6.4% using venous and capillary blood, respectively, compared with BD FACSCalibur™. The absolute CD4 assay on the BD FACSPresto™ had a regression coefficient (R2 of 0.87 and 0.92 using capillary blood and venous blood samples, respectively, compared with BD FACSCalibur™. The percentage similarity of the BD FACSPresto™ using capillary and venous blood was 105.2% and 99.3%, respectively. The sensitivity of the FACSPresto™ using threshold of 500 cells/μl for ART eligibility using capillary and venous blood was 87.9 and 94.3%, while the specificity was 91.4 and 83.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the BD FACSPresto™ had an absolute mean bias of -0.2 dl/μl (0.0% (95% LOA: -1.7, 1.3 and -0.59 dl/μl (0.1% (95% LOA: -1.49, 0.31 for Hgb using capillary and venous blood compared with the Sysmex XT-1800i™, respectively.Our results showed acceptable agreement between the BD FACSPresto™ and BD FACSCalibur™ for CD4+ T-cell counting and CD4%; and between the BD FACSPresto™ and Sysmex XT-1800i™for measuring Hgb concentration.

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with childhood visual impairment in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezabih L

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lidiya Bezabih,1 Tilaye Workneh Abebe,1 Robera Olana Fite2 1Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Adama General Hospital and Medical College, Adama, 2Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia Background: Visual impairment is a significant loss of vision. It has an impact on the prosperity of different countries. It has been difficult to plan preventive measures against visual impairment due to the scarcity of data about the extent of the problem.Objectives: The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and identifying factors associated with visual impairment among school-age children in Ethiopia.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study design was used in four randomly selected schools found in Addis Ababa from May 15 to June 14, 2016. A total of 804 school-age students were selected using the simple random sampling method. Bivariable logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression were conducted. A p-value <0.05 was taken as a significant association.Results: A total of 718 students participated in the study, obtaining a response rate of 89.3%. In all, 7.24% of school-age children were visually impaired, of whom 3.9% had low vision and 3.34% had severe visual impairment. Factors associated with visual impairment were being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–3.50, being in the age group of 10–13 years (AOR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.36–6.22, being in the age group of 14–18 years (AOR, 4.06; 95% CI, 2.17–11.95, being a private school student (AOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.81–4.41, watching television for 2–4 hours/day (AOR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.37–7.34, watching television at <1 m (AOR, 7.65; 95% CI, 2.59–34.61, watching television at 1–2 m (AOR, 6.89; 95% CI, 1.74–25.27, mobile exposure for 2–4 hours/day (AOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.35–4.58, mobile exposure for >4 hours/day (AOR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1

  2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedebou, Messele; Tassew, Alebachew

    1980-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin for 500 gonococcal strains were studied for product-moment coefficient correlations. The strains were isolated from male patients with acute gonococcal urethritis attending the Venereal Disease Clinic in Addis Ababa. The MICs of all pairs except the ampicillin/streptomycin pair were positively correlated, with r = 0.20-0.53, Pstreptomycin pair was not correlated, r = 0.06, P>0.05. Despite the significant correlation between the susceptibilities of strains to penicillin and tetracycline, 85% of the penicillin-resistant strains were sensitive to tetracycline. However, 75.6% of tetracycline-resistant strains were also resistant to penicillin. Similar differences in percentages of resistance and susceptibility of strains also occurred between tetracycline and ampicillin as well as between tetracycline and streptomycin pairs, while pair correlations were also noted. No chloramphenicol-resistant strain was isolated. But correlations were found between the MIC values of chloramphenicol and those of the other 4 antibiotics. Forty-seven percent of the 500 strains were resistant to 2 or more antibiotics. One hundred and twenty-six strains (25.2%) were resistant to 2 antibiotics, about half of which were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Resistance to 3 antibiotics was shown in 18.6% of strains, the majority being resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, and streptomycin. Eighteen strains (3.6%) were resistant to 4 antibiotics, while no strain was found resistant to all 5 antibiotics. PMID:6769600

  3. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belayneh Anteneh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopian plants have shown remarkably effective medicinal values for many human and livestock ailments. Some research results are found on medicinal plants of the south, south west, central, north and north western parts of Ethiopia. However, there is lack of data that quantitatively assesses the resource potential and the indigenous knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants in eastern Ethiopia. The main thrust of the present ethnobotanical study centres around the potential and use of traditional medicinal plants by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Babile Wereda (district of eastern Ethiopia. The results can be used for setting up of conservation priorities, preservation of local biocultural knowledge with sustainable use and development of the resource. Materials and methods Fifty systematically selected informants including fifteen traditional herbalists (as key informants participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, discussions and guided field walk constituted the main data collection methods. Techniques of preference ranking, factor of informant consensus and Spearman rank correlation test were employed in data analysis. Medicinal plant specimens were collected, identified and kept at the National Herbarium (ETH of Addis Ababa University and Haramaya University Herbarium. Results Fifty-one traditional medicinal plant species in 39 genera and 28 families were recorded, constituting 37% shrubs, 29% trees, 26% herbs, 6% climbers and 2% root parasites. Leaves contributed to 35.3% of the preparations, roots (18.8% and lower proportions for other parts. Formulations recorded added to 133 remedies for 54 human ailments, in addition to some used in vector control. The majority of remedies were the juice of single species, mixtures being generally infrequent. Aloe pirottae, Azadirachta indica and Hydnora johannis were the most cited and preferred species. Aloe pirottae, a species endemic to Ethiopia

  4. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayneh, Anteneh; Asfaw, Zemede; Demissew, Sebsebe; Bussa, Negussie F

