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Sample records for addiction cohort recruitment

  1. Recruiting for addiction research via Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Louise K; Harris, Keith; Baker, Amanda L; Johnson, Martin; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the feasibility of recruiting participants to addiction research via Facebook. Participants were recruited via an advertisement on Facebook, a local research register and university psychology courses. Participants completed a self-report survey regarding substance use, history of mental health issues and current psychological distress. The 524 participants recruited via Facebook cost $1.86 per participant; and 418 participants were recruited via more traditional methods. There were significantly fewer women in the Facebook sample compared with the non-Facebook sample (χ(2)  = 196.61, P Facebook participants reported current use of tobacco (women: Facebook = 57%, non-Facebook = 21%, χ(2)  = 39.71, P Facebook = 62%, non-Facebook = 21%, χ(2)  = 32.429, P Facebook = 26%, non-Facebook = 7%, χ(2)  = 14.364, P Facebook = 46%, non-Facebook = 24%, χ(2)  = 6.765, P Facebook sample contained a higher percentage of high-severity cannabis users (women: Facebook = 24%, non-Facebook = 4%, χ(2)  = 18.12, P Facebook = 43%, non-Facebook = 16%, χ(2)  = 10.00, P Facebook, we were able to capture a greater proportion of people with high-severity substance use and mental health issues and were able to capture a greater and more severe range of substance use behaviours. This suggests social networking sites are efficient, cost-effective ways to recruit large numbers of participants, with relevant behaviours and conditions, to addiction research. [Thornton LK, Harris K, Baker AL, Johnson M, Kay-Lambkin FJ. Recruiting for addiction research via Facebook. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:494-502]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Moving empirically supported practices to addiction treatment programs: recruiting supervisors to help in technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Maryann; Storti, Susan A; Larson, Mary Jo

    2010-05-01

    Federal and state funding agencies are encouraging or mandating the use of empirically supported treatments in addiction programs, yet many programs have not moved in this direction (Forman, Bovasso, and Woody, 2001 ; Roman and Johnson, 2002 ; Willenbring et al., 2004 ). To improve the skills of counselors in community addiction programs, the authors developed an innovative Web-based course on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), a widely accepted empirically-supported practice (ESP) for addiction. Federal funding supports this Web course and a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness. Since supervisors often play a pivotal role in helping clinicians transfer learned skills from training courses to the workplace, the authors recruited supervisor-counselor teams, engaging 54 supervisors and 120 counselors. Lessons learned focus on supervisor recruitment and involvement, supervisors' perceptions of CBT, their own CBT skills and their roles in the study, and implications for technology transfer for the addiction field as a whole. Recruiting supervisors proved difficult because programs lacked clinical supervisors. Recruiting counselors was also difficult because programs were concerned about loss of third-party reimbursement. Across the addiction field, technology transfer will be severely hampered unless such infrastructure problems can be solved. Areas for further investigation are identified.

  3. Chronic stress may facilitate the recruitment of habit- and addiction-related neurocircuitries through neuronal restructuring of the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Anglin, J M; Paode, P R; Riggert, A G; Olive, M F; Conrad, C D

    2014-11-07

    Chronic stress is an established risk factor in the development of addiction. Addiction is characterized by a progressive transition from casual drug use to habitual and compulsive drug use. The ability of chronic stress to facilitate the transition to addiction may be mediated by increased engagement of the neurocircuitries underlying habitual behavior and addiction. In the present study, striatal morphology was evaluated after 2 weeks of chronic variable stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Dendritic complexity of medium spiny neurons was visualized and quantified with Golgi staining in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum, as well as in the nucleus accumbens core and shell. In separate cohorts, the effects of chronic stress on habitual behavior and the acute locomotor response to methamphetamine were also assessed. Chronic stress resulted in increased dendritic complexity in the dorsolateral striatum and nucleus accumbens core, regions implicated in habitual behavior and addiction, while decreased complexity was found in the nucleus accumbens shell, a region critical for the initial rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Chronic stress did not affect dendritic complexity in the dorsomedial striatum. A parallel shift toward habitual learning strategies following chronic stress was also identified. There was an initial reduction in acute locomotor response to methamphetamine, but no lasting effect as a result of chronic stress exposure. These findings suggest that chronic stress may facilitate the recruitment of habit- and addiction-related neurocircuitries through neuronal restructuring in the striatum. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Addiction treatment and stable housing among a cohort of injection drug users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Palepu

    Full Text Available Unstable housing and homelessness is prevalent among injection drug users (IDU. We sought to examine whether accessing addiction treatment was associated with attaining stable housing in a prospective cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada.We used data collected via the Vancouver Injection Drug User Study (VIDUS between December 2005 and April 2010. Attaining stable housing was defined as two consecutive "stable housing" designations (i.e., living in an apartment or house during the follow-up period. We assessed exposure to addiction treatment in the interview prior to the attainment of stable housing among participants who were homeless or living in single room occupancy (SRO hotels at baseline. Bivariate and multivariate associations between the baseline and time-updated characteristics and attaining stable housing were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models.Of the 992 IDU eligible for this analysis, 495 (49.9% reported being homeless, 497 (50.1% resided in SRO hotels, and 380 (38.3% were enrolled in addiction treatment at the baseline interview. Only 211 (21.3% attained stable housing during the follow-up period and of this group, 69 (32.7% had addiction treatment exposure prior to achieving stable housing. Addiction treatment was inversely associated with attaining stable housing in a multivariate model (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=0.71; 95% CI: 0.52-0.96. Being in a partnered relationship was positively associated with the primary outcome (AHR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.88. Receipt of income assistance (AHR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.44-0.96, daily crack use (AHR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.51-0.93 and daily heroin use (AHR=0.63; 95% CI: 0.43-0.92 were negatively associated with attaining stable housing.Exposure to addiction treatment in our study was negatively associated with attaining stable housing and may have represented a marker of instability among this sample of IDU. Efforts to stably house this vulnerable group may be occurring in contexts

  5. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games: comparing characteristics of addict vs non-addict online recruited gamers in a French adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnin Julie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs are a very popular and enjoyable leisure activity, and there is a lack of international validated instruments to assess excessive gaming. With the growing number of gamers worldwide, adverse effects (isolation, hospitalizations, excessive use, etc. are observed in a minority of gamers, which is a concern for society and for the scientific community. In the present study, we focused on screening gamers at potential risk of MMORPG addiction. Methods In this exploratory study, we focused on characteristics, online habits and problematic overuse in adult MMORPG gamers. In addition to socio-demographical data and gamer behavioral patterns, 3 different instruments for screening addiction were used in French MMORPG gamers recruited online over 10 consecutive months: the substance dependence criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth revised edition (DSM-IV-TR that has been adapted for MMORPG (DAS, the qualitative Goldberg Internet Addiction Disorder scale (GIAD and the quantitative Orman Internet Stress Scale (ISS. For all scales, a score above a specific threshold defined positivity. Results The 448 participating adult gamers were mainly young adult university graduates living alone in urban areas. Participants showed high rates of both Internet addiction (44.2% for GIAD, 32.6% for ISS and DAS positivity (27.5%. Compared to the DAS negative group, DAS positive gamers reported significantly higher rates of tolerance phenomenon (increased amount of time in online gaming to obtain the desired effect and declared significantly more social, financial (OR: 4.85, marital (OR: 4.61, family (OR: 4.69 and/or professional difficulties (OR: 4.42 since they started online gaming. Furthermore, these gamers self-reported significantly higher rates (3 times more of irritability, daytime sleepiness, sleep deprivation due to play, low mood and emotional

  6. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games: comparing characteristics of addict vs non-addict online recruited gamers in a French adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achab, Sophia; Nicolier, Magali; Mauny, Frédéric; Monnin, Julie; Trojak, Benoit; Vandel, Pierre; Sechter, Daniel; Gorwood, Philip; Haffen, Emmanuel

    2011-08-26

    Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are a very popular and enjoyable leisure activity, and there is a lack of international validated instruments to assess excessive gaming. With the growing number of gamers worldwide, adverse effects (isolation, hospitalizations, excessive use, etc.) are observed in a minority of gamers, which is a concern for society and for the scientific community. In the present study, we focused on screening gamers at potential risk of MMORPG addiction. In this exploratory study, we focused on characteristics, online habits and problematic overuse in adult MMORPG gamers. In addition to socio-demographical data and gamer behavioral patterns, 3 different instruments for screening addiction were used in French MMORPG gamers recruited online over 10 consecutive months: the substance dependence criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth revised edition (DSM-IV-TR) that has been adapted for MMORPG (DAS), the qualitative Goldberg Internet Addiction Disorder scale (GIAD) and the quantitative Orman Internet Stress Scale (ISS). For all scales, a score above a specific threshold defined positivity. The 448 participating adult gamers were mainly young adult university graduates living alone in urban areas. Participants showed high rates of both Internet addiction (44.2% for GIAD, 32.6% for ISS) and DAS positivity (27.5%). Compared to the DAS negative group, DAS positive gamers reported significantly higher rates of tolerance phenomenon (increased amount of time in online gaming to obtain the desired effect) and declared significantly more social, financial (OR: 4.85), marital (OR: 4.61), family (OR: 4.69) and/or professional difficulties (OR: 4.42) since they started online gaming. Furthermore, these gamers self-reported significantly higher rates (3 times more) of irritability, daytime sleepiness, sleep deprivation due to play, low mood and emotional changes since online gaming onset. The DAS

  7. Primary medical care and reductions in addiction severity: a prospective cohort study.

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    Saitz, Richard; Horton, Nicholas J; Larson, Mary Jo; Winter, Michael; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether receipt of primary medical care can lead to improved outcomes for adults with addictions. We studied a prospective cohort of adults enrolled in a randomized trial to improve linkage with primary medical care. Subjects at a residential detoxification unit with alcohol, heroin or cocaine as a substance of choice, and no primary medical care were enrolled. Receipt of primary medical care was assessed over 2 years. Outcomes included (1) alcohol severity, (2) drug severity and (3) any substance use. For the 391 subjects, receipt of primary care (> or = 2 visits) was associated with a lower odds of drug use or alcohol intoxication (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.69, 2 d.f. chi(2)P = 0.002). For 248 subjects with alcohol as a substance of choice, alcohol severity was lower in those who received primary care [predicted mean Addiction Severity Index (ASI) alcohol scores for those reporting > or = 2, 1 and 0 visits, respectively, 0.30, 0.26 and 0.34, P = 0.04]. For 300 subjects with heroin or cocaine as a substance of choice, drug severity was lower in those who received primary care (predicted mean ASI drug scores for those reporting > or = 2, 1 and 0 visits, respectively, 0.13, 0.15 and 0.16, P = 0.01). Receipt of primary medical care is associated with improved addiction severity. These results support efforts to link patients with addictions to primary medical care services.

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and food addiction in women by timing and type of trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Susan M; Flint, Alan J; Roberts, Andrea L; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Koenen, Karestan C; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2014-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase obesity risk but the pathways by which PTSD leads to weight gain are not known. Identification of the links between PTSD and obesogenic eating behaviors is necessary to clarify this pathway and inform development of obesity prevention strategies in PTSD-affected populations. To determine whether women with PTSD symptoms are more likely to report food addiction, a measure of perceived dependence on food, than women without PTSD symptoms. Also, to determine whether age at PTSD symptom onset and type of trauma influence the PTSD-food addiction association. Cross-sectional analysis of 49,408 participants in the Nurses' Health Study II, a cohort comprising women nurses who were aged 25 to 42 years at the 1989 recruitment from 14 US states. The Nurses' Health Study II ascertained lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms in 2008 and current food addiction in 2009. Food addiction was defined as 3 or more clinically significant symptoms on a modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Confounder-adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CIs were estimated using modified Poisson regression. Approximately 80% of the study sample reported some type of trauma exposure, with 66% of the trauma-exposed participants reporting at least 1 lifetime PTSD symptom. Eight percent of the cohort met the criteria for food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction increased with the number of lifetime PTSD symptoms, and women with the greatest number of PTSD symptoms (6-7 symptoms) had more than twice the prevalence of food addiction as women with neither PTSD symptoms nor trauma histories (prevalence ratio, 2.68; 95% CI, 2.41-2.97). Symptoms of PTSD were more strongly related to food addiction when symptom onset occurred at an earlier age. The PTSD-food addiction association did not differ substantially by trauma type. Symptoms of PTSD were associated with increased food addiction prevalence in this cohort of women. Strategies to

  9. Online video game addiction: identification of addicted adolescent gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooij, Antonius J; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Vermulst, Ad A; Van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Van de Mheen, Dike

    2011-01-01

    To provide empirical data-driven identification of a group of addicted online gamers. Repeated cross-sectional survey study, comprising a longitudinal cohort, conducted in 2008 and 2009. Secondary schools in the Netherlands.   Two large samples of Dutch schoolchildren (aged 13-16 years). Compulsive internet use scale, weekly hours of online gaming and psychosocial variables. This study confirms the existence of a small group of addicted online gamers (3%), representing about 1.5% of all children aged 13-16 years in the Netherlands. Although these gamers report addiction-like problems, relationships with decreased psychosocial health were less evident. The identification of a small group of addicted online gamers supports efforts to develop and validate questionnaire scales aimed at measuring the phenomenon of online video game addiction. The findings contribute to the discussion on the inclusion of non-substance addictions in the proposed unified concept of 'Addiction and Related Disorders' for the DSM-V by providing indirect identification and validation of a group of suspected online video game addicts. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Spatial patterns of arrests, police assault and addiction treatment center locations in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Vera, Alicia; Arredondo, Jaime; Beletsky, Leo; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Gaines, Tommi

    2016-07-01

    In the context of a public health-oriented drug policy reform in Mexico, we assessed the spatial distribution of police encounters among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, determined the association between these encounters and the location of addiction treatment centers and explored the association between police encounters and treatment access. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) and logistic regression analysis using prospective spatial data from a community-recruited cohort of PWID in Tijuana and official geographical arrest data from the Tijuana Municipal Police Department. Tijuana, Mexico. A total of 608 participants (median age 37; 28.4% female) in the prospective Proyecto El Cuete cohort study recruited between January and December 2011. We compared the mean distance of police encounters and a randomly distributed set of events to treatment centers. GWR was undertaken to model the spatial relationship between police interactions and treatment centers. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with reporting police interactions. During the study period, 27.5% of police encounters occurred within 500 m of treatment centers. The GWR model suggested spatial correlation between encounters and treatment centers (global R(2)  = 0.53). Reporting a need for addiction treatment was associated with reporting arrest and police assault [adjusted odds ratio = 2.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-6.02, P = 0.012]. A geospatial analysis suggests that, in Mexico, people who inject drugs are at greater risk of being a victim of police violence if they consider themselves in need of addiction treatment, and their interactions with police appear to be more frequent around treatment centers. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Comparing Personality Characteristics of Addicts with Non Addicts in Hamadan

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    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A Sizeable sector of the population in Iran continues to use substance abuse despite government efforts to prevent addiction. Present study was designed to compare personality characteristics of addicts with non addicts. One hundred and six addicts who sought treatment at addiction rehabilitation department of Hamadan , were recruited in this study. A selective control group matched for demographic variables with the first group were also requested to take part in the study. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV and MMPI were administered. The results showed that patients in studied group represented a significantly different personality characteristics in contrast to the control group. Overal 77.8% of addicts were diagnosed as mental disorder. This figure for control group was 26.2% . Also 41.3% of addicts were diagnosed as personality disorders, while the figure for non addicts was 5.8%. High rates of mental disorders and personality problems are reported for addicts. It Seems that psychiatric symptoms and psychological vulnerabilities have important role in addictive behavior.

  12. Attachment and emotion regulation in substance addictions and behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Jáuregui, Paula; Sánchez-Marcos, Inmaculada; López-González, Hibai; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Background Risky behaviors have been related to emotional regulation and attachment, which may constitute risk factors for developing an addictive behavior. However, there may also be differences between substance and non-substance-related addictions. Aims This study aimed to examine the relationship of emotional regulation and attachment, with substance (alcohol and drug abuse), and non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use) in adolescents and emerging adults. The study also aimed to examine gender differences for such predictors. Methods The sample comprised 472 students aged 13-21 years recruited from high schools and vocational education centers. Results Findings demonstrated that emotion regulation was predictive of all addictive behaviors assessed in this study (alcohol and drug abuse, gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use), whereas attachment predicted non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use). In addition, gender differences were found, with females scoring significantly higher in maternal and peer attachment, whereas males scored significantly higher in gambling disorder and video game addiction. Conclusion The findings may be useful for preventive and clinical interventions conducted with youth regarding addictive behaviors.

  13. Recruiting a representative sample in adherence research-The MALT multisite prospective cohort study experience.

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    Shemesh, Eyal; Mitchell, Jeffrey; Neighbors, Katie; Feist, Susan; Hawkins, Andre; Brown, Amanda; Wanrong, Yin; Anand, Ravinder; Stuber, Margaret L; Annunziato, Rachel A

    2017-12-01

    Medication adherence is an important determinant of transplant outcomes. Attempts to investigate adherence are frequently undermined by selection bias: It is very hard to recruit and retain non-adherent patients in research efforts. This manuscript presents recruitment strategies and results from the MALT (Medication Adherence in children who had a Liver Transplant) multisite prospective cohort study. MALT sites recruited 400 pediatric liver transplant patients who agreed to be followed for 2 years. The primary purpose was to determine whether a marker of adherence, the Medication Level Variability Index (MLVI), predicts rejection outcomes. The present manuscript describes methods used in MALT to ensure that a representative sample was recruited, and presents detailed recruitment results. MALT sites were able to recruit a nationally representative sample, as determined by a comparison between the MALT cohort and a national sample of transplant recipients. Strategies that helped ensure that the sample was representative included monitoring of the outcome measure in comparison with a national sample, drastically limiting patient burden, and specific recruitment methods. We discuss the importance of a representative sample in adherence research and recommend that future efforts to study adherence pay special attention to sample characteristics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and less conscientiousness (β=0.12, p<0.001) displayed significant associations with internet addiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, p<0.01) and low openness (β=0.06, p<0.05) were significantly associated with gaming addiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and extraversion (β=0.10, p<0.01) were significantly associated with social networking addiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in on-line game addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Shi, Xianfeng; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent brain imaging studies suggested that both the frontal and temporal cortices are important candidate areas for mediating the symptoms of internet addiction. We hypothesized that deficits of prefrontal and temporal cortical function in patients with on-line game addiction (PGA) would be reflected in decreased levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and cytosolic, choline containing compound (Cho). Seventy three young PGA and 38 age and sex matched healthy control subjects were recruited in the study. Structural MR and 1H MRS data were acquired using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. Voxels were sequentially placed in right frontal cortex and right medial temporal cortices. In the right frontal cortex, the levels of NAA in PGA were lower than those in healthy controls. In the medial temporal cortex, the levels of Cho in PGA participants were lower than those observed in healthy controls. The Young Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores and perseverative responses in PGA were negatively correlated with the level of NAA in right frontal cortex. The Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) scores in the PGA cohort were negatively correlated with Cho levels in the right temporal lobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first MRS study of individuals with on-line game addiction. Although, the subjects with on-line game addiction in the current study were free from psychiatric co-morbidity, patients with on-line game addiction appear to share characteristics with ADHD and MDD in terms of neurochemical changes in frontal and temporal cortices. PMID:25088284

  16. Psychometric properties of the Icelandic NEO-FFI in a general population sample compared to a sample recruited for a study on the genetics of addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnsdottir, Gyda; Jonsson, Fridrik; Hansdottir, Ingunn

    2014-01-01

    . Icelandic norms were compared to American norms and language translations selected for geographical and cultural proximity to Iceland. Multiple discriminant function analysis using NEO-FFI trait scores and gender as independent variables predicted membership in recruitment groups for 47.3% of addiction...... study cases (N= 3804), with accurate predictions made for 69.5% of individuals with treated addiction and 43.3% of their first-degree relatives. Correlations between NEO-FFI scores and the discriminant function suggested a combination of high neuroticism, low conscientiousness and low agreeableness...

  17. Effectiveness of community outreach and engagement in recruitment success for a prebirth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Beth B; Kaar, Jill L; Erbstein, Nancy; Silberman, Pamela; Winseck, Kate; Lopez-Class, Maria; Burbacher, Thomas M

    2017-06-01

    We describe the effectiveness of community outreach and engagement in supporting recruitment for the US National Children's Vanguard Study between 2009 and 2012. Thirty-seven study locations used 1 of 4 strategies to recruit 18-49-year-old pregnant or trying to conceive women: (1) Initial Vanguard Study used household-based recruitment; (2) Direct Outreach emphasized self-referral; (3) Enhanced Household-Based Recruitment enhanced Initial Vanguard Study strategies; and (4) Provider-Based Recruitment recruited through healthcare providers. Outreach and engagement included advance letters, interactions with healthcare providers, participation in community events, contacts with community organizations, and media outreach. After 1-2 years, 41%-74% of 9844 study-eligible women had heard about the National Children's Vanguard Study when first approached. Women who heard were 1.5-3 times more likely to consent. Hearing via word-of-mouth or the media most frequently predicted consent. The more sources women heard from the higher the odds of consent. We conclude that tailored outreach and engagement facilitate recruitment in cohort studies.

  18. Smartphone gaming and frequent use pattern associated with smartphone addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Pan, Yuan-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of smartphone addiction in high school students. A total of 880 adolescents were recruited from a vocational high school in Taiwan in January 2014 to complete a set of questionnaires, including the 10-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and a survey of content and patterns of personal smartphone use. Of those recruited, 689 students (646 male) aged 14 to 21 and who owned a smartphone completed t...

  19. Online Video Game Addiction: Identification of Addicted Adolescent Gamers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, A.J. van; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Mheen, H. van de

    2011-01-01

    Aims To provide empirical data-driven identification of a group of addicted online gamers. Design Repeated cross-sectional survey study, comprising a longitudinal cohort, conducted in 2008 and 2009. Setting Secondary schools in the Netherlands. Participants Two large samples of Dutch

  20. Costs and Efficiency of Online and Offline Recruitment Methods: A Web-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Anders H; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Wise, Lauren A; Nielsen, Marie G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Ellen M

    2017-01-01

    Background The Internet is widely used to conduct research studies on health issues. Many different methods are used to recruit participants for such studies, but little is known about how various recruitment methods compare in terms of efficiency and costs. Objective The aim of our study was to compare online and offline recruitment methods for Internet-based studies in terms of efficiency (number of recruited participants) and costs per participant. Methods We employed several online and offline recruitment methods to enroll 18- to 45-year-old women in an Internet-based Danish prospective cohort study on fertility. Offline methods included press releases, posters, and flyers. Online methods comprised advertisements placed on five different websites, including Facebook and Netdoktor.dk. We defined seven categories of mutually exclusive recruitment methods and used electronic tracking via unique Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and self-reported data to identify the recruitment method for each participant. For each method, we calculated the average cost per participant and efficiency, that is, the total number of recruited participants. Results We recruited 8252 study participants. Of these, 534 were excluded as they could not be assigned to a specific recruitment method. The final study population included 7724 participants, of whom 803 (10.4%) were recruited by offline methods, 3985 (51.6%) by online methods, 2382 (30.8%) by online methods not initiated by us, and 554 (7.2%) by other methods. Overall, the average cost per participant was €6.22 for online methods initiated by us versus €9.06 for offline methods. Costs per participant ranged from €2.74 to €105.53 for online methods and from €0 to €67.50 for offline methods. Lowest average costs per participant were for those recruited from Netdoktor.dk (€2.99) and from Facebook (€3.44). Conclusions In our Internet-based cohort study, online recruitment methods were superior to offline methods in terms

  1. Smartphone gaming and frequent use pattern associated with smartphone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Pan, Yuan-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of smartphone addiction in high school students.A total of 880 adolescents were recruited from a vocational high school in Taiwan in January 2014 to complete a set of questionnaires, including the 10-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and a survey of content and patterns of personal smartphone use. Of those recruited, 689 students (646 male) aged 14 to 21 and who owned a smartphone completed the questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the variables associated with smartphone addiction.Smartphone gaming and frequent smartphone use were associated with smartphone addiction. Furthermore, both the smartphone gaming-predominant and gaming with multiple-applications groups showed a similar association with smartphone addiction. Gender, duration of owning a smartphone, and substance use were not associated with smartphone addiction.Our findings suggest that smartphone use patterns should be part of specific measures to prevent and intervene in cases of excessive smartphone use.

  2. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health 1989-95 Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-05-04

    In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women-a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort.

  3. Food addiction in children: Associations with obesity, parental food addiction and feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, T; Skinner, J; Joyner, M A; Palmieri, J; Vaughan, K; Gearhardt, A N

    2017-08-01

    Food addiction research in children is limited, and to date addictive-like eating behaviors within families have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to understand factors associated with addictive-like eating in children. The association between food addiction in children with obesity, parental food addiction, and parental feeding practices (i.e., restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring) was investigated. Parents/primary caregivers (aged≥18years) of children aged 5-12years, recruited and completed an online cross-sectional survey including demographics, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Parents, reporting on themselves and one of their children, were given a food addiction diagnosis and symptom score according to the YFAS predefined criteria. The total sample consisted of 150 parents/primary caregivers (48% male) and 150 children (51% male). Food addiction was found to be 12.0% in parents and 22.7% in children. In children, food addiction was significantly associated with higher child BMI z-scores. Children with higher food addiction symptoms had parents with higher food addiction scores. Parents of FA children reported significantly higher levels of Restriction and Pressure to eat feeding practices, but not Monitoring. Children with elevated YFAS-C scores may be at greater risk for eating-related issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recruiting to cohort studies in specialist healthcare services: Lessons learned from clinical research nurses in UK cleft services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchelli, Fabio; Rumsey, Nichola; Humphries, Kerry; Bennett, Rhiannon; Davies, Amy; Sandy, Jonathan; Stock, Nicola Marie

    2018-03-01

    To explore the experiences of clinical research nurses recruiting patients in a large specialist care-based cohort study. Longitudinal studies are vital to better understand the aetiology and moderators of health conditions. This need is especially salient for congenital conditions, such as cleft lip and/or palate, where establishing large, comprehensive data sets from birth is vital to improve understanding and to inform interventions. Various barriers exist in recruiting patients to large cohort studies. The role of clinical research nurses embedded within health settings has grown over past decades to facilitate data collection, yet challenges remain. Qualitative descriptive study. Individual semi-structured interviews with 12 clinical research nurses based in 10 National Health Service cleft services across the UK, recruiting to the Cleft Collective Birth Cohort Study. Of seven emergent themes, three highlighted challenges to recruiting patients, another three described facilitative factors, and one theme overlapped challenges and facilitators. Challenges included the life circumstances of potential participants; language barriers; and limited clinical research nurse time for study. Facilitative factors included integrating research into clinical practice; patient information shared with clinical research nurses; and support from the university-based research study team. The theme "Method of data collection" related to both challenges and facilitators. The qualitative data from clinical research nurses recruiting to a large birth cohort study provide helpful practical detail for specialist healthcare teams, specialist nurses, clinical research nurses and researchers looking to optimise recruitment and data collection in longitudinal studies. The findings suggest the importance of specialist clinical services and research study teams cooperating to embed research into everyday clinical practice, without compromising care. This should facilitate patients

  5. Costs and Efficiency of Online and Offline Recruitment Methods: A Web-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Tina; Riis, Anders H; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Wise, Lauren A; Nielsen, Marie G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Ellen M

    2017-03-01

    The Internet is widely used to conduct research studies on health issues. Many different methods are used to recruit participants for such studies, but little is known about how various recruitment methods compare in terms of efficiency and costs. The aim of our study was to compare online and offline recruitment methods for Internet-based studies in terms of efficiency (number of recruited participants) and costs per participant. We employed several online and offline recruitment methods to enroll 18- to 45-year-old women in an Internet-based Danish prospective cohort study on fertility. Offline methods included press releases, posters, and flyers. Online methods comprised advertisements placed on five different websites, including Facebook and Netdoktor.dk. We defined seven categories of mutually exclusive recruitment methods and used electronic tracking via unique Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and self-reported data to identify the recruitment method for each participant. For each method, we calculated the average cost per participant and efficiency, that is, the total number of recruited participants. We recruited 8252 study participants. Of these, 534 were excluded as they could not be assigned to a specific recruitment method. The final study population included 7724 participants, of whom 803 (10.4%) were recruited by offline methods, 3985 (51.6%) by online methods, 2382 (30.8%) by online methods not initiated by us, and 554 (7.2%) by other methods. Overall, the average cost per participant was €6.22 for online methods initiated by us versus €9.06 for offline methods. Costs per participant ranged from €2.74 to €105.53 for online methods and from €0 to €67.50 for offline methods. Lowest average costs per participant were for those recruited from Netdoktor.dk (€2.99) and from Facebook (€3.44). In our Internet-based cohort study, online recruitment methods were superior to offline methods in terms of efficiency (total number of participants

  6. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 1989-95 Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Objective Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. Methods We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. Results In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Conclusions Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women—a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort. PMID:25940876

  7. Common and specific liability to addiction: approaches to association studies of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, David A; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2012-06-01

    Opioid addiction, whether to opiates such as heroin and morphine, and/or to non-medical use of opioids, is a major problem worldwide. Although drug-induced and environmental factors are essential for the liability to develop opioid addiction, the genetic background of an individual is now known also to play a substantial role. The overall goal of this article is to address the common and specific liabilities to addiction in the context of approaches to studies of one addiction, opioid addiction. Literature on identifying genetic variants that may play a role in the development of opioid addiction was reviewed. A substantial number of genetic variants have been reported to be associated with opioid addiction. No single variant has been found in any of the reported GWAS studies with a substantial effect size on the liability to develop heroin addiction. It appears that there is a complex interaction of a large number of variants, some rare, some common, which interact with the environment and in response to specific drugs of abuse to increase the liability of developing opioid addiction. In spite of the inherent difficulties in obtaining large well-phenotyped cohorts for genetic studies, new findings have been reported that are being used to develop testable hypotheses into the biological basis of opioid addiction. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Six-year mortality in a street-recruited cohort of homeless youth in San Francisco, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerswald, Colette L; Lin, Jessica S; Parriott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The mortality rate of a street-recruited homeless youth cohort in the United States has not yet been reported. We examined the six-year mortality rate for a cohort of street youth recruited from San Francisco street venues in 2004. Methods. Using data collected from a longitudinal, venue-based sample of street youth 15-24 years of age, we calculated age, race, and gender-adjusted mortality rates. Results. Of a sample of 218 participants, 11 died from enrollment in 2004 to December 31, 2010. The majority of deaths were due to suicide and/or substance abuse. The death rate was 9.6 deaths per hundred thousand person-years. The age, race and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 10.6 (95% CI [5.3-18.9]). Gender specific SMRs were 16.1 (95% CI [3.3-47.1]) for females and 9.4 (95% CI [4.0-18.4]) for males. Conclusions. Street-recruited homeless youth in San Francisco experience a mortality rate in excess of ten times that of the state's general youth population. Services and programs, particularly housing, mental health and substance abuse interventions, are urgently needed to prevent premature mortality in this vulnerable population.

  9. The Survey of Personal and National Identity on Cell Phone Addicts and Non-Addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Ghanizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi Kalhory, Soroush; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Sepahbodi, Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Smart phones have rapidly become an integral, and for some, an essential communication device worldwide. The issue of identity has always been a subject of interest among psychologists. The present study was conducted to compare personal and national identity and their subscales between cell phone addicts and non-addicts. Method : In this cross-sectional study, 500 student cell phone users from various universities in Tehran were recruited using stratified sampling. Participants completed cell phone addiction questionnaires including Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS), Cell Phone Dependency Questionnaire (CPDQ), Personal Identity Development Questionnaire, Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOMEIS) and National Identity Questionnaire. Then, the subscales of these instruments were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Results: Results of this study revealed significant differences between cell phone addicts and non-addicts in the scores of national identity, personal identity, and most subscales, except for some subscales (Pphone addiction (r=-0.35, -0.33, respectively).On the other hand, after controlling for the confounder variables, we found that national identity had an effect on cell phone addiction(OR=0.05, CI=0.92-0.98). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that cell phone overuse may be correlated with defects in some aspects of national and personal identity.

  10. Intimate partner violence and prescription of potentially addictive drugs: prospective cohort study of women in the Oslo Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyb, Grete; Tverdal, Aage; Jacobsen, Geir Wenberg; Schei, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prescription of potentially addictive drugs, including analgesics and central nervous system depressants, to women who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Design Prospective population-based cohort study. Setting Information about IPV from the Oslo Health Study 2000/2001 was linked with prescription data from the Norwegian Prescription Database from 1 January 2004 through 31 December 2009. Participants The study included 6081 women aged 30–60 years. Main outcome measures Prescription rate ratios (RRs) for potentially addictive drugs derived from negative binomial models, adjusted for age, education, paid employment, marital status, chronic musculoskeletal pain, mental distress and sleep problems. Results Altogether 819 (13.5%) of 6081 women reported ever experiencing IPV: 454 (7.5%) comprised physical and/or sexual IPV and 365 (6.0%) psychological IPV alone. Prescription rates for potentially addictive drugs were clearly higher among women who had experienced IPV: crude RRs were 3.57 (95% CI 2.89 to 4.40) for physical/sexual IPV and 2.13 (95% CI 1.69 to 2.69) for psychological IPV alone. After full adjustment RRs were 1.83 (1.50 to 2.22) for physical/sexual IPV, and 1.97 (1.59 to 2.45) for psychological IPV alone. Prescription rates were increased both for potentially addictive analgesics and central nervous system depressants. Furthermore, women who reported IPV were more likely to receive potentially addictive drugs from multiple physicians. Conclusions Women who had experienced IPV, including psychological violence alone, more often received prescriptions for potentially addictive drugs. Researchers and clinicians should address the possible adverse health and psychosocial impact of such prescription and focus on developing evidence-based healthcare for women who have experienced IPV. PMID:22492384

  11. Six-year mortality in a street-recruited cohort of homeless youth in San Francisco, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette L. Auerswald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The mortality rate of a street-recruited homeless youth cohort in the United States has not yet been reported. We examined the six-year mortality rate for a cohort of street youth recruited from San Francisco street venues in 2004. Methods. Using data collected from a longitudinal, venue-based sample of street youth 15–24 years of age, we calculated age, race, and gender-adjusted mortality rates. Results. Of a sample of 218 participants, 11 died from enrollment in 2004 to December 31, 2010. The majority of deaths were due to suicide and/or substance abuse. The death rate was 9.6 deaths per hundred thousand person-years. The age, race and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 10.6 (95% CI [5.3–18.9]. Gender specific SMRs were 16.1 (95% CI [3.3–47.1] for females and 9.4 (95% CI [4.0–18.4] for males. Conclusions. Street-recruited homeless youth in San Francisco experience a mortality rate in excess of ten times that of the state’s general youth population. Services and programs, particularly housing, mental health and substance abuse interventions, are urgently needed to prevent premature mortality in this vulnerable population.

  12. Chronic disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among alcohol and drug dependent adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic medical diseases require regular and longitudinal care and self-management for effective treatment. When chronic diseases include substance use disorders, care and treatment of both the medical and addiction disorders may affect access to care and the ability to focus on both conditions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the association between the presence of chronic medical disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among adults with substance dependence. Methods Cross-sectional secondary data analysis of self-reported baseline data from alcohol and/or drug-dependent adults enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a disease management program for substance dependence in primary care. The main independent variable was chronic medical disease status, categorized using the Katz Comorbidity Score as none, single condition of lower severity, or higher severity (multiple conditions or single higher severity condition, based on comorbidity scores determined from self-report. Asthma was also examined in secondary analyses. The primary outcome was any self-reported addiction treatment utilization (excluding detoxification in the 3 months prior to study entry, including receipt of any addiction-focused counseling or addiction medication from any healthcare provider. Logistic regression models were adjusted for sociodemographics, type of substance dependence, recruitment site, current smoking, and recent anxiety severity. Results Of 563 subjects, 184 (33% reported any chronic disease (20% low severity; 13% higher severity and 111 (20% reported asthma; 157 (28% reported any addiction treatment utilization in the past 3 months. In multivariate regression analyses, no significant effect was detected for chronic disease on addiction treatment utilization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.88 lower severity vs. none, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60, 1.28; AOR 1.29 higher severity vs. none, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.88 nor for

  13. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Masters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU in Muscat, Oman. Methods: In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA, YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA. Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items. Work-related SNS usage was also measured. Results: A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%. Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%, followed by Facebook (91.4% and Twitter (70.4%. Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%. However, addiction rates decreased when workrelated activity was taken into account. Conclusion: Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that workrelated activities should be taken into account during measurement.

  14. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ken

    2015-08-01

    Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Muscat, Oman. In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA), YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA) and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA). Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items). Work-related SNS usage was also measured. A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%). Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%), followed by Facebook (91.4%) and Twitter (70.4%). Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%). However, addiction rates decreased when work-related activity was taken into account. Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that work-related activities should be taken into account during measurement.

  15. Recruiting black Americans in a large cohort study: the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) design, methods and participant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, R Patti; Butler, Terry; Hall, Sonja; Montgomery, Susanne B; Fraser, Gary E

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the prospective Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) was to examine the relationship between diet and risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers in Black and White participants. This paper describes the study design, recruitment methods, response rates, and characteristics of Blacks in the AHS-2, thus providing insights about effective strategies to recruit Blacks to participate in research studies. We designed a church-based recruitment model and trained local recruiters who used various strategies to recruit participants in their churches. Participants completed a 50-page self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. Participants are Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged 30-109 years, and members of 1,209 Black churches throughout the United States and Canada. Approximately 48,328 Blacks from an estimated target group of over 90,000 signed up for the study and 25,087 completed the questionnaire, comprising about 26% of the larger 97,000 AHS-2-member cohort. Participants were diverse in age, geographic location, education, and income. Seventy percent were female with a median age of 59 years. In spite of many recruitment challenges and barriers, we successfully recruited a large cohort whose data should provide some answers as to why Blacks have poorer health outcomes than several other ethnic groups, and help explain existing health disparities.

  16. Internet Addiction among Adolescents May Predict Self-Harm/Suicidal Behavior: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pei-Yin; Yeh, Chin-Bin

    2018-06-01

    To explore the role of Internet addiction in the development of self-harm/suicidal behavior among adolescents after 1-year of follow-up. We conducted this 1-year, prospective cohort study of 1861 adolescents (mean age 15.93 years) attending a senior high school in Taiwan; 1735 respondents (93.2%) were classified as having no history of self-harm/suicidal attempts in the initial assessment and were referred to as the "noncase" cohort. The Chen Internet Addiction Scale was used to identify individuals with Internet addiction. The participants were evaluated for self-harm/suicidal behavior again 1 year later and the "noncase" cohort was selected for statistical analysis. To examine the relationship between Internet addiction and self-harm/suicidal behavior, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using Internet addiction at baseline as the predictor for newly developed self-harm/suicidal behavior in the next year, after adjustment for potential confounding variables. The prevalence rate of Internet addiction at baseline was 23.0%. There were 59 students (3.9%) who were identified as having developed new self-harm/suicidal behaviors on follow-up assessments. After controlling for the effects of potential confounders, the relative risk of newly emerging self-harm/suicidal behavior for participants who were classified as Internet addicted was 2.41 (95% CI 1.16-4.99, P = .018) when compared with those without Internet addiction. Our findings indicate that Internet addiction is prospectively associated with the incidence of self-harm/suicidal behavior in adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recruiting Black Americans in a Large Cohort Study: The Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) Design, Methods and Participant Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, R. Patti; Butler, Terry; Hall, Sonja; Montgomery, Susanne B.; Fraser, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal of the prospective Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) was to examine the relationship between diet and risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers in Black and White participants. This paper describes the study design, recruitment methods, response rates, and characteristics of Blacks in the AHS-2, thus providing insights about effective strategies to recruit Blacks to participate in research studies. Design We designed a church-based recruitment model and trained local recruiters who used various strategies to recruit participants in their churches. Participants completed a 50-page self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. Participants Participants are Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged 30–109 years, and members of 1,209 Black churches throughout the United States and Canada. Results Approximately 48,328 Blacks from an estimated target group of over 90,000 signed up for the study and 25,087 completed the questionnaire, comprising about 26% of the larger 97,000 AHS-2-member cohort. Participants were diverse in age, geographic location, education, and income. Seventy percent were female with a median age of 59 years. Conclusion In spite of many recruitment challenges and barriers, we successfully recruited a large cohort whose data should provide some answers as to why Blacks have poorer health outcomes than several other ethnic groups, and help explain existing health disparities. PMID:21305834

  18. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity
department of addictive behaviour and addiction medicine, central institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, University of Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Karl

    2010-12-01

    Addictive behaviour is as prevalent in Germany as in other western countries, but in contrast to some European countries and the United States, very little money was given to this research field. Change came in the early 1990s, when the German government started to launch specific grants for addiction research. The first chair in addiction research was created in 1999 (Karl Mann) at the Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim (CIMH; University of Heidelberg). The recruitment of a pre-clinical alcohol researcher as head of the department of psychopharmacology followed (Rainer Spanagel). This 'addiction research cluster' collaborates with several research groups at the CIMH (such as genetics). We inaugurated a clinical trial network which now comprises up to 20 treatment centres throughout Germany. Like most authors, we found effect sizes of different treatment modalities more in the low to moderate range, perhaps because of the heterogeneity of large patient samples. Therefore, we concentrated upon the biological basis of addiction in order to define more homogeneous 'subtypes' of patients for a better match with existing treatments. Results concerning genetics and neuroimaging (both animal and human) are promising, and could move our field towards a more personalized treatment approach. Our funding has been extended over the years, including involvement in several large European grants. We are studying substance-related problems as well as so-called 'behavioural addictions'. As a natural consequence of this development, we are deeply involved both in informing the general public on addiction issues as well as in counselling policy makers in Germany. © 2010 The Author, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. HIV-infected individuals who delay, decline, or discontinue antiretroviral therapy: Comparing clinic- and peer-recruited cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya eGwadz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A substantial proportion of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA delay, decline, or discontinue antiretroviral therapy (ART when it is medically indicated (40-45%, largely African Americans and Latinos/Hispanics. This study explores the feasibility of locating PLHA who are not on ART (PLHA-NOA through clinics and peer referral; compares the two cohorts on multi-level barriers to ART; and examines readiness to initiate/reinitiate ART, a predictor of treatment outcomes. We recruited adult HIV-infected African American and Latino/Hispanic PLHA-NOA through HIV hospital clinics and peer referral in 2012-13. Participants engaged in structured one-hour assessments with reliable/valid measures on barriers to ART. We found recruitment through peers (63.2%, 60/95 was more feasible than in clinics (36.8%, 35/90. Participants were 48.0 years old and had lived with HIV for 14.7 years on average, and 56.8% had taken ART previously. Most (61.1% were male and African American (76.8%, and 23.2% were Latino/Hispanic. Peer-recruited participants were older, had lived with HIV longer, were less engaged in HIV care, and were more likely to have taken ART previously. The cohorts differed in reasons for discontinuing ART. Levels of ART knowledge were comparable between cohorts (68.5% correct, and there were no differences in attitudes toward ART (e.g., mistrust, which were in the neutral range. In bivariate linear regression, readiness for ART was negatively associated with physician mistrust (B=-10.4, and positively associated with self-efficacy (B=5.5, positive outcome expectancies (B=6.3, beliefs about personal necessity of ART (B=17.5, and positive internal norms (B=7.9. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of engaging this vulnerable population through peer referral. Peer-recruited PLHA evidence particularly high rates of risk factors compared those in clinics. Interventions to support ART initiation and continuation are sorely needed for both subgroups.

  20. What factors influence recruitment to a birth cohort of infants with Down's syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Georgina M; Neville, Patricia; Gillespie, Kathleen M; Leary, Sam D; Hamilton-Shield, Julian P; Searle, Aidan J

    2018-03-08

    To understand how to maximise recruitment of young infants with Down's syndrome (DS) into research through qualitative interviews with parents and care providers. In complex neonatal and genetic conditions such as DS, frequently diagnosed after birth, parents may go through a period of adaptation. These factors need consideration when overcoming barriers to recruitment. Participants, who were drawn from health professionals and volunteers working with families experiencing DS, were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy. Semistructured telephone interviews were completed with nine paediatricians, three research nurses and six family support workers. Five of those interviewed had a child with DS. The interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. A positive decision to take part in a 'from-birth' cohort study depends on factors such as the child's overall health, parent demographics (educational background and ethnicity), medical interactions that take place with the families (communication) and study logistics. The data suggest that recruitment methods need to take all these factors into consideration. Multiple recruitment methods should be considered including face to face, through parent and support groups, websites and social media. There also needs to be flexibility in the research timings to fit around the needs of the child and parents. Researchers need to be aware of the variable responses elicited by families to a diagnosis of DS for their baby and be sensitive to the child's current medical status. This does not preclude recruitment into studies, but to maximise uptake good communication and flexibility is essential. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Beyond "Facebook Addiction": The Role of Cognitive-Related Factors and Psychiatric Distress in Social Networking Site Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Halley M; Taylor, Megan; Stavropoulos, Vasileios

    2018-04-01

    The use of social networking sites (SNSs) is rapidly increasing as billions of individuals use SNS platforms regularly to communicate with other users, follow the news, and play browser games. Given the widespread use of SNS platforms, investigating the potential predictors of addictive SNS use beyond Facebook use has become paramount given that most studies so far focused on "Facebook addiction." In this study, a total of 511 English-speaking SNS users (58.1% young adults aged 20-35 years; 64.6% female) were recruited online and asked to complete a battery of standardized psychometric tools assessing participants' sociodemographic characteristics, SNS preferences and patterns of use, SNS addiction, preference for online social interaction, maladaptive cognitions, fear of missing out (FoMo), dysfunctional emotion regulation, and general psychiatric distress. Overall, about 4.9% (n = 25) of all participants could be classed as having a high SNS addiction risk profile. Moreover, the results further indicated that FoMo (β = 0.38), maladaptive cognitions (β = 0.25), and psychiatric distress (β = 0.12) significantly predicted SNS addiction (i.e., p < 0.0001) and accounted for about 61% of the total variance in SNS addiction, with FoMo providing the strongest predictive contribution over and above the effects of sociodemographic variables and patterns of SNS use. The implications of the present findings were discussed in light of extant literature on behavioral addictions and Facebook addiction and further considerations were provided regarding the potential clinical implications for cognitive-based psychological treatment approaches to SNS addiction.

  2. Boredom Proneness, Social Connectedness, and Sexual Addiction among Men Who Have Sex with Male Internet Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Michael P.; Blalock, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors collected surveys from 517 men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited from Internet chat rooms to examine the relationships among boredom, social connectedness, and sexual addiction. The results provide addictions professionals psychosocial factors to assess when working with sexually addicted MSM. (Contains 3 tables.)

  3. Smartphone Addiction and Interpersonal Competence of Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, Sunhee; KIM, Hye-Jin; CHOI, Han-Gyo; YOO, Yang Sook

    2018-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal competence is an important capacity for nurses. Recently, the advent of smartphones has instigated considerable changes in daily life. Because smartphone has multiple functions, people tend to use them for numerous activities, often leading to addictive behavior. Methods: This cross-sectional study performed a detailed analysis of smartphone addiction subscales and social support related to interpersonal competence of nursing students. Overall, 324 college students were recruited at Catholic University in Seoul, Korea from Feb 2013 to Mar 2013. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire, which included scales that measured smartphone addiction, social support, interpersonal competence, and general characteristics. Path analysis was used to evaluate structural relations between subscales of smartphone addictions, social support, and interpersonal competence. Results: The effect of cyberspace-oriented relationships and social support on interpersonal competence were 1.360 (P=.004) and 0.555 (Psmartphone addiction subscale, and social support were positively correlated with interpersonal competence of nursing students, while other smartphone addiction subscales were not related to nursing student interpersonal competence. Therefore, effective smartphone teaching methods be developed to enhance nursing student motivation

  4. Smartphone Addiction and Interpersonal Competence of Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Kim, Hye-Jin; Choi, Han-Gyo; Yoo, Yang Sook

    2018-03-01

    Interpersonal competence is an important capacity for nurses. Recently, the advent of smartphones has instigated considerable changes in daily life. Because smartphone has multiple functions, people tend to use them for numerous activities, often leading to addictive behavior. This cross-sectional study performed a detailed analysis of smartphone addiction subscales and social support related to interpersonal competence of nursing students. Overall, 324 college students were recruited at Catholic University in Seoul, Korea from Feb 2013 to Mar 2013. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire, which included scales that measured smartphone addiction, social support, interpersonal competence, and general characteristics. Path analysis was used to evaluate structural relations between subscales of smartphone addictions, social support, and interpersonal competence. The effect of cyberspace-oriented relationships and social support on interpersonal competence were 1.360 ( P =.004) and 0.555 ( P smartphone addiction subscale, and social support were positively correlated with interpersonal competence of nursing students, while other smartphone addiction subscales were not related to nursing student interpersonal competence. Therefore, effective smartphone teaching methods be developed to enhance nursing student motivation.

