Random Access Transport Capacity
Andrews, Jeffrey G; Kountouris, Marios; Haenggi, Martin
2009-01-01
We develop a new metric for quantifying end-to-end throughput in multihop wireless networks, which we term random access transport capacity, since the interference model presumes uncoordinated transmissions. The metric quantifies the average maximum rate of successful end-to-end transmissions, multiplied by the communication distance, and normalized by the network area. We show that a simple upper bound on this quantity is computable in closed-form in terms of key network parameters when the number of retransmissions is not restricted and the hops are assumed to be equally spaced on a line between the source and destination. We also derive the optimum number of hops and optimal per hop success probability and show that our result follows the well-known square root scaling law while providing exact expressions for the preconstants as well. Numerical results demonstrate that the upper bound is accurate for the purpose of determining the optimal hop count and success (or outage) probability.
ON THE CAPACITY REGION OF WIRELESS AD HOC RELAY NETWORKS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dai Qinyun; Yao Wangsheng; Peng Jianmin; Su Gang
2006-01-01
Network capacity is a key characteristic to evaluate the performance of wireless networks. The goal of this paper is to study the capacity of wireless ad hoc relay network. In the model, there is at most ns source nodes transmitting signal simultaneously in the network and the arbitrarily complex network coding is allowed. The upper capacity bound of the network model are derived from the max-flow min-cut theorem and the lower capacity bound are obtained by the rate-distortion function for the Gaussian source. Finally, simulation results show that the upper network capacity will decrease as the number of source nodes is increased.
CAPACITY EVALUATION OF MULTI-CHANNEL WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Jiandong; Zygmunt J. Haas; Min Sheng
2003-01-01
In this paper, the capacity of multi-channel, multi-hop ad hoc network is evaluated.In particular, the performance of multi-hop ad hoc network with single channel IEEE 802.11MAC utilizing different topologies is shown. Also the scaling laws of throughputs for large-scale ad hoc networks and the theoretical guaranteed throughput bounds for multi-channel gridtopology systems are proposed. The results presented in this work will help researchers to choosethe proper parameter settings in evaluation of protocols for multi-hop ad hoc networks.
Capacity Scaling of Ad Hoc Networks with Spatial Diversity
Hunter, Andrew M; Weber, Steven P
2007-01-01
This paper derives the exact outage probability and transmission capacity of ad hoc wireless networks with nodes employing multiple antenna diversity techniques. The analysis enables a direct comparison of the number of simultaneous transmissions achieving a certain data rate under different diversity techniques. Preliminary results derive the outage probability and transmission capacity for a general class of signal distributions which facilitates quantifying the gain for fading or non-fading environments. The transmission capacity is then given for uniformly random networks with path loss exponent $\\alpha>2$ in which nodes: (1) use static beamforming through $M$ sectorized antennas for which the gain is shown to be $\\Theta(M^2)$ if the antennas are without sidelobes, but less in the event of a nonzero sidelobe level; (2) dynamic eigen-beamforming (maximal ratio transmission/combining) in which the gain is shown to be $\\Theta(M^{\\frac{2}{\\alpha}})$; (3) various transmit antenna selection and receive antenna ...
Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simeone O
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.
Sediment transport capacity of hyperconcentrated flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHU AnPing; FEI XiangJun
2008-01-01
As one of the most important components of river mechanics, sediment transport capacity of sediment-laden flows has attracted much attention from many re-searchers working on river mechanics and hydraulic engineering. Based on the time-averaged equation for a turbulent energy equilibrium in solid and liquid two-phase flow, an expression for the efficiency coefficient of suspended load movement was derived for the two-dimensional, steady, uniform, fully-developed turbulent flow. A new structural expression of sediment transport capacity was achieved. Using 115 runs of flume experimental data, which were obtained through two kinds of sediment transport experiments in the state of equilibrium, in combi-nation with the basic rheological and sediment transporting characteristics of hy-perconcentrated flow, the main parameters in the structural expression of sediment transport capacity were calibrated, and a new formula of sediment transport ca-pacity for hyperconcentrated flow was developed. A large amount of field data from the Yellow River, Wuding River, and Yangtze River, etc. were adopted to verify the new formula and good agreement was obtained. These results above contribute to an improved theoretical system of river mechanics and a reliable tool for man-agement of rivers carrying high concentration of sediments.
Sediment transport capacity of hyperconcentrated flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
As one of the most important components of river mechanics,sediment transport capacity of sediment-laden flows has attracted much attention from many researchers working on river mechanics and hydraulic engineering. Based on the time-averaged equation for a turbulent energy equilibrium in solid and liquid two-phase flow,an expression for the efficiency coefficient of suspended load movement was derived for the two-dimensional,steady,uniform,fully-developed turbulent flow. A new structural expression of sediment transport capacity was achieved. Using 115 runs of flume experimental data,which were obtained through two kinds of sediment transport experiments in the state of equilibrium,in combination with the basic rheological and sediment transporting characteristics of hyperconcentrated flow,the main parameters in the structural expression of sediment transport capacity were calibrated,and a new formula of sediment transport capacity for hyperconcentrated flow was developed. A large amount of field data from the Yellow River,Wuding River,and Yangtze River,etc. were adopted to verify the new formula and good agreement was obtained. These results above contribute to an improved theoretical system of river mechanics and a reliable tool for management of rivers carrying high concentration of sediments.
The concept of transport capacity in geomorphology
Wainwright, John; Parsons, Anthony J.; Cooper, James R.; Gao, Peng; Gillies, John A.; Mao, Luca; Orford, Julian D.; Knight, Peter G.
2015-12-01
The notion of sediment-transport capacity has been engrained in geomorphological and related literature for over 50 years, although its earliest roots date back explicitly to Gilbert in fluvial geomorphology in the 1870s and implicitly to eighteenth to nineteenth century developments in engineering. Despite cross fertilization between different process domains, there seem to have been independent inventions of the idea in aeolian geomorphology by Bagnold in the 1930s and in hillslope studies by Ellison in the 1940s. Here we review the invention and development of the idea of transport capacity in the fluvial, aeolian, coastal, hillslope, débris flow, and glacial process domains. As these various developments have occurred, different definitions have been used, which makes it both a difficult concept to test, and one that may lead to poor communications between those working in different domains of geomorphology. We argue that the original relation between the power of a flow and its ability to transport sediment can be challenged for three reasons. First, as sediment becomes entrained in a flow, the nature of the flow changes and so it is unreasonable to link the capacity of the water or wind only to the ability of the fluid to move sediment. Secondly, environmental sediment transport is complicated, and the range of processes involved in most movements means that simple relationships are unlikely to hold, not least because the movement of sediment often changes the substrate, which in turn affects the flow conditions. Thirdly, the inherently stochastic nature of sediment transport means that any capacity relationships do not scale either in time or in space. Consequently, new theories of sediment transport are needed to improve understanding and prediction and to guide measurement and management of all geomorphic systems.
Only adding stationary storage to vaccine supply chains may create and worsen transport bottlenecks.
Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Claypool, Erin G; Weng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y
2013-01-01
Although vaccine supply chains in many countries require additional stationary storage and transport capacity to meet current and future needs, international donors tend to donate stationary storage devices far more often than transport equipment. To investigate the impact of only adding stationary storage equipment on the capacity requirements of transport devices and vehicles, we used HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains) to construct a discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain. We measured the transport capacity requirement for each mode of transport used in the Niger vaccine cold chain, both before and after adding cold rooms and refrigerators to relieve all stationary storage constraints in the system. With the addition of necessary stationary storage, the average transport capacity requirement increased from 88% to 144% for cold trucks, from 101% to 197% for pickup trucks, and from 366% to 420% for vaccine carriers. Therefore, adding stationary storage alone may worsen or create new transport bottlenecks as more vaccines flow through the system, preventing many vaccines from reaching their target populations. Dynamic modeling can reveal such relationships between stationary storage capacity and transport constraints.
An Effective Capacity Estimation Scheme in IEEE802.11-based Ad Hoc Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Zafar
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Capacity estimation is a key component of any admission control scheme required to support quality of serviceprovision in mobile ad hoc networks. A range of schemes have been previously proposed to estimate residualcapacity that is derived from window-based measurements of channel estimation. In this paper a simple and improvedmechanism to estimate residual capacity in IEEE802.11-based ad hoc networks is presented. The scheme proposesthe use of a ‘forgiveness’ factor to weight these previous measurements and is shown through simulation-basedevaluation to provide accurate utilizations estimation and improved residual capacity based admission control.
Determinants of Capacity Utilization in Road Freight Transportation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abate, Megersa Abera
2014-01-01
Recent performance figures in the European road freight transport sector show that there is an excess capacity. To shed light on this phenomenon, this paper studies two aspects of capacity utilization in trucking: the extent of empty running and the load factor. The paper shows that they can...
Transmission Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Energy Harvesting Nodes
Vaze, Rahul
2012-01-01
Transmission capacity of an ad hoc wireless network is analyzed when each node of the network harvests energy from nature, e.g. solar, wind, vibration etc. Transmission capacity is the maximum allowable density of nodes, satisfying a per transmitter-receiver rate, and an outage probability constraint. Energy arrivals at each node are assumed to follow a Bernoulli distribution, and each node stores energy using an energy buffer/battery. For ALOHA medium access protocol (MAP), optimal transmiss...
High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;
2009-01-01
Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...
Insights into capacity-constrained optimal transport.
Korman, Jonathan; McCann, Robert J
2013-06-18
A variant of the classical optimal transportation problem is the following: among all joint measures with fixed marginals and that are dominated by a given density, find the optimal one. Existence and uniqueness of solutions to this variant were established by Korman and McCann. In the present article, we expose an unexpected symmetry leading to explicit examples in two and more dimensions. These are inspired in part by simulations in one dimension that display singularities and topology and in part by two further developments: the identification of all extreme points in the feasible set and an approach to uniqueness based on constructing feasible perturbations.
Asymptotic Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Realistic Links under a Honey Comb Topology
Asnani, Himanshu
2007-01-01
We consider the effects of Rayleigh fading and lognormal shadowing in the physical interference model for all the successful transmissions of traffic across the network. New bounds are derived for the capacity of a given random ad hoc wireless network that reflect packet drop or capture probability of the transmission links. These bounds are based on a simplified network topology termed as honey-comb topology under a given routing and scheduling scheme.
On capacity of wireless ad hoc networks with MIMO MMSE receivers
Ma, Jing
2008-01-01
Widely adopted at home, business places, and hot spots, wireless ad-hoc networks are expected to provide broadband services parallel to their wired counterparts in near future. To address this need, MIMO techniques, which are capable of offering several-fold increase in capacity, hold significant promise. Most previous work on capacity analysis of ad-hoc networks is based on an implicit assumption that each node has only one antenna. Core to the analysis therein is the characterization of a geometric area, referred to as the exclusion region, which quantizes the amount of spatial resource occupied by a link. When multiple antennas are deployed at each node, however, multiple links can transmit in the vicinity of each other simultaneously, as interference can now be suppressed by spatial signal processing. As such, a link no longer exclusively occupies a geometric area, making the concept of "exclusion region" not applicable any more. In this paper, we investigate link-layer throughput capacity of MIMO ad-hoc ...
Sediment transport capacity under different subsurface hydrologic conditions
Sediment transport capacity (Tc) is a conceptual term used in soil erosion modeling to identify whether erosion or deposition process is dominating. Despite the wide use of this modeling concept, there are little experimental results to quantify Tc, particularly over an erodible surface under differ...
A link-adding strategy for transport efficiency of complex networks
Ma, Jinlong; Han, Weizhan; Guo, Qing; Wang, Zhenyong; Zhang, Shuai
2016-12-01
The transport efficiency is one of the critical parameters to evaluate the performance of a network. In this paper, we propose an improved efficient (IE) strategy to enhance the network transport efficiency of complex networks by adding a fraction of links to an existing network based on the node’s local degree centrality and the shortest path length. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can bring better traffic capacity and shorter average shortest path length than the low-degree-first (LDF) strategy under the shortest path routing protocol. It is found that the proposed strategy is beneficial to the improvement of overall traffic handling and delivering ability of the network. This study can alleviate the congestion in networks, and is helpful to design and optimize realistic networks.
Capacity Scaling of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: Effect of Finite Wavelength
Lee, Si-Hyeon
2010-01-01
We study the capacity scaling of wireless ad hoc networks considering the effect of finite wavelength. $n$ source--destination pairs are assumed to be randomly placed in areas of 1 (dense network) and $n$ (extended network). \\"{O}zg\\"{u}r \\emph{et al.} showed that the linear capacity scaling is possible for the dense network and the extended network with path-loss exponent equal to 2, which is achieved by hierarchical cooperation (HC). However, such a linear capacity scaling was shown to violate the physical limit on degrees of freedom by Franceschetti \\emph{et al}. The cause of the contradiction is the idealized channel model used in the analysis of the HC, in which the channel correlation due to the finite wavelength is ignored. In this paper, we use a channel model that captures the channel correlation correctly, modify the HC accordingly, and analyze its throughput scaling in terms of both $n$ and the wavelength. Our result shows exactly how the throughput scaling of HC is degraded due to the effect of fi...
Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera
Purpose This chapter discusses a central aspect of freight transport – capacity utilisation with a link to empty running of commercial freight vehicles. Methodology/approach The paper provides an overview of the literature on these topics and groups the contributions into two segments according...... to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... for further enrichment of the modelling exercise by incorporating information regarding the operator to give a stronger behavioural basis for the vehicle movements and utilisation analysis. Originality/value This paper identifies different approaches and shed light on potential gains that can be achieved...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ploug, T.; Stallknecht, B.M.; Pedersen, O.; Kahn, B.B.; Ohkuwa, T.; Vinten, J.; Galbo, H. (Panum Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark))
1990-12-01
The effect of 10 wk endurance swim training on 3-O-methylglucose (3-MG) uptake (at 40 mM 3-MG) in skeletal muscle was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Training resulted in an increase of approximately 33% for maximum insulin-stimulated 3-MG transport in fast-twitch red fibers and an increase of approximately 33% for contraction-stimulated transport in slow-twitch red fibers compared with nonexercised sedentary muscle. A fully additive effect of insulin and contractions was observed both in trained and untrained muscle. Compared with transport in control rats subjected to an almost exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold by training in fast-twitch red muscle fibers. In parallel to this, Western blot demonstrated a approximately 47% increase in GLUT-1 protein and a approximately 31% increase in GLUT-4 protein. This indicates that the increases in maximum velocity for 3-MG transport in trained muscle is due to an increased number of glucose transporters.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ploug, T; Stallknecht, B M; Pedersen, O
1990-01-01
The effect of 10 wk endurance swim training on 3-O-methylglucose (3-MG) uptake (at 40 mM 3-MG) in skeletal muscle was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Training resulted in an increase of approximately 33% for maximum insulin-stimulated 3-MG transport in fast-twitch red fibers...... and an increase of approximately 33% for contraction-stimulated transport in slow-twitch red fibers compared with nonexercised sedentary muscle. A fully additive effect of insulin and contractions was observed both in trained and untrained muscle. Compared with transport in control rats subjected to an almost...... exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training...
Analysis of Traffic Capacity on Mountainous Two Lane Highway Adding Climbing Lane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng Yunwei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available During the construction of mountainous double lane highway, climbing lane plays a certain role for enhancing the traffic capacity. In order to explore traffic capacity improvement effect for different conditions of climbing lane, 20 representative models are chosen, which contain various combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The changes of traffic capacity, average speed, delays, and saturation in models are obtained before and after the use of a climbing lane by means of numerical simulation. The results show that the use of a climbing lane could improve traffic capacity, average speed, while reducing delays and saturation. The improvement effect is different according to different combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The research could provide a reference for mountainous climbing lane construction intend.
The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Carsten Jahn
2002-01-01
The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel; Pilegaard
1998-01-01
muscles, muscles of old rats and rats that had been subjected to high-intensity training, endurance training, repeated exposure to hypoxia, and hypothyroid or hyperthyroid treatments. The lactate/H+ transport capacity of red muscles was greater than that of white muscles, and this difference...... was associated with a higher maximal transport rate (Vmax) in red muscles, whereas the Km was similar in the two muscle types. High-intensity training and hyperthyroidism increased the lactate/H+ transport capacity by enhancing Vmax without affecting Km. Similarly, a reduced transport capacity with old age......, which is expected to represent the number of membrane transporter molecules. Km is unaffected by most treatments and appears to be independent of fibre type....
Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.
Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won
2015-12-15
The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.
Capacity and performance study of IEEE 802.11e in WLANs and ad hoc networks
Mjøberg, Frank Roar
2007-01-01
This master thesis focuses on the IEEE 802.11e Enhanced Distribution Channel Access (EDCA). The IEEE 802.11e protocol became an IEEE standard in November 2005 and is a very popular research topic. Even though the protocol has been tested for faults and errors a long time there are still research topics to explore. This thesis will try to answer some of those topics. The main topic in this thesis is how the IEEE 802.11e MAC operates in a multihop ad hoc network. We discuss and evaluated th...
From nose to brain: understanding transport capacity and transport rate of drugs.
Wu, Hongbing; Hu, Kaili; Jiang, Xinguo
2008-10-01
The unique relationship between nasal cavity and cranial cavity tissues in anatomy and physiology makes intranasal delivery to the brain feasible. An intranasal delivery provides some drugs with short channels to bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB), especially for those with fairly low brain concentrations after a routine delivery, thus greatly enhancing the therapeutic effect on brain diseases. In the past two decades, a good number of encouraging outcomes have been reported in the treatment of diseases of the brain or central nervous system (CNS) through nasal administration. In spite of the significant merit of bypassing the BBB, direct nose-to-brain delivery still bears the problems of low efficiency and volume for capacity due to the limited volume of the nasal cavity, the small area ratio of olfactory mucosa to nasal mucosa and the limitations of low dose and short retention time of drug absorption. It is crucial that selective distribution and retention time of drugs or preparations on olfactory mucosa should be enhanced so as to increase the direct delivery efficiency. In this article, we first briefly review the nose-to-brain transport pathways, before detailing the impacts on them, followed by a comprehensive summary of effective methods, including formulation modification, agglutinant-mediated transport and a brain-homing, peptide-mediated delivery based on phage display screening technique, with a view to providing a theoretic reference for elevating the therapeutic effects on brain diseases.
Effect of hydraulic parameters on sediment transport capacity in overland flow over erodible beds
Ali, M.; Sterk, G.; Seeger, M.; Boersema, M.; Peters, P.
2012-02-01
Sediment transport is an important component of the soil erosion process, which depends on several hydraulic parameters like unit discharge, mean flow velocity, and slope gradient. In most of the previous studies, the impact of these hydraulic parameters on transport capacity was studied for non-erodible bed conditions. Hence, this study aimed to examine the influence of unit discharge, mean flow velocity and slope gradient on sediment transport capacity for erodible beds and also to investigate the relationship between transport capacity and composite force predictors, i.e. shear stress, stream power, unit stream power and effective stream power. In order to accomplish the objectives, experiments were carried out in a 3.0 m long and 0.5 m wide flume using four well sorted sands (0.230, 0.536, 0.719, 1.022 mm). Unit discharges ranging from 0.07 to 2.07 × 10-3 m2 s-1 were simulated inside the flume at four slopes (5.2, 8.7, 13.2 and 17.6%) to analyze their impact on sediment transport rate. The sediment transport rate measured at the bottom end of the flume by taking water and sediment samples was considered equal to sediment transport capacity, because the selected flume length of 3.0 m was found sufficient to reach the transport capacity. The experimental result reveals that the slope gradient has a stronger impact on transport capacity than unit discharge and mean flow velocity due to the fact that the tangential component of gravity force increases with slope gradient. Our results show that unit stream power is an optimal composite force predictor for estimating transport capacity. Stream power and effective stream power can also be successfully related to the transport capacity, however the relations are strongly dependent on grain size. Shear stress showed poor performance, because part of shear stress is dissipated by bed irregularities, bed form evolution and sediment detachment. An empirical transport capacity equation was derived, which illustrates that
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
In the viewpoint of heat transfer, heat transport potential capacity and its dissipation are defined based on the essence of heat transport phenomenon. Respectively, their physical meanings are the overall heat transfer capabilityand the dissipation rate of the heat transfer capacity. Then the least dissipation principle of heat transport potential capacity is presented to enhance the heat conduction efficiency in the heat conduction optimization. The principle is,for a conduction process with the constant integral of the thermal conductivityover the region, the optimal distribution of thermal conductivity, which corresponds to the highest heat conduction efficiency, is characterized by the least dissipation of heat transport potential capacity. Finally the principle is applied to some cases in heat conduction optimization.
Large capacity oblique all-wing transport aircraft
Galloway, Thomas L.; Phillips, James A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Waters, Mark H.
1996-01-01
Dr. R. T. Jones first developed the theory for oblique wing aircraft in 1952, and in subsequent years numerous analytical and experimental projects conducted at NASA Ames and elsewhere have established that the Jones' oblique wing theory is correct. Until the late 1980's all proposed oblique wing configurations were wing/body aircraft with the wing mounted on a pivot. With the emerging requirement for commercial transports with very large payloads, 450-800 passengers, Jones proposed a supersonic oblique flying wing in 1988. For such an aircraft all payload, fuel, and systems are carried within the wing, and the wing is designed with a variable sweep to maintain a fixed subsonic normal Mach number. Engines and vertical tails are mounted on pivots supported from the primary structure of the wing. The oblique flying wing transport has come to be known as the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) transport. This presentation gives the highlights of the OAW project that was to study the total concept of the OAW as a commercial transport.
Cats, O.; Jenelius, E.
2015-01-01
Disruptions often result with partial capacity reduction without resulting with a complete breakdown. This study aims to move beyond the analysis of complete failure by investigating the impacts of partial capacity reduction on public transport network performance. We analyse the relation between th
Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yousaf Bin Zikria
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet’s de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.
Optimum Repartition of Transport Capacities in the Logistic System using Dynamic Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gheorghe BĂŞANU
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Transportations take an essential role in logistics, interconnecting the majority of processes and operations within logistic system. The efficient use of transportation capacity is a priority whose achievement can diminish logistic costs. This objective is today difficult to achieve due to increasing complexity of transportation monitoring and coordination. This complexity is determined by transportation number and diversity, by the volume and diversity of orders, by increasing the targets to be supplied.Dynamic programming represents a highly useful tool for logistic managers, considering that its specific techniques and methods are oriented toward solving problems related to resource optimum allocation and utilization.The present paper presents briefly a series of theoretical elements of dynamic programming applied in logistics, based on which it is shown a mathematic model to determine the optimum policy for transport capacity repartition for the area attached to a logistic centre, through three distribution centres.
Croissant, Thomas; Lague, Dimitri; Davy, Philippe
2016-04-01
Climate fluctuations at geological timescales control the capacity of rivers to transport sediment with consequences on geochemical cycles, sedimentary basins dynamics and sedimentation/tectonics interactions. While the impact of differential friction generated by riparian vegetation has been studied for individual flood events, its impact on the long-term sediment transport capacity of rivers, modulated by the frequency of floods remains unknown. Here, we investigate this effect on a simplified river-floodplain configuration obeying observed hydraulic scaling laws. We numerically integrate the full-frequency magnitude distribution of discharge events and its impact on the transport capacity of bedload and suspended material for various level of vegetation-linked differential friction. We demonstrate that riparian vegetation by acting as a virtual confinement of the flow i) increases significantly the instantaneous transport capacity of the river independently of the transport mode and ii) increases the long term bedload transport rates as a function of discharge variability. Our results expose the dominance of flood frequency rather than riparian vegetation on the long term sediment transport capacity. Therefore, flood frequency has to be considered when evaluating long-term bedload transport capacity while floodplain vegetation is important only in high discharge variability regimes. By comparing the transport capacity of unconfined alluvial rivers and confined bedrock gorges, we demonstrate that the latter always presents the highest long term transport capacity at equivalent width and slope. The loss of confinement at the transition between bedrock and alluvial river must be compensated by a widening or a steepening of the alluvial channel to avoid infinite storage. Because steepening is never observed in natural system, we compute the alluvial widening factor value that varies between 3 to 11 times the width of the bedrock channel depending on riparian
14 CFR Sec. 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.
2010-01-01
... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-5 Air transport traffic and capacity elements. (a) Within each of the service classifications prescribed in section -19-4, data shall be... equipment. The number of days that aircraft owned or acquired through rental or lease (but not...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ALAN DANIELS
2005-01-01
@@ An efficient, integrated transport system iskey to the Port of Vancouver s success. "There are many ways that we can optimizethe efficiency and carrying capacity of ourtransportation infrastructure in Canada: throughtechnology, by working together, by thinkingdifferently," said Captain Gordon Houston,President & CEO of the Vancouver Port Authority.
Species Transport Mechanisms Governing Crossover and Capacity Loss in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
Agar, Ertan
Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are an emerging energy storage technology that offers unique advantages for grid-scale energy storage due to their flexible design and decoupled power/energy feature. Despite their popularity, a series of technical challenges hinder their widespread implementation. Among these, capacity loss (i.e., loss of energy storage capability) due to the undesired species crossover across the membrane has been identified as the key issue limiting the longevity of these systems. This issue is primarily governed by the properties of the membrane and can be mitigated by using proper membrane architectures with desired features. Presently, identifying proper membrane architectures for VRFB systems is hampered by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the nature of species transport mechanisms and how they are related to the membrane properties and key operating conditions. This Ph.D. study seeks to address this critical challenge by exploring the fundamental mechanisms responsible for species transport within the membrane. The overall objective of this dissertation study is to establish a fundamental understanding of the multi-ionic transport in VRFB membranes by investigating the ionic transport mechanisms responsible for crossover, and utilize this understanding to reveal the role of membrane properties and operating conditions on the capacity loss. To achieve these goals, a combined experimental and computational study was designed. An experimentally validated, 2-D, transient VRFB model that can track the vanadium crossover and capture the related capacity loss was developed. In addition to the model, several electrochemical techniques were used to characterize different types of membrane and study the effects of various operating conditions on the species crossover. Using these computational and experimental tools, an in-depth understanding of the species transport mechanisms within the membrane and how they are related to membrane
Microdialysis as a tool for in vivo investigation of glutamate transport capacity in rat brain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruhn, T; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik
1995-01-01
The role of glutamate as a possible mediator of neurodegeneration is well described, and the homeostasis of extracellular glutamate is considered of major importance when addressing the pathogenesis of excitatory neurodegeneration. Applying the 'indicator diffusion' method to the microdialysis......-D-aspartate was due to cellular uptake by glutamate transporters. The cell membrane permeability towards 3H-D-aspartate was reduced by approximately 98% due to THA, indicating that the cell membranes per se are highly resistant to diffusion of 3H-D-aspartate. It is concluded that the present method can be used...... in studying the capacity of the glutamate transporters in vivo....
To, Brian C S; Lenhoff, Abraham M
2011-01-21
The adsorption isotherms of four model proteins (lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, ovalbumin, and BSA) on eight commercial phenyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography media were measured. The isotherms were softer than those usually seen in ion-exchange chromatography of proteins, and the static capacities of the media were lower, ranging from 30 to 110 mg/mL, depending on the ammonium sulfate concentration and the protein and adsorbent types. The protein-accessible surface area appears to be the main factor determining the binding capacity, and little correlation was seen with the protein affinities of the adsorbents. Breakthrough experiments showed that the dynamic capacities of the adsorbents at 10% breakthrough were 20-80% of the static capacities, depending on adsorbent type. Protein diffusivities in the adsorbents were estimated from batch uptake experiments using the pore diffusion and homogeneous diffusion models. Protein transport was affected by the adsorbent pore structures. Apparent diffusivities were higher at lower salt concentrations and column loadings, suggesting that adsorbed proteins may retard intraparticle protein transport. The diffusivities estimated from the batch uptake experiments were used to predict column breakthrough behavior. Analytical solutions developed for ion-exchange systems were able to provide accurate predictions for lysozyme breakthrough but not for ovalbumin. Impurities in the ovalbumin solutions used for the breakthrough experiments may have affected the ovalbumin uptake and led to the discrepancies between the predictions and the experimental results.
Leaf photosynthetic rate of tropical ferns is evolutionarily linked to water transport capacity.
Zhang, Shi-Bao; Sun, Mei; Cao, Kun-Fang; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Jiao-Lin
2014-01-01
Ferns usually have relatively lower photosynthetic potential than angiosperms. However, it is unclear whether low photosynthetic potential of ferns is linked to leaf water supply. We hypothesized that there is an evolutionary association of leaf water transport capacity with photosynthesis and stomatal density in ferns. In the present study, a series of functional traits relating to leaf anatomy, hydraulics and physiology were assessed in 19 terrestrial and 11 epiphytic ferns in a common garden, and analyzed by a comparative phylogenetics method. Compared with epiphytic ferns, terrestrial ferns had higher vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), but lower values for lower epidermal thickness (LET) and leaf thickness (LT). Across species, all traits varied significantly, but only stomatal length (SL) showed strong phylogenetic conservatism. Amax was positively correlated with Dvein and gs with and without phylogenetic corrections. SD correlated positively with Amax, Dvein and gs, with the correlation between SD and Dvein being significant after phylogenetic correction. Leaf water content showed significant correlations with LET, LT, and mesophyll thickness. Our results provide evidence that Amax of the studied ferns is linked to leaf water transport capacity, and there was an evolutionary association between water supply and demand in ferns. These findings add new insights into the evolutionary correlations among traits involving carbon and water economy in ferns.
Estimating the Capacity of Urban Transportation Networks with an Improved Sensitivity Based Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muqing Du
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The throughput of a given transportation network is always of interest to the traffic administrative department, so as to evaluate the benefit of the transportation construction or expansion project before its implementation. The model of the transportation network capacity formulated as a mathematic programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC well defines this problem. For practical applications, a modified sensitivity analysis based (SAB method is developed to estimate the solution of this bilevel model. The high-efficient origin-based (OB algorithm is extended for the precise solution of the combined model which is integrated in the network capacity model. The sensitivity analysis approach is also modified to simplify the inversion of the Jacobian matrix in large-scale problems. The solution produced in every iteration of SAB is restrained to be feasible to guarantee the success of the heuristic search. From the numerical experiments, the accuracy of the derivatives for the linear approximation could significantly affect the converging of the SAB method. The results also show that the proposed method could obtain good suboptimal solutions from different starting points in the test examples.
Bolling, Bradley W.; Chen, Ya-Yen; Chen, C-Y. Oliver
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of sugar, organic acid, neutral phenol, and anthocyanin fractions and added ascorbic acid to grape and pomegranate-nectarine juice total phenol, ORAC, FRAP, and DPPH values. Neutral phenol and anthocyanin fractions contributed ≥75% of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) for both juices. Intrinsic synergy and antagonism among the fractionated constituents occurred inconsistently in each assay. Sugars and organic acids antagonized pomegrana...
Maintenance of xylem network transport capacity: a review of embolism repair in vascular plants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Craig eBrodersen
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Maintenance of long distance water transport in xylem is essential to plant health and productivity. Both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions lead to embolism formation within the xylem resulting in lost transport capacity and ultimately death. Plants exhibit a variety of strategies to either prevent or restore hydraulic capacity through cavitation resistance with specialized anatomy, replacement of compromised conduits with new growth, and a metabolically active embolism repair mechanism. In recent years, mounting evidence suggests that metabolically active cells surrounding the xylem conduits in some, but not all, species are capable of restoring hydraulic conductivity. This review summarizes our current understanding of the osmotically driven embolism repair mechanism, the known genetic and anatomical components related to embolism repair, rehydration pathways through the xylem, and the role of capacitance. Anatomical differences between functional plant groups may be one of the limiting factors that allow some plants to refill while others do not, but further investigations are necessary to fully understand this dynamic process. Finally, xylem networks should no longer be considered an assemblage of dead, empty conduits, but instead a metabolically active tissue finely tuned to respond to ever changing environmental cues.
Particle Transport in a 3D duct by adding and doubling
Ganapol, Barry D
2016-01-01
Particle transport through a duct by Lambertian reflection from duct walls is again considered. This popular transport example has been solved by most numerical transport methods except notably one- the method of doubling. We shall show that the method of doubling provides every bit as, or more, accurate reflectances and transmittances as the numerical discrete ordinates (NDO) and analytical discrete ordinates (ADO) methods with less mathematical and numerical effort.
The Use of Artificial Neural Networks to Assess the Capacity of Transport Measures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duchaczek Artur
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In the area of logistics management both managers and engineers rely primarily on proven computational algorithms, for this reason, it is often difficult to convince them to the use of artificial neural networks in solving decision problems. The paper presents the possibilities of using the FANN library in building of a computer application applied in the area of logistics. The possibilities of the component are presented on the example of applications of artificial neural networks to estimate the capacity of transport vehicles based on their dimensions. The example presented in the work was solved with the use of a multi-network Layered Perceptron. The example depicted not only the possibility of using artificial neural networks for solving poorly structured tasks but also practical application of the TFannNetwork component
SLC2A9 is a high-capacity urate transporter in humans.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark J Caulfield
2008-10-01
0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9 to 1.05, p > 0.33 by meta-analysis of an SLC2A9 variant in six case-control studies including 11,897 participants. In a separate meta-analysis of four population studies including 11,629 participants we found no association of SLC2A9 with systolic (effect size -0.12 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.68 to 0.43, p = 0.664 or diastolic blood pressure (effect size -0.03 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.31, p = 0.82. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that SLC2A9 splice variants act as high-capacity urate transporters and is one of the first functional characterisations of findings from genome-wide association scans. We did not find an association of the SLC2A9 gene with blood pressure in this study. Our findings suggest potential pathogenic mechanisms that could offer a new drug target for gout.
Bolling, Bradley W; Chen, Ya-Yen; Chen, C-Y Oliver
2013-12-01
The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of sugar, organic acid, neutral phenol, and anthocyanin fractions and added ascorbic acid to grape and pomegranate-nectarine juice total phenol, ORAC, FRAP, and DPPH values. Neutral phenol and anthocyanin fractions contributed ≥75% of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) for both juices. Intrinsic synergy and antagonism among the fractionated constituents occurred inconsistently in each assay. Sugars and organic acids antagonized pomegranate juice neutral phenols and anthocyanins in the DPPH assay by 50% and the grape juice ORAC value by 21%, but were synergistic to the grape juice FRAP value. The added ascorbic acid was dose-dependently synergistic with pomegranate and grape juice total phenol, DPPH, and FRAP assays, but less so in the ORAC assay. Thus, the interactions between grape and pomegranate juice constituents determine TAC and total phenol values, and synergy in these assays could not be attributed solely to polyphenols.
Transport properties of microwave sintered pure and glass added MgCuZn ferrites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madhuri, W., E-mail: madhuriw12@gmail.com [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India); Penchal Reddy, M.; Kim, Il Gon [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641 773 (Korea, Republic of); Rama Manohar Reddy, N. [Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa 516 227 (India); Siva Kumar, K.V. [Ceramic Composites Materials Laboratory, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515 055 (India); Murthy, V.R.K. [Microwave Laboratory, IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)
2013-07-01
Highlights: • MgCuZn ferrite was successfully prepared by novel microwave sintering (MS) method. • The sintering temperature was notably reduced from 1150 °C to 950 °C for MS. • Temperature dependence of DC conductivity and AC conductivity are studied. • 1 wt% PBS glass added MS MgCuZn ferrite samples are suitable for core materials in multilayer chip inductors (MLCI). -- Abstract: A series of pure stoichiometric and 1 wt% lead borosilicate (PBS) glass added MgCuZn ferrite with the general formula Mg{sub 0.5}Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 0.5−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 were synthesized by microwave sintering technique. Single phase spinel structure is exhibited by the XRD patterns of these ferrites. DC and AC conductivity were investigated as a function of composition, temperature and frequency. DC conductivities were also estimated using the impedance spectroscopy analysis of Cole–Cole plots. The DC conductivities thus obtained are in good agreement with the experimental results. All the investigated samples exhibited two regions of conductivity one in the low temperature and the second in the high temperature region. It is observed that PBS glass added samples have lower conductivities than pure samples. Due to their lower conductivities and sintering temperatures the 1 wt% PBS glass added samples are suitable for multilayer chip inductor (MLCI) and high definition TV deflection yoke material application.
Constanza, Karen E; White, Brittany L; Davis, Jack P; Sanders, Timothy H; Dean, Lisa L
2012-10-31
To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol and filtered to remove insoluble material; the soluble extract was spray-dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of procyanidin oligomers (DP2-DP4) but low levels of monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymers. The addition of maltodextrin during spray-drying resulted in the formation of unknown polymeric compounds. Spray-drying also increased the proportion of flavan-3-ols and DP2 procyanidins in the extracts while decreasing larger procyanidins. Spray-dried powders had higher antioxidant capacity and total phenolics and increased solubility compared to milled skins. These data suggest that spray-dried peanut skin extracts may be a good source of natural antioxidants. Additionally, the insoluble material produced during the process may have increased value for use in animal feed due to enrichment of protein and removal of phenolic compounds during extraction.
Simulating Landscape Sediment Transport Capacity by Using a Modified SWAT Model.