    2012-10-22

    Ethiopian plants have shown remarkably effective medicinal values for many human and livestock ailments. Some research results are found on medicinal plants of the south, south west, central, north and north western parts of Ethiopia. However, there is lack of data that quantitatively assesses the resource potential and the indigenous knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants in eastern Ethiopia. The main thrust of the present ethnobotanical study centres around the potential and use of traditional medicinal plants by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Babile Wereda (district) of eastern Ethiopia. The results can be used for setting up of conservation priorities, preservation of local biocultural knowledge with sustainable use and development of the resource. Fifty systematically selected informants including fifteen traditional herbalists (as key informants) participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, discussions and guided field walk constituted the main data collection methods. Techniques of preference ranking, factor of informant consensus and Spearman rank correlation test were employed in data analysis. Medicinal plant specimens were collected, identified and kept at the National Herbarium (ETH) of Addis Ababa University and Haramaya University Herbarium. Fifty-one traditional medicinal plant species in 39 genera and 28 families were recorded, constituting 37% shrubs, 29% trees, 26% herbs, 6% climbers and 2% root parasites. Leaves contributed to 35.3% of the preparations, roots (18.8%) and lower proportions for other parts. Formulations recorded added to 133 remedies for 54 human ailments, in addition to some used in vector control. The majority of remedies were the juice of single species, mixtures being generally infrequent. Aloe pirottae, Azadirachta indica and Hydnora johannis were the most cited and preferred species. Aloe pirottae, a species endemic to Ethiopia, is valued as a remedy for malaria, tropical ulcer, gastro

  5. Undernutrition and its determinants among daily laborers working in Cobblestone project in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geteneh Moges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Undernutrition is among the most significant public health problems in the world. It is an important underlying cause of illness and death in Africa and imposes a huge cost both in human and economic terms. The aim of this study is to assess the level of undernutrition and its determinants among daily laborers working in cobblestone projects, Yeka Sub City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A workplace-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 cobblestone daily laborers from February 20 to April 1, 2015. Systematic random sampling method was employed (with proportional allocation in three cobblestone project sites. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements (weight and height were used to collect the data. The data was entered by Epi Info version 3.5.3 then transferred to SPSS version 20 for data analysis. Results Overall, 423 respondents (of which 300, or 71%, were male participated in this study, making the response rate 100%. Among the study participants, 141 (33.3%; 95% CI: 28.8 - 38.0 were underweight (BMI<18.50. Males were more likely to experience underweight than their female counterparts: 112 (37.3% versus 29 (23.6%. Educational status, family size, income, dietary diversity and smoking had statistical significance with undernutrition in multivariate analysis. Study participants who had no education were significantly more likely to be undernourished [AOR = 7.83; 95% CI (3.78, 16.22] compared with those above secondary level education. Daily laborers with a larger family size (≥3 were three times [AOR=2.88; 95%CI; 1.54-5.40] more likely to be undernourished compared to low family size (≤2. Daily laborers who had low monthly income (<1500 ETB were significantly more likely to be undernourished [AOR= 9.77; 95%CI (4.92, 19.39] than those with high income (≥2500 ETB. Daily laborers who smoke were significantly more likely to be undernourished [AOR = 2.02; 95% CI (1.06 – 3

  6. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  7. Knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAB) on HIV/AIDS/STDs among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Workers in the informal sector have not been studied in Ethiopia concerning their awareness about HIV/AIDS. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 1999 in ten Kebeles of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected by employing multi-stage sampling techniques.

  8. Journal of EEA, Vol 21, 2004

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    its allocation in Ethiopia play a pivotal role in making real estate-developed housing less accessible. Based on case studies from Addis Ababa, the author recommends ways of addressing the critical shortcomings of real estate development.v 1n Ethiopia. INTRODUCTION. Housing as an urban function constitutes about half ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed, EY. Vol 17, No 2 (2013) - Articles A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of rabies among residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract PDF · Vol 18, No 2 (2014) - Articles Yersiniosis outbreak in rainbow trout at fish farm in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2221-5034. AJOL African Journals ...

  10. Community perceptions and health seeking behavior

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    from The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for this additional in-depth analysis. References. 1. 1. Lawn J, Cousens S, Zupan J, 4 million deaths: When, where and why? Lancet 2005, 365:891-900. 2. Central Statistical Authority (CSA) and ORC Macro. 2000. Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  11. CONTRAST IN CLAY MINERALOGY AND THEIR EFFECT ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    2006-10-04

    Petroleum Operations Department, Ministry of Mines and Energy, P.O. Box 486, Kotebe. Branch, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (Received October 4, 2006; revised ... environments, tectonic setting, burial time of uplift, geothermal gradient and subsurface pressure. [1, 2]. The Adigrat sandstone formation, Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia ...

  12. Prevalence and antibiogram of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and antibiogram of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from bovine in Jimma, Ethiopia: abattoir- based survey. Aklilu Feleke Haile1*, Daniel Kebede2, and Ashenafi Kiros Wubshet3. 1College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. 2School of Veterinary Medicine,Wolaita Sodo ...

  13. The potential role of the private sector in expanding postabortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential role of the private sector in expanding postabortion care in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia regions of Ethiopia. ... mortality and morbidity in Ethiopia. High disease burden and underdeveloped infrastructure entail involvement of all partners in responding to health needs in the country. The private sector has ...

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Trends and Differentials of Adolescent Motherhood in Ethiopia: Evidences from 2005 Demographic and Health Survey. Eshetu Gurmu*1 and Tariku Dejene2. 1Center for Population Studies, College of Development Studies, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia; 2Department of. Epidemiology ...

  15. Health Providers' Perception towards Safe Abortion Service at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, unsafe abortion accounts up to 32% of maternal deaths. The perception of health providers towards safe abortion provision at selected health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was assessed. A stratified random sampling was used to select 431 health providers. A cross-sectional study was conducted from ...