  5. Genetic and psychosocial factors for benzodiazepine addiction. An analysis based on the results of the authors’ own research conducted in a group of benzodiazepine addicted and non-addicted individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Konopka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In spite of the fact that the addictive potential of benzodiazepine (BDZ drugs has been known for a long time, benzodiazepine addiction remains a common problem for psychiatry to deal with. The etiology of benzodiazepine addiction is very complex. Among the risk factors, the course of the treatment, demographic status and psychological features of a patient seem to play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate both psychological and genetic factors differentiating benzodiazepine addicts from non-addicted users.Methods: We analysed a cohort of 120 individuals treated with benzodiazepines divided into two groups: benzodiazepine addicts and non-addicted benzodiazepine users (the control group. In both groups we measured genetic polymorphisms of GABA A2 and MAOA. In both groups some psychometric measurements were performed – we investigated the level of depression, anxiety as a state and as a trait, personality features and the dominant coping style using the Beck Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Five-Factor Personality Inventory NEO-FFI and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations [4,10,17,36,41,44].Results: There are some psychological and situational risk factors for benzodiazepine addiction such as high neuroticism, introversion and lack of the ability to release tension through interpersonal contacts, dominance of emotional coping style and high accumulation of critical life events during both childhood and adulthood. The genetic background still remains a field for further exploration.

  6. Addiction and the brain antireward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F; Le Moal, Michel

    2008-01-01

    A neurobiological model of the brain emotional systems has been proposed to explain the persistent changes in motivation that are associated with vulnerability to relapse in addiction, and this model may generalize to other psychopathology associated with dysregulated motivational systems. In this framework, addiction is conceptualized as a cycle of decreased function of brain reward systems and recruitment of antireward systems that progressively worsen, resulting in the compulsive use of drugs. Counteradaptive processes, such as opponent process, that are part of the normal homeostatic limitation of reward function fail to return within the normal homeostatic range and are hypothesized to repeatedly drive the allostatic state. Excessive drug taking thus results in not only the short-term amelioration of the reward deficit but also suppression of the antireward system. However, in the long term, there is worsening of the underlying neurochemical dysregulations that ultimately form an allostatic state (decreased dopamine and opioid peptide function, increased corticotropin-releasing factor activity). This allostatic state is hypothesized to be reflected in a chronic deviation of reward set point that is fueled not only by dysregulation of reward circuits per se but also by recruitment of brain and hormonal stress responses. Vulnerability to addiction may involve genetic comorbidity and developmental factors at the molecular, cellular, or neurocircuitry levels that sensitize the brain antireward systems.

  7. Development and Validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI)

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Li-Ren; Lee, Yang-Han; Tseng, Hsien-Wei; Kuo, Terry B. J.; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered scale based on the special features of smartphone. The reliability and validity of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) was demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 283 participants were recruited from Dec. 2012 to Jul. 2013 to complete a set of questionnaires, including a 26-item SPAI modified from the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and phantom vibration and ringing syndrome questionnaire. There were 260 males and 23 females...

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in ...

  9. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed.

  10. Group membership and social identity in addiction recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Sarah A; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P

    2013-12-01

    Despite a growing interest in how group membership can positively impact health, little research has addressed directly the role social identity processes can have on recovery from addiction. Drawing on social identity theory and self-categorization theory, the present study investigated how recovery group membership can introduce a new social identity associated with recovery, compared to the social identity associated with addiction. We hypothesized that two processes--evaluative differentiation and identity preference--would be linked with higher self-efficacy and positive health outcomes (i.e., reduced relapse, lower levels of appetitive behavior, and elevated feelings of social connectedness [Study 2]). Study 1 recruited members (N = 61) from United Kingdom based mutual aid groups of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Study 2 recruited ex-smokers (N = 81) from online sources. In Study 1, evaluative differentiation was significantly related to lowered relapse and reduced appetitive behavior. Identity preference was related to higher levels of self-efficacy, which was related to months drug-free and reduced levels of appetitive behaviors. In Study 2, evaluative differentiation was related to identity preference. Identity preference was also related to higher self-efficacy, which in turn was related to lower relapse. Although exploratory, these results suggest that developing a social identity as a "recovering addict" or an "ex-smoker" and subsequently highlighting the difference between such identities may be a useful strategy for reducing relapse among people with problems associated with addictive behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Neurobiology of dysregulated motivational systems in drug addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F

    2010-01-01

    The progression from recreational drug use to drug addiction impacts multiple neurobiological processes and can be conceptualized as a transition from positive to negative reinforcement mechanisms driving both drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors. Neurobiological mechanisms for negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state, involve changes in the brain reward system and recruitment of brain stress (or antireward) systems within forebrain structures, including the extended amygdala. These systems are hypothesized to be dysregulated by excessive drug intake and to contribute to allostatic changes in reinforcement mechanisms associated with addiction. Points of intersection between positive and negative motivational circuitry may further drive the compulsivity of drug addiction but also provide a rich neurobiological substrate for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20563312

  12. Social networking addiction, attachment style, and validation of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacis, Lucia; de Palo, Valeria; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinatra, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Aim Research into social networking addiction has greatly increased over the last decade. However, the number of validated instruments assessing addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) remains few, and none have been validated in the Italian language. Consequently, this study tested the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), as well as providing empirical data concerning the relationship between attachment styles and SNS addiction. Methods A total of 769 participants were recruited to this study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multigroup analyses were applied to assess construct validity of the Italian version of the BSMAS. Reliability analyses comprised the average variance extracted, the standard error of measurement, and the factor determinacy coefficient. Results Indices obtained from the CFA showed the Italian version of the BSMAS to have an excellent fit of the model to the data, thus confirming the single-factor structure of the instrument. Measurement invariance was established at configural, metric, and strict invariances across age groups, and at configural and metric levels across gender groups. Internal consistency was supported by several indicators. In addition, the theoretical associations between SNS addiction and attachment styles were generally supported. Conclusion This study provides evidence that the Italian version of the BSMAS is a psychometrically robust tool that can be used in future Italian research into social networking addiction.

  13. Patients with alcohol use disorder: initial results from a prospective multicenter registry in the Spanish Network on Addiction Disorders. CohRTA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Zuluaga, Paola; Rivas, Inmaculada; Rubio, Gabriel; Gual, Antoni; Torrens, Marta; Short, Antoni; Álvarez, Francisco Javier; Tor, Jordi; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Muga, Roberto

    2017-07-14

    The Alcohol Program of the Spanish Network on Addictive Disorders-RTA requires a longitudinal study to address different research questions related to alcoholism. The cohort study (CohRTA) focuses on patients seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, as a multicentre, collaborative research project aimed to improve secondary prevention and early diagnosis of pathological processes associated with the disorder. multicentre cohort study in adults (>18 years) seeking their first treatment of the disorder. Patients sign an informed consent and data is collected in an online platform specifically designed for the study; patients are also requested to provide biological samples that are stored in a biobank. Baseline and prospective, socio-demographic, epidemiological, clinical and treatment data are collected. Currently there are 10 participating centres that expect to recruit more than 1,000 patients. As of December 2015, 344 patients (77% men) were included. Median age at admission was 50 years (IQR: 43-55 years). Median age at the start of alcohol consumption was 15 years (IQR: 14-18 years) and 61% of cases reported antecedents of alcohol use disorder in the family. During the 30 days prior to admission, alcohol consumption amounted to 12.5 SDU/day (IQR: 7.1-20 SDU/day), 72% of the patients were tobacco smokers and 30% currently used cocaine. Organising an open cohort of patients with alcohol use disorder may be crucial to better understand the clinical consequences of alcoholism in Spain. This cohort may potentiate quantitative and qualitative research within the Spanish Network on Addictive Disorders-RTA/RETICS. Having a well-established, representative cohort of patients will increase translational research on consequences of alcoholism in our country.

  14. The Edinburgh Addiction Cohort: recruitment and follow-up of a primary care based sample of injection drug users and non drug-injecting controls

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    Kimber Jo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use is an important public health problem. Epidemiological understanding of this problem is incomplete as longitudinal studies in the general population are difficult to undertake. In particular little is known about early life risk factors for later drug injection or about the life course of injection once established including the influence of medical and social interventions. Methods Individuals thought to be drug injectors were identified through a single primary medical care facility in Edinburgh between 1980 and 2006 and flagged with the General Registry Office. From October 2005 - October 2007, these cases were traced and invited to undergo interview assessment covering early life experience, substance use, health and social histories. Age and sex matched controls for confirmed cases (alive and dead were later recruited through the same health facility. Controls for living cases completed the same structured interview schedule. Data were also collected on cases and controls through linkage to routine primary care records, death registrations, hospital contact statistics and police and prison records. All interviews were conducted with the knowledge and permission of the current GP. Results The initial cohort size was 814. At start of follow up 227 had died. Of the remaining 587: 20 had no contact details and 5 had embarked from the UK; 40 declined participation; 38 did not respond to invitations; 14 were excluded by their GP on health or social grounds and 22 had their contact details withheld by administrative authorities. 448 were interviewed of whom 16 denied injection and were excluded. Of 191 dead cases with medical records 4 were excluded as their records contained no evidence of injection. 5 interviewed cases died before follow up was concluded though these individuals were counted as "live" cases. 1 control per case (dead and alive was recruited. Linkage to Scottish Morbidity Records data

  15. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women?s Health 1989-95 Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Objective Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. Methods We used referrals, Facebook, formal adve...

  16. Recruitment strategies and yields for the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort: a prospective natural history study of incident dysglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenibo, Sotonte; Edeoga, Chimaroke; Ammons, Ann; Egbuonu, Nonso; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2013-05-10

    The Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort study is a prospective evaluation of the transition from normal to impaired glucose regulation among African American and Caucasian adults with parental type 2 diabetes. This report describes recruitment strategies and relative yields for the 376 enrolled subjects. Recruitment occurred over 3.4 years, with clinical and metabolic assessments during 2.1-5.5 years of quarterly follow-up. The major recruitment sources were advertisements, community outreach, and clinical facilities. Advertisements included newspaper, television, radio, Internet, distributed brochures, utility bill inserts, and direct mailing. Community outreach included screening events during religious gatherings and health fairs, and referral by friends and families. The category of clinical facilities covered all subjects referred by health workers or recruited through area clinics and hospitals. 57.7% of participants were African American and 42.3% were Caucasian; the mean age (± SD) was 44.2 ± 10.6 years, and ~70% were female. Advertisements yielded 52.4% of all participants, compared to 34.8% from community outreach and 12.8% from clinical facilities (P for trend advertising as the source of study information, whereas more African Americans than Caucasians cited community outreach. The accrual from clinical facilities was similar in both groups. Advertisements and community outreach were robust recruitment sources for assembling a diverse longitudinal diabetes offspring cohort, but each had differential yields in African Americans and Caucasians. Thus, a multifaceted approach comprising passive and active components is needed to recruit a multiracial clinical research population.

  17. Psychological problems and family functioning as risk factors in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Sajida; Zia, Hamid; Irfan, Syed

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine the role of family functioning and psychological problems of drug addicts and non addicts by assessing the difference between the two groups. After detailed literature review it was hypothesized that scores on the variable of communication, affective expression and control among family members of addicts will be higher than non addicts. Furthermore scores on the variables of anger control problems, emotional distress and positive self will also be higher of addicts. This was a cohort study. A cluster sampling method was used. Sample of present research consisted of 240 adolescents divided into two groups of 120 addicts and 120 non-addicts each from different socio-economic status. General scale of Family Assessment Measure-Version III (FAM-III) was administered in order to measure the level of communication, value and norms whereas dyadic Relationship Scale was used to measure affective expression and control among the family members of addicts and non addicts. Renold Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory was administered in order to assess anger control problems, emotional distress and positive self in addicts and non addicts. t-test was calculated in order to determine the difference in the level of communication, value and norms, affective expression and control among families of addicts and non addicts. Furthermore difference in anger control problems, emotional distress and positive self between the addicts and non addicts was also determined by calculating t-test. Results showed significant differences in the variables among the family members and there is also a significant difference between addicts and non addicts. Avenues for further research have been suggested.

  18. Is smartphone addiction really an addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Tayana; Carbonell, Xavier

    2018-06-13

    Aims In light of the rise in research on technological addictions and smartphone addiction in particular, the aim of this paper was to review the relevant literature on the topic of smartphone addiction and determine whether this disorder exists or if it does not adequately satisfy the criteria for addiction. Methods We reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies on smartphone addiction and analyzed their methods and conclusions to make a determination on the suitability of the diagnosis "addiction" to excessive and problematic smartphone use. Results Although the majority of research in the field declares that smartphones are addictive or takes the existence of smartphone addiction as granted, we did not find sufficient support from the addiction perspective to confirm the existence of smartphone addiction at this time. The behaviors observed in the research could be better labeled as problematic or maladaptive smartphone use and their consequences do not meet the severity levels of those caused by addiction. Discussion and conclusions Addiction is a disorder with severe effects on physical and psychological health. A behavior may have a similar presentation as addiction in terms of excessive use, impulse control problems, and negative consequences, but that does not mean that it should be considered an addiction. We propose moving away from the addiction framework when studying technological behaviors and using other terms such as "problematic use" to describe them. We recommend that problematic technology use is to be studied in its sociocultural context with an increased focus on its compensatory functions, motivations, and gratifications.

  19. How Accurately Do Consecutive Cohort Audits Predict Phase III Multisite Clinical Trial Recruitment in Palliative Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Fazekas, Belinda; Cutri, Natalie; Currow, David C

    2016-04-01

    Audits have been proposed for estimating possible recruitment rates to randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but few studies have compared audit data with subsequent recruitment rates. To compare the accuracy of estimates of potential recruitment from a retrospective consecutive cohort audit of actual participating sites and recruitment to four Phase III multisite clinical RCTs. The proportion of potentially eligible study participants estimated from an inpatient chart review of people with life-limiting illnesses referred to six Australian specialist palliative care services was compared with recruitment data extracted from study prescreening information from three sites that participated fully in four Palliative Care Clinical Studies Collaborative RCTs. The predominant reasons for ineligibility in the audit and RCTs were analyzed. The audit overestimated the proportion of people referred to the palliative care services who could participate in the RCTs (pain 17.7% vs. 1.2%, delirium 5.8% vs. 0.6%, anorexia 5.1% vs. 0.8%, and bowel obstruction 2.8% vs. 0.5%). Approximately 2% of the referral base was potentially eligible for these effectiveness studies. Ineligibility for general criteria (language, cognition, and geographic proximity) varied between studies, whereas the reasons for exclusion were similar between the audit and pain and anorexia studies but not for delirium or bowel obstruction. The retrospective consecutive case note audit in participating sites did not predict realistic recruitment rates, mostly underestimating the impact of study-specific inclusion criteria. These findings have implications for the applicability of the results of RCTs. Prospective pilot studies are more likely to predict actual recruitment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Addiction and Rehabilitation of Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Consumption of narcotic drugs has a long record in human societies. Drug addiction is considered as a social problem nowadays which has affected the economic-cultural and economic-social dimensions of the country. In examining the dimensions of drug addiction, one must pay attention to the issues of dependency on drugs, drug addicts and rehabilitation of drug addicts. In examining the phenomenon of addiction and its analysis as a social scourge, the issue can be analyzed at different leve...

  1. Unraveling Exercise Addiction: The Role of Narcissism and Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Antonio; Quattrone, Diego; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Cicciarelli, Claudio; Romeo, Vincenzo Maria; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction (EA) in fitness clubs and to identify possible factors in the development of the disorder. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) were administered to a sample of 150 consecutive gym attenders recruited in fitness centers. Based on EAI total score, high EA risk group (HEA n = 51) and a low EA risk group (LEA n = 69) were identified. ...

  2. Addiction and Rehabilitation of Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of narcotic drugs has a long record in human societies. Drug addiction is considered as a social problem nowadays which has affected the economic-cultural and economic-social dimensions of the country. In examining the dimensions of drug addiction, one must pay attention to the issues of dependency on drugs, drug addicts and rehabilitation of drug addicts. In examining the phenomenon of addiction and its analysis as a social scourge, the issue can be analyzed at different levels including the social structures, the relationship between the individual and the society and individual matters. Another theory considered in this article is the designation of the causality hierarchy. Two research methods have been used in this article for delineating and analyzing drug addiction. The first method is the content analysis method where one looks into the effective elements that lead to addiction and also its consequences. It also takes into consideration different theories related to the rehabilitation methods. Another method of analysis that is being used is related to detailed interviews and case studies conducted on drug addicts. Another method is the statistical method which elaborates on the phenomenon of addiction in a statistical way and depicts one-dimensional or two-dimensional charts focusing on variables. The relationship between these variables are evaluated through statistical tests and eventually proposes the strategy aimed at the elimination of drug addiction.

  3. The association between Internet addiction and belief of frustration intolerance: the gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Chung-Sheng; Wang, Shing-Yaw

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance, the gender difference of frustration intolerance, and the gender differences of the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance. Participants were 2,114 students (1,204 male and 910 female) who were recruited to complete the Chen Internet Addiction Scale and Frustration Discomfort scale. Females had higher scores on the subscale of entitlement and emotional intolerance and the total scale of the frustration intolerance. There was a significant gender difference on the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance. The association was higher in male adolescents. Regression analysis revealed male adolescents with Internet addiction had higher intolerance to frustration of entitlement and emotional discomfort, and female adolescents with it had higher intolerance to emotional discomfort and lower tolerance to frustration of achievement. Frustration intolerance should be evaluated for adolescents with Internet addiction, especially for males. Rational emotive behavior therapy focusing on different irrational beliefs should be provided to male and female adolescents with Internet addiction.

  4. Internet addiction and sleep quality among Vietnamese youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Tran, Bach Xuan; Huong, Le Thi; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi; Tho, Tran Dinh; Latkin, Carl; Ho, Roger C M

    2017-08-01

    Internet addiction has been a major behavioral disorder over the past decade. Prior meta-analytic review has demonstrated the association between Internet addiction and psychiatric disorders, as well as sleep related disorders. There remains a paucity of literature about Internet addiction and sleep related disorders in low and middle income countries like Vietnam. It is the aim of this exploratory study to determine the association. An online cross-sectional study was conducted between August through to October 2015. Respondent drive sampling technique was utilized in the recruitment of participants. The short form version of the Young's Internet addiction test was administered and sleep related disorders was ascertained by means of a self-report questionnaire. Chi-squared, t-test and ANOVA were used to determine whether there were any significant differences amongst the variables considered. Multivariate logistic regressions were also used in the analysis, in order to identify factors associated with Internet addiction. 21.2% Of the participants were diagnosed with Internet addiction. 26.7% of those with Internet addiction also reported that they have had sleep related difficulties. 77.2% of these participants were receptive towards seeking medical treatment. Our current study also highlighted that being single and those who were using tobacco products were not at heightened risk of developing associated sleep related issues. Our current study is largely a cross-sectional exploratory study that has shown that there is a significant prevalence of both Internet addiction and sleep related disorders amongst Vietnamese youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Does the biopsychosocial-spiritual model of addiction apply in an Islamic context? A qualitative study of Jordanian addicts in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaferi, Hamad Al; Bond, Christine; Matheson, Catriona

    2017-03-01

    There is a dearth of research in the published literature on substance use and addiction in the Middle East and Islamic countries. This study was the first to explore whether the biopsychosocial-spiritual model of addiction was relevant to an addicted treatment population in Jordan, an Islamic country. A qualitative study design using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sample of 25 males in addiction treatment. The sample was drawn from a cohort of in-patients at a treatment centre in Amman, Jordan who had already participated in a quantitative survey. A purposive sample was selected to ensure the inclusion of a range of characteristics that might affect their experience of developing addiction and its consequences, i.e., age, marital status and educational level. Interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis conducted using verbatim quotes to illustrate themes. Themes were mapped onto the biopsychosocial-spiritual model of addiction. This study found addiction was associated with a range of health (physical and psychological), social and spiritual factors. Unpleasant physical withdrawal effects, psychological symptoms, such as anxiety and suicide attempts, were experienced. There was breakdown in marital and family relations, loss of employment, involvement in crime and neglect of religious practices, resulting in social isolation. This study found that, despite some differences in emphasis, the biopsychosocial, spiritual model of addiction fit wel,l particularly given the relative importance of religion in Islamic culture. Spirituality was not explored and further study of spirituality versus religious practice in this culture is recommended. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Compulsive Addiction-like Aggressive Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sam A; Heins, Conor; Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Zhang, Michelle; Epstein, David H; Shaham, Yavin

    2017-08-15

    Some people are highly motivated to seek aggressive encounters, and among those who have been incarcerated for such behavior, recidivism rates are high. These observations echo two core features of drug addiction: high motivation to seek addictive substances, despite adverse consequences, and high relapse rates. Here we used established rodent models of drug addiction to determine whether they would be sensitive to "addiction-like" features of aggression in CD-1 mice. In experiments 1 and 2, we trained older CD-1 mice to lever press for opportunities to attack younger C57BL6/J mice. We then tested them for relapse to aggression seeking after forced abstinence or punishment-induced suppression of aggression self-administration. In experiment 3, we trained a large cohort of CD-1 mice and tested them for choice-based voluntary suppression of aggression seeking, relapse to aggression seeking, progressive ratio responding, and punishment-induced suppression of aggression self-administration. We then used cluster analysis to identify patterns of individual differences in compulsive "addiction-like" aggressive behavior. In experiments 1 and 2, we observed strong motivation to acquire operant self-administration of opportunities to aggress and relapse vulnerability during abstinence. In experiment 3, cluster analysis of the aggression-related measures identified a subset of "addicted" mice (∼19%) that exhibited intense operant-reinforced attack behavior, decreased likelihood to select an alternative reinforcer over aggression, heightened relapse vulnerability and progressive ratio responding, and resilience to punishment-induced suppression of aggressive behavior. Using procedures established to model drug addiction, we showed that a subpopulation of CD-1 mice demonstrate "addiction-like" aggressive behavior, suggesting an evolutionary origin for compulsive aggression. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problematic use of the Internet by children and adolescents is a newly emerging disorder that has alerted health authorities throughout the world. In Iran, despite the very high speed rate of Internet spread, there is not enough data on the rate of Internet addiction among the adolescents. This study is the first nationwide study that addresses this issue. Overall 4500 students of high school or pre-college schools were recruited from 13/31 provinces of Iran by a cluster sampling method and 4342 (96% participated. Two self-rated questionnaires (one demographics and one Young's Internet addiction scale were filled b the participants. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. 962 (22.2% of the study participants were labeled as having "internet addiction." Males were significantly more likely to be an internet addict (P<0.001. Students whose father and/or mother had a doctorate degree were most likely to have Internet addiction (P<0.001 for both. Job engagement of mothers was significantly associated with students' internet addiction, and the least rate of addiction was observed when the mother was a housewife (P<0.001; having no exercise was associated with the highest rate of Internet addiction (P<0.001. Stepwise logistic regression models showed gender (male, older age, mother's occupation, family's financial status (either very high or very low, low quality of family relationship, and students' lower levels of religious devotion were significantly associated with having Internet addiction. This study showed that Internet addiction in Iranian adolescents is prevalent, and has several independent factors, from which, family relations is most likely to be modifiable. Improvements in family relations and more strict parental supervision, especially when mothers have active job employment, are recommended.

  8. "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    "Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Thai men's experiences of alcohol addiction and treatment

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    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men are overrepresented with regard to alcohol addiction and in terms of alcohol treatment worldwide. In Thailand, alcohol consumption continues to rise, but few of those afflicted with alcohol addiction attend alcohol treatment programs, even though there is universal care for all. No comprehensive studies have been done on men's experiences with addiction and alcohol treatment programs in Thailand. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore men's experiences in terms of the ‘pros and cons of alcohol consumption’ in order to identify the barriers that exist for Thai men with regard to alcohol addiction and the decision to stop drinking. Design: Purposive sampling was applied in the process of recruiting participants at an alcohol clinic in a hospital in Thailand. Thirteen men with alcohol addiction (aged 32–49 years were willing to participate and were interviewed in thematic interviews. The analysis of the data was done with descriptive phenomenology. Results: Through men's descriptions, three clusters of experiences were found that were ‘mending the body’, ‘drinking as payoff and doping related to work’, and ‘alcohol becoming a best friend’ as ways of describing the development of addiction. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of addressing concepts of masculinity and related hegemonic ideas in order to decrease the influence of the barriers that exist for Thai men with alcohol addiction with regard to entering treatment and to stop drinking.

  10. Food addiction and obesity: unnecessary medicalization of hedonic overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Graham

    2017-08-01

    The concept of addiction is loaded with connotations and is often used for its political as much as its medical utility. The scientific case for 'food addiction' as a clinical phenotype currently rests on its association with generic diagnostic criteria for substance-related disorders being applied to everyday foods and eating-related problems. This has fused the concept of obesity with addiction regardless of whether it fits the definition. The hedonic, or reward, system can account for the ingestion of foods and drugs, confirming that they share neural substrates that differentiate liking and wanting. These are normal processes that are recruited for natural homeostatic behaviours and can explain the phenomenon of hedonic overeating as a consequence of human motivation pushed to extremes by an obesogenic environment. Food addiction constitutes a medicalization of common eating behaviours, taking on the properties of a disease. The use of this medical language has implications for the way in which society views overeating and obesity.

  11. Longitudinal study of urban malaria in a cohort of Ugandan children: description of study site, census and recruitment

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    Staedke Sarah G

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of malaria in well-defined cohorts offer important data about the epidemiology of this complex disease, but few have been done in urban African populations. To generate a sampling frame for a longitudinal study of malaria incidence and treatment in Kampala, Uganda, a census, mapping and survey project was conducted. Methods All households in a geographically defined area were enumerated and mapped. Probability sampling was used to recruit a representative sample of children and collect baseline descriptive data for future longitudinal studies. Results 16,172 residents living in 4931 households in a densely-populated community (18,824 persons/km2 were enumerated. A total of 582 households were approached with at least one child less than 10 years of age in order to recruit 601 children living in 322 households. At enrollment, 19% were parasitaemic, 24% were anaemic, 43% used bednets, and 6% used insecticide-treated nets. Low G6PD activity (OR = 0.33, P = 0.009 and bednet use (OR = 0.64, P = 0.045 were associated with a decreased risk of parasitaemia. Increasing age (OR = 0.62 for each year, P Conclusion Detailed surveys of target populations in urban Africa can provide valuable descriptive data and provide a sampling frame for recruitment of representative cohorts for longitudinal studies. Plans to use a multi-disciplinary approach to improve the understanding of the distribution and determinants of malaria incidence and response to therapy in this population are discussed.

  12. Belief in Food Addiction and Obesity-Related Policy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables), while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Online Community. Participants 200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Measurements Participants (n = 193) responded to three questions about belief in food addiction and a measure evaluating support for 13 obesity-related policy initiatives. Individuals also completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale (mYFAS), self-reported height and weight, and provided demographic information (age, gender, race, political party affiliation). Results Belief in food addiction was significantly associated with greater support for obesity-related initiatives, even when accounting for the significant associations of age, gender, and political party. Belief in food addiction and political party both had moderate effect sizes for predicting support for obesity-related policy. There was an interaction between age and belief in food addiction, with significant associations with policy support for both younger and older individuals, though the effect was larger for younger participants. Conclusion The current study provides evidence that belief in food addiction is associated with increased obesity-related policy support, comparable to the influence of one’s political party. Growing evidence for the role of an addictive process in obesity may have important implications for public support of obesity-related policy initiatives. PMID:26808427

  13. Inpatient Addiction Consultation for Hospitalized Patients Increases Post-Discharge Abstinence and Reduces Addiction Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Sarah E; Metlay, Joshua P; Chang, Yuchiao; Herman, Grace E; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2017-08-01

    severity, the differences remained statistically significant. In a non-randomized cohort of medical inpatients, addiction consultation reduced addiction severity for alcohol and drug use and increased the number of days of abstinence in the first month after hospital discharge.

  14. The association between Internet addiction and psychiatric disorder: a review of the literature.

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    Ko, C H; Yen, J Y; Yen, C F; Chen, C S; Chen, C C

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction is a newly emergent disorder. It has been found to be associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Information about such coexisting psychiatric disorders is essential to understand the mechanism of Internet addiction. In this review, we have recruited articles mentioning coexisting psychiatric disorders of Internet addiction from the PubMed database as at November 3, 2009. We describe the updated results for such disorders of Internet addiction, which include substance use disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, hostility, and social anxiety disorder. We also provide discussion for possible mechanisms accounting for the coexistence of psychiatric disorders and Internet addiction. The review might suggest that combined psychiatric disorders mentioned above should be evaluated and treated to prevent their deteriorating effect on the prognosis of Internet addiction. On the other hand, Internet addiction should be paid more attention to when treating people with these coexisting psychiatric disorders of Internet addiction. Additionally, we also suggest future necessary research directions that could provide further important information for the understanding of this issue. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors.

  16. Cultural Competence in the Treatment of Addictions: Theory, Practice and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M

    2017-07-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) populations often have high rates of addictive disorders, but lower rates of treatment seeking and completion than the mainstream population. A significant barrier to treatment is the lack of culturally relevant and appropriate treatment. A literature review was conducted to identify relevant literature related to cultural competence in mental health services delivery and specifically treatment for addictive disorders. Several theoretical models of cultural competence in therapy have been developed, but the lack of rigorous research limits the empirical evidence available. Research indicates that culturally competent treatment practices including providing therapy and materials in the client's language, knowledge, understanding and appreciation for cultural perspectives and nuances, involving the wider family and community and training therapists can enhance client engagement, retention and treatment outcomes for substance use and gambling. Further methodologically rigorous research is needed to isolate the impact of cultural competence for the treatment of addictions and guide research to determine treatment efficacy within specific CALD populations. Training therapists and recruiting therapists and researchers from CALD communities is important to ensure an ongoing focus and improved outcomes for CALD populations due to the importance of engaging these populations with addiction treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: The treatment needs of culturally diverse individuals with addictions are often not met. Theoretical models can guide therapists in incorporating cultural competence. Culturally targeted treatments increase recruitment, retention and treatment outcomes. Cultural competence includes matching clinicians and clients on linguistic and cultural backgrounds as well as being mindful of the impact of culture on client's experience of addiction problems. Few methodologically

  17. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  18. [Clinical characteristics of computer game and internet addiction in persons seeking treatment in an outpatient clinic for computer game addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Hoch, Christina; Wölfling, Klaus; Müller, Kai W

    2011-01-01

    Since March 2008 we have offered outpatient treatment for computer game and internet addiction. This article presents the assessment and clinical characterization of the first cohort of one year. The reasons for seeking help (phone consultations, N=346) as well as sociodemographic and psychometric characteristics (N=131) (assessment of computer game addiction; SCL-90R) are presented. Consultation was initiated mainly by relatives--mostly the mothers (86%); 48% report achievement failure and social isolation, lack of control (38%) and conflicts within the family (33%). Two-thirds of the mainly male (96%) patients (N=131) with an average age of 22 (range 13-47) years met the criteria for pathological computer gaming, characterized by an excessive number of hours and preoccupation with gaming, high distress, and unemployment. Symptoms resemble those of other addiction disorders. The consequences for disorder-specific treatment concepts and research are discussed.

  19. A commentary on the "eating addiction" versus "food addiction" perspectives on addictive-like food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erica M; Potenza, Marc N; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2017-08-01

    The food addiction construct posits that vulnerable individuals may experience an addictive-like response to certain foods, such as those high in fat and refined carbohydrates. Recently, an alternative model to food addiction was proposed, suggesting that the act of eating may be a behavioral addiction that can trigger an addictive-like response in susceptible individuals. One major rationale for the eating addiction framework is that the assessment of food addiction is based on behavioral indicators, such as consuming greater quantities of food than intended and eating certain foods despite negative consequences. It is also suggested that the lack of investigation into which foods and food attributes (e.g., sugar) may have an addictive potential is evidence that food addiction does not parallel a substance-based addiction and more closely resembles a behavioral addiction. The present paper provides a commentary suggesting that the substance-based, food-addiction framework is more appropriate than the behavioral-addiction, eating-addiction perspective to conceptualize addictive-like food consumption. In order to illustrate this point, this manuscript will discuss behavioral components characteristic of all substance-use disorders, preliminary evidence to suggest that all foods are not equally associated with addictive-like eating, and key differences between the hypothesized eating addiction phenotype and the only existing behavioral addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder. Further, this paper will consider implications of applying an addiction label to food versus eating and suggest future research directions to evaluate whether food addiction is a valid and clinically useful construct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring Individual Differences in Online Addictions: the Role of Identity and Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacis, Lucia; de Palo, Valeria; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinatra, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Research examining the development of online addictions has grown greatly over the last decade with many studies suggesting both risk factors and protective factors. In an attempt to integrate the theories of attachment and identity formation, the present study investigated the extent to which identity styles and attachment orientations account for three types of online addiction (i.e., internet addiction, online gaming addiction, and social media addiction). The sample comprised 712 Italian students (381 males and 331 females) recruited from schools and universities who completed an offline self-report questionnaire. The findings showed that addictions to the internet, online gaming, and social media were interrelated and were predicted by common underlying risk and protective factors. Among identity styles, 'informational' and 'diffuse-avoidant' styles were risk factors, whereas 'normative' style was a protective factor. Among attachment dimensions, the 'secure' attachment orientation negatively predicted the three online addictions, and a different pattern of causal relationships were observed between the styles underlying 'anxious' and 'avoidant' attachment orientations. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that identity styles explained between 21.2 and 30% of the variance in online addictions, whereas attachment styles incrementally explained between 9.2 and 14% of the variance in the scores on the three addiction scales. These findings highlight the important role played by identity formation in the development of online addictions.

  1. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction Study – Design and Implementation of a National Survey and Prospective Cohort Study

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    Anne Bukten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian prison inmates are burdened by problems before they enter prison. Few studies have managed to assess this burden and relate it to what occurs for the inmates once they leave the prison. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction (NorMA study is a large-scale longitudinal cohort study that combines national survey and registry data in order to understand mental health, substance use, and criminal activity before, during, and after custody among prisoners in Norway. The main goal of the study is to describe the criminal and health-related trajectories based on both survey and registry linkage information. Data were collected from 1,499 inmates in Norwegian prison facilities during 2013–2014. Of these, 741 inmates provided a valid personal identification number and constitute a cohort that will be examined retrospectively and prospectively, along with data from nationwide Norwegian registries. This study describes the design, procedures, and implementation of the ongoing NorMA study and provides an outline of the initial data.

  2. Dynamics of neuronal circuits in addiction: reward, antireward, and emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, G F

    2009-05-01

    Drug addiction is conceptualized as chronic, relapsing compulsive use of drugs with significant dysregulation of brain hedonic systems. Compulsive drug use is accompanied by decreased function of brain substrates for drug positive reinforcement and recruitment of brain substrates mediating the negative reinforcement of motivational withdrawal. The neural substrates for motivational withdrawal ("dark side" of addiction) involve recruitment of elements of the extended amygdala and the brain stress systems, including corticotropin-releasing factor and norepinephrine. These changes, combined with decreased reward function, are hypothesized to persist in the form of an allostatic state that forms a powerful motivational background for relapse. Relapse also involves a key role for the basolateral amygdala in mediating the motivational effects of stimuli previously paired with drug seeking and drug motivational withdrawal. The basolateral amygdala has a key role in mediating emotional memories in general. The hypothesis argued here is that brain stress systems activated by the motivational consequences of drug withdrawal can not only form the basis for negative reinforcement that drives drug seeking, but also potentiate associative mechanisms that perpetuate the emotional state and help drive the allostatic state of addiction.

  3. Gender differences and related factors affecting online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which gender and other factors predict the severity of online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents. A total of 395 junior high school students were recruited for evaluation of their experiences playing online games. Severity of addiction, behavioral characteristics, number of stressors, and level of satisfaction with daily life were compared between males and females who had previously played online games. Multiple regression analysis was used to explore gender differences in the relationships between severity of online gaming addiction and a number of variables. This study found that subjects who had previously played online games were predominantly male. Gender differences were also found in the severity of online gaming addiction and motives for playing. Older age, lower self-esteem, and lower satisfaction with daily life were associated with more severe addiction among males, but not among females. Special strategies accounting for gender differences must be implemented to prevent adolescents with risk factors from becoming addicted to online gaming.

  4. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  5. Compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder and addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figee, Martijn; Pattij, Tommy; Willuhn, Ingo; Luigjes, Judy; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anneke; Potenza, Marc N; Robbins, Trevor W; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-05-01

    Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a central characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also crucial to addiction. Based on this analogy, OCD has been proposed to be part of the concept of behavioral addiction along with other non-drug-related disorders that share compulsivity, such as pathological gambling, skin-picking, trichotillomania and compulsive eating. In this review, we investigate the neurobiological overlap between compulsivity in substance-use disorders, OCD and behavioral addictions as a validation for the construct of compulsivity that could be adopted in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). The reviewed data suggest that compulsivity in OCD and addictions is related to impaired reward and punishment processing with attenuated dopamine release in the ventral striatum, negative reinforcement in limbic systems, cognitive and behavioral inflexibility with diminished serotonergic prefrontal control, and habitual responding with imbalances between ventral and dorsal frontostriatal recruitment. Frontostriatal abnormalities of compulsivity are promising targets for neuromodulation and other interventions for OCD and addictions. We conclude that compulsivity encompasses many of the RDoC constructs in a trans-diagnostic fashion with a common brain circuit dysfunction that can help identifying appropriate prevention and treatment targets. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Unraveling exercise addiction: the role of narcissism and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Antonio; Quattrone, Diego; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Cicciarelli, Claudio; Romeo, Vincenzo Maria; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction (EA) in fitness clubs and to identify possible factors in the development of the disorder. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) were administered to a sample of 150 consecutive gym attenders recruited in fitness centers. Based on EAI total score, high EA risk group (HEA n = 51) and a low EA risk group (LEA n = 69) were identified. HEA reported significantly higher total score (mean = 20.2 versus 14.6) on the NPI scale and lower total score (mean = 32.2 versus 36.4) on the SEI scale than LEA. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that only narcissism and self-esteem total scores (F = 5.66; df = 2; P = 0.006) were good predictors of days per week exercise. The present study confirms the direct and combined role of both labile self-esteem and high narcissism in the development of exercise addiction as predictive factors towards the risk of addiction. Multidisciplinary trained health care providers (physiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatrists) should carefully identify potential overexercise conditions in order to prevent the potential risk of exercise addiction.

  7. Recruiting a young adolescent rural cohort: Costs and lessons learnt

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    Krestina L. Amon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent recruitment into longitudinal health studies is challenging. The aim of this paper is to report the detailed process and costs of recruiting young adolescents and their families into an intensive longitudinal study of the effects of puberty hormones on health, behaviour and wellbeing in early adolescence, based in regional/rural Australia. Methods: Participants were recruited using a saturation strategy of targeted methods (including school visits and community events and non-targeted recruitment approaches (including print and electronic media advertising, and social media. Direct (face-to-face contact with the public and indirect (behind-the-scenes preparatory activities researcher hours were calculated for each of the recruitment strategies. Results: The study recruited 342 adolescent participants and a parent/guardian over two years. School and community-based recruitment required 6.2 and 6.0 researcher hours per activity, respectively. Direct researcher hours were primarily spent on delivering presentations and connecting with community members at community events. The majority of indirect hours were spent preparing and assembling information packs for distribution to students and parents during school visits. Non-targeted recruitment strategies using media advertising were the most frequently used methods. Researchers were estimated to have spent less than one hour for each media activity. In 27 months, an estimated $250,000 was spent on recruitment activities and resources. A combination of methods was used to recruit young adolescents and their families into a longitudinal health study. Conclusions: The financial costs and researcher time committed to this study highlight the labour-intensive nature of recruitment. The data presented are useful for researchers planning longitudinal studies in adolescents.

  8. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN AWARENESS OF ILLNESS (INSIGHT AND HISTORY OF ADDICTION IN HEROIN-ADDICTED PATIENTS

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    Angelo Giovanni Icro eMaremmani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In a group of 1066 heroin addicts, who were seeking treatment for opioid agonist treatment, we looked for differences in historical, demographic and clinical characteristics, between patients with different levels of awareness of illness (insight. The results showed that, in the cohort studied, a majority of subjects lacked insight into their heroin-use behaviour. Compared with the impaired-insight group, those who possessed insight into their illness showed significantly greater awareness of past social, somatic and psychopathological impairments, and had a greater number of past treatment-seeking events for heroin addiction. In contrast with other psychiatric illnesses, the presence of awareness appears to be related to the passing of time and to the worsening of the illness. Methodologies to improve the insight of patients should, therefore, be targeted more directly on patients early in their history of heroin dependence, because the risk of lack of insight is greatest during this period.

  9. The Comparison of Alexithymia and Spiritual Intelligence in Addicts, Addicts under Methadone Treatment, and Non-Addicts

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    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to compare of the rate of alexithymia and spiritual intelligence in addicts, addicts under Methadone Treatment, and non-Addicts. Method: A causal-comparative research design was used. The study sample included 30 individuals under Methadone Treatment, 30 drug-dependent Addicted, and 30 non-addicted individuals selected by convenience sampling procedure. Toronto alexithymia scale and King's spiritual intelligence self-report inventory were administered among selected sample. Results: Findings revealed significant differences among addicted individuals and non-addicted adults also among individuals under methadone treatment and non-addicted adults in total alexithymia scores as well as on all three subscale scores. Furthermore, addicted individuals differed from those under methadone treatment in their scores on the subscale pertaining to difficulty in identifying feelings. Results also indicated differences among addicted individuals and those under methadone treatment in total spiritual intelligence and its four component scale scores, while addicted individuals differed from non-addicted individuals in total spiritual intelligence scores and only three of its component scale scores (personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and conscious state expansion. Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate the advantages of the ability to control, emotional regulation and spiritual intelligence as a defense against addiction. By development of these characteristics addicts can be helped to gain relief from their addiction.

  10. Segmenting a general practitioner market to improve recruitment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Elizabeth; Kulik, Carol T

    2011-05-01

    Recruitment is an ongoing challenge in the health industry with general practitioner (GP) shortages in many areas beyond rural and Indigenous communities. This paper suggests a marketing solution that identifies different segments of the GP market for recruitment strategy development. In February 2008, 96 GPs in Australia responded to a mail questionnaire (of which 85 questionnaires were useable). A total of 350 GPs were sent the questionnaire. Respondents considered small sets of attributes in the decision to accept a new job at a general practice and selected the most and least important attribute from each set. We identified latent class clusters (cohorts) of GPs from the most-least important data. Three cohorts were found in the GP market, distinguishing practitioners who emphasised job, family or practice attributes in their decision to join a practice. Few significant demographic differences exist between the cohorts. A segmented GP market suggests two alternative recruitment strategies. One option is for general practices to target members of a single cohort (family-, job-, or practice-focussed GPs). The other option is for general practices to diversify their recruitment strategies to target all three cohorts (family-, job- and practice-focussed GPs). A single brand (practice) can have multiple advertising strategies with each strategy involving advertising activities targeting a particular consumer segment.

  11. Drug addiction is not an independent risk factor for oncogenic human papillomavirus infections or high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: case-control study nested within the Latin American Screening study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjänen, K; Naud, P; Derchain, S; Roteli-Martins, C; Longatto-Filho, A; Tatti, S; Branca, M; Erzen, M; Hammes, L S; Matos, J; Gontijo, R; Sarian, L; Bragança, J; Arlindo, F C; Maeda, M Y S; Lörincz, A; Dores, G B; Costa, S; Syrjänen, S

    2008-04-01

    Drug abuse (addiction) has been listed among the risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, but no case-control studies exist to rule out sexual behaviour and other potential confounders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of drug addiction as an independent predictor of HR-HPV infections and (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) CIN2+ in an age-matched case-control (1:4) study nested within the prospective Latin American Screening (LAMS) study cohort. All 109 women in the LAMS cohort (n=12,114) reporting drug abuse/addiction were matched with four controls (n = 436) of non-abusers strictly by age. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the co-variates of drug abuse, and the whole series (n=545) was analysed for predictors of HR-HPV and CIN2+ using univariate and multivariate regression models. Oncogenic HPV infections were significantly (P=0.019) more prevalent among abusers (37.7%) than in controls (21.9%), but there was no difference in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (P=0.180) or CIN2+ lesions (P=0.201). In multivariate conditional logistic regression, number of lifetime sexual partners (P=0.0001), ever smokers (P=0.0001), non-use of OCs (P=0.013), ever having sexually transmitted diseases (STD) (P=0.041) and no previous Pap smear (P=0.027) were independent co-variates of drug addiction. Drug abuse was not an independent risk factor of high-risk (HR)-HPV infection, which was significantly predicted by (1) age below 30 years (P=0.045), (2) more than five lifetime sexual partners (P=0.046) and (3) being current smoker (P=0.0001). In multivariate model, only HR-HPV infection was an independent risk factor of CIN2+ (P=0.031), with adjusted OR=11.33 (95% CI 1.25-102.50). These data indicate that drug addiction is not an independent risk factor of either HR-HPV infections or CIN2+, but the increased prevalence of HR-HPV infections is explained by the high-risk sexual behaviour and smoking habits of these women.

  12. The Rio de Janeiro HIV Vaccine Site : I. Recruitment Strategies and Socio-demographic Data of a HIV Negative Homosexual and Bisexual Male Cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutmoller Frits

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial effort of the Brazilian Ministry of Health to be an active partner in the world effort in the preparation of future accurate human immune deficiency virus (HIV efficacy trials was the establishment of a multi-centered cohort of homosexual and bisexual men. An open cohort was established to determine the HIV incidence and the socio-behavioral aspects involved in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 318 potential participants, originated from multiple sources (health units, public information, snowball recruitment, were screened and recruitment became effective through the direct involvement of target communities (with the support of Non Governmental Organizations and the population. Among this group, seropositivity for sexually transmitted diseases was high with 23, 32 and 46% for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B, respectively. The socio-demographic data from the first 200 participants of this HIV negative cohort suggests that the cohort volunteers are an appropriate sample of the general male population of the State of Rio de Janeiro

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Wen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94% reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6% identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  15. Recruitment via the Internet and social networking sites: the 1989-1995 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gita Devi; Hockey, Richard; Powers, Jennifer; Loxton, Deborah; Tooth, Leigh; Rowlands, Ingrid; Byles, Julie; Dobson, Annette

    2014-12-15

    Faced with the challenge of recruiting young adults for health studies, researchers have increasingly turned to the Internet and social networking sites, such as Facebook, as part of their recruitment strategy. As yet, few large-scale studies are available that report on the characteristics and representativeness of the sample obtained from such recruitment methods. The intent of the study was to describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics of a national sample of young Australian women recruited mainly through the Internet and social networking sites and to discuss the representativeness of their sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics relative to the population. A cohort of 17,069 women (born between 1989 and 1995) was recruited in 2012-13 for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Sociodemographic characteristics (percentages, means, and 95% confidence intervals) from the online survey data were compared with women aged 18-23 years from the 2011 Australian Census. Sample data were compared by age and education level with data from the 2011-13 Australian Health Survey (AHS). Compared to the Australian Census data, study participants were broadly representative in terms of geographical distribution across Australia, marital status (95.62%, 16,321/17,069) were never married), and age distribution. A higher percentage had attained university (22.52%, 3844/17,069) and trade/certificate/diploma qualifications (25.94%, 4428/17,069) compared with this age group of women in the national population (9.4% and 21.7% respectively). Among study participants, 22.05% (3721/16,877) were not in paid employment with 35.18% (5931/16,857) studying 16 or more hours a week. A higher percentage of study participants rated their health in the online survey as fair or poor (rather than good, very good, or excellent) compared with those participating in face-to-face interviews in the AHS (18.77%, 3203/17,069 vs 10.1%). A higher percentage of study

  16. Addiction to indoor tanning: relation to anxiety, depression, and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2010-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of addiction to indoor tanning among college students and its association with substance use and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Two written measures, the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener) Questionnaire, used to screen for alcoholism, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for substance-related disorders, were modified to evaluate study participants for addiction to indoor tanning. Standardized self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and substance use also were administered. A large university (approximately 18 000 students) in the northeastern United States. A total of 421 college students were recruited from September through December 2006. Self-reported addiction to indoor tanning, substance use, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Among 229 study participants who had used indoor tanning facilities, 90 (39.3%) met DSM-IV-TR criteria and 70 (30.6%) met CAGE criteria for addiction to indoor tanning. Students who met DSM-IV-TR and CAGE criteria for addiction to indoor tanning reported greater symptoms of anxiety and greater use of alcohol, marijuana, and other substances than those who did not meet these criteria. Depressive symptoms did not significantly vary by indoor tanning addiction status. Findings suggest that interventions to reduce skin cancer risk should address the addictive qualities of indoor tanning for a minority of individuals and the relationship of this behavior to other addictions and affective disturbance.