Bonumá, Nadia B; Rossi, Colleen G; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Reichert, José M; Minella, Jean P; Allen, Peter M; Volk, Martin
2014-01-01
Sediment delivery from hillslopes to rivers is spatially variable and may lead to long-term delays between initial erosion and related sediment yield at the watershed outlet. Consideration of spatial variability is important for developing sound strategies for water quality improvement and soil protection at the watershed scale. Hence, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was modified and tested in this study to simulate the landscape transport capacity of sediment. The study area was the steeply sloped Arroio Lino watershed in southern Brazil. Observed sediment yield data at the watershed outlet were used to calibrate and validate a modified SWAT model. For the calibration period, the modified model performed better than the unaltered SWAT2009 version; the models achieved Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values of 0.7 and -0.1, respectively. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies were less for the validation period, but the modified model's NSE was higher than the unaltered model (-1.4 and -12.1, respectively). Despite the relatively low NSE values, the results of this first test are promising because the model modifications lowered the percent bias in sediment yield from 73 to 18%. Simulation results for the modified model indicated that approximately 60% of the mobilized soil is deposited along the landscape before it reaches the river channels. This research demonstrates the modified model's ability to simulate sediment yield in watersheds with steep slopes. The results suggest that integration of the sediment deposition routine in SWAT increases accuracy in steeper areas while significantly improving its ability to predict the spatial distribution of sediment deposition areas. Further work is needed regarding (i) improved strategies for spatially distributed sediment transport measurements (for improving process knowledge and model evaluation) and (ii) extensive model tests in other well instrumented experimental watersheds with differing topographic configurations
Li, Zhi Wei; Yu, Guo An; Brierley, Gary; Wang, Zhao Yin
2016-07-01
The influence of vegetation upon bedload transport and channel morphodynamics is examined along a channel stability gradient ranging from meandering to anabranching to anabranching-braided to fully braided planform conditions along trunk and tributary reaches of the Upper Yellow River in western China. Although the regional geology and climate are relatively consistent across the study area, there is a distinct gradient in the presence and abundance of riparian vegetation for these reaches atop the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (elevations in the study area range from 2800 to 3400 m a.s.l.). To date, the influence of vegetative impacts upon channel planform and bedload transport capacity of alluvial reaches of the Upper Yellow River remains unclear because of a lack of hydrological and field data. In this region, the types and pattern of riparian vegetation vary with planform type as follows: trees exert the strongest influence in the anabranching reach, the meandering reach flows through meadow vegetation, the anabranching-braided reach has a grass, herb, and sparse shrub cover, and the braided reach has no riparian vegetation. A non-linear relation between vegetative cover on the valley floor and bedload transport capacity is evident, wherein bedload transport capacity is the highest for the anabranching reach, roughly followed by the anabranching-braided, braided, and meandering reaches. The relationship between the bedload transport capacity of a reach and sediment supply from upstream exerts a significant influence upon channel stability. Bedload transport capacity during the flood season (June-September) in the braided reach is much less than the rate of sediment supply, inducing bed aggradation and dynamic channel adjustments. Rates of channel adjustment are less pronounced for the anabranching-braided and anabranching reaches, while the meandering reach is relatively stable (i.e., this is a passive meandering reach).
Browne, B. L.; Gardner, J. E.
2005-06-01
The complex eruption sequence from the ˜1000 A.D. caldera-forming eruption of Volcán Ceboruco, known as the Jala Pumice, offers an exceptional opportunity to examine how pyroclastic material is transported and deposited from pyroclastic density currents over variable topography. Three main pyroclastic surge deposits (S1, S2, and S3) and two pyroclastic flow deposits (Marquesado and North-Flank PFDs) were emplaced during this eruption. Pyroclastic surge deposits are massive, planar, or cross-bedded, poor-to-well sorted, and display fluctuations in thickness, median diameter, sorting, and lithology as a function of distance, topography, and flow dynamics. Marquesado pyroclastic flow deposits reveal lateral variations from massive, poorly sorted deposits located within 5 km of Ceboruco to planar bedded, moderately well sorted deposits located >15 km away over the nearly horizontal topography to the south of Ceboruco. North-Flank pyroclastic flow deposits also reveal lateral variations from massive, poorly sorted deposits located within 4 km of Ceboruco to planar bedded, moderately well sorted deposits located 8 km away atop an escarpment that steeply rises 230 m from the northern valley floor. Field observations, granulometric analyses, component analyses, and crystal sedimentation calculations along flow-parallel sampling transects all suggest that both surges and flows were density stratified currents, where deposition occurred from a basal region of higher particle concentration that was supplied from an overlying dilute layer that transports particles in suspension. This supports the idea of a transition between “flow” and “surge” end members with variations in particle concentration. Topography greatly affects the transport and depositional capacity of the pyroclastic density currents as a result of “blocking”, either by topographic obstacles or by abrupt breaks at the base of volcano slopes, whereas the origin of Jala Pumice surge deposits
Prediction of sand transport over immobile gravel from supply limited to capacity conditions.
The prediction of the transport of sand in armored gravel reaches downstream of dams is complicated by variable bed conditions ranging from sand transported through gravel to sand in transport over buried gravel. Knowledge of the rate of sand transport in these conditions, however, is necessary for...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2013-04-01
The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.
Research Of A Intelligent Transport Model Based on Ad Hoc Network%基于Ad Hoc网络的智能交通模型研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘钢; 郭晗
2012-01-01
目前，我国多数大中型城市的交通拥堵问题都很严重．若能够合理的分配道路资源、动态获得拥堵路段和准拥堵路段的交通信息，辅助司机做出正确判断，避开车流拥堵的储段，可以从根本上做到缓解整个交通拥堵的目的．本文所讨论的就是建立一个AdHoe网为基础的智能交通模型，车辆可以实时从AdHoe网当中获得交通信息，提前感知到交通拥堵将出现在哪条街道上，并做出合理判断和选择．%On present, our most large and medium - size cities were in very serious trouble of traffic jams. If we can distribute the road resource reasonably, gathering the traffic information of congestion roads and the quasi - congestion road dynamically, that can assist the drivers to make the right judgments. Thus the drivers can avoid the congestion roads and achieve the purpose of ease the traffic congestion fundamentally. What be discussed in this paper is to establish an intelligent model of traffic based on Ad Hoc network. Vehicles can obtained the road information in the Ad Hoc network timely and make right judgment and decisions.
Glynn, P.D.
2003-01-01
One-dimensional (1D) geochemical transport modeling is used to demonstrate the effects of speciation and sorption reactions on the ground-water transport of Np and Pu, two redox-sensitive elements. Earlier 1D simulations (Reardon, 1981) considered the kinetically limited dissolution of calcite and its effect on ion-exchange reactions (involving 90Sr, Ca, Na, Mg and K), and documented the spatial variation of a 90Sr partition coefficient under both transient and steady-state chemical conditions. In contrast, the simulations presented here assume local equilibrium for all reactions, and consider sorption on constant potential, rather than constant charge, surfaces. Reardon's (1981) seminal findings on the spatial and temporal variability of partitioning (of 90Sr) are reexamined and found partially caused by his assumption of a kinetically limited reaction. In the present work, sorption is assumed the predominant retardation process controlling Pu and Np transport, and is simulated using a diffuse-double-layer-surface-complexation (DDLSC) model. Transport simulations consider the infiltration of Np- and Pu-contaminated waters into an initially uncontaminated environment, followed by the cleanup of the resultant contamination with uncontaminated water. Simulations are conducted using different spatial distributions of sorption capacities (with the same total potential sorption capacity, but with different variances and spatial correlation structures). Results obtained differ markedly from those that would be obtained in transport simulations using constant Kd, Langmuir or Freundlich sorption models. When possible, simulation results (breakthrough curves) are fitted to a constant K d advection-dispersion transport model and compared. Functional differences often are great enough that they prevent a meaningful fit of the simulation results with a constant K d (or even a Langmuir or Freundlich) model, even in the case of Np, a weakly sorbed radionuclide under the
Lien, Vidar S.; Hjøllo, Solfrid S.; Skogen, Morten D.; Svendsen, Einar; Wehde, Henning; Bertino, Laurent; Counillon, Francois; Chevallier, Matthieu; Garric, Gilles
2016-03-01
The Nordic Seas is a hotspot both in terms of climate related processes, such as Atlantic-Arctic heat exchange, and natural marine resources. A sustainable management of the marine resources within the Nordic Seas, including the co-existence between fisheries and petroleum industries, requires detailed information on the state of the ocean within an operational framework and beyond what is obtainable from observations only. Numerical ocean models applying data assimilation techniques are utilized to address this need. Subsequently, comprehensive comparisons between model results and observations are required in order to assess the model performance. Here, we apply a set of objective statistics to quantitatively assess the added value of data assimilation in numerical ocean models that are currently used operationally. The results indicate that the inclusion of data assimilation improves the model performance both in terms of hydrographic properties and volume and heat transports. Furthermore, we find that increasing the resolution towards eddy resolving resolution performs similarly to coarser resolution models applying data assimilation in shelf areas.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundby, C; Robach, P; Boushel, R;
2008-01-01
This study was performed to test the hypothesis that administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) in humans increases maximal oxygen consumption by augmenting the maximal oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Systemic and leg oxygen delivery and oxygen uptake were studied during...... before rHuEpo treatment). Blood buffer capacity remained unaffected by rHuEpo treatment and hemodilution. The augmented hematocrit did not compromise peak cardiac output. In summary, in healthy humans, rHuEpo increases maximal oxygen consumption due to augmented systemic and muscular peak oxygen delivery....
Measuring the pollutant transport capacity of dissolved organic matter in complex matrixes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.
2003-01-01
were used and evaluated, head-space solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), enhanced solubility (ES) and fluorescence quenching (FQ). It was concluded that for samples with complex matrixes it was possible to measure the net effect of the DOM binding capacity and the salting out effect of the matrix...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2009-01-15
The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) has observed an increasing problem in relation to possible future shortage of transport capacity in the electricity grid. This vision document aims to provide clarity to market parties with regard to their general vision on this shortage problem [mk]. [Dutch] De Nederlandse Mededingingsautoriteit (NMa) heeft geconstateerd dat er in toenemende mate problemen optreden die verband houden met de (mogelijk toekomstige) schaarste aan transportcapaciteit op het elektriciteitsnetwerk.Met dit Visiedocument beoogt de NMa zoveel mogelijk duidelijkheid te verschaffen aan marktpartijen met betrekking tot zijn algemene visie ten aanzien van de schaarsteproblematiek.
Chen, Yijing; Han, Shuangxue; Huang, Xiuxian; Ni, Jiazuan; He, Xiaoyang
2016-01-27
Icariin, a pharmacologically active component isolated from the Chinese herb Epimedium, has been shown to improve spatial learning and memory abilities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats through inhibition of Aβ production and tau protein hyperphosphorylation. However, the potential mechanism of icariin-induced protective effects against mitochondrial dysfunctions in AD still remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of icariin on the modulation of mitochondrial transport and distribution in primary hippocampal cultures from triple-transgenic (3× Tg) AD mice. The results showed that icariin enhanced mitochondrial motility and increased mitochondrial index and mitochondrial length and size in the diseased neurons. Additionally, the expression of the key mitochondrial enzyme, pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α (PDHE1α), and the post synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), was preserved in AD neurons after icariin treatment, accompanied by a downregulation of Aβ and phosphorylated tau expression in the corresponding areas. Further study showed that icariin treatment resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and an increase in fusion protein Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2). These data indicate that icariin can promote mitochondrial transport, protect mitochondria against fragmentation and preserve the expression of mitochondrial and synaptic functional proteins in AD neurons. Thus, icariin may be a potential therapeutic complement for AD and other mitochondrial malfunction-related neuronal degenerative diseases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yijing Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Icariin, a pharmacologically active component isolated from the Chinese herb Epimedium, has been shown to improve spatial learning and memory abilities in Alzheimer’s disease (AD rats through inhibition of Aβ production and tau protein hyperphosphorylation. However, the potential mechanism of icariin-induced protective effects against mitochondrial dysfunctions in AD still remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of icariin on the modulation of mitochondrial transport and distribution in primary hippocampal cultures from triple-transgenic (3× Tg AD mice. The results showed that icariin enhanced mitochondrial motility and increased mitochondrial index and mitochondrial length and size in the diseased neurons. Additionally, the expression of the key mitochondrial enzyme, pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α (PDHE1α, and the post synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95, was preserved in AD neurons after icariin treatment, accompanied by a downregulation of Aβ and phosphorylated tau expression in the corresponding areas. Further study showed that icariin treatment resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1 and an increase in fusion protein Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2. These data indicate that icariin can promote mitochondrial transport, protect mitochondria against fragmentation and preserve the expression of mitochondrial and synaptic functional proteins in AD neurons. Thus, icariin may be a potential therapeutic complement for AD and other mitochondrial malfunction-related neuronal degenerative diseases.
The Location Decisions of Foreign Logistics Firms in China : Does Transport Network Capacity Matter?
Anthony Chin; Hong Junjie
2005-01-01
In recent years the logistic needs have created tremendous pressure on the ‘hard’ transport infrastructure. Logistics and the harness of information technology are the key facilitators of mobility. The Chinese logistics market is still in its infancy and creates tremendous opportunities for investors. It recognized as one of important driving forces both for national economy and business. Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Shenzhen and Guanzhou aspire to be regional or international logistics hubs a...
Paolone, Giovanna; Mallory, Caitlin S; Koshy Cherian, Ajeesh; Miller, Thomas R; Blakely, Randy D; Sarter, Martin
2013-12-01
Reductions in the capacity of the human choline transporter (SLC5A7, CHT) have been hypothesized to diminish cortical cholinergic neurotransmission, leading to risk for cognitive and mood disorders. To determine the acetylcholine (ACh) release capacity of cortical cholinergic projections in a mouse model of cholinergic hypofunction, the CHT+/- mouse, we assessed extracellular ACh levels while mice performed an operant sustained attention task (SAT). We found that whereas SAT-performance-associated increases in extracellular ACh levels of CHT+/- mice were significantly attenuated relative to wildtype littermates, performance on the SAT was normal. Tetrodotoxin-induced blockade of neuronal excitability reduced both dialysate ACh levels and SAT performance similarly in both genotypes. Likewise, lesions of cholinergic neurons abolished SAT performance in both genotypes. However, cholinergic activation remained more vulnerable to the reverse-dialyzed muscarinic antagonist atropine in CHT+/- mice. Additionally, CHT+/- mice displayed greater SAT-disrupting effects of reverse dialysis of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine. Receptor binding assays revealed a higher density of α4β2* nAChRs in the cortex of CHT+/- mice compared to controls. These findings reveal compensatory mechanisms that, in the context of moderate cognitive challenges, can overcome the performance deficits expected from the significantly reduced ACh capacity of CHT+/- cholinergic terminals. Further analyses of molecular and functional compensations in the CHT+/- model may provide insights into both risk and resiliency factors involved in cognitive and mood disorders.
Czuba, Jonathan A.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Chistopher S.; Voss, Frank D.
2010-01-01
Draining the volcanic, glaciated terrain of Mount Rainier, Washington, the Puyallup, White, and Carbon Rivers convey copious volumes of water and sediment down to Commencement Bay in Puget Sound. Recent flooding in the lowland river system has renewed interest in understanding sediment transport and its effects on flow conveyance throughout the lower drainage basin. Bathymetric and topographic data for 156 cross sections were surveyed in the lower Puyallup River system by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and were compared with similar datasets collected in 1984. Regions of significant aggradation were measured along the Puyallup and White Rivers. Between 1984 and 2009, aggradation totals as measured by changes in average channel elevation were as much as 7.5, 6.5, and 2 feet on the Puyallup, White, and Carbon Rivers, respectively. These aggrading river sections correlated with decreasing slopes in riverbeds where the rivers exit relatively confined sections in the upper drainage and enter the relatively unconstricted valleys of the low-gradient Puget Lowland. Measured grain-size distributions from each riverbed showed a progressive fining downstream. Analysis of stage-discharge relations at streamflow-gaging stations along rivers draining Mount Rainier demonstrated the dynamic nature of channel morphology on river courses influenced by glaciated, volcanic terrain. The greatest rates of aggradation since the 1980s were in the Nisqually River near National (5.0 inches per year) and the White River near Auburn (1.8 inches per year). Less pronounced aggradation was measured on the Puyallup River and the White River just downstream of Mud Mountain Dam. The largest measured rate of incision was measured in the Cowlitz River at Packwood (5.0 inches per year). Channel-conveyance capacity estimated using a one-dimensional hydraulic model decreased in some river reaches since 1984. The reach exhibiting the largest decrease (about 20-50 percent) in channel
Langland, Michael J.
2015-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted numerous sediment transport studies in the Susquehanna River and in particular in three reservoirs in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin to determine sediment transport rates over the past century and to document changes in storage capacity. The Susquehanna River is the largest tributary to Chesapeake Bay and transports about one-half of the total freshwater input and substantial amounts of sediment and nutrients to the bay. The transported loads are affected by deposition in reservoirs (Lake Clarke, Lake Aldred, and Conowingo Reservoir) behind three hydropower dams. The geometry and texture of the deposited sediments in each reservoir upstream from the three dams has been a subject of research in recent decades. Particle size deposition and sediment scouring processes are part of the reservoir dynamics. A Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment was established for Chesapeake Bay to attain water-quality standards. Six states and the District of Columbia agreed to reduce loads to the bay and to meet load allocation goals for the TMDL. The USGS has been estimating annual sediment loads at the Susquehanna River at Marietta, Pennsylvania (above Lake Clarke), and Susquehanna River at Conowingo, Maryland (below Conowingo Reservoir), since the mid-1980s to predict the mass balance of sediment transport through the reservoir system. Using streamflow and sediment data from the Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (upstream from the reservoirs), from 1900 to 1981, sediment loads were greatest in the early to mid-1900s when land disturbance activities from coal production and agriculture were at their peak. Sediment loads declined in the 1950s with the introduction of agricultural soil conservation practices. Loads were dominated by climatic factors in the 1960s (drought) and 1970s (very wet) and have been declining since the 1980s through 2012. The USGS developed a regression equation to
You've Got to Move It, Move It--Adding Logistics and Distribution to the Transportation Curriculum
Roads, David R.
2012-01-01
Long gone are the days when the study of the internal combustion engine was the core of the transportation curriculum offered in most middle schools and high schools. To be competitive and successful, today's students need a more global understanding of transportation, distribution, and logistics systems. In response to this shift to include…
Pfeiffer, A.; Finnegan, N. J.; Willenbring, J. K.
2015-12-01
Gravel-bedded river channels commonly evolve so that median sized grains on the bed surface are at, or near, the threshold for motion when the flow reaches bankfull stage. In addition, theory predicts the near- equivalence of the bankfull (bf) and critical (c) non-dimensional shear stresses (τ*bf ~= τ*c) for straight, cohesionless gravel channels. However, not all natural gravel channels conform to this simple relationship. To understand why some channels maintain bankfull stresses far in excess of what is needed to initiate sediment motion, we compile a dataset of the hydraulic geometry and median grain sizes of ~300 reaches from gravel-bedded rivers in North America. Notably, we find that the ratio of bankfull to critical Shields stresses is significantly higher in West Coast river reaches (2.6, n=77) than in river reaches in the rest of the continent (1.0, n=216). We explore the hypothesis that these reaches have adjusted to maintain a high excess shear stress at bankfull flows to accommodate elevated sediment supplies resulting from rapid erosion along the tectonically active margin of western North America. As a test of this hypothesis, we explore spatial patterns in calculated transport capacity and 10Be-derived erosion rates across North America. We find that an order of magnitude decrease in sediment transport capacity away from the Pacific plate boundary parallels an order of magnitude decrease in 10Be-derived erosion rates. These findings suggest that tectonically sustained high erosion rates on the West Coast may be recorded in the channel geometry and bed surface grain size of gravel-bedded channels.
Sylvest, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Patel, Manish; Dixon, John; Barnes, Adam
2015-04-01
Every spring, the solid carbon dioxide deposited over the martian high latitudes sublimates. Several, unusual surface features, including dark spots and flows on sand dunes, as well as recent activity in martian gullies, have been associated with this CO2 sublimation. Water and/or brines have also been proposed as potential agents for these events, but the timing of these phenomena suggest CO2 sublimation is more likely. However, the exact mechanism by which CO2 sublimation moves sediment is not fully understood, and this understanding is required to validate the CO2 hypothesis. Here we present the results of the first ever laboratory simulations of this process under martian conditions, and show that significant quantities of loose sediment can be transported. The centrepiece of the apparatus is a 1m diameter, 2m long Mars simulation chamber, housed at The Open University, UK. JSC Mars-1A regolith simulant was formed into a slope, inside a box, ~30 cm long, 23 cm wide by 12 cm deep. The box is constructed of coiled, copper tubing to allow cooling of the regolith by liquid nitrogen. The experimental procedure consists of four stages: 1) establishment of a dry atmosphere in the chamber, 2) cooling the regolith sufficiently to support condensation of CO2 frost at reduced pressure, 3) introduction of cooled CO2 gas above the regolith to deposit as frost, and 4) video recording the surface evolution under radiant heating (~100 mins). Two High Definition digital video cameras were mounted above the box and image pairs taken from the videos were then used to create digital elevation models (DEMs) in Agisoft Photoscan at regular intervals. In our initial experiments we performed four experimental runs where the slope was set at or near the angle of repose (~30°). In each case we observed mass wasting events triggered by the sublimation of the deposited CO2 over the whole duration of the insolation. The highest levels of activity occurred in the first third of the run
Large transport Jc in Sn-added SmFeAsO1-xFx tapes prepared by an ex situ PIT method
Wang, Chunlei; Yao, Chao; Lin, He; Zhang, Xianping; Zhang, Qianjun; Wang, Dongliang; Ma, Yanwei; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Sun, Y.; Tamegai, T.
2013-07-01
SmFeAsO1-xFx possesses the highest superconducting transition temperature (Tc) among the iron-based superconductors, with a very high upper critical field and critical current density (Jc). All these are desirable for practical applications. Although tremendous progress has been made in improving the Jc values for Sr(Ba)-122 tapes or wires [1-3], the transport Jc of Sm1111 tapes or wires is still very low. Here we report on large transport critical current densities observed in Sn-added SmFeAsO1-xFx/Fe tapes produced by an ex situ powder-in-tube (PIT) method. It was found that the loss of fluorine was reduced and the intergranular coupling was enhanced in the Sn-added samples. As a result, the onset and offset Tc values for 10 wt%, 20 wt% and 30 wt% Sn-added samples were 52 K and 35 K, 53 K and 39 K, and 54 K and 41.5 K, respectively. In particular, a transport Jc as large as 22 000 A cm-2 (Ic = 160 A) at 4.2 K under self-field was achieved in 30 wt% Sn-added specimens, which is the highest value reported so far for SmFeAsO1-xFx wires and tapes. Magneto-optical imaging further showed that there were large global currents over the whole sample, which is consistent with the results obtained by the four-probe method.
Posthumus, Willem; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Bijma, Koos; Blandamer, Michael J.
1997-01-01
Over the temperature range from 303 to 333 K, the enthalpy of micelle formation by 1-methyl-4-n-dodecylpyridinium iodide in aqueous solution is exothermic, characterised by an isobaric heat capacity of micelle formation equal to -439 ± 10 J K-1 mol-1. At 303 K, the critical micellar concentration (2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bravo, Silvina A; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Amstrup, Jan;
2004-01-01
transport capacity and expression in the rat proximal tubule cell line SKPT0193 cl.2 (SKPT), which expresses rat PEPT2 (rPEPT2) in the apical membrane. Treatment of SKPT cells with EGF during cell culture growth caused a dose-dependent decrease in rPEPT2 transport capacity and expression, as determined...... suggests that this might be disadvantageous when studying PEPT2-mediated transport phenomena. These findings demonstrate for the first time EGF-mediated regulation of PEPT2 expression in a kidney cell line. The relevance for kidney regulation of peptide transport activity in physiological and...... by studies of apical uptake of [14C]glycylsarcosine, rPepT2 mRNA levels, and immunostaining of SKPT cells with a rPEPT2-specific antibody. On the contrary, apical uptake of glucose and lysine was increased in EGF-treated cells, indicating that EGF was not acting generally to decrease apical nutrient uptake...
Gao, Xuechuan; Hai, Xiao; Baigude, Huricha; Guan, Weihua; Liu, Zhiliang
2016-11-01
An advanced multifunctional, hollow metal-organic framework (MOF) drug delivery system with a high drug loading level and targeted delivery was designed and fabricated for the first time and applied to inhibit tumour cell growth. This hollow MOF targeting drug delivery system was prepared via a simple post-synthetic surface modification procedure, starting from hollow ZIF-8 successfully obtained for the first time via a mild phase transformation under solvothermal conditions. As a result, the hollow ZIF-8 exhibits a higher loading capacity for the model anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Subsequently, 5-FU-loaded ZIF-8 was encapsulated into polymer layers (FA-CHI-5-FAM) with three components: a chitosan (CHI) backbone, the imaging agent 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM), and the targeting reagent folic acid (FA). Thus, an advanced drug delivery system, ZIF-8/5-FU@FA-CHI-5-FAM, was fabricated. A cell imaging assay demonstrated that ZIF-8/5-FU@FA-CHI-5-FAM could target and be taken up by MGC-803 cells. Furthermore, the as-prepared ZIF-8/5-FU@FA-CHI-5-FAM exhibited stronger cell growth inhibitory effects on MGC-803 cells because of the release of 5-FU, as confirmed by a cell viability assay. In addition, a drug release experiment in vitro indicated that ZIF-8/5-FU@FA-CHI-5-FAM exhibited high loading capacity (51%) and a sustained drug release behaviour. Therefore, ZIF-8/5-FU@FA-CHI-5-FAM could provide targeted drug transportation, imaging tracking and localized sustained release.
大规模部队铁路输送能力建设研究%Research on Capacity Construction of Large-scale Army Railway Transportation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴晓东; 杨磊
2011-01-01
By analyzing the relationship between railway development and requirement of military transportation,a view was proposed that the development of railway has promoted the capacity of army railway transportation.In the same time,the paradox still exists between the capacity and the demand.Some advices are given to construct army railway transport system on improving capability.%为有效促进我军大规模部队铁路输送能力的进一步提高,通过对近年来铁路建设发展与我军部队铁路输送能力需求的分析,提出了当前大规模部队铁路输送力量建设的措施建议。
Maximilien Brice
2012-01-01
Electrostatic protocol treatment lens. The purpose of this device is to transport Antiprotons from the new ELENA storage beam to all AD experiments. The electrostatic device was successfully tested in ASACUSA two weeks ago.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨娟; 杨丹; 黄彬; 张小洪; 杨聪
2014-01-01
移动Ad-Hoc网络容量的稳定性是保证其服务质量的关键性质之一。本文提出一种新颖的考虑时变传播时延的非合作规划博弈移动Ad-Hoc网络容量分析模型稳定性控制技术。首先求得加入时变传播时延项的非合作规划博弈移动Ad-Hoc网络容量分析模型的源节点发送流量速率演化方程组--一类非线性时变时滞微分方程组，在此基础上采用描述器技术结合线性矩阵不等式技术得到该模型的渐进稳定性准则，并设计了模型稳定性控制的迭代算法。由于是基于等价模型变换，所提出的渐近稳定性判别准则具有较小的保守性。仿真实验验证了本算法的有效性。本建模与分析方法虽以具体的非合作规划博弈移动Ad-Hoc网络容量分析模型为例，但其可以应用于一般的移动Ad-Hoc网络容量稳定性控制问题。%Stability of capacity is one of the key properties for quality of service (QoS) support in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In this paper, a novel technique is proposed for controlling the stability of capacity analysis model for non-cooperative program game MANETs, with the time-varying propagation delay taken into consideration. First, based on the obtained source node flow transmitting rate evolution aligns of capacity analysis model for non-cooperative program game mobile ad-hoc network, when adding the time-varying propagation delay term, which is a class of nonlinear time-varying delay differential aligns, the asymptotic stability criteria of the model are presented in the form of descriptor and linear matrix inequalities. Then, an iterative algorithm is also provided for controlling the stability of the model. The proposed criteria are less conservative since they are based on an equivalent model transformation. Simulation experiments verify the effectiveness of this algorithm. Although the model used in this paper focuses on a specific algorithm, we believe that this
Berkstresser, B. K.
1975-01-01
NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.
Vasilopoulou, E.; Loubière, LS; Heuer, H.; Trajkovic-Arsic, M; Darras, VM; Visser, TJ; Lash, GE; Whitley, GS; McCabe, CJ; Franklyn, JA; Kilby, MD; Chan, SY
2013-01-01
textabstractMonocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a well-established thyroid hormone (TH) transporter. In humans, MCT8 mutations result in changes in circulating TH concentrations and X-linked severe global neurodevelopmental delay. MCT8 is expressed in the human placenta throughout gestation, with increased expression in trophoblast cells from growth-restricted pregnancies. We postulate that MCT8 plays an important role in placental development and transplacental TH transport. We investiga...
E. Vasilopoulou (Elisavet); L.S. Loubière (Laurence); H. Heuer (Heike); M. Trajkovic-Arsic (Marija); V.M. Darras (Veerle); T.J. Visser (Theo); G.E. Lash (Gendie); G.S. Whitley (Guy); C.J. McCabe (Christopher); J.A. Franklyn (Jayne); M.D. Kilby (Mark); S.Y. Chan (Shiao)
2013-01-01
textabstractMonocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a well-established thyroid hormone (TH) transporter. In humans, MCT8 mutations result in changes in circulating TH concentrations and X-linked severe global neurodevelopmental delay. MCT8 is expressed in the human placenta throughout gestation, wit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gilmar E. Cerquetani
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram desenvolver rotina computacional para a solução da equação de Yalin e do diagrama de Shields e avaliar uma equação simplificada para modelar a capacidade de transporte de sedimento num Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico que possa ser utilizada no Water Erosion Prediction Project - WEPP, assim como em outros modelos de predição da erosão do solo. A capacidade de transporte de sedimento para o fluxo superficial foi representada como função-potência da tensão cisalhante, a qual revelou ser aproximação da equação de Yalin. Essa equação simplificada pôde ser aplicada em resultados experimentais oriundos de topografia complexa. A equação simplificada demonstrou acuracidade em relação à equação de Yalin, quando calibrada utilizando-se da tensão média cisalhante. Testes de validação com dados independentes demonstraram que a equação simplificada foi eficiente para estimar a capacidade de transporte de sedimento.The objectives of the present work were to develop a computational routine to solve Yalin equation and Shield diagram and to evaluate a simplified equation for modeling sediment transport capacity in a Dystrophic Hapludox that could be used in the Water Erosion Prediction Project - WEPP, as well as other soil erosion models. Sediment transport capacity for shallow overland flow was represented as a power function of the hydraulic shear stress and which showed to be an approximation to the Yalin equation for sediment transport capacity. The simplified equation for sediment transport could be applied to experimental data from a complex topography. The simplified equation accurately approximated the Yalin equation when calibrated using the mean hydraulic shear stress. Validation tests using independent data showed that the simplified equation had a good performance in predicting sediment transport capacity.
Barkan, Christopher P L
2008-12-15
As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or "risk reduction options" (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective
Tarry, Scott E.; Bowen, Brent D.
2001-01-01
America's air transport system is currently faced with two equally important dilemmas. First, congestion and delays associated with the overburdened hub and spoke system will continue to worsen unless dramatic changes are made in the way air transportation services are provided. Second, many communities and various regions of the country have not benefited from the air transport system, which tends to focus its attention on major population centers. An emerging solution to both problems is a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), which will utilize a new generation of advanced small aircraft to provide air transport services to those citizens who are poorly served by the hub and spoke system and those citizens who are not served at all. Using new innovations in navigation, communication, and propulsion technologies, these aircraft will enable users to safely and reliably access the over 5,000 general aviation landing facilities around the United States. A small aircraft transportation system holds the potential to revolutionize the way Americans travel and to greatly enhance the use of air transport as an economic development tool in rural and isolated communities across the nation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Patricia Mannarino; Carpio, Lucio Guido Tapia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico
2004-07-01
We present the application of a network transportation model, with capacity restrictions, to determine the minimal cost of supply of a group of markets at the Bolivia Brazil Gas Pipeline influence area, as a function of city gate price. We consider the potential of integration of pipeline transportation at the South Cone, looking forward to supply the Brazilian market. The city gate price consists of the sum of commodity price plus transportation tariffs over every gas pipeline through which the gas passes (except distribution pipelines). There is no distinction related to product quality (e.g. heating value) among suppliers, or among end uses (thermal, thermoelectric or chemical). The model is numerically solved by linear programming. Flow direction alternatives and transportation tariffs alternatives (postal and by zone) are proposed. The model allows, among other applications: identification of the lowest cost supply strategy, identification of network flow capacity bottlenecks, determination of operation and expansion marginal costs using dual solution analysis, investigation of alternative sceneries through sensibility analysis and appreciation of non-optimal solutions that might be attractive. (author)
John Wiley & Sons
2004-01-01
"Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petros Chatzimpiros
2016-06-01
Full Text Available One important component of the urban contribution to carbon dioxide atmospheric emissions is road transport. Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from urban road transport in the centre of Athens recorded over a period of five years (2000–2005 are compared with the carbon sequestration capacity of regional forests, prior to and after the devastating forest fires in Attica in 2007 and 2009, which is the administrative region of Athens. The comparison of carbon flow reveals two complementary aspects of the same socio-environmental issue: persistent sources versus weakening sinks for CO2 within a mixed (urban and rural setting. Road transport emissions are calculated bottom-up using traffic data from in-situ measurements along segments of main roads. The sequestration capacity of forests is estimated by combining satellite images of changes in land cover with literature values of biomass growth rates. Over the study period, the per capita CO2 emissions averaged 0.72 t CO2/cap/year, which is four times higher than the sequestration capacity of forests before and six times higher after the fires. This imbalance highlights the inadequacy of the local carbon sink. Although there is no biogeochemical need to neutralise carbon budgets locally, defining the CO2 flows from urban activities and local ecosystems is likely to raise awareness and promote global environmental sustainability. The results are compared with top-down estimates of CO2 emissions at a regional scale, where suburban areas are dominant, and the differences are discussed in the light of local socioeconomic factors.
Pothof, I.W.M.
2011-01-01
Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes an
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.
2013-04-01
Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.
Research on Shielding of High-capacity Cobalt Source Transport Cask%大容量钴源运输容器屏蔽研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
薛娜; 王炳衡; 毛亚蔚
2015-01-01
大容量钴源运输容器为运输工业用钴源而设计的专用设备。由于内容物放射性活度水平很高、衰变热很大，仅有少数国家具有设计能力，在国内的研制尚属首次。在对钴源运输容器的屏蔽设计研制过程中，突破之前的屏蔽设计技术束缚，采用MCAM程序与MCNP程序模拟计算钴源运输容器外的剂量率水平，并在设计过程中及时发现容器存在的设计缺陷，从而进行了设计改进，保证了容器满足国家标准要求的各项设计措施。目前这些设计措施已通过相关的试验验证。结果表明：针对大容量60 Co运输容器的关键技术制定的设计措施合理有效，充分保证了容器在经受国家标准中规定的正常运输条件和运输中事故条件下各项试验后容器屏蔽性能的完整性，确保钴源运输的安全。%High‐capacity cobalt source transport casks are used to transport 60 Co indus‐trial irradiators .The radioactive contents have special features of high‐activity and high residual heat ,so only a few countries have design capacity .This is the first design pro‐ject for the self‐reliant design of high‐capacity cobalt source transport casks .This paper was devoted to key technology in shielding design of these casks .The MCAM code and MCNP code were used for the calculation of the dose rate level outside the cask and the design improvement was applied in the cask to meet the requirements in national stand‐ard .A series of test proved the casks have ability to transport high‐activity sealed sources safely .Calculation results in design are in well concordance with survey results . It demonstrates the rationality and reliability of the methods used in this shielding design .The patent for the design of high‐capacity cobalt source transport casks was obtained .Through the design for cobalt source transport casks ,a good foundation is laid for the self‐reliant design of spent fuel
Muller, François L L; Cuscov, Marco
2017-02-28
Blanket bogs contain vast amounts of Sphagnum-derived organic substances which can act as powerful chelators for dissolved iron and thus enhance its export to the coastal ocean. To investigate the variations in quantity and quality of these exports, adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) was used to characterize the metal binding properties of molecular weight-fractionated dissolved organic matter (MW-fractionated DOM) in the catchment and coastal plume of a small peat-draining river over a seasonal cycle. Within the plume, both iron- and copper-binding organic ligands showed a linear, conservative distribution with increasing salinity, illustrating the high stability of peatland-derived humic substances (HS). Within the catchment, humic colloids lost up to 50% of their copper-binding capacity, expressed as a molar ratio to organic carbon, after residing for 1 week or more in the main reservoir of the catchment. Immediately downstream of the reservoir, the molar ratio [L2]/[Corg], where L2 was the second strongest copper-binding ligand, was 0.75 × 10(-4) when the reservoir residence time was 5 h but 0.34 × 10(-4) when it was 25 days. Residence time did not affect the carbon specific iron-binding capacity of the humic substances which was [L]/[Corg] = (0.80 ± 0.20) × 10(-2). Our results suggest that the loss of copper-binding capacity with increasing residence time is caused by intracolloidal interactions between iron and HS during transit from peat soil to river mouth.