  16. Orthopedic and Major Limb Trauma at the Tikur Anbessa University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Ethiopia, Injuries constitute around half of all surgical emergencies, and are the primary reason for an emergency hospital visit in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and pattern of major limb traumatic injuries and orthopedic conditions treated as emergency at Tikur ...

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACIPH_Admin

    32812, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 5School of Environmental Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia ..... Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, AHRI, St. Peter's, and the medical schools. These functions can also be facilitated by such groups as the Ethiopian Diaspora .... geographical data bases, was encouraged by one study.

  18. Comment_Some Thoughts on the Organization of legal Practice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tameru Wondim Agegnehu

    Background: Lawyering in Ethiopia, 1940s Onward. As elsewhere lawyering started as a personal skill fit for sole practice and continued as such in Ethiopia long after the basis for its legal recognition was. ♧. Tameru Wondim Agegnehu: LL.B, (Haile Selassie I University, currently Addis Ababa. University, 1972), LL.

  19. Factors affecting fertility decisions of married men and women living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    planning demand among HIV-positive women and men undergoing antiretroviral treatment in Addis. Ababa, Ethiopia. Africa J of AIDS Res. 2007;6(3):223-227. 9. South Wollo Zone Health office. Annual Report for. 1999E.C. Dessie, Ethiopia; South Wollo Zone. Health office; June 2007. 10. Stanwood N. Cohn S. Heiser J and ...

  20. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences - Vol 25, No 1 (2015)

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    Health service utilization and reported satisfaction among adolescents in Dejen district, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ... Evaluation of quality of life of adult cancer patients attending Tikur Anbessa specialized referral hospital, Addis Ababa Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  1. The Corporate Social Responsibility Practices and Concerns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research aims to understand the corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices by Addis Ababa University, the largest and the oldest university in Ethiopia. The issue of CSR in the context of higher learning institutions is one of the least studied subjects in Ethiopia in terms of what social responsibility considerations a ...

  2. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604 ADDI...

  3. Development of the autoinflammatory disease damage index (ADDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ter Haar, Nienke M; Annink, Kim V; Al-Mayouf, Sulaiman M

    2017-01-01

    was to develop a common autoinflammatory disease damage index (ADDI) for familial Mediterranean fever, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome and mevalonate kinase deficiency. METHODS: We developed the ADDI by consensus building. The top 40...

  4. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem...... not take into account their experience about the complexity of their social situation, and consequently can not solve their problems. This paper was part of the requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Aalborg. Fieldwork for this study was supported by Chr. Michelsen Institute through a grant...... from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of Addis...

  5. Current state and trends of access to sanitation in Ethiopia and the need to revise indicators to monitor progress in the Post-2015 era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Abebe; Hailu, Tamene; Faris, Kebede; Kloos, Helmut

    2015-05-02

    Investigating the current level and trends of access and identifying the underlying challenges to sanitation system development will be useful in determining directions developing countries are heading as they plan to promote sustainable development goals (post 2015 agenda). This research investigates the status and trends of access to improved sanitation coverage (ISC) in relation to the MDG target in Ethiopia with the aim of identifying prevailing constraints and suggesting the way forward in the post-MDG era. We examined data from a nationwide inventory conducted in accordance with the sanitation ladder at the national level and from a household survey in randomly selected urban slums in Addis Ababa. The inventory data were analyzed and interpreted using the conceptual model of the sanitation ladder. We used administrative reports and survey results to plot the time trend of the ISC. The data from the nationwide inventory of sanitation facilities, which are presented along the sanitation ladder reveal that more than half of the Ethiopian population (52.1%) still used unimproved sanitation facilities in 2014. The majority (35.6%) practiced open defecation, implying that the country is far from the MDG target for access to improved sanitation (56%). Most people in urban slums (88.6%) used unimproved sanitation facilities, indicating that the urban poor did not receive adequate sanitation services. Trend analysis shows that access to ISC has increased, but Central Statistical Authority (CSA) data reveal a decline. This discrepancy is due to differences in data collection methods and tools. Dry pit latrines are the most widely used toilet facilities in Ethiopia, accounting for about 97.5% of the ISC. The sanitation coverage is far from the MDG target and the majority of the population, mainly the urban poor, are living in a polluted environment, exposed to water and sanitation-related diseases. The sanitation coverage estimates might be even lower if proper

  6. Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemu Agersew

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common health problem among pregnant women. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent serious life threatening condition and morbidity due to urinary tract infection that can occur in pregnant women. Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6 % and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bacterial profile that causes urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from March 22 to April 30, 2011. Mid stream urine samples were collected and inoculated into Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient medium (CLED. Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of 105/ml of urine or more of pure isolates were regarded as significant bacteriuria for infection. Colony from CLED was sub cultured onto MacConkey agar and blood agar plates. Identification was done using cultural characteristics and a series of biochemical tests. A standard method of agar disc diffusion susceptibility testing method was used to determine susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Results The overall prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 10.4 %. The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli 47.5 % followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci 22.5 %, Staphylococcus aureus 10 %, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 10 %. Gram negative isolates were resulted low susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (51.9 % and tetracycline (40.7 % whereas Gram positive showed susceptibility to ceftriaxon (84.6 % and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (92.3 %. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to two or more drugs was observed in 95 % of the isolates. Conclusion

  7. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on nutritional and immunologic status in HIV-infected children in the low-income country of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebissa, Getachew; Deyessa, Negusse; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2016-06-01

