WorldWideScience

Sample records for added transportation capacity

  1. ON THE CAPACITY REGION OF WIRELESS AD HOC RELAY NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Qinyun; Yao Wangsheng; Peng Jianmin; Su Gang

    2006-01-01

    Network capacity is a key characteristic to evaluate the performance of wireless networks. The goal of this paper is to study the capacity of wireless ad hoc relay network. In the model, there is at most ns source nodes transmitting signal simultaneously in the network and the arbitrarily complex network coding is allowed. The upper capacity bound of the network model are derived from the max-flow min-cut theorem and the lower capacity bound are obtained by the rate-distortion function for the Gaussian source. Finally, simulation results show that the upper network capacity will decrease as the number of source nodes is increased.

  2. CAPACITY EVALUATION OF MULTI-CHANNEL WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jiandong; Zygmunt J. Haas; Min Sheng

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the capacity of multi-channel, multi-hop ad hoc network is evaluated.In particular, the performance of multi-hop ad hoc network with single channel IEEE 802.11MAC utilizing different topologies is shown. Also the scaling laws of throughputs for large-scale ad hoc networks and the theoretical guaranteed throughput bounds for multi-channel gridtopology systems are proposed. The results presented in this work will help researchers to choosethe proper parameter settings in evaluation of protocols for multi-hop ad hoc networks.

  3. Optimizing Local Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, Salman

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate local capacity of wireless ad hoc networks with several medium access protocols and identify the most optimal protocol. We define local capacity as the average information rate received by a receiver randomly located in the network. We analyzed grid pattern protocols where simultaneous transmitters are positioned in a regular grid pattern, pure ALOHA protocols where simultaneous transmitters are dispatched according to a uniform Poisson distribution and exclusion protocols where simultaneous transmitters are dispatched according to an exclusion rule such as node coloring and carrier sense protocols. Our analysis allows us to conjecture that local capacity is optimal when simultaneous transmitters are positioned in a grid pattern based on equilateral triangles and our results show that this optimal local capacity is at most double the local capacity of simple ALOHA protocol. Our results also show that node coloring and carrier sense protocols approach the optimal local capacity by an ...

  4. Sediment transport capacity of hyperconcentrated flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As one of the most important components of river mechanics,sediment transport capacity of sediment-laden flows has attracted much attention from many researchers working on river mechanics and hydraulic engineering. Based on the time-averaged equation for a turbulent energy equilibrium in solid and liquid two-phase flow,an expression for the efficiency coefficient of suspended load movement was derived for the two-dimensional,steady,uniform,fully-developed turbulent flow. A new structural expression of sediment transport capacity was achieved. Using 115 runs of flume experimental data,which were obtained through two kinds of sediment transport experiments in the state of equilibrium,in combination with the basic rheological and sediment transporting characteristics of hyperconcentrated flow,the main parameters in the structural expression of sediment transport capacity were calibrated,and a new formula of sediment transport capacity for hyperconcentrated flow was developed. A large amount of field data from the Yellow River,Wuding River,and Yangtze River,etc. were adopted to verify the new formula and good agreement was obtained. These results above contribute to an improved theoretical system of river mechanics and a reliable tool for management of rivers carrying high concentration of sediments.

  5. The concept of transport capacity in geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, John; Parsons, Anthony J.; Cooper, James R.; Gao, Peng; Gillies, John A.; Mao, Luca; Orford, Julian D.; Knight, Peter G.

    2015-12-01

    The notion of sediment-transport capacity has been engrained in geomorphological and related literature for over 50 years, although its earliest roots date back explicitly to Gilbert in fluvial geomorphology in the 1870s and implicitly to eighteenth to nineteenth century developments in engineering. Despite cross fertilization between different process domains, there seem to have been independent inventions of the idea in aeolian geomorphology by Bagnold in the 1930s and in hillslope studies by Ellison in the 1940s. Here we review the invention and development of the idea of transport capacity in the fluvial, aeolian, coastal, hillslope, débris flow, and glacial process domains. As these various developments have occurred, different definitions have been used, which makes it both a difficult concept to test, and one that may lead to poor communications between those working in different domains of geomorphology. We argue that the original relation between the power of a flow and its ability to transport sediment can be challenged for three reasons. First, as sediment becomes entrained in a flow, the nature of the flow changes and so it is unreasonable to link the capacity of the water or wind only to the ability of the fluid to move sediment. Secondly, environmental sediment transport is complicated, and the range of processes involved in most movements means that simple relationships are unlikely to hold, not least because the movement of sediment often changes the substrate, which in turn affects the flow conditions. Thirdly, the inherently stochastic nature of sediment transport means that any capacity relationships do not scale either in time or in space. Consequently, new theories of sediment transport are needed to improve understanding and prediction and to guide measurement and management of all geomorphic systems.

  6. Only adding stationary storage to vaccine supply chains may create and worsen transport bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Claypool, Erin G; Weng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    Although vaccine supply chains in many countries require additional stationary storage and transport capacity to meet current and future needs, international donors tend to donate stationary storage devices far more often than transport equipment. To investigate the impact of only adding stationary storage equipment on the capacity requirements of transport devices and vehicles, we used HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains) to construct a discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain. We measured the transport capacity requirement for each mode of transport used in the Niger vaccine cold chain, both before and after adding cold rooms and refrigerators to relieve all stationary storage constraints in the system. With the addition of necessary stationary storage, the average transport capacity requirement increased from 88% to 144% for cold trucks, from 101% to 197% for pickup trucks, and from 366% to 420% for vaccine carriers. Therefore, adding stationary storage alone may worsen or create new transport bottlenecks as more vaccines flow through the system, preventing many vaccines from reaching their target populations. Dynamic modeling can reveal such relationships between stationary storage capacity and transport constraints.

  7. Only adding stationary storage to vaccine supply chains may create and worsen transport bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Claypool, Erin G; Weng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    Although vaccine supply chains in many countries require additional stationary storage and transport capacity to meet current and future needs, international donors tend to donate stationary storage devices far more often than transport equipment. To investigate the impact of only adding stationary storage equipment on the capacity requirements of transport devices and vehicles, we used HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains) to construct a discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain. We measured the transport capacity requirement for each mode of transport used in the Niger vaccine cold chain, both before and after adding cold rooms and refrigerators to relieve all stationary storage constraints in the system. With the addition of necessary stationary storage, the average transport capacity requirement increased from 88% to 144% for cold trucks, from 101% to 197% for pickup trucks, and from 366% to 420% for vaccine carriers. Therefore, adding stationary storage alone may worsen or create new transport bottlenecks as more vaccines flow through the system, preventing many vaccines from reaching their target populations. Dynamic modeling can reveal such relationships between stationary storage capacity and transport constraints. PMID:23903398

  8. Multi-Stage Transportation Problem With Capacity Limit

    OpenAIRE

    I. Brezina; Z. Čičková; J. Pekár; M. Reiff

    2010-01-01

    The classical transportation problem can be applied in a more general way in practice. Related problems as Multi-commodity transportation problem, Transportation problems with different kind of vehicles, Multi-stage transportation problems, Transportation problem with capacity limit is an extension of the classical transportation problem considering the additional special condition. For solving such problems many optimization techniques (dynamic programming, linear programming, special algor...

  9. Two-Way Transmission Capacity of Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vaze, Rahul; Kien T. Truong; Weber, Steven; Heath Jr, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The transmission capacity of an ad-hoc network is the maximum density of active transmitters per unit area, given an outage constraint at each receiver for a fixed rate of transmission. Most prior work on finding the transmission capacity of ad-hoc networks has focused only on one-way communication where a source communicates with a destination and no data is sent from the destination to the source. In practice, however, two-way or bidirectional data transmission is required to support contro...

  10. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  11. Determinants of Capacity Utilization in Road Freight Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera

    2014-01-01

    Recent performance figures in the European road freight transport sector show that there is an excess capacity. To shed light on this phenomenon, this paper studies two aspects of capacity utilization in trucking: the extent of empty running and the load factor. The paper shows that they can...

  12. Asymptotic Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Realistic Links under a Honey Comb Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Asnani, Himanshu

    2007-01-01

    We consider the effects of Rayleigh fading and lognormal shadowing in the physical interference model for all the successful transmissions of traffic across the network. New bounds are derived for the capacity of a given random ad hoc wireless network that reflect packet drop or capture probability of the transmission links. These bounds are based on a simplified network topology termed as honey-comb topology under a given routing and scheduling scheme.

  13. On capacity of wireless ad hoc networks with MIMO MMSE receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Widely adopted at home, business places, and hot spots, wireless ad-hoc networks are expected to provide broadband services parallel to their wired counterparts in near future. To address this need, MIMO techniques, which are capable of offering several-fold increase in capacity, hold significant promise. Most previous work on capacity analysis of ad-hoc networks is based on an implicit assumption that each node has only one antenna. Core to the analysis therein is the characterization of a geometric area, referred to as the exclusion region, which quantizes the amount of spatial resource occupied by a link. When multiple antennas are deployed at each node, however, multiple links can transmit in the vicinity of each other simultaneously, as interference can now be suppressed by spatial signal processing. As such, a link no longer exclusively occupies a geometric area, making the concept of "exclusion region" not applicable any more. In this paper, we investigate link-layer throughput capacity of MIMO ad-hoc ...

  14. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    Purpose This chapter discusses a central aspect of freight transportcapacity utilisation with a link to empty running of commercial freight vehicles. Methodology/approach The paper provides an overview of the literature on these topics and groups the contributions into two segments according...... to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... modelling literature and its main aim is analysing vehicle movement and usage in transport demand modelling context. A strand of this second group of contributions is the modelling of trip-chain and its implication on the level of capacity utilisation. Research limitations The review is not a comprehensive...

  15. High thermal-transport capacity heat pipes for space radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Albert W.; Gustafson, Eric; Roukis, Susan L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of performance tests of several dual-slot heat pipe test articles. The dual-slot configuration has a very high thermal transport capability and has been identified as a very promising candidate for the radiator system for the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. Two six-foot long aluminum heat pipes were built and tested with ammonia and acetone. A 20-ft long heat pipe was also built and tested with ammonia. The test results have been compared with performance predictions. A thermal transport capacity of 2000 W at an adverse tilt of 1 in. and a 1000 W capacity at an adverse tilt of 2 in. were achieved on the 20-ft long heat pipe. These values are in close agreement with the predicted performance limits.

  16. Capacity Scaling of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: Effect of Finite Wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Si-Hyeon

    2010-01-01

    We study the capacity scaling of wireless ad hoc networks considering the effect of finite wavelength. $n$ source--destination pairs are assumed to be randomly placed in areas of 1 (dense network) and $n$ (extended network). \\"{O}zg\\"{u}r \\emph{et al.} showed that the linear capacity scaling is possible for the dense network and the extended network with path-loss exponent equal to 2, which is achieved by hierarchical cooperation (HC). However, such a linear capacity scaling was shown to violate the physical limit on degrees of freedom by Franceschetti \\emph{et al}. The cause of the contradiction is the idealized channel model used in the analysis of the HC, in which the channel correlation due to the finite wavelength is ignored. In this paper, we use a channel model that captures the channel correlation correctly, modify the HC accordingly, and analyze its throughput scaling in terms of both $n$ and the wavelength. Our result shows exactly how the throughput scaling of HC is degraded due to the effect of fi...

  17. Effect of endurance training on glucose transport capacity and glucose transporter expression in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, T; Stallknecht, B M; Pedersen, O;

    1990-01-01

    increase of approximately 33% for contraction-stimulated transport in slow-twitch red fibers compared with nonexercised sedentary muscle. A fully additive effect of insulin and contractions was observed both in trained and untrained muscle. Compared with transport in control rats subjected to an almost...... exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training...... session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold by...

  18. Effect of endurance training on glucose transport capacity and glucose transporter expression in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 10 wk endurance swim training on 3-O-methylglucose (3-MG) uptake (at 40 mM 3-MG) in skeletal muscle was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Training resulted in an increase of approximately 33% for maximum insulin-stimulated 3-MG transport in fast-twitch red fibers and an increase of approximately 33% for contraction-stimulated transport in slow-twitch red fibers compared with nonexercised sedentary muscle. A fully additive effect of insulin and contractions was observed both in trained and untrained muscle. Compared with transport in control rats subjected to an almost exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold by training in fast-twitch red muscle fibers. In parallel to this, Western blot demonstrated a approximately 47% increase in GLUT-1 protein and a approximately 31% increase in GLUT-4 protein. This indicates that the increases in maximum velocity for 3-MG transport in trained muscle is due to an increased number of glucose transporters

  19. Appraisal of increased public transport capacity: the case of a new metro line to Nacka, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Cats , Oded; West , Jens; ELIASSON, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common motivations for public transport investments is increased capacity. However, appraisal methodologies for projects meant to increase capacity are relatively less well developed compared to methodologies for projects aiming to reduce travel times. Each of the consequences of capacity limitations - crowding, risk for denied boarding and unreliable waiting and travel times - can increase the generalized travel costs. The appraisal of capacity improvements requires supply an...

  20. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others. PMID:26694396

  1. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-12-15

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.

  2. Measuring the pollutant transport capacity of dissolved organic matter in complex matrixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.;

    2003-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) facilitated transport in contaminated groundwater was investigated through the measurement of the binding capacity of landfill leachate DOM (Vejen, Denmark) towards two model pollutants (pyrene and phenanthrene). Three different methods for measuring binding capacity....... It was further concluded that DOM facilitated transport should be taken into account for non-ionic PAHs with lg K OW above 5, at DOM concentrations above 250 mg C/L. The total DOM concentration was found to be more important for the potential of facilitated transport than differences in the DOM binding capacity....

  3. Optimal fares and capacity decisions for crowded public transport systems

    OpenAIRE

    De Palma, André; Lindsey, Robin; Monchambert, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    International audience There is a large operations research literature on public transit system design. An extensive economic literature has also developed on public transit capacity investments, service frequency, and optimal pricing and subsidy policy. These two branches of literature have made significant advances in understanding public transit systems. However, in contrast to the literature on automobile traffic congestion, most of the studies have employed static models that cannot a...

  4. Least dissipation principle of heat transport potential capacity and its application in heat conduction optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the viewpoint of heat transfer, heat transport potential capacity and its dissipation are defined based on the essence of heat transport phenomenon. Respectively, their physical meanings are the overall heat transfer capabilityand the dissipation rate of the heat transfer capacity. Then the least dissipation principle of heat transport potential capacity is presented to enhance the heat conduction efficiency in the heat conduction optimization. The principle is,for a conduction process with the constant integral of the thermal conductivityover the region, the optimal distribution of thermal conductivity, which corresponds to the highest heat conduction efficiency, is characterized by the least dissipation of heat transport potential capacity. Finally the principle is applied to some cases in heat conduction optimization.

  5. Beyond a complete failure: The impact of partial capacity reductions on public transport network vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.; Jenelius, E.

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions often result with partial capacity reduction without resulting with a complete breakdown. This study aims to move beyond the analysis of complete failure by investigating the impacts of partial capacity reduction on public transport network performance. We analyse the relation between th

  6. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf Bin Zikria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet’s de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.

  7. Optimum Repartition of Transport Capacities in the Logistic System using Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BĂŞANU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Transportations take an essential role in logistics, interconnecting the majority of processes and operations within logistic system. The efficient use of transportation capacity is a priority whose achievement can diminish logistic costs. This objective is today difficult to achieve due to increasing complexity of transportation monitoring and coordination. This complexity is determined by transportation number and diversity, by the volume and diversity of orders, by increasing the targets to be supplied.Dynamic programming represents a highly useful tool for logistic managers, considering that its specific techniques and methods are oriented toward solving problems related to resource optimum allocation and utilization.The present paper presents briefly a series of theoretical elements of dynamic programming applied in logistics, based on which it is shown a mathematic model to determine the optimum policy for transport capacity repartition for the area attached to a logistic centre, through three distribution centres.

  8. Climate change and changes in sediment transport capacity in the Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Information is presented on changes in the sediment transport capacity of streams of the Colorado Plateau region of the United States. The changes in transport capacity may be due to changes in climate. Changes in the ability of three rivers in the Colorado Plateau to transport sediment were investigated (Paria River at Lees Ferry, Arizona; Sevier River at Hatch, Utah; and Little Colorado at Woodruff, Arizona) using an index to sediment transport potential (or capacity) of the rivers. The index is called a Sediment Transport Capacity Index (STCI). The parameters in the index are calibrated to measured sediment concentrations. Other investigators have postulated that there have been three climate regimes in the Colorado Plateau during the 20th century: 1905-1941, 1942-1977 and 1978-1998. Time series analyses of the STCI showed reasonably clearly that there was a change in the climate about 1941 and a high probability of a change about 1923-1929. The STCI time series for the Sevier River had the expected pattern because the STCI increased in the years following 1997 nearly to the pre-1942 values from lower 1942-1977 values. The Little Colorado River showed a similar pattern, but not nearly to the magnitude suggested by the change in precipitation. The STCI for the Paria River essentially did not change. Changes in sediment transport also are investigated in the lower San Juan River where alterations in the sediment balance of the river may be due to variations in the character of summer precipitation.

  9. Gas Release and Transport Capacity Investment as Instruments to Foster Competition in Gas Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Chaton, Corinne; Gasmi, Farid; Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Oviedo, Juan Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by recent policy events experienced by the European natural gas industry, this paper develops a simple model for analyzing the interaction between gas release and capacity investment programs as tools to improve the performance of imperfectly competitive markets. We consider a regional market in which a measure that has an incumbent release part of its gas to a marketer complements a program of investment in transport capacity dedicated to imports by the marketer, at a regulated tra...

  10. Greedy data transportation scheme with hard packet deadlines for wireless ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyungJune

    2014-01-01

    We present a greedy data transportation scheme with hard packet deadlines in ad hoc sensor networks of stationary nodes and multiple mobile nodes with scheduled trajectory path and arrival time. In the proposed routing strategy, each stationary ad hoc node en route decides whether to relay a shortest-path stationary node toward destination or a passing-by mobile node that will carry closer to destination. We aim to utilize mobile nodes to minimize the total routing cost as far as the selected route can satisfy the end-to-end packet deadline. We evaluate our proposed routing algorithm in terms of routing cost, packet delivery ratio, packet delivery time, and usability of mobile nodes based on network level simulations. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm fully exploits the remaining time till packet deadline to turn into networking benefits of reducing the overall routing cost and improving packet delivery performance. Also, we demonstrate that the routing scheme guarantees packet delivery with hard deadlines, contributing to QoS improvement in various network services. PMID:25258736

  11. The meaning of different limiters relations for definig public transport routes capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam MOLECKI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mutual affecting of different limiters of capacity is a very important feature, which makes difficult the right appreciation of the transport systems. In most cases, there is no way to use procedures which define relations by correlation coefficients etc. Completely divergent character of limiters induce that only way of effective appreciation is modeling by Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Species Transport Mechanisms Governing Crossover and Capacity Loss in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Ertan

    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are an emerging energy storage technology that offers unique advantages for grid-scale energy storage due to their flexible design and decoupled power/energy feature. Despite their popularity, a series of technical challenges hinder their widespread implementation. Among these, capacity loss (i.e., loss of energy storage capability) due to the undesired species crossover across the membrane has been identified as the key issue limiting the longevity of these systems. This issue is primarily governed by the properties of the membrane and can be mitigated by using proper membrane architectures with desired features. Presently, identifying proper membrane architectures for VRFB systems is hampered by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the nature of species transport mechanisms and how they are related to the membrane properties and key operating conditions. This Ph.D. study seeks to address this critical challenge by exploring the fundamental mechanisms responsible for species transport within the membrane. The overall objective of this dissertation study is to establish a fundamental understanding of the multi-ionic transport in VRFB membranes by investigating the ionic transport mechanisms responsible for crossover, and utilize this understanding to reveal the role of membrane properties and operating conditions on the capacity loss. To achieve these goals, a combined experimental and computational study was designed. An experimentally validated, 2-D, transient VRFB model that can track the vanadium crossover and capture the related capacity loss was developed. In addition to the model, several electrochemical techniques were used to characterize different types of membrane and study the effects of various operating conditions on the species crossover. Using these computational and experimental tools, an in-depth understanding of the species transport mechanisms within the membrane and how they are related to membrane

  13. Microdialysis as a tool for in vivo investigation of glutamate transport capacity in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, T; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1995-01-01

    The role of glutamate as a possible mediator of neurodegeneration is well described, and the homeostasis of extracellular glutamate is considered of major importance when addressing the pathogenesis of excitatory neurodegeneration. Applying the 'indicator diffusion' method to the microdialysis......-D-aspartate was due to cellular uptake by glutamate transporters. The cell membrane permeability towards 3H-D-aspartate was reduced by approximately 98% due to THA, indicating that the cell membranes per se are highly resistant to diffusion of 3H-D-aspartate. It is concluded that the present method can be used...... in studying the capacity of the glutamate transporters in vivo....

  14. Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity-The case of Nabucco and its open season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a response to the Russian dominance of the EU's natural gas supplies and the EU's increasing gas demands, major gas pipeline projects are currently under way to enhance the EU's energy supply security. Oftentimes to raise financing and to allocate gas transportation capacities, auctions are carried out to allow gas shippers to book transportation rights. In recent years, auctions have emerged as one of the most successful allocation mechanisms in the microeconomic theory. However, different auction designs can lead to different outcomes making the choice of auction design a decisive one, especially for divisible-good auctions. This paper seeks to give a formulation of an optimal auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. Specifically three different mechanisms are tested: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. In addition, Nabucco is taken as a case study to empirically show results of such auction designs. Results show that a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation can be observed: allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central. - Research highlights: → Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. → Empirical market-survey of Nabucco pipeline project auction as input data. → Testing of three different allocation mechanisms: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. → Results show a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation. → Allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. → On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central.