Smith, Duncan D; Sperry, John S
2014-12-01
The significance of xylem function and metabolic scaling theory begins from the idea that water transport is strongly coupled to growth rate. At the same time, coordination of water transport and growth seemingly should differ between plant functional types. We evaluated the relationships between water transport, growth and species stature in six species of co-occurring trees and shrubs. Within species, a strong proportionality between plant hydraulic conductance (K), sap flow (Q) and shoot biomass growth (G) was generally supported. Across species, however, trees grew more for a given K or Q than shrubs, indicating greater growth-based water-use efficiency (WUE) in trees. Trees also showed slower decline in relative growth rate (RGR) than shrubs, equivalent to a steeper G by mass (M) scaling exponent in trees (0.77-0.98). The K and Q by M scaling exponents were common across all species (0.80, 0.82), suggesting that the steeper G scaling in trees reflects a size-dependent increase in their growth-based WUE. The common K and Q by M exponents were statistically consistent with the 0.75 of ideal scaling theory. A model based upon xylem anatomy and branching architecture consistently predicted the observed K by M scaling exponents but only when deviations from ideal symmetric branching were incorporated.
Xu, Xiaoxue; Chen, Jinyin; Xu, Houjuan; Li, Duochuan
2014-08-01
Fungal species present in extreme low pH environments are expected to have adapted for tolerance to high H(+) concentrations. However, their adaptability mechanism is unclear. In this study, we isolated an acid-tolerant strain of Penicillium funiculosum, which can grow actively at pH 1.0 and thrived in pH 0.6. A major facilitator superfamily transporter (PfMFS) was isolated from an acid-sensitive random insertional mutant (M4) of the fungus. It encodes a putative protein of 551 residues and contains 14 transmembrane-spanning segments. A targeted mutant (M7) carrying an inactivated copy of PfMFS showed an obvious reduction of growth compared with the wild type (WT) and complementation of M7 with PfMFS restored the wild-type level of growth at pH 1.0. Further data showed that the wild-type showed higher intracellular pH than M7 in response to pH 1. Subcellular localization showed that PfMFS was a cell membrane protein. Homology modeling showed structural similarity with an MFS transporter EmrD from Escherichiacoli. These results demonstrate that the PfMFS transporter is involved in the acid resistance and intracellular pH homeostasis of P. funiculosum.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marina Ceruso
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes (Lm is a food-borne pathogen responsible for human listeriosis, an invasive infection with high mortality rates. Lm has developed efficient strategies for survival under stress conditions such as starvation and wide variations in temperature, pH, and osmolarity. Therefore, Lm can survive in food under multiple stress conditions. Detailed studies to determine the mode of action of this pathogen for survival under stress conditions are important to control Lm in food. It has been shown that genes encoding for ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are induced in Lm in food, in particular under stress conditions. Previous studies showed that these genes are involved in sensitivity to nisin, acids, and salt. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of some ABC transporters in biofilm formation. Therefore, deletion mutants of ABC transporter genes (LMOf2365_1875 and LMOf2365_1877 were created in Lm F2365, and then were compared to the wild type for their capacity to form biofilms. Lm strain F2365 was chosen as reference since the genome is fully sequenced and furthermore this strain is particularly involved in food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis. Our results showed that DLMOf2365_1875 had an increased capacity to form biofilms compared to the wild type, indicating that LMOf2365_1875 negatively regulates biofilm formation. A deeper knowledge on the ability to form biofilms in these mutants may help in the development of intervention strategies to control Lm in food and in the environment.
Ceruso, Marina; Fratamico, Pina; Chirollo, Claudia; Taglialatela, Rosanna; Cortesi, Maria Luisa
2014-01-01
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a food-borne pathogen responsible for human listeriosis, an invasive infection with high mortality rates. Lm has developed efficient strategies for survival under stress conditions such as starvation and wide variations in temperature, pH, and osmolarity. Therefore, Lm can survive in food under multiple stress conditions. Detailed studies to determine the mode of action of this pathogen for survival under stress conditions are important to control Lm in food. It has been shown that genes encoding for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are induced in Lm in food, in particular under stress conditions. Previous studies showed that these genes are involved in sensitivity to nisin, acids, and salt. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of some ABC transporters in biofilm formation. Therefore, deletion mutants of ABC transporter genes (LMOf2365_1875 and LMOf2365_1877) were created in Lm F2365, and then were compared to the wild type for their capacity to form biofilms. Lm strain F2365 was chosen as reference since the genome is fully sequenced and furthermore this strain is particularly involved in food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis. Our results showed that ΔLMOf2365_1875 had an increased capacity to form biofilms compared to the wild type, indicating that LMOf2365_1875 negatively regulates biofilm formation. A deeper knowledge on the ability to form biofilms in these mutants may help in the development of intervention strategies to control Lm in food and in the environment. PMID:27800311
Powers, Shelley
2007-01-01
Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica
Vasilopoulou, Elisavet; Loubière, Laurence S; Heuer, Heike; Trajkovic-Arsic, Marija; Darras, Veerle M; Visser, Theo J; Lash, Gendie E; Whitley, Guy S; McCabe, Christopher J; Franklyn, Jayne A; Kilby, Mark D; Chan, Shiao Y
2013-01-01
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a well-established thyroid hormone (TH) transporter. In humans, MCT8 mutations result in changes in circulating TH concentrations and X-linked severe global neurodevelopmental delay. MCT8 is expressed in the human placenta throughout gestation, with increased expression in trophoblast cells from growth-restricted pregnancies. We postulate that MCT8 plays an important role in placental development and transplacental TH transport. We investigated the effect of altering MCT8 expression in human trophoblast in vitro and in a Mct8 knockout mouse model. Silencing of endogenous MCT8 reduced T3 uptake into human extravillous trophoblast-like cells (SGHPL-4; 40%, PMCT8 over-expression transiently increased T3 uptake (SGHPL-4∶30%, PMCT8 did not significantly affect SGHPL-4 invasion, but with MCT8 over-expression T3 treatment promoted invasion compared with no T3 (3.3-fold; PMCT8 silencing increased cytotrophoblast viability (∼20%, PMCT8 over-expression reduced cytotrophoblast viability independently of T3 (∼20%, PMct8 knockout reduced fetal:placental weight ratios compared with wild-type controls at gestational day 18 (25%, Pfetal and placental weights were not significantly different. The volume fraction of the labyrinthine zone of the placenta, which facilitates maternal-fetal exchange, was reduced in Mct8 knockout placentae (10%, PMCT8 makes a significant contribution to T3 uptake into human trophoblast cells and has a role in modulating human trophoblast cell invasion and viability. In mice, Mct8 knockout has subtle effects upon fetoplacental growth and does not significantly affect placental cell viability probably due to compensatory mechanisms in vivo.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elisavet Vasilopoulou
Full Text Available Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8 is a well-established thyroid hormone (TH transporter. In humans, MCT8 mutations result in changes in circulating TH concentrations and X-linked severe global neurodevelopmental delay. MCT8 is expressed in the human placenta throughout gestation, with increased expression in trophoblast cells from growth-restricted pregnancies. We postulate that MCT8 plays an important role in placental development and transplacental TH transport. We investigated the effect of altering MCT8 expression in human trophoblast in vitro and in a Mct8 knockout mouse model. Silencing of endogenous MCT8 reduced T3 uptake into human extravillous trophoblast-like cells (SGHPL-4; 40%, P<0.05 and primary cytotrophoblast (15%, P<0.05. MCT8 over-expression transiently increased T3 uptake (SGHPL-4∶30%, P<0.05; cytotrophoblast: 15%, P<0.05. Silencing MCT8 did not significantly affect SGHPL-4 invasion, but with MCT8 over-expression T3 treatment promoted invasion compared with no T3 (3.3-fold; P<0.05. Furthermore, MCT8 silencing increased cytotrophoblast viability (∼20%, P<0.05 and MCT8 over-expression reduced cytotrophoblast viability independently of T3 (∼20%, P<0.05. In vivo, Mct8 knockout reduced fetal:placental weight ratios compared with wild-type controls at gestational day 18 (25%, P<0.05 but absolute fetal and placental weights were not significantly different. The volume fraction of the labyrinthine zone of the placenta, which facilitates maternal-fetal exchange, was reduced in Mct8 knockout placentae (10%, P<0.05. However, there was no effect on mouse placental cell proliferation in vivo. We conclude that MCT8 makes a significant contribution to T3 uptake into human trophoblast cells and has a role in modulating human trophoblast cell invasion and viability. In mice, Mct8 knockout has subtle effects upon fetoplacental growth and does not significantly affect placental cell viability probably due to compensatory mechanisms in
Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Erickson, D. J.; Denning, A. S.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.
2007-01-01
As we enter the new era of satellite remote sensing for CO2 and other carbon cyclerelated quantities, advanced modeling and analysis capabilities are required to fully capitalize on the new observations. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. For application to current, planned, and future remotely sensed CO2 data, it is desirable that these models are accurate and unbiased at time scales from less than daily to multi-annual and at spatial scales from several kilometers or finer to global. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 1998 through 2006. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at lxi degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-2), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model's ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to in situ observations at sites in Northern mid latitudes and the continental tropics. The influence of key process representations is inferred. We find that the model can resolve much of the hourly to synoptic variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The seasonal cycle and its
Adam, John; Locmelis, Marek; Afonso, Juan Carlos; Rushmer, Tracy; Fiorentini, Marco L.
2014-06-01
silicate melts and aqueous fluids are thought to play critical roles in the chemical differentiation of the Earth's crust and mantle. Yet their relative effects are poorly constrained. We have addressed this issue by measuring partition coefficients for 50 trace and minor elements in experimentally produced aqueous fluids, coexisting basanite melts, and peridotite minerals. The experiments were conducted at 1.0-4.0 GPa and 950-1200°C in single capsules containing (either 40 or 50 wt %) H2O and trace element-enriched basanite glass. This allowed run products to be easily identified and analyzed by a combination of electron microprobe and LAM-ICP-MS. Fluid and melt compositions were reconstructed from mass balances and published solubility data for H2O in silicate melts. Relative to the basanite melt, the solutes from H2O-fluids are enriched in SiO2, alkalis, Ba, and Pb, but depleted in FeO, MgO, CaO, and REE. With increasing pressure, the mutual solubility of fluids and melts increases rapidly with complete miscibility between H2O and basanitic melts occurring between 3.0 and 4.0 GPa at 1100°C. Although LREE are favored over HREE in the fluid phase, they are less soluble than the HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti). Thus, the relative depletions of HFSE that are characteristic of arc magmas must be due to a residual phase that concentrates HFSE (e.g., rutile). Otherwise, H2O-fluids have the capacity to impart many of the geochemical characteristics that distinguish some rocks and melts from the deep mantle lithosphere (e.g., MARID and lamproites).
Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Christensen, Victoria G.
2005-01-01
Large concentrations of ammonia and densities of bacteria have been detected in reaches of the Kansas River in northeast Kansas during low streamflow conditions, prompting the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) to list these reaches as water-quality limited with respect to ammonia and fecal coliform bacteria. Sources for ammonia and bacteria in the watershed consist of wastewater-treatment facilities (WWTFs) and agricultural and urban runoff. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with KDHE, conducted an investigation of the Kansas River to characterize hydrologic and water-quality conditions and to simulate ammonia assimilative capacity and bacteria transport during low streamflow. This report characterizes the water-quality conditions, documents the calibration of a two-dimensional water-quality model, and presents results of hypothetical simulations of existing and future WWTFs discharging to the Kansas River during low streamflow.
Checking Capacity for MIMO Configurations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne
2007-01-01
Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas.......Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song Alin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Zhaojun [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liang Yongchao, E-mail: ycliang@caas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)
2009-12-15
A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ozdemir, Ozkan Emre, E-mail: ozdemir@psu.edu; Avramova, Maria N., E-mail: mna109@psu.edu
2014-10-15
Highlights: • Validation of implemented multi-dimensional subchannel boron transport model. • Extension of boron transport model to entrained droplets. • Implementation of boron precipitation model. • Testing of the boron precipitation model under transient condition. - Abstract: The risk of small-break loss of coolant accident (SB-LOCA) and other reactivity initiated transients caused by boron dilution in the light water reactors (LWRs), and the complications of tracking the soluble boron concentration experimentally inside the primary coolant have stimulated the interest in computational studies for accurate boron tracking simulations in nuclear reactors. In Part I of this study, the development and implementation of a multi-dimensional boron transport model with modified Godunov scheme based on a subchannel approach within the COBRA-TF (CTF) thermal-hydraulic code was presented. The modified Godunov scheme approach with a physical diffusion term was determined to provide the most accurate and precise solution. Current paper extends these conclusions and presents the model validation studies against experimental data from the Rossendorf coolant mixing model (ROCOM) test facility. In addition, the importance of the two-phase flow characteristics in modeling boron transient are emphasized, especially during long-term cooling period after the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) condition in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The CTF capabilities of boron transport modeling are further improved based on the three-field representation of the two-phase flow utilized in the code. The boron transport within entrained droplets is modeled, and a model for predicting the boron precipitation under transient conditions is developed and tested. It is aimed to extend the applicability of CTF to reactor transient simulations, and particularly to a large-break loss of coolant accident (LB-LOCA) analysis.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
海军; 李健
2011-01-01
分析了利用民航货机输送部队装备的限制因素,指出了当前民航货机输送部队重装备存在的主要问题,从对部队重装备进行技术处理、研发重装备空运专用设备和适应国际航空运输标准要求等方面,探讨了提高部队重装备空运能力的对策措施,对于拓展部队重装备航空运输保障范围,提高部队航空应急投送能力具有一定的参考价值。%This paper analyzed the limiting factors of transporting army equipments by civil aviation freighter,pointed out its main existing problems,explored some countermeasures for improving army heavy equipments aerial transporting support capacity from disposing the heavy equipments technology,developing the special aerial transporting facility of heavy equipments,and adapting the international aviation transportation standards,which has certain values to expand the support scopes of army heavy equipments aerial transportation,and to improve the support capacity of army aviation emergence transportation.
de Boer, J.
2000-01-01
In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop
Online Ad Assignment with an Ad Exchange
Dvořák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika
2016-01-01
Ad exchanges are becoming an increasingly popular way to sell advertisement slots on the internet. An ad exchange is basically a spot market for ad impressions. A publisher who has already signed contracts reserving advertisement impressions on his pages can choose between assigning a new ad impression for a new page view to a contracted advertiser or to sell it at an ad exchange. This leads to an online revenue maximization problem for the publisher. Given a new impression to sell decide whe...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dias Filho, Waldir [Fundacao de Ensino Superior de Sao Joao del Rei (FUNREI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Biomedica; Urban, Carlos W. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Cerqueira, Sergio A.G. [Fundacao de Ensino Superior de Sao Joao del Rei (FUNREI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica
1995-07-01
This paper describes, from the energy point of view, the relation of sugarcane transportation with the biomass demand in sugarcane alcohol factories. it also researches the influence of the factory production capacity in the global system efficiency. The results indicates that a bigger energetic global efficiency is reached by the reduction of the production capacity of the alcohol factories and by investment in industrial technology. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Landex, Alex
2011-01-01
Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong-Chuan Yang
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dias Filho, Waldir
1994-12-01
This work analyses the sugarcane alcohol factory as a energy production system. It considers the energy balance models of the literature that counts the energy inputs in the two phases of the agricultural and industrial processing. This analysis shows the need of the construction of a new model that could consider the sugarcane transportation as a third subsystem that consists in the interface of the agricultural and industrial subsystems. The analysis of sensibility of the efficiency function for the ratio of agricultural, industrial and transportation return suggests production models of small capacity with some technic, as being the most reasonable from the energy point of view. Besides, the work indicates that a bigger impact over the energetic global efficiency of the alcohol industrial sector could be reached by investment in industrial technology applied to the small capacity alcohol factories. (author)
Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.
2016-06-01
We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.
Callebaut, Nele; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara
2015-01-01
We study segmented strings in flat space and in $AdS_3$. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In $AdS_3$, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an $AdS_2$ subspace of $AdS_3$. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in $AdS_3$ and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in $AdS_3$ and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente
2012-01-01
A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... standard or governmental political objective exists. In most cases it was possible to select a set of indicators, including thresholds that are workable in a carrying capacity planning at the local administrative levels. Not all relevant sectors at the decentralized level were included. Indicators of SCC...
Costa, Miguel S; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E
2015-01-01
We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...
Constructing Lifshitz solutions from AdS
Cassani, Davide
2011-01-01
Under general assumptions, we show that a gravitational theory in d+1 dimensions admitting an AdS solution can be reduced to a d-dimensional theory containing a Lifshitz solution with dynamical exponent z=2. Working in a d=4, N=2 supergravity setup, we prove that if the AdS background is N=2 supersymmetric, then the Lifshitz geometry preserves 1/4 of the supercharges, and we construct the corresponding Killing spinors. We illustrate these results in examples from supersymmetric consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity, enhancing the class of known 4-dimensional Lifshitz solutions of string theory. As a byproduct, we find a new AdS4 x S1 x T(1,1) solution of type IIB.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王海涛
2005-01-01
首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.
Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong
2010-01-01
Organisational defensive patterns, including skilled incompetence, organisational defensive routines and fancy footwork, are considered to be a hindrance to effective learning and innovation capacity building in all organisations. The purpose of this research is to investigate: 1) the perceptions of the influence of organisational defensive…
AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu
2002-12-09
In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.
Superradiant instability in AdS
Ganchev, Bogdan
2016-01-01
The phenomenon of superradiance in the context of asymptotically global AdS spacetimes is investigated with particular accent on its effect on the stability of the systems under consideration. To this end, the concept of an asymptotically AdS spacetime is explained, together with its implications on the boundary conditions at $\\mathcal{I}$, as well as the Newman-Penrose-Teukolsky formalism, whereby the Teukolsky master equation in a most general form for Kerr-AdS is given. Furthermore, work done in the cases of RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS is laid out in a concise manner, putting emphasis on the important steps taken in determining the endpoint of the superradiant instability in the two configurations. For the former this turns out to be a black hole with reduced charge and a static charged scalar condensate around it, whereas for the latter two of the more probable outcomes are presented, both of which imply a violation of one of the cosmic censorships.
Buchel, Alex; Lehner, Luis
2013-01-01
We construct boson stars in global Anti de Sitter (AdS) space and study their stability. Linear perturbation results suggest that the ground state along with the first three excited state boson stars are stable. We evolve some of these solutions and study their nonlinear stability in light of recent work \\cite{Bizon:2011gg} arguing that a weakly turbulent instability drives scalar perturbations of AdS to black hole formation. However evolutions suggest that boson stars are nonlinearly stable and immune to the instability for sufficiently small perturbation. Furthermore, these studies find other families of initial data which similarly avoid the instability for sufficiently weak parameters. Heuristically, we argue that initial data families with widely distributed mass-energy distort the spacetime sufficiently to oppose the coherent amplification favored by the instability. From the dual CFT perspective our findings suggest that there exist families of rather generic initial conditions in strongly coupled CFT ...
AdS solutions through transgression
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gauntlett, J.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sciences; Kim, Nakwoo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Physics and Research Inst. of Basic Science
2008-07-15
We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)
Refined Holographic Entanglement Entropy for the AdS Solitons and AdS black Holes
Ishihara, Masafumi; Ning, Bo
2012-01-01
We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy on a disk region for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss-Bonnet term. The AdS soliton is dual to a gapped system with an IR fixed-point. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy. We then study the renormalization group (RG) flow of the refinement by tuning the linear size of the chosen disk region. Our main results are (i) the RG flow of the refinement decreases monotonically for most of the cases; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS$_5$ soliton even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the refinement obeys the volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover; however, the crossover will turn into phase transition by the Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iv) for the AdS solitons, there are discontinuous phase transitions bet...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz
2013-01-01
To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...
Hertog, Thomas
2004-12-01
We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.
NMIA:Strictly Control Newly Added Copper Production Capacity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2016-01-01
Recently,Jia Mingxing,Vice President&Secretary-general and spokesperson of the China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association,expressed his views on the current copper industry and copper market.Jia Mingxing said,within a considerably long period of time,copper remains the biggest metal variety in the nonferrous metals industry.
Persson, Patrik; Fasching, Angelica; Teerlink, Tom; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik
2017-02-01
Diabetes mellitus is associated with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability thereby affecting renal blood flow regulation. Previous reports have demonstrated that cellular uptake of l-arginine is rate limiting for nitric oxide production and that plasma l-arginine concentration is decreased in diabetes. We therefore investigated whether regional renal blood flow regulation is affected by cellular l-arginine uptake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were anesthetized with thiobutabarbital, and the left kidney was exposed. Total, cortical, and medullary renal blood flow was investigated before and after renal artery infusion of increasing doses of either l-homoarginine to inhibit cellular uptake of l-arginine or N(ω)-nitro- l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide synthase. l-Homoarginine infusion did not affect total or cortical blood flow in any of the groups, but caused a dose-dependent reduction in medullary blood flow. l-NAME decreased total, cortical and medullary blood flow in both groups. However, the reductions in medullary blood flow in response to both l-homoarginine and l-NAME were more pronounced in the control groups compared with the diabetic groups. Isolated cortical tubular cells displayed similar l-arginine uptake capacity whereas medullary tubular cells isolated from diabetic rats had increased l-arginine uptake capacity. Diabetics had reduced l-arginine concentrations in plasma and medullary tissue but increased l-arginine concentration in cortical tissue. In conclusion, the reduced l-arginine availability in plasma and medullary tissue in diabetes results in reduced nitric oxide-mediated regulation of renal medullary hemodynamics. Cortical blood flow regulation displays less dependency on extracellular l-arginine and the upregulated cortical tissue l-arginine may protect cortical hemodynamics in diabetes.
Adamczewska, A M; Morris, S
2000-05-01
Red crabs, Gecarcoidea natalis, exhibit seasonal activity patterns: low activity during the dry season when they shelter in burrows to avoid dehydration, and high activity during the wet season. Red crabs were examined in situ in the rainforest of Christmas Island to determine if there were underlying seasonal differences in the capacity for exercise and associated metabolism. During both seasons, free-ranging (FR) crabs engaged in their normal activities and, together with crabs induced to exercise for 5 min, were sampled for haemolymph and muscle tissue. Respiratory gases in the haemolymph and key metabolites were measured to assess differences in metabolic status of FR and exercised crabs. Actively foraging FR crabs during the wet season exhibited a relative haemolymph hypoxia (2.9 kPa) and accumulated an extra 3 mmol. litre(-1) of CO(2) compared to the relatively inactive FR crabs during the dry season. Wet-season crabs appeared to be in a state of relative respiratory acidosis compared to dry-season animals. This hypercapnia may arise as a consequence of a relative hypoventilation in animals with a relatively higher metabolic rate during the wet season. Oxygenation of pulmonary and arterial haemolymph was similar and remained high after 5 min of exercise, indicating that the gills and lungs functioned similarly in gas exchange in both FR and exercised crabs. During exercise, venous O(2) reserves decreased and red crabs experienced a mixed respiratory/metabolic acidosis. Similar changes, after 5 min of enforced exercise, in metabolite concentrations, pH and respiratory gas status in the haemolymph during both sampling seasons suggest that the crabs maintain similar capacity to increase exercise during the wet and the dry seasons, despite the differences in underlying physiological status. This is important since after prolonged inactivity during the dry season, with the arrival of moonsoonal rains, red crabs must engage in their annual breeding migration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinto, Vanda; Pinho, Maria Joao [Institute of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Jose, Pedro A. [Center for Molecular Physiology Research, Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Soares-da-Silva, Patricio, E-mail: pss@med.up.pt [Institute of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal)
2010-07-30
Research highlights: {yields} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only. {yields} It is suggested that Na{sup +} binding in renal ASCT2 may be regulated by ROS in SHR PTE cells. -- Abstract: The presence of high and low sodium affinity states for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in immortalized renal proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells was previously reported (Am. J. Physiol. 293 (2007) R538-R547). This study evaluated the role of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake of ASCT2 in immortalized renal PTE cells from Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Na{sup +} dependence of [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake was investigated replacing NaCl with an equimolar concentration of choline chloride in vehicle- and apocynin-treated cells. Na{sup +} removal from the uptake solution abolished transport activity in both WKY and SHR PTE cells. Decreases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels in the extracellular medium significantly reduced Na{sup +}-K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of the low-affinity high-capacity component in SHR PTE cells, with no effect on the high-affinity low-capacity state of the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake. After removal of apocynin from the culture medium, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels returned to basal values within 1 to 3 h in both WKY and SHR PTE cells and these were found stable for the next 24 h. Under these experimental conditions, the Na{sup +}-K{sub m} and V{sub max} of the high-affinity low-capacity state were unaffected and the low-affinity high-capacity component remained significantly decreased 1 day but not 4 days after apocynin removal. In conclusion, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only
Adding more value to added-value
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marian, Livia
regulation. The results of a qualitative concept test reveal positive attitudes towards the proposed production process. The discussions about fewer standards being sufficient or about options “in-between” conventional and organic standards indicate that the difference in production processes is noticed, yet...... it is probably valued less than expected. The added attributes need to be thoroughly considered when developing and marketing “organic plus” products, as their effect on other product characteristics (e.g. high prices) can detract from their added value....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曹海泉; 崔振宇; 沈咏梅
2012-01-01
Military transportation equipment is the main carrier to the flow of military material in the system of modem mili- tary logistic. It is analyzed in this paper that to make overall plans and take all factors into consideration of military trans- portation equipment development, to recognize the requirement of military transportation equipment support capacity on the evolution of modem military logistic in the progress of building the system of modem military Logistic. It is vital realistic to establish countermeasure of military transportation equipment development. It will lead to efficiencies of Military Logistic.%军交运输装备是军事物流系统中军事物资流动的重要载体。在构建现代军事物流体系过程中，统筹考虑军交运输装备的建设与发展，认清现代军事物流发展对军交运输装备建设与发展的需求，对于制定军交运输装备建设与发展对策、提高军事物流效率，具有重要的现实意义。
49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mental capacity. 1572.109 Section 1572.109... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.109 Mental capacity. (a) An applicant has mental incapacity, if he or she has been— (1) Adjudicated as lacking mental capacity; or (2) Committed to a...
Probing crunching AdS cosmologies
Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav
2016-02-01
Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.
MWAHCA: a multimedia wireless ad hoc cluster architecture.
Diaz, Juan R; Lloret, Jaime; Jimenez, Jose M; Sendra, Sandra
2014-01-01
Wireless Ad hoc networks provide a flexible and adaptable infrastructure to transport data over a great variety of environments. Recently, real-time audio and video data transmission has been increased due to the appearance of many multimedia applications. One of the major challenges is to ensure the quality of multimedia streams when they have passed through a wireless ad hoc network. It requires adapting the network architecture to the multimedia QoS requirements. In this paper we propose a new architecture to organize and manage cluster-based ad hoc networks in order to provide multimedia streams. Proposed architecture adapts the network wireless topology in order to improve the quality of audio and video transmissions. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture uses some information such as each node's capacity and the QoS parameters (bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss). The architecture splits the network into clusters which are specialized in specific multimedia traffic. The real system performance study provided at the end of the paper will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.
MWAHCA: A Multimedia Wireless Ad Hoc Cluster Architecture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan R. Diaz
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Wireless Ad hoc networks provide a flexible and adaptable infrastructure to transport data over a great variety of environments. Recently, real-time audio and video data transmission has been increased due to the appearance of many multimedia applications. One of the major challenges is to ensure the quality of multimedia streams when they have passed through a wireless ad hoc network. It requires adapting the network architecture to the multimedia QoS requirements. In this paper we propose a new architecture to organize and manage cluster-based ad hoc networks in order to provide multimedia streams. Proposed architecture adapts the network wireless topology in order to improve the quality of audio and video transmissions. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture uses some information such as each node’s capacity and the QoS parameters (bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss. The architecture splits the network into clusters which are specialized in specific multimedia traffic. The real system performance study provided at the end of the paper will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.
Capacity and Capacity Utilization in Fishing Industries
Kirkley, James E; Squires, Dale
1999-01-01
Excess capacity of fishing fleets is one of the most pressing problems facing the world's fisheries and the sustainable harvesting of resource stocks. Considerable confusion persists over the definition and measurement of capacity and capacity utilization in fishing. Fishing capacity and capacity utilization, rather than capital (or effort) utilization, provide the appropriate framework. This paper provides both technological-economic and economic definitions of capacity and excess capacity i...
Probing crunching AdS cosmologies
Kumar, S Prem
2015-01-01
Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of N=8 supergravity on AdS_4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor a_{max} . Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy E \\leq a_{max}, while geodesics with E > a_{max} terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outw...
Adamo, Tim; Williams, Jack
2016-01-01
We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS$_5$ is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.
Holography of AdS vacuum bubbles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbon, J.L.F. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT UAM/CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2011-07-15
We consider the fate of AdS vacua connected by tunneling events. A precise holographic dual of thin-walled Coleman-de Luccia bounces is proposed in terms of Fubini instantons in an unstable CFT. This proposal is backed by several qualitative and quantitative checks, including the precise calculation of the instanton action appearing in evaluating the decay rate. Big crunches manifest themselves as time dependent processes which reach the boundary of field space in a finite time. The infinite energy difference involved is identified on the boundary and highlights the ill-defined nature of the bulk setup. We propose a qualitative scenario in which the crunch is resolved by stabilizing the CFT, so that all attempts at crunching always end up shielded from the boundary by the formation of black hole horizons. In all these well defined bulk processes the configurations have the same asymptotics and are finite energy excitations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aaron Paul Russell
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether skeletal muscle from whole body creatine transporter (CrT; SLC6A8 knockout mice (CrT-/y actually contained creatine (Cr and if so, whether this Cr could result from an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis. Gastrocnemius muscle from CrT-/y and wild type (CrT+/y mice were analysed for ATP, Cr, Cr phosphate (CrP and total Cr (TCr content. Muscle protein and gene expression of the enzymes responsible for Cr biosynthesis L-arginine:glycine amidotransferase (AGAT and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT were also determined as were the rates of in vitro Cr biosynthesis. CrT-/y mice muscle contained measurable (22.3 ± 4.3 mmol.kg-1 dry mass, but markedly reduced (P<0.05 TCr levels compared with CrT+/y mice (125.0 ± 3.3 mmol.kg-1 dry mass. AGAT gene and protein expression were higher (~3 fold; P<0.05 in CrT-/y mice muscle, however GAMT gene and protein expression remained unchanged. The in vitro rate of Cr biosynthesis was elevated 1.5 fold (P<0.05 in CrT-/y mice muscle. These data clearly demonstrate that in the absence of CrT protein, skeletal muscle has reduced, but not absent, levels of Cr. This presence of Cr was most likely due to an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis as evidenced by an increased AGAT protein expression and in vitro Cr biosynthesis rates in CrT-/y mice. Of note, the up regulation of Cr biosynthesis in CrT-/y mice muscle was unable to fully restore Cr levels to that found in wild type muscle.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaspersen, Peter
2007-01-01
På grundlag af evalueringer og forskning i gymnasiereformen 2005 foreslås det at skille problemerne ad i forskellige niveauer. Herved kan der arbejdes med niveaudelte løsninger.......På grundlag af evalueringer og forskning i gymnasiereformen 2005 foreslås det at skille problemerne ad i forskellige niveauer. Herved kan der arbejdes med niveaudelte løsninger....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘慧芳; 张鑫
2012-01-01
GY -20和GY- 40型大容量钴-60运输容器是为运输工业用钴-60成品源和钴-60棒束而设计的专用设备.由于内容物放射性活度水平高、衰变热大,仅有加拿大、英国、俄罗斯等少数国家具有设计能力.本文综合考虑容器结构、热工、力学、屏蔽等方面的要求,对容器设计和制造过程中的关键技术以及解决方案进行了分析研究.试验验证结果表明,容器的结构设计、包铅边界设计准则的确定和制造过程的质量控制措施合理、有效,能保证容器在各种工况下的屏蔽完整性,容器具有安全运输大容量钴-60源项的能力,其设计满足相关标准和规范要求,可为其他B型货包的设计提供参考.%GY-20 and GY-40 high-capacity cobalt-60 transport,casks are used to transport cobalt-60 industrial irradiators and cobalt-60 bundles. The radioactive contents have special features of high-activity and high residual heat, so only a few countries such as Canada, England and Russia have design capacity. The key technologies and corresponding solutions were studied for the design and manufacture of the cask taking into account the structural, thermal, mechanics and shield requests. A series of tests prove that the cask structure design, design criteria for lead coating structure and quality control measurements are reasonable and effective, and the cask shield integrity can be ensured for all conditions. The casks have ability to transport high-activity sealed sources safely, and the design of cask satisfies the requirement of design code and standard. It can provide reference for other B type package.
On Heat Properties of AdS Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
Belhaj, A; Moumni, H EL; Masmar, K; Sedra, B; Segui, A
2015-01-01
We investigate the heat properties of AdS Black Holes in higher dimensions. We consider the study of the corresponding thermodynamical properties including the heat capacity explored in the determination of the black hole stability. In particular, we compute the heat latent. To overcome the instability problem, the Maxwell construction, in the (T,S)-plane, is elaborated. This method is used to modify the the Hawking-Page phase structure by removing the negative heat capacity regions. Then, we discuss the thermodynamic cycle and the heat engines using the way based on the extraction of the work from a black hole solution.
Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bradl, H.B. [Bilfinger + Berger Bauaktiengesellschaft, Mannheim (Germany)
1997-12-31
Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong
2011-01-01
Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... is investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of an international corporation. Findings: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms...
Laurent Guiraud
1998-01-01
When the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) was stopped in 1996, because of its costly operation, a cheaper way of continuing low-energy antiproton physics was sought. The Antiproton-Collector (AC), added in 1987 to the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) to provide a tenfold intensity increase, was converted into the Antiproton-Decelerator (AD). Antiprotons from the target at 3.5 GeV/c are decelerated to 100 MeV/c, and fast-ejected to the experiments. Major changes were necessary. Above all, the conversion from a constant-field machine to one with a magnetic cycle, modulating the field by an impressive factor 35. New systems for stochastic and electron cooling had to be added. Beam diagnostics at an intensity of only 2E7 antiprotons was a challenge. In 2000, the AD began delivery of antiprotons to the experiments.
Bena, Iosif; Puhm, Andrea
2015-01-01
It was argued in arXiv:1203.4227 that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically-AdS_3 x S^3/Z_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.
The Capacity Value of Wind in the United States: Methods and Implementation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milligan, Michael; Porter, Kevin
2006-03-01
As more wind energy capacity is added in the nation, the question of wind's capacity value is raised. This article shows how the capacity value of wind is determined, both in theory and in practice. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Wellington Batista Lopes
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The transfer of energy and matter between two topographic units comprise the connectivity process. The identification of the connectivity patterns in the catchments allow to represent the linking degree between sediment producing areas and network drainage. The aim of this study was to evaluate spatial and temporal connectivity and estimate the potential capacity of sediment transport on a meso-semiarid Basin. The study area comprises the Representative Madalena Basin (RMB with area 124 km², located at federal state from Ceara, Brazil. The assessing the connectivity was done by using the quantitative index. The determination of peak discharge was by the method NRCS (Natural Resouces Conservation Service and the transport capacity (CT, t ha-1 yr-1 was calculated by the method of Morgan (2001. The results showed that: the connectivity potential index was not linearity, but a possible spatial distribution pattern of alternating between producing and receiving areas. The use and occupation of land is determinant in the spatial variation of peak flows; transportation capacity concerns associated with potential connectivity provides best estimates of erosion in the basin; in both models used, the use and occupation of soil was crucial in the results. = A transferência de energia e matéria entre duas unidades topográficas compreende o processo deconectividade. A identificação dos padrões de conectividade em uma bacia hidrográfica permite representar o grau de ligação entre áreas produtoras de sedimentos e a rede de drenagem. Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa analisar a conectividade espaço-temporal e estimar a capacidade potencial de transporte de sedimentos em uma meso-baciasemiárida. A área foco do estudo compreende a Bacia Representativa de Madalena (BRM com área de 124 km², localizada no Estado do Ceará, Brasil. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: conectividade, o pico de descarga e a capacidade de transporte de escoamento da
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hillersdal, Line
in the context of the 'ad libitum meal'. The analytical interest is thus what kind of eaters and bodies are enacted in the meal test and what ideas of prevention and treatment are embedded in their standards. Drawing from ongoing empirical work among Danish obesity researchers performing scientific meal tests I...... ask what make up food stuff and eaters in the meal tests? More specifically I explore a scientific testing of changes in taste preferences before and after weight-loss surgery using an ad libitum buffet with a selection of different foods and another testing the effect of exercise on appetite also...... using an ad libitum meal consisting of spaghetti bolognaise. I analyse the entanglement and concurrence of different knowledge practices and show how several scalings of appetite play out, one ex explaining the aim of the test, being to ”measure what your body would want the most” and hence producing...
Rashvand, Habib
2013-01-01
Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s
ITMAN: An Inter Tactical Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocol
Grandhomme, Florian; Guette, Gilles; Ksentini, Adlen; Plesse, Thierry
2016-01-01
International audience; New generation radio equipment, used by soldiers and vehicles on the battlefield, constitute ad hoc networks and specifically, Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANET). The battlefield where these equipment are deployed includes a majority of coalition communication. Each group on the battleground may communicate with other members of the coalition and establish inter-MANETs links. Operational communications tend to provide tactical ad hoc networks some capacities. There is a be...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melike Ersoy
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this study, capacity estimations with the incorporation of Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010 method are evaluated. Parameter based sensitivity analysis on calculations with the new HCM formula and a comparative evaluation of the new methodology with two most common capacity analysis methods, i.e., the method of critical gap acceptance and the method of regression analysis, are performed. Maximum and minimum headway intervals of follow up time and critical gap parameters are alternated within the sensitivity analysis. The Transport Research Laboratory formula for regression and Australian formula for gap acceptance method are considered in comparison. Relative comparisons of predictions on capacity by HCM2010 method, regression analysis and gap acceptance method are presented considering field data obtained by observations at two roundabouts in Izmir, Turkey. The results of the study show that the HCM2010 formula led to lower capacity estimates than regression analysis and higher estimates than the gap acceptance method. Regarding the real capacity observations under high circulating flow-rates the HCM2010 method yielded to more appropriate results than the regression method. In addition to comparisons, studies on the sensitivity analysis show that entry capacity estimates possess sharper changes as smaller follow up headways are accepted.