  17. Validation of exposure assessment and assessment of recruitment methods for a prospective cohort study of mobile phone users (COSMOS) in Finland: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinävaara, Sirpa; Tokola, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi

    2011-03-08

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the agreement between self-reported and operator-derived estimates of call time based on a three-month monitoring period, as well as the consistency of mobile phone use over time. Alternative approaches to improve participation in a cohort study of mobile phone users were also compared. A total of 5,400 subjects were identified from network operators' subscriber databases for recruitment to the pilot study. Operator and questionnaire data were used to quantify mobile phone use. Operator data were available for a subset of the subjects for a three-month period in three consecutive years. We also evaluated the effect of the length of the questionnaire and one- or two-phase recruitment on participation. The average response rate for both questionnaires and recruitment procedures was 12%. The response rate was not affected by the length of the questionnaire or the recruitment method.Operator data were available for 83% of the participants for 2007, the first study year. The agreement between self-reported and operator-derived call times decreased with the level of use among intermediate and heavy mobile phone users. During 2007-2009, mobile phone use increased fairly constantly over time. The agreement between self-reported mobile phone use and operator databases was moderate and overestimation of the call time by participants was common. A prospective cohort study would be feasible in Finland, although the potentially low participation rate would increase the resources required for recruitment.

  18. A Comparison of Treatment-Seeking Behavioral Addiction Patients with and without Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvaget, Anne; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Bulteau, Samuel; Derkinderen, Pascal; Vanelle, Jean M.; Hakansson, Anders; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Menchón, José M.

    2017-01-01

    The administration of dopaminergic medication to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with addictive behaviors and impulse control disorders. Little is known, however, on how PD patients differ from other patients seeking treatments for behavioral addictions. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of behavioral addiction patients with and without PD. N = 2,460 treatment-seeking men diagnosed with a behavioral addiction were recruited from a university hospital. Sociodemographic, impulsivity [Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11)], and personality [Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R)] measures were taken upon admission to outpatient treatment. Patients in the PD group were older and had a higher prevalence of mood disorders than patients without PD. In terms of personality characteristics and impulsivity traits, PD patients appeared to present a more functional profile than PD-free patients with a behavioral addiction. Our results suggest that PD patients with a behavioral addiction could be more difficult to detect than their PD-free counterparts in behavioral addiction clinical setting due to their reduced levels of impulsivity and more standard personality traits. As a whole, this suggests that PD patients with a behavioral addiction may have different needs from PD-free behavioral addiction patients and that they could potentially benefit from targeted interventions. PMID:29163234

  19. [Functional connectivity of temporal parietal junction in online game addicts:a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ji; Qian, Ruobing; Lin, Bin; Fu, Xianming; Wei, Xiangpin; Weng, Chuanbo; Niu, Chaoshi; Wang, Yehan

    2014-02-11

    To explore the functions of temporal parietal junction (TPJ) as parts of attention networks in the pathogenesis of online game addiction using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A total of 17 online game addicts (OGA) were recruited as OGA group and 17 healthy controls during the same period were recruited as CON group. The neuropsychological tests were performed for all of them to compare the inter-group differences in the results of Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and attention functions. All fMRI data were preprocessed after resting-state fMRI scanning. Then left and right TPJ were selected as regions of interest (ROIs) to calculate the linear correlation between TPJ and entire brain to compare the inter-group differences. Obvious differences existed between OGA group (71 ± 5 scores) and CON group (19 ± 7 scores) in the IAT results and attention function (P online game addicts showed decreased functional connectivity with bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), bilateral hippocampal gyrus and bilateral amygdaloid nucleus, but increased functional connectivity with right cuneus.However, left TPJ demonstrated decreased functional connectivity with bilateral superior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus, but increased functional connectivity with bilateral cuneus (P online game addicts.It suggests that TPJ is an important component of attention networks participating in the generation of online game addiction.

  20. Factors predictive for incidence and remission of internet addiction in young adolescents: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lin, Huang-Chi; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the incidence and remission rates for Internet addiction and the associated predictive factors in young adolescents over a 1-year follow-up. This was a prospective, population-based investigation. Five hundred seventeen students (267 male and 250 female) were recruited from three junior high schools in southern Taiwan. The factors examined included gender, personality, mental health, self-esteem, family function, life satisfaction, and Internet activities. The result revealed that the 1-year incidence and remission rates for Internet addiction were 7.5% and 49.5% respectively. High exploratory excitability, low reward dependence, low self-esteem, low family function, and online game playing predicted the emergency of the Internet addiction. Further, low hostility and low interpersonal sensitivity predicted remission of Internet addiction. The factors predictive incidence and remission of Internet addiction identified in this study could be provided for prevention and promoting remission of Internet addiction in adolescents.

  1. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors.

  2. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. PMID:27363463

  3. Exploring depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency with different degrees of internet addiction among Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency functions among normal internet users, mild internet addictions and severe internet addictions. The survey sample consisted of 316 college students, and their internet addiction symptoms, depression and self-esteem symptoms were assessed using the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. From this sample, 16 students with non-addictions, 19 students with mild internet addiction (sub-MIA) and 15 students with severe internet addiction (sub-SIA) were recruited and subjected to the classical verbal fluency tests, including the semantic and phonemic fluency task. The results indicated that severe internet addiction in the survey sample showed the highest tendency towards depressive symptoms and lowest self-esteem scores, and sub-SIA showed poor performance on the semantic fluency task. In conclusion, severe internet addiction was significantly associated with depression, low self-esteem and semantic verbal fluency problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lived Experience of Thai Women with Alcohol Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree; Eriksson, Henrik; Kijsomporn, Jureerat; Östlund, Gunnel

    2017-12-01

    This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1) feeling inferior and worthless (2) feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3) fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4) feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Lived Experience of Thai Women with Alcohol Addiction

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    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul, Ph.D., RN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Purpose: This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Methods: Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. Result: The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1 feeling inferior and worthless (2 feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3 fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4 feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Conclusion: Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking. Keywords: alcoholism, alcohol drinking, gender identity, violence

  6. Brain damages in ketamine addicts as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging

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    Chunmei eWang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine, a known antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA glutamate receptors, had been used as an anesthetic particularly for pediatric or for cardiac patients. Unfortunately, ketamine has become an abusive drug in many parts of the world while chronic and prolonged usage led to damages of many organs including the brain. However, no studies on possible damages in the brains induced by chronic ketamine abuse have been documented in the human via neuroimaging. This paper described for the first time via employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI the changes in ketamine addicts of 0.5 to 12 years and illustrated the possible brain regions susceptible to ketamine abuse. Twenty-one ketamine addicts were recruited and the results showed that the lesions in the brains of ketamine addicts were located in many regions which appeared 2-4 years after ketamine addiction. Cortical atrophy was usually evident in the frontal, parietal or occipital cortices of addicts. Such study confirmed that many brain regions in the human were susceptible to chronic ketamine injury and presented a diffuse effect of ketamine on the brain which might differ from other central nervous system (CNS drugs, such as cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine.

  7. Scepticism and hope in a complex predicament: People with addictions deliberate about neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurk, Carla; Morphett, Kylie; Carter, Adrian; Weier, Megan; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne

    2016-06-01

    According to the 'brain disease model of addiction', addiction is a chronic condition the symptoms of which reflect persistent changes in neural functioning produced by long-term drug use. Scholars have argued both for and against the validity and usefulness of this way of conceptualising addiction, which has been variously described as emancipatory and detrimental to addicted persons. In this paper we explore how people with addictions make sense of the brain disease concept and the extent to which they find it useful. We conducted 44 semi-structured interviews with persons in treatment for drug and alcohol addiction recruited through a variety of channels. Transcripts were analysed by combining a health identity approach with thematic analysis. We describe participants' understandings of how they became addicted and what role, if any, neurobiological conceptions play in their explanations. Our findings highlight the hopeful and sceptical viewpoints of addicted individuals on the value of addiction neuroscience ideas and neurotechnologies. These viewpoints shed some light on the diverse and divergent ways that people with addictions make sense of neurobiological ideas and technologies. It also describes when, and how, neurobiological explanations and the 'brain disease' model can be helpful to addicted persons. Some of the limitations of the brain disease model become apparent in the complex ways in which neurobiological explanations and labels are incorporated into lay understandings. In order to be more useful to addicted persons, neurobiological explanations should be provided as part of a more complex explanation of addiction and the brain than the BDMA offers, and should not be given a 'disease' label. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual addiction in drug addicts: The impact of drug of choice and poly-addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Nelson; Diehl, Alessandra; Niel, Marcelo; Pillon, Sandra; Ratto, Lilian; Pinheiro, Maria Carolina; Silveira, Dartiu; Otani, Thais Zelia; Otani, Victor; Cordeiro, Quirino; Ushida, Ricardo

    2017-05-01

    To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST) score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed. A total of 133 participants were included in our analysis, all reporting cocaine/crack and/or alcohol as drug of choice. Polysubstance addicts had a significant higher risk of a positive screening for sexual addiction compared to monosubstance addicts, age-sex adjusted odds ratios of sexual addiction being respectively 2.72 (95CI 1.1-6.71) and 0.37 (95CI 0.15-0.91). The odds of a SAST score greater than 6 was not statistically different between the cocaine/crack and alcohol groups, respectively 0.38 (95CI 0.14-1.02) and 2.67 (95CI 0.98-7.25). We found a significant relation between stronger drug addiction and greater levels of sexual addiction in the cocaine/crack group (p=0.0012), but not in the alcohol group. Our study reinforces the importance of assessing sexual behavior of drug addicts in clinical practice, especially considering users of multiple substances or with severe dependence.

  9. The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Hsiu-Yueh; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2007-07-01

    To: (1) determine the association between Internet addiction and depression, self-reported symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), social phobia, and hostility for adolescents; and (2) evaluate the sex differences of association between Internet addiction and the above-mentioned psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. A total of 2114 students (1204 male and 910 female) were recruited for the study. Internet addiction, symptoms of ADHD, depression, social phobia, and hostility were evaluated by the self-report questionnaire. The results demonstrated that adolescents with Internet addiction had higher ADHD symptoms, depression, social phobia, and hostility. Higher ADHD symptoms, depression, and hostility are associated with Internet addiction in male adolescents, and only higher ADHD symptoms and depression are associated with Internet addiction in female students. These results suggest that Internet addiction is associated with symptoms of ADHD and depressive disorders. However, hostility was associated with Internet addiction only in males. Effective evaluation of, and treatment for ADHD and depressive disorders are required for adolescents with Internet addiction. More attention should be paid to male adolescents with high hostility in intervention of Internet addiction.

  10. Unraveling Exercise Addiction: The Role of Narcissism and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction (EA in fitness clubs and to identify possible factors in the development of the disorder. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI were administered to a sample of 150 consecutive gym attenders recruited in fitness centers. Based on EAI total score, high EA risk group (HEA n=51 and a low EA risk group (LEA n=69 were identified. HEA reported significantly higher total score (mean = 20.2 versus 14.6 on the NPI scale and lower total score (mean = 32.2 versus 36.4 on the SEI scale than LEA. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that only narcissism and self-esteem total scores (F=5.66;  df=2;  P=0.006 were good predictors of days per week exercise. The present study confirms the direct and combined role of both labile self-esteem and high narcissism in the development of exercise addiction as predictive factors towards the risk of addiction. Multidisciplinary trained health care providers (physiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatrists should carefully identify potential overexercise conditions in order to prevent the potential risk of exercise addiction.

  11. [Facebook addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávid, Balázs; Körmendi, Attila

    2018-01-01

    Among behavioural addictions, addiction towards social media sites are identified, which are subtypes of compulsive internet usage. Among these, the most significant is the so-called Facebook addiction. Scientific experts agree, that this new phenomenon hasn't been known in detail yet, so it needs intensified scientific exploration. Different aspects of the personality are inclined to raise the probability of developing Facebook addiction. Neurotic and narcissistic traits of the personality are modifying the characteristic of Facebook use, and by this tendency, risk the individual for developing addiction. Our study aimed at measuring Facebook addiction properly, moreover to identifiy the maladaptive characteristics of Facebook use which are salient in the addiction. Our sample consisted of 117 secondary school students. To measure Facebook addiction we used the Hungarian translated version of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale. To examine the special neurotic and narcissistic signs of Facebook usage we have developed our own questionniare. We measured neurotic personality traits with the MMPI "Psychasthenia" scale and we measured narcissism with the NPI-16. According to our results, narcissism and neurotic personality traits influence the use of Facebook and the maladaptive usage mediates the addiction.

  12. [Psychophysiology of sports addiction (exercises addiction)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoshchekov, S G; Lushnikov, O N

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is a prevalent and growing concern in all aspects of our modern society. There are considerable concerns for the growing frequency of addictions to drugs, alcohol, gambling, eating, and even sex. Though exercise is generally accepted as a positive behaviour that has many benefits associated with enhanced physical and psychological wellbeing, there is an increasing awareness that exercise addiction is becoming a common phenomenon. Theories regarding how exercise can become addictive, and studies of withdrawal from exercise are reviewed. Several physiological mechanisms, including endogenous opioids, catecholamines, functional asymmetry of brain activity and thermoregulation have been implicated in exercise dependence.

  13. Use of a cancer registry is preferable to a direct-to-community approach for recruitment to a cohort study of wellbeing in women newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrugia Helen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC mortality is declining such that the number of survivors of BC in the community is increasing. BC survivors report a range of sequelae from their cancer and its management beyond the period of their immediate treatment. Previous studies to document these have generally been small, clinic-based or commenced years after diagnosis. We have recruited a large cohort of women newly diagnosed with invasive BC from the community who will be followed for five years in order to systematically document the physical, psychological and socio-economic consequences of BC and its treatment. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the issues encountered in the recruitment of this community-based study population. Methods Women residing in the southern Australian state of Victoria newly diagnosed with invasive BC were recruited to this cohort study using two approaches: directly from the community using an advertising campaign and contemporaneously using an invitation to participate from the Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR. Results Over the two and half year recruitment period, 2135 women were recruited and agreed to receive the enrollment questionnaire (EQ. Of these, 1684 women were eligible and completed an EQ, with the majority of participants having been recruited through the VCR (n = 1321. Only 16% of women contacted by the VCR actively refused participation following a letter of invitation and phone follow-up. The age distribution and tumour characteristics of participants are consistent with state-wide data and their residential postcodes include 400 of a possible 699. Recruitment through a direct community awareness program aimed at women with newly diagnosed invasive BC was difficult, labour-intensive and expensive. Barriers to the recruitment process were identified. Conclusion Most of the women in this study were recruited through a state-based cancer registry. Limitations to recruitment occurred because we

  14. A Comparison of Treatment-Seeking Behavioral Addiction Patients with and without Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sauvaget

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The administration of dopaminergic medication to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD is associated with addictive behaviors and impulse control disorders. Little is known, however, on how PD patients differ from other patients seeking treatments for behavioral addictions. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of behavioral addiction patients with and without PD. N = 2,460 treatment-seeking men diagnosed with a behavioral addiction were recruited from a university hospital. Sociodemographic, impulsivity [Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11], and personality [Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R] measures were taken upon admission to outpatient treatment. Patients in the PD group were older and had a higher prevalence of mood disorders than patients without PD. In terms of personality characteristics and impulsivity traits, PD patients appeared to present a more functional profile than PD-free patients with a behavioral addiction. Our results suggest that PD patients with a behavioral addiction could be more difficult to detect than their PD-free counterparts in behavioral addiction clinical setting due to their reduced levels of impulsivity and more standard personality traits. As a whole, this suggests that PD patients with a behavioral addiction may have different needs from PD-free behavioral addiction patients and that they could potentially benefit from targeted interventions.

  15. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  16. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas Nadim; Iancu, Iulian

    2007-07-01

    The Internet provides inexpensive, interesting and comfortable recreation, but sometimes users get hooked. Thus, the computer-internet addiction concept has been proposed as an explanation for uncontrollable and damaging use. Symptoms of addiction could be compared to other addictive behaviors such as pathological gambling, kleptomania, trichotillomania, sex addiction and pyromania. Although criteria to diagnose this addiction have been proposed, methods of assessing excessive computer-internet use are limited. Early diagnosis could help the patient that suffers from this addiction before developing additional psychiatric diagnoses. A review of the proposed etiologies in the literature is summarized, together with recommendations for physicians and mental health officials.

  17. Sexual addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Thibaut, Florence

    2010-09-01

    The potential adverse consequences, personal distress, shame and guilt presented by patients who suffer from sexual addiction require a more in-depth understanding of the phenomenology and psychobiology of this disorder. A bibliographic review was conducted using MEDLINE and EBSCO databases with the following keywords: "sexual addiction," "hypersexuality," "compulsive sexual behavior," "behavioural addiction," "treatment," and "addiction." Several conceptualizations of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder have been proposed based on the models of, respectively, obsessive compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, out of control excessive sexual disorder, and addictive disorder. Despite the lack of robust scientific data, a number of clinical elements, such as the frequent preoccupation with this type of behavior, the time spent in sexual activities, the continuation of this behavior despite its negative consequences, the repeated and unsuccessful efforts made to reduce the behavior, are in favor of an addictive disorder. In addition there is a high comorbidity between excessive sexual behavior and other addictive behaviors. The phenomenology of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder favors its conceptualization as an addictive behavior, rather than an obsessive-compulsive, or an impulse control disorder. Moreover, the criteria that are quite close to those of addictive disorders were recently proposed for the future DSM-V in order to improve the characterization of this condition. Finally, controlled studies are warranted in order to establish clear guidelines for treatment of sexual addiction.

  18. The Effect of Adolescents' Internet Addiction on Smartphone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayar, Dijle; Bektas, Murat; Bektas, Ilknur; Akdeniz Kudubes, Asli; Selekoglu Ok, Yasemin; Sal Altan, Sema; Celik, Isa

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adolescents' Internet addiction levels on smartphone addiction. This study included 609 students from three high schools that are located in western Turkey. Numbers, percentages, and averages were used to evaluate the sociodemographic data. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests were used to determine whether the data had a normal distribution. The average age of the participants was 12.3 ± 0.9 years. Of them, 52.3% were male, and 42.8% were 10th graders. All participants had smartphones, and 89.4% of them connected to the Internet continuously with their smartphones. The study found that there was a statistically significant correlation between Internet addiction and smartphone addiction. It was determined that male adolescents with high levels of Internet addiction also had high smartphone addiction levels. On the other hand, sociodemographic variables had no statistically significant effect on smartphone addiction. A number of studies in the relevant literature examined the effects of Internet addiction on adolescents' smartphone addiction. However, findings of this study are unique because they are specific to the Turkish culture, and there is a limited database in Turkey regarding this issue. The researchers believe that the findings of this study will be beneficial to show the importance of the issue in the international arena and to guide further studies to prevent this addiction because there is no reliable database about smartphone addiction in Turkey.

  19. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  20. Development and validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Li-Ren; Lee, Yang-Han; Tseng, Hsien-Wei; Kuo, Terry B J; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered scale based on the special features of smartphone. The reliability and validity of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) was demonstrated. A total of 283 participants were recruited from Dec. 2012 to Jul. 2013 to complete a set of questionnaires, including a 26-item SPAI modified from the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and phantom vibration and ringing syndrome questionnaire. There were 260 males and 23 females, with ages 22.9 ± 2.0 years. Exploratory factor analysis, internal-consistency test, test-retest, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SPAI. Correlations between each subscale and phantom vibration and ringing were also explored. Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors: compulsive behavior, functional impairment, withdrawal and tolerance. Test-retest reliabilities (intraclass correlations  = 0.74-0.91) and internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94) were all satisfactory. The four subscales had moderate to high correlations (0.56-0.78), but had no or very low correlation to phantom vibration/ringing syndrome. This study provides evidence that the SPAI is a valid and reliable, self-administered screening tool to investigate smartphone addiction. Phantom vibration and ringing might be independent entities of smartphone addiction.

  1. Development and validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered scale based on the special features of smartphone. The reliability and validity of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI was demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 283 participants were recruited from Dec. 2012 to Jul. 2013 to complete a set of questionnaires, including a 26-item SPAI modified from the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and phantom vibration and ringing syndrome questionnaire. There were 260 males and 23 females, with ages 22.9 ± 2.0 years. Exploratory factor analysis, internal-consistency test, test-retest, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SPAI. Correlations between each subscale and phantom vibration and ringing were also explored. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors: compulsive behavior, functional impairment, withdrawal and tolerance. Test-retest reliabilities (intraclass correlations  = 0.74-0.91 and internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94 were all satisfactory. The four subscales had moderate to high correlations (0.56-0.78, but had no or very low correlation to phantom vibration/ringing syndrome. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that the SPAI is a valid and reliable, self-administered screening tool to investigate smartphone addiction. Phantom vibration and ringing might be independent entities of smartphone addiction.

  2. The presence of altered craniocervical posture and mobility in smartphone-addicted teenagers with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, In-Kyung; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jung, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Jae-Kap

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Smartphones are widely used by teenagers and adults for various purposes. As teenagers use smartphones more actively than adults, they are more prone to be addicted to smartphones. Furthermore, excessive usage of smartphones can lead to various psychosocial and physical symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred teenage subjects were recruited and divided into normal and addiction groups, based on the criteria of the smartphone addiction scale-short version questionnaire. Craniocervical posture and mobility were examined by lateral cephalometric analysis and a cervical range of motion instrument. [Results] Cephalometric analysis showed no significant difference in the craniocervical angles of the resting positions of the two groups. However, measurement using an inclinometer revealed a significantly flexed cervical posture while using smartphones and decreased cervical range of motion in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. The clinical profile of temporomandibular disorders revealed that muscular problems were more frequently presented in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that smartphone addiction has a negative influence on craniocervical posture and mobility. Further, it can be postulated that smartphone addiction among teenagers may have contributed to the occurrence of myogenous temporomandibular disorders. In conclusion, smartphone-addicted teenagers may be more frequently subjected to muscular disturbance in the craniocervical area, which probably affects the pathologic process of temporomandibular disorders in teenagers.

  3. Addiction to Internet Use, Online Gaming, and Online Social Networking Among Young Adults in China, Singapore, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Koh, Yee Woen; Gan, YiQun

    2017-11-01

    The current study investigated the rates of addictions to Internet use, online gaming, and online social networking as well as their associations with depressive symptoms among young adults in China, Singapore, and the United States. A total of 3267 undergraduate students were recruited. Psychological instruments were used to assess various Internet-related addictions and depressive symptoms. Male students were more addicted to Internet and online gaming whereas female students were more addicted to online social networking. Compared with students in the United States, Chinese and Singaporean students were more addicted to Internet use and online social networking but less to online gaming. The odds of depression among students with addiction to various Internet-related addictions were highest in China. Internet-related addiction is a new public health concern of young adults, especially in the Asia-Pacific regions. It is found to associate with depressive symptoms. Strategies should address this phenomenon with attention to specific needs of gender and region while managing mood disturbances.

  4. Abundance, recruitment and residency of two sparids in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abundance, recruitment and residency of two sparids in an intermittently open estuary in South Africa. ... Abstract. The recruitment of distinct year-class cohorts in two sparid species, Rhabdosargus holubi and ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. [Gambling addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T

    2013-05-01

    Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64  % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly.

  6. Antireward, compulsivity, and addiction: seminal contributions of Dr. Athina Markou to motivational dysregulation in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F

    2017-05-01

    Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states. The construct of negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state that is created by drug abstinence, is particularly relevant as a driving force in both the withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages of the addiction cycle. The negative emotional state that drives such negative reinforcement is hypothesized to derive from the dysregulation of key neurochemical circuits that drive incentive-salience/reward systems (dopamine, opioid peptides) in the ventral striatum and from the recruitment of brain stress systems (corticotropin-releasing factor, dynorphin) within the extended amygdala. As drug taking becomes compulsive-like, the factors that motivate behavior are hypothesized to shift to drug-seeking behavior that is driven not only by positive reinforcement but also by negative reinforcement. This shift in motivation is hypothesized to reflect the allostatic misregulation of hedonic tone such that drug taking makes the hedonic negative emotional state worse during the process of seeking temporary relief with compulsive drug taking.

  7. Born in Bradford, a cohort study of babies born in Bradford, and their parents: Protocol for the recruitment phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynor Pauline

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bradford, one of the most deprived cities in the United Kingdom, has a wide range of public health problems associated with socioeconomic deprivation, including an infant mortality rate almost double that for England and Wales. Infant mortality is highest for babies of Pakistani origin, who comprise almost half the babies born in Bradford. The Born in Bradford cohort study aims to examine environmental, psychological and genetic factors that impact on health and development perinatally, during childhood and subsequent adult life, and those that influence their parents' health and wellbeing. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Methods Most Bradford women attend for antenatal care and give birth at the Bradford Royal Infirmary, which has approximately 5,800 births per year. Women are eligible for recruitment if they plan to give birth here. Babies born from March 2007 are eligible to participate, recruitment is planned to continue until 2010. Fathers of babies recruited are invited to participate. Women are usually recruited when they attend for a routine oral glucose tolerance test at 26–28 weeks gestation. Recruitment of babies is at birth. Fathers are recruited whenever possible during the antenatal period, or soon after the birth. The aim is to recruit 10,000 women, their babies, and the babies' fathers. At recruitment women have blood samples taken, are interviewed to complete a semi-structured questionnaire, weighed, and have height, arm circumference and triceps skinfold measured. Umbilical cord blood is collected at birth. Within two weeks of birth babies have their head, arm and abdominal circumference measured, along with subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness. Fathers self-complete a questionnaire at recruitment, have height and weight measured, and provide a saliva sample. Participants are allocated a unique study number. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage

  8. Recruitment rates in workplace physical activity interventions: characteristics for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryde, Gemma C; Gilson, Nicholas D; Burton, Nicola W; Brown, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review to assess recruitment rates in workplace physical activity (PA) intervention studies and describe characteristics of studies with high recruitment rates. Data Source. Electronic and manual searches were conducted. Workplace PA intervention studies that reported the number of employees invited to participate and the number who responded were included. Studies with recruitment rates of ≥70% were categorized as high with the remaining studies (recruitment rate. Seventy-six percent of studies failed to report recruitment rates (n = 30 included for review). Studies with high recruitment rates (n = 8) tended to have longer study duration (mean 1.6 years) and target smaller cohorts of employees (mean n = 199) than comparison studies (3.9 months; n = 1241). For recruitment strategies and intervention components of high studies, involvement of employees was driven by the organization, with PA interventions provided as part of the working day in paid time. These findings suggest a potential to improve recruitment through targeting small cohorts of employees, incorporating PA as a long-term strategy, facilitating organizationally driven employee involvement, and providing PA interventions during paid time.

  9. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  10. User profiles of internet addicts in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinić Darko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was a part of a broader empirical study of Internet users with excessive and dysfunctional Internet use symptoms. The aim of this particular article was to describe user profiles of Internet addicts in Serbia. The study recruited 100 subjects in total, 50 in both the clinical and control group. The clinical group included the Internet users who asked for professional help due to the symptoms of the excessive Internet use and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for Internet behavior disorder proposed by the American Psychology Association. The results have shown that population with Internet addiction symptoms equally included both males and females, mostly adolescent and younger population, teenagers and university students, persons with higher income and users from economically more developed areas of Serbia. The user profile of this group is characterized by frequent logging on with intervals of several hours online at one time, mainly in the evening or at night, and also intensive negative reactions to any form of Internet access deprivation. By means of factor analysis, three dimensions of pathological use have been established: mixed type with particular need for up-to-date information, social interaction addiction and need for fun-seeking, namely pursuing hobbies online (cyberpornography, online games, music, art and so on.

  11. Gambling Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Gambling Addiction KidsHealth / For Teens / Gambling Addiction What's in this ... worth my time?" "What are the risks?" Gambling Addiction Some people have a higher chance of becoming ...

  12. A significant association between BDNF promoter methylation and the risk of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuting; Ji, Huihui; Liu, Guili; Wang, Qinwen; Liu, Huifen; Shen, Wenwen; Li, Longhui; Xie, Xiaohu; Zhou, Wenhua; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-06-10

    As a member of the neurotrophic factor family, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the survival and differentiation of neurons. The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of BDNF promoter methylation in drug addiction. A total of 60 drug abusers (30 heroin and 30 methylamphetamine addicts) and 52 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for the current case control study. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was used to determine the methylation levels of five CpGs (CpG1-5) on the BDNF promoter. Among the five CpGs, CpG5 methylation was significantly lower in drug abusers than controls. Moreover, significant associations were found between CpG5 methylation and addictive phenotypes including tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, and depression-dejection. In addition, luciferase assay showed that the DNA fragment of BDNF promoter played a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Our results suggest that BDNF promoter methylation is associated with drug addiction, although further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which BDNF promoter methylation contributes to the pathophysiology of drug addiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The associations between aggressive behaviors and internet addiction and online activities in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Liu, Shu-Chun; Huang, Chi-Fen; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate (a) the association between Internet addiction and aggressive behaviors, as well as the moderating effects of gender, school, and depression on this association; and (b) to evaluate the association between Internet activities and aggressive behaviors. A total of 9405 adolescents were recruited into this study and completed the questionnaires. Their aggressive behaviors, with or without Internet addiction, Internet activities, demographic data, with or without depression, self-esteem, family function, and the watching of violent TV were assessed. The results demonstrated that after controlling for the effects of shared associated factors and watching violent TV programs, adolescents with Internet addiction were more likely to have aggressive behaviors during the previous year. The association was more significant among adolescents in junior high schools than in senior high/vocational schools. Online chatting, adult sex Web viewing, online gaming, online gambling, and Bulletin Board System were all associated with aggressive behaviors. The results suggest that preventive programs for aggressive behaviors should pay attention to Internet addiction among adolescents. Also, intervention to prevent the effects of Internet addiction on aggressive behaviors should be conducted as early as possible.

  14. [Long-term effectiveness of psychodynamic outpatient treatment of addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, D V; Werle, L; Steffen, R; Steffen, M; Steffen, S

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to make an evaluation of the effectiveness of long-term outpatient treatment for addiction on the basis of abstinence, cognitive functions, and changes in personality structure. This is a prospective cohort study of 259 patients with registration of the German core data set "addiction", a 12-month follow-up and neuropsychological testing (personality inventory, intelligence and cognitive functions). One year after the end of the long-term treatment we see an abstinence rate (DGSS4) of 57.5 %. The most substantial factors in abstinence are the participation in a self-help-group (β = 0.734, p addiction seem to show its high effectiveness in terms of abstinence and processing of drug structures. The cognitive functions could increase. This could be determinate of a condition for the conservation and restoration of working capacity. Further studies should differentiate the effect of insight into the dependency structure from the abstinence as an specific or unspecific effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Addiction and autonomy: can addicted people consent to the prescription of their drug of addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddy, Bennett; Savulescu, Julian

    2006-02-01

    It is often claimed that the autonomy of heroin addicts is compromised when they are choosing between taking their drug of addiction and abstaining. This is the basis of claims that they are incompetent to give consent to be prescribed heroin. We reject these claims on a number of empirical and theoretical grounds. First we argue that addicts are likely to be sober, and thus capable of rational thought, when approaching researchers to participate in research. We reject behavioural evidence purported to establish that addicts lack autonomy. We present an argument that extrinsic forces must be irresistible in order to make a choice non-autonomous. We argue that heroin does not present such an irresistible force. We make a case that drug-oriented desires are strong regular appetitive desires, which do not compromise consent. Finally we argue that an addict's apparent desire to engage in a harmful act cannot be construed as evidence of irrational or compulsive thought. On these arguments, a sober heroin addict must be considered competent, autonomous and capable of giving consent. More generally, any argument against legalisation of drugs or supporting infringement of the liberty of those desiring to take drugs of addiction must be based on considerations of harm and paternalism, and not on false claims that addicts lack freedom of the will.

  16. Treatment and rehabilitation of drug addicts in Singapore 1977-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, B C

    1984-01-01

    In Singapore, the treatment and rehabilitation of drug addicts consist of detoxification, recuperation and orientation, indoctrination, physical training and work programme. This is followed by a Day Release Scheme to bridge the gap between the strict disciplinary regime and the free environment of the outside world. The addicts are given the opportunities to pursue academic studies. Two review committees monitor their progress. There has been a significant decrease in the total number of admission from 7084 in 1977 to 2043 in 1982. Over this period, there appears to be a drop in the number of youths recruited into drug abuse. At the same time, more and more of those who have been previously treated are coming into the drug scene.

  17. The presence of altered craniocervical posture and mobility in smartphone-addicted teenagers with temporomandibular disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, In-Kyung; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jung, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Jae-Kap

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Smartphones are widely used by teenagers and adults for various purposes. As teenagers use smartphones more actively than adults, they are more prone to be addicted to smartphones. Furthermore, excessive usage of smartphones can lead to various psychosocial and physical symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred teenage subjects were recruited and divided into normal and addiction groups, based on the criteria of the smartphone addiction scale-short version questionnaire. Craniocervical posture and mobility were examined by lateral cephalometric analysis and a cervical range of motion instrument. [Results] Cephalometric analysis showed no significant difference in the craniocervical angles of the resting positions of the two groups. However, measurement using an inclinometer revealed a significantly flexed cervical posture while using smartphones and decreased cervical range of motion in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. The clinical profile of temporomandibular disorders revealed that muscular problems were more frequently presented in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that smartphone addiction has a negative influence on craniocervical posture and mobility. Further, it can be postulated that smartphone addiction among teenagers may have contributed to the occurrence of myogenous temporomandibular disorders. In conclusion, smartphone-addicted teenagers may be more frequently subjected to muscular disturbance in the craniocervical area, which probably affects the pathologic process of temporomandibular disorders in teenagers. PMID:27065516

  18. Morphometric changes of whole brain in patients with alcohol addiction: a voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinfeng; Chen Zhiye; Ma Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate morphometric changes of brain in patients with alcohol addiction by voxel-based morphometry. Methods: Fifteen patients with alcohol addiction and 15 health controls were recruited and underwent fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and 3D fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) T 1 -weighted sequences on a 3.0 T MRI system. 3D FSPGR T 1 structure images were normalized, segmented and smoothed, and then underwent voxel-based morphometry. An ANCOVA was applied with age, body mass index (BMI), and education years as covariates because of exact sex match. A statistical threshold of P 0.05). Conclusions: Regional gray and white matter atrophy can be the initial changes in patients with alcohol addiction and the frontal region is a relative specific damaged brain region. VBM has a potential value for the detection of subtle brain atrophy in patients with alcohol addiction. (authors)

  19. The process addictions and the new ASAM definition of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E

    2012-01-01

    Addiction is a primary, chronic disease involving brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry; it can lead to relapse, progressive development, and the potential for fatality if not treated. While pathological use of alcohol and, more recently, psychoactive substances have been accepted as addictive diseases, developing brain science has set the stage for inclusion of the process addictions, including food, sex, shopping and gambling problems, in a broader definition of addiction as set forth by the American Society of Addiction Medicine in 2011.

  20. The exacerbation of depression, hostility, and social anxiety in the course of Internet addiction among adolescents: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Wang, Peng-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2014-08-01

    In adolescent populations worldwide, Internet addiction is prevalent and is often comorbid with depression, hostility, and social anxiety of adolescents. This study aimed at evaluating the exacerbation of depression, hostility, and social anxiety in the course of getting addiction to Internet or remitting from Internet addiction among adolescents. This study recruited 2293 adolescents in grade 7 to assess their depression, hostility, social anxiety and Internet addiction. The same assessments were repeated one year later. The incidence group was defined as subjects classified as non-addicted in the first assessment and as addicted in the second assessment. The remission group was defined as subjects classified as addicted in the first assessment and as non-addicted in the second assessment. The incidence group exhibited increased depression and hostility more than the non-addiction group and the effect of on depression was stronger among adolescent girls. Further, the remission group showed decreased depression, hostility, and social anxiety more than the persistent addiction group. Depression and hostility worsen in the addiction process for the Internet among adolescents. Intervention of Internet addiction should be provided to prevent its negative effect on mental health. Depression, hostility, and social anxiety decreased in the process of remission. It suggested that the negative consequences could be reversed if Internet addiction could be remitted within a short duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reliability and Validity of the Behavioral Addiction Measure for Video Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James L; Williams, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Most tests of video game addiction have weak construct validity and limited ability to correctly identify people in denial. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of a new test of video game addiction (Behavioral Addiction Measure-Video Gaming [BAM-VG]) that was developed in part to address these deficiencies. Regular adult video gamers (n = 506) were recruited from a Canadian online panel and completed a survey containing three measures of excessive video gaming (BAM-VG; DSM-5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD]; and the IGD-20), as well as questions concerning extensiveness of video game involvement and self-report of problems associated with video gaming. One month later, they were reassessed for the purposes of establishing test-retest reliability. The BAM-VG demonstrated good internal consistency as well as 1 month test-retest reliability. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with the following: time spent playing, self-identification of video game problems, and scores on other instruments designed to assess video game addiction (DSM-5 IGD, IGD-20). Consistent with the theory, principal component analysis identified two components underlying the BAM-VG that roughly correspond with impaired control and significant negative consequences deriving from this impaired control. Together with its excellent construct validity and other technical features, the BAM-VG represents a reliable and valid test of video game addiction.

  2. Development and Validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Li-Ren; Lee, Yang-Han; Tseng, Hsien-Wei; Kuo, Terry B. J.; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered scale based on the special features of smartphone. The reliability and validity of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) was demonstrated. Methods A total of 283 participants were recruited from Dec. 2012 to Jul. 2013 to complete a set of questionnaires, including a 26-item SPAI modified from the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and phantom vibration and ringing syndrome questionnaire. There were 260 males and 23 females, with ages 22.9±2.0 years. Exploratory factor analysis, internal-consistency test, test-retest, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SPAI. Correlations between each subscale and phantom vibration and ringing were also explored. Results Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors: compulsive behavior, functional impairment, withdrawal and tolerance. Test–retest reliabilities (intraclass correlations  = 0.74–0.91) and internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94) were all satisfactory. The four subscales had moderate to high correlations (0.56–0.78), but had no or very low correlation to phantom vibration/ringing syndrome. Conclusion This study provides evidence that the SPAI is a valid and reliable, self-administered screening tool to investigate smartphone addiction. Phantom vibration and ringing might be independent entities of smartphone addiction. PMID:24896252

  3. Addiction and Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eJohnson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ADDICTION AND WILLA hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING.The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted.Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness.

  4. Romantic Love vs. Drug Addiction May Inspire a New Treatment for Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Zhang, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA) system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT) system for romantic love and drug addiction. These findings indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial behavior. It

  5. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recruiting former melanoma patients via hospitals in comparison to office-based dermatologists in a register-based cohort study that required indirect contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Zeissig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are detailed reviews about different recruitment strategies, but not with regard to differences between recruitment of hospital-based versus office-based physicians. Within this study, the two different recruitment schemes are compared. Advantages and disadvantages of different ways of recruitment in registry-based studies are discussed. Methods In a cross-sectional cancer-registry-based study, long-term melanoma patients were contacted by dermatologists rather than directly by the registry on the basis of the legal situation. Logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations were used to assess effects of various patient and physician characteristics on participation and data quality. Especially differences between hospital-based versus office-based dermatologists are evaluated. Results Seventy two out of 112 contacted dermatologists took part in the study (64.3%. The cooperation proportion was 52.2% (689 participants/1320 contacted patients. Participants and non-participants differed regarding age and sex, but not regarding other social demographic factors and cancer stage. We did not observe a difference in patient participation between hospital-based versus office-based dermatologists (OR 1.08 [CI 0.84–1.39]; p = 0.57. However, medical data provided by the cancer registry were better for participants registered and recruited by hospitals. Conclusions In cohort studies with epidemiological cancer registries, recruitment via physicians has potential disadvantages and is more complex. If this indirect way of contact is mandatory, we recommend recruitment procedures including hospital-based rather than office-based physicians. However, physician characteristics were not associated with outcome.

  7. Addiction and will

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  8. Invited commentary: recruiting for epidemiologic studies using social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsworth, Jenifer E

    2015-05-15

    Social media-based recruitment for epidemiologic studies has the potential to expand the demographic and geographic reach of investigators and identify potential participants more cost-effectively than traditional approaches. In fact, social media are particularly appealing for their ability to engage traditionally "hard-to-reach" populations, including young adults and low-income populations. Despite their great promise as a tool for epidemiologists, social media-based recruitment approaches do not currently compare favorably with gold-standard probability-based sampling approaches. Sparse data on the demographic characteristics of social media users, patterns of social media use, and appropriate sampling frames limit our ability to implement probability-based sampling strategies. In a well-conducted study, Harris et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(10):737-746) examined the cost-effectiveness of social media-based recruitment (advertisements and promotion) in the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study, a cohort study of 3,799 young adult Australian women, and the approximate representativeness of the CUPID cohort. Implications for social media-based recruitment strategies for cohort assembly, data accuracy, implementation, and human subjects concerns are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Shame of Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen eFlanagan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Addiction is a person level phenomenon that involves twin normative failures. A failure of normal rational effective agency or self-control with respect to the substance; and shame at both this failure, and the failure to live up to the standards for a good life that the addict himself acknowledges and aspires to. Feeling shame for addiction is not a mistake. It is part of the shape of addiction, part of the normal phenomenology of addiction, and often a source of motivation for the addict to heal. Like other recent attempts in the addiction literature to return normative concepts such as choice and responsibility to their rightful place in understanding and treating addiction, the twin normative failure model is fully compatible with investigation of genetic and neuroscientific causes of addiction. Furthermore, the model does not re-moralize addiction. There can be shame without blame.  

  10. Relationship between Internet Addiction, Gaming Addiction and School Engagement among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This research examined the relationship of Internet addiction and gaming addiction with school engagement and effects of Internet addiction and gaming addiction on school engagement. The research was conducted with 365 students (140, 38.4%, males; 225, 61.6%, females) studying at an Anatolian high school in Gaziantep province. Personal Information…

  11. Rebalancing the Addicted Brain: Oxytocin Interference with the Neural Substrates of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Michael T; Neumann, Inga D

    2017-12-01

    Drugs that act on the brain oxytocin (OXT) system may provide a much-needed treatment breakthrough for substance-use disorders. Targeting the brain OXT system has the potential to treat addiction to all major classes of addictive substance and to intervene across all stages of the addiction cycle. Emerging evidence suggests that OXT is able to interfere with such a wide range of addictive behaviours for such a wide range of addictive substances by rebalancing core neural systems that become dysregulated over the course of addiction. By improving our understanding of these interactions between OXT and the neural substrates of addiction, we will not only improve our understanding of addiction, but also our ability to effectively treat these devastating disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Home Observation of Periconceptional Exposures (HOPE) study, a prospective cohort: aims, design, recruitment and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porucznik, Christina A; Cox, Kyley J; Schliep, Karen C; Wilkins, Diana G; Stanford, Joseph B

    2016-06-08

    To examine transient environmental exposures and their relationship with human fecundity, exposure assessment should occur optimally at the time of conception in both members of the couple. We performed an observational, prospective cohort study with biomonitoring in both members of a heterosexual couple trying to conceive. Couples collected urine, saliva, and semen specimens for up to two menstrual cycles on days corresponding to the time windows of fertilization, implantation, and early pregnancy, identified based on the woman's observations of her cervical fluid. Three hundred nine eligible couples were screened between 2011 and 2015, of which 183 enrolled. Eleven couples (6.0 %) withdrew or were lost to follow up. The most successful and cost effective recruiting strategies were word of mouth (40 % of participating couples), posters and flyers (37 %), and targeted Facebook advertising (13 %) with an overall investment of $37.35 spent on recruitment per couple. Both men and women collected ≥97.2 % of requested saliva samples, and men collected ≥89.9 % of requested semen samples. Within the periovulatory days (±3 days), there was at least one urine specimen collected by women in 97.1 % of cycles, and at least one by men in 91.7 % of cycles. Daily compliance with periovulatory urine specimens ranged from 66.5 to 92.4 % for women and from 55.7 to 75.0 % for men. Compliance was ≥88 % for questionnaire completion at specified time points. Couples planning to conceive can be recruited successfully for periconceptional monitoring, and will comply with intensive study protocols involving home collection of biospecimens and questionnaire data.

  13. Altered economic decision-making in abstinent heroin addicts: Evidence from the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu; Zhao, Liyan; Yao, Qi; Ding, Lixiang

    2016-08-03

    The development and persistence of drug addiction has been suggested to involve decision-making deficits. The Ultimatum Game is a widely used economic decision-making paradigm that illustrates the tension between financial self-interest and fairness motives. The behavior of responders in the Ultimatum Game has been associated with emotional reactions and cognitive control abilities, both of which are dysregulated in drug addicts. In this study, we investigated whether this economic decision-making process that involves considerations of social norms is affected by heroin addiction. Heroin addicts (n=17) and demographically matched healthy control subjects (n=18) were recruited to play the part of responders in the Ultimatum Game, during which they decided to accept or reject the monetary offers proposed by strangers. The offers were manipulated by varying the stake sizes and fairness scales. The rejection rates of all of the offer categories, response times, fairness judgments, and impulsivity were compared between heroin addicts and healthy controls. Compared with healthy subjects, the rejection rates of most unfair offers in the Ultimatum Game were significantly higher under low-offer-size conditions among heroin addicts. In contrast, the most unfair offers were more likely to be accepted by heroin addicts in the high-offer-size condition than by healthy subjects. The ratings of unfairness were equal in both conditions although the rejection rates were different. Heroin addicts had higher scores on BIS attentional/cognitive impulsivity and non-planning impulsivity, but not in motor impulsivity. Rejection rates to most unfair offers under low-offer-size conditions significantly correlated with score on BIS non-planning impulsivity and total score of impulsivity. Heroin addicts differentially responded under different stake-level conditions in the Ultimatum Game, with emotional impulses in low-offer-size conditions and selfish motives in the face of high monetary

  14. Romantic Love vs. Drug Addiction May Inspire a New Treatment for Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Zhang, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA) system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT) system for romantic love and drug addiction. These findings indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial behavior. It

  15. Modelling the Happiness Classification of Addicted, Addiction Risk, Threshold and Non-Addicted Groups on Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapmaz, Fatma; Totan, Tarik

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to model the happiness classification of university students--grouped as addicted, addiction risk, threshold and non-addicted to internet usage--with compatibility analysis on a map as happiness, average and unhappiness. The participants in this study were 400 university students from Turkey. According to the results of…

  16. Drug-use pattern, comorbid psychosis and mortality in people with a history of opioid addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H J; Jepsen, P W; Haastrup, S

    2005-01-01

    . METHOD: In 1984, 188 persons (122 men and 66 women) with a history of intravenous narcotics addiction were interviewed about their drug-use pattern. A registry-based follow-up continued through 1999 and mortality was assessed. Three 1984-drug-use categories were formed. In category 1, cohort members had...... at lower risk of premature death than people with continued drug use. A residual observed excess mortality in people who had apparently achieved stable abstinence from drug use is consistent with the view of drug addiction as a chronic disease....

  17. Romantic Love vs. Drug Addiction May Inspire a New Treatment for Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Zhang, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses...