    HIV/AIDS and malnutrition combine to undermine the immunity of individuals and are inextricably interrelated. Although the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on growth in HIV-infected children is well known, the influence of prior nutritional and immunologic status on the response to HAART is not well documented. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of HAART on nutritional and immunological status in HIV-infected children in the low-income country of Ethiopia. A multicenter, retrospective cohort study was conducted on HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy at the pediatric units of public hospitals in Addis Ababa (Black Lion, Zewditu, Yekatit 12 and ALERT hospitals), Ethiopia. Nutritional status was defined as stunting (height-for-age Z score [HAZ] underweight (weight-for-age Z score [WAZ] nutritional status) in children predicts immunologic outcomes. In all, 556 HIV-infected children receiving HAART from January 2008 to December 2009 were included in this study. Over the 24-mo follow-up period, the study showed that the immunologic recovery of stunted and underweight children, regardless of their baseline nutritional status, responded equally to treatment. However, wasted children showed less immunologic recovery at the different follow-up visits. Predictors of positive shift in WHZ after 24 mo of follow-up were advanced disease stage (World Health Organization clinical stages 3 and 4) with odds ratio (OR), 0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.99; P = 0.045) and baseline severe underweight OR, 0.19 (95% CI, 0.09-0.56; P = 0.003). The independent predictors of positive shift of growth shift in WAZ over 24 mo were lower baseline age (underweight itself with OR, 0.11 (95% CI, 0.05-0.25; P = 0.0001) were predictors of positive shift (shift to normal). Despite the apparent growth response in HIV-infected children after initiation of HAART, moderate and severe underweight are both independent

  8. Training library patrons the ADDIE way

    CERN Document Server

    Wegener, Debby

    2006-01-01

    This book takes an informal and in-depth look at the five steps of the ADDIE model - Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation - as used in library training programmes. With hints and tips and practical advice from other trainers, the aims of the book are to (1) make the training of library patrons a simple task and (2) to show library staff that training can be rewarding and extremely satisfying. Anyone who has had to design a library training programme will know that it can be quite a daunting task without guidelines, but when it comes to the various learning theories and

  9. Instructional Supervision and Its Relationship with Professional Development: Perception of Private and Government Secondary School Teachers in Addis Ababa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaw, T. A.; Hofman, R. H.

    2012-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study is to examine the existing perceptions and preferences of teachers toward instructional supervision, more specifically on the actual and ideal use of selected instructional supervisory approaches (such as clinical supervision, peer coaching, cognitive coaching, mentoring, reflective coaching, teaching…

  10. Remote Sensing and GIS as Tools for Identifying Risk for Phreatomagmatic Eruptions in the Bishoftu Volcanic Field, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, H. G.; Graettinger, A.

    2017-12-01

    Bishoftu is a fast-growing town in the Oromia region of Ethiopia, located 47 km southeast of the nation's capital, Addis Ababa. It is situated atop a monogenetic basaltic volcanic field, called the Bishoftu Volcanic Field (BVF), which is composed of maar craters, scoria cones, lava flows, and rhyolite domes. Although not well dated, the morphology and archeological evidence have been used to infer a Holocene age, indicating that the community is exposed to continued volcanic risk. The presence of phreatomagmatic constructs in particular indicates that the hazards are not only vent-localized, but may have far reaching impacts. Hazard mapping is an essential tool for evaluating and communicating risks. This study presents the results of GIS analyses of proximal and distal syn-eruptive hazards associated with phreatomagmatic eruptions in the BVF. A digitized infrastructure map based on a SPOT 6 satellite image is used to identify the areas at risk from eruption scenarios. Parameters such as wind direction, vent location, and explosion energy are varied for hazard simulations to quantify the area impacted by different eruption scenarios. Proximal syn-eruptive hazards include tephra fall, base pyroclastic surges, and ballistic bombs. Distal hazards include predominantly ash fall. Eruption scenarios are simulated using Eject and Plumeria models as well as similar case studies from other urban volcanic fields. Within 5 km of the volcanic field center, more than 30 km2 of residential and commercial/industrial infrastructure will be damaged by proximal syn-eruptive hazards, in addition to 34 km2 of agricultural land, 291 km of roads, more than 10 km of railway, an airport, and two health centers. Within 100 km of the volcanic field center, ash fall will affect 3946 km2 of agricultural land, 179 km2 of residential land, and 28 km2 of commercial/industrial land. Approximately 2700 km of roads and railways, 553 km of waterways, an airport, and 14 health centers are located

  11. Retention in Care among HIV-Infected Adults in Ethiopia, 2005- 2011: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanos M Tiruneh

    Full Text Available Poor retention in HIV care challenges the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART. This study assessed how well patients stay in care and explored factors associated with retention in the context of an initial ART rollout in Sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a mixed-methods study at a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cohort of 385 patients was followed for a median of 4.6 years from ART initiation to lost-to-follow-up (LTFU-missing appointments for more than three months after last scheduled visit or administrative censoring. We used Kaplan-Meier plots to describe LTFU over time and Cox-regression models to identify factors associated with being LTFU. We held six focus group discussions, each with 6-11 patients enrolled in care; we analyzed data inductively informed by grounded theory.Patients in the cohort were predominantly female (64% and the median age was 34 years. Thirty percent were LTFU by study's end; the median time to LTFU was 1,675 days. Higher risk of LTFU was associated with baseline CD4 counts 200 cells/μL (HR = 1.62; 95% CI:1.03-2.55; and HR = 2.06; 95% CI:1.15-3.70, respectively, compared with patients with baseline CD4 counts of 100-200 cells/μL. Bedridden participants at ART initiation (HR = 2.05; 95% CIs [1.11-3.80] and those with no or only primary education (HR = 1.50; 95% CIs [1.00-2.24] were more likely to be LTFU. Our qualitative data revealed that fear of stigma, care dissatisfaction, use of holy water, and economic constraints discouraged retention in care. Social support and restored health and functional ability motivated retention.Complex socio-cultural, economic, and health-system factors inhibit optimum patient retention. Better tracking, enhanced social support, and regular adherence counseling addressing stigma and alternative healing options are needed. Intervention strategies aimed at changing clinic routines and improving patient-provider communication could address many of the identified barriers.