Localization on $AdS_2\\times S^1$
David, Justin R; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Narain, Kumar
2016-01-01
Conformal symmetry relates the metric on $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ to that of $S^3$. This implies that under a suitable choice of boundary conditions for fields on $AdS_2$ the partition function of conformal field theories on these spaces must agree which makes $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ a good testing ground to study localization on non-compact spaces. We study supersymmetry on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ and determine the localizing Lagrangian for ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2\\times S^1$. We evaluate the partition function of ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2 \\times S^1$ using localization, where the radius of $S^1$ is $q$ times that of $AdS_2$. With boundary conditions on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ which ensure that all the physical fields are normalizable and lie in the space of square integrable wave functions in $AdS_2$, the result for the partition function precisely agrees with that of the theory on the $q$-fold covering of $S^3$.
Israel, D
2005-01-01
We study the exact construction of D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3). We start by defining a family of conformal field theories that gives a natural Euclidean version of the SL(2,R) CFT and does not correspond to H(3)+, the analytic continuation of AdS(3). We argue that one can recuperate the exact CFT results of Lorentzian AdS(3), upon an analytic continuation in the moduli space of these conformal field theories. Then we construct exact boundary states for various symmetric and symmetry-breaking D-branes in AdS(3).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wulan Roro Retno
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and cultural studies. Major conclusions showed that the beauty myth since the Dutch colonial period never been change. The main concept is always in colonialism’s idea: “white is better”. The West is better than the East.
Shelah, Saharon
2011-01-01
We address the following question: Can we expand an NIP theory by adding a linear order such that the expansion is still NIP? Easily, if acl(A)=A for all A, then this is true. Otherwise, we give counterexamples. More precisely, there is a totally categorical theory for which every expansion by a linear order has IP. There is also an \\omega-stable NDOP theory for which every expansion by a linear order interprets bounded arithmetic.
AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for the volumes. We also find...
Pathologies in Lovelock AdS Black Branes and AdS/CFT
Takahashi, Tomohiro
2011-01-01
We study the pathologies in AdS black branes in Lovelock theory. More precisely, we examine the conditions that AdS black branes have the naked singularity, the ghost instability and the dynamical instability. From the point of view of the AdS/CFT correspondence, the pathologies in AdS black branes indicate the pathologies in the corresponding CFT. Hence, we need to be careful when we apply AdS/CFT in Lovelock theory to various phenomena such as the shear viscosity to entropy ratio in strongly coupled quantum filed theory.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李小艳
2010-01-01
There is the trend that now people appreciate those who are slim and regard slim even thin people beautiful. The thinner a person is, the more beautiful. Women, born to pursuit beauty, try various means to follow the trend. We all watch TV, and find a lot of advertisements on diet. The effect of them is tremendous. We all know the fact that it is not at all the better mouse trap will catch mouse. The sales methods are more important. If an advertisement is very interesting and seemingly effective, people will be lured by the ad and then try some of the products.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
The article asks whether it is not the responsibility of corporations to address the issue of women being underrepresented in Danish management jobs. In other words, it is argued that corporations should be encouraged to engage more actively in the recruitment of both men and women for management...... that this agreement reflects a high degree of conservatism in the system where men enjoy a considerable advantage and where procedures that ensure male dominance are perpetuated even in the linguistic and discursive construction of job ads....
Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications
Sarkar, Subir Kumar
2013-01-01
The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv
Ad Hoc Access Gateway Selection Algorithm
Jie, Liu
With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. For mobile nodes in Ad Hoc network to internet, internet communications in the peer nodes must be achieved through the gateway. Therefore, the key Ad Hoc Access Networks will focus on the discovery gateway, as well as gateway selection in the case of multi-gateway and handover problems between different gateways. This paper considers the mobile node and the gateway, based on the average number of hops from an average access time and the stability of routes, improved gateway selection algorithm were proposed. An improved gateway selection algorithm, which mainly considers the algorithm can improve the access time of Ad Hoc nodes and the continuity of communication between the gateways, were proposed. This can improve the quality of communication across the network.
Rudolfs Bems; Robert C. Johnson
2012-01-01
This paper updates the conceptual foundations for measuring real effective exchange rates (REERs) to allow for vertical specialization in trade. We derive a value-added REER describing how demand for the value added that a country produces changes as the price of its value added changes relative to competitors. We then compute this index for 42 countries from 1970-2009 using trade measured in value added terms and GDP deflators. There are substantial differences between value-added and conven...
Transport and logistics as network competencies in a localized industrial cluster
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Leif Gjesing
2004-01-01
This chapter argues that transport is more than infrastructure and transport capacity for the processes governing industrial organisation.......This chapter argues that transport is more than infrastructure and transport capacity for the processes governing industrial organisation....
An $xp$ model on $AdS_2$ spacetime
Molina-Vilaplana, Javier
2013-01-01
In this paper we formulate the $xp$ model on the AdS$_2$ spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, equal in magnitude, given by a harmonic oscillator with a zero point energy parameterized by the AdS radius, measured in units of a fundamental length of the model. We also construct the generators of the isometry group SO(2,1) of the AdS$_2$ spacetime, and discuss the relation with conformal quantum mechanics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalie A Hutnick
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adenoviral (Ad vaccine vectors represent both a vehicle to present a novel antigen to the immune system as well as restimulation of immune responses against the Ad vector itself. To what degree Ad-specific CD8(+ T cells are restimulated by Ad vector vaccination is unclear, although such knowledge would be important as vector-specific CD8(+ T cell expansion could potentially further limit Ad vaccine efficacy beyond Ad-specific neutralizing antibody alone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we addressed this issue by measuring human Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5-specific CD8(+ T cells in recipients of the Merck Ad5 HIV-1 vaccine vector before, during, and after vaccination by multicolor flow cytometry. Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cells were detectable in 95% of subjects prior to vaccination, and displayed primarily an effector-type functional profile and phenotype. Peripheral blood Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cell numbers expanded after Ad5-HIV vaccination in all subjects, but differential expansion kinetics were noted in some baseline Ad5-neutralizing antibody (Ad5 nAb seronegative subjects compared to baseline Ad5 nAb seropositive subjects. However, in neither group did vaccination alter polyfunctionality, mucosal targeting marker expression, or memory phenotype of Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cells. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that repeat Ad5-vector administration in humans expands Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cells without overtly affecting their functional capacity or phenotypic properties. This is a secondary analysis of samples collected during the 016 trial. Results of the Merck 016 trial safety and immunogenicity have been previously published in the journal of clinical infectious diseases [1]. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00849680[http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00849680].
Disruption Management in Passenger Transportation - from Air to Tracks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Jens
2007-01-01
Over the last 10 years there has been a tremendous growth in air transportation of passengers. Both airports and airspace are close to saturation with respect to capacity, leading to delays caused by disruptions. At the same time the amount of vehicular trac around and in all larger cities...... of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportation. These transportation systems are likewise very vulnerable to disruptions. In the airline industry there is a long tradition...... operations are becoming available. The use of advanced planning and recovery methods in the railway industry currently gains momentum. The current paper gives a short overview over the methods used for planning and disruption management in the airline industry. The situation regarding railway optimization...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
阙红艳
2015-01-01
Based on the overall research of replacing business tax with a value-added tax on transportation industry in JJ city, this paper explores the main problems existing in the freight enterprises. Meanwhile, it proposes four countermeasures on aspects of standard⁃izing the management main body, perfecting the enterprise financial accounting, further expanding the scope of deduction and standardiz⁃ing the tax incentive policies so as to expand the scope of replacing the business tax with a value-added tax and promote the healthy and orderly development of the local freight transportation enterprise for reference.%对江西省JJ市的交通运输行业在“营改增”后的总体情况进行调研的基础上，找出在“营改增”后JJ市货运企业存在的主要问题，从规范经营主体、建立健全企业账务核算、进一步扩大抵扣范围和规范财税奖励政策等四个方面提出合理建议，以期对后期“营改增”扩围和促进当地货运企业健康有序地发展提供参考意见。
Borsato, Riccardo; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefanski, Bogdan; Torrielli, Alessandro
2013-01-01
We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3 x S3 x T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly-coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their sub-leading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results, and co
Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro
2013-09-01
We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.
Chaos and hydrodynamics near AdS$_2$
Jensen, Kristan
2016-01-01
We revisit AdS$_2$ holography with the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev models in mind. Our main result is to rewrite a generic theory of gravity near an AdS$_2$ throat as a novel hydrodynamics coupled to the correlation functions of a conformal quantum mechanics. This gives a prescription for the computation of $n$-point functions in the dual quantum mechanics. We thereby find that the dual is maximally chaotic.
Quantum Field Theory and Unification in AdS5
Randall, Lisa; Randall, Lisa; Schwartz, Matthew D.
2001-01-01
We consider gauge bosons in the bulk of AdS5 in a two-brane theory that addresses the hierarchy problem. We show such a theory can be consistent with gauge coupling unification at a high scale. We discuss subtleties in this calculation and show how to regulate consistently in a bounded AdS5 background. Our regularization is guided by the holographic dual of the calculation.
Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds
Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.
2015-02-01
We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .
49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...
AMPK and substrate availability regulate creatine transport in cultured cardiomyocytes.
Darrabie, Marcus D; Arciniegas, Antonio Jose Luis; Mishra, Rajashree; Bowles, Dawn E; Jacobs, Danny O; Santacruz, Lucia
2011-05-01
Profound alterations in myocellular creatine and phosphocreatine levels are observed during human heart failure. To maintain its intracellular creatine stores, cardiomyocytes depend upon a cell membrane creatine transporter whose regulation is not clearly understood. Creatine transport capacity in the intact heart is modulated by substrate availability, and it is reduced in the failing myocardium, likely adding to the energy imbalance that characterizes heart failure. AMPK, a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, acts by switching off energy-consuming pathways in favor of processes that generate energy. Our objective was to determine the effects of substrate availability and AMPK activation on creatine transport in cardiomyocytes. We studied creatine transport in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes and HL-1 cardiac cells expressing the human creatine transporter cultured in the presence of varying creatine concentrations and the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribonucleoside (AICAR). Transport was enhanced in cardiomyocytes following incubation in creatine-depleted medium or AICAR. The changes in transport were due to alterations in V(max) that correlated with changes in total and cell surface creatine transporter protein content. Our results suggest a positive role for AMPK in creatine transport modulation for cardiomyocytes in culture.
Action growth for AdS black holes
Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui
2016-09-01
Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.
Complexity Growth for AdS Black Holes
Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui
2016-01-01
We further investigate the Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture for stationary anti de-Sitter (AdS) black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general $D$-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Ba\\~{n}ados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a new complexity bound but leave unchanged the conjecture that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.
AdS_5 Black Holes with Fermionic Hair
Burrington, B A; Sabra, W A; Burrington, Benjamin A.; Liu, James T.
2004-01-01
The study of new BPS objects in AdS_5 has led to a deeper understanding of AdS/CFT. To help complete this picture, and to fully explore the consequences of the supersymmetry algebra, it is also important to obtain new solutions with bulk fermions turned on. In this paper we construct superpartners of the 1/2 BPS black hole in AdS_5 using a natural set of fermion zero modes. We demonstrate that these superpartners, carrying fermionic hair, have conserved charges differing from the original bosonic counterpart. To do so, we find the R-charge and dipole moment of the new system, as well as the mass and angular momentum, defined through the boundary stress tensor. The complete set of superpartners fits nicely into a chiral representation of AdS_5 supersymmetry, and the spinning solutions have the expected gyromagnetic ratio, g=1.
Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS Black holes with Dirac hair
\\vCubrović, Mihailo; Schalm, Koenraad
2010-01-01
We provide new evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi Liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the spatially averaged AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at $\\ome_F$, we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis confirm that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profil...
Discontinuous symplectic capacities
Zehmisch, K.; Ziltener, F.J.
2014-01-01
We show that the spherical capacity is discontinuous on a smooth family of ellipsoidal shells. Moreover, we prove that the shell capacity is discontinuous on a family of open sets with smooth connected boundaries.
Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) AD-6
Maximilien Brice
2012-01-01
Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) in July of 2012. The visible parts are the positron accumulator (blue structures on top of of the antiproton extraction line) and the 5T magnet which traps the antiprotons.
Global geometric properties of AdS space and the AdS/CFT correspondence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The Poisson kernels and relations between them for a massive scalar field in a unit ball Bn with Hua's metric and conformal flat metric are obtained by describing the Bn as a submanifold of an (n+1)-dimensional embedding space. Global geometric properties of the AdS space are discussed. We show that the(n+1)-dimensional AdS space AdSn+1 is isomorphic to RP1×Bn and boundary of the AdS is isomorphic to RP1×Sn-1. Bulk-boundary propagator and the AdS/CFT like correspondence are demonstrated based on these global geometric properties of the RP1×Bn.
CDMA systems capacity engineering
Kim, Kiseon
2004-01-01
This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.
Rejith, P. P.; Vidya, S.; Solomon, Sam; Thomas, J. K.
2014-01-01
When a magnetic field is applied to type II superconductors, such as YBa2Cu307-δ (YBCO), the flux quanta penetrate the material as a regular array of vortices. However when transport currents are applied, they act to move these vortices, thus lowers the critical current density (Jc) as well as destroying superconductivity. The development of microstructures made of YBCO materials has enabled engineers to increase the critical current density, within Type II materials by introducing flux pinning centres into the material. The microstructure and flux pinning properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ system with varying levels (0-5 wt. %) of a nano perovskite ceramic insulator; YBa2HfO5.5 addition was studied in detail. Orthorhombic YBa2Cu3O7-δ powder was prepared through conventional solid state route and a modified combustion method was used for synthesizing nanocrystalline YBa2HfO5.5. The structure and microstructure of the samples examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed that YBa2HfO5.5 and YBCO remained unreacted even at higher processing temperature without deteriorating the superconducting properties. The scanning electron microscope image shows that YBa2HfO5.5 forms an electrical-network between grains. These observations suggest that the YBa2HfO5.5 addition to the Y-123-compounds improve the electrical connection between superconducting grains and substantial improvements in the relative electrical transport properties of the composites. The variation of sintering temperature, density, critical transition temperature (Tc) and magnetic field dependence of critical current density (Jc) of YBa2Cu3O7-δ having different proportions of YBa2HfO5.5 in the matrix were also studied in detail. It is found that the addition of these elements considerably enhances the flux pinning strength of the system, and there is also an increase of critical temperature (Tc) and critical current density (Jc) up to an optimum value of 8.76 × 104 A/cm2 for a
Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations
Evnin, Oleg
2016-01-01
We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.
Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity
Ren, Jie
2016-07-01
Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.
Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS
Sugishita, Sotaro
2016-01-01
We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Renyi entropy S_n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.
Microstates at the boundary of AdS
Mathur, Samir D
2011-01-01
The bound states of the D1D5 brane system have a known gravitational description: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter region, and a 'cap' ending the AdS region. We construct perturbations that correspond to the action of chiral algebra generators on Ramond ground states of D1D5 branes. Abstract arguments in the literature suggest that the perturbation should be pure gauge in the AdS region; our perturbation indeed has this structure, with the nontrivial deformation of the geometry occurring at the 'neck' between the AdS region and asymptotic infinity. This 'non-gauge' deformation is needed to provide the nonzero energy and momentum carried by the perturbation. We also suggest implications this structure may have for the majority of microstates which live at the cap.
Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models
Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon
2017-03-01
Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.
Capacity Statement for Railways
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Landex, Alex
2007-01-01
The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...... trains. This is due to network effects in the railway system and due to the fact that more trains results in lower punctuality....
Diffusion and Chaos from near AdS$_2$ horizons
Blake, Mike
2016-01-01
We calculate the thermal diffusivity $D = \\kappa/c_{\\rho}$ and butterfly velocity $v_B$ in holographic models that flow to AdS$_2 \\times R^{d}$ fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS$_2$ and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension $\\Delta = 2$ then this relationship is always given by $D = v_B^2/(2 \\pi T)$.
An $xp$ model on $AdS_2$ spacetime
2012-01-01
In this paper we formulate the $xp$ model on the AdS$_2$ spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, whose absolute values are given by a harmonic oscillator spectrum, which in turn coincides with that of a massive Dirac fermion in AdS$_2$. We extend this result to generic $xp$ models which are shown to be equivalent to a massive Dirac fermion on spacetimes whose metric depend of the $xp$ Hamiltonian. Finally, we construct the generators of t...
Di Dato, Adriana
2014-01-01
We derive a map between Einstein spaces of positive and negative curvature. Starting from a space of positive curvature with some dimensions compactified on a sphere and analytically continuing the number of compact dimensions, we obtain a space of negative curvature with a compact hyperbolic subspace, and vice versa. Prime examples of such spaces are de Sitter and Anti-de Sitter space, as well as black hole spacetimes with (A)dS asymptotics and perturbed versions thereof, which play an important role in holography. This map extends work done by Caldarelli et.al., who map asymptotically AdS spaces to Ricci-flat ones. A remarkable result is that the boundary of asymptotically AdS spaces is mapped to a brane in the bulk of de Sitter, and perturbations near the AdS boundary are sourced by a stress tensor confined to this brane. We also calculate the Brown-York stress tensor for the perturbed AdS metric, which turns out to be the negative of the stress tensor on the de Sitter brane.
The Capacity Region of Large Wireless Networks
Niesen, Urs; Shah, Devavrat
2008-01-01
The capacity region of a wireless network with n nodes is the set of all simultaneously achievable rates between all possible n^2 node pairs. In this paper, we consider the question of determining the scaling, with respect to the number of nodes n, of the capacity region when the nodes are placed uniformly at random in a square region of area n and they communicate over Gaussian fading channels. We identify this scaling of the capacity region in terms of \\Theta(n), out of 2^n total possible, cuts. Our results are constructive and provide optimal (in the scaling sense) communication schemes. In the case of a restricted class of traffic requirement (permutation traffic), we determine the precise scaling in terms of a natural generalization of the transport capacity. We illustrate the strength of these results by computing the capacity scaling in a number of scenarios with non-uniform traffic patterns for which no such results have been available before.
Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)
2012-02-28
In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.
Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul PAŞCU
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yawu Liu
Full Text Available To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA on MRI and CSF biomarkers.Altogether 391 MCI cases (158 AD converters were selected from the ADNI cohort. All the cases had baseline cognitive tests, MRI and/or CSF levels of Aβ1-42 and Tau. Using baseline data, the status of MCI patients (AD or MCI three years later was predicted using current diagnostic research guidelines and the PredictAD software tool designed for supporting clinical diagnostics. The data used were 1 clinical criteria for episodic memory loss of the hippocampal type, 2 visual MTA, 3 positive CSF markers, 4 their combinations, and 5 when the PredictAD tool was applied, automatically computed MRI measures were used instead of the visual MTA results. The accuracies of diagnosis were evaluated with the diagnosis made 3 years later.The PredictAD tool achieved the overall accuracy of 72% (sensitivity 73%, specificity 71% in predicting the AD diagnosis. The corresponding number for a clinician's prediction with the assistance of the PredictAD tool was 71% (sensitivity 75%, specificity 68%. Diagnosis with the PredictAD tool was significantly better than diagnosis by biomarkers alone or the combinations of clinical diagnosis of hippocampal pattern for the memory loss and biomarkers (p≤0.037.With the assistance of PredictAD tool, the clinician can predict AD conversion more accurately than the current diagnostic criteria.
AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries
Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.
2016-06-01
We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.
Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics
Heinze, Martin; Megrelidze, Luka
2016-01-01
We analyze dynamics of the AdS$_{N+1}$ particle realized on the coset SO$(2,N)/$SO$(1,N)$. Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$. We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO$(N)$ covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum level. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$ for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss a SO$(N)$ covariant supersymmetric extensions of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS$_2$ and AdS$_3$ given by recent works.
Accelerator development in India for ADS programme
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P Singh; S V L S Rao; Rajni Pande; T Basak; Shwetha Roy; M Aslam; P Jain; S C L Srivastava; Rajesh Kumar; P K Nema; S Kailas; V C Sahni
2007-02-01
At BARC, development of a Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), as front-end injector of the 1 GeV accelerator for the ADS programme, has been initiated. The major components of LEHIPA (20 MeV, 30 mA) are a 50 keV ECR ion source, a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) lines match the beam from the ion source to RFQ and from RFQ to DTL respectively. Design of these systems has been completed and fabrication of their prototypes has started. Physics studies of the 20{1000 MeV part of the Linac are also in progress. In this paper, the present status of this project is presented.
Accelerator development in India for ADS programme
Singh, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, Rajni; Basak, T.; Roy, Shweta; Aslam, M.; Jain, P.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Kumar, Rajesh; Nema, P. K.; Kailas, S.; Sahni, V. C.
2007-02-01
At BARC, development of a Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), as front-end injector of the 1 GeV accelerator for the ADS programme, has been initiated. The major components of LEHIPA (20 MeV, 30 mA) are a 50 keV ECR ion source, a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) lines match the beam from the ion source to RFQ and from RFQ to DTL respectively. Design of these systems has been completed and fabrication of their prototypes has started. Physics studies of the 20-1000 MeV part of the Linac are also in progress. In this paper, the present status of this project is presented.
Robust message routing for mobile (wireless) ad hoc networks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldsby, Michael E.; Johnson, Michael M.; Kilman, Dominique Marie (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bierbaum, Neal Robert; Chen, Helen Y.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.; Tsang, Rose P.; Nicol, David M. (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL)
2004-01-01
This report describes the results of research targeting improvements in the robustness of message transport in wireless ad hoc networks. The first section of the report provides an analysis of throughput and latency in the wireless medium access control (MAC) layer and relates the analysis to the commonly used 802.11 protocol. The second section describes enhancements made to several existing models of wireless MAC and ad hoc routing protocols; the models were used in support of the work described in the following section. The third section of the report presents a lightweight transport layer protocol that is superior to TCP for use in wireless networks. In addition, it introduces techniques that improve the performance of any ad hoc source routing protocol. The fourth section presents a novel, highly scalable ad hoc routing protocol that is based on geographic principles but requires no localization hardware.
Ward, Frank A.; Crawford, Terry L.
2016-09-01
Growing demands for food security to feed increasing populations worldwide have intensified the search for improved performance of irrigation, the world's largest water user. These challenges are raised in the face of climate variability and from growing environmental demands. Adaptation measures in irrigated agriculture include fallowing land, shifting cropping patterns, increased groundwater pumping, reservoir storage capacity expansion, and increased production of risk-averse crops. Water users in the Gila Basin headwaters of the U.S. Lower Colorado Basin have faced a long history of high water supply fluctuations producing low-valued defensive cropping patterns. To date, little research grade analysis has investigated economically viable measures for irrigation development to adjust to variable climate. This gap has made it hard to inform water resource policy decisions on workable measures to adapt to climate in the world's dry rural areas. This paper's contribution is to illustrate, formulate, develop, and apply a new methodology to examine the economic performance from irrigation capacity improvements in the Gila Basin of the American Southwest. An integrated empirical optimization model using mathematical programming is developed to forecast cropping patterns and farm income under two scenarios (1) status quo without added storage capacity and (2) with added storage capacity in which existing barriers to development of higher valued crops are dissolved. We find that storage capacity development can lead to a higher valued portfolio of irrigation production systems as well as more sustained and higher valued farm livelihoods. Results show that compared to scenario (1), scenario (2) increases regional farm income by 30%, in which some sub regions secure income gains exceeding 900% compared to base levels. Additional storage is most economically productive when institutional and technical constraints facing irrigated agriculture are dissolved. Along with
Evaluation of railway capacity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd
2006-01-01
This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... of a railway network. Some of the aspects which have to be paid attention to making annual capacity statements are presented too....
Adam McCarty
2001-01-01
This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...
Sub-AdS Scale Locality in AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$
Belin, Alexandre; Jefferson, Robert A; Kabir, Laurens
2016-01-01
We investigate sub-AdS scale locality in a weakly coupled toy model of the AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$ correspondence. We find that this simple model has the correct density of states at low and high energies to be dual to Einstein gravity coupled to matter in AdS$_3$. Bulk correlation functions also have the correct behavior at leading order in the large $N$ expansion, but non-local effects emerge at order $1/N$. Our analysis leads to the conjecture that any large $N$ CFT$_2$ that is modular invariant and has the right low-energy density of states is dual to a gravitational theory with sub-AdS scale locality.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi
2009-01-01
Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...... networks that include several regions outside the visual system. The two visual capacity parameters are functionally separable, but seem to rely on largely overlapping brain areas....
Designing added functions in engineered cementitious composites
Yang, En-Hua
In this dissertation, a new and systematic material design approach is developed for ECC with added functions through material microstructures linkage to composite macroscopic behavior. The thesis research embodies theoretical development by building on previous ECC micromechanical models, and experimental investigations into three specific new versions of ECC with added functions aimed at addressing societal demands of our built infrastructure. Specifically, the theoretical study includes three important ECC modeling elements: Steady-state crack propagation analyses and simulation, predictive accuracy of the fiber bridging constitutive model, and development of the rate-dependent strain-hardening criteria. The first element establishes the steady-state cracking criterion as a fundamental requirement for multiple cracking behavior in brittle matrix composites. The second element improves the accuracy of crack-width prediction in ECC. The third element establishes the micromechanics basis for impact-resistant ECC design. Three new ECCs with added functions were developed and experimentally verified in this thesis research through the enhanced theoretical framework. A green ECC incorporating a large volume of industrial waste was demonstrated to possess reduced crack width and drying shrinkage. The self-healing ECC designed with tight crack width was demonstrated to recover transport and mechanical properties after microcrack damage when exposed to wet and dry cycles. The impact-resistant ECC was demonstrated to retain tensile ductility with increased strength under moderately high strain-rate loading. These new versions of ECC with added functions are expected to contribute greatly to enhancing the sustainability, durability, and safety of civil infrastructure built with ECC. This research establishes the effectiveness of micromechanics-based design and material ingredient tailoring for ECC with added new attributes but without losing its basic tensile ductile
CAPACITY OF ROTARY LOADING MACHINE ON COAL STOCK FACILITY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stanislav Živković
2002-12-01
Full Text Available In order to reduce the cost of the stock facility, which might contain large coal masses (usually several hundreds of thousands of tons it is important to have the loading capacity adjusted to the transport and boiler capacity. In the case of either too small or too large capacity of loading machinery a technical incompatibility of the loading and transport system can occur, together with some unecessary investments in too large loading machines. This is why it is necessary to have an accurate determination of working conditions, specific for each stocking capacity (the paper is published in Croatian.
Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS_4 perturbations
Craps, Ben; Jai-akson, Puttarak; Vanhoof, Joris
2015-01-01
Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude epsilon approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/epsilon^2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/epsilon^2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting phi^4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated....
Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum in AdS gravitational collapse.
de Oliveira, H P; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Rodrigues, E L
2013-08-01
We study black hole formation during the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in asymptotically D-dimensional anti-de Sitter AdS(D) spacetimes for D = 4, 5. We conclude that spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spaces is turbulent and characterized by a Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum. Namely, we find that after an initial period of weakly nonlinear evolution, there is a regime where the power spectrum of the Ricci scalar evolves as ω(-s) with the frequency, ω, and s ≈ 1.7 ± 0.1.
Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.
2007-05-01
The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.
Thermodynamics of Einstein-Proca AdS Black Holes
Liu, Hai-Shan; Pope, C N
2014-01-01
We study static spherically-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Proca equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We show that the theory admits solutions describing both black holes and also solitons in an asymptotically AdS background. Interesting subtleties can arise in the computation of the mass of the solutions and also in the derivation of the first law of thermodynamics. We make use of holographic renormalisation in order to calculate the mass, even in cases where the solutions have a rather slow approach to the asymptotic AdS geometry. By using the procedure developed by Wald, we derive the first law of thermodynamics for the black hole and soliton solutions. This includes a non-trivial contribution associated with the Proca "charge." The solutions cannot be found analytically, and so we make use of numerical integration techniques to demonstrate their existence.
Universal isolation in the AdS landscape
Danielsson, U H; Vargas, S C
2016-01-01
We study the universal conditions for quantum non-perturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the pre-existing ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on $S^3$ and $S^3\\,\\times\\,S^3$, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedaman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a non-perturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.
Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: Renormalization
Mishra, Rohit
2015-01-01
We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that `boosted' AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately `renormalized' at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where $T_{thermal}\\ll T_E$.
The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piyabut Burikham
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.
Note on classical string dynamics on AdS3
Bañados, Máximo; Ritz, Adam
1999-12-01
We consider bosonic strings propagating on Euclidean anti-de Sitter space (AdS3), and study in particular the realization of various worldsheet symmetries. We give a proper definition for the Brown-Henneaux asymptotic target space symmetry, when acting on the string action, and derive the Giveon-Kutasov-Seiberg worldsheet contour integral representation simply by using Noether's theorem. We show that making identifications in the target space is equivalent to the insertion of an (exponentiated) graviton vertex operator carrying the corresponding charge. Finally, we point out an interesting relation between 3D gravity and the dynamics of the worldsheet on AdS3. Both theories are described by an SL(2,C)/SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) model, and we prove that the reduction conditions determined on one hand by worldsheet diffeomorphism invariance, and on the other by the Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions, are the same.
Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space
Emelyanov, Slava
2015-12-01
The question is studied of whether an observer can discover quantum gravity in the semiclassical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries in the path-integral approach at the same time. A conformal field theory (CFT) state which is expected to describe the eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole in the large-N limit is discussed. It is argued under certain assumptions that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semiclassical quantum field theory in the large-N limit in the weak sense.
Universal isolation in the AdS landscape
Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.
2016-12-01
We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.
Smoothed Transitions in Higher Spin AdS Gravity
Banerjee, Shamik; Hellerman, Simeon; Hijano, Eliot; Lepage-Jutier, Arnaud; Maloney, Alexander; Shenker, Stephen
2012-01-01
We consider CFTs conjectured to be dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS_3 and AdS_4. Two dimensional CFTs with W_N symmetry are considered in the lambda=0 (k --> infinity) limit, where they are conjectured to be described by continuous orbifolds. The torus partition function is computed, using reasonable assumptions, and equals that of a free field theory. We find no phase transition at temperatures of order one; the usual Hawking-Page phase transition is removed by the highly degenerate light states associated with conical defect states in the bulk. Three dimensional Chern-Simons-matter CFTs with vector-like matter are considered on T^3, where the dynamics is described by an effective theory for the eigenvalues of the holonomies. Likewise, we find no evidence for a Hawking-Page phase transition at large level k.
N=2 supersymmetric sigma-models in AdS
Butter, Daniel
2011-01-01
We construct the most general N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma-model in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space in terms of N=1 chiral superfields. The target space is shown to be a non-compact hyperkahler manifold restricted to possess a special Killing vector field. A remarkable property of the sigma-model constructed is that the algebra of OSp(2|4) transformations is closed off the mass shell.
P-V criticality in AdS black holes of massive gravity
Fernando, Sharmanthie
2016-01-01
In this paper we have studied the extended phase space thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble of black holes in massive gravity in AdS space. The black holes considered here belong to a theory of massive gravity where the graviton gain a mass due to Lorenz symmetry breaking. We have computed various thermodynamical quantities such as temperature, pressure, Gibbs free energy and specific heat capacity. The local and the global thermodynamical stability of the black holes are studied in detail. For a specific value of the parameter in the theory, the black holes undergo a first order phase transition similar to the Van der Waals phase transitions between gas and liquid under constant temperature. This transition is between the small and the large black hole. The critical exponents are computed at the critical values and shown to be the same as for the Van der Waals critical exponents.
N=2 AdS supergravity and supercurrents
Butter, Daniel
2011-01-01
We consider the minimal off-shell formulation for four-dimensional N=2 supergravity with a cosmological term, in which the second compensator is an improved tensor multiplet. We use it to derive a linearized supergravity action (and its dual versions) around the anti-de Sitter (AdS) background in terms of three N=2 off-shell multiplets: an unconstrained scalar superfield, vector and tensor multiplets. This allows us to deduce the structure of the supercurrent multiplet associated with those supersymmetric theories which naturally couple to the supergravity formulation chosen, with or without a cosmological term. Finally, our linearized N=2 AdS supergravity action is reduced to N=1 superspace. The result is a sum of two N=1 linearized actions describing (i) old minimal supergravity; and (ii) an off-shell massless gravitino multiplet. We also derive dual formulations for the massless N=1 gravitino multiplet in AdS. As a by-product of our consideration, we derive the consistent supergravity extension of the N=1 ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龙勇; 刘誉豪
2013-01-01
风险投资作为一种特殊的投资形式,不仅会为高新技术企业解决“融资难”的问题,更重要的是风险资本家投入资本后还会为企业提供非资本增值服务,进而提升企业技术能力,增强企业竞争力,最终获得较高回报.结合高新技术企业的特点,通过实证分析证实了非资本增值服务对企业提高技术能力有积极影响,得出了具有实践指导意义的结论.%As a special form of investment, venture capital is not only a method for the high-tech enterprises to solve the " financing" problem. In order to get higher returns ultimately, the venture capitalists are keen to help companies to strengthen the competitiveness of themselves, such as provide Non-financial Value-added by upgrading the technological capabilities of enterprises. In this paper, Empirical research has been drawn on Non-financial Value-added and technological capability to the high-tech enterprises. Finally, conclusions with practical significance have been proposed.
Intellectual mobile Ad Hoc networks
Sova, Oleg; Romanjuk, Valeriy; Bunin, Sergey; Zhuk, Pavlo
2012-01-01
In this article intellectualization of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks resources management is offered. It was proposed decomposition of the primary goal of MANET functioning into easy subgoals, and fragment of the MANET node target structure is presented.
Vedr.: Military capacity building
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert
2013-01-01
Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from......Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...
Supergravity one-loop corrections on AdS7 and AdS3, higher spins and AdS/CFT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matteo Beccaria
2015-03-01
Full Text Available As was shown earlier, the one-loop correction in 10d supergravity on AdS5×S5 corresponds to the contributions to the vacuum energy and 4d boundary conformal anomaly which are minus the values for one N=4 Maxwell supermultiplet, thus reproducing the subleading term in the N2−1 coefficient in the dual SU(N SYM theory. We perform similar one-loop computations in 11d supergravity on AdS7×S4 and 10d supergravity on AdS3×S3×T4. In the AdS7 case we find that the corrections to the 6d conformal anomaly a-coefficient and the vacuum energy are again minus the ones for one (2,0 tensor multiplet, suggesting that the total a-anomaly coefficient for the dual (2,0 theory is 4N3−9/4N−7/4 and thus vanishes for N=1. In the AdS3 case the one-loop correction to the vacuum energy or 2d central charge turns out to be equal to that of one free (4,4 scalar multiplet, i.e. is c=+6. This reproduces the subleading term in the central charge c=6(Q1Q5+1 of the dual 2d CFT describing decoupling limit of D5–D1 system. We also present the expressions for the 6d a-anomaly coefficient and vacuum energy contributions of general-symmetry higher spin field in AdS7 and consider their application to tests of vectorial AdS/CFT with the boundary conformal 6d theory represented by free scalars, spinors or rank-2 antisymmetric tensors.
Entanglement Temperature and Perturbed AdS$_3$ Geometry
Levine, Gregory
2015-01-01
In analogy to the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entanglement entropy $\\delta S$ of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy, $\\delta E$, of the subsystem divided by an effective entanglement temperature, $T_E$. Extending this analogy, we study entanglement entropy when the subsystem is perturbed by applying an external field, expressed as a coupling to a local marginal operator in the CFT. We show that the resulting entropy change is associated with a change in the entanglement temperature itself, leading to an equation analogous to the Clausius relation. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature, $\\delta T_E(x)$ of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. Using the AdS$_3$ minimal surface as a probe, we can construct bulk metric perturbations from an exact numerical computation of the entanglement temperature in a two dimensional $c=1$ boundary theory deformed by a marginal perturbati...
Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...
COSCO Calls for Boost of China's Oil Fleet Capacity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
@@ Dalian Ocean Shipping Company (COSCO Dalian)said recently that China should strengthen its maritime oil transport capacity to ensure the security of China's oil supply. Meng Qinglin, Managing Director of COSCO Dalian, said at the 2006 China Oil and Gas Summit that with the rise of China's oil imports, the weak maritime oil transport capacity has become a major threat to China's oil supply security.