  18. Believing that certain foods are addictive is associated with support for obesity-related public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa; Musicus, Aviva; Soo, Jackie; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Gollust, Sarah E; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that certain foods may be addictive. Although evidence that nicotine is addictive generated support for anti-tobacco policies, little research has examined whether beliefs about the addictiveness of food are associated with support for policies to address overconsumption of nutritionally poor foods. U.S. adults (n=999) recruited from an online marketplace in February 2015 completed a survey. Using logistic regression, we examined the relationship between beliefs about the addictiveness of certain foods and support for twelve obesity-related policies while controlling for demographics, health status, political affiliation and ideology, beliefs about obesity, and attitudes towards food companies. We examined whether the association between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies was consistent across other products and behaviors viewed as addictive (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, drugs, compulsive behaviors). In multivariable models, there was a significant association (OR; 95% CI) between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies for compulsive behaviors (1.48; 1.26-1.74), certain foods (1.32; 1.14-1.53), drugs (1.23; 1.05-1.45), and alcohol (1.21; 1.08-1.36) but not for tobacco (1.11; 0.90-1.37). For foods, the association between beliefs about addictiveness and obesity-related policy support was the strongest between such beliefs and support for labels warning that certain foods may be addictive, industry reductions in salt and sugar, energy drink bans, and sugary drink portion size limits. Overall, believing that products/behaviors are addictive was associated with support for policies intended to curb their use. If certain foods are found to be addictive, framing them as such may increase obesity-related policy support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Virtual cohorts and face-to-face recruitment: Strategies for cultivating the next generation of the IRIS Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, M.; Wysession, M. E.; Aster, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    Since 1998, the IRIS Consortium REU program has facilitated research opportunities and career development for 71 undergraduate students to work with leaders in seismological research, travel to exciting locations for fieldwork, and engage in significant research for presentation and recognition at major professional conferences. A principal program goal is to encourage more students, representing a more diverse population, to choose careers in Earth science. Of the forty-six internship alumni that have completed their undergraduate degrees thus far, 85% have attained or are currently pursuing a graduate degree in a geoscience field and an additional 6% are working in a geoscience career with an undergraduate degree. The IRIS Consortium’s program differs from traditional REUs in that students are hosted at IRIS member institutions that are geographically distributed. To capture the sprit of a traditional REU cohort, IRIS has developed and refined a model that bonds students into a cohort. Key to the model are: a) research projects that have a common focus within seismology, b) a weeklong orientation where students get to know one another, share common experiences and establish a “social presence” with the other interns, c) a cyber infrastructure to maintain their connectedness in a way that enables both learning and collaboration, d) an alumni mentor that supports the interns and serves both as a role model and an unbiased and experienced third-party to the mentor/mentee relationship, and e) an alumni reception, and scientific presentation, at the annual Fall AGU Meeting to reconnect and share experiences. Through their virtual community interns offer each other assistance, share ideas, ask questions, and relate life experiences while conducting their own unique research. In addition to developing a model for encouraging virtual cohorts, IRIS has also carefully examined recruitment strategies to increase and diversify the applicant pool. Based on applicant

  20. Pleasure and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Marie Kennett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savalescu (2010 have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behaviour. They describe addiction as ‘strong appetites toward pleasure’ and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction.

  1. Participation and successful patient recruitment in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, N J; Quartero, A O; Zuithoff, A P; Numans, M E

    2001-11-01

    The demand for family physicians (FPs) to participate in research is growing. The delicate balance between research participation and the daily practice routine might explain the often-disappointing number of patients recruited. We analyzed practice and physician characteristics associated with successful patient recruitment. We used a survey to conduct this study. There was a total of 165 FPs who participated in a combined randomized clinical trial/cohort study on drug treatment of dyspepsia in the Netherlands. We surveyed FPs about personal and practice characteristics and their motivation for participation in the project. These data were then related to the number of patients recruited. Univariate associations were calculated; relevant factors were entered into a logistic model that predicted patient recruitment. Data on 128 FPs could be analyzed (80% response rate); these FPs recruited 793 patients in the cohort study (mean = 6.3 per FP) and 527 in the clinical trial (mean = 4.2 per FP). The main reasons for participation were the research topic (59%) and the participation of an academic research group in the study (63%). Many FPs felt that participation was a professional obligation (39%); the financial incentive played a minor role (15%). The number of recruited patients was only independently associated with the participation of an academic research group. Successful patient recruitment in primary care research is determined more by motivation driven by the research group than by financial incentives, the research topic, or research experience.

  2. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  3. What Is Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... almost anything—lying, stealing—to keep taking the drug. Addiction is a long-lasting brain disorder. Drugs can ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ...

  4. A discursive analysis exploring constructions of sex addiction in clinical text and 'addict' accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous accounts have been developed which portray sex addiction and the sex addict. These in turn have led to screening tools, said to be capable of accurately distinguishing the sex addict from non-addicts. However, there are a wealth of various, diverse and conflicting understandings of addiction, sexuality and sex addiction. Sex addiction also carries moral implications, leading some to argue the term is used as stigmatising label for those who deviate from a socially...

  5. Addiction and arousal: the hypocretin connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrel, Benjamin; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The hypocretins, also known as orexins, are two neuropeptides now commonly described as critical components to maintain and regulate the stability of arousal. Several lines of evidence have raised the hypothesis that hypocretin-producing neurons are part of the circuitries that mediate the hypothalamic response to acute stress. Intracerebral administration of hypocretin leads to a dose related reinstatement of drug and food seeking behaviors. Furthermore, stress-induced reinstatement can be blocked with hypocretin receptor 1 antagonism. These results, together with recent data showing that hypocretin is critically involved in cocaine sensitization through the recruitment of NMDA receptors in the ventral tegmental area, strongly suggest that activation of hypocretin neurons play a critical role in the development of the addiction process. The activity of hypocretin neurons may affect addictive behavior by contributing to brain sensitization or by modulating the brain reward system. Hypocretinergic cells, in coordination with brain stress systems may lead to a vulnerable state that facilitates the resumption of drug seeking behavior. Hence, the hypocretinergic system is a new drug target that may be used to prevent relapse of drug seeking. PMID:18262574

  6. Investigating the differential effects of social networking site addiction and Internet gaming disorder on psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Halley M

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Previous studies focused on examining the interrelationships between social networking site (SNS) addiction and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in isolation. Moreover, little is known about the potential simultaneous differential effects of SNS addiction and IGD on psychological health. This study investigated the interplay between these two technological addictions and ascertained how they can uniquely and distinctively contribute to increasing psychiatric distress when accounting for potential effects stemming from sociodemographic and technology-related variables. Methods A sample of 509 adolescents (53.5% males) aged 10-18 years (mean = 13.02, SD = 1.64) were recruited. Results It was found that key demographic variables can play a distinct role in explaining SNS addiction and IGD. Furthermore, it was found that SNS addiction and IGD can augment the symptoms of each other, and simultaneously contribute to deterioration of overall psychological health in a similar fashion, further highlighting potentially common etiological and clinical course between these two phenomena. Finally, the detrimental effects of IGD on psychological health were found to be slightly more pronounced than those produced by SNS addiction, a finding that warrants additional scientific scrutiny. Discussion and conclusion The implications of these results are further discussed in light of the existing evidence and debates regarding the status of technological addictions as primary and secondary disorders.

  7. What is addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances--that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes "addiction." The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24-25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a "formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master." This notion of relinquishment of control by the addicted person is the central feature of many lay and professional definitions of the term. The study of addictive behavior crosses several disciplines, including, among others, behavioral neuroscience, epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Articles in this issue examine aspects of AOD use disorders from the perspective of some of these varied disciplines.

  8. Introduction to behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A

    2010-09-01

    Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.

  9. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increases central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of drugs of abuse. The composition includes GVG, gabapentin, valproic acid, progabide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, fengabine, cetylGABA, topiramate or tiagabine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof.

  10. Behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Clark, L

    2015-02-01

    Behavioral addictions are slowly becoming recognized as a valid category of psychiatric disorder as shown by the recent allocation of pathological gambling to this category in DSM-5. However, several other types of psychiatric disorder proposed to be examples of behavioral addictions have yet to be accorded this formal acknowledgment and are dispersed across other sections of the DSM-5. This brief review marks this important point in the evolution of this concept and looks to future investigation of behavioral addictions with the theoretical frameworks currently being used successfully to investigate substance addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder, in a potentially new spectrum of impulsive-compulsive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The hyper-sentient addict: an exteroception model of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Samuel J; Ketcherside, Ariel; McQueeny, Tim M; Dunlop, Joseph P; Filbey, Francesca M

    2015-01-01

    Exteroception involves processes related to the perception of environmental stimuli important for an organism's ability to adapt to its environment. As such, exteroception plays a critical role in conditioned response. In addiction, behavioral and neuroimaging studies show that the conditioned response to drug-related cues is often associated with alterations in brain regions including the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, an important node within the default mode network dedicated to processes such as self-monitoring. This review aimed to summarize the growing, but largely fragmented, literature that supports a central role of exteroceptive processes in addiction. We performed a systematic review of empirical research via PubMed and Google Scholar with keywords including 'addiction', 'exteroception', 'precuneus', and 'self-awareness', to identify human behavioral and neuroimaging studies that report mechanisms of self-awareness in healthy populations, and altered self-awareness processes, specifically exteroception, in addicted populations. Results demonstrate that exteroceptive processes play a critical role in conditioned cue response in addiction and serve as targets for interventions such as mindfulness training. Further, a hub of the default mode network, namely, the precuneus, is (i) consistently implicated in exteroceptive processes, and (ii) widely demonstrated to have increased activation and connectivity in addicted populations. Heightened exteroceptive processes may underlie cue-elicited craving, which in turn may lead to the maintenance and worsening of substance use disorders. An exteroception model of addiction provides a testable framework from which novel targets for interventions can be identified.

  12. Romantic love v.s. drug addiction may inspire a new treatment for addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Zou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT system for romantic love and drug addiction. These indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial

  13. Internet Addiction Among Elementary and Middle School Students in China: A Nationally Representative Sample Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteria of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), an eight-item instrument, the prevalence of Internet addiction in the total sample was 6.3%, and among Internet users was 11.7%. Among the Internet users, males (14.8%) and rural students (12.1%) reported Internet addiction more than females (7.0%) and urban students (10.6%). The percentage of Internet addicts in elementary school students (11.5%) was not significantly lower than the percentage of middle school students (11.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four geographical regions (9.6%, 11.5%, 12.3%, 11.1%) characterized by different levels of economy, health, education, and social environment. As the frequency of Internet use and time spent online per week increased, the percentage of Internet addicts increased. When considering the location and purpose of Internet use, the percentage of Internet addicts was highest in adolescents typically surfing in Internet cafes (18.1%) and playing Internet games (22.5%). PMID:23971432

  14. Choice, social interaction and addiction: the social roots of addictive preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skog, Ole-Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    It is argued that addicts, as people in general, are forward-looking and that they try to make the best of what they have got. However, this does not imply that they are fully rational. Cognitive defects, instabilities in preferences, and irrationalities in the form of wishful thinking and dynamical inconsistency play an important role in addictive behaviours. These "imperfections" in people's rationality may not have very large consequences in the case of ordinary goods, but their effect can be dramatic in relation to addictive goods. In the first part of the paper, the rational addiction theory and the empirical evidence that have been presented in support of the theory is reviewed. Regarding the conventional tests of the theory by econometric methods, it is argued that the tests are misguided, both theoretically and methodologically. Furthermore, it is claimed that the definition of addiction implicit in the rational addiction theory is unrealistic, and that the theory makes unrealistic assumptions about human nature. Some empirical evidence for these claims is reviewed. It is concluded that although the theory has its virtues, it faces serious problems and must be rejected in its original form. Secondly, the socio-cultural embeddedness of addictive behaviours, and the social roots of individual preferences, are discussed. These issues are more or less ignored in rational addiction theory. It is argued that we cannot expect to obtain a proper understanding of many addictive phenomena, unless they are seen in their proper socio-cultural context.

  15. Drug addiction and alcoholism as predictors for tuberculosis treatment default in Brazil: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M R; Pereira, J C; Costa, R R; Dias, J A; Guimarães, M D C; Leite, I C G

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) treatment default in a priority city for disease control in Brazil. A cohort of TB cases diagnosed from 2008 to 2009 was followed up from patients' entry into three outpatient sites, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil), until the recording of the outcomes. Drug addiction, alcoholism and treatment site appeared to be independently associated with default. Current users of crack as the hardest drug (odds ratio (OR) 12·25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·04-49·26) were more likely to default than other hard drug users (OR 5·67, 95% CI 1·34-24·03), former users (OR 4·12, 95% CI 1·11-15·20) and those not known to use drugs (reference group). Consumers at high risk of alcoholism (OR 2·94, 95% CI 1·08-7·99) and those treated in an outpatient hospital unit (OR 8·22, 95% CI 2·79-24·21%) also were more likely to default. Our results establish that substance abuse was independently associated with default. National TB programmes might be more likely to achieve their control targets if they include interventions aimed at improving adherence and cure rates, by diagnosing and treating substance abuse concurrently with standard TB therapy.

  16. Romantic love v.s. drug addiction may inspire a new treatment for addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiling Zou; Hongwen Song; Hongwen Song; Yuting Zhang; Xiaochu Zhang; Xiaochu Zhang; Xiaochu Zhang; Xiaochu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses...

  17. Addiction to Snake Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saibal; Barnwal, Preeti; Maiti, Tanay; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath; Babu, Dinesh

    2017-07-03

    The nature of addiction depends on various factors. The tendency to have already used several addictive substances and to seek high sensation experiences as a result of specific personality traits may lead to extreme and peculiar forms of addictions. Even belonging to specific social and cultural background may lead to such forms of addiction such as intentional snake bite and willful envenomation. In this article, we have discussed the peculiarities and practical insight of such addiction to snake venom. The possible molecular mechanism behind such venom-mediated reinforcement has also been highlighted. Finally, we have stressed upon the treatment and de-addiction measures.

  18. The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study: Theory-Informed Recruitment in an African American Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Bettina M; Bruce, Marino A; Crump, Mary E; Hamilton, Gina E

    2017-04-01

    Recruitment for large cohort studies is typically challenging, particularly when the pool of potential participants is limited to the descendants of individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal "parent" study. The increasing complexity of family structures and dynamics can present challenges for recruitment in offspring. Few best practices exist to guide effective and efficient empirical approaches to participant recruitment. Social and behavioral theories can provide insight into social and cultural contexts influencing individual decision-making and facilitate the development strategies for effective diffusion and marketing of an offspring cohort study. The purpose of this study was to describe the theory-informed recruitment approaches employed by the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study (JHKS), a prospective offspring feasibility study of 200 African American children and grandchildren of the Jackson Heart Study (JHS)-the largest prospective cohort study examining cardiovascular disease among African American adults. Participant recruitment in the JHKS was founded on concepts from three theoretical perspectives-the Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Strength of Weak Ties, and Marketing Theory. Tailored recruitment strategies grounded in participatory strategies allowed us to exceed enrollment goals for JHKS Pilot Study and develop a framework for a statewide study of African American adolescents.

  19. The Addict in Us All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan eDill

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we contend that the psychology of addiction is similar to the psychology of ordinary, non-addictive temptation in important respects, and explore the ways in which these parallels can illuminate both addiction and ordinary action. The incentive salience account of addiction proposed by Robinson and Berridge (1993; 2001; 2008 entails that addictive desires are not in their nature different from many of the desires had by non-addicts; what is different is rather the way that addictive desires are acquired, which in turn affects their strength. We examine these 'incentive salience' desires, both in addicts and non-addicts, contrasting them with more cognitive desires. On this account the self-control challenge faced by addicted agents is not different in kind from that faced by non-addicted agents—though the two may, of course, differ greatly in degree of difficulty. We explore a general model of self-control for both the addict and the non-addict, stressing that self-control may be employed at three different stages, and examining the ways that it might be strengthened. This helps elucidate a general model of intentional action.

  20. Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment: A Neuroscience-Based Framework for Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwako, Laura E; Momenan, Reza; Litten, Raye Z; Koob, George F; Goldman, David

    2016-08-01

    This article proposes a heuristic framework for the Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment that incorporates key functional domains derived from the neurocircuitry of addiction. We review how addictive disorders (ADs) are presently diagnosed and the need for new neuroclinical measures to differentiate patients who meet clinical criteria for addiction to the same agent while differing in etiology, prognosis, and treatment response. The need for a better understanding of the mechanisms provoking and maintaining addiction, as evidenced by the limitations of current treatments and within-diagnosis clinical heterogeneity, is articulated. In addition, recent changes in the nosology of ADs, challenges to current classification systems, and prior attempts to subtype individuals with ADs are described. Complementary initiatives, including the Research Domain Criteria project, that have established frameworks for the neuroscience of psychiatric disorders are discussed. Three domains-executive function, incentive salience, and negative emotionality-tied to different phases in the cycle of addiction form the core functional elements of ADs. Measurement of these domains in epidemiologic, genetic, clinical, and treatment studies will provide the underpinnings for an understanding of cross-population and temporal variation in addictions, shared mechanisms in addictive disorders, impact of changing environmental influences, and gene identification. Finally, we show that it is practical to implement such a deep neuroclinical assessment using a combination of neuroimaging and performance measures. Neuroclinical assessment is key to reconceptualizing the nosology of ADs on the basis of process and etiology, an advance that can lead to improved prevention and treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Attachment Style and Internet Addiction: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Markus; Decker, Oliver; Sindelar, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Background One of the clinically relevant problems of Internet use is the phenomenon of Internet addiction. Considering the fact that there is ample evidence for the relationship between attachment style and substance abuse, it stands to reason that attachment theory can also make an important contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Internet addiction. Objective The aim of this study was to examine people’s tendency toward pathological Internet usage in relation to their attachment style. Methods An online survey was conducted. Sociodemographic data, attachment style (Bielefeld questionnaire partnership expectations), symptoms of Internet addiction (scale for online addiction for adults), used Web-based services, and online relationship motives (Cyber Relationship Motive Scale, CRMS-D) were assessed. In order to confirm the findings, a study using the Rorschach test was also conducted. Results In total, 245 subjects were recruited. Participants with insecure attachment style showed a higher tendency to pathological Internet usage compared with securely attached participants. An ambivalent attachment style was particularly associated with pathological Internet usage. Escapist and social-compensatory motives played an important role for insecurely attached subjects. However, there were no significant effects with respect to Web-based services and apps used. Results of the analysis of the Rorschach protocol with 16 subjects corroborated these results. Users with pathological Internet use frequently showed signs of infantile relationship structures in the context of social groups. This refers to the results of the Web-based survey, in which interpersonal relationships were the result of an insecure attachment style. Conclusions Pathological Internet use was a function of insecure attachment and limited interpersonal relationships. PMID:28526662

  2. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  3. Association between recruitment methods and attrition in Internet-based studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bajardi

    Full Text Available Internet-based systems for epidemiological studies have advantages over traditional approaches as they can potentially recruit and monitor a wider range of individuals in a relatively inexpensive fashion. We studied the association between communication strategies used for recruitment (offline, online, face-to-face and follow-up participation in nine Internet-based cohorts: the Influenzanet network of platforms for influenza surveillance which includes seven cohorts in seven different European countries, the Italian birth cohort Ninfea and the New Zealand birth cohort ELF. Follow-up participation varied from 43% to 89% depending on the cohort. Although there were heterogeneities among studies, participants who became aware of the study through an online communication campaign compared with those through traditional offline media seemed to have a lower follow-up participation in 8 out of 9 cohorts. There were no clear differences in participation between participants enrolled face-to-face and those enrolled through other offline strategies. An Internet-based campaign for Internet-based epidemiological studies seems to be less effective than an offline one in enrolling volunteers who keep participating in follow-up questionnaires. This suggests that even for Internet-based epidemiological studies an offline enrollment campaign would be helpful in order to achieve a higher participation proportion and limit the cohort attrition.

  4. [Construction of the addiction prevention core competency model for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young

    2013-12-01

    This study was done to provide fundamental data for the development of competency reinforcement programs to prevent addictive behavior in adolescents through the construction and examination of an addiction prevention core competency model. In this study core competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling were identified, and the addiction prevention core competency model was developed. It was validated methodologically. Competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents as defined by the addiction prevention core competency model are as follows: positive self-worth, self-control skill, time management skill, reality perception skill, risk coping skill, and positive communication with parents and with peers or social group. After construction, concurrent cross validation of the addiction prevention core competency model showed that this model was appropriate. The study results indicate that the addiction prevention core competency model for the prevention of addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling can be used as a foundation for an integral approach to enhance adolescent is used as an adjective and prevent addictive behavior. This approach can be a school-centered, cost-efficient strategy which not only reduces addictive behavior in adolescents, but also improves the quality of their resources.

  5. Online activities, prevalence of Internet addiction and risk factors related to family and school among adolescents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Miao; Xing, Jiang; Pengfei, Wang; Houru, Li; Mengcheng, Wang; Hong, Zeng

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the online activities, prevalence of Internet Addiction in relation to demographic characteristics and risk factors related to family and school among adolescents. A total of 6468 10-18 year old adolescents recruited from local schools in Guangzhou, China were selected by adopting multi-stage stratified random sampling (female/male: 2886/3582; mean age:13.78 ± 2.43). Participants completed a structured questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Internet Addiction was 26.50%, with severe addiction being 0.96%. Internet Addiction was higher among males than females (30.6% versus 21.2%). Older grade students reported more Internet addiction rate ( χ 2  = 431.25, P  online activities were social networking (94.73%), school work (86.53%), entertainment (82.44%), Internet gaming (73.42%) and shopping online (33.67%). A negative relationship with teachers (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.20-1.53), a negative relationship between two parents (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.18-1.37), and poor academic performance (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.17-1.35), showed the highest relative risks for Internet addiction. Severe Internet Addiction is not common, but mild Internet addiction was reported by more than one fourth of all participants. The rates of Internet Addiction varied by gender, grade, the quality of family relationships and school situation, suggesting these factors should be considered when designing and implementing interventions.

  6. Ten myths about work addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Atroszko, Paweł A

    2018-02-07

    Background and aims Research into work addiction has steadily grown over the past decade. However, the literature is far from unified and there has been much debate on many different issues. Aim and methods This paper comprises a narrative review and focuses on 10 myths about work addiction that have permeated the psychological literature and beyond. The 10 myths examined are (a) work addiction is a new behavioral addiction, (b) work addiction is similar to other behavioral addictions, (c) there are only psychosocial consequences of work addiction, (d) work addiction and workaholism are the same thing, (e) work addiction exclusively occurs as a consequence of individual personality factors, (f) work addiction only occurs in adulthood, (g) some types of work addiction are positive, (h) work addiction is a transient behavioral pattern related to situational factors, (i) work addiction is a function of the time spent engaging in work, and (j) work addiction is an example of overpathogizing everyday behavior and it will never be classed as a mental disorder in the DSM. Results Using the empirical literature to date, it is demonstrated that there is evidence to counter each of the 10 myths. Conclusion It appears that the field is far from unified and that there are different theoretical constructs underpinning different strands of research.

  7. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. Methods College students (N?=?448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young?s Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck De...

  8. Addiction as an attempt at self-regulation (contemporary psychoanalytic theories of addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Žvelc

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article author presents the development of psychoanalytic theory of addiction from early writings to contemporary ego, self psychological and theories of object relations. Classical psychoanalysis understood addiction as a regressive gratification of libidinal drives, whereas contemporary authors understand it as an attempt of adaptation to certain problems and worries. The neurotic conflict is not anymore in the foreground, but disturbances in ego, self and object relations. On the basis of a review of contemporary psychoanalytical theories, the author concludes that individuals prone to addiction have a disturbance in self-regulation. Because of that, they have problems in tolerating and coping with certain emotions. With the help of outer means they tend to re-establish internal balance, which they can't manage alone. This outer 'help' can be seen in various forms of addiction (drugs, food, relationships, sex .... So, the core problem of addicted people is a deficit of self-regulation, which is a consequence of a lack of internalisaton of regulatory functions of primary object. Contemporary psychoanalytical theories of addiction bring us greater insight in personality factors which influence the formation of addiction, thus giving us guidelines for adequate psychotherapy of addiction.

  9. The Survey personal and national identity between individual with cell phone addiction disorder and normal smartphone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Smart phones have rapidly become an integral, and for some, an essential communication device worldwide. The issue of identity has always been a subject of interest among psychologists. The present study was conducted to compare personal and national identity and their subscales between cell phone addicts and non-addicts.Method: In this cross-sectional study, 500 student cell phone users from various universities in Tehran were recruited using stratified sampling. Participants completed cell phone addiction questionnaires including Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS, Cell Phone Dependency Questionnaire (CPDQ, Personal Identity Development Questionnaire, Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOMEIS and National Identity Questionnaire. Then, the subscales of these instruments were analyzed using SPSS Version 20.Results: Results of this study revealed significant differences between cell phone addicts and non-addicts in the scores of national identity, personal identity, and most subscales, except for some subscales (P<0.05. In addition, a negative and significant relationship was found between personal and national identity and cell phone addiction (r=-0.35, -0.33, respectively.On the other hand, after controlling for the confounder variables, we found that national identity had an effect on cell phone addiction(OR=0.05, CI=0.92-0.98.Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that cell phone overuse may be correlated with defects in some aspects of national and personal identity.

  10. Addiction and Moralization : the Role of the Underlying Model of Addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, Lily E.; Nagel, Saskia K.

    2017-01-01

    Addiction appears to be a deeply moralized concept. To understand the entwinement of addiction and morality, we briefly discuss the disease model and its alternatives in order to address the following questions: Is the disease model the only path towards a ‘de-moralized’ discourse of addiction?

  11. Addiction and moralization: the role of the underlying model of addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, L.E.; Nagel, S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Addiction appears to be a deeply moralized concept. To understand the entwinement of addiction and morality, we briefly discuss the disease model and its alternatives in order to address the following questions: Is the disease model the only path towards a ‘de-moralized’ discourse of addiction?

  12. Online activities, prevalence of Internet addiction and risk factors related to family and school among adolescents in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Xin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the online activities, prevalence of Internet Addiction in relation to demographic characteristics and risk factors related to family and school among adolescents. Methods: A total of 6468 10–18year old adolescents recruited from local schools in Guangzhou, China were selected by adopting multi-stage stratified random sampling (female/male: 2886/3582; mean age:13.78±2.43. Participants completed a structured questionnaire. Results: The overall prevalence of Internet Addiction was 26.50%, with severe addiction being 0.96%. Internet Addiction was higher among males than females (30.6% versus 21.2%. Older grade students reported more Internet addiction rate (χ2=431.25, P<0.001. The five highest-ranked online activities were social networking (94.73%, school work (86.53%, entertainment (82.44%, Internet gaming (73.42% and shopping online (33.67%. A negative relationship with teachers (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.20–1.53, a negative relationship between two parents (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.18–1.37, and poor academic performance (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.17–1.35, showed the highest relative risks for Internet addiction. Conclusions: Severe Internet Addiction is not common, but mild Internet addiction was reported by more than one fourth of all participants. The rates of Internet Addiction varied by gender, grade, the quality of family relationships and school situation, suggesting these factors should be considered when designing and implementing interventions. Keywords: Internet addiction, Adolescents, Social network, Parenting, Relationship

  13. Recruitment to publicly funded trials--are surgical trials really different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan A; Ramsay, Craig R; Norrie, John

    2008-09-01

    Good recruitment is integral to the conduct of a high-quality randomised controlled trial. It has been suggested that recruitment is particularly difficult for evaluations of surgical interventions, a field in which there is a dearth of evidence from randomised comparisons. While there is anecdotal speculation to support the inference that recruitment to surgical trials is more challenging than for medical trials we are unaware of any formal assessment of this. In this paper, we compare recruitment to surgical and medical trials using a cohort of publicly funded trials. Overall recruitment to trials was assessed using of a cohort of publicly funded trials (n=114). Comparisons were made by using the Recruitment Index, a simple measure of recruitment activity for multicentre randomised controlled trials. Recruitment at the centre level was also investigated through three example surgical trials. The Recruitment Index was found to be higher, though not statistically significantly, in the surgical group (n=18, median=38.0 IQR (10.7, 77.4)) versus (n=81, median=34.8 IQR (11.7, 98.0)) days per recruit for the medical group (median difference 1.7 (-19.2, 25.1); p=0.828). For the trials where the comparison was between a surgical and a medical intervention, the Recruitment Index was substantially higher (n=6, 68.3 (23.5, 294.8)) versus (n=93, 34.6 (11.7, 90.0); median difference 25.9 (-35.5, 221.8); p=0.291) for the other trials. There was no clear evidence that surgical trials differ from medical trials in terms of recruitment activity. There was, however, support for the inference that medical versus surgical trials are more difficult to recruit to. Formal exploration of the recruitment data through a modelling approach may go some way to tease out where important differences exist.

  14. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-12-01

    Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. College students (N = 448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young's Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. The risk factors for smartphone addiction were female gender, Internet use, alcohol use, and anxiety, while the protective factors were depression and temperance. In contrast, the risk factors for Internet addiction were male gender, smartphone use, anxiety, and wisdom/knowledge, while the protective factor was courage. Discussion These differences may result from unique features of smartphones, such as high availability and primary use as a tool for interpersonal relationships. Our findings will aid clinicians in distinguishing between predictive factors for smartphone and Internet addiction and can consequently be utilized in the prevention and treatment of smartphone addiction.

  15. Addiction: Choice or compulsion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eHenden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  16. Addiction: Choice or Compulsion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henden, Edmund; Melberg, Hans Olav; Røgeberg, Ole Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behavior under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behavior. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior. PMID:23966955

  17. Lormetazepam addiction: data analysis from an Italian medical unit for addiction

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    Faccini M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Marco Faccini,1 Roberto Leone,2 Benedetta Pajusco,1 Gianluca Quaglio,1 Rebecca Casari,1 Anna Albiero,1 Monia Donati,2 Fabio Lugoboni11Department of Internal Medicine, Addiction Unit, 2Pharmacology Unit, Reference Center for Education and Communication within the World Health Organization Program for International Drug Monitoring, University Hospital of Verona, Verona, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine, in the context of a hospital addiction unit, which benzodiazepines were abused and to look for correlations with the characteristics of detoxified patients.Methods: A retrospective study was carried out using the database of hospital admissions to the addiction unit for detoxification from 2003 to 2010.Results: Of 879 admissions to the addiction unit during the seven-year period, 281 were for benzodiazepines. The percentage of patients addicted only to benzodiazepines was higher among females than males. Benzodiazepine consumption had started as a drug addiction behavior in only 10% of cases. The main sources of prescription identified were general practitioners (52% of cases or compliant pharmacists (25%. Overall, 15 different benzodiazepines were abused, with lormetazepam being the most commonly used (by 123 patients, 43.8% of the total.Conclusion: Our data show that, outside the population of multidrug addicts, there is an underestimated group of chronic benzodiazepine consumers who are often not referred to medical institutions for treatment. Even in the group of patients addicted to one substance only, we observed an abnormal number of requests for detoxification from lormetazepam, which appears to be more "popular" than other benzodiazepines. This drug should be prescribed according to stricter criteria and submitted to closer control.Keywords: lormetazepam, benzodiazepines, addiction, inpatient detoxification

  18. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

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    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  19. Sex differences in addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g., sex, food) or activities (e.g., gambling, exercising). The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for gender differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviours. Thus, we first reviewed studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Potential risk factors and underlying brain mechanisms are also examined, with particular emphasis given to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive behaviours. Investigations on factors allowing the pursuit of non-drug rewards to become pathological in men and women are crucial for designing gender-appropriate treatments of both substance and non-substance addictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Which foods may be addictive? The roles of processing, fat content, and glycemic load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Schulte

    Full Text Available We propose that highly processed foods share pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. concentrated dose, rapid rate of absorption with drugs of abuse, due to the addition of fat and/or refined carbohydrates and the rapid rate the refined carbohydrates are absorbed into the system, indicated by glycemic load (GL. The current study provides preliminary evidence for the foods and food attributes implicated in addictive-like eating.Cross-sectional.University (Study One and community (Study Two.120 undergraduates participated in Study One and 384 participants recruited through Amazon MTurk participated in Study Two.In Study One, participants (n = 120 completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS followed by a forced-choice task to indicate which foods, out of 35 foods varying in nutritional composition, were most associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. Using the same 35 foods, Study Two utilized hierarchical linear modeling to investigate which food attributes (e.g., fat grams were related to addictive-like eating behavior (at level one and explored the influence of individual differences for this association (at level two.In Study One, processed foods, higher in fat and GL, were most frequently associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. In Study Two, processing was a large, positive predictor for whether a food was associated with problematic, addictive-like eating behaviors. BMI and YFAS symptom count were small-to-moderate, positive predictors for this association. In a separate model, fat and GL were large, positive predictors of problematic food ratings. YFAS symptom count was a small, positive predictor of the relationship between GL and food ratings.The current study provides preliminary evidence that not all foods are equally implicated in addictive-like eating behavior, and highly processed foods, which may share characteristics with drugs of abuse (e.g. high dose, rapid rate of absorption appear to be particularly associated with

  1. The Relationship of Decision-Making Styles and Attributional Styles in Addicted and Non-addicted Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghy, Farhad; Saffarinia, Majid; Iranpoor, Mohadeseh; Soltanynejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    One of social problems which has affected our society and resulted in problems for different groups of people is drug abuse. This issue indicates a serious psychological, physical and social problem in community. Social skills have positive and successful influences in prevention of substance abuse. This includes the ability to explain events correctly and then appropriate decision making. This study compares decision making styles and attributional styles between addicted and non addicted men to recognize their role in addiction. In this study, 200 addicted and non addicted men were randomly selected. Decision-making style and attributional style questionnaires were used. Data analysis was performed by independent Student's t and Pearson correlation tests. The study population included 81 addicted and 90 non-addicted men. Addicted and non addicted men were significantly different in rational decision-making style (P rational decision making and optimistic attribution style (r = -0.305, P rational decision making and learned helplessness (r = 0.309, P rational in decision making and addicts that developed learned helplessness were less rational and did not have optimistic attribution style. These issues show that addiction institutions and therapists have to pay attention to cognitive factors for addiction prevention.

  2. Understanding the disease of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detar, D Todd

    2011-03-01

    Addiction is a chronic brain disease. Drug addiction manifests as a compulsive obsession to use a substance despite serious detrimental and sometimes irreversible consequences. Drug addiction is not the same as drug dependency because dependency may not manifest as an addictive behavior. This problem is fundamental to understanding the disease of addiction. This article discusses the neurobiology and genetics of drug addiction. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Online social networking addiction among college students in Singapore: Comorbidity with behavioral addiction and affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Koh, Yvaine Yee Woen

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of addiction to social networking sites/platforms (SNS) and its comorbidity with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder among college students in Singapore. 1110 college students (age: M=21.46, SD=1.80) in Singapore completed measures assessing online social networking, unhealthy food intake and shopping addiction as well as depression, anxiety and mania. Descriptive analyses were conducted to investigate the prevalence and comorbidity of behavioral addiction and affective disorder. Chi-square tests were used to examine gender differences. The prevalence rates of SNS, food and shopping addiction were 29.5%, 4.7% and 9.3% respectively for the total sample. SNS addiction was found to co-occur with food addiction (3%), shopping addiction (5%), and both food and shopping addiction (1%). The comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder were 21% for depression, 27.7% for anxiety, and 26.1% for mania. Compared with the total sample, students with SNS addiction reported higher comorbidity rates with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder. In general, females as compared to males reported higher comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder. SNS addiction has a high prevalence rate among college students in Singapore. Students with SNS addiction were vulnerable to experience other behavior addiction as well as affective disorder, especially among females. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Addicted to love: What is love addiction and when should it be treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D.; Wudarczyk, Olga A.; Foddy, Bennett; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that romantic love can be literally addictive. Although the exact nature of the relationship between love and addiction has been described in inconsistent terms throughout the literature, we offer a framework that distinguishes between a narrow view and a broad view of love addiction. The narrow view counts only the most extreme, harmful forms of love or love-related behaviors as being potentially addictive in nature. The broad view, by contrast, counts even basic social attachment as being on a spectrum of addictive motivations, underwritten by similar neurochemical processes as more conventional addictions. We argue that on either understanding of love-as-addiction, treatment decisions should hinge on considerations of harm and well-being rather than on definitions of disease. Implications for the ethical use of anti-love biotechnology are considered. PMID:28381923

  5. The International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort (i3C) consortium outcomes study of childhood cardiovascular risk factors and adult cardiovascular morbidity and mortality: Design and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Alan R; Jacobs, David R; Woo, Jessica G; Bazzano, Lydia; Burns, Trudy; Hu, Tian; Juonala, Markus; Prineas, Ronald; Raitakari, Olli; Steinberger, Julia; Urbina, Elaine; Venn, Alison; Jaquish, Cashell; Dwyer, Terry

    2018-04-22

    Although it is widely thought that childhood levels of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors are related to adult CV disease, longitudinal data directly linking the two are lacking. This paper describes the design and organization of the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium Outcomes Study (i3C Outcomes), the first longitudinal cohort study designed to locate adults with detailed, repeated, childhood biological, physical, and socioeconomic measurements and a harmonized database. I3C Outcomes uses a Heart Health Survey (HHS) to obtain information on adult CV endpoints, using mail, email, telephone, and clinic visits in the United States (U.S.) and Australia and a national health database in Finland. Microsoft Access, REsearch Data Capture (REDCap) (U.S.), LimeSurvey (Australia), and Medidata™ Rave data systems are used to collect, transfer and organize data. Self-reported CV events are adjudicated via hospital and doctor-released medical records. After the first two study years, participants (N = 10,968) were more likely to be female (56% vs. 48%), non-Hispanic white (90% vs. 80%), and older (10.4 ± 3.8 years vs. 9.4 ± 3.3 years) at their initial childhood study visit than the currently non-recruited cohort members. Over 48% of cohort members seen during both adulthood and childhood have been found and recruited, to date, vs. 5% of those not seen since childhood. Self-reported prevalences were 0.7% Type 1 Diabetes, 7.5% Type 2 Diabetes, 33% hypertension, and 12.8% CV event. 32% of CV events were judged to be true. I3C Outcomes is uniquely able to establish evidence-based guidelines for child health care and to clarify relations to adult CV disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hidden addiction: Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  7. Risk personality traits of Internet addiction: a longitudinal study of Internet-addicted Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Jiangyang; Yang, Xuelong; Zhou, Hui

    2013-12-01

    As the world's fastest growing "addiction", Internet addiction is still controversial. The present study aimed to examine the potential personality predictors of Internet addicts. Eight hundred and sixty-eight students were tested using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire after they had just entered university. Two years later, 49 were found to be addicted to the Internet as defined by high Internet addiction test scores. Comparisons of means and logistic regression analysis were used to explore their relationship. Students addicted to the Internet showed higher Neuroticism/Stability scores, higher Psychoticism/Socialization scores, and lower Lie scores than their normal peers before their addiction. Regression results showed that Internet addiction was accounted by three independent variables: Neuroticism/Stability, Psychoticism/Socialization, and Lie. These results suggest that the risk personality traits of Internet addiction include neuroticism, psychoticism, and immaturity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. On the Comparison of Public Health and Social Support in Addicts and Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    touraj hashemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at comparing the degree of public health and social support in addicted and non-addicted people. Method: This study was causative-comparative and all addicts who had referred to addiction treatment centers in city of Khoy in 2012 constituted its population. From among this population, 60 addicts through convenience sampling method were selected and then peered with 60 normal subjects by age, gender, and education. The measurement tools were Goldberg Public Health (Ghq-28 and Social Support (Fleming questionnaires. Results: The results showed That Addicts enjoy a lower degree of Mental Health and Social Support. Conclusion: Providing social support for the addicts under treatment programs is one of the important factors in withdrawal from drug use.

  9. Ten myths about work addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD; Demetrovics, Z; Atroszko, PA

    2018-01-01

    Research into work addiction has steadily grown over the past decade. However, the literature is far from unified and there has been much debate on many different issues. Aim and methods: This paper comprises a narrative review and focuses on 10 myths about work addiction that have permeated the psychological literature and beyond. The 10 myths examined are (a) work addiction is a new behavioral addiction, (b) work addiction is similar to other behavioral addictions, (c) there are only psycho...

  10. Attachment Style and Internet Addiction: An Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus; Decker, Oliver; Sindelar, Brigitte

    2017-05-17

    One of the clinically relevant problems of Internet use is the phenomenon of Internet addiction. Considering the fact that there is ample evidence for the relationship between attachment style and substance abuse, it stands to reason that attachment theory can also make an important contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Internet addiction. The aim of this study was to examine people's tendency toward pathological Internet usage in relation to their attachment style. An online survey was conducted. Sociodemographic data, attachment style (Bielefeld questionnaire partnership expectations), symptoms of Internet addiction (scale for online addiction for adults), used Web-based services, and online relationship motives (Cyber Relationship Motive Scale, CRMS-D) were assessed. In order to confirm the findings, a study using the Rorschach test was also conducted. In total, 245 subjects were recruited. Participants with insecure attachment style showed a higher tendency to pathological Internet usage compared with securely attached participants. An ambivalent attachment style was particularly associated with pathological Internet usage. Escapist and social-compensatory motives played an important role for insecurely attached subjects. However, there were no significant effects with respect to Web-based services and apps used. Results of the analysis of the Rorschach protocol with 16 subjects corroborated these results. Users with pathological Internet use frequently showed signs of infantile relationship structures in the context of social groups. This refers to the results of the Web-based survey, in which interpersonal relationships were the result of an insecure attachment style. Pathological Internet use was a function of insecure attachment and limited interpersonal relationships. ©Christiane Eichenberg, Markus Schott, Oliver Decker, Brigitte Sindelar. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 17.05.2017.

  11. [The new types of addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaille, P

    2009-09-01

    Addiction is characterized by the inability to control his consumption of product or control certain behaviors, and the continuation of the behavior despite knowledge of its adverse effects. Addictions to substances like heroin, cocaine, etc., are well known. But other substances potentially addictive are getting more common in Belgium: MDMA, GHB / GBL, Cristal, etc. The existence of addictions without substance (called also behavioral addiction) is well recognized now: gambling addiction seems to be the most common and has been recognized as a disease by WHO, but we can also observe cyberaddiction, addiction to sex, workalholic, addiction to shopping, etc. The screening of poly-addiction or to one substance or one behavior should be systematized in the history of every patient. This screening should be facilitated through the development and validation of a cross scale. Particular attention will be paid to certain groups, both in primary prevention and screening: men, adolescents and young adults, university students or high schools, clubbers, sporting people, prisoners, ethnic minorities, people with mental disorders like depression. Primary care workers, and especially general practitioners, are at the first place to detect those different forms of addiction, can affort appropriate care according to patient's characteristics and type addiction, and to identify high-risk situations for relapse.

  12. Neuroepigenetics and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Deena M; Nestler, Eric J

    2018-01-01

    Drug addiction involves long-term behavioral abnormalities that arise in response to repeated exposure to drugs of abuse in vulnerable individuals. It is a multifactorial syndrome involving a complex interplay between genes and the environment. Evidence suggests that the underlying mechanisms regulating these persistent behavioral abnormalities involve changes in gene expression throughout the brain's reward circuitry, in particular, in the mesolimbic dopamine system. In the past decade, investigations have begun to reveal potential genes involved in the risk for addiction through genomewide association studies. Additionally, a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms, which mediate the enduring effects of drugs of abuse on the brain in animal models of addiction, has been established. This chapter focuses on recent evidence that genetic and epigenetic regulatory events underlie the changes throughout the reward circuitry in humans, as well as animal models of addiction. While further investigations are necessary, a picture of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in addiction is beginning to emerge and the insight gained from these studies will be key to the identification of novel targets for improved diagnosis and treatment of addiction syndromes in humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Jason C; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-07-28

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term "Internet addiction" is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  14. Obesity and Its Relationship to Addictions: Is Overeating a Form of Addictive Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Danielle; Clarke, Megan; Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem and notoriously difficult to treat. There are many parallels between obesity/overeating and addictions to alcohol and drugs. This paper discusses similarities between obesity and addictive disorders, including common personality characteristics, disruptive behavior syndromes, and brain mechanisms. Although there are important differences between overeating and other addictive behaviors, an addiction model of overeating may effectively inform prevention...

  15. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G.W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (Journal ...

  16. Good Psychometric Properties of the Addiction Version of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire for Health Care Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu, Astri Parawita; Dijkstra, Boukje; Golbach, Milou; De Jong, Cor; Schellekens, Arnt

    2016-01-01

    Addiction, or substance dependence, is nowadays considered a chronic relapsing condition. However, perceptions of addiction vary widely, also among healthcare professionals. Perceptions of addiction are thought to contribute to attitude and stigma towards patients with addiction. However, studies into perceptions of addiction among healthcare professionals are limited and instruments for reliable assessment of their perceptions are lacking. The Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ) is widely used to evaluate perceptions of illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the IPQ: factor structure, internal consistency, and discriminant validity, when applied to evaluate healthcare professionals' perceptions of addiction. Participants were 1072 healthcare professionals in training and master students from the Netherlands and Indonesia, recruited from various addiction-training programs. The revised version of the IPQ was adapted to measure perceptions of addiction (IPQ-A). Maximum likelihood method was used to explore the best-fit IPQ factor structure. Internal consistency was evaluated for the final factors. The final factor structure was used to assess discriminant validity of the IPQ, by comparing illness perceptions of addiction between 1) medical students from the Netherlands and Indonesia, 2) medical students psychology students and educational science students from the Netherlands, and 3) participants with different training levels: medical students versus medical doctors. Factor analysis revealed an eight-factor structure for the perception subscale (demoralization, timeline chronic, consequences, personal control, treatment control, illness coherence, timeline cyclical emotional representations) and a four-factor structure for the attribution subscale (psychological attributions, risk factors, smoking/alcohol, overwork). Internal reliability was acceptable to good. The IPQ-A was able to detect differences in perceptions between

  17. Differences in Dietary Preferences, Personality and Mental Health in Australian Adults with and without Food Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy; Hides, Leanne; Brown, Robyn; Dayas, Christopher V; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2017-03-15

    Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS) 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including: demographics, dietary intake, depression, anxiety, stress and personality dimensions including impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity. A total of 1344 individuals were recruited with the samples comprising 75.7% female, mean age 39.8 ± 13.1 years (range 18-91 years) and body mass index BMI 27.7 ± 9.5. Food addiction was identified in 22.2% of participants using the YFAS 2.0 tool, which classified the severity of food addiction as "mild" in 0.7% of cases, "moderate" in 2.6% and "severe" in 18.9% of cases. Predictors of severe food addiction were female gender (odds ratio (OR) 3.65 95% CI 1.86-7.11) and higher levels of soft drink OR 1.36 (1.07-1.72), confectionary consumption and anxiety sensitivity 1.16 (1.07-1.26). Overall people with "severe" (OR 13.2, 5.8-29.8) or extremely severe depressive symptoms (OR 15.6, range 7.1-34.3) had the highest odds of having severe food addiction. The only variable that reduced the odds of having severe food addiction was vegetable intake. The current study highlights that addictive food behaviours are associated with a complex pattern of poor dietary choices and a clustering with mental health issues, particularly depression.

  18. Differences in Dietary Preferences, Personality and Mental Health in Australian Adults with and without Food Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Burrows

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased obesity rates, an evolving food supply and the overconsumption of energy dense foods has led to an increase in research exploring addictive eating behaviours. This study aimed to investigate food addiction in a sample of Australian adults using the revised Yale Food Addiction Survey (YFAS 2.0 tool and how it is associated with dietary intake, personality traits and mental health issues. Australian adults were invited to complete an online survey that collected information including: demographics, dietary intake, depression, anxiety, stress and personality dimensions including impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity. A total of 1344 individuals were recruited with the samples comprising 75.7% female, mean age 39.8 ± 13.1 years (range 18–91 years and body mass index BMI 27.7 ± 9.5. Food addiction was identified in 22.2% of participants using the YFAS 2.0 tool, which classified the severity of food addiction as “mild” in 0.7% of cases, “moderate” in 2.6% and “severe” in 18.9% of cases. Predictors of severe food addiction were female gender (odds ratio (OR 3.65 95% CI 1.86–7.11 and higher levels of soft drink OR 1.36 (1.07–1.72, confectionary consumption and anxiety sensitivity 1.16 (1.07–1.26. Overall people with “severe” (OR 13.2, 5.8–29.8 or extremely severe depressive symptoms (OR 15.6, range 7.1–34.3 had the highest odds of having severe food addiction. The only variable that reduced the odds of having severe food addiction was vegetable intake. The current study highlights that addictive food behaviours are associated with a complex pattern of poor dietary choices and a clustering with mental health issues, particularly depression.