  15. Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity-The case of Nabucco and its open season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickl, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.pickl@univie.ac.a [University of Vienna, Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics (Austria); Wirl, Franz [University of Vienna, Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics (Austria)

    2011-04-15

    As a response to the Russian dominance of the EU's natural gas supplies and the EU's increasing gas demands, major gas pipeline projects are currently under way to enhance the EU's energy supply security. Oftentimes to raise financing and to allocate gas transportation capacities, auctions are carried out to allow gas shippers to book transportation rights. In recent years, auctions have emerged as one of the most successful allocation mechanisms in the microeconomic theory. However, different auction designs can lead to different outcomes making the choice of auction design a decisive one, especially for divisible-good auctions. This paper seeks to give a formulation of an optimal auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. Specifically three different mechanisms are tested: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. In addition, Nabucco is taken as a case study to empirically show results of such auction designs. Results show that a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation can be observed: allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central. - Research highlights: {yields} Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. {yields} Empirical market-survey of Nabucco pipeline project auction as input data. {yields} Testing of three different allocation mechanisms: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. {yields} Results show a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation. {yields} Allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. {yields} On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central.

  16. Leaf photosynthetic rate of tropical ferns is evolutionarily linked to water transport capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Sun, Mei; Cao, Kun-Fang; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Ferns usually have relatively lower photosynthetic potential than angiosperms. However, it is unclear whether low photosynthetic potential of ferns is linked to leaf water supply. We hypothesized that there is an evolutionary association of leaf water transport capacity with photosynthesis and stomatal density in ferns. In the present study, a series of functional traits relating to leaf anatomy, hydraulics and physiology were assessed in 19 terrestrial and 11 epiphytic ferns in a common garden, and analyzed by a comparative phylogenetics method. Compared with epiphytic ferns, terrestrial ferns had higher vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), but lower values for lower epidermal thickness (LET) and leaf thickness (LT). Across species, all traits varied significantly, but only stomatal length (SL) showed strong phylogenetic conservatism. Amax was positively correlated with Dvein and gs with and without phylogenetic corrections. SD correlated positively with Amax, Dvein and gs, with the correlation between SD and Dvein being significant after phylogenetic correction. Leaf water content showed significant correlations with LET, LT, and mesophyll thickness. Our results provide evidence that Amax of the studied ferns is linked to leaf water transport capacity, and there was an evolutionary association between water supply and demand in ferns. These findings add new insights into the evolutionary correlations among traits involving carbon and water economy in ferns.

  17. Methylphenidate Improves Working Memory and Set-Shifting in AD/HD: Relationships to Baseline Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mitul A.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Catecholamine stimulant drugs are highly efficacious treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD). Catecholamine modulation in humans influences performance of numerous cognitive tasks, including tests of attention and working memory (WM). Clear delineation of the effects of methylphenidate upon such cognitive…

  18. Competence and Capacity-Building Requirements in Transport and Logistics Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazaras Darius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses theoretical aspects of the qualitative assessment of logistics and transport specialists’ potential, as well as provides research results on competence and capacity-building process in preparation of logistics and transport specialists. The results enabled to identify problematic areas of graduate integration in the labour market and foresee the possible requirements for professional development. In some cases, internal motivation is related to problematic points or negative view from the environment, as well as poor understanding of knowledge benefits in the person’s practical life. Training and education is objectively at the meeting point between research, technological and organisational systems. In such conditions the objective of the education on logistics is to offer the customers the best possible service in the field of the transfer of knowledge in harmony with the trend in logistics programme development. The main problems and perspectives of logistics education and training process are discussed in this article.

  19. Particle Transport in a 3D duct by adding and doubling

    CERN Document Server

    Ganapol, Barry D

    2016-01-01

    Particle transport through a duct by Lambertian reflection from duct walls is again considered. This popular transport example has been solved by most numerical transport methods except notably one- the method of doubling. We shall show that the method of doubling provides every bit as, or more, accurate reflectances and transmittances as the numerical discrete ordinates (NDO) and analytical discrete ordinates (ADO) methods with less mathematical and numerical effort.

  20. Maintenance of xylem network transport capacity: a review of embolism repair in vascular plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig eBrodersen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of long distance water transport in xylem is essential to plant health and productivity. Both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions lead to embolism formation within the xylem resulting in lost transport capacity and ultimately death. Plants exhibit a variety of strategies to either prevent or restore hydraulic capacity through cavitation resistance with specialized anatomy, replacement of compromised conduits with new growth, and a metabolically active embolism repair mechanism. In recent years, mounting evidence suggests that metabolically active cells surrounding the xylem conduits in some, but not all, species are capable of restoring hydraulic conductivity. This review summarizes our current understanding of the osmotically driven embolism repair mechanism, the known genetic and anatomical components related to embolism repair, rehydration pathways through the xylem, and the role of capacitance. Anatomical differences between functional plant groups may be one of the limiting factors that allow some plants to refill while others do not, but further investigations are necessary to fully understand this dynamic process. Finally, xylem networks should no longer be considered an assemblage of dead, empty conduits, but instead a metabolically active tissue finely tuned to respond to ever changing environmental cues.

  1. Underestimation of the Maximal Capacity of the Mitochondrial Electron Transport System in Oligomycin-Treated Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S Ruas

    Full Text Available The maximal capacity of the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS in intact cells is frequently estimated by promoting protonophore-induced maximal oxygen consumption preceded by inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation by oligomycin. In the present study, human glioma (T98G and U-87MG and prostate cancer (PC-3 cells were titrated with different concentrations of the protonophore CCCP to induce maximal oxygen consumption rate (OCR within respirometers in a conventional growth medium. The results demonstrate that the presence of oligomycin or its A-isomer leads to underestimation of maximal ETS capacity. In the presence of oligomycin, the spare respiratory capacity (SRC, i.e., the difference between the maximal and basal cellular OCR, was underestimated by 25 to 45%. The inhibitory effect of oligomycin on SRC was more pronounced in T98G cells and was observed in both suspended and attached cells. Underestimation of SRC also occurred when oxidative phosphorylation was fully inhibited by the ATP synthase inhibitor citreoviridin. Further experiments indicated that oligomycin cannot be replaced by the adenine nucleotide translocase inhibitors bongkrekic acid or carboxyatractyloside because, although these compounds have effects in permeabilized cells, they do not inhibit oxidative phosphorylation in intact cells. We replaced CCCP by FCCP, another potent protonophore and similar results were observed. Lower maximal OCR and SRC values were obtained with the weaker protonophore 2,4-dinitrophenol, and these parameters were not affected by the presence of oligomycin. In permeabilized cells or isolated brain mitochondria incubated with respiratory substrates, only a minor inhibitory effect of oligomycin on CCCP-induced maximal OCR was observed. We conclude that unless a previously validated protocol is employed, maximal ETS capacity in intact cells should be estimated without oligomycin. The inhibitory effect of an ATP synthase blocker on potent

  2. Transport properties of microwave sintered pure and glass added MgCuZn ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhuri, W., E-mail: madhuriw12@gmail.com [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India); Penchal Reddy, M.; Kim, Il Gon [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641 773 (Korea, Republic of); Rama Manohar Reddy, N. [Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa 516 227 (India); Siva Kumar, K.V. [Ceramic Composites Materials Laboratory, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515 055 (India); Murthy, V.R.K. [Microwave Laboratory, IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2013-07-01

    Highlights: • MgCuZn ferrite was successfully prepared by novel microwave sintering (MS) method. • The sintering temperature was notably reduced from 1150 °C to 950 °C for MS. • Temperature dependence of DC conductivity and AC conductivity are studied. • 1 wt% PBS glass added MS MgCuZn ferrite samples are suitable for core materials in multilayer chip inductors (MLCI). -- Abstract: A series of pure stoichiometric and 1 wt% lead borosilicate (PBS) glass added MgCuZn ferrite with the general formula Mg{sub 0.5}Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 0.5−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 were synthesized by microwave sintering technique. Single phase spinel structure is exhibited by the XRD patterns of these ferrites. DC and AC conductivity were investigated as a function of composition, temperature and frequency. DC conductivities were also estimated using the impedance spectroscopy analysis of Cole–Cole plots. The DC conductivities thus obtained are in good agreement with the experimental results. All the investigated samples exhibited two regions of conductivity one in the low temperature and the second in the high temperature region. It is observed that PBS glass added samples have lower conductivities than pure samples. Due to their lower conductivities and sintering temperatures the 1 wt% PBS glass added samples are suitable for multilayer chip inductor (MLCI) and high definition TV deflection yoke material application.

  3. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks to Assess the Capacity of Transport Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchaczek Artur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the area of logistics management both managers and engineers rely primarily on proven computational algorithms, for this reason, it is often difficult to convince them to the use of artificial neural networks in solving decision problems. The paper presents the possibilities of using the FANN library in building of a computer application applied in the area of logistics. The possibilities of the component are presented on the example of applications of artificial neural networks to estimate the capacity of transport vehicles based on their dimensions. The example presented in the work was solved with the use of a multi-network Layered Perceptron. The example depicted not only the possibility of using artificial neural networks for solving poorly structured tasks but also practical application of the TFannNetwork component

  4. SLC2A9 is a high-capacity urate transporter in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Caulfield

    2008-10-01

    0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9 to 1.05, p > 0.33 by meta-analysis of an SLC2A9 variant in six case-control studies including 11,897 participants. In a separate meta-analysis of four population studies including 11,629 participants we found no association of SLC2A9 with systolic (effect size -0.12 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.68 to 0.43, p = 0.664 or diastolic blood pressure (effect size -0.03 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.31, p = 0.82. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that SLC2A9 splice variants act as high-capacity urate transporters and is one of the first functional characterisations of findings from genome-wide association scans. We did not find an association of the SLC2A9 gene with blood pressure in this study. Our findings suggest potential pathogenic mechanisms that could offer a new drug target for gout.

  5. Vegetative impacts upon bedload transport capacity and channel stability for differing alluvial planforms in the Yellow River source zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi Wei; Yu, Guo An; Brierley, Gary; Wang, Zhao Yin

    2016-07-01

    The influence of vegetation upon bedload transport and channel morphodynamics is examined along a channel stability gradient ranging from meandering to anabranching to anabranching-braided to fully braided planform conditions along trunk and tributary reaches of the Upper Yellow River in western China. Although the regional geology and climate are relatively consistent across the study area, there is a distinct gradient in the presence and abundance of riparian vegetation for these reaches atop the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (elevations in the study area range from 2800 to 3400 m a.s.l.). To date, the influence of vegetative impacts upon channel planform and bedload transport capacity of alluvial reaches of the Upper Yellow River remains unclear because of a lack of hydrological and field data. In this region, the types and pattern of riparian vegetation vary with planform type as follows: trees exert the strongest influence in the anabranching reach, the meandering reach flows through meadow vegetation, the anabranching-braided reach has a grass, herb, and sparse shrub cover, and the braided reach has no riparian vegetation. A non-linear relation between vegetative cover on the valley floor and bedload transport capacity is evident, wherein bedload transport capacity is the highest for the anabranching reach, roughly followed by the anabranching-braided, braided, and meandering reaches. The relationship between the bedload transport capacity of a reach and sediment supply from upstream exerts a significant influence upon channel stability. Bedload transport capacity during the flood season (June-September) in the braided reach is much less than the rate of sediment supply, inducing bed aggradation and dynamic channel adjustments. Rates of channel adjustment are less pronounced for the anabranching-braided and anabranching reaches, while the meandering reach is relatively stable (i.e., this is a passive meandering reach).

  6. Transport and deposition of pyroclastic material from the ˜1000 A.D. caldera-forming eruption of Volcán Ceboruco, Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, B. L.; Gardner, J. E.

    2005-06-01

    The complex eruption sequence from the ˜1000 A.D. caldera-forming eruption of Volcán Ceboruco, known as the Jala Pumice, offers an exceptional opportunity to examine how pyroclastic material is transported and deposited from pyroclastic density currents over variable topography. Three main pyroclastic surge deposits (S1, S2, and S3) and two pyroclastic flow deposits (Marquesado and North-Flank PFDs) were emplaced during this eruption. Pyroclastic surge deposits are massive, planar, or cross-bedded, poor-to-well sorted, and display fluctuations in thickness, median diameter, sorting, and lithology as a function of distance, topography, and flow dynamics. Marquesado pyroclastic flow deposits reveal lateral variations from massive, poorly sorted deposits located within 5 km of Ceboruco to planar bedded, moderately well sorted deposits located >15 km away over the nearly horizontal topography to the south of Ceboruco. North-Flank pyroclastic flow deposits also reveal lateral variations from massive, poorly sorted deposits located within 4 km of Ceboruco to planar bedded, moderately well sorted deposits located 8 km away atop an escarpment that steeply rises 230 m from the northern valley floor. Field observations, granulometric analyses, component analyses, and crystal sedimentation calculations along flow-parallel sampling transects all suggest that both surges and flows were density stratified currents, where deposition occurred from a basal region of higher particle concentration that was supplied from an overlying dilute layer that transports particles in suspension. This supports the idea of a transition between “flow” and “surge” end members with variations in particle concentration. Topography greatly affects the transport and depositional capacity of the pyroclastic density currents as a result of “blocking”, either by topographic obstacles or by abrupt breaks at the base of volcano slopes, whereas the origin of Jala Pumice surge deposits

  7. Research Of A Intelligent Transport Model Based on Ad Hoc Network%基于Ad Hoc网络的智能交通模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钢; 郭晗

    2012-01-01

    目前,我国多数大中型城市的交通拥堵问题都很严重.若能够合理的分配道路资源、动态获得拥堵路段和准拥堵路段的交通信息,辅助司机做出正确判断,避开车流拥堵的储段,可以从根本上做到缓解整个交通拥堵的目的.本文所讨论的就是建立一个AdHoe网为基础的智能交通模型,车辆可以实时从AdHoe网当中获得交通信息,提前感知到交通拥堵将出现在哪条街道上,并做出合理判断和选择.%On present, our most large and medium - size cities were in very serious trouble of traffic jams. If we can distribute the road resource reasonably, gathering the traffic information of congestion roads and the quasi - congestion road dynamically, that can assist the drivers to make the right judgments. Thus the drivers can avoid the congestion roads and achieve the purpose of ease the traffic congestion fundamentally. What be discussed in this paper is to establish an intelligent model of traffic based on Ad Hoc network. Vehicles can obtained the road information in the Ad Hoc network timely and make right judgment and decisions.

  8. Developing low-carbon transport policies in Peru with capacity-building for their implementation: Draft Transport NAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, N. A.; Ramirez, C.

    2012-01-01

    Transport has been identified as one of the biggest sectors that contribute to climate change (23%) due to its energy demand and polluting emissions and therefore one of the sectors that needs to take action to mitigate its impact. A few countries in Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Colombia) have started their transport NAMA development and are at different stages in the process. Peru has started this process more recently and this report aims at facilitating the NAMA development and...

  9. Dry matter accumulation in citrus fruit is not limited by transport capacity of the pedicel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Luis, A; Oliveira, M E M; Bordon, Y; Siqueira, D L; Tominaga, S; Guardiola, J L

    2002-12-01

    mass transfer in the phloem but had no influence on fruit growth. These observations demonstrate that the transport capacity in the phloem of the pedicel does not limit fruit growth and, within the limits of our experiments, an increase in demand by the fruit appeared to be matched by an increase in SMT. The dependence of late xylem formation (after the period of fruitlet abscission) on fruitlet growth was demonstrated in Salustiana orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] by means of controlling fruit growth through the manipulation of leaf area. Fruit growth at this time was more closely related to leaf area than to carbohydrate levels, suggesting that it may be limited by current photosynthesis. PMID:12451031

  10. Molecular imaging of acetylcholine vesicular transporter (VAChT) in demented patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) by IBVM-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer's disease (A.D.) is characterized by a premature decline of cholinergic neurons. The 5-I.B.V.M. is an analogue of the Vesamicol that binds to the presynaptic vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). The exploration of this target should be useful to make an early diagnosis of A.D.. Our first aim was to propose a method of non invasive VAChT quantification according to 5-I.B.V.M. kinetic. 5-I.B.V.M. was injected to four A.D. patients (age = 77 ± 3.9 years and M.M.S.E. = 24.5 ± 1.02) were included in this methodological study. The single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained at five, 20, 35 and 50 minutes, at then at three, five and 22 hours after intravenous injection of 5-I.B.V.M. (185 MBq). The time activity curves were obtained after SPECT images co registration on a MRI masque. Specific volume of interest (S.P.E. SPEcific) were manually drawn on striatum, pons, thalamus and para-hippocampic gyrus including hippocampus; reference volumes of interest (R.E.F. = REFerence) were drawn on frontal and occipital cerebral cortex. On the basis of uptake kinetic, two modeling approaches were considered: transient equilibrium model for reversible ligand (binding potential (B.P.) (S.P.E. - R.E.F.)/R.E.F.) and Patlak graphical analysis for irreversible tracers (slope given by Ki/DVref where Ki is the influx constant and DVref is the distribution volume of the reference region). We observed an inflection or a steady state of the activity curves in the different regions studied between 250 and 1400 minutes, what seems to confirm that the tracer is little reversible. B.P. values obtained at 21 hours with occipital areas as reference and Ki/DVref values were respectively 4.62 ± 0.42 and 0.07 ± 0.01. The S.P.E. classification according to B.P. and Ki/DVref values were similar to the classification according to the compartmental analysis (Kuhl 1994). The transient equilibrium model with late acquisition seems the more suitable because I

  11. Effect of dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation on muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Li, Y J; Liu, Y; Li, J L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H; Zhang, L

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CMH) during the finishing period on the muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of broilers that experienced transport stress in summer. A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broilers (28 d in age) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments including a basal control diet without additional CMH (160 birds), or with 600 (80 birds) or 1,200 mg/kg (80 birds) CMH for 14 d. On the morning of d 42, after an 8-h fast, the birds fed the basal diets were divided into 2 equal groups, and all birds in the 4 groups of 80 birds were transported according to the following protocols: 1) a 0.75-h transport of birds on basal diets (as a lower-stress control group), 2) a 3-h transport of birds on basal diets, 3) a 3-h transport of birds on 600 or 4) 1,200 mg/kg CMH supplementation diets. The results showed that the 3-h transport decreased the concentration of creatine (Cr) in both the pectoralis major (PM) and the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, increased the concentration of phosphocreatine (PCr) and PCr/Cr ratio in PM muscle, and elevated the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in both the PM and TA muscles of birds (P protein and heat shock protein 70 in both the PM and TA muscles, as well as avian peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α in the TA muscle (P 0.05). These results indicate that dietary CMH supplementation does not provide any significant protection via directly scavenging free radicals or increased antioxidant capacity of transported broilers. PMID:26371332

  12. An assessment of the added value from data assimilation on modelled Nordic Seas hydrography and ocean transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Vidar S.; Hjøllo, Solfrid S.; Skogen, Morten D.; Svendsen, Einar; Wehde, Henning; Bertino, Laurent; Counillon, Francois; Chevallier, Matthieu; Garric, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    The Nordic Seas is a hotspot both in terms of climate related processes, such as Atlantic-Arctic heat exchange, and natural marine resources. A sustainable management of the marine resources within the Nordic Seas, including the co-existence between fisheries and petroleum industries, requires detailed information on the state of the ocean within an operational framework and beyond what is obtainable from observations only. Numerical ocean models applying data assimilation techniques are utilized to address this need. Subsequently, comprehensive comparisons between model results and observations are required in order to assess the model performance. Here, we apply a set of objective statistics to quantitatively assess the added value of data assimilation in numerical ocean models that are currently used operationally. The results indicate that the inclusion of data assimilation improves the model performance both in terms of hydrographic properties and volume and heat transports. Furthermore, we find that increasing the resolution towards eddy resolving resolution performs similarly to coarser resolution models applying data assimilation in shelf areas.

  13. Modeling Np and Pu transport with a surface complexation model and spatially variant sorption capacities: Implications for reactive transport modeling and performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) geochemical transport modeling is used to demonstrate the effects of speciation and sorption reactions on the ground-water transport of Np and Pu, two redox-sensitive elements. Earlier 1D simulations (Reardon, 1981) considered the kinetically limited dissolution of calcite and its effect on ion-exchange reactions (involving 90Sr, Ca, Na, Mg and K), and documented the spatial variation of a 90Sr partition coefficient under both transient and steady-state chemical conditions. In contrast, the simulations presented here assume local equilibrium for all reactions, and consider sorption on constant potential, rather than constant charge, surfaces. Reardon's (1981) seminal findings on the spatial and temporal variability of partitioning (of 90Sr) are reexamined and found partially caused by his assumption of a kinetically limited reaction. In the present work, sorption is assumed the predominant retardation process controlling Pu and Np transport, and is simulated using a diffuse-double-layer-surface-complexation (DDLSC) model. Transport simulations consider the infiltration of Np- and Pu-contaminated waters into an initially uncontaminated environment, followed by the cleanup of the resultant contamination with uncontaminated water. Simulations are conducted using different spatial distributions of sorption capacities (with the same total potential sorption capacity, but with different variances and spatial correlation structures). Results obtained differ markedly from those that would be obtained in transport simulations using constant Kd, Langmuir or Freundlich sorption models. When possible, simulation results (breakthrough curves) are fitted to a constant K d advection-dispersion transport model and compared. Functional differences often are great enough that they prevent a meaningful fit of the simulation results with a constant K d (or even a Langmuir or Freundlich) model, even in the case of Np, a weakly sorbed radionuclide under the

  14. Does recombinant human Epo increase exercise capacity by means other than augmenting oxygen transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Robach, P; Boushel, R;

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) in humans increases maximal oxygen consumption by augmenting the maximal oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Systemic and leg oxygen delivery and oxygen uptake were studied during...

  15. Vision document on transport scarcity. Policy line for shortage in transport capacity on the electricity grid; Visiedocument transportschaarste. Beleidslijn inzake de schaarste aan transportcapaciteit op het elektriciteitsnetwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) has observed an increasing problem in relation to possible future shortage of transport capacity in the electricity grid. This vision document aims to provide clarity to market parties with regard to their general vision on this shortage problem [mk]. [Dutch] De Nederlandse Mededingingsautoriteit (NMa) heeft geconstateerd dat er in toenemende mate problemen optreden die verband houden met de (mogelijk toekomstige) schaarste aan transportcapaciteit op het elektriciteitsnetwerk.Met dit Visiedocument beoogt de NMa zoveel mogelijk duidelijkheid te verschaffen aan marktpartijen met betrekking tot zijn algemene visie ten aanzien van de schaarsteproblematiek.