Experimental Research on Seismic Performance of Storey-Adding Frame Structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁红岩; 郭耀华; 梁玉国; 张浦阳
2016-01-01
The seismic behaviors of an integral concreting frame, a light steel storey-adding frame and a storey-adding frame strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer(CFRP)were investigated under low-cycle and repeated load(scale 1∶3). The failure characteristics, hysteretic behavior, rigidity degeneracy, deflection ductility and energy-dissipation capacity of the three specimens were compared. The test results reveal that chemically-bonded rebar technique can meet the requirements of storey-adding engineering. The carrying capacity, the deflec-tion ductility, the energy-dissipating capacity and seismic performance of the light steel storey-adding frame are higher than those of the integral concreting frame, and they are the highest in the storey-adding frame strengthened with CFRP.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王真; 许翠琳; 王亮
2012-01-01
As a part of urban complex ecological system,urban traffic system function as the "blood system" of a city.The traffic carrying capacity could influence the urban development and living environment.This paper introduces an on-road-vehicle carrying capacity model based on road,energy and atmospheric environment analysis.And it has applied to Wuhan.The results show that the maximum on-road-vehicle is 407 thousand in Wuhan within the limitation of road,energy and air quality;NOx capacity is the main limit of the transportation system in Wuhan.%城市交通系统是城市复合生态系统中的一部分,城市交通承载力的大小影响城市发展的速度与生活环境.构建了由路网资源、燃油供给和大气环境模块组成的基于＂在驶量承载力＂的城市交通承载力宏观定量模型,并选择武汉市城区作为案例.研究得到2009年武汉市城区交通承载力为40.7万辆,NOx容量是制约武汉市未来交通发展的主要限制因子.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mielke, U.
1979-01-01
We measured in 287 persons the pulmonary CO diffusion capacity with the steady-state and the single breath methods, applying apnoeic periods of 4 and 10 seconds duration. The aspects methodical significance, polyclinical applicability and pathognostic relevance with respect to other approved pulmonary functional tests are discussed. Differing pulmonary diffusion capacity values found in normal persons or in patients suffering from silicosis, pulmonary fibrosis, Boeck's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, were investigated and critically evaluated.
Revisiting Absorptive Capacity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher
Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...
Optimization of ATSC Mobile Handheld Service Capacity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omneya Issa
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Mobile TV has become a reality offered on several mobile delivery systems. Among them is the Advanced Television System Committee (ATSC system for mobile and handheld digital television services, known as ATSC Mobile DTV or ATSC M/H, which has moved from standardization to implementation. As the North American broadcast industry is preparing to provide Mobile DTV service to consumers, this work discusses important technical parameters that affect the TV service quality and capacity. Since additional error correction mechanisms were added to overcome mobile transmission problems, the available payload for M/H services is limited. This creates a need to efficiently use the available M/H bandwidth. The paper aims to optimize the Mobile DTV service capacity while maintaining an acceptable perceived quality. It presents tradeoffs between several factors affecting service capacity and signal robustness, which is prominent for designing Mobile TV broadcasting scenarios.
Performance modeling of data dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chaqfeh, Moumena; Lakas, Abderrahmane; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja
2013-01-01
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) have become a cornerstone component of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). VANET applications present a huge potential for improving road safety and travel comfort, hence the growing interest of both academia and industry. The main advantage of VANETs is its...
49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.
2010-10-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.48 Number and capacity. (a) Number and capacity. Every boiler shall be... the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief...
Light dependence of carboxylation capacity for C3 photosynthesis models
Photosynthesis at high light is often modelled by assuming limitation by the maximum capacity of Rubisco carboxylation at low carbon dioxide concentrations, by electron transport capacity at higher concentrations, and sometimes by triose-phosphate utilization rate at the highest concentrations. Pho...
AdS Chern-Simons Gravity induces Conformal Gravity
Aros, Rodrigo
2013-01-01
The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional Conformal Gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauged-fixed, tractor-like) five-dimensional AdS connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program admits a readily generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.
Reentrant Phase Transitions in Rotating AdS Black Holes
Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert B
2013-01-01
We study the thermodynamics of higher-dimensional singly spinning asymptotically AdS black holes in the canonical (fixed J) ensemble of extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is treated as pressure and the corresponding conjugate quantity is interpreted as thermodynamic volume. Along with the usual small/large black hole phase transition, we find a new phenomenon of reentrant phase transitions for all d>5 dimensions, in which a monotonic variation of the temperature yields two phase transitions from large to small and back to large black holes. This situation is similar to that seen in multicomponent liquids.
Internal Structure of Charged AdS Black Holes
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Virmani, Amitabh
2016-01-01
When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.
Duality invariance of s≥32 fermions in AdS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Deser
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We show that in D=4 AdS, s≥3/2 partially massless (PM fermions retain the duality invariances of their flat space massless counterparts. They have tuned ratios m2/M2≠0 that turn them into sums of effectively massless unconstrained helicity ±(s,⋯,32 excitations, shorn of the lowest (non-dual helicity ±12-rung and — more generally — of succeeding higher rung as well. Each helicity mode is separately duality invariant, like its flat space counterpart.
M-Theory solutions with AdS factors
Gauntlett, J P; Pakis, S; Waldram, D; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo; Pakis, Stathis; Waldram, Daniel
2002-01-01
Solutions of D=7 maximal gauged supergravity are constructed with metrics that are a product of a n-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, with n=2,3,4,5, and certain Einstein manifolds. The gauge fields have the same form as in the recently constructed solutions describing the near-horizon limits of M5-branes wrapping supersymmetric cycles. The new solutions do not preserve any supersymmetry and can be uplifted to obtain new solutions of D=11 supergravity, which are warped and twisted products of the D=7 metric with a squashed four-sphere. Some aspects of the stability of the solutions are discussed.
M-theory solutions with AdS factors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gauntlett, Jerome P [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Kim, Nakwoo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Pakis, Stathis [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2002-08-07
Solutions of D=7 maximal gauged supergravity are constructed with metrics that are a product of an n-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, with n=2, 3, 4, 5, and certain Einstein manifolds. The gauge fields have the same form as in the recently constructed solutions describing the near-horizon limits of M5-branes wrapping supersymmetric cycles. The new solutions do not preserve any supersymmetry and can be uplifted to obtain new solutions of D=11 supergravity, which are warped and twisted products of the D=7 metric with a squashed four-sphere. Some aspects of the stability of the solutions are discussed.
Most general AdS_3 boundary conditions
Grumiller, Daniel
2016-01-01
We consider the most general asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant. The metric contains in total twelve independent functions, six of which are interpreted as chemical potentials (or non-normalizable fluctuations) and the other half as canonical boundary charges (or normalizable fluctuations). Their presence modifies the usual Fefferman-Graham expansion. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of two sl(2)_k current algebras, the levels of which are given by k=l/(4G_N), where l is the AdS radius and G_N the three-dimensional Newton constant.
Coherent Cascade: Collapsing Solutions in Global AdS
Freivogel, Ben
2015-01-01
We analyze the gravitational dynamics of a classical scalar field that sometimes leads to blackhole formation in asymptotically AdS spacetime at the shortest nonlinear time scale. We present strong evidence that the dynamics is governed by a "coherent cascade", with all modes remaining in phase as the energy flows to higher frequencies into a power-law spectrum. Using a coherent phase ansatz, we analytically find these power-law solutions. We show how the particular power is determined by the scaling properties of the interaction coefficients. Our result agrees with existing numerical results in 4+1 dimensions, and makes predictions in higher dimensions.
Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models
Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang
2017-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.
49 CFR 179.220-16 - Expansion capacity.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expansion capacity. 179.220-16 Section 179.220-16... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-16 Expansion capacity. Expansion capacity must be provided in the shell of the inner container as prescribed in § 179.221-1....
Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation
Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan
2016-11-01
Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.
RESERVOIR CAPACITY DEPLETION ON ACCOUNT OF SEDIMENTATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Prabhata K.SWAMEE
2001-01-01
Capacity depletion is an important information required for planning of multipurpose reservoirs. It is a complex phenomenon involving diverse fields like surface hydrology, sediment transport, varied flow hydraulics and soil consolidation. Proper assessment of capacity reduction is helpful in ascertaining the life of the reservoir and the project benefits for cost/benefit analysis. In this study dimensionally consistent equations for deposition volume and the trap efficiency have been obtained. Methods of obtaining the parameters involved these equations have also been indicated. It was found that there is good agreement with the field data. It is hoped that the equations are useful to design engineer.
Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.
2014-01-01
In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.
Parikh, Maulik
2012-01-01
In anti-de Sitter space a highly accelerating observer perceives a Rindler horizon. The two Rindler wedges in AdS_{d+1} are holographically dual to an entangled conformal field theory that lives on two boundaries with geometry R x H_{d-1}. For AdS_3, the holographic duality is especially tractable, allowing quantum-gravitational aspects of Rindler horizons to be probed. We recover the thermodynamics of Rindler-AdS space directly from the boundary conformal field theory. We derive the temperature from the two-point function and obtain the Rindler entropy density precisely, including numerical factors, using the Cardy formula. We also probe the causal structure of the spacetime, and find from the behavior of the one-point function that the CFT "knows" when a source has fallen across the Rindler horizon. This is so even though, from the bulk point of view, there are no local signifiers of the presence of the horizon. Finally, we discuss an alternate foliation of Rindler-AdS which is dual to a CFT living in de Si...
A Study On OFDM In Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malik Nasereldin Ahmed
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is the physical layer in emerging wireless local area networks that are also being targeted for ad hoc networking. OFDM can be also exploited in ad hoc networks to improve the energy performance of mobile devices. It is important in wireless networks because it can be used adaptively in a dynamically changing channel. This study gives a detailed view about OFDM and how it is useful to increase the bandwidth. This paper also gives an idea about how OFDM can be a promising technology for high capacity wireless communication.
Performance Analysis of Ad Hoc Dispersed Spectrum Cognitive Radio Networks over Fading Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Muneer
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Cognitive radio systems can utilize dispersed spectrum, and thus such approach is known as dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems. In this paper, we first provide the performance analysis of such systems over fading channels. We derive the average symbol error probability of dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems for two cases, where the channel for each frequency diversity band experiences independent and dependent Nakagami- fading. In addition, the derivation is extended to include the effects of modulation type and order by considering M-ary phase-shift keying ( -PSK and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation -QAM schemes. We then consider the deployment of such cognitive radio systems in an ad hoc fashion. We consider an ad hoc dispersed spectrum cognitive radio network, where the nodes are assumed to be distributed in three dimension (3D. We derive the effective transport capacity considering a cubic grid distribution. Numerical results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis and show the performance of such networks.
AdS twistors for higher spin theory
Cederwall, M
2004-01-01
We construct spectra of supersymmetric higher spin theories in D=4, 5 and 7 from twistors describing massless (super-)particles on AdS spaces. A massless twistor transform is derived in a geometric way from classical kinematics. Relaxing the spin-shell constraints on twistor space gives an infinite tower of massless states of a ``higher spin particle'', generalising previous work of Bandos et al. This can generically be done in a number of ways, each defining the states of a distinct higher spin theory, and the method provides a systematic way of finding these. We reproduce known results in D=4, minimal supersymmetric 5- and 7-dimensional models, as well as supersymmetrisations of Vasiliev's Sp-models as special cases. In the latter models a dimensional enhancement takes place, meaning that the theory lives on a space of higher dimension than the original AdS space, and becomes a theory of doubletons. This talk was presented at the XIXth Max Born Symposium ``Fundamental Interactions and Twistor-Like Methods''...
AdCell: Ad Allocation in Cellular Networks
Alaei, Saeed; Liaghat, Vahid; Pei, Dan; Saha, Barna
2011-01-01
With more than four billion usage of cellular phones worldwide, mobile advertising has become an attractive alternative to online advertisements. In this paper, we propose a new targeted advertising policy for Wireless Service Providers (WSPs) via SMS or MMS- namely {\\em AdCell}. In our model, a WSP charges the advertisers for showing their ads. Each advertiser has a valuation for specific types of customers in various times and locations and has a limit on the maximum available budget. Each query is in the form of time and location and is associated with one individual customer. In order to achieve a non-intrusive delivery, only a limited number of ads can be sent to each customer. Recently, new services have been introduced that offer location-based advertising over cellular network that fit in our model (e.g., ShopAlerts by AT&T) . We consider both online and offline version of the AdCell problem and develop approximation algorithms with constant competitive ratio. For the online version, we assume tha...
Quantum cat map dynamics on AdS$_2$
Axenides, Minos; Nicolis, Stam
2016-01-01
We present a toy model for the chaotic unitary scattering of single particle wave packets on the radial AdS$_2$ geometry of extremal BH horizons. Based on our recent work for the discretization of the AdS$_2$ space-time, which describes a finite and random geometry, by modular arithmetic, we investigate the validity of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH), as well as that of the fast scrambling time bound conjecture (STB), for an observer with time evolution operator the quantum Arnol'd cat map (QACM). We find that the QACM, while possessing a linear spectrum, has eigenstates, which can be expressed in closed form, are found to be random and to satisfy the assumptions of the ETH.The implications are that the dynamics is described by a chaotic, unitary, single particle S-matrix, which completely delocalizes and randomizes initial gaussian wave packets . Applying results obtained by Dyson and Falk for the periods of the Arnol'd Cat Map(ACM),which are related to its mixing time, we also find that the t...
Cassani, Davide; Marrani, Alessio; Morales, Jose F; Samtleben, Henning
2010-01-01
We apply the techniques of special Kaehler geometry to investigate AdS_4 vacua of general N=2 gauged supergravities underlying flux compactifications of type II theories. We formulate the scalar potential and its extremization conditions in terms of a triplet of prepotentials P_x and their special Kaehler covariant derivatives only, in a form that recalls the potential and the attractor equations of N=2 black holes. We propose a system of first order equations for the P_x which generalize the supersymmetry conditions and yield non-supersymmetric vacua. Special geometry allows us to recast these equations in algebraic form, and we find an infinite class of new N=0 and N=1 AdS_4 solutions, displaying a rich pattern of non-trivial charges associated with NSNS and RR fluxes. Finally, by explicit evaluation of the entropy function on the solutions, we derive a U-duality invariant expression for the cosmological constant and the central charges of the dual CFT's.
The CFT dual of AdS gravity with torsion
Klemm, Dietmar
2007-01-01
We consider the Mielke-Baekler model of three-dimensional AdS gravity with torsion, which has gravitational and translational Chern-Simons terms in addition to the usual Einstein-Hilbert action with cosmological constant. It is shown that the topological nature of the model leads to a finite Fefferman-Graham expansion. We derive the holographic stress tensor and the associated Ward identities and show that, due to the asymmetry of the left- and right-moving central charges, a Lorentz anomaly appears in the dual conformal field theory. Both the consistent and the covariant Weyl and Lorentz anomaly are determined, and the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions for the former are verified. Moreover we consider the most general solution with flat boundary geometry, which describes left-and right-moving gravitational waves on AdS_3 with torsion, and shew that in this case the holographic energy-momentum tensor is given by the wave profiles. The anomalous transformation laws of the wave profiles under diffeomorphisms p...
AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry
Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.
2016-12-01
Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.
Smooth Causal Patches for AdS Black Holes
Raju, Suvrat
2016-01-01
We review the paradox of low energy excitations about an AdS black hole. An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than $k T$ cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly, and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analy...
Online Ad Slotting With Cancellations
Constantin, Florin; Muthukrishnan, S; Pal, Martin
2008-01-01
Many advertisers buy advertisements (ads) on the Internet or on traditional media and seek simple, online mechanisms to reserve ad slots in advance. Media publishers represent a vast and varying inventory, and they too seek automatic, online mechanisms for pricing and allocating such reservations. In this paper, we present and study a simple model for auctioning such ad slots in advance. Bidders arrive sequentially and report which slots they are interested in. The seller must decide immediately whether or not to grant a reservation. Our model allows a seller to accept reservations, but possibly cancel the allocations later and pay the bidder a cancellation compensation (bump payment). Our main result is an online mechanism to derive prices and bump payments that is efficient to implement. This mechanism has many desirable properties. It is individually rational; winners have an incentive to be honest and bidding one's true value dominates any lower bid. Our mechanism's efficiency is within a constant fractio...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任慧子; 曹小曙
2011-01-01
Earthquake disasters have significant effects on traffic.With the development of economy and tech-nology,the ability of people to deal with natural disasters is gradually enhanced.The vulnerability of the trans-portation system after earthquake disasters and the＂lifeline＂role that transportation system plays prompt people to pay more attention to the impacts of earthquake disasters on traffic.The research on earthquake disasters and traffic and other related issues are concentrated in earthquake engineering fields,namely from the perspective of traffic engineering construction to study the earthquake resistant behavior of the traffic system.There are rela-tively few studies from the perspective of human geography on the impacts of earthquake disasters on traffic based on the historical earthquake data.China has more detailed historical earthquake materials and data than any other countries in the world.China has not only a great deal of historical earthquake data,but also a large number of modern earthquake assembly data.On the basis of comprehensively coordinating the earthquake di-saster data from 1831 BC to 1980 AD,and using the GIS technology,this article discusses the characteristics of China＇s earthquake disasters in time and space,and their influences.The earthquakes in China are imbalanced in spatial and temporal distributions.In the Yuan Dynasty,the earthquakes were concentrated in Shanxi,Henan and Shaanxi.Earthquakes in Southwest China and Taiwan increased in the Ming and Qing dynasties,and those in the Republic of China and during 1949-1980 occurred mainly in Southwest China,Northwest China and Tai-wan.Traffic impacts by earthquake disasters were also concentrated in Northwest and Southwest China,especial-ly in Yunnan,Sichuan and Xinjiang.The earthquakes with high intensities had significant influences on the trans-portation system of Xinjiang.And in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces,the earthquakes with low intensity also had great influences on the
Thermodynamics of Charged AdS Black Holes in Extended Phases Space via M2-branes Background
Chabab, M; Masmar, K
2015-01-01
Motivated by a recent work on asymptotically Ad$S_4$ black holes in M-theory, we investigate both thermodynamics and thermodynamical geometry of Raissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes from M2-branes. More precisely, we study AdS black holes in $AdS_{4}\\times S^{7}$, with the number of M2-branes interpreted as a thermodynamical variable. In this context, we calculate various thermodynamical quantities including the chemical potential, and examine their phase transitions along with the corresponding stability behaviors. In addition, we also evaluate the thermodynamical curvatures of the Weinhold, Ruppeiner and Quevedo metrics for M2-branes geometry to study the stability of such black object. We show that the singularities of these scalar curvature's metrics reproduce similar stability results obtained by the phase transition program via the heat capacities in different ensembles either when the number of the M2 branes or the charge are held fixed. Also, we note that all results derived in [1] are recovered in the ...
Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lunin, Oleg, E-mail: olunin@albany.edu [Department of Physics, University at Albany (SUNY), Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Mathur, Samir D., E-mail: mathur.16@osu.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Turton, David, E-mail: turton.7@osu.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)
2013-03-11
We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a traveling wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T{sup 4}. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.
Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries
Lunin, Oleg; Turton, David
2012-01-01
We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a travelling-wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T^4. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.
Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood
2015-01-01
The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.
Capacity Maximizing Constellations
Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher
2010-01-01
Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity
Dual capacity reciprocating compressor
Wolfe, Robert W.
1984-01-01
A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Landex, Alex
2011-01-01
special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Thomas Christian
2014-01-01
The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...
Holographic properties in three-dimensional AdS soliton using $AdS_3/CFT_2$
Peng, Yan
2016-01-01
We study the holographic description of a superconductor by the $AdS_{3}/CFT_{2}$ correspondence. The system is constructed with a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field coupled in the (2+1)-dimensional AdS soliton background. With analytical methods, we obtain the exact expression for the critical chemical potential as $\\mu_{c} = 1 + \\sqrt{1+m^2}$, which has also been generalized to higher dimensions as $\\mu_c \\thickapprox a + \\sqrt{m^2-m_{BF}^2}$ in this work. Around the phase transition points, we find a correspondence between the value of the scalar field at the tip and the scalar operator at infinity. We also arrive at the classical second order phase transition threshold exponent $\\beta=\\frac{1}{2}$ as the same as the mean field theory near the critical chemical potential. As the condensation becomes heavier, we show surprisingly that superconducting phases exist only in a certain range of the chemical potential, which is very different from higher-dimensional cases. And for the small enough negative ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan
2010-01-01
a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...
Li, Wei; Pähtz, Thomas; He, Zhiguo; Cao, Zhixian
2016-01-01
Volumetric sediment concentrations computed by phase-resolving swash morphodynamic models are shown to exceed unity minus porosity (i.e. the maximal physically possible concentration value) by up to factor of $10^5$ when using standard expressions to compute the sediment transport rate. An ad hoc limit of sediment concentration is introduced as a means to evaluate consequences of exceeding physically realistic concentration by standard expressions. We find that implementation of this ad hoc limit strongly changes the quantitative and qualitative predictions of phase-resolving swash morphodynamic models, suggesting that existing swash predictions are unreliable. This is because standard expressions inappropriately consider or ignore the fact that the shallow swash water depth limits the storage capacity of transported sediment.
de Boer, J.; Hubeny, V.E.; Rangamani, M.; Shigemori, M.
2009-01-01
We study Brownian motion and the associated Langevin equation in AdS/CFT. The Brownian particle is realized in the bulk spacetime as a probe fundamental string in an asymptotically AdS black hole background, stretching between the AdS boundary and the horizon. The modes on the string are excited by
An Investigation of AdS2 Backreaction and Holography
Engelsöy, Julius; Verlinde, Herman
2016-01-01
We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski and develop an 1D effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1D version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.
Supersymmetry Properties of AdS Supergravity Backgrounds
Beck, Samuel; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George
2017-01-01
Anti-de Sitter supergravity backgrounds are of particular interest in light of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates them to dual conformal field theories on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space. We have investigated the forms of the supersymmetries these backgrounds preserve by solving the Killing spinor equations on the anti-de Sitter components of these spaces. We have found that a supersymmetric AdSn background necessarily preserves 2⌊n/2⌋ k supersymmetries for n 0 . Additionally, we have found that the Killing spinors of each background are exactly the zeroes of a Dirac-like operator constructed from the Killing spinor equations.
Jet physics from static charges in AdS space
Chien, Yang-Ting; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Stewart, Iain W.
2012-02-01
Soft interactions with high-energy jets are explored in radial coordinates which exploit the approximately conformal behavior of perturbative gauge theories. In these coordinates, the jets, approximated by Wilson lines, become static charges in Euclidean AdS. The anomalous dimension of the corresponding Wilson line operator is then determined by the potential energy of the charges. To study these Wilson lines we introduce a “conformal gauge” which does not have kinetic mixing between radial and angular directions, and show that a number of properties of Wilson lines are reproduced through relatively simple calculations. For example, certain nonplanar graphs involving multiple Wilson lines automatically vanish. We also discuss the linear growth of the charges’ imaginary potential energy with separation, and a relationship between Wilson line diagrams and Witten diagrams.
Jet Physics from Static Charges in AdS
Chien, Yang-Ting; Simmons-Duffin, David; Stewart, Iain W
2011-01-01
Soft interactions with high-energy jets are explored in radial coordinates which exploit the approximately conformal behavior of perturbative gauge theories. In these coordinates, the jets, approximated by Wilson lines, become static charges in Euclidean AdS. The anomalous dimension of the corresponding Wilson line operator is then determined by the potential energy of the charges. To study these Wilson lines we introduce a "conformal gauge" which does not have kinetic mixing between radial and angular directions, and show that a number of properties of Wilson lines are reproduced through relatively simple calculations. For example, certain non-planar graphs involving multiple Wilson lines automatically vanish. We also discuss the linear growth of the charges' imaginary potential energy with separation, and a relationship between Wilson line diagrams and Witten diagrams.
Bootstrapping Pure Quantum Gravity in AdS3
Bae, Jin-Beom; Lee, Sungjay
2016-01-01
The three-dimensional pure quantum gravity with negative cosmological constant is supposed to be dual to the extremal conformal field theory of central charge $c=24k$ in two dimensions. We employ the conformal bootstrap method to analyze the extremal CFTs, and find numerical evidence for the non-existence of the extremal CFTs for sufficiently large central charge ($k \\ge 20$). We also explore near-extremal CFTs, a small modification of extremal ones, and find similar evidence for their non-existence for large central charge. This indicates, under the assumption of holomorphic factorization, the pure gravity in the weakly curved AdS$_3$ do not exist as a consistent quantum theory.
Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasobh, C.B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V.C. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Cochin (India)
2016-04-15
We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)
On Information Loss in AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$
Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu
2016-01-01
We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS$_3$, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT$_2$ correlators at large central charge $c$: 'forbidden singularities' arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite $c$, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior of correlators at times $t \\sim S_{BH}$, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the $1/c$ expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify 'information-restoring' effects from heavy states that should correspo...
Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes
Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.
2016-04-01
We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bretzke, Wolf-Ruediger [Barkawi Management Consultants GmbH und Co. KG, Muenchen (Germany)
2010-09-15
The authors examine the question of whether and to what extent globalization changes in the future. For this purpose, an expert survey is carried out. The results of this expert surveys are described in the contribution under consideration: (1) The vast majority of climate scientists says that limiting global warming to two degrees celsius only is possible if the developed industrial countries reduce their emissions by 80 % compared to the year 1990; (2) This inevitably requires interventions of the policy for sustainable management; (3) Despite the economic and financial crisis the policy shall not ease its ambitious targets in the medium term; (4) The threat of global warming is a global problem. The solution of this problem at political level requires a more advanced form of 'global governance'; (5) A significant increase in the petroleum price may affect the globally distributed industrial 'settlement structures' and the configuration of logistics networks. A possible adaptation may consist in multistage distribution systems with regional, customer-oriented stocks; (6) A stronger focus of companies to a low-polluting, sustainable business can be facilitated and supported by financial incentives; (7) It is not expected that professional buyers of companies do not sacrifice price advantages in low-wage countries; (8) Scale effects in the production by special factories result in a continuation of the current 'production footprints' even if this model significantly increases the transport intensity of the economy due to the longer distance between the place of production and the place of consumption; (9) In the logistics presumable there exists any other single measure to eliminate many pollutants such as the replacement of air cargo by sea freight; (10) Economic-historically, globalization has developed very quickly. The experts disagree on whether globalization slows down or whether the globalization changes at a constant speed.
Cholesterol acceptor capacity is preserved by different mechanisms in preterm and term fetuses.
Pecks, Ulrich; Mohaupt, Markus G; Hütten, Matthias C; Maass, Nicolai; Rath, Werner; Escher, Geneviève
2014-02-01
Fetal serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations differ between preterm and term born neonates. An imbalance of the flow of cholesterol from the sites of synthesis or efflux from cells of peripheral organs to the liver, the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), is linked to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preterm delivery is a risk factor for the development of CVD. Thus, we hypothesized that RCT is affected by a diminished cholesterol acceptor capacity in preterm as compared to term fetuses. Cholesterol efflux assays were performed in RAW264.7, HepG2, and HUVEC cell lines. In the presence and absence of ABC transporter overexpression by TO-901317, umbilical cord sera of preterm and term born neonates (n = 28 in both groups) were added. Lipid components including high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein E were measured and related to fractional cholesterol efflux values. We found overall, fractional cholesterol efflux to remain constant between the study groups, and over gestational ages at delivery, respectively. However, correlation analysis revealed cholesterol efflux values to be predominantly related to HDL concentration at term, while in preterm neonates, cholesterol efflux was mainly associated with LDL In conclusion cholesterol acceptor capacity during fetal development is kept in a steady state with different mechanisms and lipid fractions involved at distinct stages during the second half of fetal development. However, RCT mechanisms in preterm neonates seem not to be involved in the development of CVD later in life suggesting rather changes in the lipoprotein pattern causative.
Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization
Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.
2015-12-01
Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.
Strategic network design of Java Island fuel supply with production-transportation solution
Dianawati, Fauzia; Farizal, -; Surjandari, Isti; Marzuli, Rully
2011-10-01
This study aims to find more efficient supply network, from refineries / imports to fuel terminal, which still uses the Tanker, Tank Trucks or Rail Tank Wagon with an alternative pipeline that are considered more efficient than other transport modes, as well as gaining pipeline transportation network optimization analysis tailored to the capabilities/ capacity of refinery production and capacity of the pipe mode. With the complexity of the number of 3 point sources of supply, 19 destination of terminal, 4 kinds of products and 4 types of transport modes, transport-production model modified by adding multi-modal transport and investment costs of new pipeline. Then coded in Lingo program which adopts Branch & Bound technique and input the processed data in order to obtain an optimal distribution pattern produced the lowest distribution costs. This B&B solution was also compared with SCO solution which is a metaheuristic method. The results of this study lead to the development of new modes of pipeline connections in amount of 4 alternatives, generated from the optimal solution, but still potentially earned savings of about IDR 1 Trillion per year from cost-efficiency of product procurement and transportation costs.
Natsuume, Makoto
2014-01-01
This is the draft version of a textbook on "real-world" applications of the AdS/CFT duality for beginning graduate students in particle physics and for researchers in the other fields. The aim of this book is to provide background materials such as string theory, general relativity, nuclear physics, nonequilibrium physics, and condensed-matter physics as well as some key applications of the AdS/CFT duality in a single textbook. Contents: (1) Introduction, (2) General relativity and black holes, (3) Black holes and thermodynamics, (4) Strong interaction and gauge theories, (5) The road to AdS/CFT, (6) The AdS spacetime, (7) AdS/CFT - equilibrium, (8) AdS/CFT - adding probes, (9) Basics of nonequilibrium physics, (10) AdS/CFT - nonequilibrium, (11) Other AdS spacetimes, (12) Applications to quark-gluon plasma, (13) Basics of phase transition, (14) AdS/CFT - phase transition.
ABC Transporters and the Alzheimer's Disease Enigma.
Wolf, Andrea; Bauer, Björn; Hartz, Anika M S
2012-01-01
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered the "disease of the twenty-first century." With a 10-fold increase in global incidence over the past 100 years, AD is now reaching epidemic proportions and by all projections, AD patient numbers will continue to rise. Despite intense research efforts, AD remains a mystery and effective therapies are still unavailable. This represents an unmet need resulting in clinical, social, and economic problems. Over the last decade, a new AD research focus has emerged: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. In this article, we provide an overview of the ABC transporters ABCA1, ABCA2, P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), MRP1 (ABCC1), and BCRP (ABCG2), all of which are expressed in the brain and have been implicated in AD. We summarize recent findings on the role of these five transporters in AD, and discuss their potential to serve as therapeutic targets.
Facilities Management and Added Value
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Per Anker
2010-01-01
Aim: This paper aims to present different models of the concept of the added value of Facilities Management (FM), including the FM Value Map, which forms the basis of research group in EuroFM, and to present some of the results of this research collaboration. Approach and methodology: The paper...... on the aimed output) and the internal resource based view (with a focus on the input from FM and RE). Good relationship management and building on trust shows to be equally important as delivering the agreed services. In order to measure the multi-dimensional components of adding value both qualitative...... is based on literature reviews of the most influential journals within the academic fields of FM, Corporate Real Estate Management and Business to Business Marketing and discussions between participants of the research group working on a further exploration and testing of the FM Value Map. Conclusions...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Antila, Kari; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart;
2013-01-01
can be managed. Today the significance of early and precise diagnosis of AD is emphasized in order to minimize its irreversible effects on the nervous system. When new drugs and therapies enter the market it is also vital to effectively identify the right candidates to benefit from these. The main...... candidates and implement the framework in software. The results are currently used in several research projects, licensed to commercial use and being tested for clinical use in several trials....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Boston U.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC
2012-02-14
We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.
Towards Timelike Singularity via AdS Dual
Bhowmick, Samrat
2016-01-01
It is well known that Kasner geometry with spacelike singularity can be extended to bulk AdS-like geometry, furthermore one can study field theory on this Kasner space via its gravity dual. In this paper, we show that there exists a Kasner-like geometry with timelike singularity for which one can construct a dual gravity description. We then study various minimal surfaces including spacelike geodesics. Finally, we compute correlators of highly massive operators in the boundary field theory with a geodesic approximation.
Holography in 3D AdS gravity with torsion
Blagojević, Milutin; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo
2013-01-01
Basic aspects of the AdS/CFT correspondence are studied in the framework of 3-dimensional gravity with torsion. After choosing a consistent holographic ansatz, we formulate an improved approach to the Noether--Ward identities for the boundary theory. The method is applied first to the topological Mielke--Baekler model, and then to the more interesting (parity-preserving) 3-dimensional gravity with propagating torsion. In both cases, we find the finite holographic energy-momentum and spin currents and obtain the associated (anomalous) Noether--Ward identities.
Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes
Hyun, Seungjoon; Yi, Sang-Heon
2016-01-01
We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.
2012-01-01
Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...... model shows positive correlation between serving London and the efficiency scores. There is negative correlation between offering regional services (average length of journeys less than 40 mi) and the efficiency scores. The overall study and the results can provide helpful insights for railway...
Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.
2013-03-01
Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.
Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.
2013-12-01
Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.
Polydisperse suspensions: Erosion, deposition, and flow capacity
Dorrell, R. M.; Hogg, A. J.; Pritchard, D.
2013-09-01
Deposition from particle-laden flows is often described in terms of the capacity and competence of the flow, but robust definitions of these terms have proved elusive. In this paper we provide a mathematical modeling framework within which erosion and deposition of polydisperse sediment, and thus flow capacity and competence, can be rigorously defined. This framework explicitly captures the coupling between the suspension and an active layer of sediment at the top of the bed, and is capable of describing both depositional and erosional flows over both erodible and nonerodible beds. Crucially, the capacity of a flow is shown to depend on the erosional and depositional history because these processes determine the composition of the active layer. This dependence is explored within models of bidisperse and polydisperse suspensions. It is further demonstrated that monodisperse representations of suspended sediment transport may severely underpredict actual flow capacity. The polydisperse model is validated against recent experimental studies of the evolution of suspended material in waning turbulent flows, and is used to demonstrate that loss of capacity is the principal driver of sediment deposition.
Markets and Institutional Capacity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ingemann, Jan Holm
2010-01-01
Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further, the e......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....
2015-02-01
In a similar manner, globalization has also created new realities, such as in the case of food production where choice now affects demand as much as...quantity did in the past. “Two major factors drive food requirements [and market prices]: a growing global population and prosperity that expands...argued earlier, to expend effort in other nations without consideration of building capacity and resiliency risks strategic failure and wastage of
Ad-hoc Network Based on ARM-Linux%基于ARM-Linux的Ad-hoc组网
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王晓华; 贾继洋
2014-01-01
Aiming to solve the problem of the contemporary communication system in the absence of any network, a new scheme of the Ad-hoc network based on ARM-Linux system is designed. Firstly, this paper introduces the transportation of the Linux2.6.36 and the driver of RT3070 on ARM11 platform. Then based on socket programming in TCP/IP, program designing of communication and tests are conducted on the ARM-Linux platform. Results have proved that the Ad-hoc network can use the least resources and costs to achieve reliable high rate communication. It is significant for practical application.%针对传统通信系统不能满足在无任何网络情况下的通信需求现状，设计并实现了一种由 ARM-Linux 系统及其外围部件组成的无线自组网(Ad-hoc)的通信方案.在 ARM11平台上完成了 Linux2.6.36操作系统和RT3070无线通信模块的驱动程序移植.利用基于TCP/IP协议的socket编程，编写测试程序，进行节点间无线通信传输实验.实验结果表明：本文搭建的Ad-hoc网络，可以用最少的资源和成本，实现节点间可靠的无线高速率通信，具有现实应用意义.
On modular properties of the AdS3 CFT
Baron, Walter
2010-01-01
We study modular properties of the AdS3 WZNW model. Although the Euclidean partition function is modular invariant, the characters on the Euclidean torus are ill-defined and their modular transformations are unknown. We reconsider the characters defined on the Lorentzian torus, focusing on their structure as distributions. We find a generalized S matrix, depending on the sign of the real modular parameters, which has two diagonal blocks and one off-diagonal block, mixing discrete and continuous representations, that we fully determine. We then explore the relations among the modular transformations, the fusion algebra and the boundary states. We explicitly construct Ishibashi states for the maximally symmetric D-branes and show that the generalized S matrix defines the one-point functions associated to point-like and H2 branes as well as the fusion rules of the degenerate representations of SL(2,R) appearing in the open string spectrum of the point-like D-branes, through a generalized Verlinde theorem.
Goodman, Alyssa
We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where
Competence building capacity shortage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern
2005-02-01
The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather
Adaptive Capacity Management in Bluetooth Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Son, L.T.
With the Internet and mobile wireless development, accelerated by high-speed and low cost VLSI device evolution, short range wireless communications have become more and more popular, especially Bluetooth. Bluetooth is a new short range radio technology that promises to be very convenient, low......, such as limited wireless bandwidth operation, routing, scheduling, network control, etc. Currently Bluetooth specification particularly does not describe in details about how to implement Quality of Service and Resource Management in Bluetooth protocol stacks. These issues become significant, when the number...... of Bluetooth devices is increasing, a larger-scale ad hoc network, scatternet, is formed, as well as the booming of Internet has demanded for large bandwidth and low delay mobile access. This dissertation is to address the capacity management issues in Bluetooth networks. The main goals of the network capacity...
The capacity of the Hopfield associative memory
Mceliece, Robert J.; Posner, Edward C.; Rodemich, Eugene R.; Venkatesh, Santosh S.