  19. [Pathological gambling and computergame-addiction. Current state of research regarding two subtypes of behavioural addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, K; Müller, K W

    2010-04-01

    Behavioral addictions, like pathological gambling and computer game addiction (or internet addiction), have become a growing concern in research and public interest. Currently similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are controversially discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately a mismatch exists between the large number of people seeking treatment and the small number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and computer game addiction. Prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is estimated to be 0.2-0.5%. These estimations are comparable to prevalence rates reported for drug dependency. Latest research states that about 3% of German adolescents and young adults are believed to suffer from computer game addiction. Therefore, it is important to enhance investigations regarding the clinical and neuroscientific basis of computer game addiction. This review offers a summary of current results of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction. The phenomenological description of these two disorders is meant to allow a deeper understanding of behavioral addictions.

  20. The Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted And Non-Addicted Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Saber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction: The goal of this study was to compare the personality characteristics and problem solving styles of addicted and non-addicted men. Method: This study is a causal comparative design survey. In this study 180 addicted men was selected through convenience sampling method from addicted men that refered to addiction treatment centers of Rasht city and matched in gender, age, education and job with 180 non addicted men and then two groups compared with each other. All participants completed the NEO-FFI-R and problem solving styles questionnaires. The gathered data were analyzed through SPSS software. Findings: The results showed that an addicted man in comparison with non-addicted men was upper in neuroticism and lower in agreeableness, extraversion and consciousness dimensions. Also there was no difference in openness dimension between two groups. Conclusion: The finding of present study suggests that educating efficient problem solving styles to people to cope with life stressful events could restrain and prevent addiction and other psychosocial disorders.

  1. Representativeness of the LifeLines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, B.; Scholtens, S.; Mandemakers, J.J.; Snieder, H.; Stolk, R.P.; Smidt, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background LifeLines is a large prospective population-based three generation cohort study in the north of the Netherlands. Different recruitment strategies were adopted: recruitment of an index population via general practitioners, subsequent inclusion of their family members, and online

  2. Cybersex addiction: Experienced sexual arousal when watching pornography and not real-life sexual contacts makes the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Pekal, Jaro; Schulte, Frank P; Brand, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Background and aims Cybersex addiction is discussed controversially, while empirical evidence is widely missing. With respect to its mechanisms of development and maintenance Brand et al. (2011) assume that reinforcement due to cybersex should lead to the development of cue-reactivity and craving explaining recurrent cybersex use in the face of growing but neglected negative consequences. To support this hypothesis, two experimental studies were conducted. Methods In a cue-reactivity paradigm 100 pornographic cues were presented to participants and indicators of sexual arousal and craving were assessed. The first study aimed at identifying predictors of cybersex addiction in a freely recruited sample of 171 heterosexual males. The aim of the second study was to verify the findings of the first study by comparing healthy (n = 25) and problematic (n = 25) cybersex users. Results The results show that indicators of sexual arousal and craving to Internet pornographic cues predicted tendencies towards cybersex addiction in the first study. Moreover, it was shown that problematic cybersex users report greater sexual arousal and craving reactions resulting from pornographic cue presentation. In both studies, the number and subjective quality of real-life sexual contacts were not associated to cybersex addiction. Discussion The results support the gratification hypothesis, which assumes reinforcement, learning mechanisms, and craving to be relevant processes in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Poor or unsatisfying sexual real-life contacts cannot sufficiently explain cybersex addiction. Conclusions Positive reinforcement in terms of gratification plays a major role in cybersex addiction.

  3. A social network analysis approach to alcohol use and co-occurring addictive behavior in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Matthew K; Clifton, Allan D; MacKillop, James; Goodie, Adam S

    2015-12-01

    The current study applied egocentric social network analysis (SNA) to investigate the prevalence of addictive behavior and co-occurring substance use in college students' networks. Specifically, we examined individuals' perceptions of the frequency of network members' co-occurring addictive behavior and investigated whether co-occurring addictive behavior is spread evenly throughout networks or is more localized in clusters. We also examined differences in network composition between individuals with varying levels of alcohol use. The study utilized an egocentric SNA approach in which respondents ("egos") enumerated 30 of their closest friends, family members, co-workers, and significant others ("alters") and the relations among alters listed. Participants were 281 undergraduates at a large university in the Southeastern United States. Robust associations were observed among the frequencies of gambling, smoking, drinking, and using marijuana by network members. We also found that alters tended to cluster together into two distinct groups: one cluster moderate-to-high on co-occurring addictive behavior and the other low on co-occurring addictive behavior. Lastly, significant differences were present when examining egos' perceptions of alters' substance use between the networks of at-risk, light, and nondrinkers. These findings provide empirical evidence of distinct clustering of addictive behavior among young adults and suggest the promise of social network-based interventions for this cohort. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The Relationship of Early Maladaptive Schemas, Attributional Styles and Learned Helplessness among Addicted and Non-Addicted Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghy, Farhad; Saffarinia, Majid; Iranpoor, Mohadeseh; Soltanynejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is considered as one of the major problems in family and community in the world. According to cognitive view, organizing the experiences determines how to behave. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and attributional styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and attributional styles in addicts and non-addicts to recognize their role in addiction. In this causal-comparative study, 200 addicted and non-addicted men were randomly selected. Young early maladaptive schema and attributional styles questionnaires were used. Data analysis was performed by independent t-test, Pearson correlation and regression. The study population included 81 addicted and 90 non-addicted men. There were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas and attributional styles in the two groups of addicted and non-addicted men (P learned helplessness. A direct relationship was found between learned helplessness and frequency of addiction treatments (r ═ 0.234, P learned helplessness were less successful in addiction treatment and more likely to use drugs again after treatment. These issues show that addiction institutions and therapists have to pay attention to cognitive factors for addiction prevention.

  5. Obesity and its relationship to addictions: is overeating a form of addictive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Danielle; Clarke, Megan; Petry, Nancy M

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem and notoriously difficult to treat. There are many parallels between obesity/overeating and addictions to alcohol and drugs. This paper discusses similarities between obesity and addictive disorders, including common personality characteristics, disruptive behavior syndromes, and brain mechanisms. Although there are important differences between overeating and other addictive behaviors, an addiction model of overeating may effectively inform prevention and treatment of obesity.

  6. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Investigation of Prevalence of Child Abuse in Addicts Referring to the Addiction Withdrawal Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dastjerdi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Child abuse includes abuse of the body, mental and sexual abuse or misbehavior against children that leads to damage to the child's heath and comfort. Therefore, the present study was done in order to determine the prevalence of child abuse in opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers. Methods: The cross sectional study included 300 participations (150 addicts and 150 non-addicts The addicted group comprised of opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers of Yazd. The non addicted group was selected randomly from healthy people. Data collection was performed via a standard questionnaire. Data assessment was done via statistical analysis (K S Results: Collected data in the addicted group showed the following results about 56 percent were child tormentors, 1- 45.3% males, 10.7% females, 2-18.7% uneducated, 3-46% with divorce history in their family and 4-38% child body abuse. The most prevalent type of the body abuse was slapping (24%, mostly because of bad training (26%. Collected data in the no addicted group showed the following results 42% were child tormentors (26% male and 15.3% female 23.4% with family divorce history, 30.4% were child body abuse and the most prevalent type of body abuse was slapping (22.79%, mostly because of bad training (33.3% Conclusion: A direct relationship was observed between child abuse and persons addicted to opiates. Factors playing an important role include illiteracy, divorce history in the family and history of child abuse in childhood period. Therefore, compilation of rules supporting children, establishment of support and parent education centers can be effective to reduce child persecution.

  8. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... news is that many children whose parents had drug problems don't become addicted when they grow up. The chances of addiction are higher, but it doesn't have to ...

  9. Self-Disclosure and Internet Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nihan; Kiper, Aydin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of study is to investigate the relationship between self-disclosure and internet addiction. Self-Disclosure Scale and Internet Addiction Scale were applied to students. Results indicated a negative correlation between self-disclosure and internet addiction. Self-disclosure was negative predicted by internet addiction in the structural…

  10. Internet Addiction and Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychological Factors Including Demographic Features, Mental Illnesses, and Personality Disorders as Predictors in Internet Addiction Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farahani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Problematic internet use is an important social problem among adolescents and has become a global health issue. This study identified predictors and patterns of problematic internet use among adult students.Method: In this study, 400 students were recruited using stratified sampling technique. Participants were selected among students from 4 universities in Tehran and Karaj, Iran, during 2016 and 2017. Internet Addiction Test (IAT, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - Third Edition (MCMI-III, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I, and semi-structured interview were used to diagnose internet addiction. Then, the association between main psychiatric disorders and internet addiction was surveyed. Data were analyzed using SPSS18 software by performing descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P- Values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: After controlling the demographic variables, it was found that narcissistic personality disorder, obsessive- compulsive personality disorder, anxiety, bipolar disorders, depression, and phobia could increase the odds ratio (OR of internet addiction by 2.1, 1.1, 2.6, 1.1, 2.2 and 2.5-folds, respectively (p-value<0.05, however, other psychiatric or personality disorders did not have a significant effect on the equation.Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that some mental disorders affect internet addiction. Considering the sensitivity and importance of the cyberspace, it is necessary to evaluate mental disorders that correlate with internet addiction.

  12. PTSD, food addiction, and disordered eating in a sample of primarily older veterans: The mediating role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Karen S; Wolf, Erika J

    2016-09-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with eating disorders (EDs) and addictive behaviors, including the relatively new construct food addiction. However, few studies have investigated mechanisms that account for these associations, and men are underrepresented in studies of EDs and food addiction. We examined whether lifetime PTSD symptoms were associated with current food addiction and ED symptoms, and whether emotion regulation (expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal), which has been associated with both PTSD and EDs, mediated these relations, in a sample of trauma-exposed, male (n=642) and female (n=55) veterans. Participants were recruited from the Knowledge Networks-GfK Research Panel and completed an online questionnaire. Structural equation modeling revealed that PTSD was directly associated with ED symptoms, food addiction, expressive suppression, and cognitive reappraisal in the full sample and with all constructs except cognitive reappraisal in the male subsample. Expressive suppression was significantly associated with ED symptoms and mediated the PTSD-ED relation. These results highlight the importance of investigating PTSD as a risk factor for food addiction and ED symptoms and the potential mediating role of emotion regulation in the development of PTSD and EDs in order to identify targets for treatments. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Variation in the gene coding for the M5 Muscarinic receptor (CHRM5 influences cigarette dose but is not associated with dependence to drugs of addiction: evidence from a prospective population based cohort study of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson Craig A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mesolimbic structures of the brain are important in the anticipation and perception of reward. Moreover, many drugs of addiction elicit their response in these structures. The M5 muscarinic receptor (M5R is expressed in dopamine-containing neurones of the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area, and regulates the release of mesolimbic dopamine. Mice lacking M5R show a substantial reduction in both reward and withdrawal responses to morphine and cocaine. The CHRM5, the gene that codes for the M5R, is a strong biological candidate for a role in human addiction. We screened the coding and core promoter sequences of CHRM5 using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography to identify common polymorphisms. Additional polymorphisms within the coding and core promoter regions that were identified through dbSNP were validated in the test population. We investigated whether these polymorphisms influence substance dependence and dose in a cohort of 1947 young Australians. Results Analysis was performed on 815 participants of European ancestry who were interviewed at wave 8 of the cohort study and provided DNA. We observed a 26.8% increase in cigarette consumption in carriers of the rs7162140 T-allele, equating to 20.1 cigarettes per week (p=0.01. Carriers of the rs7162140 T-allele were also found to have nearly a 3-fold increased risk of developing cannabis dependence (OR=2.9 (95%CI 1.1-7.4; p=0.03. Conclusion Our data suggest that variation within the CHRM5 locus may play an important role in tobacco and cannabis but not alcohol addiction in European ancestry populations. This is the first study to show an association between CHRM5 and substance use in humans. These data support the further investigation of this gene as a risk factor in substance use and dependence.

  14. Definition of Substance and Non-substance Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Xiaomei; Ding, Jianrui; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Substance addiction (or drug addiction) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a recurring desire to continue taking the drug despite harmful consequences. Non-substance addiction (or behavioral addiction) covers pathological gambling, food addiction, internet addiction, and mobile phone addiction. Their definition is similar to drug addiction but they differ from each other in specific domains. This review aims to provide a brief overview of past and current definitions of substance and non-substance addiction, and also touches on the topic of diagnosing drug addiction and non-drug addiction, ultimately aiming to further the understanding of the key concepts needed for a foundation to study the biological and psychological underpinnings of addiction disorders.

  15. Effects of opium addiction on bleeding after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: report from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Mohammad Hassan; Astaneh, Behrooz; Ardekani, Gholamreza Safaee

    2010-09-01

    Opium abuse is a major type of drug abuse in Iran. This study was designed to find the possible relation between opium addiction and excessive bleeding after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. In a historical cohort study during a 1.5-year period, consecutive patients scheduled for elective CABG surgery were assigned to two group on the basis of having or not having the criteria for inhalational opium addiction. Before and after operations, the complete blood count, bleeding time, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet count were checked for all patients. The volumes of infused red blood cells during and after the operation were recorded. After operations, the volumes of bleeding through the patients' chest tubes were recorded. The recorded data were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5. Independent t, chi-square and repeated measure tests were used; and P Opium-addicted patients received more packed red blood cells during and after the operations. Inhalational opium addiction might lead to more hemorrhage after CABG surgery. It is recommended that cardiac surgeons consider these patients at high risk for major complications after surgery.

  16. [Online addictive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality.

  17. What Does Addiction Mean to Me

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Addiction is compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance. Addiction is accepted as a mental illness in the diagnostic nomenclature and results in substantial health, social and economic problems. In the diagnostic nomenclature, addiction was originally included in the personality...... disorders along with other behaviours considered deviant. But it is now considered a clinical syndrome. Addiction is multifactorially determined, with substantial genetic influence. The development of addictions is also influenced by environmental factors, and interplay between the two. In the clinical...... context, addiction puts problem substance use on the agenda, and helps focus on the difficulties associated with drug use. But the concept of addiction is also used to distance the user from addicts, and in this way, may be counter-therapeutic. The addiction concept has also had a substantial influence...

  18. Assessing Internet addiction using the parsimonious Internet addiction components model - a preliminary study [forthcoming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Shorter, GW; Van Rooij, AJ; Griffiths, MD; Schoenmakers, T

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (2005), i...

  19. Which Foods May Be Addictive? The Roles of Processing, Fat Content, and Glycemic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erica M.; Avena, Nicole M.; Gearhardt, Ashley N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We propose that highly processed foods share pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. concentrated dose, rapid rate of absorption) with drugs of abuse, due to the addition of fat and/or refined carbohydrates and the rapid rate the refined carbohydrates are absorbed into the system, indicated by glycemic load (GL). The current study provides preliminary evidence for the foods and food attributes implicated in addictive-like eating. Design Cross-sectional. Setting University (Study One) and community (Study Two). Participants 120 undergraduates participated in Study One and 384 participants recruited through Amazon MTurk participated in Study Two. Measurements In Study One, participants (n = 120) completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) followed by a forced-choice task to indicate which foods, out of 35 foods varying in nutritional composition, were most associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. Using the same 35 foods, Study Two utilized hierarchical linear modeling to investigate which food attributes (e.g., fat grams) were related to addictive-like eating behavior (at level one) and explored the influence of individual differences for this association (at level two). Results In Study One, processed foods, higher in fat and GL, were most frequently associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. In Study Two, processing was a large, positive predictor for whether a food was associated with problematic, addictive-like eating behaviors. BMI and YFAS symptom count were small-to-moderate, positive predictors for this association. In a separate model, fat and GL were large, positive predictors of problematic food ratings. YFAS symptom count was a small, positive predictor of the relationship between GL and food ratings. Conclusion The current study provides preliminary evidence that not all foods are equally implicated in addictive-like eating behavior, and highly processed foods, which may share characteristics with drugs of abuse (e.g. high dose

  20. Neuroimaging Impaired Response Inhibition and Salience Attribution in Human Drug Addiction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilverstand, Anna; Huang, Anna S; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2018-06-06

    The impaired response inhibition and salience attribution (iRISA) model proposes that impaired response inhibition and salience attribution underlie drug seeking and taking. To update this model, we systematically reviewed 105 task-related neuroimaging studies (n > 15/group) published since 2010. Results demonstrate specific impairments within six large-scale brain networks (reward, habit, salience, executive, memory, and self-directed networks) during drug cue exposure, decision making, inhibitory control, and social-emotional processing. Addicted individuals demonstrated increased recruitment of these networks during drug-related processing but a blunted response during non-drug-related processing, with the same networks also being implicated during resting state. Associations with real-life drug use, relapse, therapeutic interventions, and the relevance to initiation of drug use during adolescence support the clinical relevance of the results. Whereas the salience and executive networks showed impairments throughout the addiction cycle, the reward network was dysregulated at later stages of abuse. Effects were similar in alcohol, cannabis, and stimulant addiction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkeila, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction is defined as uncontrolled and harmful use of Internet, which manifests in three forms: gaming, various sexual activities and excessive use of emails, chats or SMS messaging. Several studies have found that abuse of alcohol and other substances, depression and other health problems are associated with Internet addiction. In boys and men depression may be more a consequence of the addiction than a cause for it. ADHD seems to be a significant background factor for developing the condition. Because it is almost impossible to lead a life without Internet and computers nowadays, it is unrealistic to aim towards full abstinence. Treatment has generally followed the guidelines adapted for pathological gambling.

  2. Internet Addiction in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rębisz Sławomir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities offered by the use of the Internet increasingly intensify the problem of Internet addiction, which has become more prevalent in the last decade, marked by the growing availability of mobile devices and new media and their exacerbation of the problem. Research on Internet addiction, initiated by Kimberly Young at the end of the twentieth century, usually appears in the literature in the context of young people who have been found to be most vulnerable. The phenomenon is known as Adolescent Internet Addiction. Compulsive use of the Internet is a complex phenomenon, its effects being visible in almost all aspects of a young person’s social life. It is manifested in a variety of pathological behaviors and emotional states grouped into several major psycho-physical and social effects that may appear simultaneously, e.g. anger, depression, loneliness or anxiety associated with the lack of access to the network, the weakening of social ties, withdrawal from real life, lack of educational achievement, chronic fatigue or deteriorating health. The authors of this study aim to assess the level of Internet addiction among adolescents in Poland and indicate its main behavioral manifestations, in the students surveyed, which influence their pathological use of the Internet. Our study involved a total of 505 students from three high schools located in Rzeszow (N = 505 and was carried out by questionnaires, including, among others, The Problematic Use of the Internet (PUI which is the Polish adaptation of Kimberly Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT (Cronbach’s α = 0.89. Statistical analysis of responses from the PUI test allowed us to determine (1 the level of Internet addiction among these adolescents, whereas the univariate (ANOVA analysis enabled us (2 to verify the hypothesis of the existence of differences in the level of Internet addiction among the investigated groups as far as gender, place of residence or grade are concerned

  3. Genetic Similarities between Compulsive Overeating and Addiction Phenotypes: A Case for "Food Addiction"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Nina; Marshe, Victoria S; Cmorejova, Jana; Davis, Caroline; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    There exists a continuous spectrum of overeating, where at the extremes there are casual overindulgences and at the other a 'pathological' drive to consume palatable foods. It has been proposed that pathological eating behaviors may be the result of addictive appetitive behavior and loss of ability to regulate the consumption of highly processed foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, salt, and caffeine. In this review, we highlight the genetic similarities underlying substance addiction phenotypes and overeating compulsions seen in individuals with binge eating disorder. We relate these similarities to findings from neuroimaging studies on reward processing and clinical diagnostic criteria based on addiction phenotypes. The abundance of similarities between compulsive overeating and substance addictions puts forth a case for a 'food addiction' phenotype as a valid, diagnosable disorder.

  4. [Internet addiction--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejović-Milovancević, Milica; Popović-Deusić, Smiljka; Draganić-Gajić, Saveta; Lecić-Tosevski, Dusica

    2009-01-01

    Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction). Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behaviour. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction.

  5. Internet addiction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction. Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behavior. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction.

  6. Antecedents of narcotic use and addiction. A study of 898 Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helzer, J E; Robins, L N; Davis, D H

    1976-02-01

    Previous studies of predictors of narcotic abuse have been retrospective and based on samples of long-term addicts obtained from legal or medical channels. There are several methodological problems in this approach. The present study is an attempt to test certain alleged predictors of narcotic use in a cohort of 898 Vietnam veterans. The design overcomes several of the methodological weaknesses of previous studies. Eight variables which have been reported as predictors of drug use or addiction in the drug literature were inquired about during a personal interview which included the premilitary life of each subject. The antecedent variables were socioeconomic background, inner city residence, psychiatric illness, broken home, race, employment history, education and antisocial history. Using information obtained from interviews and military records, we then tested the predictive value of each of these antecedents by comparing narcotic used and addiction in Vietman and use after Vietnam in men differing with respect to each antecedent. Results indicate that some of the variables were very poor, and others very good predictors of the various levels of narcotic involvement. The predictive value and overall importance of each of the variables we tested are discussed.

  7. Reframing video gaming and internet use addiction: empirical cross-national comparison of heavy use over time and addiction scales among young users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Studer, Joseph; Spilka, Stanislas; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Simon, Olivier; Berchtold, André; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    Evidence-based and reliable measures of addictive disorders are needed in general population-based assessments. One study suggested that heavy use over time (UOT) should be used instead of self-reported addiction scales (AS). This study compared UOT and AS regarding video gaming and internet use empirically, using associations with comorbid factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2011 French Survey on Health and Consumption on Call-up and Preparation for Defence-Day (ESCAPAD), cross-sectional data from the 2012 Swiss ado@internet.ch study and two waves of longitudinal data (2010-13) of the Swiss Longitudinal Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Three representative samples from the general population of French and Swiss adolescents and young Swiss men, aged approximately 17, 14 and 20 years, respectively. ESCAPAD: n =22 945 (47.4% men); ado@internet.ch: n =3049 (50% men); C-SURF: n =4813 (baseline + follow-up, 100% men). We assessed video gaming/internet UOT ESCAPAD and ado@internet.ch: number of hours spent online per week, C-SURF: latent score of time spent gaming/using internet] and AS (ESCAPAD: Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire, ado@internet.ch: Internet Addiction Test, C-SURF: Gaming AS). Comorbidities were assessed with health outcomes (ESCAPAD: physical health evaluation with a single item, suicidal thoughts, and appointment with a psychiatrist; ado@internet.ch: WHO-5 and somatic health problems; C-SURF: Short Form 12 (SF-12 Health Survey) and Major Depression Inventory (MDI). UOT and AS were correlated moderately (ESCAPAD: r = 0.40, ado@internet.ch: r = 0.53 and C-SURF: r = 0.51). Associations of AS with comorbidity factors were higher than those of UOT in cross-sectional (AS: .005 ≤ |b| ≤ 2.500, UOT: 0.001 ≤ |b| ≤ 1.000) and longitudinal analyses (AS: 0.093 ≤ |b| ≤ 1.079, UOT: 0.020 ≤ |b| ≤ 0.329). The results were similar across gender in ESCAPAD and ado

  8. Have we been ignoring the elephant in the room? Seven arguments for considering the cerebellum as part of addiction circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Marta; Vazquez-Sanroman, Dolores; Carbo-Gas, María; Gil-Miravet, Isis; Sanchis-Segura, Carla; Carulli, Daniela; Manzo, Jorge; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2016-01-01

    Addiction involves alterations in multiple brain regions that are associated with functions such as memory, motivation and executive control. Indeed, it is now well accepted that addictive drugs produce long-lasting molecular and structural plasticity changes in corticostriatal-limbic loops. However, there are brain regions that might be relevant to addiction other than the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and basal ganglia. In addition to these circuits, a growing amount of data suggests the involvement of the cerebellum in many of the brain functions affected in addicts, though this region has been overlooked, traditionally, in the addiction field. Therefore, in the present review we provide seven arguments as to why we should consider the cerebellum in drug addiction. We present and discuss compelling evidence about the effects of drugs of abuse on cerebellar plasticity, the involvement of the cerebellum in drug-induced cue-related memories, and several findings showing that the instrumental memory and executive functions also recruit the cerebellar circuitry. In addition, a hypothetical model of the cerebellum's role relative to other areas within corticostriatal-limbic networks is also provided. Our goal is not to review animal and human studies exhaustively but to support the inclusion of cerebellar alterations as a part of the physiopathology of addiction disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recruiting and Advising Challenges in Actuarial Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Bettye Anne; Guan, Yuanying Michelle; Paris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Some challenges to increasing actuarial science program size through recruiting broadly among potential students are identified. Possible solutions depend on the structures and culture of the school. Up to three student cohorts may result from partition of potential students by the levels of academic progress before program entry: students…

  10. The Comparision of Social Anxiety Disorder and Shyness in Addicted and Non-Addicted Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare social anxiety disorder and shyness in addicted and non-addicted men. Method: The method of this study was causal-comparative research and the sampling done by purposive sampling. However, 30 men who were addicted to opium and were referred for the first time to Arak Behzisti self report center were selected. Then, 30 paired samples of non-addicted men who had not any addiction history in their life selected as a comparison group and Henderson/Zimbardo Shyness Questionnaire (2001 and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (1981 were administered in both groups. In SPSS software data was analyzed by running of independent samples t test. Results: the results showed that addicted men had reported higher scores in shyness and social phobia disorder in comparison to non-addicted men. Conclusion: With consideration of results it can be concluded that people with shyness and social anxiety disorder, use opium to reduce social anxiety and avoidance. Clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of substance abuse should be considered.

  11. Addictive behaviors and addiction-prone personality traits: associations with a dopamine multilocus genetic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline; Loxton, Natalie J

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reward-related genetic risk for addictive behaviors in a healthy community sample (n=217) of men and women. We tested a mediation model predicting that a quantitative multilocus genetic profile score - reflecting the additive effects of alleles known to confer relatively increased dopamine signaling in the ventral striatum - would relate positively to a composite measure of addictive behaviors, and that this association would be mediated by personality traits consistently associated with addiction disorders. Our model was strongly supported by the data, and accounted for 24% of the variance in addictive behaviors. These data suggest that brain reward processes tend to exert their influence on addiction risk by their role in the development of relatively stable personality traits associated with addictive behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Northrup

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  13. [Drug addiction and social exclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solal, J F; Schneider, M C

    1996-10-01

    Destitute drug addicts have not deliberately chosen to be socially excluded; it's more the consequence of a sanitary and social policy which has given a greater importance to the treatment of addiction than to the drug addict's health. Facing Aids, physicians, with their pragmatic attitude, have reversed this drift. On the streets, the drug addict holds handicaps concurrently; medicinal addiction leads to harder sevrance and substitution. Having access to social rights allows to regain an identity, compulsory for an access to health care; but public hospitals have to make casier both the admission and the stay of patients whose therapeutic observance is dependent on a preliminary substitution. Drug addiction and precarity represent a double social challenge that a democratic society must take up without any segregation.

  14. Causes of Internet Addiction Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Internet Addiction Disorder diagnostic manual approved by psychologists on November 8 divides Internet addiction into five categories,which are addiction to online games,pornography,social networking,Internet information and Internetshopping.

  15. Comparing the Attributional Theory (Learned Helplessness Model Among Addicted and Non-Addict Youths of the City of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Haj Hosseini

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to look into the impacts of Attributional theory over the rate of youths’ tendency towards addiction. In order to reach this goal, it has been assumed that learned helplessness is far more among addicted youths compared to non-addict youths. On the basis of the six dimensions of Attributional theory six subsidiary assumptions were formulated. The statistical grouping under study included all the youths from the age of 18 to 28 residing in Yazd (within the framework of two addicted and non-addict groups. The census method was used for selecting the addicted sample and the random method was applied for selecting the non-addict sample. Eventually 97 addicts and 10 non-addicts were selected. The Attributional theory questionnaire was used for collecting data. It was later analyzed using the statistical T test. It was finally indicated that addicted youths are more suffering from learned helplessness compared to non-addict youths.

  16. E-Cigarette Awareness, Perceptions and Use among Community-Recruited Smokers in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Man Ping; Li, William Ho Cheung; Jiang, Nan; Chu, Lai Yan; Kwong, Antonio; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are being increasingly used. We examined the correlates associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in smoking cessation among Chinese daily smokers in Hong Kong. Methods Daily smokers (N = 1,307) were recruited to a community-based randomised controlled trial (?Quit to Win?) in 2014. Socio-demographic characteristics, conventional cigarette smoking status, nicotine addiction level, quit attempts, quit intention, e-cig...

  17. Substance-related and addictive disorders among adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD): an Ontario population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Elizabeth; Balogh, Robert; McGarry, Caitlin; Selick, Avra; Dobranowski, Kristin; Wilton, Andrew S; Lunsky, Yona

    2016-09-02

    Describe the prevalence of substance-related and addictive disorders (SRAD) in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compare the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of adults with IDD and SRAD to those with IDD or SRAD only. Population-based cohort study (the Health Care Access Research and Development Disabilities (H-CARDD) cohort). All legal residents of Ontario, Canada. 66 484 adults, aged 18-64, with IDD identified through linked provincial health and disability income benefits administrative data from fiscal year 2009. 96 589 adults, aged 18-64, with SRAD but without IDD drawn from the provincial health administrative data. Sociodemographic (age group, sex, neighbourhood income quintile, rurality) and clinical (psychiatric and chronic disease diagnoses, morbidity) characteristics. The prevalence of SRAD among adults with IDD was 6.4%, considerably higher than many previous reports and also higher than found for adults without IDD in Ontario (3.5%). Among those with both IDD and SRAD, the rate of psychiatric comorbidity was 78.8%, and the proportion with high or very high overall morbidity was 59.5%. The most common psychiatric comorbidities were anxiety disorders (67.6%), followed by affective (44.6%), psychotic (35.8%) and personality disorders (23.5%). These adults also tended to be younger and more likely to live in the poorest neighbourhoods compared with adults with IDD but no SRAD and adults with SRAD but no IDD. SRAD is a significant concern for adults with IDD. It is associated with high rates of psychiatric and other comorbidities, indicating that care coordination and system navigation may be important concerns. Attention should be paid to increasing the recognition of SRAD among individuals with IDD by both healthcare and social service providers and to improving staff skills in successfully engaging those with both IDD and SRAD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  18. [Cognitive remediation in addictions treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Perez, E J; Rojo-Mota, G; Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, J M; Llanero-Luque, M; Puerta-Garcia, C

    2011-02-01

    More recent theories of addiction suggest that neurocognitive mechanisms, such as attentional processing, cognitive control, and reward processing play a key role in the development or maintenance of addiction. Ultimately, the addiction (with or without substances) is based on the alteration of brain decision-making processes. The neurosciences, particularly those responsible for behavior modification, must take into account the neurobiological processes underlying the observable behavior. Treatments of addiction usually do not take into account these findings, which may be at the base of the low retention rates and high dropout rates of addicted patients. Considered as an alteration of brain functioning, addiction could be addressed successfully through cognitive rehabilitation treatments used in other clinical pathologies such as brain damage or schizophrenia. Although there are few studies, it is suggest that intervention to improve patients' cognitive functioning can improve the efficiency of well-established cognitive-behavioral therapies, such as relapse prevention. This paper reviews the available evidence on cognitive rehabilitation in treating addiction as well as in other pathologies, in order to formulate interventions that may be included in comprehensive rehabilitation programs for people with addictive disorders.

  19. Media Representation of Drug Addicts and Drug Addiction in the Croatian Daily Press

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    Ljiljana Kordić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article articulates and examines the problem of how to represent addicts and addiction in media content. The authors conduct a quantitative and qualitative content analysis of selected daily press in Croatia (Jutarnji list, Večernji list and 24 sata from 2015 and a sub-analysis of the target period (Anti-addiction Month serving to compare two different news cycles. The media coverage of the examined themes, the connotation of such media content and the approach to this issue are analysed. This article provides insight into how addiction, as well as drug addicts, is represented in the selected media, and the implications and consequences such representations carry with them, while exploring the questions such as why these types of representations are present, and whose interests are represented in such representations.

  20. Internet use and addiction among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mainul; Rahman, Nor Azlina A; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim; Haque, Seraj Zohurul; Kamal, Zubair M; Islam, Zakirul; Haque, ATM Emdadul; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Alattraqchi, Ahmed Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of Internet has now become indispensable, and the technology has revolutionized the medical education and practice worldwide. Currently, medical students and professionals have an enormous opportunity to keep them always updated with the exponential growth of knowledge because of potential progression of Internet throughout the world that enables them to become a lifelong learner. Internet addiction is a widespread phenomenon among students and academicians at universities in Malaysia. Students use the Internet for recreational purpose and personal and professional development. The Internet has become an integral part of day-to-day life of the university students, including medical students. The aim of the present study was to examine the Internet use and addiction among students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which a questionnaire, Internet Addiction Diagnostic Questionnaire, developed by the Center for Internet Addiction, USA, was used. One hundred forty-nine medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin participated in this study. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Results The mean scores were 44.9±14.05 and 41.4±13.05 for male and female participants, respectively, which indicated that both the genders were suffering from mild Internet addiction. Conclusion This study shows almost similar level of Internet usage among medical students irrespective of their socioeconomic background, with no statistically significant (p>0.05) differences, except among the years of study (p=0.007). Overall, from the research data and having worked with this cohort very closely, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin medical students can be labeled as wonted and recurring users of the Internet. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to define as Internet addicts or pathological users of the Internet because of small sample size and cross-sectional study. PMID

  1. Internet use and addiction among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mainul; Rahman, Nor Azlina A; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim; Haque, Seraj Zohurul; Kamal, Zubair M; Islam, Zakirul; Haque, Atm Emdadul; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Alattraqchi, Ahmed Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    The use of Internet has now become indispensable, and the technology has revolutionized the medical education and practice worldwide. Currently, medical students and professionals have an enormous opportunity to keep them always updated with the exponential growth of knowledge because of potential progression of Internet throughout the world that enables them to become a lifelong learner. Internet addiction is a widespread phenomenon among students and academicians at universities in Malaysia. Students use the Internet for recreational purpose and personal and professional development. The Internet has become an integral part of day-to-day life of the university students, including medical students. The aim of the present study was to examine the Internet use and addiction among students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study in which a questionnaire, Internet Addiction Diagnostic Questionnaire, developed by the Center for Internet Addiction, USA, was used. One hundred forty-nine medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin participated in this study. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean scores were 44.9±14.05 and 41.4±13.05 for male and female participants, respectively, which indicated that both the genders were suffering from mild Internet addiction. This study shows almost similar level of Internet usage among medical students irrespective of their socioeconomic background, with no statistically significant ( p >0.05) differences, except among the years of study ( p =0.007). Overall, from the research data and having worked with this cohort very closely, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin medical students can be labeled as wonted and recurring users of the Internet. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to define as Internet addicts or pathological users of the Internet because of small sample size and cross-sectional study.

  2. A Comparison of Male and Female Addicts and Non-Addicts on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarka, Joyce M.

    Many mental health professionals ignore chemical addiction, whereas many chemical dependency professionals see addiction as the entire problem and ignore everything else. This study investigated differences between addicts and non-addicts on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Subjects were undergraduate and graduate students, selected from a…

  3. [The genetics of addictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez Cuadrado, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The addictions are common chronic psychiatric diseases which represent a serious worldwide public-health problem. They have a high prevalence and negative effects at individual, family and societal level, with a high sanitary cost. Epidemiological genetic research has revealed that addictions are moderately to highly heritable. Also the investigation has evidenced that environmental and genetic factors contribute to individual differences in vulnerability to addictions. Advances in the neurobiology of addiction joined to the development of new molecular genetic technologies, have led to the identification of a variety of underlying genes and pathways in addiction process, leading to the description of common molecular mechanisms in substance and behaviour dependencies. Identifying gene-environment interactions is a crucial issue in future research. Other major goal in genetic research is the identification of new therapeutic targets for treatment and prevention.

  4. [A voxel-based morphometric analysis of brain gray matter in online game addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-bo; Qian, Ruo-bing; Fu, Xian-ming; Lin, Bin; Ji, Xue-bing; Niu, Chao-shi; Wang, Ye-han

    2012-12-04

    To explore the possible brain mechanism of online game addiction (OGA) in terms of brain morphology through voxel-based morphometric (VBM) analysis. Seventeen subjects with OGA and 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC group) were recruited from Department of Psychology at our hospital during February-December 2011. The internet addiction scale (IAS) was used to measure the degree of OGA tendency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed to acquire 3-dimensional T1-weighted images. And FSL 4.1 software was employed to confirm regional gray matter volume changes. For the regions where OGA subjects showed significantly different gray matter volumes from the controls, the gray matter volumes of these areas were extracted, averaged and regressed against the scores of IAS. The OGA group had lower gray matter volume in left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), bilateral insula (INS), left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and left supplementary motor area (SMA). Gray matter volumes of left OFC and bilateral INS showed a negative correlation with the scores of IAS (r = -0.65, r = -0.78, P online game addicts and they may be correlated with the occurrence and maintenance of OGA.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: opioid addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Opioid addiction Opioid addiction Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Opioid addiction is a long-lasting (chronic) disease that can ...

  6. The Voluntary Nature of Decision-Making in Addiction: Static Metaphysical Views Versus Epistemologically Dynamic Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric; Rousseau-Lesage, Simon

    2017-06-01

    The degree of autonomy present in the choices made by individuals with an addiction, notably in the context of research, is unclear and debated. Some have argued that addiction, as it is commonly understood, prevents people from having sufficient decision-making capacity or self-control to engage in choices involving substances to which they have an addiction. Others have criticized this position for being too radical and have counter-argued in favour of the full autonomy of people with an addiction. Aligning ourselves with middle-ground positions between these two extremes, we flesh out an account of voluntary action that makes room for finer-grained analyses than the proposed all-or-nothing stances, which rely on a rather static metaphysical understanding of the nature of the voluntariness of action. In contrast, a dynamic concept of voluntary action better accounts for varying levels of voluntariness of the person with an addiction which takes into consideration internal (e.g. cravings) and external (e.g. perceptions of degrees of freedom related to different options) determinants of choice. Accordingly, like other components of autonomous choices such as level of information, voluntariness can fluctuate. Therefore, there are important implications for research and clinical ethics in matters of consent, recruitment, and therapeutic approaches. Overall, our proposal is inspired by a pragmatist understanding of voluntary action, notably with respect to how voluntariness is both informed by actions and experiences that shape one's view of the world. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Kleptomania and Co-morbid addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun S; Christianini, Aparecida Rangon; Bertoni, Daniela; de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Medeiros; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2017-04-01

    We examined the association between kleptomania and addictive disorders, including behavioral addictions. Fifty-three individuals with a diagnosis of kleptomania completed measures of kleptomania severity, semi-structured clinical interviews to assess co-morbid diagnosis of addictive disorders, and the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) assessing an array of addictive behaviors. 20.75% of the sample met criteria for an addictive disorder; four for a substance use disorder and four for a behavioral addiction. Kleptomania severity was significantly associated with compulsive work and shopping measured by the SPQ. The results suggest the need to assess a wide array of addictive behaviors in individuals with kleptomania. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. E-cigarettes for the management of nicotine addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight-West O

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Knight-West, Christopher Bullen The National Institute for Health Innovation, School of Population Health, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: In this review, we discuss current evidence on electronic cigarettes (ECs, a rapidly evolving class of nicotine delivery system, and their role in managing nicotine addiction, specifically in helping smokers to quit smoking and/or reduce the amount of tobacco they smoke. The current evidence base is limited to three randomized trials (only one compares ECs with nicotine replacement therapy and a growing number of EC user surveys (n=6, case reports (n=4, and cohort studies (n=8. Collectively, these studies suggest modest cessation efficacy and a few adverse effects, at least with the short-term use. On this basis, we provide advice for health care providers on providing balanced information for patients who enquire about ECs. More research, specifically well-conducted large efficacy trials comparing ECs with standard smoking cessation management (eg, nicotine replacement therapy plus behavioral support and long-term prospective studies for adverse events, are urgently needed to fill critical knowledge gaps on these products. Keywords: tobacco, smoking, nicotine, electronic cigarettes, cessation, addiction

  9. [Smartphone addiction: French validation of the Internet Addiction Test-Smartphone version (IAT-smartphone) and associated psychopathological features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrault, S; Durousseau, F; Ballon, N; Réveillère, C; Brunault, P

    2018-02-02

    Since their first appearance in 1992 smartphones have improved constantly, and their use, combined with the rapid spread of the Internet, has increased dramatically. The recent emergence of this technology raises new issues, at both individual and societal levels. Several studies have investigated the physical and psychological harm that may be caused by smartphones. The issue of excessive smartphone use as an addictive disorder is frequently raised and debated, although it is not acknowledged in international classifications. In France, there is no validated assessment tool for smartphone addiction. Therefore, the aims of this research were: to validate a French translation of the Internet Addiction Test-smartphone version (IAT-smartphone); to study the links between smartphone addiction, Internet addiction, depression, anxiety and impulsivity. Two hundred and sixteen participants from the general population were included in the study (January to February 2016), which was available online using Sphinx software. We assessed smartphone addiction (French version of the Internet Addiction Scale - smartphone version, IAT-smartphone), specificity of smartphone use (time spent, types of activity), Internet addiction (Internet Addiction Test, IAT), impulsivity (UPPS Impulsiveness Behavior Scale), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, HAD). We tested the construct validity of the IAT-smartphone (exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency, non-parametric correlation tests for convergent validity). We also carried out multiple linear regressions to determine the factors associated with IAT-smartphone. Mean age was 32.4±12.2 years; 75.5% of the participants were women. The IAT-smartphone had a one-factor structure (explaining 42 % of the variance), excellent internal consistency (α=0.93) and satisfactory convergent validity. Smartphone addiction was associated with Internet addiction (ρ=0.85), depression (ρ=0.31), anxiety (ρ=0

  10. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treat...

  11. A single-nucleotide polymorphism of GRIN1 in heroin and methamphetamine addicts at a rehabilitation sanatorium in Markazi province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hamta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using addictive drugs can change the amount of neurotransmitters, especially dopamine and glutamate. Glutamate has been known to trigger the relapse and tendency toward addictive drugs. The glutamate receptor ionotropic NMDA type subunit 1 (GRIN1 contains the single- nucleotide polymorphism C1001G (rs11146020 and encodes N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NDMA receptor subunit 1 (NR1. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the rs11146020 polymorphism in GRIN1 and addiction to heroin and methamphetamine. Methods: The present case-control study recruited 90 male heroin and methamphetamine addicts treated with methadone and 100 healthy men. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood using Iraizol kits. Four pairs of specific primers were designed using AlleleID 7.5, and the T-ARMS PCR was optimized. Results: The genotype distribution of GG, GC and CC was respectively found to be 66%, 31% and 3% in the control group and 58%, 31% and 11% in the patient group. The statistical analysis suggested no significant differences between these two groups. Conclusion: No significant relationships were observed between the C1001G polymorphism in GRIN1 and addiction to heroin and methamphetamine.

  12. Automaticity of cognitive biases in addictive behaviours: further evidence with gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, C G; Gettings, B

    1997-11-01

    The hypotheses that automatic, non-volitional, attentional and memory biases for addiction-related constructs exist is tested with compulsive gamblers. An independent groups design was employed. Processing of gambling, compared to neutral and drug-related information was examined in 15 gamblers recruited from new members of Gamblers Anonymous. Comparisons were made with the performance of their spouses (N = 15) to help distinguish addiction mechanisms from more non-specific emotional experiences with gambling, and an independent control group (N = 15), recruited from the staff and students of a university department. A modified Stroop procedure was first employed. Automative cognitive interference was assessed relatively, by comparing colour-naming times on the gambling, drug and neutral Stroops. A subsequent word-stem completion task of implicit memory was then used to assess selective and automatic priming of the gambling constructs in memory. Only the gamblers showed selective and automatic interference for gambling-related constructs on the Stroop task. Spouses behaved like the control group on this task. An implicit memory bias for gambling-related words was statistically detected only in the gamblers compared to the control group, although the trend was similar in the comparison with spouses. Further evidence for the specificity of these effects was obtained in subgroup comparisons involving fruit-machine with racing gamblers. Results are generally consistent with an automaticity in the cognitive biases gamblers show for gambling-related information. Implications for cognitive understanding and treatments are highlighted.

  13. Cocaine – Characteristics and addiction

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    Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4:537–544

  14. Behavioural addiction-A rising tide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J; Goudriaan, Anna E; van Holst, Ruth Janke; Zohar, Joseph; Grant, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    The term 'addiction' was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss of control (spiralling engagement over time), persistence despite untoward functional consequences, and physical dependence (evidenced by withdrawal symptoms when intake of the substance diminishes). It has been suggested that certain psychiatric disorders characterized by maladaptive, repetitive behaviours share parallels with substance addiction and therefore represent 'behavioural addictions'. This perspective has influenced the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which now has a category 'Substance Related and Addictive Disorders', including gambling disorder. Could other disorders characterised by repetitive behaviours, besides gambling disorder, also be considered 'addictions'? Potential examples include kleptomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, 'Internet addiction', trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), and skin-picking disorder. This paper seeks to define what is meant by 'behavioural addiction', and critically considers the evidence for and against this conceptualisation in respect of the above conditions, from perspectives of aetiology, phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurobiology, and treatment. Research in this area has important implications for future diagnostic classification systems, neurobiological models, and novel treatment directions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Increasing recruitment rates in an inpatient clinical research study using quality improvement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauers, Hadley S; Beck, Andrew F; Kahn, Robert S; Simmons, Jeffrey M

    2014-11-01

    One important benefit of successful patient recruitment is increased generalizability of findings. We sought to optimize enrollment of children admitted with asthma as part of a population-based, prospective, observational cohort study with the goal of enrolling at least 60% of all eligible and staffed patients. Quality improvement methods were used to improve cohort recruitment. Weekly meetings with study staff and study leadership were held to plan and discuss how to maximize recruitment rates. Significant initial variability in recruitment success prompted the team to use small-scale tests of change to increase recruitment numbers. A number of tests were trialed, focusing primarily on reducing patient refusals and improving recruitment process efficiency. Recruitment rates were calculated by dividing eligible by enrolled patients and displayed using annotated Shewhart control charts. Control charts were used to illustrate week-to-week variability while also enabling differentiation of common-cause and special-cause variation. The study enrolled 774 patients, representing 54% of all eligible and 59% of those eligible for whom staff were available to enroll. Our mean weekly recruitment rate increased from 55% during the first 3 months of the study to a statistically significant sustained rate of 61%. This was sustained given numerous obstacles, such as departing and hiring of staff and adding a second recruitment location. Implementing quality improvement methods within a larger research study led to an increase in the rate of recruitment as well as the stability in recruitment rates from week-to-week. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG): association between its addiction, self-control and mental disorders among young people in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dinh Thai; Yasuoka, Junko; Poudel, Krishna C; Otsuka, Keiko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-09-01

    To explore the association between MMORPG addiction and mental health status, and between self-control ability and mental health status among young male MMORPG players in Hanoi, Vietnam. In this cross-sectional study, 10 computer game rooms were randomly selected out of 77 in five communes in Hanoi. From these game rooms, 350 MMORPG players were purposively recruited as a study group, of whom 344 completed the questionnaire. In the same five communes, 344 non-players were selected as a control group. An online game addiction scale, a self-control scale and the Vietnamese SRQ-20 were used to measure the degree of MMORPG addiction, self-control ability and level of mental disorders. MMORPG players had significantly higher mental disorders scale scores than non-players (p MMORPG addiction scale scores and mental disorders scale scores (r = 0.730, p MMORPG addiction scale score and self-control scale score were considered the best predictors of a higher mental disorders scale score. Young, male MMORPG players with higher addiction scores were more likely to have higher mental disorders scale scores, and such mental status was negatively associated with the level of self-control in Hanoi, Vietnam. Closer attention should be paid to prevent mental disorders among MMORPG players.

  17. [Effects of an Integrated Internet Addiction Prevention Program on Elementary Students' Self-regulation and Internet Addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, So Youn; Lee, Byoung Sook

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated internet addiction prevention program and test its effects on the self-regulation and internet addiction of elementary students who are at risk for internet addiction. A quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were assigned to the experimental group (n=28) or control group (n=28). Contents of the program developed in this study included provision of information about internet addiction, interventions for empowerment and methods of behavioral modification. A pre-test and two post-tests were done to identify the effects of the program and their continuity. Effects were testified using Repeated measures ANOVA, simple effect analysis, and Time Contrast. The self-regulation of the experimental group after the program was significantly higher than the control group. The score for internet addiction self-diagnosis and the internet use time in the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group. The effects of the integrated internet addiction prevention program for preventing internet addiction in elementary students at risk for internet addiction were validated.