  16. MX8: the next generation high capacity system for land transport of Mox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future, MOX fuel design is adapted in order to comply with the basic requirements of the utility in view to obtain an equivalence with UO2 fuels. An increasing number of reactors is going to be loaded with MOX: up to 28 at the end of the century. It was decide at the end of 1996 to develop a new transport system taking into account the evolutions, and to reduce the number of transports. The new generation of packaging for MOX fuel is the M.X type packaging. (N.C.)

  17. Physics of transportation: Towards optimal capacity using the multilayer network framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen-Bo; Zhou, Xing-Lian; Jusup, Marko; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Because of the critical role of transportation in modern times, one of the most successful application areas of statistical physics of complex networks is the study of traffic dynamics. However, the vast majority of works treat transportation networks as an isolated system, which is inconsistent with the fact that many complex networks are interrelated in a nontrivial way. To mimic a realistic scenario, we use the framework of multilayer networks to construct a two-layered traffic model, whereby the upper layer provides higher transport speed than the lower layer. Moreover, passengers are guided to travel along the path of minimal travelling time and with the additional cost they can transfer from one layer to another to avoid congestion and/or reach the final destination faster. By means of numerical simulations, we show that a degree distribution-based strategy, although facilitating the cooperation between both layers, can be further improved by enhancing the critical generating rate of passengers using a particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm. If initialised with the prior knowledge from the degree distribution-based strategy, the PSO algorithm converges considerably faster. Our work exemplifies how statistical physics of complex networks can positively affect daily life.

  18. Determination of serum iron and of the transport capacity of iron by transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three methods were standardized in order to determine the iron level in serum, the total iron binding capacity of transferrin and the iron binding capacity of free transferrin. The first of them, appropriate to estimate iron and total transferrin level, is based on the development of color as a consequence of iron binding to bathophenanthrolin (BATO); the second, used for the same purposes, employs atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA); the third, used to estimate free transferrin, is a radioassay (RE). It was known that the methods employing atomic absorption espectrophotometry and radioassay are precise and especific, while the use of bathophenanthrolin constantly provides differing results. This was the reason why statistic analysis of the results showed significant differences between the first method (BATO) and the remaining two (RE and AA). Nevertheless, the fluctuation of results observed with the use of bathophenanthrolin is small (less than 10%), the method is easy to perform and it is not dispendious concerning reagents as well as equipament. Therefore it was concluded that the BATO method is very safe when used for diagnosis of iron deficiency or excess of storage, even of low magnitude. (Author)

  19. Monitoring cholinergic activity during attentional performance in mice heterozygous for the choline transporter: a model of cholinergic capacity limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolone, Giovanna; Mallory, Caitlin S; Koshy Cherian, Ajeesh; Miller, Thomas R; Blakely, Randy D; Sarter, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Reductions in the capacity of the human choline transporter (SLC5A7, CHT) have been hypothesized to diminish cortical cholinergic neurotransmission, leading to risk for cognitive and mood disorders. To determine the acetylcholine (ACh) release capacity of cortical cholinergic projections in a mouse model of cholinergic hypofunction, the CHT+/- mouse, we assessed extracellular ACh levels while mice performed an operant sustained attention task (SAT). We found that whereas SAT-performance-associated increases in extracellular ACh levels of CHT+/- mice were significantly attenuated relative to wildtype littermates, performance on the SAT was normal. Tetrodotoxin-induced blockade of neuronal excitability reduced both dialysate ACh levels and SAT performance similarly in both genotypes. Likewise, lesions of cholinergic neurons abolished SAT performance in both genotypes. However, cholinergic activation remained more vulnerable to the reverse-dialyzed muscarinic antagonist atropine in CHT+/- mice. Additionally, CHT+/- mice displayed greater SAT-disrupting effects of reverse dialysis of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine. Receptor binding assays revealed a higher density of α4β2* nAChRs in the cortex of CHT+/- mice compared to controls. These findings reveal compensatory mechanisms that, in the context of moderate cognitive challenges, can overcome the performance deficits expected from the significantly reduced ACh capacity of CHT+/- cholinergic terminals. Further analyses of molecular and functional compensations in the CHT+/- model may provide insights into both risk and resiliency factors involved in cognitive and mood disorders.

  20. Channel-conveyance capacity, channel change, and sediment transport in the lower Puyallup, White, and Carbon Rivers, western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Chistopher S.; Voss, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Draining the volcanic, glaciated terrain of Mount Rainier, Washington, the Puyallup, White, and Carbon Rivers convey copious volumes of water and sediment down to Commencement Bay in Puget Sound. Recent flooding in the lowland river system has renewed interest in understanding sediment transport and its effects on flow conveyance throughout the lower drainage basin. Bathymetric and topographic data for 156 cross sections were surveyed in the lower Puyallup River system by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and were compared with similar datasets collected in 1984. Regions of significant aggradation were measured along the Puyallup and White Rivers. Between 1984 and 2009, aggradation totals as measured by changes in average channel elevation were as much as 7.5, 6.5, and 2 feet on the Puyallup, White, and Carbon Rivers, respectively. These aggrading river sections correlated with decreasing slopes in riverbeds where the rivers exit relatively confined sections in the upper drainage and enter the relatively unconstricted valleys of the low-gradient Puget Lowland. Measured grain-size distributions from each riverbed showed a progressive fining downstream. Analysis of stage-discharge relations at streamflow-gaging stations along rivers draining Mount Rainier demonstrated the dynamic nature of channel morphology on river courses influenced by glaciated, volcanic terrain. The greatest rates of aggradation since the 1980s were in the Nisqually River near National (5.0 inches per year) and the White River near Auburn (1.8 inches per year). Less pronounced aggradation was measured on the Puyallup River and the White River just downstream of Mud Mountain Dam. The largest measured rate of incision was measured in the Cowlitz River at Packwood (5.0 inches per year). Channel-conveyance capacity estimated using a one-dimensional hydraulic model decreased in some river reaches since 1984. The reach exhibiting the largest decrease (about 20-50 percent) in channel

  1. You've Got to Move It, Move It--Adding Logistics and Distribution to the Transportation Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roads, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Long gone are the days when the study of the internal combustion engine was the core of the transportation curriculum offered in most middle schools and high schools. To be competitive and successful, today's students need a more global understanding of transportation, distribution, and logistics systems. In response to this shift to include…

  2. Variant at serotonin transporter gene predicts increased imitation in toddlers: relevance to the human capacity for cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Kari Britt; Asherson, Philip; Blake, Peter R; Fenstermacher, Susan K; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2016-04-01

    Cumulative culture ostensibly arises from a set of sociocognitive processes which includes high-fidelity production imitation, prosociality and group identification. The latter processes are facilitated by unconscious imitation or social mimicry. The proximate mechanisms of individual variation in imitation may thus shed light on the evolutionary history of the human capacity for cumulative culture. In humans, a genetic component to variation in the propensity for imitation is likely. A functional length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene, the short allele at 5HTTLPR, is associated with heightened responsiveness to the social environment as well as anatomical and activational differences in the brain's imitation circuity. Here, we evaluate whether this polymorphism contributes to variation in production imitation and social mimicry. Toddlers with the short allele at 5HTTLPR exhibit increased social mimicry and increased fidelity of demonstrated novel object manipulations. Thus, the short allele is associated with two forms of imitation that may underlie the human capacity for cumulative culture. The short allele spread relatively recently, possibly due to selection, and its frequency varies dramatically on a global scale. Diverse observations can be unified via conceptualization of 5HTTLPR as influencing the propensity to experience others' emotions, actions and sensations, potentially through the mirror mechanism. PMID:27072408

  3. Increasing the process capacity of a knowledge intensive process through the use of process reengineering and knowledge-value added methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, Joseph L.; Campbell, Errol A.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In the increasingly dynamic environment of information technology, it has become imperative that organizations continue to seek ways to effectively capture and measure knowledge in order to survive. With the emergence of a global economy and information networks, the knowledge creating capacity within organizations has grown tremendously. As a result, organizations are now shifting their focus to management of the knowledge used in ex...

  4. Accessibility appraisal of land-use/transport policy strategies: More than just adding up travel-time savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst; Zondag, Barry; Jong, de Gerard; Bok, de Michiel

    2010-01-01

    We examine the accessibility benefits associated with some land-use policy strategies for the Netherlands that anticipate on expected climate change. A disaggregate logsum accessibility measure using the Dutch national land-use/transport interaction model TIGRIS XL is used to compute changes in cons

  5. Effects of temperature, pressure and pure copper added to source material on the CuGaTe{sub 2} deposition using close spaced vapor transport technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abounachit, O. [LP2M2E, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cadi Ayyad, Gueliz, BP 549 , Marrakech, Maroc (Morocco); Chehouani, H., E-mail: chehouani@hotmail.fr [LP2M2E, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cadi Ayyad, Gueliz, BP 549 , Marrakech, Maroc (Morocco); Djessas, K. [CNRS-PROMES Tecnosud, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, 66100 Perpignan (France)

    2013-07-01

    The quality of CuGaTe{sub 2} (CGT) thin films elaborated by close spaced vapor transport technique has been studied as a function of the source temperature (T{sub S}), iodine pressure (P{sub I2}) and the amount (X{sub Cu}) of pure copper added to the stoichiometric starting material. A thermodynamic model was developed for the Cu–Ga–Te–I system to describe the CGT deposition. The model predicts the solid phase composition with possible impurities for the operating conditions previously mentioned. The conditions of stoichiometric and near-stoichiometric deposition were determined. The value of T{sub S} must range from 450 to 550 °C for P{sub I2} varying between 0.2 and 7 kPa. Adding an amount up to 10% of pure copper to the starting material improves the quality of the deposit layers and lowers the operating interval temperature to 325–550 °C. These optimal conditions were tested experimentally at 480 °C and 500 °C. The X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy have proved that the addition of pure copper to the stoichiometric source material can be considered as a supplementary operating parameter to improve the quality of CGT thin films. - Highlights: • The stoichiometric CuGaTe{sub 2} (CGT) has been deposited by close spaced vapor transport. • The Cu–Ga–Te–I system has been studied theoretically by minimizing the Gibbs energy. • The quality of thin films has been improved by pure copper added to the source CGT. • The temperature, pressure and the amount of copper added to grow CGT are determined. • The thermodynamic predictions are in good agreement with experimental results.

  6. Epidermal growth factor decreases PEPT2 transport capacity and expression in the rat kidney proximal tubule cell line SKPT0193 cl.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo, Silvina A; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Amstrup, Jan;

    2004-01-01

    transport capacity and expression in the rat proximal tubule cell line SKPT0193 cl.2 (SKPT), which expresses rat PEPT2 (rPEPT2) in the apical membrane. Treatment of SKPT cells with EGF during cell culture growth caused a dose-dependent decrease in rPEPT2 transport capacity and expression, as determined...... suggests that this might be disadvantageous when studying PEPT2-mediated transport phenomena. These findings demonstrate for the first time EGF-mediated regulation of PEPT2 expression in a kidney cell line. The relevance for kidney regulation of peptide transport activity in physiological and...... by studies of apical uptake of [14C]glycylsarcosine, rPepT2 mRNA levels, and immunostaining of SKPT cells with a rPEPT2-specific antibody. On the contrary, apical uptake of glucose and lysine was increased in EGF-treated cells, indicating that EGF was not acting generally to decrease apical nutrient uptake...

  7. Road transport emissions and capacity of forests in the region of Athens for sequestring these emissions: carbon flow before and after forest fires

    OpenAIRE

    Petros Chatzimpiros; Natalia Roumelioti; Anna Zamba; Kimon Hadjibiros

    2016-01-01

    One important component of the urban contribution to carbon dioxide atmospheric emissions is road transport. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from urban road transport in the centre of Athens recorded over a period of five years (2000–2005) are compared with the carbon sequestration capacity of regional forests, prior to and after the devastating forest fires in Attica in 2007 and 2009, which is the administrative region of Athens. The comparison of carbon flow reveals two complementary aspects...

  8. Electrostatic protocol treatment lens. The purpose of this device is to transport Antiprotons from the new ELENA storage beam to all AD experiments. The electrostatic device was successfully tested in ASACUSA two weeks ago.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic protocol treatment lens. The purpose of this device is to transport Antiprotons from the new ELENA storage beam to all AD experiments. The electrostatic device was successfully tested in ASACUSA two weeks ago.

  9. On interaction between MAC and transport layers for media streaming in 802.11 ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Kitae; Helmy, Ahmed; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2004-10-01

    We examine the validity of TCP-friendliness and the utility of equation-based congestion control as a mean for the media streaming service in 802.11 multi-hop networks. Our investigation is motivated by the recent findings of the bandwidth-delay product of 802.11 multi-hop networks via intensive computer simulations. We show that TCP behavior in 802.11 multi-hop networks is generally inefficient and unstable because the standard TCP is too aggressive considering the low bandwidth-delay product of 802.11 networks. We introduce the concept of the `fractional window' mechanism (which resembles the stop-and-go protocol) for TCP, and show that the modified TCP is more stable and efficient while outperforming the legacy TCP in 802.11-based ad hoc networks. Finally, we show that many of the typical problems of TCP protocol (performance, network fairness, and TCP-friendliness) in 802.11 networks can be solved simply by increasing the bandwidth-delay product of 802.11 networks without any TCP modification. Based on this observation, we conclude that the assumption of the ideal steady-state TCP behavior is generally invalid in 802.11 multi-hop networking environment, and that congestion control based on TCP-friendly equation can hardly provide TCP-fair throughput and smoothness in 802.11 multi-hop networking environment.

  10. 大规模部队铁路输送能力建设研究%Research on Capacity Construction of Large-scale Army Railway Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓东; 杨磊

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the relationship between railway development and requirement of military transportation,a view was proposed that the development of railway has promoted the capacity of army railway transportation.In the same time,the paradox still exists between the capacity and the demand.Some advices are given to construct army railway transport system on improving capability.%为有效促进我军大规模部队铁路输送能力的进一步提高,通过对近年来铁路建设发展与我军部队铁路输送能力需求的分析,提出了当前大规模部队铁路输送力量建设的措施建议。

  11. A generalized mathematical model to understand the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries - Effects of solvent and lithium transport

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Deshpande; Saksham Phul; Balaji Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    A general mathematical model to study capacity fading in lithium ion batteries is developed. The model assumes that the formation of the Solid Electrolyte interphase(SEI) layer is the primary reason behind the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries. Previous models have assumed that either the solvent or the lithium plays a key role in the film formation reaction which drives the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries. The current model postulates that the solvent species and lithium ions...

  12. Hairy AdS Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Anabalon, Andres; Choque, David

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for planar hairy black holes within these theories.

  13. Advanced computer technology - An aspect of the Terminal Configured Vehicle program. [air transportation capacity, productivity, all-weather reliability and noise reduction improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.

  14. Rotina computacional e equação simplificada para modelar o transporte de sedimentos num Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico Computational routine and simplified equation for modeling sediment transport capacity in a Dystrophic Hapludox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar E. Cerquetani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram desenvolver rotina computacional para a solução da equação de Yalin e do diagrama de Shields e avaliar uma equação simplificada para modelar a capacidade de transporte de sedimento num Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico que possa ser utilizada no Water Erosion Prediction Project - WEPP, assim como em outros modelos de predição da erosão do solo. A capacidade de transporte de sedimento para o fluxo superficial foi representada como função-potência da tensão cisalhante, a qual revelou ser aproximação da equação de Yalin. Essa equação simplificada pôde ser aplicada em resultados experimentais oriundos de topografia complexa. A equação simplificada demonstrou acuracidade em relação à equação de Yalin, quando calibrada utilizando-se da tensão média cisalhante. Testes de validação com dados independentes demonstraram que a equação simplificada foi eficiente para estimar a capacidade de transporte de sedimento.The objectives of the present work were to develop a computational routine to solve Yalin equation and Shield diagram and to evaluate a simplified equation for modeling sediment transport capacity in a Dystrophic Hapludox that could be used in the Water Erosion Prediction Project - WEPP, as well as other soil erosion models. Sediment transport capacity for shallow overland flow was represented as a power function of the hydraulic shear stress and which showed to be an approximation to the Yalin equation for sediment transport capacity. The simplified equation for sediment transport could be applied to experimental data from a complex topography. The simplified equation accurately approximated the Yalin equation when calibrated using the mean hydraulic shear stress. Validation tests using independent data showed that the simplified equation had a good performance in predicting sediment transport capacity.

  15. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Christopher P L

    2008-12-15

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or "risk reduction options" (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  16. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  17. Integrated Lot Sizing in Serial Supply Chains with Production Capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Morales, Dolores; Wagelmans, Albert; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Hoesel, Stan van

    2005-01-01

    We consider a model for a serial supply chain in which production, inventory, and transportation decisions are integrated in the presence of production capacities and concave cost functions. The model we study generalizes the uncapacitated serial single-item multilevel economic lot-sizing model by adding stationary production capacities at the manufacturer level. We present algorithms with a running time that is polynomial in the planning horizon when all cost functions are concave. In additi...

  18. High capacity cask (TN28V) and International Transport System for the return shipment of vitrified high activity wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of spent fuel generates different kinds of wastes. Among them fission products and non fissile actinides represent 98% of the radioactivity; these wastes are separated, concentrated, mixed with molten glass and poured into stainless steel containers. For political reasons, it is necessary to return these vitrified high activity wastes to the foreign countries which have decided to have their spent fuel reprocessed in France. So the transport of vitrified waste is vital for both the reprocessor and the utilities that have trusted the reprocessor and this operation has to be securely performed to give satisfaction to all concerned particles. For that reason Cogema will control the whole transport activity from La Hague plants to the receiving facilities of the customers. Therefore cogema will be responsible of the transport whatever the cask type (transport or storage) and will subcontract the transport operation to experienced companies such as Transnucleaire, PNTL or NTL, who will act on behalf of Cogema. Cogema will be the owner of the transport casks while the storage casks will normally be owned by the customers. Both cask types will of course have to comply with the requirements of La Hague, as published by Cogema

  19. Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, ...

  20. Network transportation model with capacity restrictions for the Bolivia Brazil gas pipeline influence area; Modelo de transporte em rede com restricoes de capacidade para a area de influencia do Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricia Mannarino; Carpio, Lucio Guido Tapia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    We present the application of a network transportation model, with capacity restrictions, to determine the minimal cost of supply of a group of markets at the Bolivia Brazil Gas Pipeline influence area, as a function of city gate price. We consider the potential of integration of pipeline transportation at the South Cone, looking forward to supply the Brazilian market. The city gate price consists of the sum of commodity price plus transportation tariffs over every gas pipeline through which the gas passes (except distribution pipelines). There is no distinction related to product quality (e.g. heating value) among suppliers, or among end uses (thermal, thermoelectric or chemical). The model is numerically solved by linear programming. Flow direction alternatives and transportation tariffs alternatives (postal and by zone) are proposed. The model allows, among other applications: identification of the lowest cost supply strategy, identification of network flow capacity bottlenecks, determination of operation and expansion marginal costs using dual solution analysis, investigation of alternative sceneries through sensibility analysis and appreciation of non-optimal solutions that might be attractive. (author)

  1. Road transport emissions and capacity of forests in the region of Athens for sequestring these emissions: carbon flow before and after forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Chatzimpiros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One important component of the urban contribution to carbon dioxide atmospheric emissions is road transport. Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from urban road transport in the centre of Athens recorded over a period of five years (2000–2005 are compared with the carbon sequestration capacity of regional forests, prior to and after the devastating forest fires in Attica in 2007 and 2009, which is the administrative region of Athens. The comparison of carbon flow reveals two complementary aspects of the same socio-environmental issue: persistent sources versus weakening sinks for CO2 within a mixed (urban and rural setting. Road transport emissions are calculated bottom-up using traffic data from in-situ measurements along segments of main roads. The sequestration capacity of forests is estimated by combining satellite images of changes in land cover with literature values of biomass growth rates. Over the study period, the per capita CO2 emissions averaged 0.72 t CO2/cap/year, which is four times higher than the sequestration capacity of forests before and six times higher after the fires. This imbalance highlights the inadequacy of the local carbon sink. Although there is no biogeochemical need to neutralise carbon budgets locally, defining the CO2 flows from urban activities and local ecosystems is likely to raise awareness and promote global environmental sustainability. The results are compared with top-down estimates of CO2 emissions at a regional scale, where suburban areas are dominant, and the differences are discussed in the light of local socioeconomic factors.

  2. Wormholes in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Maldacena, Juan; Maoz, Liat

    2004-01-01

    We construct a few Euclidean supergravity solutions with multiple boundaries. We consider examples where the corresponding boundary field theory is well defined on each boundary. We point out that these configurations are puzzling from the AdS/CFT point of view. A proper understanding of the AdS/CFT dictionary for these cases might yield some information about the physics of closed universes.

  3. Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes: Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes an

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  5. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  6. In EXOG-depleted cardiomyocytes cell death is marked by a decreased mitochondrial reserve capacity of the electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigchelaar, Wardit; De Jong, Anne Margreet; van Gilst, Wiek H; De Boer, Rudolf A; Silljé, Herman H W

    2016-07-01

    Depletion of mitochondrial endo/exonuclease G-like (EXOG) in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes stimulates mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and induces hypertrophy via reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we show that neurohormonal stress triggers cell death in endo/exonuclease G-like-depleted cells, and this is marked by a decrease in mitochondrial reserve capacity. Neurohormonal stimulation with phenylephrine (PE) did not have an additive effect on the hypertrophic response induced by endo/exonuclease G-like depletion. Interestingly, PE-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene expression was completely abolished in endo/exonuclease G-like-depleted cells, suggesting a reverse signaling function of endo/exonuclease G-like. Endo/exonuclease G-like depletion initially resulted in increased mitochondrial OCR, but this declined upon PE stimulation. In particular, the reserve capacity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and maximal respiration were the first indicators of perturbations in mitochondrial respiration, and these marked the subsequent decline in mitochondrial function. Although pathological stimulation accelerated these processes, prolonged EXOG depletion also resulted in a decline in mitochondrial function. At early stages of endo/exonuclease G-like depletion, mitochondrial ROS production was increased, but this did not affect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity. After prolonged depletion, ROS levels returned to control values, despite hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. The mitochondrial dysfunction finally resulted in cell death, which appears to be mainly a form of necrosis. In conclusion, endo/exonuclease G-like plays an essential role in cardiomyocyte physiology. Loss of endo/exonuclease G-like results in diminished adaptation to pathological stress. The decline in maximal respiration and reserve capacity is the first sign of mitochondrial dysfunction that determines subsequent cell death. PMID:27417117

  7. Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes: Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains

    OpenAIRE

    Pothof, I.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes and wastewater pressure mains in particular are subject to air pocket formation in downward-sloping reaches, such as inverted siphons or terrain slopes. Air pocket accumulation causes energy losses a...