  12. Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess, the sanitary~hygienic conditions of public catering establishments in the district town of Zeway, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in all existing food and drink establishments. Results: Local informal catering establishments is considerably high in town with ...

  13. The ecohydrological biotechnology (SBFS) for reduction of dioxin-induced toxicity in Asella lake, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, M.; Zerihun Negussie, Y.; Zalewski, M.

    2012-04-01

    The transfer of dioxins along river continuum is a well know process which indicated permanent increase of their content in the river sediments. Despite this, there is still lack of empirical data highlighting the role of lakes and reservoirs in dioxins transfer along river continuum. Using the ecohydrology as a framework for water problem solving, the reduction of dioxins bioaccumulation in aquatic food chain should be based on two steps: 1) a reduction of dioxins emission to the water ecosystems and 2) an understanding of the role that the factors determining dioxins accumulation, transportation and transformation in the river and lake/reservoir system play for implementation of ecohydrological biotechnologies and system solutions. From limnological perspective lakes and reservoirs are considered as traps for organic and mineral sediments and bounded with them nutrients and other polluting substances. As effect of long term ecological succession the amount of sedimented matter, nutrients and loads and concentrations of pollutants usually increases. Such situation was observed in Asella lake, located in the Arsi zone of the Oromia region about 175 kilometers from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. As the results of above processes the high concentration of dioxin concentrations in the sediments was observed, inducing decline in the water resources use. During this study the spatial pattern of dioxins concentration and toxicity (measured as WHO TEQ concentration) in the sediments of Asella river and lake taken before (in 2009) and after (in 2010) construction of Sequentional BioFiltering System (SBFS) were compared. The determination of dioxin concentrations were followed according to US EPA 1613 and 1668 Methods. Among the samples collected in the 2009 year, the contamination of lake sediments amounted for 127.65 ng kg-1 dry weight (d.w.), whereas concentration of dioxins in samples taken at the lake outflow decreased to the value of 26.65 ng kg-1 d.w. The WHO

  14. Factors associated with adolescent–parent communication of reproductive  health issues among high school and preparatory students in Boditi town, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanta M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Muluken Fanta,1 Seblewengel Lemma,2 Getu Gamo Sagaro,3 Mengistu Meskele3 1Wolaita Zone Health Department, Southern Nations Nationalities and People Region State, Wolaita Sodo, 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia Background: Communication from parents on reproductive health (RH issues with their adolescent children plays a great role in preventing morbidity and mortality associated with RH. The majority of Ethiopian adolescents do not communicate on these matters with their parents. This study aimed to identify the factors that affect communication on RH issues between parents and high school and preparatory students in Boditi town, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia.Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the level of communication, and factors affecting communication between high school and preparatory students with their parents on RH issues in Boditi town.Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 10 to February 20, 2015 among high school and preparatory students in Boditi town. A multistage sampling technique was used to sample the study participants. Data were collected by using a self-administrated structured questionnaire, which was developed based on previous literature incorporating all variables to be assessed. Data were entered and analyzed through Epi Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 16.0, respectively.Results: This study revealed that 40.70% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37.2%–44.2% of students discussed RH issues with their parents. Factors such as being a female student (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.42; 95% CI 1.00–1.95; being in the 10th grade (AOR =1.62; 95% CI 1.04–2.50; having a mother who was educated (able to read and write only; AOR =0.56; 95% CI 0.34–0.91, who had completed secondary education (AOR =0.43; 95% CI 0.22–0.80, or who had

  15. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Meshesha1 3 Ryuichi Shinjo1. Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Senbaru 1, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan. Department of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114, Bangladesh. EL MINING PLC, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract · Vol 27, No 2 (2009) - Articles Preparation, Evaluation and Optimization of Rapidly Disintegrating Tablets of Artemether-Lumefantrine Fixed Dose Combination ... Vol 28, No 2 (2010) - Articles Stability and Comparative Dissolution Studies of Five Brands of Norfloxacin Tablets Marketed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  17. East and Central African Journal of Surgery - Vol 13, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of injuries in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A one-year descriptive study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Wolde, K Abdella, E Ahmed, F Tsegaye, O.A. Babaniyi, O Kobusingye, K Bartolomeos, 14-22 ...

  18. "When we import goods, we export jobs" : An in-depth analysis of the laws and practices related to land expropriation for the Lekki Free Trade Zone in Lagos, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tagliarino, Nicholas Korte; Bununu, Y.A.; Magbagbeola, M.O.; De Maria, M.; Olusanmi, A.S.

    This article was submitted for the UN Economic Commission for Africa “2017 Conference on Land Policy in Africa” Nov. 14-17 2017, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This article sheds light on a series of events that triggered escalating tensions over land and resources in the coastal communities of Lagos,

  19. diarrhoea among 2-59 months children treated in Black Lion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diarrhoea among 2-59 months children treated in Black Lion. Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Damte Shimelis', Daniel Bentiz, Debela Challil. Abstract . Background: Diarrhoeal disease is one of the major causes. of morbidity and mortality in under five children. Worldwide, there are about 1.3 million under five children ...

  20. Assessment of Non-Sterile Pharmaceutical Compounding Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the practices of non-sterile pharmaceutical compounding in selected 42 community and 3 hospital pharmacies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 01 April, 2016 to 15 May, 2016. The study revealed that the most commonly prescribed and compounded non-sterile ...

  1. Mass concentrations and elemental composition of urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerosol samples were collected from 22 February 2008 to 15 April 2008 and 17 June 2008 to 23 July 2008 in urban and peri-urban areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with the aim to assess the spatial and temporal aspects of total suspended particulate (TSP) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm ...