1987-01-01
Techniques from coding theory are applied to study rigorously the capacity of the Hopfield associative memory. Such a memory stores n-tuple of + or - 1s. The components change depending on a hard-limited version of linear functions of all other components. With symmetric connections between components, a stable state is ultimately reached. By building up the connection matrix as a sum-of-outer products of m fundamental memories, it may be possible to recover a certain one of the m memories by using an initial n-tuple probe vector less than a Hamming distance n/2 away from the fundamental memory. If m fundamental memories are chosen at random, the maximum asymptotic value of m in order that most of the m original memories are exactly recoverable is n/(2 log n). With the added restriction that every one of the m fundamental memories be recoverable exactly, m can be no more than n/(4 log n) asymptotically as n approaches infinity. Extensions are also considered, in particular to capacity under quantization of the outer-product connection matrix. This quantized memory-capacity problem is closely related to the capacity of the quantized Gaussian channel.
SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. J. R. Castro
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.
Enterprise’s performance evaluation on the basis of value added
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doina Pacurari
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Important indicator, used in performance analysis, value added expresses enterprise’s contribution to national gross domestic product. The value added through economic activity developed by enterprise should assure the remuneration of all its life participants: employees, investors, state and enterprise itself. Information referring to enterprise capacity of generatingvalue added should be based on decisions concerning future enterprise decisions. The present article presents, by means of a case study, value added calculation (by subtractive and additivemethod and their analysis.
Enhancing the performance of ad hoc wireless networks with smart antennas
Bandyopadhyay, Somprakash; Ueda, Tetsuro
2006-01-01
A large portion of the network capacity of an ad hoc network can be wasted by the medium access mechanisms of omni-directional antennas. To overcome this problem, researchers propose the use of directional or adaptive antennas that largely reduce radio interference, improving the utilization of wireless medium and the resulting network throughput.Enhancing the Performance of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks with Smart Antennas discusses these issues and challenges. Following an introduction to ad hoc networks, it presents an overview of basic Media Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols in ad hoc
Entanglement Entropy of AdS Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maurizio Melis
2010-11-01
Full Text Available We review recent progress in understanding the entanglement entropy of gravitational configurations for anti-de Sitter gravity in two and three spacetime dimensions using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We derive simple expressions for the entanglement entropy of two- and three-dimensional black holes. In both cases, the leading term of the entanglement entropy in the large black hole mass expansion reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, whereas the subleading term behaves logarithmically. In particular, for the BTZ black hole the leading term of the entanglement entropy can be obtained from the large temperature expansion of the partition function of a broad class of 2D CFTs on the torus.
Evaluation model for safety capacity of chemical industrial park based on acceptable regional risk
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guohua Chen; Shukun Wang; Xiaoqun Tan
2015-01-01
The paper defines the Safety Capacity of Chemical Industrial Park (SCCIP) from the perspective of acceptable regional risk. For the purpose of exploring the evaluation model for the SCCIP, a method based on quantitative risk assessment was adopted for evaluating transport risk and to confirm reasonable safety transport capacity of chemical industrial park, and then by combining with the safety storage capacity, a SCCIP evaluation model was put forward. The SCCIP was decided by the smaller one between the largest safety storage capacity and the maximum safety transport capacity, or else, the regional risk of the park will exceed the acceptable level. The developed method was applied to a chemical industrial park in Guangdong province to obtain the maximum safety transport capacity and the SCCIP. The results can be realized in the regional risk control of the park effectively.
Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.
2011-11-01
The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.
THE TRANSMISSION CAPACITY OF MANET BASED ON CONFLICT GRAPH
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The transmission capacity of Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET) is constrained by the mutual interference of concurrent transmissions between nodes. First, the transmission capacity of MANET is studied by the view of information flow between nodes. At the same time, the problem that the interference between nodes affects the transmission capacity of MANET is also studied by the tool of the event conflict graph. Secondly, the paper presents the method to compute the maximum expectant achievable capacity for the given conflict graph, and concludes and proves an sufficient condition that the information flow transmit successfully between nodes. At last, the results are simulated and a fitting equation of transmission capacity between nodes is given.
Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy
2011-01-01
Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues
Impacts of technology on the capacity needs of the US national airspace system
Ausrotas, Raymond A.; Simpson, Robert W.
1992-01-01
A review of the U.S. air transportation system is undertaken, focusing on airspace and airport capacity. Causes of delay and congestion are investigated. Aircraft noise is identified as the fundamental hindrance to capacity improvement. Research areas for NASA are suggested to improve capacity through technology.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵丽敏; 李秧秧; 左力翔
2013-01-01
以两种不同抗旱性的玉米品种(“陕单21”和“郑单958”)和高梁品种(“晋中405”和“晋杂12”)为对象,研究了土壤渐进干旱过程中茎木质部水分传输能力与光合作用之间的协调关系,试图揭示玉米和高梁品种抗旱性差异的水力生理机制.结果表明:(1)相同土壤干旱程度下,玉米品种“郑单958”的叶水势、净光合速率(Pn)、最大光化学量子效率(Fv/Fm)和PSⅡ实际量子效率(ΦPSⅡ)高于“陕单21”,其气孔导度(Gs)及蒸腾速率(Tr)则低于“陕单21”.高梁品种“晋杂12”的Pn和ΦPSⅡ高于“晋中405”.表明玉米品种“郑单958”和高梁品种“晋杂12”的抗旱性相对较强.(2)土壤渐进干旱过程中,玉米和高梁光合气体交换参数(Pn、Gs及Tr)的下降早于叶绿素荧光参数(Fv/Fm、ΦPSⅡ)的下降,表明气孔关闭比PSⅡ活性受损要早.(3)抗旱性强的玉米品种“郑单958”和高梁品种“晋杂12”同时具有相对高的水分传输能力,其抵抗气穴化形成的能力更强,但高粱抵抗气穴化的能力不如玉米,高梁通过快速的栓塞来减少水分散失.(4)玉米Pn和Gs对茎木质部水分传输能力下降的敏感性高于高粱,抗旱性强的玉米和高梁品种Gs对木质部水分传输能力下降的敏感性更强.高梁能在低水分传输能力的情况下,维持较高的光合作用,反映了高粱保守性的水分利用策略.%Despite the fact of a strong linkage has been noted between xylem water transport capacity and photosynthesis in several woody plant species,not much research has studied such linkage in herbaceous plants.Herbaceous plants could be more vulnerable to drought-induced embolism than woody plants due to their lower xylem structure.Hence in a pot experiment,this paper investigated the coordination between stem water transport capacity and photosynthesis in corn cultivars (“Shaandan 21” and “Zhengdan 958”) and sorghum cultivars (
A capacity scaling algorithm for convex cost submodular flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iwata, Satoru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
1996-12-31
This paper presents a scaling scheme for submodular functions. A small but strictly submodular function is added before scaling so that the resulting functions should be submodular. This scaling scheme leads to a weakly polynomial algorithm to solve minimum cost integral submodular flow problems with separable convex cost functions, provided that an oracle for exchange capacities are available.
Improved Method for Determining the Heat Capacity of Metals
Barth, Roger; Moran, Michael J.
2014-01-01
An improved procedure for laboratory determination of the heat capacities of metals is described. The temperature of cold water is continuously recorded with a computer-interfaced temperature probe and the room temperature metal is added. The method is more accurate and faster than previous methods. It allows students to get accurate measurements…
Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.
Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda
2014-01-01
Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model
On thermodynamics of charged AdS black holes in extended phases space via M2-branes background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chabab, M.; Masmar, K. [Cadi Ayyad University, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, FSSM, Marrakesh (Morocco); El Moumni, H. [Cadi Ayyad University, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, FSSM, Marrakesh (Morocco); Universite Ibn Zohr, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Agadir (Morocco)
2016-06-15
Motivated by a recent work on asymptotically AdS{sub 4} black holes in M-theory, we investigate both thermodynamics and the thermodynamical geometry of Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes from M2-branes. More precisely, we study AdS black holes in AdS{sub 4} x S{sup 7}, with the number of M2-branes interpreted as a thermodynamical variable. In this context, we calculate various thermodynamical quantities including the chemical potential, and examine their phase transitions along with the corresponding stability behaviors. In addition, we also evaluate the thermodynamical curvatures of the Weinhold, Ruppeiner, and Quevedo metrics for M2-branes geometry to study the stability of such a black object. We show that the singularities of these scalar curvature's metrics reproduce similar stability results to those obtained by the phase transition diagram via the heat capacities in different ensembles either when the number of the M2 branes or the charge is held fixed. Also, we note that all results derived in Belhaj et al. (Eur Phys J C 76(2):73, 2016) are recovered in the limit of the vanishing charge. (orig.)
Deficiency of employability capacity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pelse I.
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.
Prabhu, Ninad V.; Sharp, Kim A.
2005-05-01
Heat capacity (Cp) is one of several major thermodynamic quantities commonly measured in proteins. With more than half a dozen definitions, it is the hardest of these quantities to understand in physical terms, but the richest in insight. There are many ramifications of observed Cp changes: The sign distinguishes apolar from polar solvation. It imparts a temperature (T) dependence to entropy and enthalpy that may change their signs and which of them dominate. Protein unfolding usually has a positive ΔCp, producing a maximum in stability and sometimes cold denaturation. There are two heat capacity contributions, from hydration and protein-protein interactions; which dominates in folding and binding is an open question. Theoretical work to date has dealt mostly with the hydration term and can account, at least semiquantitatively, for the major Cp-related features: the positive and negative Cp of hydration for apolar and polar groups, respectively; the convergence of apolar group hydration entropy at T ≈ 112°C; the decrease in apolar hydration Cp with increasing T; and the T-maximum in protein stability and cold denaturation.
MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chernyshov Alexander V.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.
Axenides, Minos; Linardopoulos, Georgios
2013-01-01
We study membrane configurations in AdS_{7/4}xS^{4/7}. The membranes are wrapped around the compact manifold S^{4/7} and are dynamically equivalent to bosonic strings in AdS_5. We thus conveniently identify them as "stringy membranes". For the case of AdS_7xS^4, their construction is carried out by embedding the Polyakov action for classical bosonic strings in AdS_5, into the corresponding membrane action. Therefore, every string configuration in AdS_5 can be realized by an appropriately chosen stringy membrane in AdS_7xS^4. We discuss the possibility of this being also the case for stringy membranes in AdS_4xS^7/Z^k (k > 1 or k = 1). By performing a stability analysis to the constructed solutions, we find that the (membrane) fluctuations along their transverse directions are organized in multiple Lam\\'{e} stability bands and gaps in the space of parameters of the configurations. In this membrane picture, strings exhibit a single band/gap structure. Since the spectrum of quadratic fluctuations is important fo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-06-15
We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
@@ Paraformaldehyde (PF) production in China has grown to a considerable scale today. The total capacity was around 90 thousand t/a in 2006. Since 2007, the production capacity of PF has increased drastically.
Workshop on moisture buffer capacity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2003-01-01
Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...
Added transmission capacity in VLC systems using white RGB based LEDs and WDM devices
Louro, P.; Silva, V.; Costa, J.; Vieira, M. A.; Vieira, M.
2016-04-01
In this paper an integrated wavelength optical filter and photodetector working as a DEMUX device is used to detect modulated optical signals of visible wavelengths for Visible Light Communication (VLC). The proposed application demonstrates the viability of indoors positioning using VLC technology established by the modulation of indoor warm light lamps lighting with ultra-bright white tri-cromatic LEDs. The signals were transmitted into free space and the generated photocurrent was measured by a pin-pin photodetector based on a-SiC:H/a-Si:H. This device operates in the visible spectrum, allowing thus the detection of the pulsed light emitted by the modulated chips of the white RGB LEDs. However, as the device works also as a visible optical filter with controlled wavelength sensitivity through the use of adequate optical biasing light, it is able to detect different wavelengths, turning it into a DEMUX device. This feature allows the detection of the individual components of the tri-chromatic white LED and is the basis for the indoors location algorithm. We demonstrate the possibility of decoding four transmission optical channels supplied by two different wavelength LEDs modulated under different bit sequences, which allows the location identification and indoor navigation.
Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Mobility Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Budi Rahmadya
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Indonesia is one of developing countries with high land traffic density. This traffic density could cause traffic jam, traffic accidents and other disturbances. This research had developed a simulator that could calculate the traffic density of roads in urban areas. With the use of this simulator, the researcher could calculate the time needed if the source node transports the message to the destination node by using the ad hoc network communication facility. In this research, every vehicle utilizes multi-hop communication in a communication network. The vehicle sends the message through flooding message and passes on the received message to other vehicles. Based on the simulation done on map size 10 km x 10 km with a total of 20 vehicles on the road, it was calculated that the simulator could transmit the message to its destination on the 106th second from node 3 and with the total of 200 vehicles on the road, the simulator could transmit the message to its destination on the 22nd second from node 5.
Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion
Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.
2003-01-01
We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are t
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
OLSON,CRAIG L.
2000-05-17
Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.
In 2017 Annual Capacity of Aluminum in Inner Mongolia May Top 10 Million Tonnes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2015-01-01
Up till now,Inner Mongolia whole region’s nonferrous metal industry has developed 5.64million tonnes of production capacity,newly added 1.45 million tonnes compared with 2012,up by 34.6%.Wherein,aluminum capacity was3.40 million tonnes,newly added 1.05 million tonnes,up by 44.7%;lead 400,000 tonnes,
Penedones, Joao
2016-01-01
We introduce the AdS/CFT correspondence as a natural extension of QFT in a fixed AdS background. We start by reviewing some general concepts of CFT, including the embedding space formalism. We then consider QFT in a fixed AdS background and show that one can define boundary operators that enjoy very similar properties as in a CFT, except for the lack of a stress tensor. Including a dynamical metric in AdS generates a boundary stress tensor and completes the CFT axioms. We also discuss some applications of the bulk geometric intuition to strongly coupled QFT. Finally, we end with a review of the main properties of Mellin amplitudes for CFT correlation functions and their uses in the context of AdS/CFT.
Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Overview: ReADS can analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and problem or maintenance records. ReADS uses text clustering algorithms to group loosely related...
The AdS/CFT/Unparticle Correspondence
Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Terning, John
2009-01-01
We examine the correspondence between the anti-de Sitter (AdS) description of conformal field theories (CFTs) and the unparticle description of CFTs. We show how unparticle actions are equivalent to holographic boundary actions for fields in AdS, and how massive unparticles provide a new type of infrared cutoff that can be simply implemented in AdS by a soft breaking of conformal symmetry. We also show that processes involving scalar unparticles with dimensions d_s<2 or fermion unparticles with dimensions d_f<5/2 are insensitive to ultraviolet cutoff effects. Finally we show that gauge interactions for unparticles can be described by bulk gauge interactions in AdS and that they correspond to minimal gauging of the non-local effective action, and we compute the fermion unparticle production cross-section.
TV Snack Ads Make Preschoolers Snack More
... Sesame Street" interrupted by TV ads for a salty snack food ended up eating more of that ... watched the show with commercials for a popular salty snack. The ads depicted kids happily playing and ...
Bidirectional ROF Links with Dynamic Capacity Allocation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakesh Kumar Chandan , Dharmendra Singh
2013-10-01
Full Text Available : Radio over fiber (ROF technology is an integration of wireless and fiber optic network. It plays vital role for broad band wireless communication. The well known advantages of optical as a transmission medium such as low loss, light weight, large bandwidth characteristics, small size and low cable cost make it the ideal and most flexible solution for efficiently transporting radio signals to remotely located antenna site in a wireless network. The joint venture of radio signal and optical fiber technology provides dynamic capacity allocation in radio over fiber links.
Capacity Utilization in European Railways
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex
2013-01-01
At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel...... and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...
Minimum Process Coordinated Checkpointing Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks
Tuli, Ruchi
2011-01-01
The wireless mobile ad hoc network (MANET) architecture is one consisting of a set of mobile hosts capable of communicating with each other without the assistance of base stations. This has made possible creating a mobile distributed computing environment and has also brought several new challenges in distributed protocol design. In this paper, we study a very fundamental problem, the fault tolerance problem, in a MANET environment and propose a minimum process coordinated checkpointing scheme. Since potential problems of this new environment are insufficient power and limited storage capacity, the proposed scheme tries to reduce the amount of information saved for recovery. The MANET structure used in our algorithm is hierarchical based. The scheme is based for Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) which belongs to a class of Hierarchical Reactive routing protocols. The protocol proposed by us is nonblocking coordinated checkpointing algorithm suitable for ad hoc environments. It produces a consistent set of...
Implementing Smart Antenna System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supriya Kulkarni P
2014-06-01
Full Text Available As the necessity of exchanging and sharing data increases, users demand easy connectivity, and fast networks whether they are at work, at home, or on the move. Nowadays, users are interested in interconnecting all their personal electronic devices (PEDs in an ad hoc fashion on the move. This type of network is referred to as Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET. When in such network a smart antenna System (SAS is implemented then we can achieve maximum capacity and improve the quality and coverage. So we are intended to implement such a SAS in the MANET. In this paper we have shown significance of Throughput and Bit Error Rate by implementing SAS in MANET using MATLABR2010a.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manasvi Kalra,
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The apps consist of advertisements to promote their products. Not all of them are appropriate to resume. Therefore various algorithms have been used in order to block those apps from existence but none of them is completely successful. In our app we are using an antivirus which can by default block those spy apps and remove them from the web page. The algorithm which has been used makes use of various ant viruses in the background which detect irrelevant and intimate apps and then our algorithm will demolish them. Certain apps are non-trustworthy where one click can spy all the mobile data. They block those apps and works on security. We are working on secure ads for mobile apps. It can also work as a basic antivirus where it detects the viruses like malwares in any of your installed apps or downloads. It will create a popup of discarding or keeping it. Mobile applications can be downloaded from anywhere like amazon, googleplay, apps store etc. There is no rigorous verification of an application when it is uploaded to the market. One can easily develop a malicious application and upload it to the app market. The user itself is responsible for accepting the risk of an app available from secondary markets. Therefore, we have decided to develop this app to make the market more secure and bounded. In future, It will take the mobile market while consuming minimal additional resources and preserving user privacy.
Material Developing for ADS Beam Window
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XUYong-li; XUYuan-chao; LIHua-qing; NINGGuang-sheng; WANFa-rong; ZHAOFei
2003-01-01
The irradiation damage and the chemical interaction with the coolant for the ADS target and the structure materials are the key issues in ADS engineering. The developing of the materials that are irradiation and corrosion resistance is the important topic in ADS program in many countries. In this case,a topic of the material developing for the beam window has been proposed in our ADS program.
Modeling of Ad-hoc and Infrastructure Dual Mode Mobile Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yi-Hung Chen; Hui-Nien Hung; Yi-Bing Lin; Nan-Fu Peng
2005-01-01
This paper investigates a mobile telecommunications system that supports both ad hoc and infrastructure mode operations. Based on analytic and simulation models, our study investigates how base station (BS) and ad hoc channel capacity, and the mobility and locality of mobile stations affect the performance of a dual mode system. We show that a dual mode system can significantly outperform a single mode (infrastructure) system when the degree of locality is high. Furthermore, a dual mode system can support much faster mobile users with less BS channels in comparison to an infrastructure mode system. Our study quantitatively identifies the threshold value for the number of ad hoc channels such that beyond this threshold, increasing ad hoc channel capacity will not improve the performance of a dual mode system.
Mapping Soil pH Buffering Capacity of Selected Fields
Weaver, A. R.; Kissel, D. E.; Chen, F.; West, L. T.; Adkins, W.; Rickman, D.; Luvall, J. C.
2003-01-01
Soil pH buffering capacity, since it varies spatially within crop production fields, may be used to define sampling zones to assess lime requirement, or for modeling changes in soil pH when acid forming fertilizers or manures are added to a field. Our objective was to develop a procedure to map this soil property. One hundred thirty six soil samples (0 to 15 cm depth) from three Georgia Coastal Plain fields were titrated with calcium hydroxide to characterize differences in pH buffering capacity of the soils. Since the relationship between soil pH and added calcium hydroxide was approximately linear for all samples up to pH 6.5, the slope values of these linear relationships for all soils were regressed on the organic C and clay contents of the 136 soil samples using multiple linear regression. The equation that fit the data best was b (slope of pH vs. lime added) = 0.00029 - 0.00003 * % clay + 0.00135 * % O/C, r(exp 2) = 0.68. This equation was applied within geographic information system (GIS) software to create maps of soil pH buffering capacity for the three fields. When the mapped values of the pH buffering capacity were compared with measured values for a total of 18 locations in the three fields, there was good general agreement. A regression of directly measured pH buffering capacities on mapped pH buffering capacities at the field locations for these samples gave an r(exp 2) of 0.88 with a slope of 1.04 for a group of soils that varied approximately tenfold in their pH buffering capacities.
Value Added Products from Renewable Biofuels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blum, Paul [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)
2014-07-31
Cellulosic ethanol is an emerging biofuel that will make strong contributions to American domestic energy needs. In the US midwest the standard method for pretreatment of biomass uses hot acid to deconstruct lignocellulose. While other methods work, they are not in common use. Therefore it is necessary to work within this context to achieve process improvements and reductions in biofuel cost. Technology underlying this process could supplement and even replace commodity enzymes with engineered microbes to convert biomass-derived lignocellulose feedstocks into biofuels and valueadded chemicals. The approach that was used here was based on consolidated bioprocessing. Thermoacidophilic microbes belonging to the Domain Archaea were evaluated and modfied to promote deconvolution and saccharification of lignocellulose. Biomass pretreatment (hot acid) was combined with fermentation using an extremely thermoacidophilic microbial platform. The identity and fate of released sugars was controlled using metabolic blocks combined with added biochemical traits where needed. LC/MS analysis supported through the newly established Nebraska Bioenergy Facility provided general support for bioenergy researchers at the University of Nebraska. The primary project strategy was to use microbes that naturally flourish in hot acid (thermoacidophiles) with conventional biomass pretreatment that uses hot acid. The specific objectives were: to screen thermoacidophilic taxa for the ability to deconvolute lignocellulose and depolymerize associated carbohydrates; evaluate and respond to formation of “inhibitors” that arose during incubation of lignocellulose under heated acidic conditions; identify and engineer “sugar flux channeling and catabolic blocks” that redirect metabolic pathways to maximize sugar concentrations; expand the hydrolytic capacity of extremely thermoacidophilic microbes through the addition of deconvolution traits; and establish the Nebraska Bioenergy Facility (NBF
78 FR 57454 - Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council
2013-09-18
... Maritime Administration Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for applications. SUMMARY: The Maritime Administration (MarAd) is seeking applications for membership on the Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council...
Rough-Cut Capacity Planning in Multimodal Freight Transportation Networks
2012-09-30
files. The MPS file format is a standard modeling format which is recognized by major math programming solvers like LINGO and CPLEX. Models are solved...using LINGO 11.0 running on a Toshiba Satellite E105 laptop computer with a 2.26 GHz Intel Core2 Duo CPU and 4 GB of RAM running 64-bit Microsoft Windows...each problem size were generated in support of the analysis. The results in table 3.1 include the problem MPS file size and solution time using LINGO
16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...
Automated Experiments on Ad Privacy Settings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Datta Amit
2015-04-01
Full Text Available To partly address people’s concerns over web tracking, Google has created the Ad Settings webpage to provide information about and some choice over the profiles Google creates on users. We present AdFisher, an automated tool that explores how user behaviors, Google’s ads, and Ad Settings interact. AdFisher can run browser-based experiments and analyze data using machine learning and significance tests. Our tool uses a rigorous experimental design and statistical analysis to ensure the statistical soundness of our results. We use AdFisher to find that the Ad Settings was opaque about some features of a user’s profile, that it does provide some choice on ads, and that these choices can lead to seemingly discriminatory ads. In particular, we found that visiting webpages associated with substance abuse changed the ads shown but not the settings page. We also found that setting the gender to female resulted in getting fewer instances of an ad related to high paying jobs than setting it to male. We cannot determine who caused these findings due to our limited visibility into the ad ecosystem, which includes Google, advertisers, websites, and users. Nevertheless, these results can form the starting point for deeper investigations by either the companies themselves or by regulatory bodies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Gulis PhD
2007-09-01
Full Text Available
Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.
Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.
Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this
2011-01-27
... Bureau of Transportation Statistics invites the general public, industry and other governmental parties... Bureau of Transportation Statistics Agency Information Collection: Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Traffic and Capacity Statistics--The T-100 System AGENCY: Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS),...
Effect of Adaptive Delivery Capacity on Networked Traffic Dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Xian-Bin; DU Wen-Bo; CHEN Cai-Long; ZHANG Jun
2011-01-01
@@ We introduce an adaptive delivering capacity mechanism into the traffic dynamic model on scale-free networks under shortest path routing strategy and focus on its effect on the network capacity measured by the critical point(Rc) of phase transition from free flow to congestion.Under this mechanism,the total node's delivering capacity is fixed and the allocation of delivering capacity on node i is proportional to niφ,where ni is the queue length of node i and φ is the adjustable parameter.It is found that the network capacity monotonously increases with the increment of φ,but there exists an optimal value of parameter φ leading to the highest transportation efficiency measured by average travelling time(〈T〉).Our work may be helpful for optimal design of networked traffic dynamics.%We introduce an adaptive delivering capacity mechanism into the traffic dynamic model on scale-free networks under shortest path routing strategy and focus on its effect on the network capacity measured by the critical point (Rc) of phase transition from free flow to congestion.Under this mechanism, the total node's delivering capacity is fixed and the allocation of delivering capacity on node i is proportional to niφ, where ni is the queue length of node i and φ is the adjustable parameter.It is found that the network capacity monotonously increases with the increment of φ, but there exists an optimal value of parameter φ leading to the highest transportation efficiency measured by average travelling time (＜T＞).Our work may be helpful for optimal design of networked traffic dynamics.
High Throughput via Cross-Layer Interference Alignment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
2013-08-26
hoc networks ( MANETS ) under practical assumptions. Several problems were posed and solved that provide insight into when and how interference alignment...REPORT High Throughput via Cross-Layer Interference Alignment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Recent...investigations into the fundamental limits of mobile ad hoc networks have produced a physical layer method for approaching their capacity. This strategy, known
Wireless Connectivity and Capacity
Halldorsson, Magnus M
2011-01-01
Given $n$ wireless transceivers located in a plane, a fundamental problem in wireless communications is to construct a strongly connected digraph on them such that the constituent links can be scheduled in fewest possible time slots, assuming the SINR model of interference. In this paper, we provide an algorithm that connects an arbitrary point set in $O(\\log n)$ slots, improving on the previous best bound of $O(\\log^2 n)$ due to Moscibroda. This is complemented with a super-constant lower bound on our approach to connectivity. An important feature is that the algorithms allow for bi-directional (half-duplex) communication. One implication of this result is an improved bound of $\\Omega(1/\\log n)$ on the worst-case capacity of wireless networks, matching the best bound known for the extensively studied average-case. We explore the utility of oblivious power assignments, and show that essentially all such assignments result in a worst case bound of $\\Omega(n)$ slots for connectivity. This rules out a recent cla...
Pirandola, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L
2011-01-01
The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory [S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 090504 (2011)]. In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e., a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of "parallel" channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of an infinite block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantify...
Integrated flexible capacity and inventory management under flexible capacity uncertainty
Paç, Mehmet Fazıl
2006-01-01
Cataloged from PDF version of article. In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study we consider the integrated management of inventory and flexible capacity management under seasonal stochastic demand and uncertain labor supply. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective. We consider a manufactu...
Supergravity on $AdS_{5/4} \\times$ Hopf Fibrations and Conformal Field Theories
1998-01-01
We obtain three and four dimensional conformal field theories with less than maximal supersymmetry by using their supergravity duals. These supergravity theories are type II on $AdS_5 \\times CP^2$, IIA on $AdS_4 \\times CP^3$, IIB on $AdS_5 \\times S^5/Z_k$ and D=11 supergravity on $AdS_4 \\times S^7/Z_k$. They are obtained from the spherically compactified ten and eleven dimensional theories by either Hopf reduction or by winding the U(1) fiber over the base.
Bed capacity and surgical waiting lists: a simulation analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manel Antelo
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Waiting time for elective surgery is a key problem in the current medical world. This paper aims to reproduce, by a Monte Carlo simulation model, the relationship between hospital capacity, inpatient activity, and surgery waiting list size in teaching hospitals. Inpatient activity is simulated by fitting a Normal distribution to real inpatient activity data, and the effect of the number of beds on inpatient activity is modelled with a linear regression model. Analysis is performed with data of the University Multi-Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela (Santiago de Compostela, Spain, by considering two scenarios regarding the elastiticity of demand with bed increase. If demand does not grow with an increase on bed capacity, small changes lead to drastic reductions in the waiting lists. However, if demand grows as bed capacity does, adding additional capacity merely makes waiting lists worse.
Available transmission capacity assessment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Škokljev Ivan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.
Protein domain organisation: adding order
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kummerfeld Sarah K
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected
Peak capacity in unidimensional chromatography.
Neue, Uwe Dieter
2008-03-14
The currently existing knowledge about peak capacity in unidimensional separations is reviewed. The majority of the paper is dedicated to reversed-phase gradient chromatography, covering specific techniques as well as the subject of peak compression. Other sections deal with peak capacity in isocratic chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. An important topic is the limitation of the separation power and the meaning of the concept of peak capacity for real applications.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
MacAulay, Nanna; Hamann, Steffan; Zeuthen, Thomas
2004-01-01
It is generally accepted that cotransporters transport water in addition to their normal substrates, although the precise mechanism is debated; both active and passive modes of transport have been suggested. The magnitude of the water flux mediated by cotransporters may well be significant: both...... the number of cotransporters per cell and the unit water permeability are high. For example, the Na(+)-glutamate cotransporter (EAAT1) has a unit water permeability one tenth of that of aquaporin (AQP) 1. Cotransporters are widely distributed in the brain and participate in several vital functions: inorganic......(+)-lactate cotransporters. We have previously determined water transport capacities for these cotransporters in model systems (Xenopus oocytes, cell cultures, and in vitro preparations), and will discuss their role in water homeostasis of the astroglial cell under both normo- and pathophysiologal situations. Astroglia...
On Cellular MIMO Channel Capacity
Adachi, Koichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki; Nakagawa, Masao
To increase the transmission rate without bandwidth expansion, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has recently been attracting much attention. The MIMO channel capacity in a cellular system is affected by the interference from neighboring co-channel cells. In this paper, we introduce the cellular channel capacity and evaluate its outage capacity, taking into account the frequency-reuse factor, path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadowing loss, and transmission power of a base station (BS). Furthermore, we compare the cellular MIMO downlink channel capacity with those of other multi-antenna transmission techniques such as single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and space-time block coded multiple-input single-output (STBC-MISO). We show that the optimum frequency-reuse factor F that maximizes 10%-outage capacity is 3 and both 50%- and 90%-outage capacities is 1 irrespective of the type of multi-antenna transmission technique, where q%-outage capacity is defined as the channel capacity that gives an outage probability of q%. We also show that the cellular MIMO channel capacity is always higher than those of SIMO and STBC-MISO.
Forage Harvest and Transport Costs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.
1998-12-01
An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.
A rigorous proof of MIMO channel capacity's increase with antenna number
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GONG Jian-min; M.R. Soleymani; J.F.Hayes
2008-01-01
It is well known that adding more antennas at the transmitter or at the receiver may offer larger channel capacity, in the multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) communication systems. In this letter, a simple proof is presented for the fact that the channel capacity increases with an increase in the number of receiving antennas. The proof is based on the famous capacity formula of Foschini and Gans with matrix theory.
Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.;
2008-01-01
This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded ...
Robustness indicators and capacity models for railway networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Lars Wittrup
In a world continuous striving for higher mobility and the use of more sustainable modes of transport, there is a constant pressure on utilising railway capacity better and, at the same time, obtaining a high robustness against delays. During the planning of railway operations and infrastructure...
MARITIME TRANSPORT IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas Primachev
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of the development of the national maritime transport in accordance with the criteria of effective positioning of the socio-economic system of the country in the global division of labor. Features and prob-lems of formation of Ukraine in accordance with the priorities of sustainable development of the system are disclosed. Targeting normalized socio-economic parameters of the country's position in the global space requires a balanced development of the system of absolute and comparative advantage. The troublesome of the economic development of Ukraine is weak due to the integration processes of industrial segment of the country and low added value. As a result, the vast majority of foreign trade cargo flows is performed by foreign fleet. To reduce the negative current account payments is necessary to create normal fleet freight capacity of Ukraine.
Flat Currents of Green-Schwarz Superstring in AdS2 × S2 Background
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
From the κ symmetric action of ⅡB string in AdS2 × S2 background given by Zhou, we derive the equations of motion. By using the twisted dual transformation which was introduced by Hou, we construct the flat currents, conserving non-local charge with one free parameter, for the superstring in AdS2 × S2.
Joule-Thomson expansion of the charged AdS black holes
Ökcü, Özgür; Aydıner, Ekrem
2017-01-01
In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in the T- P plane and determine the cooling-heating regions.
Joule-Thomson Expansion of Charged AdS Black Holes
Ökcü, Özgür
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in $T-P$ plane and determine the cooling-heating regions.
FRACTIONAL TRANSPORT OF SEDIMENT MIXTURES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Baosheng WU; Albert MOLINAS; Anping SHU
2003-01-01
A new method based on the Transport Capacity Fraction (TCF) concept is proposed to compute the fractional transport rates for nonuniform sediment mixtures in sand-bed channels. The TCF concept is derived from the understanding that the measurements and predictions of bed-material load are more accurate and reliable than the measurements and predictions of fractional loads. First the bed-material load is computed using an appropriate equation, then the fractional transport rates are determined by distributing the bed-material load into size groups through a transport capacity distribution function. For the computation of bed-material loads, the Aekers and White, Engelund and Hansen, and Yang equations are used in this study. Two new transport capacity distribution functions are developed for flows in sand-bed channels. The new expressions presented in this paper account for the sheltering and exposure effects that exist in mixtures. Comparisons with measured data show that the proposed method can significantly improve the predictions of fractional transport rates for nonuniform sediment mixtures.
Bandwidth Estimation For Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabia Ali
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we presents bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET, which uses some components of the two methods for the bandwidth estimation: 'Hello Bandwidth Estimation 'Listen Bandwidth Estimation. This paper also gives the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed method is based on the comparison of these two methods. Bandwidth estimation is an important issue in the Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET because bandwidth estimation in MANET is difficult, because each host has imprecise knowledge of the network status and links change dynamically. Therefore, an effective bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET is highly desirable. Ad hoc networks present unique advanced challenges, including the design of protocols for mobility management, effective routing, data transport, security, power management, and quality-of-service (QoS provisioning. Once these problems are solved, the practical use of MANETs will be realizable.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M
2006-01-01
The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....../or glial cells: the solute carrier (SLC)1 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of glutamate, and the SLC6 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of dopamine, 5-HT, norepinephrine, glycine and GABA....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...
Battery prices and capacity sensitivity: Electric drive vehicles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul, Nina
2012-01-01
The increase in fluctuating power production requires an increase in flexibility in the system as well. Flexibility can be found in generation technologies with fast response times or in storage options. In the transport sector, the proportion of electric drive vehicles is expected to increase over...... the next decade or two. These vehicles can provide some of the flexibility needed in the power system, in terms of both flexible demand and electricity storage. However, what are the batteries worth to the power system? And does the value depend on battery capacity? This article presents an analysis...... of the integrated power and transport system, focusing on the sensitivity of the power system configuration according to battery capacity and price of the electric drive vehicle. The value of different battery capacities is estimated, given that the batteries are used for both driving and storage. Likewise...
Static Einstein-Maxwell Black Holes with No Spatial Isometries in AdS Space
Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen
2016-11-01
We explicitly construct static black hole solutions to the fully nonlinear, D =4 , Einstein-Maxwell-anti-de Sitter (AdS) equations that have no continuous spatial symmetries. These black holes have a smooth, topologically spherical horizon (section), but without isometries, and approach, asymptotically, global AdS spacetime. They are interpreted as bound states of a horizon with the Einstein-Maxwell-AdS solitons recently discovered, for appropriate boundary data. In sharp contrast to the uniqueness results for a Minkowski electrovacuum, the existence of these black holes shows that single, equilibrium, black hole solutions in an AdS electrovacuum admit an arbitrary multipole structure.
Static Einstein-Maxwell Black Holes with No Spatial Isometries in AdS Space.
Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen
2016-11-25
We explicitly construct static black hole solutions to the fully nonlinear, D=4, Einstein-Maxwell-anti-de Sitter (AdS) equations that have no continuous spatial symmetries. These black holes have a smooth, topologically spherical horizon (section), but without isometries, and approach, asymptotically, global AdS spacetime. They are interpreted as bound states of a horizon with the Einstein-Maxwell-AdS solitons recently discovered, for appropriate boundary data. In sharp contrast to the uniqueness results for a Minkowski electrovacuum, the existence of these black holes shows that single, equilibrium, black hole solutions in an AdS electrovacuum admit an arbitrary multipole structure.
Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.
Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan
2009-10-01
The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed.
Executive Educator, 1990
1990-01-01
This special section on student transportation offers a case study of a school system that recycles buses for safety drills; articles on fuel-saving strategies, the pros and cons of contracting for transportation services or operating a publicly owned bus fleet, and advice on full cost accounting for transportation costs; and a transportation…
Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania
Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.
2010-01-01
Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a develo
Improving African health research capacity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker
2010-01-01
The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat...
Information capacity of quantum observable
Holevo, A S
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give new examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C_{ea}>C.$
Capacity Building in Land Administration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I
2004-01-01
Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves. The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....