  8. Role of a major facilitator superfamily transporter in adaptation capacity of Penicillium funiculosum under extreme acidic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxue; Chen, Jinyin; Xu, Houjuan; Li, Duochuan

    2014-08-01

    Fungal species present in extreme low pH environments are expected to have adapted for tolerance to high H(+) concentrations. However, their adaptability mechanism is unclear. In this study, we isolated an acid-tolerant strain of Penicillium funiculosum, which can grow actively at pH 1.0 and thrived in pH 0.6. A major facilitator superfamily transporter (PfMFS) was isolated from an acid-sensitive random insertional mutant (M4) of the fungus. It encodes a putative protein of 551 residues and contains 14 transmembrane-spanning segments. A targeted mutant (M7) carrying an inactivated copy of PfMFS showed an obvious reduction of growth compared with the wild type (WT) and complementation of M7 with PfMFS restored the wild-type level of growth at pH 1.0. Further data showed that the wild-type showed higher intracellular pH than M7 in response to pH 1. Subcellular localization showed that PfMFS was a cell membrane protein. Homology modeling showed structural similarity with an MFS transporter EmrD from Escherichiacoli. These results demonstrate that the PfMFS transporter is involved in the acid resistance and intracellular pH homeostasis of P. funiculosum.

  9. Coordination between water transport capacity, biomass growth, metabolic scaling and species stature in co-occurring shrub and tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Duncan D; Sperry, John S

    2014-12-01

    The significance of xylem function and metabolic scaling theory begins from the idea that water transport is strongly coupled to growth rate. At the same time, coordination of water transport and growth seemingly should differ between plant functional types. We evaluated the relationships between water transport, growth and species stature in six species of co-occurring trees and shrubs. Within species, a strong proportionality between plant hydraulic conductance (K), sap flow (Q) and shoot biomass growth (G) was generally supported. Across species, however, trees grew more for a given K or Q than shrubs, indicating greater growth-based water-use efficiency (WUE) in trees. Trees also showed slower decline in relative growth rate (RGR) than shrubs, equivalent to a steeper G by mass (M) scaling exponent in trees (0.77-0.98). The K and Q by M scaling exponents were common across all species (0.80, 0.82), suggesting that the steeper G scaling in trees reflects a size-dependent increase in their growth-based WUE. The common K and Q by M exponents were statistically consistent with the 0.75 of ideal scaling theory. A model based upon xylem anatomy and branching architecture consistently predicted the observed K by M scaling exponents but only when deviations from ideal symmetric branching were incorporated.

  10. Coordination between water transport capacity, biomass growth, metabolic scaling and species stature in co-occurring shrub and tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Duncan D; Sperry, John S

    2014-12-01

    The significance of xylem function and metabolic scaling theory begins from the idea that water transport is strongly coupled to growth rate. At the same time, coordination of water transport and growth seemingly should differ between plant functional types. We evaluated the relationships between water transport, growth and species stature in six species of co-occurring trees and shrubs. Within species, a strong proportionality between plant hydraulic conductance (K), sap flow (Q) and shoot biomass growth (G) was generally supported. Across species, however, trees grew more for a given K or Q than shrubs, indicating greater growth-based water-use efficiency (WUE) in trees. Trees also showed slower decline in relative growth rate (RGR) than shrubs, equivalent to a steeper G by mass (M) scaling exponent in trees (0.77-0.98). The K and Q by M scaling exponents were common across all species (0.80, 0.82), suggesting that the steeper G scaling in trees reflects a size-dependent increase in their growth-based WUE. The common K and Q by M exponents were statistically consistent with the 0.75 of ideal scaling theory. A model based upon xylem anatomy and branching architecture consistently predicted the observed K by M scaling exponents but only when deviations from ideal symmetric branching were incorporated. PMID:25041417

  11. The capacity of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with in-frame deletions in putative ATP-binding cassette transporters to form biofilms and comparison with the wild type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ceruso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes (Lm is a food-borne pathogen responsible for human listeriosis, an invasive infection with high mortality rates. Lm has developed efficient strategies for survival under stress conditions such as starvation and wide variations in temperature, pH, and osmolarity. Therefore, Lm can survive in food under multiple stress conditions. Detailed studies to determine the mode of action of this pathogen for survival under stress conditions are important to control Lm in food. It has been shown that genes encoding for ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are induced in Lm in food, in particular under stress conditions. Previous studies showed that these genes are involved in sensitivity to nisin, acids, and salt. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of some ABC transporters in biofilm formation. Therefore, deletion mutants of ABC transporter genes (LMOf2365_1875 and LMOf2365_1877 were created in Lm F2365, and then were compared to the wild type for their capacity to form biofilms. Lm strain F2365 was chosen as reference since the genome is fully sequenced and furthermore this strain is particularly involved in food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis. Our results showed that DLMOf2365_1875 had an increased capacity to form biofilms compared to the wild type, indicating that LMOf2365_1875 negatively regulates biofilm formation. A deeper knowledge on the ability to form biofilms in these mutants may help in the development of intervention strategies to control Lm in food and in the environment.

  12. The Capacity of Listeria Monocytogenes Mutants with In-Frame Deletions in Putative ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters to form Biofilms and Comparison with the Wild Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruso, Marina; Fratamico, Pina; Chirollo, Claudia; Taglialatela, Rosanna; Cortesi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a food-borne pathogen responsible for human listeriosis, an invasive infection with high mortality rates. Lm has developed efficient strategies for survival under stress conditions such as starvation and wide variations in temperature, pH, and osmolarity. Therefore, Lm can survive in food under multiple stress conditions. Detailed studies to determine the mode of action of this pathogen for survival under stress conditions are important to control Lm in food. It has been shown that genes encoding for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are induced in Lm in food, in particular under stress conditions. Previous studies showed that these genes are involved in sensitivity to nisin, acids, and salt. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of some ABC transporters in biofilm formation. Therefore, deletion mutants of ABC transporter genes (LMOf2365_1875 and LMOf2365_1877) were created in Lm F2365, and then were compared to the wild type for their capacity to form biofilms. Lm strain F2365 was chosen as reference since the genome is fully sequenced and furthermore this strain is particularly involved in food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis. Our results showed that ΔLMOf2365_1875 had an increased capacity to form biofilms compared to the wild type, indicating that LMOf2365_1875 negatively regulates biofilm formation. A deeper knowledge on the ability to form biofilms in these mutants may help in the development of intervention strategies to control Lm in food and in the environment. PMID:27800311

  13. The capacity of hydrous fluids to transport and fractionate incompatible elements and metals within the Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, John; Locmelis, Marek; Afonso, Juan Carlos; Rushmer, Tracy; Fiorentini, Marco L.

    2014-06-01

    silicate melts and aqueous fluids are thought to play critical roles in the chemical differentiation of the Earth's crust and mantle. Yet their relative effects are poorly constrained. We have addressed this issue by measuring partition coefficients for 50 trace and minor elements in experimentally produced aqueous fluids, coexisting basanite melts, and peridotite minerals. The experiments were conducted at 1.0-4.0 GPa and 950-1200°C in single capsules containing (either 40 or 50 wt %) H2O and trace element-enriched basanite glass. This allowed run products to be easily identified and analyzed by a combination of electron microprobe and LAM-ICP-MS. Fluid and melt compositions were reconstructed from mass balances and published solubility data for H2O in silicate melts. Relative to the basanite melt, the solutes from H2O-fluids are enriched in SiO2, alkalis, Ba, and Pb, but depleted in FeO, MgO, CaO, and REE. With increasing pressure, the mutual solubility of fluids and melts increases rapidly with complete miscibility between H2O and basanitic melts occurring between 3.0 and 4.0 GPa at 1100°C. Although LREE are favored over HREE in the fluid phase, they are less soluble than the HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti). Thus, the relative depletions of HFSE that are characteristic of arc magmas must be due to a residual phase that concentrates HFSE (e.g., rutile). Otherwise, H2O-fluids have the capacity to impart many of the geochemical characteristics that distinguish some rocks and melts from the deep mantle lithosphere (e.g., MARID and lamproites).

  14. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Alin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Zhaojun [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liang Yongchao, E-mail: ycliang@caas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  15. Multi-dimensional boron transport modeling in subchannel approach: Part II. Validation of CTF boron tracking model and adding boron precipitation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Ozkan Emre, E-mail: ozdemir@psu.edu; Avramova, Maria N., E-mail: mna109@psu.edu

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Validation of implemented multi-dimensional subchannel boron transport model. • Extension of boron transport model to entrained droplets. • Implementation of boron precipitation model. • Testing of the boron precipitation model under transient condition. - Abstract: The risk of small-break loss of coolant accident (SB-LOCA) and other reactivity initiated transients caused by boron dilution in the light water reactors (LWRs), and the complications of tracking the soluble boron concentration experimentally inside the primary coolant have stimulated the interest in computational studies for accurate boron tracking simulations in nuclear reactors. In Part I of this study, the development and implementation of a multi-dimensional boron transport model with modified Godunov scheme based on a subchannel approach within the COBRA-TF (CTF) thermal-hydraulic code was presented. The modified Godunov scheme approach with a physical diffusion term was determined to provide the most accurate and precise solution. Current paper extends these conclusions and presents the model validation studies against experimental data from the Rossendorf coolant mixing model (ROCOM) test facility. In addition, the importance of the two-phase flow characteristics in modeling boron transient are emphasized, especially during long-term cooling period after the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) condition in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The CTF capabilities of boron transport modeling are further improved based on the three-field representation of the two-phase flow utilized in the code. The boron transport within entrained droplets is modeled, and a model for predicting the boron precipitation under transient conditions is developed and tested. It is aimed to extend the applicability of CTF to reactor transient simulations, and particularly to a large-break loss of coolant accident (LB-LOCA) analysis.

  16. Multi-dimensional boron transport modeling in subchannel approach: Part II. Validation of CTF boron tracking model and adding boron precipitation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Validation of implemented multi-dimensional subchannel boron transport model. • Extension of boron transport model to entrained droplets. • Implementation of boron precipitation model. • Testing of the boron precipitation model under transient condition. - Abstract: The risk of small-break loss of coolant accident (SB-LOCA) and other reactivity initiated transients caused by boron dilution in the light water reactors (LWRs), and the complications of tracking the soluble boron concentration experimentally inside the primary coolant have stimulated the interest in computational studies for accurate boron tracking simulations in nuclear reactors. In Part I of this study, the development and implementation of a multi-dimensional boron transport model with modified Godunov scheme based on a subchannel approach within the COBRA-TF (CTF) thermal-hydraulic code was presented. The modified Godunov scheme approach with a physical diffusion term was determined to provide the most accurate and precise solution. Current paper extends these conclusions and presents the model validation studies against experimental data from the Rossendorf coolant mixing model (ROCOM) test facility. In addition, the importance of the two-phase flow characteristics in modeling boron transient are emphasized, especially during long-term cooling period after the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) condition in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The CTF capabilities of boron transport modeling are further improved based on the three-field representation of the two-phase flow utilized in the code. The boron transport within entrained droplets is modeled, and a model for predicting the boron precipitation under transient conditions is developed and tested. It is aimed to extend the applicability of CTF to reactor transient simulations, and particularly to a large-break loss of coolant accident (LB-LOCA) analysis

  17. Research on Impact of Changing Business Tax to Value-added Tax on Transportation Industry and Countermeasures%“营改增”对交通运输业的影响及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯寓栋

    2015-01-01

    我国交通运输业现有的营业税政策存在较多弊端,根据本次营业税改征增值税中交通运输业的改革方案及实施情况,提出了此次改革可能存在的问题。%There are many problems in present business tax policies in transportation industry. This paper aims to put forward some solutions to the problems in reform from imposing business tax to value-added tax.

  18. Online Ad Assignment with an Ad Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Ad exchanges are becoming an increasingly popular way to sell advertisement slots on the internet. An ad exchange is basically a spot market for ad impressions. A publisher who has already signed contracts reserving advertisement impressions on his pages can choose between assigning a new ad impression for a new page view to a contracted advertiser or to sell it at an ad exchange. This leads to an online revenue maximization problem for the publisher. Given a new impression to sell decide whe...

  19. 提高民航货机输送部队重装备保障能力的思考%Reflections on Improving Transporting Army Heavy Equipment Support Capacity by Civil Aviation Freighter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海军; 李健

    2011-01-01

    分析了利用民航货机输送部队装备的限制因素,指出了当前民航货机输送部队重装备存在的主要问题,从对部队重装备进行技术处理、研发重装备空运专用设备和适应国际航空运输标准要求等方面,探讨了提高部队重装备空运能力的对策措施,对于拓展部队重装备航空运输保障范围,提高部队航空应急投送能力具有一定的参考价值。%This paper analyzed the limiting factors of transporting army equipments by civil aviation freighter,pointed out its main existing problems,explored some countermeasures for improving army heavy equipments aerial transporting support capacity from disposing the heavy equipments technology,developing the special aerial transporting facility of heavy equipments,and adapting the international aviation transportation standards,which has certain values to expand the support scopes of army heavy equipments aerial transportation,and to improve the support capacity of army aviation emergence transportation.

  20. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  1. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts/cities. Four different sectors (water...

  2. Energetic consequences of the sugar cane alcohol plant production capacity on the raw material transportation and the efficiency of the biomass to fuel alcohol converter; Implicacoes energeticas da capacidade produtora de uma usina de alcool da cana-de-acucar sobre o transporte da materia prima e sobre a eficiencia do sistema conversor da biomassa em alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias Filho, Waldir [Fundacao de Ensino Superior de Sao Joao del Rei (FUNREI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Biomedica; Urban, Carlos W. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Cerqueira, Sergio A.G. [Fundacao de Ensino Superior de Sao Joao del Rei (FUNREI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes, from the energy point of view, the relation of sugarcane transportation with the biomass demand in sugarcane alcohol factories. it also researches the influence of the factory production capacity in the global system efficiency. The results indicates that a bigger energetic global efficiency is reached by the reduction of the production capacity of the alcohol factories and by investment in industrial technology. (author)

  3. Polarised black holes in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  4. Analysis energetics of the fuel alcohol production system: considerations on the plant capacity producer effect in the sugar cane transportation and in the energy efficiency system; Analise energetica do sistema de producao de alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias Filho, Waldir

    1994-12-01

    This work analyses the sugarcane alcohol factory as a energy production system. It considers the energy balance models of the literature that counts the energy inputs in the two phases of the agricultural and industrial processing. This analysis shows the need of the construction of a new model that could consider the sugarcane transportation as a third subsystem that consists in the interface of the agricultural and industrial subsystems. The analysis of sensibility of the efficiency function for the ratio of agricultural, industrial and transportation return suggests production models of small capacity with some technic, as being the most reasonable from the energy point of view. Besides, the work indicates that a bigger impact over the energetic global efficiency of the alcohol industrial sector could be reached by investment in industrial technology applied to the small capacity alcohol factories. (author)

  5. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  6. Ad Hoc网络%Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.

  7. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Winyard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy...

  8. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  9. Eternal Black Holes in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Maldacena, Juan M.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a dual non-perturbative description for maximally extended Schwarzschild Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes. The description involves two copies of the conformal field theory associated to the AdS spacetime and an initial entangled state. In this context we also discuss a version of the information loss paradox and its resolution.

  10. Current status of AdS instability

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    arXiv:1403.6471 and thoroughly developed in arXiv:1407.6273. On the other hand the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of stable, time-periodic, asymptotically AdS solutions of Einstein equations [arXiv:1303.3186].

  11. AdS braneworld with Backreaction

    CERN Document Server

    Bilic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    We review the tachyon model derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the AdS5 bulk. The bulk geometry is based on the Randall-Sundrum II model extended to include the radion. The effective tachyon Lagrangian is modified due to the back-reaction of the brane on the bulk geometry.

  12. ADS National Programmes: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German R&D programme for ADS development is related to the partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel. This programme is implemented mainly by the three national research centres belonging to the Helmholtz Association, i.e. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in cooperation with the Technical University of Aachen (RWTH Aachen) and the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR). The main purpose of this R&D programme is the prospect to manage the high level radioactive waste such as to reduce the burden on a final repository. P&T does not eliminate the need for a final repository whatever the strategy, but it allows the reduction of the radio-toxicity associated with radioactive waste, the increase of the repository capacity as a consequence of the reduction of masses to be stored and their associated residual heat load. Different fuel cycle scenarios to implement P&T can be envisaged. These scenarios have been evaluated to identify the impact of P&T on the characteristics, number and deployment pace of the installations of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fuel fabrication, storage etc). Almost all activities conducted in the R&D programme are embedded in European and international projects and initiatives. In the following more details on the relevant components of the R&D programme are summarized

  13. ADS National Programmes: Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ADS related activities within the Netherlands are concentrated at NRG. From 2000 to 2006, NRG supported SCK•CEN in their development of MYRRHA. The support was mainly devoted to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for the windowless target option. This collaboration was prolonged within the framework of the EU FP6 EUROTRANS project. Eventually this lead to a solution strategy for the hydraulic (without heat transfer) evaluation of a windowless target with one free surface using an Eulerian-Eulerian modeling approach. As a second free surface was added to the target design later, this approach would need to be revisited. The developed approach was applied to an assess the feasibility of a three feeder windowless target design. This preliminary assessment confirmed that there were no serious show stoppers for a three feeder design. Another study undertaken using related to the windowless target was a preliminary assessment of the risk of lead-bismuth splashing in case of a sudden heat deposition by the beam, e.g. at beam startup or beam interuptions. Within the framework of the EU FP7 CDT project, a window target is currently being assessed thermalhydraulicly in collaboration with SCK•CEN. Within the EU FP5 ASCHLIM project, the state of the art with regard to turbulence modelling for CFD approaches was determined. It was concluded that accurate simulation of heat transport in HLM was not feasible, especially in natural or mixed convection regimes. Within the EU FP7 THINS project this issue is currently being treated. NRG assists the commercial CFD code vendor CD adapco in implementing and testing a promising, academically tested, algebraic heat flux model

  14. Superradiant instability in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of superradiance in the context of asymptotically global AdS spacetimes is investigated with particular accent on its effect on the stability of the systems under consideration. To this end, the concept of an asymptotically AdS spacetime is explained, together with its implications on the boundary conditions at $\\mathcal{I}$, as well as the Newman-Penrose-Teukolsky formalism, whereby the Teukolsky master equation in a most general form for Kerr-AdS is given. Furthermore, work done in the cases of RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS is laid out in a concise manner, putting emphasis on the important steps taken in determining the endpoint of the superradiant instability in the two configurations. For the former this turns out to be a black hole with reduced charge and a static charged scalar condensate around it, whereas for the latter two of the more probable outcomes are presented, both of which imply a violation of one of the cosmic censorships.

  15. 增值税改革对上海交通运输行业税负的影响%The influence on the transportation industry of the value added tax reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓光; 雷良海

    2012-01-01

    The scope of taxation for value added tax and sales tax does not cross,Sales tax put focus on the third industry,based on turnover of service industry,sales tax has been paid,in the next level,the taxpayer also need to pay the sales tax,double taxation phenomenon has been exist.the enterprise has heavy tax burden.During 2011-2015 years,the value added tax reform begin in the transportation industry,in this paper I use the relevant data of input-output tables,the estimate of industry tax burden,analyse the change of tax burden.%增值税和营业税的征税范围没有交叉,营业税主要是以第三产业中的服务业的营业额为征税对象,每个环节都是以营业额为税基,不能抵扣已经缴纳的税收,存在重复征税的现象,增大企业的税收负担。"十二五"期间在上海交通运输行业试点进行营业税改征增值税的改革,利用投入产出表中相关数据,通过对行业税负的测算,分析改革前后交通运输行业的税收负担变化情况。

  16. The Influence of Organisational Defensive Patterns on Innovation Capacity and Learning of Information and Communication Technology: An Empirical Study in Hong Kong Transport Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2010-01-01

    Organisational defensive patterns, including skilled incompetence, organisational defensive routines and fancy footwork, are considered to be a hindrance to effective learning and innovation capacity building in all organisations. The purpose of this research is to investigate: 1) the perceptions of the influence of organisational defensive…

  17. Instability corners in AdS space

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrakopoulos, Fotios V; Lippert, Matthew; Yang, I-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether arbitrarily small perturbations in global AdS space are generically unstable and collapse into black holes on the time scale set by gravitational interactions. We argue that current evidence, combined with our analysis, strongly suggests that a set of nonzero measure in the space of initial conditions does not collapse on this time scale. On the other hand, existing results do not provide an equally strong indication whether the unstable solutions also form a set of nonzero measure. We perform an analysis in position space to address this puzzle, and our formalism allows us to directly address the vanishing-amplitude limit. We show that gravitational self-interaction leads to tidal deformations which are equally likely to focus or defocus energy, and we sketch the phase diagram accordingly. We also clarify the connection between gravitational evolution in global AdS and holographic thermalization.

  18. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy models of holographic QCD) from an n layer to an n+1-layer configuration are observed at topological charges 9 and 27 and further popcorn transitions for higher charges are predicted. Finally, a point-particle approximation for the model is derived and used to successfully predict the ring structures and popcorn transitions for higher charge solitons.

  19. AdS solutions through transgression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gauntlett, J.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sciences; Kim, Nakwoo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Physics and Research Inst. of Basic Science

    2008-07-15

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)

  20. Refined Holographic Entanglement Entropy for the AdS Solitons and AdS black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Masafumi; Ning, Bo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy on a disk region for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss-Bonnet term. The AdS soliton is dual to a gapped system with an IR fixed-point. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy. We then study the renormalization group (RG) flow of the refinement by tuning the linear size of the chosen disk region. Our main results are (i) the RG flow of the refinement decreases monotonically for most of the cases; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS$_5$ soliton even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the refinement obeys the volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover; however, the crossover will turn into phase transition by the Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iv) for the AdS solitons, there are discontinuous phase transitions bet...