  18. ADHD and autistic traits, family function, parenting style, and social adjustment for Internet addiction among children and adolescents in Taiwan: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the prevalence, predictors, and related factors for Internet addiction among elementary and junior high school students in Taiwan. A convenient sample of grades 3, 5, and 8 students (n = 1153) was recruited from six elementary and one junior high schools. They were assessed during the beginning and the end of the spring semester of 2013. Internet addiction was examined by the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS). Other factors were screened using the Chinese version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) for autistic trait, the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) for parenting, the Family APGAR for family support, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for social function, and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV) for ADHD symptoms. The prevalence of Internet addiction decreased from 11.4% to 10.6%. Male, low family support, poor social adjustment, and high ADHD-related symptoms were related to Internet addiction. However, there was an inverse relationship between autistic traits and Internet addiction. Further, its predictivity could be accounted by poor academic performance, male, and protective parenting style. Internet addiction is not uncommon among youths in Taiwan. The predictors identified in this study could be the specific measures for the development of a prevention program for Internet addiction in the youth population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioural addictions in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grzegorzewska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence in DSM-5 of gambling addiction as the first official behavioural addiction has opened a new chapter in the thinking about and research into behavioural pathology. We are becoming increasingly aware of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of addictive behaviour, but the majority of the work is conducted mainly on adult populations. Although the use of the term “behavioural addiction” in children and adolescents is controversial due to the dynamic nature of their development processes, there is no doubt that more and more young people are involved in addictive behaviours that negatively affect their lives. The currently still few studies are throwing new light on the early symptoms of behavioural addictions observed in increasingly younger children. This article is a review of current knowledge about potential behavioural addictions in the first two decades of life viewed from the perspective of developmental psychopathology. While there is significantly less research into addictive behaviours in childhood and adolescence than in later decades, empirical evidence has clearly shown that early symptoms of behavioural addiction pose a significant threat to the mental health of children and adolescents, both now and in the future. The article discusses the definition of behavioural addiction in the DSM-5 context, the controversy surrounding the diagnosis of these disorders in young people, the behavioural addictions in children and adolescents, and the identified risk factors for early-onset behavioural addictions.

  20. Addressing the Question of Disorder-Specific Risk Factors of Internet Addiction: A Comparison of Personality Traits in Patients with Addictive Behaviors and Comorbid Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Müller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.

  1. Addressing the question of disorder-specific risk factors of internet addiction: a comparison of personality traits in patients with addictive behaviors and comorbid internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Koch, A; Dickenhorst, U; Beutel, M E; Duven, E; Wölfling, K

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.

  2. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss DJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive

  3. Psychosocial intervention for sexual addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Manju; Maheshwari, Shreemit; Chandran, Suhas; Rao, Suman S; Shivanand, Manohar J; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2018-02-01

    Addiction is the term employed not only for excess consumption of substances, but also for problem behaviours like eating disorders, pathological gambling, computer addiction and pathological preoccupation with video games and sexual acts. No clear diagnostic criterion has been established with validity for behavioral addictions. Sexual addiction, including addiction to pornography is not included as a separate entity because of a lack of strong empirical evidence in this area. Different scales can be used for assessment of sexual addiction. Since there is an absence of established diagnostic criteria, the significance of validity of these scales is doubted. Several of the questions in these scales do not yield information about whether the diagnostic criteria are met or not. Pharmacotherapy, together with psychotherapy proves to have a better outcome in such patients as it helps to synthesize the role of developmental antecedents, reduce current anxiety, depression, guilt and to improve social adjustment.

  4. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  5. Addiction severity pattern associated with adult and childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in patients with addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatséas, Melina; Hurmic, Hortense; Serre, Fuschia; Debrabant, Romain; Daulouède, Jean-Pierre; Denis, Cécile; Auriacombe, Marc

    2016-12-30

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among adults with addictive disorders, but little is known about addiction patterns associated with ADHD diagnosis. This study examined addiction severity in patients with co-occurring addictive disorders and ADHD controlling for the potential influence of associated psychiatric comorbidity. Data were collected in French outpatient addiction treatment centers. A total of 217 patients seeking treatment for substance or gambling addiction were included. At treatment entry, participants were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index, the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnosis Interview for the DSM-IV (CAADID), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II for borderline personality disorder (SCID II). History of ADHD was associated with an earlier onset of addiction, poly-dependence (defined by presence of at least two current substance dependence diagnoses in addition to tobacco dependence if present) and borderline personality disorder. Persistence of ADHD during adulthood was associated with a higher prevalence of poly-dependence. This study highlights the need for early implementation of preventive interventions for substance use or behavioral addiction in children/adolescents with ADHD and the need to consider ADHD in the treatment of addictive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sugar addiction: the state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwater, Margaret L; Fletcher, Paul C; Ziauddeen, Hisham

    2016-11-01

    As obesity rates continue to climb, the notion that overconsumption reflects an underlying 'food addiction' (FA) has become increasingly influential. An increasingly popular theory is that sugar acts as an addictive agent, eliciting neurobiological changes similar to those seen in drug addiction. In this paper, we review the evidence in support of sugar addiction. We reviewed the literature on food and sugar addiction and considered the evidence suggesting the addictiveness of highly processed foods, particularly those with high sugar content. We then examined the addictive potential of sugar by contrasting evidence from the animal and human neuroscience literature on drug and sugar addiction. We find little evidence to support sugar addiction in humans, and findings from the animal literature suggest that addiction-like behaviours, such as bingeing, occur only in the context of intermittent access to sugar. These behaviours likely arise from intermittent access to sweet tasting or highly palatable foods, not the neurochemical effects of sugar. Given the lack of evidence supporting it, we argue against a premature incorporation of sugar addiction into the scientific literature and public policy recommendations.

  7. Cognitive Flexibility, Attention and Speed of Mental Processing in Opioid and Methamphetamine Addicts in Comparison with Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Hekmat

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: Many studies have revealed that drug addicted individuals exhibit impaired performance on executive function tests but a few studies have been conducted on executive functions of drug addicts in Iran. To contribute to this understanding, the present study was designed to assess some domains related to executive functions including cognitive flexibility, attention and speed of mental processing in a sample of drug addicts in comparison with a sample of non-drug addicts. Methods: 155 male addicts between 25 to 35 years of age were selected from outpatient addiction clinics in Karaj, Iran. This group consisted of 3 subgroups of opium (n=40, hydrochloride heroin (n=63, and methamphetamine (n=52 addicts. A control group was selected matching the drug addicts in gender, age, education and scio-economic status and included 130 healthy non-drug taking males. A battery of standardized executive function tests including the Color trail making test, Stroop color word test, and Symbol digit modalities test were administered. Data analysis was conducted by performing Co-variance (MANCOVA in SPSS.v.16.0. Results: The study findings indicated that the group of drug addicted subjects performed significantly worse compared with the controls on all executive measures. There were also significant differences among the 3 subgroups. The hydrochloride group had the worst performance compared the methamphetamine and opium groups respectively. Drug addicted subjects with longer duration of drug addiction were much worse on all measures in comparison with drug addicted subjects with shorter duration of drug addiction. Discussion: The study results confirmed that the functions of specific brain regions underlying cognitive flexibility, attention and speed of mental processing were significantly impaired in the group of drug addicted subjects. These impairments were also significantly related to type of drug used and duration of drug addiction that may

  8. Cognitive Flexibility, Attention and Speed of Mental Processing in Opioid and Methamphetamine Addicts in Comparison with Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Hekmat

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many studies have revealed that drug addicted individuals exhibit impaired performance on executive function tests but a few studies have been conducted on executive functions of drug addicts in Iran. To contribute to this understanding, the present study was designed to assess some domains related to executive functions including cognitive flexibility, attention and speed of mental processing in a sample of drug addicts in comparison with a sample of non-drug addicts. Methods: 155 male addicts between 25 to 35 years of age were selected from outpatient addiction clinics in Karaj, Iran. This group consisted of 3 subgroups of opium (n=40, hydrochloride heroin (n=63, and methamphetamine (n=52 addicts. A control group was selected matching the drug addicts in gender, age, education and scio-economic status and included 130 healthy non-drug taking males. A battery of standardized executive function tests including the Color trail making test, Stroop color word test, and Symbol digit modalities test were administered. Data analysis was conducted by performing Co-variance (MANCOVA in SPSS.v.16.0. Results: The study findings indicated that the group of drug addicted subjects performed significantly worse compared with the controls on all executive measures. There were also significant differences among the 3 subgroups. The hydrochloride group had the worst performance compared the methamphetamine and opium groups respectively. Drug addicted subjects with longer duration of drug addiction were much worse on all measures in comparison with drug addicted subjects with shorter duration of drug addiction. Discussion: The study results confirmed that the functions of specific brain regions underlying cognitive flexibility, attention and speed of mental processing were significantly impaired in the group of drug addicted subjects. These impairments were also significantly related to type of drug used and duration of drug addiction that may

  9. Food addiction-diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Ivan; Popović, Nada; Sabljak, Vera; Škodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Dimitrijević, Nina

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarized the recent research of the food addiction, diagnosis, treatment and prevention, which is carried out in this area. The concept of food addiction is new and complex, but proven to be very important for understanding and solving the problem of obesity. First part of this paper emphasizes the neurological studies, whose results indicate the similarity of brain processes that are being activated during drug abuse and during eating certain types of food. In this context, different authors speak of "hyper-palatable", industrial food, saturated with salt, fat and sugar, which favor an addiction. In the section on diagnostic and instruments constructed for assessing the degree of dependence, main diagnostic tool is standardized Yale Food Addiction Scale constructed by Ashley Gearhardt, and her associates. Since 2009, when it was first published, this scale is used in almost all researches in this area and has been translated into several languages. Finally, distinguish between prevention and treatment of food addiction was made. Given that there were similarities with other forms of addictive behavior, the researchers recommend the application of traditional addiction treatment.

  10. Tryptophan hydroxylase type 2 variants modulate severity and outcome of addictive behaviors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, Roberto; Benfante, Roberta; Asselta, Rosanna; Marabini, Laura; Cereda, Emanuele; Siri, Chiara; Pezzoli, Gianni; Goldwurm, Stefano; Fornasari, Diego

    2016-08-01

    Impulse control disorders and compulsive medication intake may occur in a minority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesize that genetic polymorphisms associated with addiction in the general population may increase the risk for addictive behaviors also in PD. Sixteen polymorphisms in candidate genes belonging to five neurotransmitter systems (dopaminergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic, glutamatergic, opioidergic) and the BDNF were screened in 154 PD patients with addictive behaviors and 288 PD control subjects. Multivariate analysis investigated clinical and genetic predictors of outcome (remission vs. persistence/relapse) after 1 year and at the last follow-up (5.1 ± 2.5 years). Addictive behaviors were associated with tryptophan hydroxylase type 2 (TPH2) and dopamine transporter gene variants. A subsequent analysis within the group of cases showed a robust association between TPH2 genotype and the severity of addictive behaviors, which survived Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. At multivariate analysis, TPH2 genotype resulted the strongest predictor of no remission at the last follow-up (OR[95%CI], 7.4[3.27-16.78] and 13.2[3.89-44.98] in heterozygous and homozygous carriers, respectively, p medication dose reduction was not a predictor. TPH2 haplotype analysis confirmed the association with more severe symptoms and lower remission rates in the short- and the long-term (p addictive behaviors in PD, modulating the severity of symptoms and the rate of remission at follow-up. If confirmed in larger independent cohorts, TPH2 genotype may become a useful biomarker for the identification of at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Comparative Study of the Rate of Social Capital among Addicted and non-Addicted Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heydarnejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to compare the rate of social capital among addicted and non-addicted youth in Mashhad. Method: The samples included of 160 addicted and 160 non-addicted men selected by cluster random sampling. Both groups matched on age, and marital status. The social capital questionnaire designed by researcher administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that social capital of young addicts was significantly lower than their counterparts. Also, results showed that the indicators of social capital, the idea of social participation, social trust, and social networks were significantly lower than their counterparts. Conclusion: With consideration of positive effects of social participation, social trust, social connection networks in addicted people, they should have appropriate conditions and headstock for tendency to involve to social events like developing of organizations, and voluntaries’ and non government societies should be more attended.

  12. Childhood Food Addiction and the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Kristy L.; Buser, Juleen K.; Carlisle, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction among children is a concerning issue. Few empirical studies have examined the relevance of food addiction among pediatric samples, but emerging evidence suggests that some children experience their eating patterns as addictive. The present review will discuss the issue of food addiction among children, and will also attend to the…

  13. The most effective strategy for recruiting a pregnancy cohort: A tale of two cities

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, D.P.; O'Beirne, M.; Lightbody, T.; Johnston, D.W.; Dymianiw, D.L.; Nastalska, K.; Anis, L.; Loehr, S.; Gilbert, A.; Kaplan, B.J.; APrON Study Team, the; Pop, V.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women were recruited into the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study in two cities in Alberta, Calgary and Edmonton. In Calgary, a larger proportion of women obtain obstetrical care from family physicians than from obstetricians; otherwise the cities have similar characteristics. Despite similarities of the cities, the recruitment success was very different. The purpose of this paper is to describe recruitment strategies, determine which were most successfu...

  14. The most effective strategy for recruiting a pregnancy cohort: a tale of two cities

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Donna P; O?Beirne, Maeve; Lightbody, Teresa; Johnston, David W; Dymianiw, Dayna-Lynn; Nastalska, Katarzyna; Anis, Lubna; Loehr, Sarah; Gilbert, Anne; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women were recruited into the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study in two cities in Alberta, Calgary and Edmonton. In Calgary, a larger proportion of women obtain obstetrical care from family physicians than from obstetricians; otherwise the cities have similar characteristics. Despite similarities of the cities, the recruitment success was very different. The purpose of this paper is to describe recruitment strategies, determine which were most successfu...

  15. Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

    2013-05-01

    Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made.

  16. Hematological changes in opium addicted diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Sirati-Sabet, Majid; Asiabanha, Majid; Shahrokhi, Nader; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Chronic opioid treatment in animal models has shown to alter hematological parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of opium on the number of peripheral blood cells and red blood cells (RBCs) indices in diabetic rats. Peripheral blood samples were collected from diabetic, opium-addicted, diabetic opium-addicted and normal male and female rats and hematological parameters were measured. The mean number of white blood cells (WBCs) was significantly higher in diabetic opium-addict females compared to diabetic non-addict female group. In both male and female, the mean number of neutrophils was significantly higher and the mean number of lymphocytes was lower in diabetic opium-addicted rats than those observed in diabetic non-addicted group. In diabetic opium-addicted male group the mean counts of RBC significantly increased as compared with diabetic male group. However, in diabetic addicted female, the mean number of RBCs was significantly lower than diabetic non-addicted female group. In both males and females, the mean number of platelets was significantly lower in diabetic addict rats compared to diabetic non-addict group. Generally, the results indicated that opium addiction has different effects on male and female rats according to the number of WBC, RBC and RBC indices. It could also be concluded that in the opium-addicts the risk of infection is enhanced due to the weakness of immune system as a result of the imbalance effect of opium on the immune cells.

  17. Comparing spiritual intelligence and attribution styles among addicted and no addicted women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Karami Nejad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spiritual intelligence is concerned with understanding the origin and meaning of life. In other words, it involves our ultimate goal to live. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the spiritual intelligence and the attribution styles among addicted and non-addicted women in Yazd. Methods: In this correlational study, the study population consisted of all women in Yazd in 2013, among which a sample of 300 subjects were selected via multistage random cluster sampling from three areas of Yazd. As a matter of fact, 108 addicted subjects were selected referring to Addiction Treatment Centers via multistage cluster sampling. The 29-item spiritual intelligence questionnaire (Abdollah Zadeh et al. and Attribution Style Questionnaire (ASQ (Peterson Co Seligman were applied and the study data were analyzed using t-test and Pearson correlation. Results: The study results indicated a significant difference between addicted women and non-addicted ones in regard with spiritual intelligence (one-tailed, P<0.05, df= 405, t= 3.22. Furthermore, addicted women significantly used negative attribution style against the failures (one-tailed, P<0.001, df= 406, t= 5.90, and a positive correlation was observed between spiritual intelligence and attribution styles (rs= 0.586, N= 406, P<0.001, two-tailed. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that, without understanding the meaning of life, human life would not be worth much. Life suffering without spirituality would not be meaningful and in dealing with life challenges, it will lead the humans to step down and get helpless. Finding the meaning of life as well as having a positive attribution style can be mentioned as effective elements in regard with the women's tendency to the drug.

  18. Attitudes of Former Drug Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudouris, James

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics of addicts (N=222) and their own appraisal of which treatment modality they found most successful based upon their own experiences are of primary importance in prescribing a treatment for the addict. For the long-term addict continually in and out of prisons, perhaps methadone maintenance is the solution. (Author)

  19. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  20. Addiction and suicide: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuodelis-Flores, Christine; Ries, Richard K

    2015-03-01

    Addiction specialists frequently find themselves faced with suicidal behavior in their addictions patients. Although many addiction treatment programs will not accept clients with recent suicidal behavior, up to 40% of patients seeking treatment for substance dependence report a history of suicide attempt(s).(1-3) Risk factors for suicide have been studied in the general population and among people with mental illness, less is known about risk factors in those with substance use disorders and co-occurring disorders. Studies, psychological autopsies and recent reviews on risk factors for suicide and suicide attempts in patients with alcohol and drug use disorders and the relationship with co-occurring mental illness were examined. Suicidal behavior is a significant problem for people with co-occurring disorders seeking addiction treatment. Several predisposing and precipitating risk factors such as marital and interpersonal relationship disruption, occupational and financial stressors, recent heavy substance use and intoxication as well as a history of previous suicide attempts and sexual abuse combine in an additive fashion with personality traits and mental illnesses to intensify risk for suicidal behavior in addiction patients. Major depression, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder are especially associated with suicidal behavior in people with addictive disorders. Treatment implications of these findings are discussed. Addiction treatment providers should routinely gather information about client's suicidal histories, thoughts, and plans in order to assess risk and develop treatment plans for suicidality at various points in treatment. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  1. Association between adverse life events and addictive behaviors among male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace P; Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Martins, Silvia S

    2012-01-01

    Adverse life events have been associated with gambling and substance use as they can serve as forms of escapism. Involvement in gambling and substance use can also place individuals in adversely stressful situations. To explore potential male-female differences in the association between addictive behavior and adverse life events among an urban cohort of adolescents. The study sample comprised of 515 adolescent participants in a randomized prevention trial. With self-reported data, four addictive behavior groups were created: nonsubstance users and nongamblers, substance users only, gamblers only, and substance users and gamblers. Multinomial logistic regression analyses with interaction terms of sex and adverse life events were conducted. Adverse life events and engaging in at least one addictive behavior were common for both sexes. Substance users and gamblers had more than twice the likelihood of nonsubstance users and nongamblers to experience any event as well as events of various domains (ie, relationship, violence, and instability). Neither relationship nor instability events' associations with the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling significantly differed between sexes. Conversely, females exposed to violence events were significantly more likely than similarly exposed males to report the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling. Findings from the current study prompt future studies to devote more attention to the development of effective programs that teach adaptive coping strategies to adolescents, particularly to females upon exposure to violence. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  2. Addiction and network influence

    OpenAIRE

    Popiel, Michał Ksawery

    2014-01-01

    Social networks are an important component in understanding the decision to consume addictive substances. They capture the role of limited access, peer influence, and social acceptance and tolerance. However, despite the empirical evidence of their role, they have been absent from theoretical models. This paper proposes a mechanism through which agents can influence each other in their decision to consume an addictive good. An agent's decision is sensitive to her state of addiction as well as...

  3. Free Will, Black Swans and Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Ted; Wiers, Reinout W

    2017-01-01

    The current dominant perspective on addiction as a brain disease has been challenged recently by Marc Lewis, who argued that the brain-changes related to addiction are similar to everyday changes of the brain. From this alternative perspective, addictions are bad habits that can be broken, provided that people are motivated to change. In that case, autonomous choice or "free will" can overcome bad influences from genes and or environments and brain-changes related to addiction. Even though we concur with Lewis that there are issues with the brain disease perspective, we also argue that pointing to black swans can be important, that is: there can be severe cases where addiction indeed tips over into the category of brain disease, but obviously that does not prove that every case of addiction falls into the disease category, that all swans are black. We argue that, for example, people suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome, can be described as having a brain disease, often caused by alcohol addiction. Moreover, the brain changes occurring with addiction are related to choice-behaviour (and the related notions of willed action), habit formation and insight, hence essential mental abilities to break the addiction. We argue for a more graded perspective, where both black swans (severe brain disease which makes recovery virtually impossible) and white swans (unaffected brain) are rare, and most cases of addiction come as geese in different shades of gray.

  4. Co-morbid pain and opioid addiction: long term effect of opioid maintenance on acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachholtz, Amy; Gonzalez, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Medication assisted treatment for opioid dependence alters the pain experience. This study will evaluate changes pain sensitivity and tolerance with opioid treatments; and duration of this effect after treatment cessation. 120 Individuals with chronic pain were recruited in 4 groups (N = 30): 1-methadone for opioid addiction; 2-buprenorphine for opioid addiction; 3-history of opioid maintenance treatment for opioid addiction but with prolonged abstinence (M = 121 weeks; SD = 23.3); and 4-opioid naïve controls. Participants completed a psychological assessment and a cold water task including, time to first pain (sensitivity) and time to stopping the pain task (tolerance). Data analysis used survival analyses. A Kaplan-Meier-Cox survival analysis showed group differences for both pain sensitivity (log rank = 15.50; p opioid maintenance resulted in differing pain sensitivity compared to opioid naïve (p's opioid maintenance compared to active methadone patients (p opioid naïve control group participants (p's opioid abstinence increased (R = .37; p opioid maintenance, there appears to be long-term differences in pain sensitivity that do not resolve with discontinuation of opioid maintenance. Although pain sensitivity does not change, pain tolerance does improve after opioid maintenance cessation. Implications for treating co-morbid opioid addiction and pain (acute and chronic) are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parallel and interactive learning processes within the basal ganglia: relevance for the understanding of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, David; Jonkman, Sietse; Dickinson, Anthony; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J

    2009-04-12

    In this review we discuss the evidence that drug addiction, defined as a maladaptive compulsive habit, results from the progressive subversion by addictive drugs of striatum-dependent operant and Pavlovian learning mechanisms that are usually involved in the control over behaviour by stimuli associated with natural reinforcement. Although mainly organized through segregated parallel cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical loops involved in motor or emotional functions, the basal ganglia, and especially the striatum, are key mediators of the modulation of behavioural responses, under the control of both action-outcome and stimulus-response mechanisms, by incentive motivational processes and Pavlovian associations. Here we suggest that protracted exposure to addictive drugs recruits serial and dopamine-dependent, striato-nigro-striatal ascending spirals from the nucleus accumbens to more dorsal regions of the striatum that underlie a shift from action-outcome to stimulus-response mechanisms in the control over drug seeking. When this progressive ventral to dorsal striatum shift is combined with drug-associated Pavlovian influences from limbic structures such as the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex, drug seeking behaviour becomes established as an incentive habit. This instantiation of implicit sub-cortical processing of drug-associated stimuli and instrumental responding might be a key mechanism underlying the development of compulsive drug seeking and the high vulnerability to relapse which are hallmarks of drug addiction.

  6. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples.

  7. [DGRW update: alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, M

    2011-10-01

    First, epidemiological data and socioeconomic consequences of alcohol addiction are summarized. Research findings, in particular in intervention and evaluation, from 2009-2011 in the field of alcohol addiction treatment are then discussed concerning their relevance for rehabilitation practice. The search was based on PubMed and PSYNDEX. The interventions most frequently evaluated and found most effective in alcohol addiction treatment are cognitive-behavioural interventions. Further topics dealt with are: pharmacological relapse prevention; technologically based therapies (e. g. e-therapy); systemic interventions; 12-steps; effectiveness of addiction treatment as confirmed in large-scale catamnestic studies; treatment of addiction and comorbidity; various subgroups (like elderly people and women); as well as other new and interesting developments such as rehab case management, dovetailing of medical and vocational interventions, stepped-care interventions, rehab management category groups as well as a new focus on individual treatment experiences and the pre-eminence of the therapeutic relationship. Finally, priority areas of future research are described. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Behavioral addictions in addiction medicine: from mechanisms to practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banz, Barbara C; Yip, Sarah W; Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress has been made in our understanding of nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions, although these conditions and their most appropriate classification remain debated and the knowledge basis for understanding the pathophysiology of and treatments for these conditions includes important gaps. Recent developments include the classification of gambling disorder as a "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorder" in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and proposed diagnostic criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder in Section 3 of DSM-5. This chapter reviews current neuroscientific understandings of behavioral addictions and the potential of neurobiological data to assist in the development of improved policy, prevention, and treatment efforts. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercise addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  10. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  11. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  12. Biased and less sensitive: A gamified approach to delay discounting in heroin addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Stefan; Haber, Paul; Morley, Kirsten; Underhill, Dylan; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2018-03-01

    People with addiction will continue to use drugs despite adverse long-term consequences. We hypothesized (a) that this deficit persists during substitution treatment, and (b) that this deficit might be related not only to a desire for immediate gratification, but also to a lower sensitivity for optimal decision making. We investigated how individuals with a history of heroin addiction perform (compared to healthy controls) in a virtual reality delay discounting task. This novel task adds to established measures of delay discounting an assessment of the optimality of decisions, especially in how far decisions are influenced by a general choice bias and/or a reduced sensitivity to the relative value of the two alternative rewards. We used this measure of optimality to apply diffusion model analysis to the behavioral data to analyze the interaction between decision optimality and reaction time. The addiction group consisted of 25 patients with a history of heroin dependency currently participating in a methadone maintenance program; the control group consisted of 25 healthy participants with no history of substance abuse, who were recruited from the Western Sydney community. The patient group demonstrated greater levels of delay discounting compared to the control group, which is broadly in line with previous observations. Diffusion model analysis yielded a reduced sensitivity for the optimality of a decision in the patient group compared to the control group. This reduced sensitivity was reflected in lower rates of information accumulation and higher decision criteria. Increased discounting in individuals with heroin addiction is related not only to a generally increased bias to immediate gratification, but also to reduced sensitivity for the optimality of a decision. This finding is in line with other findings about the sensitivity of addicts in distinguishing optimal from nonoptimal choice options.

  13. Doctors, lies and the addiction bureaucracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Theodore

    2008-04-01

    Almost everything you know about heroin addiction is wrong. Not only is it wrong, but it is obviously wrong. Heroin is not highly addictive; withdrawal from it is not medically serious; addicts do not become criminals to feed their habit; addicts do not need any medical assistance to stop taking heroin; and contrary to received wisdom, heroin addiction most certainly is a moral or spiritual problem. A literary tradition dating back to De Quincey and Coleridge, and continuing up to the deeply sociopathic William Burroughs and beyond, has misled all Western societies for generations about the nature of heroin addiction. These writers' self-dramatizing and dishonest accounts of their own addiction have been accepted uncritically, and have been more influential by far in forming public attitudes than the whole of pharmacological science. As a result, a self-serving, self-perpetuating and completely useless medical bureaucracy has been set up to deal with the problem.

  14. Is Lottery Gambling Addictive?

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Guryan; Melissa S. Kearney

    2010-01-01

    We present an empirical test for the addictiveness of lottery gambling. To distinguish state dependence from serial correlation, we exploit an exogenous shock to local market consumption of lottery gambling. We use the sale of a winning ticket in the zip code, the location of which is random conditional on sales, as an instrument for present consumption and test for a causal relationship between present and future consumption. This test of addiction is based on the definition of addiction com...

  15. The effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to addiction quitting clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Dashtgard, Ali; Moghadam, Zahra Emami

    2014-01-01

    Addiction, especially addiction quitting, has been the main problem of health systems of many countries in recent years. High percentage of addiction recurrence (more than 80%) indicates that the nature and therapeutic method of addiction have not been recognized and it demands more efforts in this field. Thus, the present study was conducted with an aim to examine the effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to Imam Reza Hospital addiction quitting clinic. This two-group experimental study was conducted on 60 clients (30 clients in test group and 30 in control group) referred to Imam Reza Hospital addiction quitting clinic. The study tools were demographic and addiction-quitting self-efficacy questionnaires. After gathering demographic data and conducting pretest, the intervention was carried out based on Bandura's social cognitive theory for the test group and post-test was taken 1 month after the intervention. Data were analyzed by SPSS using related tests. According to the results, test group was more successful than the control group in addiction quitting. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of recurrence; it was less in the test group. A significant difference was also found between self-efficacy scores before and after the intervention in the test group. Using Bandura's social cognitive theory was effective on addiction quitting. So, it is recommended to apply it for clients referring to addiction quitting clinics.

  16. Peer Influence and Addiction Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Markdissi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of peers in the recurrence of addictive behavior. To do so, we use a simple “forward looking” model with procrastination and peers influence. Our results show that while procrastination can explain the decision to postpone rehabilitation, peers influence is essential to explain the cyclical patterns of addiction-rehabilitation-addiction.

  17. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Freimuth, Marilyn; Forster, Myriam; Ames, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE) variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena. PMID:21909314

  18. Addiction to the internet and online gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Brian D; Wiemer-Hastings, Peter

    2005-04-01

    As computer and Internet use become a staple of everyday life, the potential for overuse is introduced, which may lead to addiction. Research on Internet addiction has shown that users can become addicted to it. Addiction to the Internet shares some of the negative aspects of substance addiction and has been shown to lead to consequences such as failing school, family, and relationship problems.

  19. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  20. Internet addiction in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren

    2014-07-01

    In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families.

  1. Addictive buying: causes, processes, and symbolic meanings. Thematic analysis of a buying addict's diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ureta, Irene

    2007-11-01

    The aims of this study were twofold. On the one hand, to reach an understanding of, and to illustrate the experience of addictive buying and, on the other, to throw some light on the controversial subject of addicts' personal responsibility for their behavior. With these aims, a thematic analysis of an extensive diary written by a compulsive buyer is presented. Four themes emerge from the analysis: the defining characteristics of addiction to buying that determine the boundary separating it from other forms of impulsive or careless buying; several causal factors; the role that money and material objects play in family relationships and friendships through the symbolic meanings they adopt; and the relationship of personal values with impulsiveness and self-control. In view of the results, the moral model of addiction to buying is discussed, and an explanatory model of the ambivalence that is characteristic of addiction to buying is proposed, based on a personal hierarchy of values.

  2. Public perceptions of behavioral and substance addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Brent; Rosenberg, Harold

    2017-02-01

    Most of the research on public perceptions of people with addictive disorders has focused on alcohol and illicit drugs, rather than addiction to behavioral activities. To expand the range of addictive behaviors and types of perceptions studied, we designed the present study to assess the lay public's definitions of and willingness to affiliate with people described as addicted to 1 of 2 specific behaviors (i.e., pornography or gambling) or 1 of 3 specific substances (i.e., alcohol, marijuana, or heroin). A nationwide convenience sample (N = 612) of American adults completed online questionnaires during the summer of 2015. Participants rated heroin as more addictive than the other drugs and behaviors and, despite differences among the conditions, were generally unwilling to affiliate with an individual addicted to any of the 2 behaviors or 3 substances. When asked to rate different potential indications of addiction, participants endorsed behavioral signs of impaired control and physiological and psychological dependence as more indicative of all 5 types of addiction than desire to use the substance or engage in the addictive behavior. Despite recent efforts to increase public knowledge about addictive disorders, members of the public continue to endorse some attitudes indicative of stigmatization toward people with selected substance and behavioral addictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A Computer Adaptive Testing Version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV): The Addiction Severity CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F.; Black, Ryan A.; McCaffrey, Stacey A.; Ainscough, Jessica; Doucette, Ann M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a computer adaptive testing (CAT) version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV®), the Addiction Severity CAT. This goal was accomplished in four steps. First, new candidate items for Addiction Severity CAT domains were evaluated after brainstorming sessions with experts in substance abuse treatment. Next, this new item bank was psychometrically evaluated on a large non-clinical (n =4419) and substance abuse treatment sample (n =845). Based on these results, final items were selected and calibrated for the creation of the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Once the algorithms were developed for the entire assessment, a fully functioning prototype of an Addiction Severity CAT was created. CAT simulations were conducted and optimal termination criteria were selected for the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Finally, construct validity of the CAT algorithms was evaluated by examining convergent/discriminant validity and sensitivity to change. The Addiction Severity CAT was determined to be valid, sensitive to change, and reliable. Further, the Addiction Severity CAT’s time of administration was found to be significantly less than the average time of administration for the ASI-MV composite scores. This study represents the initial validation of an IRT-based Addiction Severity CAT, and further exploration of the Addiction Severity CAT is needed. PMID:28230387

  4. A computer adaptive testing version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV): The Addiction Severity CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; Black, Ryan A; McCaffrey, Stacey A; Ainscough, Jessica; Doucette, Ann M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a computer adaptive testing (CAT) version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV), the Addiction Severity CAT. This goal was accomplished in 4 steps. First, new candidate items for Addiction Severity CAT domains were evaluated after brainstorming sessions with experts in substance abuse treatment. Next, this new item bank was psychometrically evaluated on a large nonclinical (n = 4,419) and substance abuse treatment (n = 845) sample. Based on these results, final items were selected and calibrated for the creation of the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Once the algorithms were developed for the entire assessment, a fully functioning prototype of an Addiction Severity CAT was created. CAT simulations were conducted, and optimal termination criteria were selected for the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Finally, construct validity of the CAT algorithms was evaluated by examining convergent and discriminant validity and sensitivity to change. The Addiction Severity CAT was determined to be valid, sensitive to change, and reliable. Further, the Addiction Severity CAT's time of completion was found to be significantly less than the average time of completion for the ASI-MV composite scores. This study represents the initial validation of an Addiction Severity CAT based on item response theory, and further exploration of the Addiction Severity CAT is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Addicted to palatable foods: comparing the neurobiology of Bulimia Nervosa to that of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Natalie A; Knackstedt, Lori A

    2014-05-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is highly comorbid with substance abuse and shares common phenotypic and genetic predispositions with drug addiction. Although treatments for the two disorders are similar, controversy remains about whether BN should be classified as addiction. Here, we review the animal and human literature with the goal of assessing whether BN and drug addiction share a common neurobiology. Similar neurobiological features are present following administration of drugs and bingeing on palatable food, especially sugar. Specifically, both disorders involve increases in extracellular dopamine (DA), D1 binding, D3 messenger RNA (mRNA), and ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Animal models of BN reveal increases in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA and enzymes involved in DA synthesis that resemble changes observed after exposure to addictive drugs. Additionally, alterations in the expression of glutamate receptors and prefrontal cortex activity present in human BN or following sugar bingeing in animals are comparable to the effects of addictive drugs. The two disorders differ in regards to alterations in NAc D2 binding, VTA DAT mRNA expression, and the efficacy of drugs targeting glutamate to treat these disorders. Although additional empirical studies are necessary, the synthesis of the two bodies of research presented here suggests that BN shares many neurobiological features with drug addiction. While few Food and Drug Administration-approved options currently exist for the treatment of drug addiction, pharmacotherapies developed in the future, which target the glutamate, DA, and opioid systems, may be beneficial for the treatment of both BN and drug addiction.

  6. Internet addiction or excessive internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2010-09-01

    Problematic Internet addiction or excessive Internet use is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding computer use and Internet access that lead to impairment or distress. Currently, there is no recognition of internet addiction within the spectrum of addictive disorders and, therefore, no corresponding diagnosis. It has, however, been proposed for inclusion in the next version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM). To review the literature on Internet addiction over the topics of diagnosis, phenomenology, epidemiology, and treatment. Review of published literature between 2000-2009 in Medline and PubMed using the term "internet addiction. Surveys in the United States and Europe have indicated prevalence rate between 1.5% and 8.2%, although the diagnostic criteria and assessment questionnaires used for diagnosis vary between countries. Cross-sectional studies on samples of patients report high comorbidity of Internet addiction with psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders (including depression), anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Several factors are predictive of problematic Internet use, including personality traits, parenting and familial factors, alcohol use, and social anxiety. Although Internet-addicted individuals have difficulty suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for Internet addiction. Due to the lack of methodologically adequate research, it is currently impossible to recommend any evidence-based treatment of Internet addiction.

  7. New Dimensions, New Addictions: The Internet Sex Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sánchez Zaldívar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The network is endless: going anywhere, finding anything, being anyone. Typing the word sex on Google gives a figure of 96 million results. The network is changing our way of communication and relation; we can construct space-time coordinates before incompatible. Internet addiction is not recognized as a disorder in DSM-IV-TR or ICD-10. Both types of Internet addiction with sexual content are cybersex and pornography. Cybersex consists in experiencing sexual stimulation while maintaining sexual contact with other person. There is no user profile, it is a widespread behaviour and might have a positive aspect (in some communities, persons with fewer social skills, to spice sex life and a negative aspect (addiction, loss of control, marital and family problems. Sex is safe, anonymous and without complications. Internet pornography voyeurism allows the visualization of all types of practices, the use of real models not professional and to spy our behaviour through the IP code. These sexual activities on the network seems to be powered by the “Triple A” engine: accessibility, anonymity, affordability. We must assess the individual, the couples and the Internet activities. There is no proven pharmacological or psychological treatment but cognitive behavioural programs and techniques used in other addictions are helpful. There is large comorbidity. The goal of treatment refers to the adaptive use of Internet. Health professionals should be in advance and learn about this kind of behaviours, as well as to disseminate the information appropriately not launching simplistic messages, providing markers and developing studies, research and prevention programs.

  8. Interpersonal dependency and online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škařupová, Kateřina; Blinka, Lukas

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The present study explores the relationship between social motivations and addiction to online gaming and if that possible connection can be explained by the personality traits responsible for social functioning. Methods We employ Bernstein's concept of interpersonal dependency to distinguish healthy dependency, dysfunctional detachment, and destructive overdependence, and Charlton and Danforth's conceptualisation of online gaming addiction and high engagement. An online questionnaire was administered to a self-nominated sample of 4,074 online gamers. Two regression models were constructed to separately explain gaming addiction and high engagement using social motivations to play, while controlling for age, gender, and time spent online. Results High scores on subscales measuring dysfunctional detachment and destructive overdependence were positively associated with online gaming addiction, while healthy dependency was negatively correlated with addiction scores. In contrast, the overall role of social motivation was negligible. Discussion People with healthy relationship profiles are less likely to develop problematic patterns of online gaming. High in-game engagement, although sharing some factors with addiction, was only poorly explained by the study variables, suggesting the mutual exclusiveness of addiction and engagement.

  9. Is game addiction a mental disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal

    This Ph.D. dissertation critically examines the concept of "video game addiction" and the science behind the proposal that the disorder should be officially recognized as a mental disorder called "Internet gaming disorder." Chapter One gives a short introduction to the history of the word...... "addiction" and describes how gambling disorder (the only officially recognized behavioral addiction) came to be defined as an addiction. Chapter 2 will take a look at the negative consequences of video game play that are most commonly cited in the literature on game addiction. This review will show how...... researchers' claims of negative effects caused by video game playing are wildly exaggerated. Chapter 3 adds a short review of what is sometimes cited as historical precursors to Internet gaming disorder and argue that these are, in fact, not examples of addictions. Chapter 4 will analyze the diagnostic...

  10. Drug, nicotine, and alcohol use among exercisers: Does substance addiction co-occur with exercise addiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szabo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scholastic works suggest that those at risk for exercise addiction are also often addicted to illicit drugs, nicotine, and/or alcohol, but empirical evidence is lacking. Aims: The aim of the present work was to examine the co-occurrence of illicit drug, nicotine, and alcohol use frequency (prevalence of users and severity (level of problem in users among exercisers classified at three levels of risk for exercise addiction: (i asymptomatic, (ii symptomatic, and (iii at-risk. Methods: A sample of 538 regular exercisers were surveyed via the Qualtrics research platform. They completed the (i Drug Use Disorder Identification Test, (ii Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, (iii Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and (iv Exercise Addition Inventory. Results: A large proportion (n=59; 10.97% of the sample was found to be at risk for exercise addiction. The proportion of drug and alcohol users among these participants did not differ from the rest of the sample. However, the incidence of nicotine consumption was lowest among them. The severity of problematic substance use did not differ across the groups. Conclusions: These findings suggest that substance addiction and the risk for exercise addiction are unrelated. In fact, those at risk for exercise addiction exhibited the healthiest profile related to the prevalence of smoking. Keywords: Alcohol drinking, Cigarette smoking, Exercise dependence, Illicit substance use, Physical activity, Sport

  11. Gaming: from Addiction Mechanisms to Clinical Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Thorens, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Video game addiction is the main theme of this thesis. After a brief definition of addiction, the focus is on the specific addictive properties of Internet and games. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are described, as they tend to be the most addictive type of game, with a specific focus on World of Warcraft (WoW). Issues of diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) are be presented.

  12. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A

    2006-01-01

    , recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  13. [Can we treat sexual addiction ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inescu Cismaru, A; Andrianne, R; Triffaux, F; Triffaux, J-M

    2013-01-01

    Sexual addiction or sexual dependence is characterized by hypersexuality, impaired regulation of sexual desire and sexual compulsivity, including having sex with uncontrolled excessive frequency (5 to 15 sexual acts per day for more than 6 months, from 15 years old). Between 3% and 6% of the adult population (> or =18 years) would have the characteristics of sexual addiction, disorder prevalent in the male population. The addictive processes affect three behavioral domains : motivation-reward, affect regulation and behavioral inhibition. Sex addiction is usually accompanied by other addictions, such as abuse of drugs or alcohol or sex toys that enhance sexual performance. Psychiatric comorbidities can be found : anxiety disorders, mood disorders. Several forms of treatment have been tried, using medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychotherapy sessions alternated with exposure therapy in virtual reality. In this article, we will discuss the multiple definitions of hypersexuality and the possibilities of therapeutic approaches.

  14. Exercise addiction in CrossFit: Prevalence and psychometric properties of the Exercise Addiction Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Jensen, Tanja Tang

    2016-06-01

    CrossFit is a mix of aerobic and anaerobic exercise regimes with the stated goal of improving fitness and physical performance. It is growing in popularity and has a strong community known to motivate and push the participants to maximal performance. The negative consequences of these extreme exercise patterns have rarely been described. The prevalence of injuries in CrossFit is high but exercise addiction and harmful exercise attitudes have not yet been assessed. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of exercise addiction in CrossFit and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) in a CrossFit population. We invited crossfitters to participate in an online survey using Facebook groups. A total of 603 regular crossfitters completed the EAI and additional questions concerning exercise amounts and negative exercise attitudes and beliefs. We used principal component analyses and structural equation models to test the psychometric properties of the EAI and to describe the characteristics of the addicted crossfitters. We found that 5% of the crossfitters were addicted to exercise and that young males had a higher risk. The EAI had good internal reliability (0.73) and construct validity. Thus we found significant positive associations between exercise addiction and the tendency to exercise in spite of injury, feelings of guilt when unable to exercise, passion turning into obsession and taking medication to be able to exercise. Exercise addiction is prevalent in CrossFit and needs further exploration. The EAI is recommended for research in CrossFit communities and applied settings.

  15. Internet Addiction: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bozkurt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction, which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to control ones use of the Internet which leads to negative consequences in daily life. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other Internet applications developing an addictive behavior. This paper aims to give a current review of the gradually evolving body of literature on Internet addiction. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 235-247

  16. The relationship between forgiveness, spirituality, traumatic guilt and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people with addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Louise; Chung, Man Cheung

    2013-03-01

    Spirituality and forgiveness have been shown to be associated with psychological well-being, while guilt has been associated with poor health. Little is known, however, about the relationship between forgiveness, spirituality, guilt, posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and psychological co-morbidity among people in recovery from addiction. Eighty-one people (F = 36, M = 45) in recovery from drug and alcohol addiction were recruited from two residential units and two drop-in centres in a city in the United Kingdom. They completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS), the Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS), the Traumatic Guilt Inventory (TGI), the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-22) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-20). The control group comprised of 83 (F = 34, M = 49) individuals who confirmed that they did not have addiction and completed the PDS & GHQ-28. 54 % of the addiction group met the criteria for full PTSD and reported anxiety, somatic problems and depression. They described themselves as spiritual, had strong feelings of guilt associated with their addiction, and had difficulty in forgiving themselves. Controlling for demographics, number of events and medication management, regression analyses showed that spirituality predicted psychological co-morbidity, whilst feelings of guilt predicted PTSD symptoms and psychological co-morbidity. Unexpectedly, forgiveness did not predict outcomes. This study supports existing literature, which shows that people with drug and alcohol addiction tend to have experienced significant past trauma and PTSD symptoms. Their posttraumatic stress reactions and associated psychological difficulties can be better understood in the light of guilt and spirituality. Meanwhile, their ability to forgive themselves or others did not seem to influence health outcomes.

  17. Comparison of Basic Psychological Needs, Social Support and Stressful events in Addicts and Non-addicts: gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Mohammadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare basic psychological needs, stressful life events, and social support in addicts and non-addicts. The study was a causal-comparative research. Two hundreds residents of Khorramabad were chosen by available sampling (130 healthy and 70 addicts and were asked to respond to Basic Psychological Need Scale La Guardia, Ryan, Couchman & Deci, Multi-facet Perceived Social Support Scale Zimet, Powell, Farley, Werkman, & Berkoff, Addiction Acceptance Scale Weed, Butcher, McKenna, & Ben-Porath, and Weekly Stress Inventory Brantley, Jones & Boudreaux. Results of analysis of variance and and discriminant analysis showed singnificant differences between men and women. The results also showed significant differences  competency and friend social support in the two groups of men, and autonomy, competency and family social support in the two groups of women. Discriminant analysis revealed that stressful life events and competency predict addiction in men. and relationship and family social support predict addiction in women.Results were discussed according to different protecting factors in men and women and possible reciprocal relationships between addiction and protecting factors.

  18. Violent Behaviors in Drug Addiction: Differential Profiles of Drug-Addicted Patients with and without Violence Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of violent behaviors in patients who are addicted to drugs. A sample of 252 addicted patients (203 male and 49 female) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed. Information on violent behaviors, sociodemographic factors, consumption factors (assessed by the European version of the Addiction Severity Index…

  19. Rationally Addicted to Drinking and Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bask, Mikael; Melkersson, Maria

    2001-01-01

    When modeling demand for addictive consumption goods, the most widely used framework is the rational addiction model proposed by Becker and Murphy (1988). In the present paper, we extend the rational addiction model to include two addictive consumption goods, alcohol and cigarettes. We estimate the aggregate demand for alcohol and cigarettes in Sweden, using aggregate annual time series on sales volumes for the period 1955-1999. OLS estimates are compared to GMM estimates allowing for possibl...

  20. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse ...

  1. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G.W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence

  2. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju

    2015-01-01

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction. PMID:26393658

  3. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju

    2015-09-18

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.

  4. Internet addiction, sleep and health-related life quality among obese individuals: a comparison study of the growing problems in adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliacik, Kayi; Bolat, Nurullah; Koçyiğit, Cemil; Kanik, Ali; Selkie, Ellen; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Catli, Gonul; Dundar, Nihal Olgac; Dundar, Bumin Nuri

    2016-12-01

    The rapid rise in the global prevalence of obesity suggests that environmental factors may be responsible. The increased use of technology is associated with increased rates of obesity due to declines in physical activity and significant sedentary life style. Internet addiction is also a growing health issue associated with diminished physical activity and poor sleep quality as well as various health problems. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between Internet addiction and adolescent obesity-related problems. In this case-control study, 71 adolescents with obesity were recruited from the outpatient clinic at Tepecik Teaching Hospital and Katip Celebi University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology in Izmir, Turkey. The control group consisted of 64 non-obese adolescents that were matched with patients in the study group by age and gender. All subjects completed socio-demographic forms, an Internet addiction scale, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Adolescents with obesity were significantly more likely to have Internet addiction (p = 0.002), lower quality of life (p Internet addiction and less physical activity were associated with increased odds of obesity. The results indicated a significant association between Internet addiction and obesity. Health practitioners should take possible Internet addiction, online activities, and physical activities into consideration in follow-up of obese adolescents. In addition to pharmacologic therapies and dietary interventions, providing behavioral therapy targeting healthy Internet use may be promising to reduce the effects of obesity in adolescence.