Ad-Coop Positioning System (ACPS)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frattasi, Simone; Monti, Marco
2008-01-01
In this paper, we propose an innovative solution for positioning determination in 4G wireless networks by introducing the Ad-Coop Positioning System (ACPS). The ACPS is supported by a hybrid cellular ad-hoc architecture, where the cellular network has a centralized control over the ad......-hoc connections among pairs of mobiles. Specifically, peer-to-peer (P2P) communications are exploited in a mesh fashion within cellular-established clusters for cooperation-aided localization purposes (from that, the word ad-coop is derived). The major contribution of this work is the design of the data fusion...... to conventional hybrid positioning techniques in cellular networks....
Exploring antismoking ads: appeals, themes, and consequences.
Beaudoin, Christopher E
2002-01-01
In this study we seek a descriptive understanding of antismoking television advertising in light of the problem cigarette consumption poses for society today. We establish relationships between ad characteristics and whether ads have a youth or adult orientation, based on a content analysis of 197 antismoking television advertisements produced between 1991 and 1999. The study finds that youth-oriented ads have youth characters, sociability, and humor as common appeals, and social and short-term consequences. In contrast, adult-oriented ads relied on fear appeals and long-term, health-related consequences.
Studies on urban vehicular ad-hoc networks
Zhu, Hongzi
2013-01-01
With the advancement of wireless technology, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a promising approach to realizing 'smart cities' and addressing many important transportation problems such as road safety, efficiency, and convenience.This brief provides an introduction to the large trace data set collected from thousands of taxis and buses in Shanghai, the largest metropolis in China. It also presents the challenges, design issues, performance modeling and evaluation of a wide spectrum of VANET research topics, ranging from realistic vehicular mobility models and opportunistic ro
Ad Hoc Selection of Voice over Internet Streams
Macha, Mitchell G. (Inventor); Bullock, John T. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A method and apparatus for a communication system technique involving ad hoc selection of at least two audio streams is provided. Each of the at least two audio streams is a packetized version of an audio source. A data connection exists between a server and a client where a transport protocol actively propagates the at least two audio streams from the server to the client. Furthermore, software instructions executable on the client indicate a presence of the at least two audio streams, allow selection of at least one of the at least two audio streams, and direct the selected at least one of the at least two audio streams for audio playback.
Adding image search capabilities to astronomical archives
Baumann, Peter; Bruggen, Marcus
VO-Paris Data Centre is a common structure to the Observatory of Paris, in charge of develop-ing Virtual Observatory activities. As a partner in Europlanet-IDIS, VO-Paris contributes to defining the future European VO in Planetary Science. There are two aspects in this program: on one hand, VO-Paris is in charge of the IDIS thematic node "Planetary Dynamics and Extra-Terrestrial Matter", which distributes data resources related to this field, including resources developed by other Europlanet Work Packages. On the other hand, OV-Paris is a partner in the Joint Research Activity (JRA4) which designs the VO infrastructure, and is the co-leader of the task "Added Value Services". VO-Paris baseline in Europlanet-IDIS is to remain as compatible as possible with existing VO systems in Astronomy and Solar Physics, ie to use standards and protocols developed in the IVOA context when they suit the need of Planetary Science, and possibly to propose their extensions whenever the existing standards do not address the usual specific questions in Planetary Science. This approach will allow the rapid design of a registry system, and easy use of tools providing basic functions such as data visualization. Concerning the data resources involved, our aim is to set up a core of data services on which the community will accrete new data resources accessible through VO protocols. This initial core is currently expected to include AMDA (CDPP's service in plasma physics), SSODnet (a semi-VO service being developed at OV-Paris), the PSA (ESA's space missions archive), GhoSST (solid samples spectroscopy developed at LPG), and various topical data bases such as a reference data base set up in LESIA to support the Herschel TNO key-program. The OV-Paris IDIS node can be reached at: http://voparis-europlanet.obspm.fr/ The EuroPlaNet RI project is funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Program, grant 228319 "Capacities Specific Programme".
ROMANIAN ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDS ABSOBTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irina Bosie (Ungureanu
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The capacity to absorb European funds is part of a state complex integrated admninistrative capacity, a component of a state as a whole. The analysis in this article starts from the theoretical development by studying the reports made by the Romanian Government, correlated with the European Union reports on funds and Romanian legislation. This analysis of the EU's structural funds, highlights the importance of accessing them and the degree to which Romania and member countries benefits of income support.European funds are meant to supplement a member of the Union funds to the extent that they are accessed through the projects. Money allocated on type of operation is distributed in amounts proportionate to that state needs. Money distributed will be justified by their realization of infrastructure projects, environment, transport, human resources development, rural and regional development.Theoretical research lay the foundation for determining administrative capacity in Romania from the first time of defining the concept until now. Empirical research reveals the degree of absorption of which is that Romania has in comparison with some EU countries, former socialist countries present democratic states.The absorption capacity of European funds determine the strength of a state administrative management issues in the management of monetary dated. Power in handling management administrative problems can be efficient in higher manner and it’s represented by cost-benefit analysis and the degree of satisfaction of citizen interest. As public services are financially supported and developed, the degree of citizen satisfaction is greater in an implemented decentralized administrative system.
Tradeoffs in the Use of Value-Added Estimates of Teacher Effectiveness by School Districts
Baxter, Andrew David
2011-01-01
A new capacity to track the inputs and outcomes of individual students' education production function has spurred a growing number of school districts to attempt to measure the productivity of their teachers in terms of student outcomes. The use of these value-added measures of teacher effectiveness is at the center of current education reform.…
Performance Modeling of a Bottleneck Node in an IEEE 802.11 Ad-hoc Network
Berg, van den Hans; Roijers, Frank; Mandjes, Michel R.H.; Kunz, T.; Ravi, S.S.
2006-01-01
The IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, often used in ad-hoc networks, has the tendency to share the capacity equally amongst the active nodes, irrespective of their loads. An inherent drawback of this fair-sharing policy is that a node that serves as a relay-node for multiple flows is likely to become a bott
Performance modelieg of a bottleneck node in an IEEE 802.11 ad-hoc network
Berg, J.L. van den; Mandjes, M.; Roijers, F.
2006-01-01
The IEEE 802.11 MAC-protocol, often used in ad-hoc networks, has the tendency to share the capacity equally amongst the active nodes, irrespective of their loads. An inherent drawback of this fair-sharing policy is that a node that serves as a relay-node for multiple flows is likely to become a bott
Duan, Jingze; Xie, Yan; Luo, Huilin; Li, Guowen; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Tong
2014-04-01
Flavonoid isorhamnetin occurs in various plants and herbs, and demonstrates various biological effects in humans. This work will clarify the isorhamnetin absorption mechanism using the Caco-2 monolayer cell model. The isorhamnetin transport characteristics at different concentrations, pHs, temperatures, tight junctions and potential transporters were systemically investigated. Isorhamnetin was poorly absorbed by both passive diffusion and active transport mechanisms. Both trans- and paracellular pathways were involved during isorhamnetin transport. Active transport under an ATP-dependent transport mechanism was mediated by the organic anion transporting peptide (OATP); isorhamnetin's permeability from the apical to the basolateral side significantly decreased after estrone-3-sulfate was added (pisorhamnetin transport process. Among them, the MRPs (especially MRP2) were the main efflux transporters for isorhamnetin; transport from the apical to the basolateral side increased 10.8-fold after adding an MRP inhibitor (MK571). This study details isorhamnetin's cellular transport and elaborates isorhamnetin's absorption mechanisms to provide a foundation for further studies.
[Tort Liability and School Transportation.
Franke, Allyn J.
School districts, school employees, bus companies contracted by districts, and bus company employees could be involved in court litigation over student injury and student civil rights related to school bus transportation. Civil rights insurance should be added to general liability insurance and motor vehicle liability insurance. Students must be…
Study Added of Waste Chicken Egg Shell in Soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keng Wong Irwan Lie
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Soil is the foundation of structure or construction that will receive the load transfer through to foundation. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small and cannot withstand the load transfer can result in the failure of construction. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small ground it is necessary to stabilize or improve the soil so that an increase in the carrying capacity of the land so that it can be used for construction. One material is commonly used for soil stabilization with the addition of lime. Waste chicken egg shell is waste that is still rarely used, the results of research [1], states that composition egg shell broadly consists of water (1,6% and dry material (98,4%. The total dry ingredients are there, in shell eggs contained mineral elements (95,1% and protein (3,3%. Based on the existing mineral composition, then the egg shells are composed of crystalline CaCO3 (98,43%, MgCO3 (0,84% and Ca3(PO42 (0,75%. This research was done by adding powdered chicken egg shell waste in clay with a composition of 5%, 7,5%, 10% and 14% with physical properties test and soil compaction test.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg
2014-01-01
The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....
Thermal transport in fractal systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjems, Jørgen
1992-01-01
Recent experiments on the thermal transport in systems with partial fractal geometry, silica aerogels, are reviewed. The individual contributions from phonons, fractons and particle modes, respectively, have been identified and can be described by quantitative models consistent with heat capacity...... data. The interpretation in the particle mode regime sheds light on the mechanisms for thermal conductivity in normal vitreous silica....
From path integrals to tensor networks for the AdS /CFT correspondence
Miyaji, Masamichi; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento
2017-03-01
In this paper, we discuss tensor network descriptions of AdS /CFT from two different viewpoints. First, we start with a Euclidean path-integral computation of ground state wave functions with a UV cutoff. We consider its efficient optimization by making its UV cutoff position dependent and define a quantum state at each length scale. We conjecture that this path integral corresponds to a time slice of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Next, we derive a flow of quantum states by rewriting the action of Killing vectors of AdS3 in terms of the dual two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT). Both approaches support a correspondence between the hyperbolic time slice H2 in AdS3 and a version of continuous multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz. We also give a heuristic argument about why we can expect a sub-AdS scale bulk locality for holographic CFTs.
Brain diabetic neurodegeneration segregates with low intrinsic aerobic capacity
Choi, Joungil; Chandrasekaran, Krish; Demarest, Tyler G.; Kristian, Tibor; Xu, Su; Vijaykumar, Kadambari; Dsouza, Kevin Geoffrey; Qi, Nathan R; Yarowsky, Paul J.; Gallipoli, Rao; Koch, Lauren G.; Fiskum, Gary M.; Steven L Britton; Russell, James W.
2014-01-01
Objectives Diabetes leads to cognitive impairment and is associated with age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, understanding diabetes-induced alterations in brain function is important for developing early interventions for neurodegeneration. Low-capacity runner (LCR) rats are obese and manifest metabolic risk factors resembling human “impaired glucose tolerance” or metabolic syndrome. We examined hippocampal function in aged LCR rats compared to the...
Queueing models for mobile ad hoc networks
Haan, de Roland
2009-01-01
This thesis presents models for the performance analysis of a recent communication paradigm: mobile ad hoc networking. The objective of mobile ad hoc networking is to provide wireless connectivity between stations in a highly dynamic environment. These dynamics are driven by the mobility of stations
Value added meat marketing around the globe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grebitus, Carola; Mueller Loose, Simone
In highly competitive meat markets it is important to offer value added products to consumers. Thus, we need to understand which attributes are especially valued by consumers. This track session will contribute to a better understanding of consumer preferences for value added meats across differe...
Status Report on the Antiproton Decelerator (AD)
Erikson, T; Möhl, D
2001-01-01
CERN's new Antiproton Decelerator (AD) has been delivering a 100 MeV/c antiproton beam to three experiments (ASACUSA, AHENA and ATRAP) since July 10th, 2000. In this status report, we summarise the initial performance of the AD, draw provisional conclusions from the first month of operation and finally give some prospects for the future.
2011-07-05
.... Traffic Forecasting The FAA uses traffic, operational and capacity data as important safety indicators and... and others of the effect major changes or innovations are having on the air transportation...
Google Advertising Tools Cashing in with AdSense and AdWords
Davis, Harold
2010-01-01
With this book, you'll learn how to take full advantage of Google AdWords and AdSense, the sophisticated online advertising tools used by thousands of large and small businesses. This new edition provides a substantially updated guide to advertising on the Web, including how it works in general, and how Google's advertising programs in particular help you make money. You'll find everything you need to work with AdWords, which lets you generate text ads to accompany specific search term results, and AdSense, which automatically delivers precisely targeted text and image ads to your website.
Mazhari, N S; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Faizal, Mir; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2016-01-01
The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution and a solution with cylindrically symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not any such dependence.
Geometric Finiteness, Holography and Quasinormal Modes for the Warped AdS_3 Black Hole
Gupta, Kumar S; Sen, Siddhartha; Sivakumar, M
2009-01-01
We show that there exists a precise kinematical notion of holography for the Euclidean warped $AdS_3$ black hole. This follows from the fact that the Euclidean warped $AdS_3$ black hole spacetime is a geometrically finite hyperbolic manifold. For such manifolds a theorem of Sullivan provides a one-to-one correspondence between the hyperbolic structure in the bulk and the conformal structure of its boundary. Using this theorem we obtain the holographic quasinormal modes for the warped $AdS_3$ black hole.
Entropy of Warped Taub-NUT AdS Black String via the Brick Wall Method
Lee, Chong Oh
2014-01-01
When we consider five-dimensional warped Taub-NUT AdS black string with minimally coupled massive scalar field, we calculate an entropy by using the brick wall method. In extremely light effective mass, we find the entropy is proportional to an extra dimension wave number as well as quadratically divergent in a cutoff parameter. After taking zero NUT charge, we find the entropy of warped (AdS) Schwartzshield black hole string has a similar properties in as warped Taub-NUT AdS black string.
Beyond the unitarity bound in AdS/CFT{sub (A)dS}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, Tomas [University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Uhlemann, Christoph [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)
2012-07-01
We study CFTs on dS and AdS spacetimes from a holographic perspective, in particular how the unitarity properties of the boundary theory are reflected in the bulk description. On geometries with an (A)dS conformal boundary we choose mass and boundary conditions for a Klein-Gordon field such that the corresponding CFT operator violates the unitarity bound. We analyze how the non-unitarity is reproduced in the bulk and discuss, for the case of an AdS boundary, prospects for multi-layered AdS/CFT-type dualities.
An improved AFS phase for AdS3 string integrability
Abbott, Michael C
2015-01-01
We propose a number of modifications to the classical term in the dressing phase for integrable strings in AdS3 x S3 x S3 x S1, and check these against existing perturbative calculations, crossing symmetry, and the semiclassical limit of the Bethe equations. The principal change is that the phase for different masses should start with a term Q_1 Q_2, like the one-loop AdS3 dressing phase, rather than Q_2 Q_3 as for the original AdS5 AFS phase.
Thermodynamic geometry and phase transitions of AdS braneworld black holes
Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam
2017-02-01
The thermodynamics and phase transitions of charged RN-AdS and rotating Kerr-AdS black holes in a generalized Randall-Sundrum braneworld are investigated in the framework of thermodynamic geometry. A detailed analysis of the thermodynamics, stability and phase structures in the canonical and the grand canonical ensembles for these AdS braneworld black holes are described. The thermodynamic curvatures for both these AdS braneworld black holes are computed and studied as a function of the thermodynamic variables. Through this analysis we illustrate an interesting dependence of the phase structures on the braneworld parameter for these black holes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.S. Mazhari
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.
Various types of phase transitions in the AdS soliton background
Peng, Yan; Wang, Bin
2011-01-01
We study the basic holographic insulator and superconductor phase transition in the AdS soliton background by generalizing the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1) symmetry to occur via St$\\ddot{u}$ckelberg mechanism. We construct the soliton solutions with backreaction and examine the effects of the backreaction on the condensation of the scalar hair in the generalized St$\\ddot{u}$ckelberg Lagrangian. We disclose rich physics in various phase transitions. In addition to the AdS soliton configuration, we also examine the property of the phase transition in the AdS black hole background.
Phase Transition and Clapeyon Equation of Black Hole in Higher Dimensional AdS Spacetime
Zhao, Hui-Hua; Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren
2014-01-01
By Maxwell equal area law we study the phase transition in higher dimensional Anti-de Sitter (AdS) Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m (RN) black hole and Kerr black hole in this paper. The coexisting region of the two phases involved in the phase transition is found and the coexisting curves are shown in $P-T$ figures. We also analytically investigate the parameters which affect the coexisting curves. To better compare with ordinary thermodynamic systems, the Clapeyon equation is derived for higher dimensional AdS black holes. This paper can help to deepen the understanding of the phase transition and phase structure of AdS black holes.
Boundary action of free AdS higher-spin gauge fields and the holographic correspondence
Joung, Euihun
2011-01-01
We determine the boundary terms of the free higher-spin action which reproduce the AdS Fronsdal equations in an AdS manifold with a finite distance boundary. The boundary terms are further constrained by the gauge invariance of the total action. We show that, for spins larger than two, no local boundary term can restore the full gauge symmetry, and the broken symmetry corresponds to higher-spin Weyl transformations on the boundary CFT. The boundary action is used for the evaluation of the on-shell higher-spin AdS action in terms of the boundary data given by a conformal higher-spin field.
On circular strings in (AdS3 × S 3)ϰ
Banerjee, Aritra; Panigrahi, Kamal L.
2016-09-01
The so called one-parameter (often called ϰ) deformed AdS string sigma models have attracted a lot of attention lately in the study of integrability in string theory. We construct various circular string solutions in the (AdS3 × S 3) ϰ background and describe the characteristics of such solutions qualitatively. We study the Bohr-Sommerfeld like quantization for these string states to characterise the motion. Further we find a `long' string limit of such circular strings in the ϰ-deformed AdS3 and find a novel dependence of the oscillation number on the energy in the next to leading order expansion.
On circular strings in $(AdS_3 \\times S^3)_{\\varkappa}$
Banerjee, Aritra
2016-01-01
The so called one-parameter (often called $\\varkappa$) deformed $AdS$ string sigma models have attracted a lot of attention lately in the study of integrability in string theory. We construct various circular string solutions in the $(AdS_3 \\times S^3)_{\\varkappa}$ background and describe the characteristics of such solutions qualitatively. We study the Bohr-Sommerfeld like quantization for these string states to characterise the motion. Further we find a `long' string limit of such circular strings in the $\\varkappa$-deformed $AdS_3$ and find a novel dependence of the oscillation number on the energy in the next to leading order expansion.
ABC Transporters and the Alzheimer’s Disease Enigma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea eWolf
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is considered the disease of the 21st century. With a 10-fold increase in global incidence over the past 100 years, AD is now reaching epidemic proportions and by all projections, AD patient numbers will continue to rise. Despite intense research efforts, AD remains a mystery and effective therapies are still unavailable. This represents an unmet need resulting in clinical, social, and economic problems.Over the last decade, a new AD research focus has emerged: ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. In this article, we provide an overview of the ABC transporters ABCA1, ABCA2, P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, Mrp1 (ABCC1 and BCRP (ABCG2, all of which are expressed in the brain and have been implicated in AD. We summarize recent findings on the role of these five transporters in AD, and discuss their potential to serve as therapeutic targets.
[Rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin].
Wang, Ji-fen; Yu, Jing; Guo, Xin; Sun, Xing-long; Wang, Ding-fang
2011-07-01
The method of rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin was studied in the present paper. Adding sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch, caffeine and phenacetin to heroin with a certain percentage, the changes in the infrared spectrum with the concentration of heroin increasing and the detection limit of the additives were determined. Whether or not heroin can be detected in the sample with high concentration of added ingredients was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Similarly, in high purity of heroin, whether or not Raman spectroscopy can detect the added ingredients was tested. Through systematic experiments, the results showed that: using infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to test the added ingredients of heroin is a rapid and effective method. Each has both advantages and disadvantages. We should select the appropriate method according to the actual cases.
The concept of added value of FM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2012-01-01
Purpose: This chapter presents research perspectives and theoretical reflections on the concept of added value of FM from a variety of academic fields. Methodology: A literature review of the most influential journals within the academic fields of Facilities Management (FM), Corporate Real Estate...... conceptualization of the concept of added value of FM is of utmost importance for further research into the added value of FM and well-considered, evidence- based Value Adding Management in practice. Research limitations: Due to limited time not all FM-related journals could be included in the literature review...... Management (CREM) and Business to Business Marketing (B2B Marketing). Findings: The research shows different definitions and focus points, dependent on the academic field and the area of application. The different research perspectives explored a holistic view on the added value of FM by the integration...
Ishii, Takaaki
2015-01-01
We study nonlinear dynamics of the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory using the AdS/CFT duality. In the gravity side, the flux tube is realized by a fundamental string whose endpoints are attached to the AdS boundary. We perturb the endpoints in various ways and numerically compute the time evolution of the nonlinearly oscillating string. As a result, cusps can form on the string, accompanied by weak turbulence and power law behavior in the energy spectrum. When cusps traveling on the string reach the boundary, we observe the divergence of the force between the quark and antiquark. Minimal amplitude of the perturbation below which cusps do not form is also investigated. No cusp formation is found when the string moves in all four AdS space directions, and in this case an inverse energy cascade follows a direct cascade.
SEDIMENT-REMOVING CAPACITY AND RIVER MOTION DYNAMICS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao-Yin WANG; Yongsheng WU
2001-01-01
Unsteady flow in fluvial rivers scours or deposits sediment, and exhibits sediment-removing capaciiy,which is defined as the capacity of the flow to remove sediment from per unit length of a river channel to other places per time. Differing from the well-defined sediment-carrying capacity, which is the feature of the mean flow and explains how much sediment load the flow can transport through the channel, the sediment-removing capacity is the feature of unsteady, non-equilibrium flow and represents the capability of the flow to change the channel shape and location. Measurement of the sediment-removing capacity was performed at 12 cross sections of the wandering lower Yellow River. Analysis demonstrates that the removing capacity depends mainly on the fluctuation intensity of the flow discharge. The power spectrum of discharge is presented with Fourier transformation and it revealed the mechanism of high measurement frequency-high sediment removing capacity. The movement of a river channel within the fluvial plain is defined as the river motion. The patterns of river motion are aggradation, degradation, widening,translation, rotation, wandering, bifurcation, and migration from one channel to another channel. The speed of the river motion is given as a function of the sediment-removing capacity.
Logistics aspects of pipeline transport in the supply of petroleum products
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wessel Pienaar
2008-09-01
Full Text Available The commercial transportation of crude oil and petroleum products by pipeline is receiving increased attention in South Africa. Transnet Pipeline Transport has recently obtained permission from the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (Nersa to construct and operate a new petroleum products pipeline of 60 cm diameter from Durban to Gauteng. At an operating speed of 10 km/h the proposed 60 cm Transnet pipeline would be able to deliver 3,54 million litres of petroleum product per hour. This is equivalent to 89 deliveries per hour using road tank vehicles with an average carrying capacity of 40 000 litres of fuel per vehicle. This pipeline throughput is also equivalent to two trains departing per hour, each consisting of 42 petroleum tank wagons with an average carrying capacity of 42 500 litres of fuel per wagon. Considering that such road trucks and rail wagons return empty to the upstream refineries in Durban, it is clear that there is no tenable long-term alternative to pipeline transport:pipeline transport is substantially cheaper than road and rail transport;pipeline transport is much safer than rail and especially road transport; andpipeline transport frees up alternative road and rail transport capacity.Pipeline transport is a non-containerised bulk mode of transport for the carriage of suitable liquids (for example, petroleum commodities, which include crude oil, refined fuel products and liquid petro-chemicals, gas, slurrified coal and certain water-suspended ores and minerals. InSouth Africa, petroleum products account for the majority of commercial pipeline traffic, followed by crude oil and natural gas. There are three basic types of petroleum pipeline transport systems:Gathering pipeline systemsCrude oil trunk pipeline systemsRefined products pipeline systems Collectively, these systems provide a continuous link between extraction, processing, distribution, and wholesalers’ depots in areas of consumption. The following
Osmotic water transport in aquaporins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeuthen, Thomas; Alsterfjord, Magnus; Beitz, Eric
2013-01-01
Abstract We test a novel, stochastic model of osmotic water transport in aquaporins. A solute molecule present at the pore mouth can either be reflected or permeate the pore. We assume that only reflected solute molecules induce osmotic transport of water through the pore, while permeating solute...... molecules give rise to no water transport. Accordingly, the rate of water transport is proportional to the reflection coefficient σ, while the solute permeability, P(S), is proportional to 1 - σ. The model was tested in aquaporins heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. A variety of aquaporin channel...... sizes and geometries were obtained with the two aquaporins AQP1 and AQP9 and mutant versions of these. Osmotic water transport was generated by adding 20 mM of a range of different-sized osmolytes to the outer solution. The osmotic water permeability and the reflection coefficient were measured...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freivogel, Ben; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /LBL, Berkeley; Hubeny, Veronika E.; /LBL, Berkeley /Durham U., Dept. of Math.; Maloney, Alexander; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Myers, Rob; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys. /Waterloo U.; Rangamani, Mukund; /LBL, Berkeley /Durham U., Dept. of Math.; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2005-10-07
We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.
Effects of Ce on damping capacity of AZ91D magnesium alloy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄正华; 郭学锋; 张忠明
2004-01-01
The microstructures and damping capacity of AZ91D cast alloys containing various Ce contents were investigated. Damping capacity (Q-1) of the alloys was measured by cantilever beam technique, and the relationship between damping capacity and strain amplitude was investigated. The results show that Al4 Ce phase is formed in AZ91D alloy after adding a certain quantity of Ce contents, then as-cast microstructures of the alloys are refined.Meanwhile the damping capacity of the alloys is also improved. When the mass fraction of Ce is 0.7 %, the most obvious refinement effect and the maximum damping capacity can be obtained. When the damping capacity (Q-1) is 2. 728 × 10-3 , 61% increment can be obtained compared with unmodified AZ91D alloy. The damping capacity of the alloys is relative to strain amplitude, and the damping behavior can be explained by the theory of Granato and Lucke.
Opportunities for increasing domestic added value ofcocoa through trade regulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bambang Drajat
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The operation of multinational companies on cocoa bean trade in Indonesia related to the liberalization policy on trade and investment in Indonesia permits for multinational companies to operate in Indonesia and liable to buy cocoa bean directly from farmers. The problem encountered is the domestic market liberalization gives rise to changes in market power and results ini the dominant position of multinational companies. This research aimed to (i analyze the impact of the exercise of market power by cocoa multinational company, (ii to analyze the possibility of deregulation of cocoa bean domestic trade, and (iii to estimate the potential increase in added value of cocoa down-stream industry as a result of deregulation. Some steps of research conducted includes (i desk research, (ii field survey by interviewing samples of farmers, traders, exporters, processors, as well as other business participants, (iii special interviews with key persons related to regulation as well as deregulation of domestic trade and down-stream industry development, and (iv focussed group discussion involving related stakeholders of cocoa. The results showed that the impact of the exercise of market power by multinational companies refers to the decreasing market shares of national companies from 2007 to 2009. Based on the market power domination of multinational companies in one side and the lack of down-stream industry development in the other side, there is a possibility to deregulate the above policy by continuing the new regulation (export tax of cocoa beans, directing multinational exporters toward downstream industry by partnership with domestic-idle capacity processing industry and import tariff escalation for processed cocoa. By the new regulation, the opportunity to increase domestic added value becomes greater. This cocoa down-stream industry development will increase the potential domestic added value at least 10%. Key words : Liberalization, deregulation
Antioxidant capacity of vegetables, spices and dressings relevant to nutrition.
Ninfali, Paolino; Mea, Gloria; Giorgini, Samantha; Rocchi, Marco; Bacchiocca, Mara
2005-02-01
Vegetables are the most important sources of phenolics in the Mediterranean diet. Phenolics, especially flavonoids, are suggested as being essential bioactive compounds providing health benefits. In this study, twenty-seven vegetables, fifteen aromatic herbs and some spices consumed in Central Italy (the Marches region) were studied to reveal total phenolic, flavonoid and flavanol content as well as their antioxidant capacity measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. A comparison in terms of antioxidant capacity was made between different salads, as well as between salads to which aromatic herbs had been added. Lemon balm and marjoram at a concentration of 1.5 % w/w increased by 150 % and 200 % respectively the antioxidant capacity of a salad portion. A 200 g portion of a salad enriched with marjoram corresponded to an intake of 200 (SD 10) mg phenolics and 4000 (SD 300) ORAC units (micromol Trolox equivalents). Olive oils and wine or apple vinegars were the salad dressings that provided the highest increase in antioxidant capacity. Among the spices tested, cumin and fresh ginger made the most significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity. The results are useful in surveying the antioxidant parameters of vegetables, herbs and spices produced and consumed in our geographical area as well as in quantifying the daily intake of phenolics and ORAC units. The results can be used in public health campaigns to stimulate the consumption of vegetables able to provide significant health protection in order to prevent chronic diseases.
The Capacity of Conflict Points Between Double-Track Lines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirko Čičak
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of the railway is to offer high level of transportservices, i.e. the quality which is competitive to other transportmodes, but which minimises its internal costs at the same time.In order to increase the capacity of transport services andreduce the costs, splitting of trains between different categoriesof transport on separate railway lines will be more and more appliedin the 21" centtuy. Unfortunately, even in the developedcountries there will be lines or line sections where mixed trafficwill be cmTied, and in developing countries this will often be thecase even on the main trunk lines.Therefore, a topical issue is to establish the capacity andchoose the right solution. The problem becomes more complexin cases when two double-track lines with mixed traffic need tobe connected and the restructuring of traffic implemented. Atthe same time the exits to two new double-track lines with thespecific train categories have to be ensured and the requiredquality of transport services maintained.In this paper, the impact the capacity has on quality is discussedand some basic characteristics of a model, which enablesthe research of the conflict points capacity, i.e. of convergingand diverging points of two double-track lines is given. Although,there are some analytical elements in this model, it isessentially simulation which enables us to carry out tests underdifferent conditions, to study different variants and to systematisedifferent indicators and make conclusions.
Capacity-achieving CPM schemes
Perotti, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido
2008-01-01
The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The so obtained schemes are cascaded with an outer serially-concatenated convolutional code to form a pragmatic coded-modulation system. The resulting schemes exhibit performance very close to the CPM capacity without requiring iterations between the outer decoder and the CPM demodulator. As a result, the receiver exhibits reduced complexity and increased flexibility due to the separation of the demodulation and decoding functions.
Quantum channel capacities - multiparty communication
Demianowicz, M; Demianowicz, Maciej; Horodecki, Pawel
2006-01-01
We analyze different aspects of multiparty communication over quantum memoryless channels and generalize some of key results known from bipartite channels to that of multiparty scenario. In particular, we introduce multiparty versions of minimal subspace transmission fidelity and entanglement transmission fidelity. We also provide alternative, local, versions of fidelities and show their equivalence to the global ones in context of capacity regions defined. The equivalence of two different capacity notions with respect to two types of the fidelities is proven. In analogy to bipartite case it is shown, via sufficiency of isometric encoding theorem, that additional classical forward side channel does not increase capacity region of any quantum channel with $k$ senders and $m$ receivers which represents a compact unit of general quantum networks theory. The result proves that recently provided capacity region of multiple access channel ([M. Horodecki et al, Nature {\\bf 436} 673 (2005)], [J.Yard et al, quant-ph/0...
Capacity Building in Land Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford
2003-01-01
There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures. This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Shaofeng
2004-01-01
The concept of carrying capacity is derived from ecology, with widespread contentions of its theoretical connotations and applications in the international academic community, especially the impact of human activities on the environment.Disputes on carrying capacity have been occurring not only among biologists and ecologists, but also among mainstream economists. Based on their efforts,the author makes an attempt to describe its origin,connotations, problems, measurement, and at the same time note the latest international progress in this field.
Quantum corrections to supergravity on AdS2×S2
Larsen, Finn; Lisbão, Pedro
2015-04-01
We compute the off-shell spectrum of supergravity on AdS2×S2 by explicit diagonalization of the equations of motion for an effective AdS2 theory where all fields are dualized to scalars and spin-1/2 fermions. We classify all bulk modes as physical, gauge violating, and pure gauge then compute the physical spectrum by explicit cancellation of unphysical modes. We identify boundary modes as physical fields on S2 that are formally pure gauge but with gauge function that is non-normalizable on AdS2. As an application we compute the leading quantum correction to AdS2×S2 as a sum over physical fields including boundary states. The result agrees with a previous computation by Sen [1] where unphysical modes were canceled by ghosts.
A Grassmann Path From AdS$_3$ to Flat Space
Krishnan, Chethan; Roy, Shubho
2013-01-01
We show that interpreting the inverse AdS$_3$ radius $1/l$ as a Grassmann variable results in a formal map from gravity in AdS$_3$ to gravity in flat space. The underlying reason for this is the fact that $ISO(2,1)$ is the Inonu-Wigner contraction of $SO(2,2)$. We show how this works for the Chern-Simons actions, demonstrate how the general (Banados) solution in AdS$_3$ maps to the general flat space solution, and how the Killing vectors, charges and the Virasoro algebra in the Brown-Henneaux case map to the corresponding quantities in the BMS$_3$ case. Our results straightforwardly generalize to the higher spin case: the recently constructed flat space higher spin theories emerge automatically in this approach from their AdS counterparts. We conclude with a discussion of singularity resolution in the BMS gauge as an application.
Impaired cognition in depression and Alzheimer (AD: a gradient from depression to depression in AD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Narahyana Bom de Araujo
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Objective To assess cognition in major depressed (MD, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and depression in AD elderly. Method Subjects were evaluated by Mini Mental, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Rey Complex Figure, Digit Span, Similarities, Trail Making A/B, Verbal Fluency and Stroop. One-way ANOVA and multivariate models were used to compare the performance of each group on neuropsychological tests. Results We evaluated 212 subjects. Compared to MD, attention, working memory, processing speed and recall showed significantly better in controls. Controls showed significantly higher performance in all cognitive measures, except in attention compared to AD. Verbal fluency, memory, processing speed and abstract reasoning in MD was significantly higher compared to AD. AD was significantly better in general cognitive state than depression in AD. All other cognitive domains were similar. Conclusion A decreasing gradient in cognition appeared from the control to depression in AD, with MD and AD in an intermediate position.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Zhou
Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2...
Strategy development management of Multimodal Transport Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nesterova Natalia S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The article gives a brief overview of works on the development of transport infrastructure for multimodal transportation and integration of Russian transport system into the international transport corridors. The technology for control of the strategy, that changes shape and capacity of Multi-modal Transport Network (MTN, is considered as part of the methodology for designing and development of MTN. This technology allows to carry out strategic and operational management of the strategy implementation based on the use of the balanced scorecard.
Study of ADS-B Data Evaluation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jun; LIU Wei; ZHU Yanbo
2011-01-01
In western China,the terrain and meteorological conditions are so complex that it is not suitable to construct new radar stations.Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast(ADS-B) is a totally new surveillance method,so before practically applied and operated in China,abundant tests and evaluations are necessary to validate the performance of ADS-B and guarantee the operational security.During the flight tests,we collect the data of radar,ADS-B and high accuracy position and compare the performance of ADS-B with radar based on high accuracy position.To solve the asynchronous problem among radar data,ADS-B data and real-time kinematic(RTK) data caused by different update rates,this article proposes the technique of synchronizing multi-surveil- lance data by extrapolating from the data of low update rate to high update rate according to velocity and heading.Meanwhile,because radar data,ADS-B data and RTK data are expressed in different coordinates and cannot be compared each other,this article provides a method to unifying the coordinates of multi-surveillance data.By the analysis and evaluation,we can conclude that the performance of ADS-B is better than radar.
Ad Hoc Network Securing Policy%Ad hoc网络安全策略
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘志远; 张曼曼
2006-01-01
本文首先介绍了Ad hoc网络的产生、定义、特点和应用,然后在探讨Ad hoc网络的安全需求的基础上,着重分析了移动Ad hoc网络易于遭受的攻击,最后讨论并提出了Ad Hoc网络的一些安全策略.
Yangian of AdS_3/CFT_2 and its deformation
Regelskis, Vidas
2015-01-01
We construct highest-weight modules and a Yangian extension of the centrally extended superalgebra appearing in the worldsheet scattering associated with the AdS_3 /CFT_2 duality, and show a link to the Yangian of AdS_5/CFT_4. We also consider a quantum deformation of this superalgebra, its modules and a quantum affine extension of the Drinfeld-Jimbo type which describes deformed worldsheet scattering.
49 CFR 192.201 - Required capacity of pressure relieving and limiting stations.
2010-10-01
... Design of Pipeline Components § 192.201 Required capacity of pressure relieving and limiting stations. (a) Each pressure relief station or pressure limiting station or group of those stations installed to... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required capacity of pressure relieving...
An Algorithm for Localization in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hajar Barani
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Positioning a node in Vehicular Ad-Hoc networks is one of the most interested research areas in recent years. In many Ad-Hoc networks such as Vehicular Ad-Hoc networks in which the nodes are considered as vehicles, move very fast in streets and highways. So, to have a safe and fast transport system, any vehicle should know where a traffic problem such as a broken vehicle occurs. GPS is one of the equipments which have been widely used for positioning service. Problem statement: Vehicle can use a GPS receiver to determine its position. But, all vehicles have not been equipped with GPS or they cannot receive GPS signals in some places such as inside of a tunnel. In these situations, the vehicle should use a GPS free method to find its location. Approach: In this study, a new method based on transmission range had been suggested. Results: This algorithm had been compared with a similar algorithm ODAM in same situations. The best performance for Optimized Disseminating Alarm Message (ODAM is when 40% of nodes are equipped with GPS. Conclusion: We executed our algorithm on this situation and compared it with ODAM results. At the end of this study, we can see our algorithm in compare to ODAM has better results.