  1. Refined holographic entanglement entropy for the AdS solitons and AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss–Bonnet term. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy, the so-called renormalized entanglement entropy which is independent of the choices of UV cutoff. Our main results are: (i) the renormalized entanglement entropies of the AdSd+1 soliton for d=4,5 are neither monotonically decreasing along the RG flow nor positive-definite, especially around the deconfinement/confinement phase transition; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS5 soliton even with Gauss–Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the renormalized entanglement entropy obeys an expected volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover even with Gauss–Bonnet correction; (iv) based on AdS/MERA conjecture, we postulate that the IR fixed-point state for the non-extremal AdS soliton is a trivial product state

  2. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz;

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  3. Study on the Adaptability and Solution of the Channel Capacity of Railway Transportation of Coal%广西煤炭铁路运输通道能力适应性分析及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆达飞

    2011-01-01

    在分析预测广西煤炭需求及各铁路煤炭运量基础上,针对区域既有煤炭运输通道运煤能力与预测煤炭运量之间不足的情况,提出了需重点建设的煤炭铁路运输通道项目:近期南昆线增建二线、黔桂线麻尾~金城江段新建双线、金城江~柳州段增建二线、焦柳线电气化改造、湘桂线电气化改造,远期焦柳线增建二线;最后对各主要煤炭运输通道能力适应性进行分析后认为,重点煤炭铁路运输通项目实施后,区域能源安全和经济结构调整将得到充分保障。%Based on the analysis and prediction of the coal demand and railway transportation volume of coal,to solve the differences between the existing coal transportation capacity and the expected transportation volume,railway project of coal transportation is proposed:construction of second line Nankun railway second line,second line for Guiqian railway,Mawei-Jincheng section,Jinchengjiang-Lvzhou section.At last,after an analysis of the adaptability of railway transportation,it proves that the regional energy safty and the adjustment of economic structure can be ensured by the construction of key coal transportation railway.

  4. Winding Strings in AdS_3

    CERN Document Server

    Minces, P; Minces, Pablo; Nunez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Correlation functions of one-unit spectral flowed states in string theory on AdS_3 are considered. We present a formalism which allows to explicitly find the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by amplitudes of states in w=1 sectors. We give a precise prescription to solve this system of linear differential equations in cases that are relevant to obtain three and four point functions involving spectral flowed string states. We specifically compute three point functions with two and three one-unit spectral flowed operators and also discuss four point functions.

  5. 大容量公共交通引导模式下的城市空间规划设计策略%Large Capacity Public Transport Oriented Urban Space Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少青

    2013-01-01

    Fast urbanization has brought about increasing needs in transportation, and the change has made large capacity transit oriented space and transport integration planning imperative. The paper elaborates large capacity public transpor connotation and components, analyzes successful cases, and raises spatial planning strategies including compact land use, transfer system integration, low impact development etc.%快速城镇化带来大城市交通需求急剧增长,因此大容量公共交通引导的空间和交通一体化规划与建设兼具必要性与紧迫性。研究在全面阐述大容量公共交通内涵和系统构成的基础上,分析借鉴国内外成功案例,并根据我国土地利用、交通建设和城市发展特点,从城市规划角度提出多样化城市功能聚集策略、集约化高效土地利用策略、换乘系统完善策略、低冲击开发策略及弹性预留策略等大容量公共交通引导模式下的城市空间规划设计策略。

  6. Enabling real-time H.26L video services over wireless ad hoc networks using joint admission and transmission power control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yong; Modestino, James W.; Qu, Qi; Wang, Xiaochun

    2003-06-01

    In a wireless ad hoc network, packets are sent from node-to-node in a multihop fashion until they reach the destination. In this paper we investigate the capacity of a wireless ad hoc network in supporting packet video transport. The ad hoc network consists of n homogeneous video users with each of them also serving as a relay node for other users. We investigate how the time delay aspects the video throughput in such an ad hoc network and how to provide a time-delay bounded packet video delivery service over such a network? The analytical results indicate that appropriate joint admission and power control have to be employed in order to efficiently utilize the network capacity while operating under the delay constraint as the distance between source and destination changes.

  7. Probing Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Asnani, Himanshu; Weissman, Tsachy

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal probing of states of a channel by transmitter and receiver for maximizing rate of reliable communication. The channel is discrete memoryless (DMC) with i.i.d. states. The encoder takes probing actions dependent on the message. It then uses the state information obtained from probing causally or non-causally to generate channel input symbols. The decoder may also take channel probing actions as a function of the observed channel output and use the channel state information thus acquired, along with the channel output, to estimate the message. We refer to the maximum achievable rate for reliable communication for such systems as the 'Probing Capacity'. We characterize this capacity when the encoder and decoder actions are cost constrained. To motivate the problem, we begin by characterizing the trade-off between the capacity and fraction of channel states the encoder is allowed to observe, while the decoder is aware of channel states. In this setting of 'to observe or not to o...

  8. MWAHCA: A Multimedia Wireless Ad Hoc Cluster Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Ad hoc networks provide a flexible and adaptable infrastructure to transport data over a great variety of environments. Recently, real-time audio and video data transmission has been increased due to the appearance of many multimedia applications. One of the major challenges is to ensure the quality of multimedia streams when they have passed through a wireless ad hoc network. It requires adapting the network architecture to the multimedia QoS requirements. In this paper we propose a new architecture to organize and manage cluster-based ad hoc networks in order to provide multimedia streams. Proposed architecture adapts the network wireless topology in order to improve the quality of audio and video transmissions. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture uses some information such as each node’s capacity and the QoS parameters (bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss. The architecture splits the network into clusters which are specialized in specific multimedia traffic. The real system performance study provided at the end of the paper will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.

  9. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... the relevance of the basic concept and provides an important example of how Value Adding Management can be implemented and added value measured. Originality/value: The study develops a concept of Value Adding Management, which is new in FM literature. It is expected to increase the awareness of the impacts...

  10. Role of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the kinetics of low-affinity high-capacity Na{sup +}-dependent alanine transport in SHR proximal tubular epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vanda; Pinho, Maria Joao [Institute of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Jose, Pedro A. [Center for Molecular Physiology Research, Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Soares-da-Silva, Patricio, E-mail: pss@med.up.pt [Institute of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only. {yields} It is suggested that Na{sup +} binding in renal ASCT2 may be regulated by ROS in SHR PTE cells. -- Abstract: The presence of high and low sodium affinity states for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in immortalized renal proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells was previously reported (Am. J. Physiol. 293 (2007) R538-R547). This study evaluated the role of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake of ASCT2 in immortalized renal PTE cells from Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Na{sup +} dependence of [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake was investigated replacing NaCl with an equimolar concentration of choline chloride in vehicle- and apocynin-treated cells. Na{sup +} removal from the uptake solution abolished transport activity in both WKY and SHR PTE cells. Decreases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels in the extracellular medium significantly reduced Na{sup +}-K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of the low-affinity high-capacity component in SHR PTE cells, with no effect on the high-affinity low-capacity state of the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake. After removal of apocynin from the culture medium, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels returned to basal values within 1 to 3 h in both WKY and SHR PTE cells and these were found stable for the next 24 h. Under these experimental conditions, the Na{sup +}-K{sub m} and V{sub max} of the high-affinity low-capacity state were unaffected and the low-affinity high-capacity component remained significantly decreased 1 day but not 4 days after apocynin removal. In conclusion, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only

  11. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  12. 现代军事物流发展对军交运输装备保障能力的需求分析%Analysis of Requirement of Military Transportation Equipment Support Capacity on Evolution of Modern Military Logistic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海泉; 崔振宇; 沈咏梅

    2012-01-01

    Military transportation equipment is the main carrier to the flow of military material in the system of modem mili- tary logistic. It is analyzed in this paper that to make overall plans and take all factors into consideration of military trans- portation equipment development, to recognize the requirement of military transportation equipment support capacity on the evolution of modem military logistic in the progress of building the system of modem military Logistic. It is vital realistic to establish countermeasure of military transportation equipment development. It will lead to efficiencies of Military Logistic.%军交运输装备是军事物流系统中军事物资流动的重要载体。在构建现代军事物流体系过程中,统筹考虑军交运输装备的建设与发展,认清现代军事物流发展对军交运输装备建设与发展的需求,对于制定军交运输装备建设与发展对策、提高军事物流效率,具有重要的现实意义。

  13. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  14. Twistor methods for AdS$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Tim; Williams, Jack

    2016-01-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS$_5$ is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  15. Increasing the reliability and capacity of Ukrainian gas transit system; Augmentation de la capacite et de la fiabilite du systeme Ukrainien de transport du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozgonyk, V.; Osinchuk, Z. [Naftogaz of Ukraine (Ukraine)

    2000-07-01

    Ukrainian gas transmission system plays a key role in the transit deliveries of Russian natural gas to European countries. Therefore special attention is paid to reliability and efficiency of the existing gas pipelines. The in-line inspections of pipelines as well as update methods of corrosion pipeline protection control and developed vibration diagnostic system for gas compressor units are used on a large scale. The program for gas transmission pipeline reconstruction and upgrading of 50 compressor stations of main lines is being under realization. Modernization of compressor stations will allow to increase turbine drivers' efficiency up to 34-36 per cent to save about 1-10{sup 9} cubic meters of fuel gas annually. The reliability of gas transit deliveries is supported by powerful underground gas storage facilities, situated mostly in the Western Ukraine. The expansion of gas pipe lines system is carried out that will increase transit capacity of Ukrainian gas trunk lines up to 160 -10{sup 9} cubic meters a year. (authors)

  16. Optimization Research on Capacity of Road Transport Coach Route Based on Bi-level Programming Model%基于双层规划的道路客运班线运力优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涛; 潘青; 徐亚

    2013-01-01

    As an important factor of road transport system, rational allocation of coach route capacity brings about passenger satisfaction and profit-making. As for coach route optimization problem, a bi-level programming model based on utility theory is established. The upper-layer model aims at maximizing the transport enterprises' profit, which is determined by transport enterprises decision-making. Meanwhile, with a view towards maximizing passenger satisfaction, the function of lower-layer is transport mode selection. Moreover, the model is solved by heuristic algorithm based on sensitivity analysis. This paper take the coach route of Wuhan to Huangshi as a case to verify the feasibility and scientific of the model.%客运班线是道路运输系统重要的组成要素,合理的班线运力对班线旅客的满意度以及班线的盈利有着重要的意义.针对道路客运班线运力优化问题,在效用理论的基础上,建立了基于双层规划的班线运力优化模型.上层模型以道路客运企业利益最大化为目标,由客运企业决策班线运力投入;下层模型以旅客总体满意度最大化为目标,由旅客决策选择运输方式.采用基于灵敏度分析的启发式算法来求解模型,并以武汉至黄石班线为例验证了模型的可行性及科学性.

  17. Optimizing Railroad Tank Car Safety Design to Reduce Hazardous Materials Transportation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik

    2009-01-01

    The design of railroad tank cars is subject to structural and performance requirements and constrained by weight. They can be made safer by increasing tank thickness and adding various protective features, but these increase the weight and cost of the car and reduce its capacity and consequent transportation efficiency. Aircraft, automobiles and…

  18. Sodium chloride added to transport water and physiological responses of Matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Teleost: Characidae Adição de cloreto de sódio à água de transporte e respostas fisiológicas do matrinxã Brycon amazonicus(Teleost: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Criscuolo Urbinati

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The addition of salt to the water has been used to mitigate stress and improve survival in fishes. This study investigated the effects of sodium chloride (0.0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g/l on levels of plasma cortisol, glucose, tryacilglycerol, total protein, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte number, liver glycogen and lipid, and muscle lipid in adult matrinxã(Brycon amazonicum after a 4-h transport and during a 96-h recovery period. Fish were sampled before and after transport, and 24 and 96 h of the recovery period. Plasma cortisol was higher than initial condition immediately after transportation, except in fish transported in 3.0 and 6.0 g/l of salt. A similar pattern was observed for blood glucose but fish transported in water with 0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 g/l of salt needed more than 24 h to return to the initial condition. Liver glycogen was lower after transport in fish not exposed to salt. Hemoglobin, erythrocyte number, total plasma protein and liver lipid did not change during the experiment but hematocrit was lower after transport in all treatments and returned to pre-transport values in 24 h. Reductions of muscle lipid and plasma tryacilglycerol were observed during the recovery period in fish from all treatments. The results show that 6.0 g/l NaCl added to the transport water reduce the stress responses and a 96-h recovery period is needed if no salt is used to mitigate the stress.A adição de sal à água tem sido utilizada para a mitigação de estresse e aumento da taxa de sobrevivência em peixes. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito do cloreto de sódio (0,0; 1,0; 3,0 e 6.0 g/l nas concentrações de cortisol plasmático, glicemia, triglicerídios, proteínas total plasmática, hematócrito, hemoglobina, número de eritrócitos, glicogênio e lipídio hepáticos, e lipídio muscular em matrinxã Brycon amazonicum adultos após quatro horas de transporte e durante período de recuperação de 96 h. Amostras foram coletadas antes e depois do

  19. ADS National Programmes: India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial preliminary studies in India on ADS concepts were aimed toward applications such as, one way coupled booster reactor concept, thorium burner concept, enhancement of breeding rate of thorium– fueled fast reactors, and to incinerate Pu and minor actinides discharged from heavy water and fast reactors. These studies led to a roadmap on development of ADS subsystems in India, which was chalked out initially in June 2001. It was realized in these studies that the most challenging subsystem in terms of technology development and capital investment for ADS in India would be the high intensity proton accelerator, and that it must be accomplished in phased manner. Of the two alternative accelerator types, viz. the cyclotron and linear accelerator (linac), it is concluded that only linac would provide the necessary intense beam current for ADS applications. The energy amplifier (EA) scheme, with lead (45.5%) bismuth (55.5%) eutectic (LBE) as target & coolant, which was proposed in the early nineties would be one of the desired configurations of ADS for Indian applications. Additionally, subcritical reactor core of Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), with advantages of its low fission power density, and neutron economy is also a candidate among various ADS reactor configurations. These options of ADS configurations for thorium utilization are based on the neutronic properties of 233U isotope as fissile fuel, which are more or less similar in thermal and in moderately fast neutron spectra

  20. Coopetitive Ad Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hoy, Darrell; Jain, Kamal; Wilkens, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    A single advertisement often benefits many parties, for example, an ad for a Samsung laptop benefits Microsoft. We study this phenomenon in search advertising auctions and show that standard solutions, including the status quo ignorance of mutual benefit and a benefit-aware Vickrey-Clarke-Groves mechanism, perform poorly. In contrast, we show that an appropriate first-price auction has nice equilibria in a single-slot ad auction --- all equilibria that satisfy a natural cooperative envy-freen...

  1. AdS_3: the NHEK generation

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Puhm, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    It was argued in arXiv:1203.4227 that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically-AdS_3 x S^3/Z_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  2. 03. Disruption Management in PassengerTransportation - from Air to Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 10 years there has been a tremendous growth in air transportation of passengers. Both airports and airspace are close to saturation with respect to capacity, leading to delays caused by disruptions. At the same time the amount of vehicular traffic around and in all larger cities of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportatio...

  3. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradl, H.B. [Bilfinger + Berger Bauaktiengesellschaft, Mannheim (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents.

  4. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  5. ADS National Programmes: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a preliminary design developed in 1998, based on the Energy Amplifier concept proposed by CERN, a first configuration of a lead-bismuth Eutectic cooled Experimental ADS (LBE-XADS) was worked out in the period 1999–2001, under the aegis of MURST, by a group of Italian organizations led by Ansado Nucleare, with the aim of assessing the feasibility of a small sized (80 MWth) ADS. At the end of 1997 a joint effort of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics) led to the approval of a national programme by MURST (Minister for University and Scientific and Technological Research) named TRASCO (TRAsmutazione SCOrie) aiming at the study of physics and technologies needed to design an ADS for radioactive waste transmutation. The programme consisted of research subprogrammes on accelerator, neutronics, thermalhydraulics analysis, beam window technology, and material technology and compatibility with Pb and Pb-Bi. At now, most of the activities in support to the ADS development carried out at national level are part of EU-funded Projects. These activities are complemented by the programme agreement (AdP -Accordo di programma), signed between ENEA and the Ministry of Economic Development, which provides in general a range of activities aimed at the development of sustainable nuclear fission systems. Several universities and the national industry are involved, besides ENEA, in the activities

  6. Nuclear transport - The regulatory dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefits that the peaceful applications of nuclear energy have brought to society are due in no small part to industry's capacity to transport radioactive materials safely, efficiently and reliably. The nuclear transport industry has a vital role in realising a fundamental objective of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as stated in its statute to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. The context in which transports currently take place is complex, and rapidly changing. In many respects transport is being viewed as an integral market issue and not a subsidiary concern. The availability of carriers drives routing decisions and changes in material flows necessitate new approaches to packaging and transport scenarios. Pressures on the transport sector are not without serious consequences; they can cause delays and in some cases cancellation of planned movements. Complex routings and the necessary use of chartered carriers can push up costs and work against cost efficiency. Since the events of 11 September 2001 the security of nuclear transports has contributed an added dimension to how transports take place. Transports of radioactive material have an outstanding safety record, indeed the transport of such materials could be regarded as a model for the transport of other classes of dangerous goods. This safety record is achieved by two inter-related factors. It is due primarily to well founded regulations developed by such key intergovernmental organisations as the IAEA, with the essential contributions of the member states who participate in the implementation of regulations and the review process. It is due also to the professionalism of those in the industry. There is a necessary synergy between the two - between the regulators whose task it is to make and to enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. It

  7. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  8. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  9. Eating ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line

    in the context of the 'ad libitum meal'. The analytical interest is thus what kind of eaters and bodies are enacted in the meal test and what ideas of prevention and treatment are embedded in their standards. Drawing from ongoing empirical work among Danish obesity researchers performing scientific meal tests I...... ask what make up food stuff and eaters in the meal tests? More specifically I explore a scientific testing of changes in taste preferences before and after weight-loss surgery using an ad libitum buffet with a selection of different foods and another testing the effect of exercise on appetite also...

  10. ADS National Programmes: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are mainly related to the MYRRHA project development. MYRRHA is an accelerator driven, multi purpose fast neutron spectrum facility for R&D, cooled by a lead-bismuth eutectic. SCK•CEN has started the MYRRHA project as a national programme with several national & international bilateral collaboration agreements; the project has now evolved as an European integrated project in the frame of the IPEUROTRANS (European Commission, Sixth Framework Programme). The MYRRHA ‘Draft-2’ predesign file (completed in the early 2005) has been proposed to the partners as a basis for the XT-ADS machine. After a detailed investigation of potential alternatives, the MYRRHA concept (for the subcritical core, the primary coolant system, the accommodation of experimental rigs, the reactor vessel and the spallation target) has been kept with some modifications to achieve the XT-ADS objectives. The most recent version of the XT-ADS design was presented in the 2007 TWG meeting

  11. D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3)

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, D

    2005-01-01

    We study the exact construction of D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3). We start by defining a family of conformal field theories that gives a natural Euclidean version of the SL(2,R) CFT and does not correspond to H(3)+, the analytic continuation of AdS(3). We argue that one can recuperate the exact CFT results of Lorentzian AdS(3), upon an analytic continuation in the moduli space of these conformal field theories. Then we construct exact boundary states for various symmetric and symmetry-breaking D-branes in AdS(3).

  12. Localization on $AdS_2\\times S^1$

    CERN Document Server

    David, Justin R; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Narain, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conformal symmetry relates the metric on $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ to that of $S^3$. This implies that under a suitable choice of boundary conditions for fields on $AdS_2$ the partition function of conformal field theories on these spaces must agree which makes $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ a good testing ground to study localization on non-compact spaces. We study supersymmetry on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ and determine the localizing Lagrangian for ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2\\times S^1$. We evaluate the partition function of ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2 \\times S^1$ using localization, where the radius of $S^1$ is $q$ times that of $AdS_2$. With boundary conditions on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ which ensure that all the physical fields are normalizable and lie in the space of square integrable wave functions in $AdS_2$, the result for the partition function precisely agrees with that of the theory on the $q$-fold covering of $S^3$.

  13. ADS specific accelerator developments: Status in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, JAEA proposes an ADS which consists of a high power proton LINAC, a spallation target of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and a subcritical core. In this proposal, the energy and beam power of the high power proton LINAC are 1.5 GeV and 20–30 MW, respectively. Other specifications of the high power proton linac are described in [4.28]. An important technical aspect that is considered in the JAEA work is the negative impact of very frequent beam trips as experienced in existing intense accelerator facilities. Frequent beam trips cause thermal fatigue problems for ADS components materials, leading to degradation of their structural integrity and reduction of their lifetime. They can also badly erode the availability or the capacity of ADS, resulting in poor economics. In the development of accelerators for ADS, it is vitally important to establish the technologies to achieve a very high degree of reliability. On the other hand, JAEA considers that it is also important in the development of ADS to design structural components to withstand possible thermal fatigues and a power conversion system less sensitive to beam trips. The purpose of the JAEA study is the comparison of beam trip frequencies between requirement from ADS transient analyses and estimation from current experimental data of accelerators

  14. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2014-01-01

    The article asks whether it is not the responsibility of corporations to address the issue of women being underrepresented in Danish management jobs. In other words, it is argued that corporations should be encouraged to engage more actively in the recruitment of both men and women for management...... jobs by discursively constructing job ads that appeal to both sexes. This argument is part of the broader field of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, and stakeholder management, which involves discussions of the obligations of corporations to acknowledge and mitigate...... the increasingly widespread impact that their activities have on communities and social structures. The article emphasises the need for more active engagement on the part of corporations by analysing the discursive construction of preferred candidates in a small sample of Danish management job ads. By means...