  2. Mantle source characterization of Sylhet Traps, northeastern India: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Meshesha1 3 Ryuichi Shinjo1. Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Senbaru 1, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan. Department of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114, Bangladesh. EL MINING PLC, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cohen, BJ. Vol 17, No 3 (2003) - Articles Pre-and post-vaccine measles antibody status in infants using serum and oral-fluid testing: an evaluation of routine immunization in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1021-6790. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  4. ABNCD+: A Prototype for an Integrated Information Storage and Retrieval System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorissa, Abebe; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an integrated database developed at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) that includes bibliographic records, thesauri, and a union catalog of serials. Information products and services are described, fields and formats of the records are explained, data conversion and downloading are discussed, and sample records are appended. (five…

  5. Infantile Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: A retrospective study from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: In this retrospective analysis, medical records of patients admitted to TAH, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with a diagnosis of IHPS in the years 2011 and 2012 were revised; information on age, sex, birth order, clinical presentation, treatment and outcomes of treatment were collected and analyzed. Results: Sixty one ...

  6. Prospective Audit of Avoidable Factors in Institutional Stillbirths and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    We conducted a prospective audit of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths at Tikur Anbessa. Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as part of a .... Fellows, pediatric resident interns, and nurses. Periodically, visiting neonatologists and ..... control, skin-to-skin contact, proper wrapping with a warm blanket, and/or use of radiant ...

  7. Daily versus weekly iron supplementation and prevention of iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To demonstrate the effectiveness and social feasibility of weekly versus daily iron supplementation in preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia among anaemic mothers. Design: A longitudinal in nature. Setting: Seven urban slum communities in Teklehaimanot Wereda, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Subjects: ...

  8. Qualitative evaluation of selected social factors that impact sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... factors that impact sexual risk-taking behaviour among African students in Kwazulu-. Natal, South Africa, SAHARA-J: .... studies have explored young people's sexuality through their parents' perspective ...... Is the Prime Driver of Risky. Sexual Behaviors among School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  9. Observations on two nests of the Black-headed Siskin Serinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-11

    Sep 11, 2017 ... and spider webs (Fig. 2). We observed only the female delivering nesting ... eggs, incubation and fledging. Feathers, spiders' webs and plant fibres were noted in the nest structure, in addition. Short communications. 53 ... A checklist of the birds of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: Haile Sellassie. I University Press.

  10. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bitter leaf exudates or latex of many Aloe species are known to have various medicinal uses [i] and are used in the preparation of different types of drugs including the laxative aloe drug [2]. A. berhana Reynolds is an endemic species widely distributed in the central highlands of Ethiopia particularly on the Addis Ababa ...

  11. Forecasting Tourist Arrivals and Supply and Demand Gap Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to forecast the long term behavior of tourist arrivals and analyze the gap between supply and demand for the hotel/accommodation sector of the city of Addis Ababa. It also intends to provide vital information in regards to the sparse knowledge in the subject of forecasting tourist arrivals in Ethiopia.

  12. Adult limb fractures in Tikur Anbessa Hospital caused by road traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    mail: lbiruklw@yahoo.com, Addis. Ababa, Ethiopia. ... Medical Faculty, “Tikur Anbessa” Hospital (TAH) was aimed at detailing the radiology of musculoskeletal RTIs in a half- year period ... precision or margin of error to be 5%. Considering a 10 ...

  13. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sew-epidemiological study of hepatitis B virus in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: transmission and control. Royal Society of tropical. Medicine and Hygiene. 199626. 6. Chamberlan Ml. Emerging infections agents: Do they. 'pose a risk to the safety of transfused blood and blood products? CDC, National center for infections disease ...

  14. Surgical management of common bile duct stones at Saint Paul's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was aimed at evaluating the trend and outcome of surgical management of choledocholithiasis in St. Paul Teaching Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: This was a clinical based retrospective analysis. The operation register was used to identify the cases that were operated for biliary lithiasis.

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Be-ede, L. Vol 17, No 3 (2012) - Articles Ureteroscopy in a Resource Limited Setting: The Tikur Anbessa General Specialized Hospital Experience in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2073-9990. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andualem, D. Vol 17, No 3 (2012) - Articles Ureteroscopy in a Resource Limited Setting: The Tikur Anbessa General Specialized Hospital Experience in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract PDF · Vol 17, No 3 (2012) - Articles Indications, Complications and Mortality of Nephrectomy in Tikur Anbesa General Specialized Hospital

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samodi, L. Vol 17, No 3 (2012) - Articles Ureteroscopy in a Resource Limited Setting: The Tikur Anbessa General Specialized Hospital Experience in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2073-9990. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  18. Human-wildlife conflict in and around the Simien Mountains National

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    3 Afro-alpine Ecosystem Conservation Project, FZS, PO Box. 101428, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ABSTRACT: Human-wildlife conflict in and around the Simien Mountains National Park was assessed using a questionnaire survey of 300 people living in and around the Park during 2005 and. 2006. Logistic regression was used ...

  19. Maternal age, parity and gestational age on the size of the newborn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess birthweight, length and head circumference of live births, and to examine the effect of maternal age, parity and gestational age on birth sizes of the live births. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Tikur Anbessa, Zewditu, Gandhi memorial and St. Pauls hospitals, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Subjects: Four ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berhanu, W. Vol 11 (1994) - Articles The Use of Models in Urban Space Pattern Analysis Abstract PDF · Vol 21 (2004) - Articles Real estate developments and the housing supply issue in Ethiopia - Case studies from Addis Ababa Abstract PDF · Vol 17 (2000) - Articles Comparative analysis of Scandinavian and Ethiopian ...

  1. East and Central African Journal of Surgery - Vol 20, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Two-year review of Colorectal Cancer at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Injury prevention; Motorcyclists'Responses and Practices on the Use of Helmets in Mwanza, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. in vitro production of virus free sweet potato [ipomoea batatas (l

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    PO Box 31167, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.E-mail: mengistu.goa@aau.edu.et. 3 Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Botswana International University of Science and. Technology, Private Mail Bag 16, Palapye, Botswana. E-mail: habtuzh@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT: In this paper, we introduce and investigate an ...