High Capacity Radio over Fiber Transmission Links
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caballero Jambrina, Antonio
. This achievement has satisfied the requirements on transmission robustness and high capacity of next generation hybrid optical fibre-wireless networks. One important contribution of this thesis is the novel concept of photonic downconversion with free-running pulsed laser source for phase modulated Radio...... confirmed that this configuration provides high linear end-to-end transmission links and is capable of transparent transport of high spectral efficient modulation formats. Furthermore, this thesis introduces a novel approach for the generation and detection of high speed wireless signals in mm...... of the writing of this thesis. In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis demonstrate the feasibility of photonic technologies for the generation, distribution and detection of high speed wireless signals. Furthermore, it opens the prospects for next generation hybrid wireless-wired access networks...
Half BPS states in AdS_5 x Y^{p,q}
Gava, Edi; Milanesi, Giuseppe; O'Loughlin, Martin
2008-01-01
We study a class of solutions of IIB Supergravity which are asymptotically AdS_5 x Y^{p,q}. They have an R x SO(4) x SU(2) x U(1) isometry and preserve half of the 8 supercharges of the background geometry. They are described by a set of second order differential equations that we have found and analysed in a previous paper, where we studied 1/8 BPS states in the maximally supersymmetric AdS_5 x S^5 background. These geometries correspond to certain chiral primary operators of the N=1 superconformal quiver theories, dual to IIB theory on AdS_5 x Y^{p,q}. We also show how to recover the AdS_5 x Y^{p,q} backgrounds by suitably doubling the number of preserved supersymmetries. We then solve the differential equations perturbatively in a large AdS_5 radius expansion, imposing asymptotic AdS_5 x Y^{p,q} boundary conditions. We compute the global baryonic and mesonic charges, including the R-charge. As for the computation of the mass, i.e. the conformal dimension D of the dual field theory operators, which is notor...
Service placement in ad hoc networks
Wittenburg, Georg
2012-01-01
Service provisioning in ad hoc networks is challenging given the difficulties of communicating over a wireless channel and the potential heterogeneity and mobility of the devices that form the network. Service placement is the process of selecting an optimal set of nodes to host the implementation of a service in light of a given service demand and network topology. The key advantage of active service placement in ad hoc networks is that it allows for the service configuration to be adapted continuously at run time. ""Service Placement in Ad Hoc Networks"" proposes the SPi service placement fr
Economies of capacity use in decontamination of pig carcasses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens
2013-01-01
This article analyzes the economies of capacity use regarding hot water decontamination to reduce postslaughter risk of pathogens in meat, taking interfarm heterogeneities of Salmonella risk and costs of transportation into account, using Denmark as a case study. If risk reduction goals are stated...... at the processing plant level, then the exploitation of the favorable cost-effectiveness properties of hot water slaughtering requires fairly ambitious risk reduction goals and thus high use of decontamination capacity. If instead risk reduction goals are formulated for the sector as a whole, the cost...
McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.
1987-01-01
Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)
Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.
2010-01-01
A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.
Profiling value added position in FM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katchamart, Akarapong
organizations can best add value. Based on comprehensive literature studies and 7 case studies of private and public organisations from Denmark, Holland, Hong Kong and Thailand, the dissertation analyses, how FM organizations can best create added value. From the analyses the following four value added...... - FM organizations influence the business productivities and outcome Each type of value added requires specific conditions and contingencies involved. This research thus offers a visual aid tool, “FM product-process matrix”, to assist practitioners to indicate their existing circumstances and contexts...... the unarticulated notions of added value from FM organization and activities. It will broaden the managerial perception and discussion on FM provision ´s abilities and capabilities. The results are besides the field of FM also of relevance for management of other service industries and functions....
Nastase, Horatiu
2007-01-01
These lectures present an introduction to AdS-CFT, and are intended both for begining and more advanced graduate students, which are familiar with quantum field theory and have a working knowledge of their basic methods. Familiarity with supersymmetry, general relativity and string theory is helpful, but not necessary, as the course intends to be as self-contained as possible. I will introduce the needed elements of field and gauge theory, general relativity, supersymmetry, supergravity, strings and conformal field theory. Then I describe the basic AdS-CFT scenario, of ${\\cal N}=4 $ Super Yang-Mills's relation to string theory in $AdS_5\\times S_5$, and applications that can be derived from it: 3-point functions, quark-antiquark potential, finite temperature and scattering processes, the pp wave correspondence and spin chains. I also describe some general properties of gravity duals of gauge theories.
Microbial production of value-added nutraceuticals.
Wang, Jian; Guleria, Sanjay; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Yan, Yajun
2016-02-01
Nutraceuticals are important natural bioactive compounds that confer health-promoting and medical benefits to humans. Globally growing demands for value-added nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of human diseases have rendered nutraceuticals a multi-billion dollar market. However, supply limitations and extraction difficulties from natural sources such as plants, animals or fungi, restrict the large-scale use of nutraceuticals. Metabolic engineering via microbial production platforms has been advanced as an eco-friendly alternative approach for production of value-added nutraceuticals from simple carbon sources. Microbial platforms like the most widely used Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been engineered as versatile cell factories for production of diverse and complex value-added chemicals such as phytochemicals, prebiotics, polysaccaharides and poly amino acids. This review highlights the recent progresses in biological production of value-added nutraceuticals via metabolic engineering approaches.
Trust Based Routing in Ad Hoc Network
Talati, Mikita V.; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.
Ad Hoc network often termed as an infrastructure-less, self- organized or spontaneous network.The execution and survival of an ad-hoc network is solely dependent upon the cooperative and trusting nature of its nodes. However, this naive dependency on intermediate nodes makes the ad-hoc network vulnerable to passive and active attacks by malicious nodes and cause inflict severe damage. A number of protocols have been developed to secure ad-hoc networks using cryptographic schemes, but all rely on the presence of trust authority. Due to mobility of nodes and limitation of resources in wireless network one interesting research area in MANET is routing. This paper offers various trust models and trust based routing protocols to improve the trustworthiness of the neighborhood.Thus it helps in selecting the most secure and trustworthy route from the available ones for the data transfer.
Heat kernels on cone of AdS2 and k-wound circular Wilson loop in AdS5 × S5 superstring
Bergamin, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.
2016-04-01
We compute the one-loop world-sheet correction to partition function of {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that should be representing k-fundamental circular Wilson loop in planar limit. The 2d metric of the minimal surface ending on k-wound circle at the boundary is that of a cone of AdS2 with deficit 2π (1-k). We compute the determinants of 2d fluctuation operators by first constructing heat kernels of scalar and spinor Laplacians on the cone using the Sommerfeld formula. The final expression for the k-dependent part of the one-loop correction has simple integral representation but is different from earlier results.
Multilevel security model for ad hoc networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Changda; Ju Shiguang
2008-01-01
Modern battlefield doctrine is based on mobility, flexibility, and rapid response to changing situations.As is well known, mobile ad hoc network systems are among the best utilities for battlefield activity. Although much research has been done on secure routing, security issues have largely been ignored in applying mobile ad hoc network theory to computer technology. An ad hoc network is usually assumed to be homogeneous, which is an irrational assumption for armies. It is clear that soldiers, commanders, and commanders-in-chief should have different security levels and computation powers as they have access to asymmetric resources. Imitating basic military rank levels in battlefield situations, how multilevel security can be introduced into ad hoc networks is indicated, thereby controlling restricted classified information flows among nodes that have different security levels.
Open string fluctuations in AdS space with and without torsion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, A.L.; Lomholt, Michael Andersen
2003-01-01
dangerous than expected in these cases. The general formalism can be straightforwardly used also to study the (bosonic part of the) fluctuations around the closed strings, recently considered in connection with the AdS/conformal field theory duality, on AdS ×S and AdS ×S ×T . © 2003 The American Physical......The equations of motion and boundary conditions for the fluctuations around a classical open string, in a curved space-time with torsion, are considered in compact and world-sheet covariant form. The rigidly rotating open strings in anti-de Sitter space with and without torsion are investigated...
The Tetrahedron Zamolodchikov Algebra and the AdS5 x S5 S-matrix
Mitev, Vladimir; Tsuboi, Zengo
2012-01-01
The S-matrix of the AdS5 x S5 string theory is a tensor product of two centrally extended su(2|2) S-matrices, each of which is related to the R-matrix of the Hubbard model. The R-matrix of the Hubbard model was first found by Shastry, who ingeniously exploited the fact that, for zero coupling, the Hubbard model can be decomposed into two XX models. In this article, we review and clarify this construction from the AdS/CFT perspective and investigate the implications this has for the AdS5 x S5 S-matrix.
7 CFR 983.27 - Proprietary capacity.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proprietary capacity. 983.27 Section 983.27..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.27 Proprietary capacity. Proprietary capacity means the capacity... the interest in that capacity as an individual, a shareholder, member of a cooperative,...
Adding stress plot function to NASTRAN
Katoh, S.
1978-01-01
Stress plot function was developed and added to the NASTRAN level 15.5. Computed stress distribution can be displayed by this function, with vectors showing the principal stresses of the finite elements over the specified portions of the structure. NASTRAN is reviewed in the aspect of plotting capabilities. Stress tensor field is examined in preparation of stress display. Then the stress plot function as added to the NASTRAN is described. A sample plotout by this function is shown.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barbora eUrbanova
2014-01-01
Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in vascular impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. This interest was stimulated by the findings of higher incidence of vascular risk factors in AD. Signs of vascular impairment were investigated notably in the field of imaging methods. Our aim was to explore ultrasonographic studies of extra- and intracranial vessels in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI and define implications for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the disease. The most frequently studied parameters with extracranial ultrasound are intima-media thickness in common carotid artery, carotid atherosclerosis, and total cerebral blood flow. The transcranial ultrasound concentrates mostly on flow velocities, pulsatility indices, cerebrovascular reserve capacity, cerebral microembolization. Studies suggest there is morphological and functional impairment of cerebral circulation in AD compared to healthy subjects. Ultrasound as a non-invasive method could be potentially useful in identifying individuals in a higher risk of progression of cognitive decline.
Absorptive capacity and smart companies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patricia Moro González
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies
AdS-Sliced Flavor Branes and Adding Flavor to the Janus Solution
Clark, Adam B; Newman, George M; Rommal, Andrea
2014-01-01
We implement D7 flavor branes in AdS-sliced coordinates on $AdS_5\\times S^5$ with the ansatz that the brane fluctuates only in the warped ($\\mu$) direction in this slicing, which is particularly appropriate for studying the Janus solution. The natural field theory dual in this slicing is $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills on two copies of $AdS_4$. Branes extending from $\\mu=\\pm\\pi/2$ can end at different locations, giving rise to quarks with piecewise constant mass on each $AdS_4$ half-space, jumping discontinuously between them. A second class of flavor brane solutions exists in this coordinate system, dubbed "continuous" flavor branes, that extend across the entire range of $\\mu$. We propose that the correct dual interpretation of "disconnected" flavor brane in this ansatz is a quark hypermultiplet with constant mass on one of the AdS$_4$ half-spaces with totally reflecting boundary conditions at the boundary of AdS$_4$; whereas the dual interpretation of a continuous flavor brane has totally transparent boun...
Kay, Bernard S
2011-01-01
We discuss the relationship between the bulk-boundary correspondence in Rehren's algebraic holography (and in other 'fixed-background' approaches to holography) and in mainstream 'Maldacena AdS/CFT'. Especially, we contrast the understanding of black-hole entropy from the viewpoint of QFT in curved spacetime -- in the framework of 't Hooft's 'brick wall' model -- with the understanding based on Maldacena AdS/CFT. We show that the brick-wall modification of a Klein Gordon field in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state on 1+2-Schwarzschild AdS (BTZ) has a well-defined boundary limit with the same temperature and entropy as the brick-wall-modified bulk theory. One of our main purposes is to point out a close connection, for general AdS/CFT situations, between the puzzle raised by Arnsdorf and Smolin regarding the relationship between Rehren's algebraic holography and mainstream AdS/CFT and the puzzle embodied in the 'correspondence principle' proposed by Mukohyama and Israel in their work on the brick-wall approach to...
Integrable strings for AdS/CFT
Borsato, Riccardo
2016-01-01
In this PhD thesis we review some aspects of integrable models related to string backgrounds or their deformations. In the first part we develop methods to obtain exact results in the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. We consider the AdS_3 x S^3 x T^4 background with pure Ramond-Ramond flux and we find the all-loop worldsheet S-matrix by exploiting the symmetries of the model in light-cone gauge. As we naturally include the massless modes on the worldsheet, we derive the full set of Bethe-Yang equations. In the massive sector we give also a spin-chain description and we write down solutions compatible with crossing for the scalar factors which are not constrained by simmetries. In the second part of the thesis we consider the so-called "eta-deformation" of the superstring on AdS_5 x S^5. We first discuss the effects of the deformation at the level of the bosonic sigma-model, and we match the tree-level worldsheet scattering processes to the expansion of the q-deformed S-matrix. To identify the missing Ramond-Ramond f...
Gauge Symmetries and Holographic Anomalies of Chern-Simons and Transgression AdS Gravity
Mora, Pablo
2014-01-01
We review the issue of gauge and gravitational anomalies with backgrounds, maybe offering a new outlook on some aspects of these questions. We compute the holographic anomalies of hypothetical theories dual, in the sense of the AdS-CFT correspondence, to Chern-Simons AdS gravities. Those anomalies are either gauge anomalies associated to the AdS gauge group of the theory or diffeomorphism anomalies, with each kind related to the other. As a result of using suitable action principles por Chern-Simons AdS gravities, coming from Transgression forms, we obtain finite results without the need for further regularization. Our results are of potential interest for Lovelock gravity theories, as it has been shown that the boundary terms dictated by the transgressions for Chern-Simons gravities are also suitable to regularize Lovelock theories. The Wess-Zumino consistency condition ensures that anomalies of the generic form computed here should appear for these and other theories.
On Thermodynamics of AdS Black Holes in M-Theory
Belhaj, A; Moumni, H EL; Masmar, K; Sedra, M B
2015-01-01
Motivated by a recent work on asymptotically AdS_4 black holes in M-theory, we investigate the thermodynamics and thermodynamical geometry of AdS black holes from M2 and M5-branes. Concretely, we consider AdS black holes in AdS_{p+2}\\times S^{11-p-2}, where p=2,5 by interpreting the number of M2 (and M5-branes) as a thermodynamical variable. We study the corresponding phase transition to examine their stabilities by calculating and discussing various thermodynamical quantities including the chemical potential. Then, we compute the thermodynamical curvatures from the Quevedo metric for M2 and M5-branes geometries to reconsider the stability of such black objects. The Quevedo metric singularities recover similar stability results provided by the phase transition program.
AdS5×S(5) mirror model as a string sigma model.
Arutyunov, Gleb; van Tongeren, Stijn J
2014-12-31
Doing a double Wick rotation in the world sheet theory of the light cone AdS5×S(5) superstring results in an inequivalent, so-called mirror theory that plays a central role in the field of integrability in the AdS-CFT correspondence. We show that this mirror theory can be interpreted as the light cone theory of a free string on a different background. This background is related to dS5×H(5) by a double T-duality, and has hidden supersymmetry. The geometry can also be extracted from an integrable deformation of the AdS5×S(5) sigma model, and we prove the observed mirror duality of these deformed models at the bosonic level as a byproduct. While we focus on AdS5×S(5), our results apply more generally.
Capacity sharing of water reservoirs
Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.
1988-05-01
The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.
Capacities of quantum amplifier channels
Qi, Haoyu; Wilde, Mark M.
2017-01-01
Quantum amplifier channels are at the core of several physical processes. Not only do they model the optical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, but the transformation corresponding to an amplifier channel also describes the physics of the dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting circuits, the Unruh effect, and Hawking radiation. Here we study the communication capabilities of quantum amplifier channels. Invoking a recently established minimum output-entropy theorem for single-mode phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, we determine capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels in three different scenarios. First, we establish the capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for one of the most general communication tasks, characterized by the trade-off between classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement generation or consumption. Second, we establish capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for the trade-off between public classical communication, private classical communication, and secret key generation. Third, we determine the capacity region for a broadcast channel induced by the quantum-limited amplifier channel, and we also show that a fully quantum strategy outperforms those achieved by classical coherent-detection strategies. In all three scenarios, we find that the capacities significantly outperform communication rates achieved with a naive time-sharing strategy.
The Innovative Capacity of Firms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neely Andy
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Innovation is widely accepted as a crucial competitive weapon in today's global market place. Yet the levels of innovation achieved by different firms, even within the same industry, can vary widely. The key question raised by this observation is why. Why are some firms more innovative than others? What are the factors that determine a firm's capacity to innovate and how can these be managed to enhance the firm's innovative potential? This paper sets out to address these and related issues. It reports the results of a study of competitiveness and innovation of firms in the East of England. In the paper it is argued that the innovative capacity of a firm is a function of the firm's culture, resources, competences and networks. Justification for this framework is provided by a review of the relevant literature and a series of case studies examining the capacity to innovate of a sample of firms in the East of England.
Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prado, Mauricio; Dincecco, Mark
We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples....
Inventory theory, mode choice and network structure in freight transport
Combes, F.; Tavasszy, L.A.
2016-01-01
In passenger transport, hub-and-spoke networks allow the transportation of small passenger flows with competitive frequencies, in a way that direct line networks cannot. Equivalently, in freight transport, it can be expected that small shipper-receiver flows of high added value commodities transit t
Localization capacity of human listeners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hammershøi, Dorte
2009-01-01
For some scenarios and situations, successful localization of the sound is vital for the hearing experience. One aspect of this is the natural limits of the human localization capacity, incl. dependence on e.g. direction and distance. When addressed in laboratory experiments, the significance...... of other modalities are controlled in different ways, yet figures will inherently reflect properties of the test situation as well as the capacity of the individual. The present paper will review some contemporary localization experiments, with a specific view to the "absolute" acuity, the measures used...
Samskabelse og Evaluation Capacity Building
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogstrup, Hanne Kathrine; Mønsted, Bolette Rye
2017-01-01
Styringsparadigmer bærer ikke blot organisationsopskrifter med sig, men også evalueringsopskrifter. Som det fremgår af Kapitel 1, Et nyt styringsparadigme på vej? bærer styringsparadigmet New Public Governance organisationsopskriften samskabelse med sig, men det er endnu ikke tydeligt hvilken eva...... skifte fra en evaluerings¬bølge til en anden kræver, at der sker en Evaluation Capacity Building. Evaluation Capacity Building har dobbelt binding, som dels handler om evnen til at gennemføre evaluering, dels om evnen til at anvende evaluering....
Abiding Geocast for Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Yu, Qiangyuan; Heijenk, Geert
2008-01-01
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a new network environment for intelligent transportation systems (ITS). In many applications envisaged for VANETs, traffic information needs to be disseminated to a group of relevant vehicles and maintained for a duration of time. Here a system of a
Measuring the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma using potentiometry.
Tessutti, L S; Macedo, D V; Kubota, L T; Alves, A A
2013-10-15
The use of potentiometry to measure plasma antioxidant capacity to contribute to oxidative stress evaluation is presented. In this assay, plasma (n=60) diluted (0.3 to 1 ml) in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, NaCl 9%, was submitted to potentiometry. A platinum wire was the working electrode and saturated calomel the reference. The results are presented as the difference between sample and buffer potential (ΔE). ΔE presented a good inverse correlation with added increasing concentrations of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L; R=-0.99), urate (9.0-150 μmol/L; R=-0.99), and bilirubin (0.78-13 μmol/L; R=-0.99). Increase in the antioxidant capacity decreased ΔE. Depletion of the antioxidant capacity by tert-butylhydroperoxide (6.5-50 μmol/L) presented a direct correlation (0.97) with ΔE. Furthermore, ΔE presented an inverse correlation (R=-0.99) with increased antioxidant capacity of plasma (FRAP) induced by the addition of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L). The response of the potentiometric method proved be adequate for measuring the plasma antioxidant depletion induced by acute exhaustive exercise in rats (control, n=15; exercised, n=15). This exercise decreased the concentration of urate (ppotentiometry for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma samples.
Higher spin contributions to holographic fluid dynamics in AdS5/CFT4
Lee, Seungjin; Polyakov, Dimitri
2014-08-01
We calculate the graviton's β function in the AdS string-theoretic sigma model, perturbed by vertex operators for Vasiliev's higher spin gauge fields in AdS5. The result is given by βmn=Rmn+4Tmn(g ,u) (with the AdS radius set to 1 and the graviton polarized along the AdS5 boundary), with the matter stress-energy tensor given by that of conformal holographic fluid in d =4, evaluated at the temperature given by T =1/π. The stress-energy tensor is given by Tmn=gmn+4umun+∑NTmn(N) where u is the vector excitation satisfying u2=-1 and N is the order of the gradient expansion in the dissipative part of the tensor. We calculate the contributions up to N =2. The higher spin excitations contribute to the β function, ensuring the overall Weyl covariance of the matter stress tensor. We conjecture that the structure of gradient expansion in d =4 conformal hydrodynamics at higher orders is controlled by the higher spin operator algebra in AdS5.
The Impact of Ad Characteristics on Adolescents’ Attitudes Towards Antismoking Ads
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Domen Bajde
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Smoking exerts a considerable burden not only on those who smoke but just as well on society at large. In response, governments and institutions often resort to advertising which aims to discourage smoking. Unfortunately, our knowledge of the workings of antismoking advertising is detrimentally limited. In particular, the literature delving into the impact of antismoking ad characteristics (e. g., ad content, valence, intensity on the overall effectiveness of antismoking advertising is scarce and contradictory. This empirical study aims to enhance the knowledge of antismoking advertising by presenting results of the survey involving Slovene adolescents. The adolescents were first exposed to advertisements of different antismoking ad contents (for the purpose of this study the term ‘ad content’ refers to types of appeals used in antismoking advertising, ad valence and intensity, and later invited to respond to a number of questions measuring their attitudes toward the ads, their attitudes toward smoking, their intentions to smoke, etc. The results indicate that while the different intensity and valence of ads produce varying attitudes toward the ads, we could not confirm these differences based on ad content. Also, we found that adolescent smokers respond to antismoking ads differently than do their nonsmoking peers. Our findings offer several important implications for antismoking advertisers and the research community interested in the workings of antismoking advertising.
Extended supersymmetric sigma models in AdS_4 from projective superspace
Butter, Daniel; Lindstrom, Ulf; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele
2012-01-01
There exist two superspace approaches to describe N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS_4) space: (i) in terms of N=1 AdS chiral superfields, as developed in arXiv:1105.3111 and arXiv:1108.5290; and (ii) in terms of N=2 polar supermultiplets using the AdS projective-superspace techniques developed in arXiv:0807.3368. The virtue of the approach (i) is that it makes manifest the geometric properties of the N=2 supersymmetric sigma-models in AdS_4. The target space must be a non-compact hyperkahler manifold endowed with a Killing vector field which generates an SO(2) group of rotations on the two-sphere of complex structures. The power of the approach (ii) is that it allows us, in principle, to generate hyperkahler metrics as well as to address the problem of deformations of such metrics. Here we show how to relate the formulation (ii) to (i) by integrating out an infinite number of N=1 AdS auxiliary superfields and performing a superfield duality transformation. We al...
AdS and Lifshitz scalar hairy black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Chen, Bin; Fan, Zhong-Ying; Zhu, Lu-Yao
2016-09-01
We consider Gauss-Bonnet (GB) gravity in general dimensions, which is nonminimally coupled to a scalar field. By choosing a scalar potential of the type V (ϕ )=2 Λ0+1/2 m2ϕ2+γ4ϕ4 , we first obtain large classes of scalar hairy black holes with spherical/hyperbolic/planar topologies that are asymptotic to locally anti- de Sitter (AdS) space-times. We derive the first law of black hole thermodynamics using Wald formalism. In particular, for one class of the solutions, the scalar hair forms a thermodynamic conjugate with the graviton and nontrivially contributes to the thermodynamical first law. We observe that except for one class of the planar black holes, all these solutions are constructed at the critical point of GB gravity where there exist unique AdS vacua. In fact, a Lifshitz vacuum is also allowed at the critical point. We then construct many new classes of neutral and charged Lifshitz black hole solutions for an either minimally or nonminimally coupled scalar and derive the thermodynamical first laws. We also obtain new classes of exact dynamical AdS and Lifshitz solutions which describe radiating white holes. The solutions eventually become AdS or Lifshitz vacua at late retarded times. However, for one class of the solutions, the final state is an AdS space-time with a globally naked singularity.
Implementation of Recursion Relations in Gluon Scattering Amplitude Calculations in AdS4 /CFT3
Dokmetzoglou, Nikolaos; Kharel, Savan
2017-01-01
The Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence is a duality between a theory of gravity in curved-space (AdS) and a conformally-invariant quantum field theory in flat-space (CFT). Scattering amplitudes are observables associated with the probability of the interaction of a given assembly of particles. Gluons, being the exchange particles associated with the strong nuclear force, which holds quarks together to form protons, are abundant byproducts of fundamental particle collisions. Thus, studying gluon scattering amplitudes is an effective way of deepening our understanding of these observables in AdS/CFT. Traditionally, Feynman diagrams have been used to calculate such scattering amplitudes. In this project, we use factorization properties and recursion relations to simplify these calculations. More specifically, we calculate multiple (different helicity combinations) four-point gluon scattering amplitudes in AdS4 /CFT3 (4-D AdS and 3-D CFT) as sums of products of three-point amplitudes. And then we calculate a five-point gluon scattering amplitude in AdS4 /CFT3 by decomposing it into a sum of products of these four-point and three-point amplitudes. Finally we comment on useful identities for checking these amplitudes. This work was supported by a Weinstein Davidson College Research Initiative Summer Research grant.
On the Thermodynamic Geometry and Critical Phenomena of AdS Black Holes
Sahay, Anurag; Sengupta, Gautam
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study various aspects of the equilibrium thermodynamic state space geometry of AdS black holes. We first examine the Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS (RN-AdS) and the Kerr-AdS black holes. In this context, the state space scalar curvature of these black holes are analysed in various regions of their thermodynamic parameter space. This provides important new insights into the structure and significance of the scalar curvature. We further investigate critical phenomena, and the behaviour of the scalar curvature near criticality, for KN-AdS black holes in two mixed ensembles, introduced and elucidated in our earlier work arXiv:1002.2538 [hep-th]. The critical exponents are identical to those in the RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS cases in the canonical ensemble. This suggests an universality in the scaling behaviour near critical points of AdS black holes. Our results further highlight qualitative differences in the thermodynamic state space geometry for electric charge and angular momentum fluctuations of these.
Interpolating from Bianchi Attractors to Lifshitz and AdS Spacetimes
Kachru, Shamit; Saha, Arpan; Samanta, Rickmoy; Trivedi, Sandip P
2013-01-01
We construct classes of smooth metrics which interpolate from Bianchi attractor geometries of Types II, III, VI and IX in the IR to Lifshitz or $AdS_2 \\times S^3$ geometries in the UV. While we do not obtain these metrics as solutions of Einstein gravity coupled to a simple matter field theory, we show that the matter sector stress-energy required to support these geometries (via the Einstein equations) does satisfy the weak, and therefore also the null, energy condition. Since Lifshitz or $AdS_2 \\times S^3$ geometries can in turn be connected to $AdS_5$ spacetime, our results show that there is no barrier, at least at the level of the energy conditions, for solutions to arise connecting these Bianchi attractor geometries to $AdS_5$ spacetime. The asymptotic $AdS_5$ spacetime has no non-normalizable metric deformation turned on, which suggests that furthermore, the Bianchi attractor geometries can be the IR geometries dual to field theories living in flat space, with the breaking of symmetries being either sp...
Rostworowski, Andrzej
2016-01-01
We argue that if the degeneracy of the spectrum of linear perturbations of AdS is properly taken into account, there are globally regular, time-periodic, asymptotically AdS solutions (geons) bifurcating from each linear eigenfrequency of AdS.
Shah, D. B.
1984-01-01
Describes a course designed to achieve a balance between exposing students to (1) advanced topics in transport phenomena, pointing out similarities and differences between three transfer processes and (2) common methods of solving differential equations. (JN)
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...
Kay, Bernard S.; Ortíz, L.
2014-05-01
We discuss the relationship between the bulk-boundary correspondence in Rehren's algebraic holography (and in other `fixed-background', QFT-based, approaches to holography) and in mainstream string-theoretic `Maldacena AdS/CFT'. Especially, we contrast the understanding of black-hole entropy from the point of view of QFT in curved spacetime—in the framework of 't Hooft's `brick wall' model—with the understanding based on Maldacena AdS/CFT. We show that the brick-wall modification of a Klein-Gordon field in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state on dimensional Schwarzschild AdS has a well-defined boundary limit with the same temperature and entropy as the brick-wall-modified bulk theory. One of our main purposes is to point out a close connection, for general AdS/CFT situations, between the puzzle raised by Arnsdorf and Smolin regarding the relationship between Rehren's algebraic holography and mainstream AdS/CFT and the puzzle embodied in the `complementarity principle' proposed by Mukohyama and Israel in their work on the brick-wall approach to black hole entropy. Working on the assumption that similar results will hold for bulk QFT other than the Klein-Gordon field and for Schwarzschild AdS in other dimensions, and recalling the first author's proposed resolution to the Mukohyama-Israel puzzle based on his `matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis', we argue that, in Maldacena AdS/CFT, the algebra of the boundary CFT is isomorphic only to a proper subalgebra of the bulk algebra, albeit (at non-zero temperature) the (GNS) Hilbert spaces of bulk and boundary theories are still the `same'—the total bulk state being pure, while the boundary state is mixed (thermal). We also argue from the finiteness of its boundary (and hence, on our assumptions, also bulk) entropy at finite temperature, that the Rehren dual of the Maldacena boundary CFT cannot itself be a QFT and must, instead, presumably be something like a string theory.
Erythropoietin treatment enhances muscle mitochondrial capacity in humans
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia;
2012-01-01
Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity...... in humans. In six healthy volunteers rhEpo was administered by sub-cutaneous injection over 8 weeks with oral iron (100 mg) supplementation taken daily. Mitochondrial OXPHOS was quantified by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers obtained from biopsies of the vastus lateralis...... before and after rhEpo treatment. OXPHOS was determined with the mitochondrial complex I substrates malate, glutamate, pyruvate, and complex II substrate succinate in the presence of saturating ADP concentrations, while maximal electron transport capacity (ETS) was assessed by addition of an uncoupler...
Children's exercise capacity at high altitude in Tibet.
Bianba; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stigum, Hein; Ouzhuluobu; Bjertness, Espen
2014-11-01
Maximal oxygen uptake (exercise capacity) is a vital parameter in the evaluation of adaptation to high altitude, providing an index of the integrated function of the oxygen transport system. Previous studies of maximal oxygen uptake in population at high altitude have mainly focused on adults and adolescents, though data on children are uncommon. Maximal oxygen uptake can be measured directly, using an oxygen analyser, or indirectly through the development of equations for estimation from the maximal power output (W(max)). Such estimations and studies of the physiological aspects of children's capacity to work and live at different altitudes in Tibet ancestry were not reported previously, although differences similar to those seen in adults may be expected to occur. The present paper summarized the findings of studies on exercise capacity among children living at high altitude in Tibet.
The COSPAR Capacity Building Initiative
Gabriel, C.; Willmore, P.; Méndez, M.; Mathieu, P.-P.; Santolik, O.; Smith, R.; Evans, Ian N.; Accomazzi, Alberto; Mink, Douglas J.; Rots, Arnold H.
2011-01-01
The COSPAR Capacity Building Workshops have been conceived to meet the following objectives: (1) To increase knowledge and use of public archives of space data in order both to broaden the scope of research programs in developing countries and to ensure that scientists in those countries are aware o
Livelihood Resilience and Adaptive Capacity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben
2015-01-01
This article analyses the implementation and outcomes of national development programs in a mountainous commune in Vietnam. The article traces the history of State intervention and the capacity of households and the community to adapt to change. The assessment reveals unintended consequences of t...
Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dincecco, Mark; Prado, Mauricio
2012-01-01
innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...
Online capacity planning of repairs
Kempen, J.W. van
2006-01-01
In this thesis we describe our research into a capacity planning problem that occurs in practice at a big group of car dealers, the Rüttchen group. A considerable part is about the construction of a model for this problem, showing and justifying the assumptions we make. Then it is shown that this mo
Banados and SUSY: On Supersymmetry and Minimal Surfaces of Locally AdS3 Geometries
Colgáin, E Ó
2016-01-01
We extend the classification of supersymmetric locally AdS$_3$ geometries, beyond BTZ black holes, to the Ba\\~nados geometries, noting that supersymmetries are in one-to-one correspondence with solutions to the Hill differential condition. We show that the number of global supersymmetries is an orbit invariant quantity and identify geometries with zero, one, two, three and four global supersymmetries. As an application of our classification, we exploit supersymmetry, which is preserved locally in the bulk, to determine space-like co-dimension two surfaces in AdS$_3$. In the process, we by-pass geodesics or mappings of AdS$_3$, neither of which have an analogue in higher dimensions, to recover known Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi surfaces. Our findings suggest supersymmetry can be exploited to find extremal surfaces in holographic entanglement entropy.
Vacuum energy in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity
Kofinas, G; Kofinas, Georgios; Olea, Rodrigo
2006-01-01
A finite action principle for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity is presented. The boundary term, which is different for even and odd dimensions, is a functional of the boundary metric, intrinsic curvature and extrinsic curvature. For even dimensions, the boundary term corresponds to the maximal Chern form of the spacetime, and the asymptotic AdS condition for the curvature suffices for the well-posedness of this action. For odd dimensions, the action is stationary under a boundary condition on the variation of the extrinsic curvature. The background-independent Noether charges associated to asymptotic symmetries are found and the Euclidean continuation of the action correctly describes the black hole thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. In particular, this procedure leads to a covariant formula for the vacuum energy in odd-dimensional asymptotically AdS spacetimes.
Quark confinement due to creation of micro AdS black holes in quarkonium model
Taki, Mehran
2016-01-01
We use the solution of the Dirac equation for quarkonium atom in the 4D Anti de sitter (AdS$_{4}$) space to investigate the effect of the large negative cosmological constant on the phenomenon of quark confinement. We do the required calculations in the AdS$_{4}$ space to indicate that large cosmological constant can describe the quark confinement. In fact using the coulomb potential in Dirac equation while we employ the AdS metric will additionally lead us to a linear potential in the quark-antiquark interaction which can be considered to explain the quark confinement. This confining term is arising essentially from the geometrical features of the space. On the other hand the origin of the large cosmological constant can be justified by assuming the appearance of micro black holes in the recent hadronic collision process which is now current, for instance, at the LHC project.
Vacuum type space-like string surfaces in AdS_3 x S^3
Dorn, Harald; Kalousios, Chrysostomos; Megrelidze, Luka; Wuttke, Sebastian
2010-01-01
We construct and classify all space-like minimal surfaces in AdS_3 x S^3 which globally admit coordinates with constant induced metric on both factors. Up to O(2,2) x O(4) transformations all these surfaces, except one class, are parameterized by four real parameters. The classes of surfaces correspond to different regions in this parameter space and show quite different boundary behavior. Our analysis uses a direct construction of the string coordinates via a group theoretical treatment based on the map of AdS_3 x S^3 to SL(2,R) x SU(2). This is complemented by a cross check via standard Pohlmeyer reduction. After embedding in AdS_5 x S^5 we calculate the regularized area for solutions with a boundary spanned by a four point scattering s-channel momenta configuration.
Higher spin holography and the AdS string sigma model
Polyakov, Dimitri
2013-05-01
We analyse the cubic spin-3 interaction in AdS space using the higher spin extension of the string-theoretic sigma-model constructed in our previous work, whose low energy limit is described by the AdS vacuum solution. We find that, in the leading order of the cosmological constant, the spin-3 correlator on the AdS4 string theory side reproduces the structure of the three-point function of composite operators, quadratic in free fields, in the dual d = 3 vector model. The cancellation of holography violating terms in d = 3 is related to the value of the Liouville background charge in d = 4. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.
On thermodynamics of AdS black holes in M-theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belhaj, A. [Universite Sultan Moulay Slimane, Departement de Physique, LIRST, Faculte Polydisciplinaire, Beni Mellal (Morocco); Cadi Ayyad University, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, FSSM, Marrakesh (Morocco); Chabab, M.; Masmar, K. [Cadi Ayyad University, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, FSSM, Marrakesh (Morocco); El Moumni, H. [Cadi Ayyad University, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, FSSM, Marrakesh (Morocco); Universite Ibn Zohr, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Agadir (Morocco); Sedra, M.B. [Universite Ibn Tofail, Departement de Physique, LASIMO, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)
2016-02-15
Motivated by recent work on asymptotically AdS{sub 4} black holes in M-theory, we investigate the thermodynamics and thermodynamical geometry of AdS black holes from M2- and M5-branes. Concretely, we consider AdS black holes in AdS{sub p+2} x S{sup 11-p-2}, where p = 2,5 by interpreting the number of M2- (and M5-branes) as a thermodynamical variable. More precisely, we study the corresponding phase transition to examine their stabilities by calculating and discussing various thermodynamical quantities including the chemical potential. Then we compute the thermodynamical curvatures from the Quevedo metric for M2- and M5-branes geometries to reconsider the stability of such black holes. The Quevedo metric singularities recover similar stability results provided by the phase-transition program. It has been shown that similar behaviors are also present in the limit of large N. (orig.)