  15. ADS National Programmes: France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies related to nuclear reactors and radioactive waste started at the French National Centre for Scientific research, CNRS, as a result of the French law on radioactive waste that was published in 1991. They were initially organized around the programme PACE (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle Electronucléaire = physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle), which became PACEN (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle et production d’Energie Nucléaire = Physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and production of nuclear energy) in 2006. Research on accelerator driven systems was from the beginning part of this programme. This research is mainly funded by the National Institute for Nuclear end Particle Physics (IN2P3) of CNRS and within the EURATOM European programmes (FP5, 6 and 7). The programme took place in several stages, and covered various scientific fields, benefitting from expertise of CNRS in the field. More specifically, it aimed and still aims to: – Test and verify the feasibility and design of the ADS concept, in terms of neutronics, physics of materials, design of the accelerator and tests of its prototypical components that have been built (or are at present under construction); – Measure and-or improve nuclear data related to radioactive waste transmutation. Today, most of the activities in support to ADS development carried out by CNRS focus on accelerator developments, GUINEVERE (Generator of Uninterrupted Intense NEutron at the lead VEnus REactor) experiment, ADS core studies, deployment scenarios and nuclear data measurements. The CEA R&D programmes on ADS are mainly focused on the European project EUROTRANS of the 6th Framework programme (2005–2010) and continued in the FREYA project of the 7th Framework Programme

  16. Adding linear orders

    CERN Document Server

    Shelah, Saharon

    2011-01-01

    We address the following question: Can we expand an NIP theory by adding a linear order such that the expansion is still NIP? Easily, if acl(A)=A for all A, then this is true. Otherwise, we give counterexamples. More precisely, there is a totally categorical theory for which every expansion by a linear order has IP. There is also an \\omega-stable NDOP theory for which every expansion by a linear order interprets bounded arithmetic.

  17. Capacity Analysis on Multi-Lane Roundabouts: An Evaluation With Highway Capacity Manual 2010 Capacity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Ersoy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, capacity estimations with the incorporation of Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010 method are evaluated. Parameter based sensitivity analysis on calculations with the new HCM formula and a comparative evaluation of the new methodology with two most common capacity analysis methods, i.e., the method of critical gap acceptance and the method of regression analysis, are performed. Maximum and minimum headway intervals of follow up time and critical gap parameters are alternated within the sensitivity analysis. The Transport Research Laboratory formula for regression and Australian formula for gap acceptance method are considered in comparison. Relative comparisons of predictions on capacity by HCM2010 method, regression analysis and gap acceptance method are presented considering field data obtained by observations at two roundabouts in Izmir, Turkey. The results of the study show that the HCM2010 formula led to lower capacity estimates than regression analysis and higher estimates than the gap acceptance method. Regarding the real capacity observations under high circulating flow-rates the HCM2010 method yielded to more appropriate results than the regression method. In addition to comparisons, studies on the sensitivity analysis show that entry capacity estimates possess sharper changes as smaller follow up headways are accepted.

  18. AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for the volumes. We also find...

  19. Developing the UIC 406 Method for Capacity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex; Preston, John

    2011-01-01

    utilisation, two methods of CUI and the UIC 406 are compared with each other. A British and a Danish case study are explored for a periodic and a nonperiodic timetable: 1- Freeing up capacity by omitting the train that has the highest capacity consumption (British case study). 2- Adding trains to use...... the spare capacity (Danish case study). Some suggestions are made to develop meso indices by using the UIC 406 method to decide between the alternatives for adding or removing trains....

  20. Evaporation of large black holes in AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AdS/CFT correspondence offers a new perspective on the long-standing black hole information paradox. However, to be able to use the available gauge/gravity machinery one is forced to consider so-called 'large' black holes in AdS, and these objects are thermodynamically stable - they do not evaporate. We describe a simple toy model that allows large AdS black holes to decay, by coupling the emitted radiation to an external scalar field propagating in an auxiliary space. This effectively changes the properties of the boundary of AdS, making it partly absorbing. We demonstrate that the evaporation process never ceases by explicitly presenting (a) the transmission coefficient for a wave scattering from the bulk into auxiliary space and (b) the greybody factor for a black 3-brane in an AdS background. Therefore, the model provides an interesting framework to address the information paradox using AdS/CFT techniques.

  1. The effect of Ad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小艳

    2010-01-01

    There is the trend that now people appreciate those who are slim and regard slim even thin people beautiful. The thinner a person is, the more beautiful. Women, born to pursuit beauty, try various means to follow the trend. We all watch TV, and find a lot of advertisements on diet. The effect of them is tremendous. We all know the fact that it is not at all the better mouse trap will catch mouse. The sales methods are more important. If an advertisement is very interesting and seemingly effective, people will be lured by the ad and then try some of the products.

  2. 营改增对物流运输业影响及对策研究%Influence and Countermeasures“Replace the Business Tax with a Value-Added Tax” on the Logistics Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游道柱; 葛拥军; 翁志梅

    2014-01-01

    Analysis changes of enterprise tax burden after value added tax through sampling surveys ,on the basis of above , put forward the Countermeasures of logistics enterprises and policy suggestions.%文中通过抽样调研分析“营改增”后物流运输企业税负变化情况,提出物流企业应对“营改增”的对策,并在此基础上提出政策建议。

  3. Ad Hoc Access Gateway Selection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Liu

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. For mobile nodes in Ad Hoc network to internet, internet communications in the peer nodes must be achieved through the gateway. Therefore, the key Ad Hoc Access Networks will focus on the discovery gateway, as well as gateway selection in the case of multi-gateway and handover problems between different gateways. This paper considers the mobile node and the gateway, based on the average number of hops from an average access time and the stability of routes, improved gateway selection algorithm were proposed. An improved gateway selection algorithm, which mainly considers the algorithm can improve the access time of Ad Hoc nodes and the continuity of communication between the gateways, were proposed. This can improve the quality of communication across the network.

  4. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  5. Randall-Sundrum with AdS(7)

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, R; Bao, Ruoyu; Lykken, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    In the same sense that AdS_5 warped geometries arise naturally from Type IIB string theory with stacks of D3 branes, AdS_7 warped geometries arise naturally from M theory with stacks of M5 branes. We compactify two spatial dimensions of AdS_7 to get AdS_5 x \\Sigma^2, where \\Sigma^2 is e.g. a torus T^2 or a sphere S^2. The metric for \\Sigma inherits the same warp factor as appears in the AdS_5. Bulk fields generically have both Kaluza-Klein and winding modes associated with \\Sigma. In the effective 5d action these will contribute exotic new excitations. We analyze the 5d spectrum in detail for the case of a bulk scalar or a graviton in AdS_5 x T^2, in a setup which mimics the first Randall-Sundrum model. The results display several novel features, some of which might be observed in experiments at the LHC. For example, we obtain TeV scale string winding states without lowering the string scale. This is due to the double warping which is a generic feature of winding states along compactified AdS directions. Expe...

  6. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on fuzzy AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space. (author)

  7. Dirac Operator on Noncommutative AdS_2

    CERN Document Server

    Fakhri, H

    2003-01-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS_2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated with AdS_2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS_2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  8. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Hossein; Imaanpur, Ali

    2003-03-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  9. Dirac Operator on Fuzzy AdS_2

    OpenAIRE

    H. Fakhri; Imaanpur, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS_2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated with AdS_2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS_2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  10. Radius-dependent gauge unification in AdS5

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Hyung Do; Kim, Ian-Woo

    2002-01-01

    We examine the relation of the 4-dimensional low energy coupling of bulk gauge boson in a slice of AdS5 to the 5-dimensional fundamental couplings as a function of the orbifold radius R. This allows us to address the gauge coupling unification in AdS5 by means of the radius running as well as the conventional momentum running. We then compute the radius dependence of 1-loop low energy couplings in generic AdS5 theory with 4-dimensional supersymmetry, and discuss the low energy predictions whe...

  11. Towards integrability for AdS3/CFT2

    CERN Document Server

    Sfondrini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We review the recent progress towards applying worldsheet integrability techniques to the $AdS_3/CFT_2$ correspondence to find its all-loop S matrix and Bethe-Yang equations. We study in full detail the massive sector of $AdS_3\\times S^3\\times T^4$ superstrings supported by pure Ramond-Ramond (RR) fluxes. The extension of this machinery to accommodate massless modes, to the $AdS_3\\times S^3\\times S^3\\times S^1$ pure-RR background and to backgrounds supported by mixed background fluxes is also reviewed. While the results discussed here were found elsewhere, our exposition is original.

  12. Conical singularities in AdS space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In recent years, the study of conformal gauge theories from 10-D has been motivated by the AdSd+1/CFTd correspondence, first conjectured by J. Maldacena. The aim of this work is to consider the d = 4 case by analysing the configuration of the N coincident D3 branes. In this context, the work shows that there is a duality between type IIB string theory in AdS5 x S5 and N = 4 SU(N) Super Yang-Mills Theory in the IR. The AdS5/CFT4 correspondence brought also new approaches to the strong coupling problem in QCD. Nowadays, there is a whole line of works that focus on the low dimensional correspondence AdS4/CFT3, like the application to graphene and topological insulators, and the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence, related with the entanglement entropy. In this work, we consider the vortex configuration solution to the AdS4 and AdS3 space-time. The most important motivation is to discuss the boundary theory resulting from these solutions. We have examined a straightforward approach to a holographic computation of the graphene and entanglement entropy in the presence of the conical singularity. After this analysis, we consider the scalar field in the bulk in the presence of this metrics and work out the compactification modes. Taking the holographic point of view, we study and discuss the resulting Green function. (author)

  13. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    CERN Document Server

    Borsato, Riccardo; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefanski, Bogdan; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3 x S3 x T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly-coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their sub-leading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results, and co

  14. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

  15. Chaos and hydrodynamics near AdS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    We revisit AdS$_2$ holography with the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev models in mind. Our main result is to rewrite a generic theory of gravity near an AdS$_2$ throat as a novel hydrodynamics coupled to the correlation functions of a conformal quantum mechanics. This gives a prescription for the computation of $n$-point functions in the dual quantum mechanics. We thereby find that the dual is maximally chaotic.

  16. Symmetric, coherent, Choquet capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Kadane, Joseph B.; Wasserman, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Choquet capacities are a generalization of probability measures that arise in robustness, decision theory and game theory. Many capacities that arise in robustness are symmetric or can be transformed into symmetric capacities. We characterize the extreme points of the set of upper distribution functions corresponding to coherent, symmetric Choquet capacities on [0, 1]. We also show that the set of 2-alternating capacities is a simplex and we give a Choquet representation of this set.

  17. Discrimination in Online Ad Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Latanya

    2013-01-01

    A Google search for a person's name, such as "Trevon Jones", may yield a personalized ad for public records about Trevon that may be neutral, such as "Looking for Trevon Jones?", or may be suggestive of an arrest record, such as "Trevon Jones, Arrested?". This writing investigates the delivery of these kinds of ads by Google AdSense using a sample of racially associated names and finds statistically significant discrimination in ad delivery based on searches of 2184 racially associated person...

  18. Transport and logistics as network competencies in a localized industrial cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2004-01-01

    This chapter argues that transport is more than infrastructure and transport capacity for the processes governing industrial organisation.......This chapter argues that transport is more than infrastructure and transport capacity for the processes governing industrial organisation....

  19. Complexity Growth for AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We further investigate the Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture for stationary anti de-Sitter (AdS) black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general $D$-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Ba\\~{n}ados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a new complexity bound but leave unchanged the conjecture that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  20. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS Black holes with Dirac hair

    CERN Document Server

    \\vCubrović, Mihailo; Schalm, Koenraad

    2010-01-01

    We provide new evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi Liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the spatially averaged AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at $\\ome_F$, we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis confirm that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profil...

  1. Augmenting transport versus increasing cold storage to improve vaccine supply chains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila A Haidari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When addressing the urgent task of improving vaccine supply chains, especially to accommodate the introduction of new vaccines, there is often a heavy emphasis on stationary storage. Currently, donations to vaccine supply chains occur largely in the form of storage equipment. METHODS: This study utilized a HERMES-generated detailed, dynamic, discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain to compare the impacts on vaccine availability of adding stationary cold storage versus transport capacity at different levels and to determine whether adding stationary storage capacity alone would be enough to relieve potential bottlenecks when pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines are introduced by 2015. RESULTS: Relieving regional level storage bottlenecks increased vaccine availability (by 4% more than relieving storage bottlenecks at the district (1% increase, central (no change, and clinic (no change levels alone. Increasing transport frequency (or capacity yielded far greater gains (e.g., 15% increase in vaccine availability when doubling transport frequency to the district level and 18% when tripling. In fact, relieving all stationary storage constraints could only increase vaccine availability by 11%, whereas doubling the transport frequency throughout the system led to a 26% increase and tripling the frequency led to a 30% increase. Increasing transport frequency also reduced the amount of stationary storage space needed in the supply chain. The supply chain required an additional 61,269L of storage to relieve constraints with the current transport frequency, 55,255L with transport frequency doubled, and 51,791L with transport frequency tripled. CONCLUSIONS: When evaluating vaccine supply chains, it is important to understand the interplay between stationary storage and transport. The HERMES-generated dynamic simulation model showed how augmenting transport can result in greater gains than only augmenting stationary

  2. Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) AD-6

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) in July of 2012. The visible parts are the positron accumulator (blue structures on top of of the antiproton extraction line) and the 5T magnet which traps the antiprotons.

  3. Global geometric properties of AdS space and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Poisson kernels and relations between them for a massive scalar field in a unit ball Bn with Hua's metric and conformal flat metric are obtained by describing the Bn as a submanifold of an (n+1)-dimensional embedding space. Global geometric properties of the AdS space are discussed. We show that the(n+1)-dimensional AdS space AdSn+1 is isomorphic to RP1×Bn and boundary of the AdS is isomorphic to RP1×Sn-1. Bulk-boundary propagator and the AdS/CFT like correspondence are demonstrated based on these global geometric properties of the RP1×Bn.

  4. AdS-Carroll Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, T E

    2016-01-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d+1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  5. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-01-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Renyi entropy S_n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  6. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Evnin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  7. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  8. Microstates at the boundary of AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Samir D

    2011-01-01

    The bound states of the D1D5 brane system have a known gravitational description: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter region, and a 'cap' ending the AdS region. We construct perturbations that correspond to the action of chiral algebra generators on Ramond ground states of D1D5 branes. Abstract arguments in the literature suggest that the perturbation should be pure gauge in the AdS region; our perturbation indeed has this structure, with the nontrivial deformation of the geometry occurring at the 'neck' between the AdS region and asymptotic infinity. This 'non-gauge' deformation is needed to provide the nonzero energy and momentum carried by the perturbation. We also suggest implications this structure may have for the majority of microstates which live at the cap.

  9. Null warped AdS in higher spin gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Breunhoelder, Veronika; Grumiller, Daniel; Prohazka, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We equip three-dimensional spin-3 gravity in the principal embedding with a new set of boundary conditions that we call "asymptotically null warped AdS". We find a chiral copy of the Polyakov-Bershadsky algebra as asymptotic symmetry algebra, reminiscent of the situation in topologically massive gravity with strict null warped AdS boundary conditions. We prove the invertibility of the map between zuvielbein and metric variables and construct a global gauge transformation to half of AdS spin-3 gravity in the diagonal embedding. This explains why the theory is chiral and why the Polyakov-Bershadsky algebra arises. We then introduce chemical potentials, derive the entropy, free energy, and the holographic response functions, and conclude with a discussion.

  10. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  11. Towards integrability for AdS3/CFT2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the recent progress towards applying worldsheet integrability techniques to the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence to find its all-loop S matrix and Bethe–Yang equations. We study in full detail the massive sector of AdS3×S3×T4 superstrings supported by pure Ramond–Ramond (RR) fluxes. The extension of this machinery to accommodate massless modes, to the AdS3×S3×S3×S1 pure-RR background and to backgrounds supported by mixed background fluxes is also reviewed. While the results discussed here were found elsewhere, our presentation sometimes deviates from the one found in the original literature in an effort to be pedagogical and self-contained. (topical review)

  12. Logarithmic conformal field theories and AdS correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Khorrami, A. M. Ghezelbash. M.; Aghamohammadi, A

    1998-01-01

    We generalize the Maldacena correspondence to the logarithmic conformal field theories. We study the correspondence between field theories in (d+1)-dimensional AdS space and the d-dimensional logarithmic conformal field theories in the boundary of $AdS_{d+1}$. Using this correspondence, we get the n-point functions of the corresponding logarithmic conformal field theory in d-dimensions.

  13. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  14. Discontinuous symplectic capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehmisch, K.; Ziltener, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the spherical capacity is discontinuous on a smooth family of ellipsoidal shells. Moreover, we prove that the shell capacity is discontinuous on a family of open sets with smooth connected boundaries.

  15. Phases of Global AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Pallab; Subramanian, P N Bala

    2016-01-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ($AdS_4$) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  16. Phases of global AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala

    2016-06-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  17. Enhancement in the transport critical current density Jc in YBa2Cu3O7-δ added with an insulating nano crystalline YBa2HfO5.5 perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejith, P. P.; Vidya, S.; Solomon, Sam; Thomas, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    When a magnetic field is applied to type II superconductors, such as YBa2Cu307-δ (YBCO), the flux quanta penetrate the material as a regular array of vortices. However when transport currents are applied, they act to move these vortices, thus lowers the critical current density (Jc) as well as destroying superconductivity. The development of microstructures made of YBCO materials has enabled engineers to increase the critical current density, within Type II materials by introducing flux pinning centres into the material. The microstructure and flux pinning properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ system with varying levels (0-5 wt. %) of a nano perovskite ceramic insulator; YBa2HfO5.5 addition was studied in detail. Orthorhombic YBa2Cu3O7-δ powder was prepared through conventional solid state route and a modified combustion method was used for synthesizing nanocrystalline YBa2HfO5.5. The structure and microstructure of the samples examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed that YBa2HfO5.5 and YBCO remained unreacted even at higher processing temperature without deteriorating the superconducting properties. The scanning electron microscope image shows that YBa2HfO5.5 forms an electrical-network between grains. These observations suggest that the YBa2HfO5.5 addition to the Y-123-compounds improve the electrical connection between superconducting grains and substantial improvements in the relative electrical transport properties of the composites. The variation of sintering temperature, density, critical transition temperature (Tc) and magnetic field dependence of critical current density (Jc) of YBa2Cu3O7-δ having different proportions of YBa2HfO5.5 in the matrix were also studied in detail. It is found that the addition of these elements considerably enhances the flux pinning strength of the system, and there is also an increase of critical temperature (Tc) and critical current density (Jc) up to an optimum value of 8.76 × 104 A/cm2 for a

  18. Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Metsaev, R R

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS fi...

  19. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  20. Compact AdS space, Brane geometry and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Boschi-Filho, H; Boschi-Filho, Henrique; Braga, Nelson R. F.

    2002-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence can be realized in spaces that are globally different but share the same asymptotic behavior. Two known cases are: a compact AdS space and the space generated by a large number of coincident branes. We discuss the physical consistency, in the sense of the Cauchy problem, of these two formulations. We show that the role of the boundary in the compact AdS space is equivalent to that of the flat asymptotic region in the brane space. We also show, by introducing a second coordinate chart for the pure AdS space, that a point at its spatial infinity corresponds to a horizon in the brane system.

  1. BRST Quantization of String Theory in AdS(3)

    CERN Document Server

    Pakman, A

    2003-01-01

    We study the BRST quantization of bosonic and NSR strings propagating in AdS(3) x N backgrounds. The no-ghost theorem is proved using the Frenkel-Garland-Zuckerman method. Regular and spectrally-flowed representations of affine SL(2,R) appear on an equal footing. Possible generalizations to related curved backgrounds are discussed.

  2. Logarithmic AdS waves and Zwei-Dreibein gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Goya, Andres F.; Merbis, Wout; Rosseel, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We show that the parameter space of Zwei-Dreibein Gravity (ZDG) in AdS(3) exhibits critical points, where massive graviton modes coincide with pure gauge modes and new 'logarithmic' modes appear, similar to what happens in New Massive Gravity. The existence of critical points is shown both at the li

  3. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  4. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-02-28

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  5. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    OpenAIRE

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  6. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...... trains. This is due to network effects in the railway system and due to the fact that more trains results in lower punctuality....

  7. Predicting AD conversion: comparison between prodromal AD guidelines and computer assisted PredictAD tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawu Liu

    Full Text Available To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA on MRI and CSF biomarkers.Altogether 391 MCI cases (158 AD converters were selected from the ADNI cohort. All the cases had baseline cognitive tests, MRI and/or CSF levels of Aβ1-42 and Tau. Using baseline data, the status of MCI patients (AD or MCI three years later was predicted using current diagnostic research guidelines and the PredictAD software tool designed for supporting clinical diagnostics. The data used were 1 clinical criteria for episodic memory loss of the hippocampal type, 2 visual MTA, 3 positive CSF markers, 4 their combinations, and 5 when the PredictAD tool was applied, automatically computed MRI measures were used instead of the visual MTA results. The accuracies of diagnosis were evaluated with the diagnosis made 3 years later.The PredictAD tool achieved the overall accuracy of 72% (sensitivity 73%, specificity 71% in predicting the AD diagnosis. The corresponding number for a clinician's prediction with the assistance of the PredictAD tool was 71% (sensitivity 75%, specificity 68%. Diagnosis with the PredictAD tool was significantly better than diagnosis by biomarkers alone or the combinations of clinical diagnosis of hippocampal pattern for the memory loss and biomarkers (p≤0.037.With the assistance of PredictAD tool, the clinician can predict AD conversion more accurately than the current diagnostic criteria.

  8. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Heinze, Martin; Megrelidze, Luka

    2016-01-01

    We analyze dynamics of the AdS$_{N+1}$ particle realized on the coset SO$(2,N)/$SO$(1,N)$. Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$. We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO$(N)$ covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum level. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$ for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss a SO$(N)$ covariant supersymmetric extensions of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS$_2$ and AdS$_3$ given by recent works.