  3. Survival of HIV-TB co-infected adult patients under ART in Ambo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Objectives: To estimate the survival of HIV/AIDS co-infected patients and to identify predictors of survival based on data obtained from Ambo referral hospital, .... done using SPSS, SAS, and STATA software. The response/outcome variable of this ..... Control Program Manual, Fourth Edition. Addis. Ababa; Ethiopia, 2008. 7.

  4. Ethiopian Journal of Business and Economics (The): Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Publisher contact person: Fenta Mandefro (PhD), Dean, College of Business and Economics. Email: fenfet@gmail.com. Phone Mobile: +251 911 180 903,. Office: 251 111 224 590. Mailing address: P.O. Box 5563. College of Business and Economics. Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. College of Business and Economics, ...

  5. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Thymus (Labiatae) includes about 350 species world wide and is widely distributed in temperate ... leaves of Thymus are used in Ethiopia as spices to flavour a wide range of food products as well as medicines. ... from Dinshu (Bale Province) and also from the Science Faculty Campus, Addis Ababa. University.

  6. An Evaluation of Grades 9 and 10 Mathematics Textbooks Vis-À-Vis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and application of teaching-learning methodologies. In Ethiopia, the curriculum for secondary schools (grades 9-12) is prepared nationally and is similar throughout the country. Problem and problem-solving have been defined by different scholars. Dockers, cited in Metassebia (M.A. These Addis. Ababa university 2002) ...

  7. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Urban Unemployment: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the association between socio-demographic variables and unemployment in urban Ethiopia with a special emphasis on Addis Ababa using data taken from CSA's National Labor Force Surveys of 1999 and 2005. Differences in the labor market outcomes are observed due to variations in ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 581 ... Vol 31, No 3 (2017), Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of first aid and factors associated with practice among taxi drivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Abstract PDF. Alemshet Aschalew Teshale, Zewdie Aderaw Alemu. Vol 31, No 4 (2017), Knowledge, attitude, and practice of residents in medical research ...

  9. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - Vol 31, No 3 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of first aid and factors associated with practice among taxi drivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Alemshet Aschalew Teshale, Zewdie Aderaw Alemu, 200-207 ...

  10. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - Vol 31, No 4 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain (LBP) among Taxi Drivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Melaku Erjabo Wanamo, Samson Wakuma Abaya, Ayele Belechew Aschalew ...

  11. Factors Associated with Choice of Post-Abortion Contraception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The high demand for abortion related services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicates a reliance on abortion to control fertility and highlights an opportunity to increase access to contraceptives and improve post-abortion care. We analyzed the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion related services. Logistic ...

  12. PATTERNS OF SEVEN AND COMPLICATED MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2016-09-05

    Sep 5, 2016 ... Sero-prevalence of Cytomegalovirus… Mamuye Y.G et al. 427. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Seroepidemiology Study of Cytomegalovirus and Rubella among. Pregnant Women at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College,. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Mamuye Yeshwondm. 1. , Nigatu Balkachew. 2.

  13. What Factors Underlie Vertical and Horizontal Export Diversification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University

    2 Ethiopian Economic Association/Ethiopian Economic Policy Research Institute, P.O. Box 34282, Addis. Ababa, Ethiopia ... is one of the coffee producing countries most affected by recent downturn of green coffee prices .... The key interest of the paper is to test the hypothesis that coffee farmers use forests as a safety net to ...

  14. Tobacco use and its predictors among Ethiopian adults: A further ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    10All Africa Leprosy, Tuberculosis and Rehabilitation Training center (ALERT), YG: yabetse@gmail.com, Addis. Ababa, Ethiopia. 11Department of Psychiatry .... A week-long training on the STEPS survey was organized by the Ethiopian ..... significantly; according to some studies the concurrent use of khat and tobacco were ...

  15. Mizan V2N1, post print

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Swedish team that represented the Royal Board of Telecommunication which was the group that was installing and implementing telecommunications sys- tem in Addis Ababa for the Ethiopian Imperial Board of Telecommunications in the early 1930s. Thus my introduction to Ethiopia came from Engineer. Hammar and his ...

  16. Influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers' purchase decision. The research focused in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). The study used color, graphic design, size, printed information and shape of packaging as independent variables and consumers' purchase ...

  17. Ethiopian Journal of Business and Economics (The) - Vol 4, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Livelihoods of Micro and Small Enterprise Operators in a District of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Reflections on their Capital Assets Reality · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Yohannes, 1-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejbe.v4i1.1 ...

  18. Sanitary conditions of food establishments in Mekelle town, Tigray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    restaurants, hotels, clubs, and other food establishments. (6). Similar epidemiologic patterns were observed in foodborne outbreaks in Poland (4). In Ethiopia, data on sanitation conditions and ensuing effects on health are very limited. Few studies conducted in Addis Ababa, Awassa, and Zeway indicate the prevailing poor ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual behavior and determinants of condom use among HIV/AIDS patients currently on Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART): evidence from the northeastern region of ... Validation of satisfaction questionnaire for outpatient neurology services of a tertiary hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a facility based cross-sectional study

  20. A retrospective study on prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    emergence of drug resistant pathogens now. Objective: To determine the prevalence and drug susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens involved in urinary tract infections within the last three years, January 1st 2008 to December 30th 2010 in Tikur Anbesa Specialized. Teaching Hospital of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  1. The Delivery of Business Courses via the African Virtual University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Mark; Bolt, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In this case study the delivery of business courses as a result of the partnership between the African Virtual University (AVU) and Curtin University in Western Australia is described. From 2004 to 2008, degree and diploma business courses were delivered using WebCT in the four AVU partner locations: Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia), Kigali…

  2. Magnitude and patterns of child sexual abuse: A retrospective cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the prevalence and describe the patterns of sexual abuse of male pediatric patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized. Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out to describe causes of male pediatric sexual abuse .... the prevalence of rape and sexual harassment among.