  5. The psychological science of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith

    2007-03-01

    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  6. Cognitive behavioural interventions in addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Paulomi M

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy is a structured, time limited, psychological intervention that has is empirically supported across a wide variety of psychological disorders. CBT for addictive behaviours can be traced back to the application of learning theories in understanding addiction and subsequently to social cognitive theories. The focus of CBT is manifold and the focus is on targeting maintaining factors of addictive behaviours and preventing relapse. Relapse prevention programmes are based on social cognitive and cognitive behavioural principles. Interventions for preventing relapse include, behavioural strategies to decrease the valence of addictive behaviours, coping skills to deal with craving, arousal, negative mood states, assertiveness skills to manage social pressures, family psychoeducation and environmental manipulation and cognitive strategies to enhance self-efficacy beliefs and modification of outcome expectancies related to addictive behaviours. More recent developments in the area of managing addictions include third wave behaviour therapies. Third wave behaviour therapies are focused on improving building awareness, and distress tolerance skills using mindfulness practices. These approaches have shown promise, and more recently the neurobiological underpinnings of mindfulness strategies have been studied. The article provides an overview of cognitive behavioural approaches to managing addictions.

  7. Interpersonal dependency and online gaming addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škařupová, Kateřina; Blinka, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The present study explores the relationship between social motivations and addiction to online gaming and if that possible connection can be explained by the personality traits responsible for social functioning. Methods We employ Bernstein’s concept of interpersonal dependency to distinguish healthy dependency, dysfunctional detachment, and destructive overdependence, and Charlton and Danforth’s conceptualisation of online gaming addiction and high engagement. An online questionnaire was administered to a self-nominated sample of 4,074 online gamers. Two regression models were constructed to separately explain gaming addiction and high engagement using social motivations to play, while controlling for age, gender, and time spent online. Results High scores on subscales measuring dysfunctional detachment and destructive overdependence were positively associated with online gaming addiction, while healthy dependency was negatively correlated with addiction scores. In contrast, the overall role of social motivation was negligible. Discussion People with healthy relationship profiles are less likely to develop problematic patterns of online gaming. High in-game engagement, although sharing some factors with addiction, was only poorly explained by the study variables, suggesting the mutual exclusiveness of addiction and engagement. PMID:26690326

  8. Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-03-17

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) have gained increasing popularity in the last decade, with individuals engaging in SNSs to connect with others who share similar interests. The perceived need to be online may result in compulsive use of SNSs, which in extreme cases may result in symptoms and consequences traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. In order to present new insights into online social networking and addiction, in this paper, 10 lessons learned concerning online social networking sites and addiction based on the insights derived from recent empirical research will be presented. These are: (i) social networking and social media use are not the same; (ii) social networking is eclectic; (iii) social networking is a way of being; (iv) individuals can become addicted to using social networking sites; (v) Facebook addiction is only one example of SNS addiction; (vi) fear of missing out (FOMO) may be part of SNS addiction; (vii) smartphone addiction may be part of SNS addiction; (viii) nomophobia may be part of SNS addiction; (ix) there are sociodemographic differences in SNS addiction; and (x) there are methodological problems with research to date. These are discussed in turn. Recommendations for research and clinical applications are provided.

  9. Facebook Addiction: Onset Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolcati, Roberta; Mancini, Giacomo; Pupi, Virginia; Mugheddu, Valeria

    2018-05-23

    Worldwide, Facebook is becoming increasingly widespread as a communication platform. Young people especially use this social networking site daily to maintain and establish relationships. Despite the Facebook expansion in the last few years and the widespread acceptance of this social network, research into Facebook Addiction (FA) is still in its infancy. Hence, the potential predictors of Facebook overuse represent an important matter for investigation. This study aimed to deepen the understanding of the relationship between personality traits, social and emotional loneliness, life satisfaction, and Facebook addiction. A total of 755 participants (80.3% female; n = 606) aged between 18 and 40 (mean = 25.17; SD = 4.18) completed the questionnaire packet including the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale, the Big Five, the short version of Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. A regression analysis was used with personality traits, social, family, romantic loneliness, and life satisfaction as independent variables to explain variance in Facebook addiction. The findings showed that Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Loneliness (Social, Family, and Romantic) were strong significant predictors of FA. Age, Openness, Agreeableness, and Life Satisfaction, although FA-related variables, were not significant in predicting Facebook overuse. The risk profile of this peculiar behavioral addiction is also discussed.

  10. [The place of cyber addiction in teenagers' addictive behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleur, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The easy access which modern teenagers have to new technologies favours their excessive use of video games, as they seek to escape potential existential difficulties. This harmful aspect should not mask the creative potential of games for the majority of teenagers. Treatment for young people with a gaming addiction is based on psychotherapy and takes into account the family dimension of the problem. This article presents an interview with Marc Valleur, a psychiatrist and head physician at Marmottan hospital specialising in the care and support of people with addictions.

  11. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Results: Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. Conclusions: CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “;tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others. PMID:25595966

  12. The invisible addiction: cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A; Yaya, Luc Honore Petnji; Manolis, Chris

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others.

  13. Usefulness of the Brief Pain Inventory in Patients with Opioid Addiction Receiving Methadone Maintenance Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brittany B; Roshanov, Pavel S; Bawor, Monica; Paul, James; Varenbut, Michael; Daiter, Jeff; Plater, Carolyn; Pare, Guillame; Marsh, David C; Worster, Andrew; Desai, Dipika; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is implicated as a risk factor for illicit opioid use among patients with opioid addiction treated with methadone. However, there exists conflicting evidence that supports and refutes this claim. These discrepancies may stem from the large variability in pain measurement reported across studies. We aim to determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients reporting pain and evaluate the prognostic value of different pain classification measures in a sample of opioid addiction patients. Multi-center prospective cohort study. Methadone maintenance treatment facilities for managing patients with opioid addiction. This study includes participants from the Genetics of Opioid Addiction (GENOA) prospective cohort study. We assessed the prognostic value of different pain measures for predicting opioid relapse. Pain measures include the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and patients' response to a direct pain question all study participants were asked from the GENOA case report form (CRF) "are you currently experiencing or have been diagnosed with chronic pain?" Performance characteristics of the GENOA CRF pain measure was estimated with sensitivity and specificity using the BPI as the gold standard reference. Prognostic value was assessed using pain classification as the primary independent variable in an adjusted analysis using 1) the percentage of positive opioid urine screens and 2) high-risk opioid use (= 50% positive opioid urine screens) as the dependent variables in a linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Among participants eligible for inclusion (n = 444) the BPI was found to be highly sensitive, classifying a large number of GENOA participants with pain (n = 281 of the 297 classified with pain, 94.6%) in comparison to the GENOA CRF (n = 154 of 297 classified with pain, 51.8%). Participants concordantly classified as having pain according to the GENOA CRF and BPI were found to have an estimated 7.79% increase in positive

  14. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-12-31

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction.

  15. [Relationships between sleep and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2012-01-01

    While it is well known that there is an interaction between sleep disorders and substance abuse, it is certainly more complex than was previously thought. There is a positive relationship both between having a substance use disorder and suffering from a sleep disorder, and vice versa. The effects on sleep depend on the substance used, but it has been shown that both during use and in withdrawal periods consumers have various sleep problems, and basically more fragmented sleep. We know that sleep problems must be taken into account to prevent addiction relapses. Recent research shows that the hypocretinergic system defined by neuropeptide hypocretin / orexin (Hcrt / ox), located in the lateral hypothalamus and involved in, among other things, the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, may play an important role in addictive behaviors. Different studies have demonstrated interactions between the hypocretinergic system, acute response to stress circuits and reward systems. We also know that selective optogenetic activation of the hypocretinergic system increases the probability of transition from sleep to wakefulness, and is sufficient for initiating an addictive compulsive behavior relapse. Hypocretinergic system activation could explain the hyperarousal associated with stress and addiction. Improved knowledge of this interaction would help us to understand better the mechanisms of addiction and find new strategies for the treatment of addictions.

  16. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Love

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.

  17. Latent profiles of family background, personality and mental health factors and their association with behavioural addictions and substance use disorders in young Swiss men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmet, Simon; Studer, Joseph; Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Gmel, Gerhard

    2018-05-04

    Recent theories suggest that behavioural addictions and substance use disorders may be the result of the same underlying vulnerability. The present study investigates profiles of family background, personality and mental health factors and their associations with seven behavioural addictions (to the internet, gaming, smartphones, internet sex, gambling, exercise and work) and three substance use disorder scales (for alcohol, cannabis and tobacco). The sample consisted of 5287 young Swiss men (mean age = 25.42) from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). A latent profile analysis was performed on family background, personality and mental health factors. The derived profiles were compared with regards to means and prevalence rates of the behavioural addiction and substance use disorder scales. Seven latent profiles were identified, ranging from profiles with a positive family background, favourable personality patterns and low values on mental health scales to profiles with a negative family background, unfavourable personality pattern and high values on mental health scales. Addiction scale means, corresponding prevalence rates and the number of concurrent addictions were highest in profiles with high values on mental health scales and a personality pattern dominated by neuroticism. Overall, behavioural addictions and substance use disorders showed similar patterns across latent profiles. Patterns of family background, personality and mental health factors were associated with different levels of vulnerability to addictions. Behavioural addictions and substance use disorders may thus be the result of the same underlying vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Genes and (Common) Pathways Underlying Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-Yun; Mao, Xizeng; Wei, Liping

    2008-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious worldwide problem with strong genetic and environmental influences. Different technologies have revealed a variety of genes and pathways underlying addiction; however, each individual technology can be biased and incomplete. We integrated 2,343 items of evidence from peer-reviewed publications between 1976 and 2006 linking genes and chromosome regions to addiction by single-gene strategies, microrray, proteomics, or genetic studies. We identified 1,500 human addiction-related genes and developed KARG (http://karg.cbi.pku.edu.cn), the first molecular database for addiction-related genes with extensive annotations and a friendly Web interface. We then performed a meta-analysis of 396 genes that were supported by two or more independent items of evidence to identify 18 molecular pathways that were statistically significantly enriched, covering both upstream signaling events and downstream effects. Five molecular pathways significantly enriched for all four different types of addictive drugs were identified as common pathways which may underlie shared rewarding and addictive actions, including two new ones, GnRH signaling pathway and gap junction. We connected the common pathways into a hypothetical common molecular network for addiction. We observed that fast and slow positive feedback loops were interlinked through CAMKII, which may provide clues to explain some of the irreversible features of addiction. PMID:18179280

  19. Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment: A reverse translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwako, Laura E; Momenan, Reza; Grodin, Erica N; Litten, Raye Z; Koob, George F; Goldman, David

    2017-08-01

    Incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive function are functional domains that are etiologic in the initiation and progression of addictive disorders, having been implicated in humans with addictive disorders and in animal models of addictions. Measures of these three neuroscience-based functional domains can capture much of the effects of inheritance and early exposures that lead to trait vulnerability shared across different addictive disorders. For specific addictive disorders, these measures can be supplemented by agent specific measures such as those that access pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic variation attributable to agent-specific gatekeeper molecules including receptors and drug-metabolizing enzymes. Herein, we focus on the translation and reverse translation of knowledge derived from animal models of addiction to the human condition via measures of neurobiological processes that are orthologous in animals and humans, and that are shared in addictions to different agents. Based on preclinical data and human studies, measures of these domains in a general framework of an Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment (ANA) can transform the assessment and nosology of addictive disorders, and can be informative for staging disease progression. We consider next steps and challenges for implementation of ANA in clinical care and research. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled "Alcoholism". Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Genes and (common pathways underlying drug addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a serious worldwide problem with strong genetic and environmental influences. Different technologies have revealed a variety of genes and pathways underlying addiction; however, each individual technology can be biased and incomplete. We integrated 2,343 items of evidence from peer-reviewed publications between 1976 and 2006 linking genes and chromosome regions to addiction by single-gene strategies, microrray, proteomics, or genetic studies. We identified 1,500 human addiction-related genes and developed KARG (http://karg.cbi.pku.edu.cn, the first molecular database for addiction-related genes with extensive annotations and a friendly Web interface. We then performed a meta-analysis of 396 genes that were supported by two or more independent items of evidence to identify 18 molecular pathways that were statistically significantly enriched, covering both upstream signaling events and downstream effects. Five molecular pathways significantly enriched for all four different types of addictive drugs were identified as common pathways which may underlie shared rewarding and addictive actions, including two new ones, GnRH signaling pathway and gap junction. We connected the common pathways into a hypothetical common molecular network for addiction. We observed that fast and slow positive feedback loops were interlinked through CAMKII, which may provide clues to explain some of the irreversible features of addiction.

  1. Evaluation of recruitment and selection for specialty training in public health: interim results of a prospective cohort study to measure the predictive validity of the selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayan, Nora; Gray, Selena; Duff, Celia; Parkes, Julie; Williams, David; Patterson, Fiona; Koczwara, Anna; Fisher, Grant; Mason, Brendan W

    2016-06-01

    The recruitment process for public health specialty training includes an assessment centre (AC) with three components, Rust Advanced Numerical Reasoning Appraisal (RANRA), Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCT) and a Situation Judgement Test (SJT), which determines invitation to a selection centre (SC). The scores are combined into a total recruitment (TR) score that determines the offers of appointment. A prospective cohort study using anonymous record linkage to investigate the association between applicant's scores in the recruitment process and registrar's progress through training measured by results of Membership Faculty Public Health (MFPH) examinations and outcomes of the Annual Review of Competence Progression (ARCP). Higher scores in RANRA, WGCT, AC, SC and TR were all significantly associated with higher adjusted odds of passing Part A MFPH exam at the first attempt. Higher scores in AC, SC and TR were significantly associated with passing Part B exam at the first attempt. Higher scores in SJT, AC and SC were significantly associated with satisfactory ARCP outcomes. The current UK national recruitment and selection process for public health specialty training has good predictive validity. The individual components of the process are testing different skills and abilities and together they are providing additive value. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. PERSONALITY AND COMPUTER ADDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Jurczyńska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work is to prove the relation between the personality traits and computer addicting. The research was carried out from 2006 to 2008 among the students of High School of Information Technology in Katowice. Material and methods: Research methods: Scale of Emotional Intelligens at Work, Social Competences Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Kimberly S. Young Test, Questionnaire to Assess the Level of Crises of Values, Directivity Scale and a questionnaire of 23 questions prepared for the research purposes. Results: 12.70% of the examined population met the criteria for computer addiction. In the own view, 76.34% considered themselves addicted to this medium. Conclusions: Personality traits such as emotional intelligence at work, inclination to authoritative behaviors as well as the value system may have influence on the addicting to a computer. No such relation was proven with reference to self – efficacy and anxious personality.

  3. Is love passion an addictive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent; Blecha, Lisa; Benyamina, Amine

    2010-09-01

    Inquiry regarding the relationship between passionate love and addiction has long been a topic of intense debate. Recent advances in neurobiology now allow for an examination between these two states. After describing the clinical distinctions between "love passion," "love addiction," and "sex addiction," we compare clinical, neuropsychological, neurobiological, and neuroimaging data on love, passion, pathological gambling (PG) and substance dependence. There are no recognized definitions or diagnostic criteria for "love addiction," but its phenomenology has some similarities to substance dependence: euphoria and unrestrained desire in the presence of the love object or associated stimuli (drug intoxication); negative mood, anhedonia, and sleep disturbance when separated from the love object (drug withdrawal); focussed attention on and intrusive thoughts about the love object; and maladaptive or problematic patterns of behavior (love relation) leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with pursuit despite knowledge of adverse consequences. Limited animal and human studies suggest that brain regions (e.g., insula, anterior cingulated [ACC], orbitofrontal [OFC]) and neurotransmitters (dopamine) that mediate substance dependence may also be involved with love addiction (as for PG). Ocytocin (OT), which is implicated in social attachment and mating behavior, may also be involved in substance dependence. There are no data on the epidemiology, genetics, co-morbidity, or treatment of love addiction. There are currently insufficient data to place some cases of "love passion" within a clinical disorder, such as "love addiction," in an official diagnostic nomenclature or to firmly classify it as a behavioral addiction or disorder of impulse control. Further clinical and scientific studies are needed to improve our understanding and treatment of this condition. For these studies, we propose new criteria for evaluating addiction to love.

  4. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, paddiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical relevance of the proposed sexual addiction diagnostic criteria: relation to the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Patrick J; Hopkins, Tiffany A; Green, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines and compares the various diagnostic rubrics proposed to codify symptoms of sexual addiction, and then briefly summarizes the ongoing controversy on whether sexual addiction is a valid construct. Using the diagnostic criteria proposed by , the prevalence rate of each criterion is examined in terms of scores on the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised scales (). Differences in diagnostic criteria endorsement associated with sex, sexual orientation, and setting were also explored. Results from a clinical sample of men and women seeking treatment for sexual addiction demonstrated clinical relevance of the criteria, in that all but 3 criteria are endorsed at more than 50% of participants screening positive for sexual addiction on the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised. Sex differences were also noted for endorsement rates of several of the criteria. Finally, several proposed criteria may pose a higher clinical threshold and thus be utilized by clinicians to identify patients with increased pathology. Results are discussed in the context of existing diagnostic frameworks across etiological perspectives.

  6. Altered Autonomic Functions and Distressed Personality Traits in Male Adolescents with Internet Gaming Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-11-01

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA) has been associated with many negative health outcomes, especially for youth; however, few studies have examined the physiological parameters and personality features related to this addiction. This study aimed to identify differences in autonomic functions and distressed (type D) personality traits among Korean adolescent males with and without IGA. In a cross-sectional study, 68 adolescent males were recruited in a Korean city using convenience and snowball sampling methods. For each subject, heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were measured as autonomic functions and questionnaires were used to identify IGA and type D personality traits. Data were analyzed using descriptive analyses, t tests, χ 2 tests, and Pearson's correlation. Most HRV parameters significantly differed between the IGA and non-IGA groups (all p gaming was related to alterations in autonomic functions and distressed personality traits in male adolescents. These findings provide further understanding of the IGA phenomenon and highlight the need for interventions that address male adolescents with IGA.

  7. Addressing Gaps in Mental Health and Addictions Nursing Leadership: An Innovative Professional Development Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrs, Margaret; Strudwick, Gillian; Ling, Sara; Reisdorfer, Emilene; Cleverley, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Mental health and addictions services are integral to Canada's healthcare system, and yet it is difficult to recruit experienced nurse leaders with advanced practice, management or clinical informatics expertise in this field. Master's-level graduates, aspiring to be mental health nurse leaders, often lack the confidence and experience required to lead quality improvement, advancements in clinical care, service design and technology innovations for improved patient care. This paper describes an initiative that develops nursing leaders through a unique scholarship, internship and mentorship model, which aims to foster confidence, critical thinking and leadership competency development in the mental health and addictions context. The "Mutual Benefits Model" framework was applied in the design and evaluation of the initiative. It outlines how mentee, mentor and organizational needs can drive strategic planning of resource investment, mentorship networks and relevant leadership competency-based learning plans to optimize outcomes. Five-year individual and organizational outcomes are described. © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.

  8. Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) have gained increasing popularity in the last decade, with individuals engaging in SNSs to connect with others who share similar interests. The perceived need to be online may result in compulsive use of SNSs, which in extreme cases may result in symptoms and consequences traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. In order to present new insights into online social networking and addiction, in this paper, 10 lessons learned concerning online social networking sites and addiction based on the insights derived from recent empirical research will be presented. These are: (i) social networking and social media use are not the same; (ii) social networking is eclectic; (iii) social networking is a way of being; (iv) individuals can become addicted to using social networking sites; (v) Facebook addiction is only one example of SNS addiction; (vi) fear of missing out (FOMO) may be part of SNS addiction; (vii) smartphone addiction may be part of SNS addiction; (viii) nomophobia may be part of SNS addiction; (ix) there are sociodemographic differences in SNS addiction; and (x) there are methodological problems with research to date. These are discussed in turn. Recommendations for research and clinical applications are provided. PMID:28304359

  9. Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networking sites (SNSs have gained increasing popularity in the last decade, with individuals engaging in SNSs to connect with others who share similar interests. The perceived need to be online may result in compulsive use of SNSs, which in extreme cases may result in symptoms and consequences traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. In order to present new insights into online social networking and addiction, in this paper, 10 lessons learned concerning online social networking sites and addiction based on the insights derived from recent empirical research will be presented. These are: (i social networking and social media use are not the same; (ii social networking is eclectic; (iii social networking is a way of being; (iv individuals can become addicted to using social networking sites; (v Facebook addiction is only one example of SNS addiction; (vi fear of missing out (FOMO may be part of SNS addiction; (vii smartphone addiction may be part of SNS addiction; (viii nomophobia may be part of SNS addiction; (ix there are sociodemographic differences in SNS addiction; and (x there are methodological problems with research to date. These are discussed in turn. Recommendations for research and clinical applications are provided.

  10. [Internet addiction as a co-morbid disorder among patients of german addiction rehabilitation facilities: an exploratory investigation of clinical prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kai W; Koch, Andreas; Beutel, Manfred E; Dickenhorst, Ulrike; Medenwaldt, Jens; Wölfling, Klaus

    2012-08-01

    Excessive internet use is being discussed as a non-substance-related addiction disorder. Estimations of its prevalence show that 1% of the German general population is affected by internet addiction. However, it is still unclear, whether internet addiction as a co-morbid disorder is also common among patients of the general health care system, especially in patients being treated in inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers. It seems plausible that these patients have a heightened proneness to co-morbid internet addiction. In order to address this issue, a government-funded cooperation project was conducted. Within six months every new patient admitted to one of 15 rehabilitation facilities was screened for internet addiction. 4.2% of the patients fulfilled criteria for internet addiction. Male patients of younger age with main diagnosis of cannabis dependence or pathological gambling were found to be at higher risk. Internet addiction is more common among patients of the rehabilitation system than in the general population. Especially young, male patients in treatment for cannabis dependence or pathological gambling are at risk for co-morbid internet addiction. It is recommended that regular screening for internet addiction should be implemented in facilities with patients at risk in order to offer indicative treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Investigating the Effect of Recruitment Variability on Length-Based Recruitment Indices for Antarctic Krill Using an Individual-Based Population Dynamics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanassekos, Stéphane; Cox, Martin J.; Reid, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba; herein krill) is monitored as part of an on-going fisheries observer program that collects length-frequency data. A krill feedback management programme is currently being developed, and as part of this development, the utility of data-derived indices describing population level processes is being assessed. To date, however, little work has been carried out on the selection of optimum recruitment indices and it has not been possible to assess the performance of length-based recruitment indices across a range of recruitment variability. Neither has there been an assessment of uncertainty in the relationship between an index and the actual level of recruitment. Thus, until now, it has not been possible to take into account recruitment index uncertainty in krill stock management or when investigating relationships between recruitment and environmental drivers. Using length-frequency samples from a simulated population – where recruitment is known – the performance of six potential length-based recruitment indices is assessed, by exploring the index-to-recruitment relationship under increasing levels of recruitment variability (from ±10% to ±100% around a mean annual recruitment). The annual minimum of the proportion of individuals smaller than 40 mm (F40 min, %) was selected because it had the most robust index-to-recruitment relationship across differing levels of recruitment variability. The relationship was curvilinear and best described by a power law. Model uncertainty was described using the 95% prediction intervals, which were used to calculate coverage probabilities and assess model performance. Despite being the optimum recruitment index, the performance of F40 min degraded under high (>50%) recruitment variability. Due to the persistence of cohorts in the population over several years, the inclusion of F40 min values from preceding years in the relationship used to estimate recruitment in a given year improved its

  12. Evaluation and treatment of sex addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Kenneth Paul; Carnes, Patrick; O'Connor, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    There have been several diagnostic labels for persistent, excessive sexual behaviors, often referred in the popular media as sex addiction. Two related diagnoses, Internet addictive disorder and hypersexual disorder, were considered for, but not included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, most clinicians, even those trained in sexual disorders or addiction medicine, have little to no training in treating sexual compulsivity and cybersex addiction. The authors present the historical context, proposed diagnostic criteria, evaluation protocols, comorbid disorders, speculations about the neuroscience, and treatment recommendations.

  13. Buddhist Approaches to Addiction Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramabandhu Groves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Buddha recognized addiction problems and advised his followers accordingly, although this was not the primary focus of his teachings. Thailand and Japan, which have long-standing Buddhist traditions, have developed Buddhist influenced responses to addiction. With its emphasis on craving and attachment, an understanding of the workings of the mind, as well as practices to work with the mind, Buddhism lends itself as a rich resource to assist addiction recovery. The twelve step movement has been an impetus to making use of ideas and practices from Buddhism. In particular, mindfulness, has started to be used to support addiction recovery, with promising results. Exploration of other areas of Buddhism is beginning, and may provide additional benefit in the future.

  14. Effectiveness of a psychoeducational programme in enhancing motivation to change alcohol-addictive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Yu; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Horng, Fen-Fang; Sung, Su-Ching

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a psychoeducational programme in enhancing motivation to change alcohol-addictive behaviour. The prevalence of alcohol abuse has increased over the past 10 years, and the age of initial alcohol use has decreased gradually in Taiwan. Alcohol dependence is one of the leading causes of disability and has led to increases in the incidence of crime and violence, with alcohol abuse identified as a problem in society. A quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent pre/post-testing was used. Alcohol-dependent inpatients undergoing alcohol treatment were selected from the psychiatric ward of a teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. The effectiveness of the psychoeducational programme in enhancing motivation to change alcohol-addictive behaviour was evaluated with the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire and the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. In total, 24 and 51 participants were recruited to the experimental and control groups, respectively, for the baseline survey, and 14 and 17 were in the final survey, respectively. After adjustment for baseline survey scores, the experimental group showed significantly greater increases in recognition and ambivalence relative to those observed in the control group. The results not only showed that the psychoeducational programme was effective in reinforcing addicted inpatients' motivation for changing their drinking behaviour but also provided clinical nurses with practical methods via which to enhance patient motivation. The psychoeducational programme could assist clinical nurses in helping alcohol-dependent patients to recognise the nature of their problematic drinking; increase participants' ambivalence towards their drinking behaviour, leading to the contemplation of change; and strengthen the possibility that they will change their addictive behaviour. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hormonal and Dietary Characteristics in Obese Human Subjects with and without Food Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Pedram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of food addiction (FA is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 737 adults recruited from the general Newfoundland population, 58 food-addicted and non-food-addicted overweight/obese individuals (FAO, NFO matched for age, sex, BMI and physical activity were selected. A total of 34 neuropeptides, gut hormones, pituitary polypeptide hormones and adipokines were measured in fasting serum. We found that the FAO group had lower levels of TSH, TNF-α and amylin, but higher levels of prolactin, as compared to NFO group. The total calorie intake (per kg body weight, the dietary intake of fat (per g/kg body weight, per BMI and per percentage of trunk fat and the percent calorie intake from fat and carbohydrates (g/kg was higher in the FAO group compared to the NFO group. The FAO subjects consumed more sugar, minerals (including sodium, potassium, calcium and selenium, fat and its components (such as saturated, monounsaturated and trans fat, omega 3 and 6, vitamin D and gamma-tocopherol compared to the NFO group. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating possible differences in hormonal levels and micro-nutrient intakes between obese individuals classified with and without food addiction. The findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which FA could contribute to obesity.

  16. Behavioral addictions: a novel challenge for psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Presta, Silvio; Baroni, Stefano; Silvestri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-12-01

    Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology. It is, however, controversial whether all or at least some of them should be considered real disorders or just normal, albeit extreme, behaviors. The aim of this article is to review current data on pharmacological treatment of behavioral addictions. As no specific and validated treatment algorithms are currently available, only an improved knowledge on their psychopathological, clinical, and neurobiological features may have relevant implications for more focused preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  17. Received View of Addiction, Relapse and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndasauka, Yamikani; Wei, Zhengde; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    It is important to highlight that attempts at understanding and explaining addiction have been made for centuries. It is, however, just five decades ago, with the growth of science and technology that more interest has been observed in this field. This chapter examines different views and theories that have been posited to understand and explain addiction. More attention will be given to prominent views that seem to draw consensus among researchers and medical practitioners. The first section of the chapter introduces the addiction debate, the different theories that have been provided to explain it from different perspectives and disciplines such as neurosciences, philosophy and psychology. Then, the chapter discusses different views on the role of relapse and what it entails in understanding addiction. The second section discusses different proposed and used forms of treating addiction. Thus, the chapter discusses the received view of addiction, the understanding of relapse as a critical element in addiction and treatments.

  18. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    OpenAIRE

    A EBRAHIMI; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...

  19. Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research. Can the emerging domain of behavioral addictions bring a new reflection for the field of addictions, by stressing the issue of the context of addiction development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Timary, Philippe; Philippot, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    This paper is a commentary to the article entitled: "Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research", by Billieux, Schimmenti, Khazaal, Maurage and Heeren (2015). In this manuscript, we commented on two aspects developed by the authors. Billieux et al. (2015) propose that the recent development of propositions of behavioral addiction is driven by an unwise application of an addiction model to excessive behaviors and rests on a confirmatory research strategy that does not question the psychological processes underlying the development of the conduct. They also show that applying a process driven strategy leads to a more appropriate description of the reality of the behavior and conduct, in particular by describing a variety of motivations for the excessive behavior, which is central to understanding the nature of the conduct. We believe that this new approach, which is fruitful to the emerging domain of behavioral addictions, could also apply to the domain of addictions in general. The latter is characterized by the application of a generic biological model, largely influenced by animal models, focusing on neurophysiological determinants of addiction. This approach may have decreased the attention paid to dimensions of addictions that are more specifically human. We will firstly briefly argue on the limitation of this neurophysiological addiction model for the field of excessive behavioral conducts. Secondly, we will argue for an approach centered on the differentiation of motivations and on the adaptive dimension of the behavior when it first developed and on the evocation of a transition where the conduct became independent of its original function. The emerging domain of behavioral addictions, where no animal model has been developed so far, may bring a new reflection that may apply to the domain of addictions in general, with a specific attention to human questions.

  20. Addictive behaviors and personality traits in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munno, Donato; Saroldi, Marta; Bechon, Elisa; Sterpone, Sara Chiara Maria; Zullo, Giuseppina

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral addictions refer to repeated dysfunctional behaviors that do not involve the ingestion of addictive substances. Studies on the association between behavioral addictions and personality traits have noted in individuals with problematic behaviors a high proclivity toward impulsivity and sensation-seeking and a low predisposition to harm avoidance. The majority of these studies have focused on adults, while far fewer have involved adolescents. The study population was 109 high school students (age range 15-18 years) in Turin, Italy. Participants completed an assessment that comprised a demographic questionnaire and 3 self-report questionnaires: the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ), the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Multidimensional Questionnaire for Adolescents (QMA). A gender-related difference in the risk of developing an addictive behavior was observed, with a significantly higher percentage of risk seen for several addiction tendencies among the males. Statistically significant correlations emerged between some personality determinants and certain addictive behaviors. The study pinpoints epidemiological indicators for the extent of this growing problem among adolescents. The findings have implications for identifying protection factors and risk factors for addictive behaviors and related psychiatric disorders, and the development of primary prevention strategies derived from such factors.

  1. The dynamics of addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, Johan; Grasman, Raoul P.P.P.; Maas, van der Han L.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with addictive acts that exhibit a stable pattern not intervening with the normal routine of daily life. Nevertheless, in the long term such behaviour may result in health damage. Alcohol consumption is an example of such addictive habit. The aim is to describe the process of

  2. Transgression as addiction: religiosity and moral disapproval as predictors of perceived addiction to pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Joshua B; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I; Hook, Joshua N; Carlisle, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Perceived addiction to Internet pornography is increasingly a focus of empirical attention. The present study examined the role that religious belief and moral disapproval of pornography use play in the experience of perceived addiction to Internet pornography. Results from two studies in undergraduate samples (Study 1, N = 331; Study 2, N = 97) indicated that there was a robust positive relationship between religiosity and perceived addiction to pornography and that this relationship was mediated by moral disapproval of pornography use. These results persisted even when actual use of pornography was controlled. Furthermore, although religiosity was negatively predictive of acknowledging any pornography use, among pornography users, religiosity was unrelated to actual levels of use. A structural equation model from a web-based sample of adults (Study 3, N = 208) revealed similar results. Specifically, religiosity was robustly predictive of perceived addiction, even when relevant covariates (e.g., trait self-control, socially desirable responding, neuroticism, use of pornography) were held constant. In sum, the present study indicated that religiosity and moral disapproval of pornography use were robust predictors of perceived addiction to Internet pornography while being unrelated to actual levels of use among pornography consumers.

  3. Opioid neuroscience for addiction medicine: From animal models to FDA approval for alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrettini, Wade

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is one of the most common and devastating diseases in the world. Given the tremendous heterogeneity of alcohol-addicted individuals, it is unlikely that one medication will help nearly all patients. Thus, there is a clear need to develop predictors of response to existing medications. Naltrexone is a mu opioid receptor antagonist which has been approved in the United States for treatment of alcohol addiction since 1994. It has limited efficacy, in part due to noncompliance, but many patients do not respond despite high levels of compliance. There are reports that a mis-sense single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs179919 or A118G) in the mu opioid receptor gene predicts a favorable response to naltrexone if an individual carries a "G" allele. This chapter will review the evidence for this hypothesis. The data suggest that the "G" allele has a complex role in alcohol addiction, increasing the rewarding valence of alcohol. Whether the G allele increases risk for alcoholism and whether it predisposes to a beneficial naltrexone response among alcohol-addicted persons must await additional research with large sample sizes of multiple ethnicities in prospective clinical trials. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederhof, Esther; Jörg, Frederike; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2012-07-02

    Extensive recruitment effort at baseline increases representativeness of study populations by decreasing non-response and associated bias. First, it is not known to what extent increased attrition occurs during subsequent measurement waves among subjects who were hard-to-recruit at baseline and what characteristics the hard-to-recruit dropouts have compared to the hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, it is unknown whether characteristics of hard-to-recruit responders in a prospective population based cohort study are similar across age group and survey method. First, we compared first wave (T1) easy-to-recruit with hard-to-recruit responders of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a prospective population based cohort study of Dutch (pre)adolescents (at first wave: n = 2230, mean age = 11.09 (SD 0.56), 50.8% girls), with regard to response rates at subsequent measurement waves. Second, easy-to-recruit and hard-to-recruit participants at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (n = 1881, mean age = 19.1 (SD 0.60), 52.3% girls) were compared with fourth wave non-responders and earlier stage drop-outs on family composition, socioeconomic position (SEP), intelligence (IQ), education, sociometric status, substance use, and psychopathology. First, over 60% of the hard-to-recruit responders at the first wave were retained in the sample eight years later at the fourth measurement wave. Hard-to-recruit dropouts did not differ from hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, extensive recruitment efforts for the web based survey convinced a population of nineteen year olds with similar characteristics as the hard-to-recruit eleven year olds that were persuaded to participate in a school-based survey. Some characteristics associated with being hard-to-recruit (as compared to being easy-to-recruit) were more pronounced among non-responders, resembling the baseline situation (De Winter et al.2005). First, extensive recruitment effort at the first

  5. Examination of neural systems sub-serving facebook "addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Because addictive behaviors typically result from violated homeostasis of the impulsive (amygdala-striatal) and inhibitory (prefrontal cortex) brain systems, this study examined whether these systems sub-serve a specific case of technology-related addiction, namely Facebook "addiction." Using a go/no-go paradigm in functional MRI settings, the study examined how these brain systems in 20 Facebook users (M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.3, range = 18-23) who completed a Facebook addiction questionnaire, responded to Facebook and less potent (traffic sign) stimuli. The findings indicated that at least at the examined levels of addiction-like symptoms, technology-related "addictions" share some neural features with substance and gambling addictions, but more importantly they also differ from such addictions in their brain etiology and possibly pathogenesis, as related to abnormal functioning of the inhibitory-control brain system.

  6. Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Two Food Addiction Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshow, Adina; Gearhardt, Ashley; Genkinger, Jeanine; Corbin, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Background While food addiction is well accepted in popular culture and mainstream media, its scientific validity as an addictive behavior is still under investigation. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of the Yale Food Addiction Scale and Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale using data from two community-based convenience samples. Methods We assessed the internal and test-retest reliability of the Yale Food Addiction Scale and Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale, and estimated the sensitivity and negative predictive value of the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale using the Yale Food Addiction Scale as the benchmark. We calculated Cronbach’s alphas and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for internal reliability and Cohen’s Kappa coefficients and 95% CIs for test-retest reliability. Results Internal consistency (n=232) was marginal to good, ranging from α=0.63 to 0.84. The test-retest reliability (n=45) for food addiction diagnosis was substantial, with Kappa=0.73 (95% CI, 0.48–0.88) (Yale Food Addiction Scale) and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.66–1.00) (Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale). Sensitivity and negative predictive value for classifying food addiction status were excellent: compared to the Yale Food Addiction Scale, the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale’s sensitivity was 92.3% (95% CI, 64%–99.8%), and the negative predictive value was 99.5% (95% CI, 97.5%–100%). Conclusions Our analyses suggest that the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale may be an appropriate substitute for the Yale Food Addiction Scale when a brief measure is needed, and support the continued use of both scales to investigate food addiction. PMID:27623221

  7. Comorbid internet addiction in male clients of inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers: psychiatric symptoms and mental comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Koch, Andreas; Dickenhorst, Ulrike; Müller, Kai W

    2013-11-01

    Addictive Internet use has recently been proposed to be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Still, little is known about its nosological features, including comorbidity with other mental disorders and disorder-specific psychopathological symptoms. To investigate whether Internet addiction (IA) is an issue in patients in addiction treatment, 1826 clients were surveyed in 15 inpatient rehabilitation centers. Male patients meeting criteria for comorbid IA (n = 71) were compared with a matched control group of male patients treated for alcohol addiction without addictive Internet use (n = 58). The SCL-90-R, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder were used to assess associated psychiatric symptoms and further comorbid disorders. Comorbid IA was associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, especially depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity. Moreover, the patients with IA more frequently met criteria for additional mental disorders. They display higher rates of psychiatric symptoms, especially depression, and might be in need of additional therapeutic treatment. In rehabilitation centers, a regular screening for IA is recommended to identify patients with this (non-substance-related) addiction and supply them with additional disorder-specific treatment.

  8. Classifying Nomophobia as Smart-Phone Addiction Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    Can people become addicted to using their smart phones? To explore this possibility, this literature review summarizes previous research on smart-phone addiction, nomophobia, and addictive personality disorders. Specifically, this review defines smart-phone addiction and its symptoms along with comorbid disorders and uses disciplines from a cognitive, behavioral, neurobiological, and anthropological disciplines as evidence of its existence. Although this review also found that there is little...

  9. [Cost-effectiveness of addiction care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijkerbuijk, A W M; van Gils, P F; Greeven, P G J; de Wit, G A

    2015-01-01

    A large number of interventions are available for the treatment of addiction. Professionals need to know about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions so they can prioritise appropriate interventions for the treatment of addiction. To provide an overview of the scientific literature on the cost-effectiveness of addiction treatment for alcohol- and drug-abusers. We searched the databases Medline and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. To be relevant for our study, articles had to focus on interventions in the health-care setting, have a Western context and have a health-related outcome measure such as quality adjusted life years (QALY). Twenty-nine studies met our inclusion criteria: 15 for alcohol and 14 for drugs. The studies on alcohol addiction related mainly to brief interventions. They proved to be cost-saving or had a favourable incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), remaining below the threshold of € 20,000 per QALY. The studies on drug addiction all involved pharmacotherapeutic interventions. In the case of 10 out of 14 interventions, the ICER was less than € 20,000 per QALY. Almost all of the interventions studied were cost-saving or cost-effective. Many studies consider only health-care costs. Additional research, for instance using a social cost-benefit analysis, could provide more details about the costs of addiction and about the impact that an intervention could have in these/the costs.

  10. An Analysis on the Correlation and Gender Difference between College Students' Internet Addiction and Mobile Phone Addiction in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Su-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at constructing a correlative model between Internet addiction and mobile phone addiction; the aim is to analyse the correlation (if any) between the two traits and to discuss the influence confirming that the gender has difference on this fascinating topic; taking gender into account opens a new world of scientific study to us. The study collected 448 college students on an island as study subjects, with 61.2% males and 38.8% females. Moreover, this study issued Mobile Phone Addiction Scale and Internet Addiction Scale to conduct surveys on the participants and adopts the structural equation model (SEM) to process the collected data. According to the study result, (1) mobile phone addiction and Internet addiction are positively related; (2) female college students score higher than male ones in the aspect of mobile addiction. Lastly, this study proposes relevant suggestions to serve as a reference for schools, college students, and future studies based on the study results. PMID:25938115

  11. An Analysis on the Correlation and Gender Difference between College Students' Internet Addiction and Mobile Phone Addiction in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-I; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Su-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at constructing a correlative model between Internet addiction and mobile phone addiction; the aim is to analyse the correlation (if any) between the two traits and to discuss the influence confirming that the gender has difference on this fascinating topic; taking gender into account opens a new world of scientific study to us. The study collected 448 college students on an island as study subjects, with 61.2% males and 38.8% females. Moreover, this study issued Mobile Phone Addiction Scale and Internet Addiction Scale to conduct surveys on the participants and adopts the structural equation model (SEM) to process the collected data. According to the study result, (1) mobile phone addiction and Internet addiction are positively related; (2) female college students score higher than male ones in the aspect of mobile addiction. Lastly, this study proposes relevant suggestions to serve as a reference for schools, college students, and future studies based on the study results.

  12. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  13. Addicted to Pain: A Preliminary Model of Sexual Masochism as Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Holly; Ronel, Natti

    2017-11-01

    An exploratory, qualitative, phenomenological study focused on the experience of pain while participating in sexual masochistic acts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine individuals (four female, five male) who regularly participate in sexually masochistic acts and point to pain as central to their experience. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed several key characteristics of the participant's experience: the first time, intoxication, craving and withdrawal, tolerance, pain as control, and the pain inducing partner. The findings indicate that the way pain is experienced while mitigated through masochistic behavior creates an addictive process that coincides with a chronic behavioral spin contextualization. This article presents a preliminary model of addiction to physical pain in light of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) definition of substance-related and addictive disorders and the behavioral spin theory.

  14. Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.

    2013-01-01

    for acute lung symptoms was conducted in the children with recurrent wheeze. Seven hundred and thirty‐eight mothers were recruited from week 24 of gestation, and 700 of their children were included in the birth cohort. The cohort has an over‐representation of atopic parents. The participant satisfaction...

  15. Aberrant Learning and Memory in Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrossa, Mary M.; Corlett, Philip R.; Taylor, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, drug addiction has increasingly been accepted to be a disease of the brain as opposed to simply being due to a lack of willpower or personality flaw. Exposure to addictive substances has been shown to create enduring changes in brain structure and function that are thought to underlie the transition to addiction. Specific genetic and environmental vulnerability factors also influence the impact of drugs of abuse on the brain and can enhance the likelihood of becoming an addict. Long-lasting alterations in brain function have been found in neural circuits that are known to be responsible for normal appetitive learning and memory processes and it has been hypothesized that drugs of abuse enhance positive learning and memory about the drug while inhibiting learning about the negative consequences of drug use. Therefore, the addict's behavior becomes increasingly directed towards obtaining and using drugs of abuse, while at the same time developing a poorer ability to stop using, even when the drug is less rewarding or interferes with functioning in other facets of life. In this review we will discuss the clinical evidence that addicted individuals have altered learning and memory and describe the possible neural substrates of this dysfunction. In addition, we will explore the preclinical evidence that drugs of abuse cause a progressive disorder of learning and memory, review the molecular and neurobiological changes that may underlie this disorder, determine the genetic and environmental factors that may increase vulnerability to addiction, and suggest potential strategies for treating addiction through manipulations of learning and memory. PMID:21376820

  16. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chang, Li-Ren; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria. We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist's structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists' clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy. Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1) six symptom criteria, (2) four functional impairment criteria and (3) exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%), while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use. The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms "impaired control" paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.

  17. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria.We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist's structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists' clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy.Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1 six symptom criteria, (2 four functional impairment criteria and (3 exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%, while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use.The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms "impaired control" paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.

  18. Sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity and plasma biomarkers for cocaine addiction in abstinent cocaine-addicted subjects in outpatient settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ePEDRAZ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are sex differences in the progression of drug addiction, relapse and response to therapies. Because biological factors participate in these differences, they should be considered when using biomarkers for addiction. In the current study, we evaluated the sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity and the concentrations of plasma mediators that have been reported to be affected by cocaine.Fifty-five abstinent cocaine-addicted subjects diagnosed with lifetime cocaine use disorders (40 men and 15 women and 73 healthy controls (48 men and 25 women were clinically assessed with the diagnostic interview ‘Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders’. Plasma concentrations of chemokines, cytokines, N-acyl-ethanolamines and 2-acyl-glycerols were analyzed according to history of cocaine addiction and sex.The results showed that the chemokine concentrations of CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL12/SDF-1 were only affected by history of cocaine addiction. The plasma concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNFα were higher in control women relative to men, but these concentrations were reduced in cocaine-addicted women. Cytokine concentrations were unaltered in addicted men. Regarding fatty acid derivatives, history of cocaine addiction had a main effect on the concentration of each acyl derivative; whereas N-acyl-ethanolamines were increased overall in the cocaine group, 2-acyl-glycerols were decreased. Interestingly, POEA was only increased in cocaine-addicted women.Regarding psychiatric comorbidity in the cocaine group, women had lower incidence rates of comorbid substance use disorders than did men. For example, alcohol use disorders were found in 80% of men and 40% of women. In contrast, the addicted women had increased prevalences of comorbid psychiatric disorders (mood, anxiety and psychosis disorders.These results demonstrate the existence of a sex influence on plasma biomarkers for cocaine addiction and on the presence of

  19. How to Recover from a Brain Disease: Is Addiction a Disease, or Is there a Disease-like Stage in Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoek, Anke

    2017-01-01

    People struggling with addiction are neither powerless over their addiction, nor are they fully in control. Lewis vigorously objects to the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), because it makes people lose belief in their self-efficacy, and hence hinders their recovery. Although he acknowledges that there is a compulsive state in addiction, he objects to the claim that this compulsion is carved in stone. Lewis argues that the BDMA underestimates the agency of addicted people, and hence hinder their recovery. Lewis's work offers us a very much to be welcomed neurobiology of recovery. It offers addicted people a hopeful and respectful narrative for their recovery that treats them as agents rather than as damaged brains. However, I argue that overestimating people's agency can also result in people losing belief in their self-efficacy. Lewis's strong focus on the agency of addicted people might not match their experiences of struggle, hence reinforcing their feelings of guilt when they fail to control their use. I propose to replace the notion of addiction as a disease with a notion of a disease-like stage in addiction. I call this stage the duress stage in addiction, in which the addictive behaviour is largely impervious to the agent's values and to available techniques of self-control. However, the agent can overcome this stage by developing new techniques of self-control, by building on their self-concept and belief in self-efficacy, by changing their environments and habits, and by engaging in projects that are meaningful to the agent.

  20. Computer games addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Nejepínský, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the problem of computer games addiction. The attention is paid mainly to on-line games for more players. The purpose of this thesis was to describe this problem and to check - through questionnaire investigation - if the addiction to computer games and the impacts connected with the games really deserve excessive experts and laics attention. The thesis has two parts -- theoretical and practical ones. The theoretical part describes the possibilities of diagnosin...