  9. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  10. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  11. AdS5 Backgrounds with 24 Supersymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, S W; Papadopoulos, G

    2016-01-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D=11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS_5 * S^5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if strictly N=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, their gravitational dual backgrounds are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  12. Accelerator development in India for ADS programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Singh; S V L S Rao; Rajni Pande; T Basak; Shwetha Roy; M Aslam; P Jain; S C L Srivastava; Rajesh Kumar; P K Nema; S Kailas; V C Sahni

    2007-02-01

    At BARC, development of a Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), as front-end injector of the 1 GeV accelerator for the ADS programme, has been initiated. The major components of LEHIPA (20 MeV, 30 mA) are a 50 keV ECR ion source, a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) lines match the beam from the ion source to RFQ and from RFQ to DTL respectively. Design of these systems has been completed and fabrication of their prototypes has started. Physics studies of the 20{1000 MeV part of the Linac are also in progress. In this paper, the present status of this project is presented.

  13. Accelerator development in India for ADS programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, Rajni; Basak, T.; Roy, Shweta; Aslam, M.; Jain, P.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Kumar, Rajesh; Nema, P. K.; Kailas, S.; Sahni, V. C.

    2007-02-01

    At BARC, development of a Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), as front-end injector of the 1 GeV accelerator for the ADS programme, has been initiated. The major components of LEHIPA (20 MeV, 30 mA) are a 50 keV ECR ion source, a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) lines match the beam from the ion source to RFQ and from RFQ to DTL respectively. Design of these systems has been completed and fabrication of their prototypes has started. Physics studies of the 20-1000 MeV part of the Linac are also in progress. In this paper, the present status of this project is presented.

  14. Designing added functions in engineered cementitious composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, En-Hua

    In this dissertation, a new and systematic material design approach is developed for ECC with added functions through material microstructures linkage to composite macroscopic behavior. The thesis research embodies theoretical development by building on previous ECC micromechanical models, and experimental investigations into three specific new versions of ECC with added functions aimed at addressing societal demands of our built infrastructure. Specifically, the theoretical study includes three important ECC modeling elements: Steady-state crack propagation analyses and simulation, predictive accuracy of the fiber bridging constitutive model, and development of the rate-dependent strain-hardening criteria. The first element establishes the steady-state cracking criterion as a fundamental requirement for multiple cracking behavior in brittle matrix composites. The second element improves the accuracy of crack-width prediction in ECC. The third element establishes the micromechanics basis for impact-resistant ECC design. Three new ECCs with added functions were developed and experimentally verified in this thesis research through the enhanced theoretical framework. A green ECC incorporating a large volume of industrial waste was demonstrated to possess reduced crack width and drying shrinkage. The self-healing ECC designed with tight crack width was demonstrated to recover transport and mechanical properties after microcrack damage when exposed to wet and dry cycles. The impact-resistant ECC was demonstrated to retain tensile ductility with increased strength under moderately high strain-rate loading. These new versions of ECC with added functions are expected to contribute greatly to enhancing the sustainability, durability, and safety of civil infrastructure built with ECC. This research establishes the effectiveness of micromechanics-based design and material ingredient tailoring for ECC with added new attributes but without losing its basic tensile ductile

  15. Self-dual warped AdS3 black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Ning, Bo

    2010-12-01

    We study a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions can be taken as nonextremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS3 along the U(1)L isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetry generators form only one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge cL=(4νℓ)/(G(ν2+3)), with which the Cardy formula reproduces the black hole entropy. We compute the real-time correlators of scalar perturbations and find a perfect match with the dual conformal field theory (CFT) predictions. Our study provides a novel example of warped AdS/CFT correspondence: the self-dual warped AdS3 black hole is dual to a CFT with nonvanishing left central charge. Moreover, our investigation suggests that the quantum topological massive gravity asymptotic to the same spacelike warped AdS3 in different consistent ways may be dual to different two-dimensional CFTs.

  16. Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS_4 perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Jai-akson, Puttarak; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude epsilon approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/epsilon^2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/epsilon^2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting phi^4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated....

  17. Routing in Terrestrial Free Space Optical Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yao; Sadegh Aminian, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communication uses visible or infrared wavelengths to broadcast high speed data wirelessly through the atmospheric channel. The performance of terrestrial FSO channel mainly depends on the local atmospheric conditions. Ad hoc networks offer cost-effective solutions for communications in areas where infrastructure is unavailable, e.g., intelligent transport system, disaster recovery and battlefield scenarios. Traditional ad hoc networks operate in the radio...

  18. Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum in AdS gravitational collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, H P; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Rodrigues, E L

    2013-08-01

    We study black hole formation during the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in asymptotically D-dimensional anti-de Sitter AdS(D) spacetimes for D = 4, 5. We conclude that spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spaces is turbulent and characterized by a Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum. Namely, we find that after an initial period of weakly nonlinear evolution, there is a regime where the power spectrum of the Ricci scalar evolves as ω(-s) with the frequency, ω, and s ≈ 1.7 ± 0.1.

  19. Technology of Ad hoc Networks%Ad hoc技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹常义

    2002-01-01

    Ad hoc技术是从无线移动Ad hoc网络(WMANET)抽象出来的一个一般性概念,该项技术所标称的是自组识、多跳的一个临时分布式系统,是一种网络构架技术.它要面临多项难题.本文就是从OSI模型的角度把Ad hoc技术分层介绍,最后给出了一种WMANET应用方案.

  20. Economic performance of irrigation capacity development to adapt to climate in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Frank A.; Crawford, Terry L.

    2016-09-01

    Growing demands for food security to feed increasing populations worldwide have intensified the search for improved performance of irrigation, the world's largest water user. These challenges are raised in the face of climate variability and from growing environmental demands. Adaptation measures in irrigated agriculture include fallowing land, shifting cropping patterns, increased groundwater pumping, reservoir storage capacity expansion, and increased production of risk-averse crops. Water users in the Gila Basin headwaters of the U.S. Lower Colorado Basin have faced a long history of high water supply fluctuations producing low-valued defensive cropping patterns. To date, little research grade analysis has investigated economically viable measures for irrigation development to adjust to variable climate. This gap has made it hard to inform water resource policy decisions on workable measures to adapt to climate in the world's dry rural areas. This paper's contribution is to illustrate, formulate, develop, and apply a new methodology to examine the economic performance from irrigation capacity improvements in the Gila Basin of the American Southwest. An integrated empirical optimization model using mathematical programming is developed to forecast cropping patterns and farm income under two scenarios (1) status quo without added storage capacity and (2) with added storage capacity in which existing barriers to development of higher valued crops are dissolved. We find that storage capacity development can lead to a higher valued portfolio of irrigation production systems as well as more sustained and higher valued farm livelihoods. Results show that compared to scenario (1), scenario (2) increases regional farm income by 30%, in which some sub regions secure income gains exceeding 900% compared to base levels. Additional storage is most economically productive when institutional and technical constraints facing irrigated agriculture are dissolved. Along with

  1. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd;

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... of a railway network. Some of the aspects which have to be paid attention to making annual capacity statements are presented too....

  2. Nuclear Capacity Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof; Tangerås, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We propose nuclear capacity auctions as a means to improve the incentives for investing in nuclear power. A properly designed auction would (i) allocate the license to the most efficient bidder; (ii) sell the license if and only if new nuclear power was socially optimal. In particular, capacity auctions open the market for large-scale entry by outside firms. Requiring licensees to sell a share of capacity as virtual power plant contracts increases auction efficiency by softening incumbent pro...

  3. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  4. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  5. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Danielsson, U H; Vargas, S C

    2016-01-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum non-perturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the pre-existing ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on $S^3$ and $S^3\\,\\times\\,S^3$, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedaman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a non-perturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  6. Thermodynamics of Einstein-Proca AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hai-Shan; Pope, C N

    2014-01-01

    We study static spherically-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Proca equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We show that the theory admits solutions describing both black holes and also solitons in an asymptotically AdS background. Interesting subtleties can arise in the computation of the mass of the solutions and also in the derivation of the first law of thermodynamics. We make use of holographic renormalisation in order to calculate the mass, even in cases where the solutions have a rather slow approach to the asymptotic AdS geometry. By using the procedure developed by Wald, we derive the first law of thermodynamics for the black hole and soliton solutions. This includes a non-trivial contribution associated with the Proca "charge." The solutions cannot be found analytically, and so we make use of numerical integration techniques to demonstrate their existence.

  7. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Oscar J C

    2016-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation [1,2]. We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied in [2]. In contrast with [2], we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied in [2]. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of [2]. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  8. Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that `boosted' AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately `renormalized' at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where $T_{thermal}\\ll T_E$.

  9. Smoothed Transitions in Higher Spin AdS Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Shamik; Hellerman, Simeon; Hijano, Eliot; Lepage-Jutier, Arnaud; Maloney, Alexander; Shenker, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We consider CFTs conjectured to be dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS_3 and AdS_4. Two dimensional CFTs with W_N symmetry are considered in the lambda=0 (k --> infinity) limit, where they are conjectured to be described by continuous orbifolds. The torus partition function is computed, using reasonable assumptions, and equals that of a free field theory. We find no phase transition at temperatures of order one; the usual Hawking-Page phase transition is removed by the highly degenerate light states associated with conical defect states in the bulk. Three dimensional Chern-Simons-matter CFTs with vector-like matter are considered on T^3, where the dynamics is described by an effective theory for the eigenvalues of the holonomies. Likewise, we find no evidence for a Hawking-Page phase transition at large level k.

  10. Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on $AdS_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Uvarov, D V

    2016-01-01

    Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of $SU(2,2)$ can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell $SL(2,\\mathbb C)$ generalized Weyl curvature spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of $AdS_5$. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on $AdS_5$ and some applications are also discussed.

  11. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  12. Semiclassical Virasoro Blocks from AdS$_3$ Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hijano, Eliot; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-01-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in arXiv:1508.00501, evaluated in locally AdS$_3$ geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block -- in which two external operators become parametrically heavy -- as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS$_3$; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  13. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  14. Alday-Maldacena duality and AdS Plateau problem

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov, A.

    2008-01-01

    A short summary of approximate approach to the study of minimal surfaces in AdS, based on solving Nambu-Goto equations iteratively. Today, after partial denunciation of the BDS conjecture, this looks like the only constructive approach to understanding the ways of its possible modification and thus to saving the Alday-Maldacena duality. Numerous open technical problems are explicitly formulated throughout the text.

  15. One loop gauge couplings in AdS5

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Ian-Woo

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the full 1-loop corrections to the low energy coupling of bulk gauge boson in a slice of AdS5 which are induced by generic 5-dimensional scalar, Dirac fermion, and vector fields with arbitrary Z_2 times Z_2' orbifold boundary conditions. In supersymmetric limit, our results correctly reproduce the results obtained by an independent method based on 4-dimensional effective supergravity. This provides a nontrivial check of our results and assures the regularization scheme-independen...

  16. Universal Kounterterms in Lovelock AdS gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Kofinas, Georgios; Olea, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    We show the universal form of the boundary term (Kounterterm series) which regularizes the Euclidean action and background-independent definition of conserved quantities for any Lovelock gravity theory with AdS asymptotics (including Einstein-Hilbert and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet). We discuss on the connection of this procedure to the existence of topological invariants and Chern-Simons forms in the corresponding dimensions.

  17. Mellin amplitudes for $AdS_5\\times S^5$

    CERN Document Server

    Rastelli, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the calculation of holographic correlation functions in IIB supergravity on $AdS_5\\times S^5$. Results for four-point functions simplify drastically when expressed in Mellin space. We conjecture a compact formula for the four-point functions of one-half BPS singe-trace operators of arbitrary weight. Our methods rely on general consistency conditions and eschew detailed knowledge of the supergravity effective action.

  18. N=2 supersymmetric sigma-models in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We construct the most general N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma-model in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space in terms of N=1 chiral superfields. The target space is shown to be a non-compact hyperkahler manifold restricted to possess a special Killing vector field. A remarkable property of the sigma-model constructed is that the algebra of OSp(2|4) transformations is closed off the mass shell.

  19. TOURISME-TRANSPORT : CAPACITE DE COORDINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Two major findings emerge from the theoretical analysis of Transport-Tourism link via a game theory type model of capacity coordination. Firstly the model explains the optimal capacities ratio of Transport and Tourism by the quotient of the ratio of tourism type (ratio of the length of stay in the destination and of transport duration) divided by the installation costs ratio (of transport and tourism).The corollary of this first finding gives the second outcome: The optimal transport and Tour...

  20. TOURISME-TRANSPORT : CAPACITÉ DE COORDINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Two major findings emerge from the theoretical analysis of Transport-Tourism link via a game theory type model of capacity coordination. Firstly the model explains the optimal capacities ratio of Transport and Tourism by the quotient of the ratio of tourism type (ratio of the length of stay in the destination and of transport duration) divided by the installation costs ratio (of transport and tourism).The corollary of this first finding gives the second outcome: The optimal transport and Tour...

  1. AdS sub 3 gravity and conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Behrndt, K; Gaida, I

    1999-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of AdS sub 3 gravity, the BTZ black hole and the associated conformal field theories (CFTs). In particular we focus on the non-extreme six-dimensional string solution with background metric AdS sub 3 x S sup 3 near the horizon. In addition we introduce momentum modes along the string, corresponding to a BTZ black hole, and a Taub-NUT soliton in the transverse Euclidean space. We show that the AdS sub 3 space-time of this configuration has the spatial geometry of an annulus with a Liouville model at the outer boundary and a two-dimensional black hole at the inner boundary. These CFTs provide the dynamical degrees of freedom of the three-dimensional effective model and, together with the CFT corresponding to S sup 3 , provide a statistical interpretation of the corresponding Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We test the proposed exact black hole entropy, which should hold to all orders in alpha', by an independent field theoretical analysis including higher-order curvature corrections. ...

  2. SUSY properties of warped AdS$_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jaehoon; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2014-01-01

    We examine supersymmetric properties of null-warped AdS$_3$, or alternatively Schrodinger geometries, dual to putative warped CFTs in two dimensions. We classify super Schrodinger subalgebras of the superalgebra psu(1, 1$|$2) $\\oplus$ psu(1, 1$|$2) , corresponding to the superconformal algebra of the AdS$_3 \\times$ S$^3$ geometry. We comment on geometric realisations and provide a string theory description with enhanced supersymmetry in terms of intersecting D3-branes. For type IIB supergravity solutions based on T$^{1,1}$, we consider the relationship between five-dimensional Schrodinger solutions and their three-dimensional null-warped counterparts, corresponding to R symmetry twists. Finally, we study a family of null-warped AdS$_3$ solutions in a setting where there is an ambiguity over the R symmetry and confirm that, for examples admitting a KK reduction to three dimensions, the minimisation of a real superpotential of the three-dimensional gauged supergravity captures the central charge and R symmetry.

  3. AdS Field Theory from Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam

    2012-01-01

    We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a Conformal Field Theory to have a description in terms of a perturbative Effective Field Theory in AdS. The first two conditions are well-known: the existence of a perturbative `1/N' expansion and an approximate Fock space of states generated by a finite number of low-dimension operators. We add a third condition, that the Mellin amplitudes of the CFT correlators must be well-approximated by functions that are bounded by a polynomial at infinity in Mellin space, or in other words, that the Mellin amplitudes have an effective theory-type expansion. We explain the relationship between our conditions and unitarity, and provide an analogy with scattering amplitudes that becomes exact in the flat space limit of AdS. The analysis also yields a simple connection between conformal blocks and AdS diagrams, providing a new calculational tool very much in the spirit of the S-Matrix program. We also begin to explore the potential pathologies associated with higher spin ...

  4. N=2 AdS supergravity and supercurrents

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We consider the minimal off-shell formulation for four-dimensional N=2 supergravity with a cosmological term, in which the second compensator is an improved tensor multiplet. We use it to derive a linearized supergravity action (and its dual versions) around the anti-de Sitter (AdS) background in terms of three N=2 off-shell multiplets: an unconstrained scalar superfield, vector and tensor multiplets. This allows us to deduce the structure of the supercurrent multiplet associated with those supersymmetric theories which naturally couple to the supergravity formulation chosen, with or without a cosmological term. Finally, our linearized N=2 AdS supergravity action is reduced to N=1 superspace. The result is a sum of two N=1 linearized actions describing (i) old minimal supergravity; and (ii) an off-shell massless gravitino multiplet. We also derive dual formulations for the massless N=1 gravitino multiplet in AdS. As a by-product of our consideration, we derive the consistent supergravity extension of the N=1 ...

  5. DWT-Based High Capacity Audio Watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahpour, Mehdi; Megías, David

    This letter suggests a novel high capacity robust audio watermarking algorithm by using the high frequency band of the wavelet decomposition, for which the human auditory system (HAS) is not very sensitive to alteration. The main idea is to divide the high frequency band into frames and then, for embedding, the wavelet samples are changed based on the average of the relevant frame. The experimental results show that the method has very high capacity (about 5.5kbps), without significant perceptual distortion (ODG in [-1, 0] and SNR about 33dB) and provides robustness against common audio signal processing such as added noise, filtering, echo and MPEG compression (MP3).

  6. CAPACITY OF ROTARY LOADING MACHINE ON COAL STOCK FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Živković

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the cost of the stock facility, which might contain large coal masses (usually several hundreds of thousands of tons it is important to have the loading capacity adjusted to the transport and boiler capacity. In the case of either too small or too large capacity of loading machinery a technical incompatibility of the loading and transport system can occur, together with some unecessary investments in too large loading machines. This is why it is necessary to have an accurate determination of working conditions, specific for each stocking capacity (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. An Empirical Study on Non-financial Value-added Services of Venture Capital and High-tech Enterprises' Technological Capacity%风险投资的非资本增值服务与高新技术企业技术能力关系的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙勇; 刘誉豪

    2013-01-01

    风险投资作为一种特殊的投资形式,不仅会为高新技术企业解决“融资难”的问题,更重要的是风险资本家投入资本后还会为企业提供非资本增值服务,进而提升企业技术能力,增强企业竞争力,最终获得较高回报.结合高新技术企业的特点,通过实证分析证实了非资本增值服务对企业提高技术能力有积极影响,得出了具有实践指导意义的结论.%As a special form of investment, venture capital is not only a method for the high-tech enterprises to solve the " financing" problem. In order to get higher returns ultimately, the venture capitalists are keen to help companies to strengthen the competitiveness of themselves, such as provide Non-financial Value-added by upgrading the technological capabilities of enterprises. In this paper, Empirical research has been drawn on Non-financial Value-added and technological capability to the high-tech enterprises. Finally, conclusions with practical significance have been proposed.

  8. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  9. Entanglement Temperature and Perturbed AdS$_3$ Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entanglement entropy $\\delta S$ of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy, $\\delta E$, of the subsystem divided by an effective entanglement temperature, $T_E$. Extending this analogy, we study entanglement entropy when the subsystem is perturbed by applying an external field, expressed as a coupling to a local marginal operator in the CFT. We show that the resulting entropy change is associated with a change in the entanglement temperature itself, leading to an equation analogous to the Clausius relation. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature, $\\delta T_E(x)$ of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. Using the AdS$_3$ minimal surface as a probe, we can construct bulk metric perturbations from an exact numerical computation of the entanglement temperature in a two dimensional $c=1$ boundary theory deformed by a marginal perturbati...

  10. Ultraviolet asymptotics and singular dynamics of AdS perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Important insights into the dynamics of spherically symmetric AdS-scalar field perturbations can be obtained by considering a simplified time-averaged theory accurately describing perturbations of amplitude epsilon on time-scales of order 1/epsilon^2. The coefficients of the time-averaged equations are complicated expressions in terms of the AdS scalar field mode functions, which are in turn related to the Jacobi polynomials. We analyze the behavior of these coefficients for high frequency modes. The resulting asymptotics can be useful for understanding the properties of the finite-time singularity in solutions of the time-averaged theory recently reported in the literature. We highlight, in particular, the gauge dependence of this asymptotics, with respect to the two most commonly used gauges. The harsher growth of the coefficients at large frequencies in higher-dimensional AdS suggests strengthening of turbulent instabilities in higher dimensions. In the course of our derivations, we arrive at recursive rel...

  11. Topology Control in VANET and Capacity Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Giang, Anh Tuan; BUSSON, Anthony; Lambert, Alain; Gruyer, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Some safety applications using VANET exchange a large amount of data, and consequently require an important network capacity. In this paper, we focus on extended perception map applications, that use information from local and distant sensors to offer driving assistance (autonomous driving, collision warning, etc). Extended perception requires a high bandwidth that might not be available in practice in classical IEEE 802.11p ad hoc networks. Therefore, we propose an adaptive power control alg...

  12. Writing CFT correlation functions as AdS scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, Joao

    2010-01-01

    We explore the Mellin representation of conformal correlation functions recently proposed by Mack. Examples in the AdS/CFT context reinforce the analogy between Mellin amplitudes and scattering amplitudes. We conjecture a simple formula relating the bulk scattering amplitudes to the asymptotic behavior of Mellin amplitudes and show that previous results on the flat space limit of AdS follow from our new formula. We find that the Mellin amplitudes are particularly useful in the case of conformal gauge theories in the planar limit. In this case, the four point Mellin amplitudes are meromorphic functions whose poles and their residues are entirely determined by two and three point functions of single-trace operators. This makes the Mellin amplitudes the ideal objects to attempt the conformal bootstrap program in higher dimensions.

  13. Self-Dual Warped AdS$_3$ Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Bin; Ning, Bo

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions are non-extremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS$_3$ along the $U(1)_L$ isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetry generators form only one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge $c_L = \\frac{4\

  14. Coherent Cascade: Collapsing Solutions in Global AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Freivogel, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the gravitational dynamics of a classical scalar field that sometimes leads to blackhole formation in asymptotically AdS spacetime at the shortest nonlinear time scale. We present strong evidence that the dynamics is governed by a "coherent cascade", with all modes remaining in phase as the energy flows to higher frequencies into a power-law spectrum. Using a coherent phase ansatz, we analytically find these power-law solutions. We show how the particular power is determined by the scaling properties of the interaction coefficients. Our result agrees with existing numerical results in 4+1 dimensions, and makes predictions in higher dimensions.