  3. Risk Factors of Deep Venous Thrombosis in Duplex and Colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk Factors of Deep Venous Thrombosis in Duplex and Colour Doppler Ultrasound at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... Thus early, correct and definitive diagnosis is crucial in assessing thromboembolic risk and initiating therapy. In this regard Patients at risk must be identified and given ...

  4. External quality assessment of AFB smear microscopy performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    External quality assessment of AFB smear microscopy performances and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... and poorly maintained equipments; thus, there is a critical need for investments in laboratory infrastructure, capacity building, and quality assurance schemes.

  5. APPLICATION OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM IN WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    APPLICATION OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM IN WATER PUMPING. Tesfaye Bayou. Department of Electrical Engineering. Addis Ababa University. ABSTRACT. Supply of commercial type of energy sources for rural communities has been a problem, especially in least developed countries like Ethiopia. With a sizeable ...

  6. APPLICA'l'ION OF MICROWAVE SYSTEM IN E'l'HIOPIA1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Girmaw Ingidayehu. Electrical Engineer. Manager of Telephone Division. Scope of Project. The initial plan for upgrading and developing the long-distance networks in Ethiopia involves the following projects: l. Installation of a microwave system between. Addis Ababa and Asmara. 2. Installation of 4-wire transit exchanges in.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 851 - 900 of 1463 ... N Dida, Z Birhanu, M Gerbaba, D Tilahun, S Morankar. Vol 12, No 3 (2012), Modern lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: implications for the tuberculosis control programe, Abstract PDF. A Mihret, Y Bekele, M Aytenew, M Abebe, L Wassie, GA Loxton, L Yamuah, A Aseffa, ...

  8. Rotavirus infection in under-five children in Jimma Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rotavirus is the leading etiological agent among the causes of acute diarrhea in infants and young children. However, there is no attempt to indicate its significance in other regions of Ethiopia, out of the capital, Addis Ababa. Objective: This study is aimed at revealing the prevalence of rotavirus infection among ...

  9. Tobacco use and its predictors among Ethiopian adults: A further ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    com, HT: habtamuteklie2@yahoo.com, GG: geremew2013@gmail.com, KA: kassishg2@yahoo.com,. TT: tefetes@gmail.com, GT: girumt200@gmail.com, MG: misrakg81@gmail.com, AB: abebe1277belay@gmail.com,. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kassahun, J. Vol 53, No 3 (2005) - Articles Seroprevalence Study Of Brucellosis On Dairy Cattle In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract. ISSN: 0378-9721. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  11. Assessment and Evaluation of Volcanic Rocks Used as Construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addis Ababa capital city of Ethiopia at an elevation of about 2000 m above mean sea level is entirely covered with volcanic rocks, basalt, trachyte, ignimbrite and rhyolite. Construction industry makes use these rocks extensively and indiscriminately for structural loading, pavements, wall cladding, fencing, as cobblestone ...

  12. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Abstract. There is a paucity of information on tetanus in working do factors that influence the prognosis of affected animals donkeys admitted to the clinic for intensive treatment a. Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, between tetanus were reviewed. The cases were grouped into su data of the two groups were ...

  13. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... bi-annual journal of science published by the Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. The Journal is designed for an international readership both within Africa and overseas. Since its inception in 1978, SINET has been publishing original research articles, review articles, short communications and feature ...

  14. Prevalence of trypanosomosis in small ruminants of Guto Gidda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulligan H. W., 1970. The African Trypanosomosis pp. 950. London: George Allen and. Unwin Ltd. Muturi, K. S.,1999. Epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis in selected sites of southern. Rift Valley of Ethiopia.MSc Thesis,AddisAbaba and Free University of Berlin. Murray, M., Dexter, T. M., 1988. Anaemia in bovine African ...

  15. Glaucoma awareness among ophthalmic patients at Menelik II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Glaucoma awareness among ophthalmic patients at Menelik. II Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Hiwot Degineh1, Abeba T. Giorgis1. Abstract. Background: Glaucoma is one of the main causes of blindness worldwide that has been considered as a major public health issue. Raising awareness about glaucoma among the ...

  16. risk factors of active tuberculosis in people living with hiv/aids in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-07-02

    Jul 2, 2011 ... R, Lisse I, Samb B et al: Tuberculosis in. Bissau: incidence and risk factors in an urban community in sub-Saharan Africa. Int J. Epidemiol 2004;33(1):163-172. 10. MOH: TB, leprosy and TB/HIV prevention and control program manual. Addis Ababa,. Ethiopia. 2008. 11. Fugnudo Mbeki AG, Kuwala Lube: ...

  17. Career Development among Undergraduate Students of Madda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School of Psychology, College of Education and Behavioral Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. ... to take more demanding courses and development and use of career plans (Day as cited in. Yilfashewa, 2011). .... decision-making style, integration of life roles, value expression, and life-role self-concepts. (Herr et ...

  18. Assessment of the prevalence and factors influencing adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the prevalence and factors influencing adherence to exclusive breast feeding among HIV positive mothers in selected health institution of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and entered into a computer and analyzed using the SPSS software version 16.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF IMPORTANT SEISMIC PROVISIONS OF EBCS 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    response and soil-structure interaction in both the pseudo-static and dynamic analysis would make the code specifications more realistic and complete. REFERENCE. [1] Ethiopian. Standard. Code of Practice for. Loading (ESCP 1), Ministry of Construction,. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1983. [2] Design of. Structures for.

  20. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. SINET is a peer-reviewed, bi-annual journal of science published by the Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. The Journal is designed for an international readership both within Africa and overseas. Since its inception in 1978, SINET has been publishing original research articles, review ...