  1. Internet Addiction in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebisz, Slawomir; Sikora, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    The possibilities offered by the use of the Internet increasingly intensify the problem of Internet addiction, which has become more prevalent in the last decade, marked by the growing availability of mobile devices and new media and their exacerbation of the problem. Research on Internet addiction, initiated by Kimberly Young at the end of the…

  2. Time distortion associated with smartphone addiction: Identifying smartphone addiction via a mobile application (App).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Po-Hsien; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Chang, Li-Ren; Tseng, Hsien-Wei; Yen, Liang-Yu; Yang, Cheryl C H; Kuo, Terry B J

    2015-06-01

    Global smartphone penetration has brought about unprecedented addictive behaviors. We report a proposed diagnostic criteria and the designing of a mobile application (App) to identify smartphone addiction. We used a novel empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to delineate the trend in smartphone use over one month. The daily use count and the trend of this frequency are associated with smartphone addiction. We quantify excessive use by daily use duration and frequency, as well as the relationship between the tolerance symptoms and the trend for the median duration of a use epoch. The psychiatrists' assisted self-reporting use time is significant lower than and the recorded total smartphone use time via the App and the degree of underestimation was positively correlated with actual smartphone use. Our study suggests the identification of smartphone addiction by diagnostic interview and via the App-generated parameters with EMD analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  4. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin

    2006-01-01

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further

  5. Recruitment and enrollment of African Americans into health promoting programs: the effects of health promoting programs on cardiovascular disease risk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhomina, Victoria I; Seals, Samantha R; Marshall, Gailen D

    2018-04-03

    Randomized controlled trials (RCT) often employ multiple recruitment methods to attract participants, however, special care must be taken to be inclusive of under-represented populations. We examine how recruiting from an existing observational study affected the recruitment of African Americans into a RCT that included yoga-based interventions. In particular, we report the recruitment success of The Effects of Health Promoting Programs (HPP) on Cardiovascular Disease Risk (NCT02019953), the first yoga-based clinical trial to focus only on African Americans. To recruit participants, a multifaceted recruitment strategy was implemented exclusively in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) cohort. The HPP recruited from the JHS cohort using direct mailings, signs and flyers placed around JHS study facilities, and through JHS annual follow-up interviews. Enrollment into HPP was open to all active JHS participants that were eligible to return for the third clinic exam (n = 4644). The target sample size was 375 JHS participants over a 24 month recruitment and enrollment period. From the active members of the JHS cohort, 503 were pre-screened for eligibility in HPP. More than 90% of those pre-screened were provisionally eligible for the study. The enrollment goal of 375 was completed after a 16-month enrollment period with over 25% (n = 97) of the required sample size enrolling during the second month of recruitment. The findings show that participants in observational studies can be successfully recruited into RCT. Observational studies provide researchers with a well-defined population that may be of interest when designing clinical trials. This is particularly useful in the recruitment of a high-risk, traditionally underrepresented populations for non-pharmacological clinical trials where traditional recruitment methods may prolong enrollment periods and extend study budgets.

  6. Internet addiction: reappraisal of an increasingly inadequate concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-02-01

    This article re-examines the popular concept of Internet addiction, discusses the key problems associated with it, and proposes possible alternatives. The concept of Internet addiction is inadequate for several reasons. Addiction may be a correct designation only for the minority of individuals who meet the general criteria for addiction, and it needs to be better demarcated from various patterns of excessive or abnormal use. Addiction to the Internet as a medium does not exist, although the Internet as a medium may play an important role in making some behaviors addictive. The Internet can no longer be separated from other potentially overused media, such as text messaging and gaming platforms. Internet addiction is conceptually too heterogeneous because it pertains to a variety of very different behaviors. Internet addiction should be replaced by terms that refer to the specific behaviors (eg, gaming, gambling, or sexual activity), regardless of whether these are performed online or offline.

  7. Internet addiction: Prevalence and relation with mental states in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Ochi, Marina; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    Internet addiction disrupts the daily lives of adolescents. We investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction in junior high school students, elucidated the relation between Internet addiction and mental states, and determined the factors associated with Internet addiction in adolescents. Junior high school students (aged 12-15 years) were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Japanese version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and a questionnaire on access to electronic devices. Based on total IAT scores, 2.0% (male, 2.1%; female, 1.9%) and 21.7% (male, 19.8%; female, 23.6%) of the total 853 participants (response rate, 97.6%) were classified as addicted and possibly addicted, respectively. Total GHQ scores were significantly higher in the addicted (12.9 ± 7.4) and possibly addicted groups (8.8 ± 6.0) than in the non-addicted group (4.3 ± 4.6; P addicted group than in the non-addicted group. Further, accessibility to smartphones was significantly associated with Internet addiction. Students in the addicted and possibly addicted groups were considered 'problematic' Internet users. Use of smartphones warrants special attention, being among the top factors contributing to Internet addiction. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  8. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  9. Video game addiction in emerging adulthood: Cross-sectional evidence of pathology in video game addicts as compared to matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Laura; Coyne, Sarah M

    2018-01-01

    The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS) is a widely used measure of video game addiction, a pathology affecting a small percentage of all people who play video games. Emerging adult males are significantly more likely to be video game addicts. Few researchers have examined how people who qualify as video game addicts based on the IGDS compared to matched controls based on age, gender, race, and marital status. The current study compared IGDS video game addicts to matched non-addicts in terms of their mental, physical, social-emotional health using self-report, survey methods. Addicts had poorer mental health and cognitive functioning including poorer impulse control and ADHD symptoms compared to controls. Additionally, addicts displayed increased emotional difficulties including increased depression and anxiety, felt more socially isolated, and were more likely to display internet pornography pathological use symptoms. Female video game addicts were at unique risk for negative outcomes. The sample for this study was undergraduate college students and self-report measures were used. Participants who met the IGDS criteria for video game addiction displayed poorer emotional, physical, mental, and social health, adding to the growing evidence that video game addictions are a valid phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Addiction and depression comorbidity approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnić Katarina A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic: Comorbidities, simultaneous occurrence of two or more disorders are common in psychiatry; therefore the concept of dual diagnosis was established due to new ethiopatogenetic dilemmas and principles of diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. The most common are comorbid affective disorders and comorbidity of drug addictions and affective disorders. Topic position in medical public: Epidemiological studies show a high percentage of comorbidity of drug addictions and depression. Various studies show that about one-third of individuals with depression have addiction, and often some other psychiatric disorders are present, such as personality disorder, anxiety, and bipolar affective disorder. Comorbid disorders exacerbate one another; have tendencies to chronicity and treatment resistance. The problem of adequate diagnosis is common; other diagnosis is neglected, leading to inadequate treatment and poor outcomes. Researches of possible causes of addiction and depression comorbidity follow different theoretical assumptions. One favor genetically determined vulnerability, the others are addressing to the impact of trauma in the formative stages of personality development. Widespread is the theoretical assumption on the deficit functioning of the same regions of the CNS and the same neurotransmitters system. In previous studies the preclinical ones dominate, which are theoretically placed in the context of the CNS of a man. Most of the research are related to dysfunction of the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, whose influence on addiction and depression are clear, and recent studies show the importance of neuromodulators and their receptors, for example, the role of natural opioid dynorphin and 'kappa' receptors in the mesolimbic reward system. Further action: The better diagnosis would require proper screening of patients entering addiction treatments for affective disorders and vice versa. Treatment have to be combined; in addition

  11. The Prevalence of Food Addiction as Assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly M. Pursey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS has been developed to specifically assess food addiction. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of food addiction diagnosis and symptom scores, as assessed by the YFAS. Published studies to July 2014 were included if they reported the YFAS diagnosis or symptom score and were published in the English language. Twenty-five studies were identified including a total of 196,211 predominantly female, overweight/obese participants (60%. Using meta-analysis, the weighted mean prevalence of YFAS food addiction diagnosis was 19.9%. Food addiction (FA diagnosis was found to be higher in adults aged >35 years, females, and overweight/obese participants. Additionally, YFAS diagnosis and symptom score was higher in clinical samples compared to non-clinical counterparts. YFAS outcomes were related to a range of other eating behavior measures and anthropometrics. Further research is required to explore YFAS outcomes across a broader spectrum of ages, other types of eating disorders and in conjunction with weight loss interventions to confirm the efficacy of the tool to assess for the presence of FA.

  12. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  13. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking.

  14. Impact of health literacy on depressive symptoms and mental health-related: quality of life among adults with addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Alisa; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Cheng, Debbie M; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Caruso, Christine; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2006-08-01

    Health literacy has been linked to health status in a variety of chronic diseases. However, evidence for a relationship between health literacy and mental health outcomes is sparse. We hypothesized that low literacy would be associated with higher addiction severity, higher levels of depressive symptoms, and worse mental health functioning compared with those with higher literacy in adults with alcohol and drug dependence. The association of literacy with multiple mental health outcomes was assessed using multivariable analyses. Measurement instruments included the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, the Mental Component Summary scale of the Short Form Health Survey, and the Addiction Severity Index for drug and alcohol addiction. Subjects included 380 adults recruited during detoxification treatment and followed prospectively at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Based on the REALM, subjects were classified as having either low ( or = 9th grade) literacy levels. In longitudinal analyses, low literacy was associated with more depressive symptoms. The adjusted mean difference in CES-D scores between low and high literacy levels was 4 (Pmental health-related quality of life or addiction severity. In people with alcohol and drug dependence, low literacy is associated with worse depressive symptoms. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between literacy and mental health outcomes should be explored to inform future intervention efforts.

  15. Addiction is Not a Natural Kind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Michael Pober

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available I argue that addiction is not an appropriate category to support generalizations for the purposes of scientific prediction. That is, addiction is not a natural kind. I discuss the Homeostatic Property Cluster theory of kinds, according to which members of a kind share a cluster of properties generated by a common mechanism or set of mechanisms. Leading accounts of addiction in literature fail to offer a mechanism that explains addiction across substances. I discuss popular variants of the disease conception and demonstrate that at least one class of substances that fails to confirm a major prediction of each account. When no mechanism can be found to explain the occurrence of the relevant properties in members of a category, the HPC view suggests that we revise our categories. I discuss options offered by the HPC view, including category revision and category replacement. I then conclude that talk of addiction as a prediction-supporting category should be replaced with categories such as ‘S-addiction’ and ‘T-addiction,’ where S and T are substances or sets of substances of abuse, as these categories are genuine natural kinds.

  16. Addiction is Not a Natural Kind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pober, Jeremy Michael

    2013-01-01

    I argue that addiction is not an appropriate category to support generalizations for the purposes of scientific prediction. That is, addiction is not a natural kind. I discuss the Homeostatic Property Cluster (HPC) theory of kinds, according to which members of a kind share a cluster of properties generated by a common mechanism or set of mechanisms. Leading accounts of addiction in literature fail to offer a mechanism that explains addiction across substances. I discuss popular variants of the disease conception and demonstrate that at least one class of substances that fails to confirm a major prediction of each account. When no mechanism can be found to explain the occurrence of the relevant properties in members of a category, the HPC view suggests that we revise our categories. I discuss options offered by the HPC view, including category revision and category replacement. I then conclude that talk of addiction as a prediction-supporting category should be replaced with categories such as “S-addiction” and “T-addiction,” where S and T are substances or sets of substances of abuse, as these categories are genuine natural kinds. PMID:24109458

  17. Neuroscience of behavioral and pharmacological treatments for addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Although substantial advances have been made in behavioral and pharmacological treatments for addictions, moving treatment development to the next stage may require novel ways of approaching addictions, particularly those derived from new findings regarding of the neurobiological underpinnings of addictions, while assimilating and incorporating relevant information from earlier approaches. In this review, we first briefly review theoretical and biological models of addiction and then describe existing behavioral and pharmacologic therapies for the addictions within this framework. We then propose new directions for treatment development and targets that are informed by recent evidence regarding the heterogeneity of addictions and the neurobiological contributions to these disorders. PMID:21338880

  18. Drug addiction and social discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos Canabarro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the various discursive positions found in the phenomenon of addiction. The relations these discursive positions establish with the discourses of the master, the hysteric, the university and the capitalist are discussed. By analyzing material from clinical listening at a public outpatient drug and alcohol rehab center, it was seen that addiction can be described in different discourses. This article shows that the shift of focus from the symptom to the discursive position of the subject is an indicator for the clinical treatment of addiction.

  19. Considering the Definition of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Sussman, Alan N.

    2011-01-01

    The definition of addiction is explored. Elements of addiction derived from a literature search that uncovered 52 studies include: (a) engagement in the behavior to achieve appetitive effects, (b) preoccupation with the behavior, (c) temporary satiation, (d) loss of control, and (e) suffering negative consequences. Differences from compulsions are suggested. While there is some debate on what is intended by the elements of addictive behavior, we conclude that these five constituents provide a reasonable understanding of what is intended by the concept. Conceptual challenges for future research are mentioned. PMID:22073026

  20. Cocaine addiction: the hidden dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, L M

    1989-06-01

    There is growing awareness within the nursing profession that nurses need to expand their knowledge about addiction and develop expertise in providing care for substance abusing clients. This report presents a discussion about cocaine abuse that is focused on evolving knowledge about the physiology of addiction. Researchers have recently described cocaine-induced neurochemical changes in the brain that may form the underpinnings for the behavioral manifestations and symptomatology that have been associated with cocaine addiction. These neurochemical alterations are described at the cellular level, and treatment implications for nurses are presented.

  1. Food Addiction and Bulimia Nervosa: New Data Based on the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sarah-Kristin; Meule, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Previous research on 'food addiction' as measured with the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) showed a large overlap between addiction-like eating and bulimia nervosa. Most recently, a revised version of the YFAS has been developed according to the changes made in the diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition. The current study examined prevalence and correlates of the YFAS2.0 in individuals with bulimia (n = 115) and controls (n = 341). Ninety-six per cent of participants with bulimia and 14% of controls received a YFAS2.0 diagnosis. A higher number of YFAS2.0 symptoms was associated with lower interoceptive awareness, higher depressiveness, and higher impulsivity in both groups. However, a higher number of YFAS2.0 symptoms was associated with higher body mass and weight suppression in controls only and not in participants with bulimia. The current study is the first to show a large overlap between bulimia and 'food addiction' as measured with the YFAS2.0, replicating and extending findings from studies, which used the previous version of the YFAS. Compensatory weight control behaviours in individuals with bulimia likely alleviate the association between addiction-like eating and higher body mass. Thus, the large overlap between bulimia and 'food addiction' should be taken into consideration when examining the role of addiction-like eating in weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  2. A new insight into food addiction in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Alev; Yüksel, Ayşegül; Yeşiltepe-Mutlu, Gül; Bayhan, Asuman; Özsu, Elif; Hatun, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled eating behavior in obese subjects is very similar to behavior in food addiction, suggesting a relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between childhood obesity and food addiction and to determine the frequency of food addiction among obese children and adolescents. The study included 100 overweight and obese children. Food addiction was evaluated by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The cutoff value for food addiction was defined as the presence of 3 or more symptoms. Participants were between 10 and 18 years of age; 63% were girls. Of the participants, 71% had food addiction. The most addictive foods were chocolate, ice cream, carbonated beverages, French fries, white bread, rice, candy, chips and pasta, in decreasing order of frequency. Experiencing a frequent feeling of hunger was associated with a 2.2-fold increase in food addiction risk, while consumption of French fries ≥1-2 times per week was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk (pfood addiction plays an important role in childhood obesity. Evaluation of food addiction in more detail may open a new perspective on the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  3. The symbolic constitution of addiction: language, alienation, ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Ryan

    2012-07-01

    The author offers an articulation of addiction, via existential-phenomenology and Lacanian psychoanalysis, where it is argued that the addicted subject is constituted via a symbolic structuring evolving from societal practices, laws and the effects of language. Language carries a heritage, which bears on the knowledge and practices of designated subjects and practitioners of that discourse. Addiction, as one particular form of embodied existence and knowledgeable practice, finds expression through the speech and habits of the addict. Addiction, it is argued, is symbolically saturated with ambivalence and alienation. Also the addict is described as the complete modern technocratic subject, consumed by the ideology of consumption. The clinical implications are briefly explored where it is noted that two major approaches to addiction, namely 12-step fellowships and motivational interviewing, both attend to language as a critical component of their treatment approach.

  4. Effectiveness and Organization of Addiction Medicine Training Across the Globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu, Astri Parawita; Schellekens, Arnt F A; Iskandar, Shelly; Pinxten, Lucas; De Jong, Cor A J

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, addiction medicine training curricula have been developed to prepare physicians to work with substance use disorder patients. This review paper aimed at (1) summarizing scientific publications that outline the content of addiction medicine curricula and (2) evaluating the evidence for efficacy for training in addiction medicine. We carried out a literature search on articles about addiction medicine training initiatives across the world, using PubMed, PsychINFO and EMBASE with the following search terms 'substance abuse, addiction medicine, education and training.' We found 29 articles on addiction medicine curricula at various academic levels. Nine studies reported on the need for addiction medicine training, 9 described addiction medicine curricula at various academic levels, and 11 described efficacy on addiction medicine curricula. Several key competences in addiction medicine were identified. Efficacy studies show that even short addiction medicine training programs can be effective in improving knowledge, skills and attitudes related to addiction medicine. A more uniform approach to addiction medicine training in terms of content and accreditation is discussed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. [Internet- and computer game addiction: phenomenology, comorbidity, etiology, diagnostics and therapeutic implications for the addictives and their relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peukert, Peter; Sieslack, Sonja; Barth, Gottfried; Batra, Anil

    2010-07-01

    Excessive and addictive internet use and computer game playing is reported as an increasing problem in outpatient care. The aim of this paper is to give an overview about the current scientific discussion of the overuse and addiction of internet and computer game playing. Pubmed was used for a systematic literature research considering original papers and review articles dealing with Internet/computer game addiction. Recent epidemiological data from Germany suggest that 1.5-3.5 % of adolescent computer and internet users show signs of an overuse or addictive use of computer and video games. Moreover there is evidence that the disorder is associated with higher rates of depression, anxiety, as well as lower achievements e. g. at school. Although the nosological assignment still remains unclear there is some evidence from neurobiological data that the disorder can be conceptualized as behavioral addiction. As treatment strategy CBT-techniques have been proposed, but there is still a lack of controlled clinical trials concerning their efficacy. Since the addicted persons often show little motivation for a behavioural change we consider it a promising approach to treat and train their relatives with the aim of increasing the motivation for a behavioural change of the addicted person.

  6. Addiction and choice: Theory and new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene M Heyman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Addiction’s biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word compulsive identifies patterns of behavior. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. Research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by age thirty, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run. This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction.

  7. Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research. Excessive behaviors are not necessarily addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2015-09-01

    The commentary aims to provide clarity to the article "Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research." We provide another viewpoint for the important issues of behavior addiction. The course of behavior addiction should be further studied. The criteria of withdrawal and tolerance of behavior addiction are ill-defined and need to be further evaluated. The etiology, course, presentation, and functional impairment of behavior addiction should be validated by evidence-based data before being defined as a disorder.

  8. Meanings & motives. Experts debating tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Ling, Pamela M

    2008-10-01

    Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a "habituation" in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately.

  9. Identifying and ranking implicit leadership strategies to promote evidence-based practice implementation in addiction health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Padwa, Howard; Fenwick, Karissa; Harris, Lesley M; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-05-14

    Despite a solid research base supporting evidence-based practices (EBPs) for addiction treatment such as contingency management and medication-assisted treatment, these services are rarely implemented and delivered in community-based addiction treatment programs in the USA. As a result, many clients do not benefit from the most current and efficacious treatments, resulting in reduced quality of care and compromised treatment outcomes. Previous research indicates that addiction program leaders play a key role in supporting EBP adoption and use. The present study expanded on this previous work to identify strategies that addiction treatment program leaders report using to implement new practices. We relied on a staged and iterative mixed-methods approach to achieve the following four goals: (a) collect data using focus groups and semistructured interviews and conduct analyses to identify implicit managerial strategies for implementation, (b) use surveys to quantitatively rank strategy effectiveness, (c) determine how strategies fit with existing theories of organizational management and change, and (d) use a consensus group to corroborate and expand on the results of the previous three stages. Each goal corresponded to a methodological phase, which included data collection and analytic approaches to identify and evaluate leadership interventions that facilitate EBP implementation in community-based addiction treatment programs. Findings show that the top-ranked strategies involved the recruitment and selection of staff members receptive to change, offering support and requesting feedback during the implementation process, and offering in vivo and hands-on training. Most strategies corresponded to emergent implementation leadership approaches that also utilize principles of transformational and transactional leadership styles. Leadership behaviors represented orientations such as being proactive to respond to implementation needs, supportive to assist staff members

  10. Notions of Video Game Addiction and Their Relation to Self-Reported Addiction among Players of World of Warcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggins, Jean; Sammis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 438 players of the online video game, World of Warcraft, completed a survey about video game addiction and answered an open-ended question about behaviors they considered characteristic of video game addiction. Responses were coded and correlated with players' self-reports of being addicted to games and scores on a modified video…

  11. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  12. [The Concept and Treatment of Internet Addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsalhy, Muhammad; Muramatsu, Taro; Higuchi, Susumu; Mimura, Masaru

    2016-10-01

    The Internet now plays a very important role in our lives. However, for some people, Internet use can lead to a state that appears to meet the DSM definition for a mental disorder. In this review, we briefly discuss definition, symptoms, risk factors, prevalence, comorbidities, and personality traits of people who are susceptible to becoming addicts. In the second section of the article, various types of Internet addiction are discussed, focusing mainly on Internet Gaming Disorder and social networking survices (SNS) addiction. Regarding Internet Gaming Disorder, we discuss various types of the newly emerged Massive Multiplayer Online Games (MMO), as well as theories about why people become addicted to them. We do the same for the SNS Addiction for sites like Facebook and LINE; again, different types, as well as theories about why some people become addicts to such sites are discussed. Finally, preventive measures are introduced, focusing on a number of commonly used treatment methods, perticulary cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy.

  13. The Genetics, Neurogenetics and Pharmacogenetics of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Catherine H; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana

    2014-03-01

    Addictions are prevalent psychiatric disorders that confer remarkable personal and social burden. Despite substantial evidence for their moderate, yet robust, heritability (approx. 50%), specific genetic mechanisms underlying their development and maintenance remain unclear. The goal of this selective review is to highlight progress in unveiling the genetic underpinnings of addiction. First, we revisit the basis for heritable variation in addiction before reviewing the most replicable candidate gene findings and emerging signals from genomewide association studies for alcohol, nicotine and cannabis addictions. Second, we survey the modest but growing field of neurogenetics examining how genetic variation influences corticostriatal structure, function, and connectivity to identify neural mechanisms that may underlie associations between genetic variation and addiction. Third, we outline how extant genomic findings are being used to develop and refine pharmacotherapies. Finally, as sample sizes for genetically informed studies of addiction approach critical mass, we posit five exciting possibilities that may propel further discovery (improved phenotyping, rare variant discovery, gene-environment interplay, epigenetics, and novel neuroimaging designs).

  14. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  15. Addiction and brain reward and antireward pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Eliot L

    2011-01-01

    Addictive drugs have in common that they are voluntarily self-administered by laboratory animals (usually avidly), and that they enhance the functioning of the reward circuitry of the brain (producing the 'high' that the drug user seeks). The core reward circuitry consists of an 'in-series' circuit linking the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum via the medial forebrain bundle. Although originally believed to simply encode the set point of hedonic tone, these circuits are now believed to be functionally far more complex, also encoding attention, expectancy of reward, disconfirmation of reward expectancy, and incentive motivation. 'Hedonic dysregulation' within these circuits may lead to addiction. The 'second-stage' dopaminergic component in this reward circuitry is the crucial addictive-drug-sensitive component. All addictive drugs have in common that they enhance (directly or indirectly or even transsynaptically) dop-aminergic reward synaptic function in the nucleus accumbens. Drug self-administration is regulated by nucleus accumbens dopamine levels, and is done to keep nucleus accumbens dopamine within a specific elevated range (to maintain a desired hedonic level). For some classes of addictive drugs (e.g. opiates), tolerance to the euphoric effects develops with chronic use. Postuse dysphoria then comes to dominate reward circuit hedonic tone, and addicts no longer use drugs to get high, but simply to get back to normal ('get straight'). The brain circuits mediating the pleasurable effects of addictive drugs are anatomically, neurophysiologically and neurochemically different from those mediating physical dependence, and from those mediating craving and relapse. There are important genetic variations in vulnerability to drug addiction, yet environmental factors such as stress and social defeat also alter brain-reward mechanisms in such a manner as to impart vulnerability to addiction. In short, the 'bio-psycho-social' model of

  16. [Game addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of β band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The α band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent.

  17. Addiction and treatment experiences among active methamphetamine users recruited from a township community in Cape Town, South Africa: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Towe, Sheri L; Watt, Melissa H; Lion, Ryan R; Myers, Bronwyn; Skinner, Donald; Kimani, Stephen; Pieterse, Desiree

    2015-07-01

    Since 2000, there has been a dramatic increase in methamphetamine use in South Africa, but little is known about the experiences of out-of-treatment users. This mixed-methods study describes the substance use histories, addiction symptoms, and treatment experiences of a community-recruited sample of methamphetamine users in Cape Town. Using respondent driven sampling, 360 methamphetamine users (44% female) completed structured clinical interviews to assess substance abuse and treatment history and computerized surveys to assess drug-related risks. A sub-sample of 30 participants completed in-depth interviews to qualitatively explore experiences with methamphetamine use and drug treatment. Participants had used methamphetamine for an average of 7.06 years (SD=3.64). They reported using methamphetamine on an average of 23.49 of the past 30 days (SD=8.90); 60% used daily. The majority (90%) met ICD-10 criteria for dependence, and many reported severe social, financial, and legal consequences. While only 10% had ever received drug treatment, 90% reported that they wanted treatment. In the qualitative interviews, participants reported multiple barriers to treatment, including beliefs that treatment is ineffective and relapse is inevitable in their social context. They also identified important motivators, including desires to be drug free and improve family functioning. This study yields valuable information to more effectively respond to emerging methamphetamine epidemics in South Africa and other low- and middle-income countries. Interventions to increase uptake of evidence-based services must actively seek out drug users and build motivation for treatment, and offer continuing care services to prevent relapse. Community education campaigns are also needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Relationship between Compulsive Behaviour and Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosita Cecilia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of behavioural and emotional problems among university students is due to Internet Addiction (Alavi et al. 2012, Rusconi et al. 2012. In 2013 a survey is conducted on a sample of 532 students of University of L’Aquila. The purpose is to investigate Internet use patterns and the correlation between Internet Addiction disorder and compulsive behaviour. Two self-administered questionnaires are used: the Internet Addiction Test and the Cognitive Behavioural Assessment 2.0. 517 students show signs of Internet Addiction, which is moderate for 31% of respondents and severe for 1% of them. 5% shows intrusive thoughts and compulsive behaviours. The symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder are statistically associated with Internet Addiction (chi² test=23.53, p=0.000. Among young people there is a relationship between compulsive behaviour and Internet Addiction. This relationship has significant effects on treatment of Internet Addiction.

  19. Insight into nicotine addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Handa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the epidemic of nicotine addiction in India and other nations is a global public health tragedy of untoward proportions. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Smoking-caused disease is a consequence of exposure to toxins in tobacco smoke and addiction to nicotine is the proximate cause of these diseases. This article focuses on nicotine as a determinant of addiction to tobacco and the pharmacologic effects of nicotine that sustain cigarette smoking. The pharmacologic reasons for nicotine use are an enhancement of mood, either directly or through relief of withdrawal symptoms and augmentation of mental or physical functions. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5A's and 5R's approach and pharmacotherapy. Dental professionals play an important role in helping patients to quit tobacco at the community and national levels, to promote tobacco prevention and control nicotine addiction. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care.

  20. Addiction: beyond dopamine reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S; Tomasi, Dardo; Telang, Frank

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  1. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  2. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  3. The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Gjertsen, Siri Renate; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Kvam, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-06-01

    Aims Although relationships between addiction and personality have previously been explored, no study has ever simultaneously investigated the interrelationships between several behavioral addictions, and related these to the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Methods In this study, 218 university students completed questionnaires assessing seven different behavioral addictions (i.e., Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction) as well as an instrument assessing the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Results Of the 21 bivariate intercorrelations between the seven behavioral addictions, all were positive (and nine significantly). The results also showed that (i) Neuroticism was positively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction, (ii) Extroversion was positively associated with Facebook addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, (iii) Openness to experience was negatively associated with Facebook addiction and mobile phone addiction, (iv) Agreeableness was negatively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, and (v) Conscientiousness was negatively associated with Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, and compulsive buying and positively associated with exercise addiction and study addiction. Conclusions The positive associations between the seven behavioral addictions suggest one or several underlying pathological factors. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that personality traits explained between 6% and 17% of the variance in the seven behavioral addictions, suggesting that personality to a varying degree explains scores on measures of addictive behaviors.

  4. Opiate addiction in Republic of Srpska: Characteristics and etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niškanović Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opiate addiction is a significant social and health problem with a negative impact on individuals' health and their social environment. The aim of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of opiate addicts in order to determine the social and contextual factors underlying the development of addiction. All health care facilities and therapeutic communities which provide care and help addicts are required to fill in the Form of treated addicts. The analysis included people who sought treatment during the period from 25th November 2010 to 21st May 2013 in health care facilities and associations for substance abuse treatment in the Republic of Srpska. The majority of treated addicts belong to opiate addiction (N= 241: 91%. Opiate addicts are mostly males (88.8%, while 11.2% of treated opiate addicts are female. The highest percentage of opiate addicts live in urban areas (86.7%, have secondary education (73.4%, 63.3% are unemployed, while 70.5% live with primary family. Predominant etiologic factor for the development of addiction is peer or partner pressure (29%, pathology of the family as family breakdown or alcoholism (19.3%, while on the third place is low self control (16.8%. For 19.1% of opiate addicts, delinquent behavior started before taking any drugs. The presented data confirms the importance of social environment, like low family control and presence of family pathology. The mentioned factors in combination with negative peer pressure can lead to risky behavior and potential addiction.

  5. Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. The TRAILS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nederhof Esther

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive recruitment effort at baseline increases representativeness of study populations by decreasing non-response and associated bias. First, it is not known to what extent increased attrition occurs during subsequent measurement waves among subjects who were hard-to-recruit at baseline and what characteristics the hard-to-recruit dropouts have compared to the hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, it is unknown whether characteristics of hard-to-recruit responders in a prospective population based cohort study are similar across age group and survey method. Methods First, we compared first wave (T1 easy-to-recruit with hard-to-recruit responders of the TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS, a prospective population based cohort study of Dutch (preadolescents (at first wave: n = 2230, mean age = 11.09 (SD 0.56, 50.8% girls, with regard to response rates at subsequent measurement waves. Second, easy-to-recruit and hard-to-recruit participants at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (n = 1881, mean age = 19.1 (SD 0.60, 52.3% girls were compared with fourth wave non-responders and earlier stage drop-outs on family composition, socioeconomic position (SEP, intelligence (IQ, education, sociometric status, substance use, and psychopathology. Results First, over 60% of the hard-to-recruit responders at the first wave were retained in the sample eight years later at the fourth measurement wave. Hard-to-recruit dropouts did not differ from hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, extensive recruitment efforts for the web based survey convinced a population of nineteen year olds with similar characteristics as the hard-to-recruit eleven year olds that were persuaded to participate in a school-based survey. Some characteristics associated with being hard-to-recruit (as compared to being easy-to-recruit were more pronounced among non-responders, resembling the baseline situation (De Winter et al.2005

  6. Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. The TRAILS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Extensive recruitment effort at baseline increases representativeness of study populations by decreasing non-response and associated bias. First, it is not known to what extent increased attrition occurs during subsequent measurement waves among subjects who were hard-to-recruit at baseline and what characteristics the hard-to-recruit dropouts have compared to the hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, it is unknown whether characteristics of hard-to-recruit responders in a prospective population based cohort study are similar across age group and survey method. Methods First, we compared first wave (T1) easy-to-recruit with hard-to-recruit responders of the TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a prospective population based cohort study of Dutch (pre)adolescents (at first wave: n = 2230, mean age = 11.09 (SD 0.56), 50.8% girls), with regard to response rates at subsequent measurement waves. Second, easy-to-recruit and hard-to-recruit participants at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (n = 1881, mean age = 19.1 (SD 0.60), 52.3% girls) were compared with fourth wave non-responders and earlier stage drop-outs on family composition, socioeconomic position (SEP), intelligence (IQ), education, sociometric status, substance use, and psychopathology. Results First, over 60% of the hard-to-recruit responders at the first wave were retained in the sample eight years later at the fourth measurement wave. Hard-to-recruit dropouts did not differ from hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, extensive recruitment efforts for the web based survey convinced a population of nineteen year olds with similar characteristics as the hard-to-recruit eleven year olds that were persuaded to participate in a school-based survey. Some characteristics associated with being hard-to-recruit (as compared to being easy-to-recruit) were more pronounced among non-responders, resembling the baseline situation (De Winter et al.2005). Conclusions First, extensive

  7. Facebook addiction: a reply to Griffiths (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-12-01

    Our recent paper about a new Facebook addiction scale has stimulated an interesting and very welcome debate among researchers concerning the assessment of excessive use of social networking sites. The critique put forward by Griffiths (2012) is mainly built on the conception of "Facebook" as too narrow of a concept, and that assessment of addiction to social network sites in general would be more appropriate. We argue that the concept of "social network site" is not more specific than "Facebook," so "Facebook addiction" rather than "social network addiction" is defensible. We acknowledge that more research in this area is needed and point specifically to new and important directions for future research that can shed light on the mechanism of addiction to social network sites.

  8. Genetic influence on methadone treatment outcomes in patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment for opioid addiction: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaan Z

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zainab Samaan,1–4 Monica Bawor,3,4 Brittany B Dennis,2,3 Carolyn Plater,5 Michael Varenbut,5 Jeffrey Daiter,5 Andrew Worster,5,6 David C Marsh,5,7 Charlie Tan,8 Dipika Desai,3 Lehana Thabane,2,9,10 Guillaume Pare11 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 3Population Genomics Program, Chanchlani Research Centre, 4MiNDS Neuroscience Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 5Ontario Addiction Treatment Centres, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada; 6Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 7Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 8Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, 9Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Evaluation of Medicine, 10System Linked Research Unit, 11Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Introduction: Treatment of opioid addiction with methadone is effective; however, it is known to produce interindividual variability. This may be influenced in part by genetic variants, which can increase the initial risk of developing opioid addiction as well as explain differences in response to treatment. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a full-scale genetic analysis to identify genes that predict methadone treatment outcomes in this population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study of patients admitted to a methadone maintenance treatment program for opioid addiction. We obtained demographic and clinical characteristics in addition to blood and urine samples, for the assessment of treatment outcomes. Results: The recruitment process yielded 252 patients, representing a 20% recruitment rate. We conducted genetic testing based on a 99.6% rate of provision of DNA samples. The average retention in treatment was 3.4 years, and >50% of the participants reported psychiatric and

  9. Behavioural addiction-A rising tide?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; van Holst, Ruth Janke; Zohar, Joseph; Grant, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    The term 'addiction' was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss

  10. The Comparison of Drawing Family and the House-Tree-Person Test in Children with Addicted and Non-Addicted Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Shafiei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed at comparing results of the draw-a-family test and the house-tree-person test in the children with addicted and non-addicted parents. Method: This is a scientific-comparative study in which 50 children with addicted parents attending Tehran rehab centers and 50 children with non-addicted parents who were selected using the random cluster sampling method were measured by means of the draw-a-family test and the house-tree-person test. Findings: Results suggest that drawing indices in the are more in the house-tree-Person paintings and family drawings of the children with addicted parents in comparison to the non-addicted group, scoring higher in terms of the number of drawing indices such as depression and anxiety symptoms, weak self-esteem, and valuelessness. Conclusion: It can be said that the parents' drug abuse intensifies and expedites children's physical, affective and behavioral problems.

  11. Characteristics of self-identified sexual addicts in a behavioral addiction outpatient clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    Wéry, Aline; Vogelaere, Kim; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Poudat, François-Xavier; Caillon, Julie; Lever, Delphine; Billieux, Joël; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Research on sexual addiction flourished during the last decade, promoted by the development of an increased number of online sexual activities. Despite the accumulation of studies, however, evidence collected in clinical samples of treatment-seeking people remains scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics (socio-demographics, sexual habits, and comorbidities) of self-identified "sexual addicts." Methods The sample was composed of 72 patients who con...

  12. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Clausen, Thomas; Duckert, Fanny; Ravndal, Edle; Waal, Helge

    2011-08-01

    The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF) at the University of Oslo is a newly established, clinical addiction research centre. It is located at the Oslo University Hospital and has a major focus on opioid dependency, investigating Norwegian opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), with special interest in OMT during pregnancy, mortality, morbidity and criminality before, during and after OMT and alternatives to OMT, such as the use of naltrexone implants. The well-developed health registries of Norway are core assets that also allow the opportunity for other types of substance abuse research. This research includes health services, abuse of prescription drugs and drugs of abuse in connection with traffic. The centre also focuses upon comorbidity, investigating the usefulness and limitations of psychometric instruments, drug abuse in different psychiatric treatment settings and internet-based interventions for hazardous alcohol consumption. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Stress psychobiology in the context of addiction medicine: from drugs of abuse to behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we briefly review the basic biology of psychological stress and the stress response. We propose that psychological stress and the neurobiology of the stress response play in substance use initiation, maintenance, and relapse. The proposed mechanisms for this include, on the one hand, the complex interactions between biological mediators of the stress response and the dopaminergic reward system and, on the other hand, mediators of the stress response and other systems crucial in moderating key addiction-related behaviors such as endogenous opioids, the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, and endocannabinoids. Exciting new avenues of study including genomics, sex as a moderator of the stress response, and behavioral addictions (gambling, hypersexuality, dysfunctional internet use, and food as an addictive substance) are also briefly presented within the context of stress as a moderator of the addictive process. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tanning addiction: conceptualisation, assessment, and correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Andreassen, CS; Pallesen, S; Torsheim, T; Demetrovics, Z; Griffiths, MD

    2018-01-01

    Background:\\ud Research into problematic tanning (or 'tanning addiction') has markedly increased over the past few years. Although several excessive tanning instruments exist, most of these are psychometrically poor, not theoretically anchored, and have mainly been used on small samples.\\ud \\ud Objective:\\ud Against this background, a new tanning addiction scale was developed based on a specific theoretical approach utilising core addiction criteria.\\ud \\ud Methods:\\ud A scale comprising seve...

  15. Tanning Addiction: Conceptualisation, Assessment, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, C S; Pallesen, S; Torsheim, T; Demetrovics, Z; Griffiths, M D

    2018-02-25

    Research into problematic tanning (or 'tanning addiction') has markedly increased over the past few years. Although several excessive tanning instruments exist, most of these are psychometrically poor, not theoretically anchored, and have mainly been used on small samples. Against this background, a new tanning addiction scale was developed based on a specific theoretical approach utilising core addiction criteria. A scale comprising seven items (i.e. salience/craving, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, relapse/loss of control, and problems) was administered online to a cross-sectional convenience sample of 23,537 adults (M age =35.8 years, SD=13.3), together with an assessment of demographic factors, the five-factor model of personality, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and depression. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that a one-factor model showed an optimal fit with the data collected (RMSEA=.050 [90% CI=.047-.053], CFI=.99, TLI=.99). High factor loadings (.781-.905, all pscale. In a multiple linear regression analysis, tanning addiction was positively associated with being female, not being in a relationship, extroversion, neuroticism, anxiety and obsessive-compulsiveness. It was also found that educational level, intellect/openness and depression were inversely associated with tanning addiction. The new scale, Bergen Tanning Addiction Scale (BTAS), showed good psychometric properties, and is the first scale to fully conceptualise tanning addiciton within a contemporary addiction framework. Given this, the BTAS may potentially assist future clinical practice in providing appropriate patient care, prevention and disease management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Identifying and Intervening with Students Exhibiting Signs of Gaming Addiction and Other Addictive Behaviors: Implications for Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Young, Tabitha

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses strategies professional school counselors can use to recognize and intervene with students who are presenting with signs of addictive behaviors. First, the authors present a definition of addictive behaviors. The authors then define and discuss the most common addictive behaviors impacting adolescents, with a special…

  17. Course of life satisfaction in patients with depressive and addictive disorders after therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büssing, Arndt; Heusser, Peter; Mundle, Götz

    2012-05-01

    To analyse the course of life satisfaction during the clinic stay of patients with depressive and/or addictive disorders. In a cohort study, 199 patients with depressive and addictive diseases were asked to complete a series of questionnaires at the start and the end of their psychotherapeutic treatment (on average 4.2 ± 2.3 weeks later). The questionnaires were the Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale (BMLSS), the Positive Life Construction/Contentedness/Well-Being Scale from the ERDA (Emotional/Rational Disease Acceptance) questionnaire, Beck's Depression Inventory and the revised Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). The psychotherapeutic interventions improved the clinical situation of the patients and resulted in strong effects with respect to positive life construction (d = 1.07) and moderate effects on life satisfaction (d = 0.71). Stronger effects were noted in patients with depressive disorders (d = 0.80) than in patients with addictive disorders (d = 0.69). Regression analyses revealed that pre-treatment life satisfaction can be explained negatively by an escape-avoidance strategy (Escape from Illness), and positively by positive life construction. In contrast, post-treatment life satisfaction can be explained negatively by psychological distress and depression, and positively by positive life construction and living with a partner. The hypothesis that life satisfaction changes are associated with the clinical situation of patients was confirmed. In particular, patients with depressive disorders profited from the psychotherapeutic interventions.

  18. The 10 most important things known about addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, Doug

    2010-01-01

    If you were asked: 'What are the most important things we know about addiction?' what would you say? This paper brings together a body of knowledge across multiple domains and arranged as a list of 10 things known about addiction, as a response to such a question. The 10 things are: (1) addiction is fundamentally about compulsive behaviour; (2) compulsive drug seeking is initiated outside of consciousness; (3) addiction is about 50% heritable and complexity abounds; (4) most people with addictions who present for help have other psychiatric problems as well; (5) addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder in the majority of people who present for help; (6) different psychotherapies appear to produce similar treatment outcomes; (7) 'come back when you're motivated' is no longer an acceptable therapeutic response; (8) the more individualized and broad-based the treatment a person with addiction receives, the better the outcome; (9) epiphanies are hard to manufacture; and (10) change takes time. The paper concludes with a call for unity between warring factions in the field to use the knowledge already known more effectively for the betterment of tangata whaiora (patients) suffering from addictive disorders.

  19. [Addictive behavior among the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Buprenorphine and addiction: challenges for the pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatwright, Deborah E

    2002-01-01

    To present an analysis of the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 (DATA) and its impact on the practice of pharmacy. Statutes, codes, regulations, newspaper articles, journal articles; search of articles posted on MEDLINE identified using the search terms methadone, buprenorphine, treatment, opioid abuse, and opioid addiction. Not applicable. Not applicable. DATA and Food and Drug Administration approval of sublingual tablets of buprenorphine and buprenorphine with naloxone (Reckitt and Benckiser) will dramatically expand opioid addicts' access to treatment and increase the number of opioid addicts receiving prescriptions for buprenorphine and buprenorphine with naloxone. The availability of buprenorphine will pose unique challenges to pharmacists and suggests the need for education on addiction and greater awareness of the unique needs of patients recovering from addiction. The stage is being set to expand access to treatment and reach more untreated opioid addicts in the United States. Professional organizations such as the American Pharmaceutical Association should work with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and its Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration to develop training materials, curricula, and guidelines for pharmacists on substance abuse with a special focus on outpatient opioid treatment. Such materials could be used in continuing education programs and materials and in pharmacy schools.

  1. INTERNET ADDICTION – EMPIRICAL VERIFICATION FOR SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gorenc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become an essential part of the day and the working lives of many people. Daily use of the Internet has the potential to become the worrying problem of the moment as some of Internet users begin to neglect their families, abandon hobbies, are late for work and, thus, lose contact with reality only to spend as much time as possible on the Internet. The aim of the research was to explore Internet addiction in Slovenia. We have designed a structural model to study Internet addiction. The research was conducted to collect data on Internet addiction. The sample surveys included employed people in Slovenia. Our results indicate a serious problem with Internet addiction. The predicted model in this study can be used for further research on Internet addiction.

  2. [Epidemiology of addictive disorders and behaviors in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kinjo, Aya

    2015-09-01

    Nationwide surveys to clarify the characteristics and trends of the addictive disorders and behaviors including alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, internet addiction and pathological gambling among Japanese adults were carried out in 2003, 2008, and 2013. At the part of the surveys on addictive behaviors in disaster stricken area by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the nationwide survey on benzodiazepine dependence was conducted in 2013. Epidemiological features of prevalent addictive disorders and behaviors were described. We observed large number of estimated patients with addictive disorders or behaviors in Japan, and the considerable proportion of them was not connect to appropriate medical services.

  3. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (YFAS 2.0 and Clinical Correlates in a Sample of Eating Disorder, Gambling Disorder, and Healthy Control Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser Granero

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Due to the increasing evidence of shared vulnerabilities between addictive behaviors and excessive food intake, the concept of food addiction in specific clinical populations has become a topic of scientific interest. The aim of this study was to validate the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS 2.0 in a Spanish sample. We also sought to explore food addiction and its clinical correlates in eating disorder (ED and gambling disorder (GD patients.Methods: The sample included 301 clinical cases (135 ED and 166 GD, diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria, and 152 healthy controls (HC recruited from the general population.Results: Food addiction was more prevalent in patients with ED, than in patients with GD and HC (77.8, 7.8, and 3.3%, respectively. Food addiction severity was associated with higher BMI, psychopathology and specific personality traits, such as higher harm avoidance, and lower self-directedness. The psychometrical properties of the Spanish version of the YFAS 2.0 were excellent with good convergent validity. Moreover, it obtained good accuracy in discriminating between diagnostic subtypes.Conclusions: Our results provide empirical support for the use of the Spanish YFAS 2.0 as a reliable and valid tool to assess food addiction among several clinical populations (namely ED and GD. The prevalence of food addiction is heterogeneous between disorders. Common risk factors such as high levels of psychopathology and low self-directedness appear to be present in individuals with food addiction.

  4. Should compulsive sexual behavior be considered an addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W; Voon, Valerie; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-12-01

    To review the evidence base for classifying compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) as a non-substance or 'behavioral' addiction. Data from multiple domains (e.g. epidemiological, phenomenological, clinical, biological) are reviewed and considered with respect to data from substance and gambling addictions. Overlapping features exist between CSB and substance use disorders. Common neurotransmitter systems may contribute to CSB and substance use disorders, and recent neuroimaging studies highlight similarities relating to craving and attentional biases. Similar pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments may be applicable to CSB and substance addictions, although considerable gaps in knowledge currently exist. Despite the growing body of research linking compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) to substance addictions, significant gaps in understanding continue to complicate classification of CSB as an addiction. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Psychological Aspects of Internet Addiction of Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserkovnikova, Nataliya G.; Shchipanova, Dina Ye.; Uskova, Bella A.; Puzyrev, Viktor V.; Fedotovskih, Olga ?.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under study is due to the lack of elaborated theoretical approaches to addiction and addictive behavior factors among children and adolescents, as well as due to the need and demand for psychological and pedagogical work with Internet addicted children and young people or with those who are potentially prone to…

  6. The role of flow experience in cyber-game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Ting, Chih-Chen

    2003-12-01

    Consumer habit, an important key to repetitive consumption, is an interesting yet puzzling phenomenon. Sometimes this consumption becomes obsessive--consumers will continue to act a certain way even when they feel it is not in their best interests. However, not all consumers develop such addictions. This study uses cyber-game addiction syndrome as an analogue to trace the possible causes of consumer addiction. Results from structure equation modeling show that repetition of favorite activities has a moderate effect upon addiction, which is in line with the assertion of rational addiction theory. However, flow experience--the emotional state embracing perceptional distortion and enjoyment--shows a much stronger impact on addiction. This suggests that consumers who have experienced flow are more likely to be addicted.

  7. Treating a Sex Addict Through Marital Sex Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    1987-01-01

    Views treatment of sexual addiction within context of addiction and family therapy. Presents a case of sexual addiction and explicates an intervention model which emphasizes the importance of family participation in the treatment. (Author/NB)

  8. Future of anti-addiction vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosten, Thomas R

    2005-01-01

    The medical rational for using anti-drug antibodies in the serum as a treatment is to reduce drug levels in the brain and to bind drug before it enters the brain. Drugs of abuse are small molecules that can readily cross the blood brain barrier, while antibodies are larger molecules that cannot get into the brain. Thus, any drug that is bound to antibody also cannot cross the blood brain barrier and cannot enter the brain. Active anti-drug vaccines stimulate the body to makes its own antibodies, but the small size of abused drugs prevents them from stimulating an immune response. Thus, individuals do not ordinarily produce antibodies to abused drugs, and vaccines to stimulate antibodies are made by chemically linking these abused drugs to toxins such as cholera toxin. Alternatively, passive immunotherapy uses monoclonal antibodies that are generated in a laboratory and then administered via intravenous injection. Antibodies can be used to treat drug overdose; to reduce drug use relapse; or to protect certain at risk populations who have not yet become drug dependent. The advantages of anti-addiction vaccines are that antibodies target the drug, not the drug's sites of action in the brain and antibody binding inactivates the drug. These vaccines can complement behavioral and other medical therapies with minimal side effects and are not addictive like some chemical agonists. Technology advances in manufacturing and delivery systems will improve future anti-addiction vaccines, but social acceptance of anti-addiction vaccines will depend on substance abuse program staff and the families of substance abusers, who have some values that oppose medical soluti