  15. Entanglement Entropy and Duality in AdS(4)

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Small variations of the entanglement entropy \\delta S and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian \\delta E are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS(4), using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, \\delta S = \\delta E, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric-magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy-momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  16. M-Theory solutions with AdS factors

    CERN Document Server

    Gauntlett, J P; Pakis, S; Waldram, D; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo; Pakis, Stathis; Waldram, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Solutions of D=7 maximal gauged supergravity are constructed with metrics that are a product of a n-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, with n=2,3,4,5, and certain Einstein manifolds. The gauge fields have the same form as in the recently constructed solutions describing the near-horizon limits of M5-branes wrapping supersymmetric cycles. The new solutions do not preserve any supersymmetry and can be uplifted to obtain new solutions of D=11 supergravity, which are warped and twisted products of the D=7 metric with a squashed four-sphere. Some aspects of the stability of the solutions are discussed.

  17. M-theory solutions with AdS factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Kim, Nakwoo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Pakis, Stathis [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-07

    Solutions of D=7 maximal gauged supergravity are constructed with metrics that are a product of an n-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, with n=2, 3, 4, 5, and certain Einstein manifolds. The gauge fields have the same form as in the recently constructed solutions describing the near-horizon limits of M5-branes wrapping supersymmetric cycles. The new solutions do not preserve any supersymmetry and can be uplifted to obtain new solutions of D=11 supergravity, which are warped and twisted products of the D=7 metric with a squashed four-sphere. Some aspects of the stability of the solutions are discussed.

  18. Thermal Fluctuations in a Charged AdS Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Pourhassan, B

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a charged AdS black hole. This will be done by analyzing the corrections to black hole thermodynamics due to these thermal fluctuations. We will demonstrate that the entropy of this black hole get corrected by logarithmic term. We will also calculate other corrections to other important thermodynamic quantities for this black hole. Finally, we will use the corrected value of the specific heat to analyze the phase transition in this system.

  19. Duality invariance of s≥32 fermions in AdS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deser

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that in D=4 AdS, s≥3/2 partially massless (PM fermions retain the duality invariances of their flat space massless counterparts. They have tuned ratios m2/M2≠0 that turn them into sums of effectively massless unconstrained helicity ±(s,⋯,32 excitations, shorn of the lowest (non-dual helicity ±12-rung and — more generally — of succeeding higher rung as well. Each helicity mode is separately duality invariant, like its flat space counterpart.

  20. Small black holes in global AdS spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Niko; Pönni, Arttu; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    We study the properties of two-point functions and quasinormal modes in a strongly coupled field theory holographically dual to a small black hole in global anti-de Sitter spacetime. Our results are seen to smoothly interpolate between known limits corresponding to large black holes and thermal AdS space, demonstrating that the Son-Starinets prescription works even when there is no black hole in the spacetime. Omitting issues related to the internal space, the results can be given a field theory interpretation in terms of the microcanonical ensemble, which provides access to energy densities forbidden in the canonical description.

  1. Internal Structure of Charged AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  2. AdS Chern-Simons Gravity induces Conformal Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aros, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional Conformal Gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauged-fixed, tractor-like) five-dimensional AdS connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program admits a readily generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.

  3. Most general AdS_3 boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Grumiller, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We consider the most general asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant. The metric contains in total twelve independent functions, six of which are interpreted as chemical potentials (or non-normalizable fluctuations) and the other half as canonical boundary charges (or normalizable fluctuations). Their presence modifies the usual Fefferman-Graham expansion. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of two sl(2)_k current algebras, the levels of which are given by k=l/(4G_N), where l is the AdS radius and G_N the three-dimensional Newton constant.

  4. Fake gaps in AdS_3/CFT_2

    CERN Document Server

    Belin, Alexandre; Hung, Ling-Yan

    2015-01-01

    We discuss properties of interpolating geometries in three dimensional gravity in the presence of a chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which introduces an unbalance between left and right central charges, is protected under RG flows. For this simple reason it is impossible to gap a system with such an anomaly. Our goal is to discuss how holography captures this basic and robust feature. We demonstrate the absence of a mass gap by analysing the linearized spectrum and holographic entanglement entropy of these backgrounds in the context of AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$.

  5. Problems Of Transport Energetics In Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithuania has more than one million of transport means, the thermal capacity of which is about 50 mill. kW, i.e. 10 times more than the capacity of all thermal power stations. In the 21st century electrical energy will be used for transport means instead of petrol, and new capacities of electric stations in Lithuania will be necessary. All perspective transport means are described and conclusions for Lithuanian energetics are presented. (author)

  6. Performance modeling of data dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaqfeh, Moumena; Lakas, Abderrahmane; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) have become a cornerstone component of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). VANET applications present a huge potential for improving road safety and travel comfort, hence the growing interest of both academia and industry. The main advantage of VANETs is its...

  7. ADS National Programmes: Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on accelerator driven systems (ADS), which be used as burners of long lived radioactive waste accrued due to operation of thermal reactors, first of all, minor actinides (MA), are carried out in some Russian research institutes (ITEP, SSC RF - IPPE, VNIIEF, JINR, RSC KI, IYaI RAN, OKB ‘GIDROPRESS’, VNIITF etc.). These researches are mainly connected with studying physical processes existing in ADS and their parameters and with design studies and substantiation of experimental ADS facilities. One of the most important directions of researches is the acquirement of quite precise and reliable nuclear data on MA with reference to conditions existing in ADS. Now a coordinated programme of researches on measurement and estimation of nuclear data for 22 isotopes of U, Pu, Np, Am, Cm, Bk and Cf in neutron energy range from 0.05 eV up to 30 MeV has been prepared. Development of different variants of ADS has put a task of comparison of their efficiency as burners of MA

  8. Introducing ADS 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  9. Heavy transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming that very often a long transport route from the factory of the manufacturer to the provided site has to be reckoned with, in general only transport with a ship is possible. As each site is only called by a certain steamship line, at a very early stage of planning the nuclear power plant the possibilities and capacities of the lines and means of transportation under discussion should be investigated. In planning the unloading equipment at the site, due consideration should be given to the fact that at a later time this equipment should also be suitable for the transport of heavy components and spent fuel assemblies. (orig.)

  10. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity...

  11. A Study On OFDM In Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Nasereldin Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is the physical layer in emerging wireless local area networks that are also being targeted for ad hoc networking. OFDM can be also exploited in ad hoc networks to improve the energy performance of mobile devices. It is important in wireless networks because it can be used adaptively in a dynamically changing channel. This study gives a detailed view about OFDM and how it is useful to increase the bandwidth. This paper also gives an idea about how OFDM can be a promising technology for high capacity wireless communication.

  12. Optimization of ATSC Mobile Handheld Service Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omneya Issa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile TV has become a reality offered on several mobile delivery systems. Among them is the Advanced Television System Committee (ATSC system for mobile and handheld digital television services, known as ATSC Mobile DTV or ATSC M/H, which has moved from standardization to implementation. As the North American broadcast industry is preparing to provide Mobile DTV service to consumers, this work discusses important technical parameters that affect the TV service quality and capacity. Since additional error correction mechanisms were added to overcome mobile transmission problems, the available payload for M/H services is limited. This creates a need to efficiently use the available M/H bandwidth. The paper aims to optimize the Mobile DTV service capacity while maintaining an acceptable perceived quality. It presents tradeoffs between several factors affecting service capacity and signal robustness, which is prominent for designing Mobile TV broadcasting scenarios.

  13. No Holography for Eternal AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, Steven G

    2013-01-01

    It is generally believed that the eternal AdS black hole is dual to two conformal field theories with compact spatial sections that are together in a thermofield double state. We argue that this proposal is incorrect, and by extension so are the "entanglement=geometry" proposal of Van Raamsdonk and "ER=EPR" proposal of Maldacena and Susskind. We show that in the bulk there is an interaction needed between the two halves of the Hilbert space for connectivity across the horizon; however, there is no such interaction between the CFTs. This rules out the possibility of the dual to the CFTs being the eternal AdS black hole. We argue the correct dual "geometries" resemble the exterior of the black hole outside the stretched horizon but cap off before the global horizon. This disallows the possibility of a shared future (and past) wedge where Alice falling from one side can meet Bob falling from the other. We expect that in the UV complete theory the aforementioned caps will be fuzzballs.

  14. Quantum cat map dynamics on AdS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Axenides, Minos; Nicolis, Stam

    2016-01-01

    We present a toy model for the chaotic unitary scattering of single particle wave packets on the radial AdS$_2$ geometry of extremal BH horizons. Based on our recent work for the discretization of the AdS$_2$ space-time, which describes a finite and random geometry, by modular arithmetic, we investigate the validity of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH), as well as that of the fast scrambling time bound conjecture (STB), for an observer with time evolution operator the quantum Arnol'd cat map (QACM). We find that the QACM, while possessing a linear spectrum, has eigenstates, which can be expressed in closed form, are found to be random and to satisfy the assumptions of the ETH.The implications are that the dynamics is described by a chaotic, unitary, single particle S-matrix, which completely delocalizes and randomizes initial gaussian wave packets . Applying results obtained by Dyson and Falk for the periods of the Arnol'd Cat Map(ACM),which are related to its mixing time, we also find that the t...

  15. AdS Twistors for Higher Spin Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct spectra of supersymmetric higher spin theories in D = 4, 5 and 7 from twistors describing massless (super-)particles on AdS spaces. A massless twistor transform is derived in a geometric way from classical kinematics. Relaxing the spin-shell constraints on twistor space gives an infinite tower of massless states of a 'higher spin particle', generalizing previous work of Bandos et al.. This can generically be done in a number of ways, each defining the states of a distinct higher spin theory, and the method provides a systematic way of finding these. We reproduce known results in D = 4, minimal supersymmetric 5- and 7-dimensional models, as well as supersymmetrisations of Vasiliev's Sp-models as special cases. In the latter models a dimensional enhancement takes place, meaning that the theory lives on a space of higher dimension than the original AdS space, and becomes a theory of doubletons. This talk was presented at the XIX-th Max Born Symposium 'Fundamental Interactions and Twistor-Like Methods', September 2004, in Wroclaw, Poland

  16. AdCell: Ad Allocation in Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alaei, Saeed; Liaghat, Vahid; Pei, Dan; Saha, Barna

    2011-01-01

    With more than four billion usage of cellular phones worldwide, mobile advertising has become an attractive alternative to online advertisements. In this paper, we propose a new targeted advertising policy for Wireless Service Providers (WSPs) via SMS or MMS- namely {\\em AdCell}. In our model, a WSP charges the advertisers for showing their ads. Each advertiser has a valuation for specific types of customers in various times and locations and has a limit on the maximum available budget. Each query is in the form of time and location and is associated with one individual customer. In order to achieve a non-intrusive delivery, only a limited number of ads can be sent to each customer. Recently, new services have been introduced that offer location-based advertising over cellular network that fit in our model (e.g., ShopAlerts by AT&T) . We consider both online and offline version of the AdCell problem and develop approximation algorithms with constant competitive ratio. For the online version, we assume tha...

  17. Smooth Causal Patches for AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Suvrat

    2016-01-01

    We review the paradox of low energy excitations about an AdS black hole. An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than $k T$ cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly, and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analy...

  18. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  19. CO diffusion capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, U.

    1979-01-01

    We measured in 287 persons the pulmonary CO diffusion capacity with the steady-state and the single breath methods, applying apnoeic periods of 4 and 10 seconds duration. The aspects methodical significance, polyclinical applicability and pathognostic relevance with respect to other approved pulmonary functional tests are discussed. Differing pulmonary diffusion capacity values found in normal persons or in patients suffering from silicosis, pulmonary fibrosis, Boeck's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, were investigated and critically evaluated.

  20. Capacities in function theory

    OpenAIRE

    O'Farrell, Anthony G.

    1991-01-01

    Ever since the famous thesis of Frostman, capacities have been important in many areas of function theory. In this talk I shall be concerned only with one–variable function theory on arbitrary open subsets of the complex plane, C. It is important to stress that the open sets need not be connected. I will discuss the use of analytic capacities in connection with problems of removable singularities, holomorphic approximation, and boundary smoothness. A brief reference to the applications ...

  1. Facilities Management and Added Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims to present different models of the concept of the added value of Facilities Management (FM), including the FM Value Map, which forms the basis of research group in EuroFM, and to present some of the results of this research collaboration. Approach and methodology: The paper...... is based on literature reviews of the most influential journals within the academic fields of FM, Corporate Real Estate Management and Business to Business Marketing and discussions between participants of the research group working on a further exploration and testing of the FM Value Map. Conclusions......: The research shows a number of different definitions and focus points of Added Value of FM, dependent on the academic field and the area of application. The different research perspectives explored a holistic view on the added value of FM by the integration of an external market based view (with a focus...

  2. Online Ad Slotting With Cancellations

    CERN Document Server

    Constantin, Florin; Muthukrishnan, S; Pal, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many advertisers buy advertisements (ads) on the Internet or on traditional media and seek simple, online mechanisms to reserve ad slots in advance. Media publishers represent a vast and varying inventory, and they too seek automatic, online mechanisms for pricing and allocating such reservations. In this paper, we present and study a simple model for auctioning such ad slots in advance. Bidders arrive sequentially and report which slots they are interested in. The seller must decide immediately whether or not to grant a reservation. Our model allows a seller to accept reservations, but possibly cancel the allocations later and pay the bidder a cancellation compensation (bump payment). Our main result is an online mechanism to derive prices and bump payments that is efficient to implement. This mechanism has many desirable properties. It is individually rational; winners have an incentive to be honest and bidding one's true value dominates any lower bid. Our mechanism's efficiency is within a constant fractio...

  3. COSCO Calls for Boost of China's Oil Fleet Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Dalian Ocean Shipping Company (COSCO Dalian)said recently that China should strengthen its maritime oil transport capacity to ensure the security of China's oil supply. Meng Qinglin, Managing Director of COSCO Dalian, said at the 2006 China Oil and Gas Summit that with the rise of China's oil imports, the weak maritime oil transport capacity has become a major threat to China's oil supply security.

  4. Thermodynamics of Charged AdS Black Holes in Extended Phases Space via M2-branes Background

    CERN Document Server

    Chabab, M; Masmar, K

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by a recent work on asymptotically Ad$S_4$ black holes in M-theory, we investigate both thermodynamics and thermodynamical geometry of Raissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes from M2-branes. More precisely, we study AdS black holes in $AdS_{4}\\times S^{7}$, with the number of M2-branes interpreted as a thermodynamical variable. In this context, we calculate various thermodynamical quantities including the chemical potential, and examine their phase transitions along with the corresponding stability behaviors. In addition, we also evaluate the thermodynamical curvatures of the Weinhold, Ruppeiner and Quevedo metrics for M2-branes geometry to study the stability of such black object. We show that the singularities of these scalar curvature's metrics reproduce similar stability results obtained by the phase transition program via the heat capacities in different ensembles either when the number of the M2 branes or the charge are held fixed. Also, we note that all results derived in [1] are recovered in the ...

  5. On thermodynamics of charged AdS black holes in extended phases space via M2-branes background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabab, M.; El Moumni, H.; Masmar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by a recent work on asymptotically AdS_4 black holes in M-theory, we investigate both thermodynamics and the thermodynamical geometry of Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes from M2-branes. More precisely, we study AdS black holes in AdS4× S7, with the number of M2-branes interpreted as a thermodynamical variable. In this context, we calculate various thermodynamical quantities including the chemical potential, and examine their phase transitions along with the corresponding stability behaviors. In addition, we also evaluate the thermodynamical curvatures of the Weinhold, Ruppeiner, and Quevedo metrics for M2-branes geometry to study the stability of such a black object. We show that the singularities of these scalar curvature's metrics reproduce similar stability results to those obtained by the phase transition diagram via the heat capacities in different ensembles either when the number of the M2 branes or the charge is held fixed. Also, we note that all results derived in Belhaj et al. (Eur Phys J C 76(2):73, 2016) are recovered in the limit of the vanishing charge.

  6. Performance Analysis of Ad Hoc Dispersed Spectrum Cognitive Radio Networks over Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muneer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio systems can utilize dispersed spectrum, and thus such approach is known as dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems. In this paper, we first provide the performance analysis of such systems over fading channels. We derive the average symbol error probability of dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems for two cases, where the channel for each frequency diversity band experiences independent and dependent Nakagami- fading. In addition, the derivation is extended to include the effects of modulation type and order by considering M-ary phase-shift keying ( -PSK and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation -QAM schemes. We then consider the deployment of such cognitive radio systems in an ad hoc fashion. We consider an ad hoc dispersed spectrum cognitive radio network, where the nodes are assumed to be distributed in three dimension (3D. We derive the effective transport capacity considering a cubic grid distribution. Numerical results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis and show the performance of such networks.

  7. Optimal Routing and Power Control for a Single Cell, Dense, Ad Hoc Wireless Network

    CERN Document Server

    Ramaiyan, Venkatesh; Altman, Eitan

    2009-01-01

    We consider a dense, ad hoc wireless network, confined to a small region. The wireless network is operated as a single cell, i.e., only one successful transmission is supported at a time. Data packets are sent between sourcedestination pairs by multihop relaying. We assume that nodes self-organise into a multihop network such that all hops are of length d meters, where d is a design parameter. There is a contention based multiaccess scheme, and it is assumed that every node always has data to send, either originated from it or a transit packet (saturation assumption). In this scenario, we seek to maximize a measure of the transport capacity of the network (measured in bit-meters per second) over power controls (in a fading environment) and over the hop distance d, subject to an average power constraint. We first argue that for a dense collection of nodes confined to a small region, single cell operation is efficient for single user decoding transceivers. Then, operating the dense ad hoc wireless network (desc...

  8. Belarus activity in ADS field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: • The YALINA facility is a unique installation which was designed as a zero power model of real ADS. • It is intended to study neutronics and kinetics of the sub-critical reactors driven by external neutron sources. • The successful operation of this facility is a scientific contribution from the Republic of Belarus, as well as the international team from EC and USA. • The experimental data are used to benchmark and validate methods and computer codes for designing and licensing ADS

  9. Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunin, Oleg, E-mail: olunin@albany.edu [Department of Physics, University at Albany (SUNY), Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Mathur, Samir D., E-mail: mathur.16@osu.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Turton, David, E-mail: turton.7@osu.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-11

    We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a traveling wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T{sup 4}. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.

  10. Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Lunin, Oleg; Turton, David

    2012-01-01

    We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a travelling-wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T^4. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.

  11. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.48 Number and capacity. (a) Number and capacity. Every boiler shall be... the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief...

  12. Light dependence of carboxylation capacity for C3 photosynthesis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosynthesis at high light is often modelled by assuming limitation by the maximum capacity of Rubisco carboxylation at low carbon dioxide concentrations, by electron transport capacity at higher concentrations, and sometimes by triose-phosphate utilization rate at the highest concentrations. Pho...

  13. RESERVOIR CAPACITY DEPLETION ON ACCOUNT OF SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhata K.SWAMEE

    2001-01-01

    Capacity depletion is an important information required for planning of multipurpose reservoirs. It is a complex phenomenon involving diverse fields like surface hydrology, sediment transport, varied flow hydraulics and soil consolidation. Proper assessment of capacity reduction is helpful in ascertaining the life of the reservoir and the project benefits for cost/benefit analysis. In this study dimensionally consistent equations for deposition volume and the trap efficiency have been obtained. Methods of obtaining the parameters involved these equations have also been indicated. It was found that there is good agreement with the field data. It is hoped that the equations are useful to design engineer.

  14. The PredictAD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antila, Kari; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart;

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia affecting 36 million people worldwide. As the demographic transition in the developed countries progresses towards older population, the worsening ratio of workers per retirees and the growing number of patients with age-related illnes...

  15. Holographic properties in three-dimensional AdS soliton using $AdS_3/CFT_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We study the holographic description of a superconductor by the $AdS_{3}/CFT_{2}$ correspondence. The system is constructed with a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field coupled in the (2+1)-dimensional AdS soliton background. With analytical methods, we obtain the exact expression for the critical chemical potential as $\\mu_{c} = 1 + \\sqrt{1+m^2}$, which has also been generalized to higher dimensions as $\\mu_c \\thickapprox a + \\sqrt{m^2-m_{BF}^2}$ in this work. Around the phase transition points, we find a correspondence between the value of the scalar field at the tip and the scalar operator at infinity. We also arrive at the classical second order phase transition threshold exponent $\\beta=\\frac{1}{2}$ as the same as the mean field theory near the critical chemical potential. As the condensation becomes heavier, we show surprisingly that superconducting phases exist only in a certain range of the chemical potential, which is very different from higher-dimensional cases. And for the small enough negative ...

  16. The AdMit Package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. David (David); L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis short note presents the R package AdMit which provides flexible functions to approximate a certain target distribution and it provides an efficient sample of random draws from it, given only a kernel of the target density function. The estimation procedure is fully automatic and thu

  17. Spatial and Temporal Distributions and Types of Impacts of Earthquake Disasters on Transportation from 1831 BC to 1980 AD in China%公元前1831年-公元1980年中国地震灾害对交通影响的时空分布及其类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慧子; 曹小曙

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake disasters have significant effects on traffic.With the development of economy and tech-nology,the ability of people to deal with natural disasters is gradually enhanced.The vulnerability of the trans-portation system after earthquake disasters and the"lifeline"role that transportation system plays prompt people to pay more attention to the impacts of earthquake disasters on traffic.The research on earthquake disasters and traffic and other related issues are concentrated in earthquake engineering fields,namely from the perspective of traffic engineering construction to study the earthquake resistant behavior of the traffic system.There are rela-tively few studies from the perspective of human geography on the impacts of earthquake disasters on traffic based on the historical earthquake data.China has more detailed historical earthquake materials and data than any other countries in the world.China has not only a great deal of historical earthquake data,but also a large number of modern earthquake assembly data.On the basis of comprehensively coordinating the earthquake di-saster data from 1831 BC to 1980 AD,and using the GIS technology,this article discusses the characteristics of China's earthquake disasters in time and space,and their influences.The earthquakes in China are imbalanced in spatial and temporal distributions.In the Yuan Dynasty,the earthquakes were concentrated in Shanxi,Henan and Shaanxi.Earthquakes in Southwest China and Taiwan increased in the Ming and Qing dynasties,and those in the Republic of China and during 1949-1980 occurred mainly in Southwest China,Northwest China and Tai-wan.Traffic impacts by earthquake disasters were also concentrated in Northwest and Southwest China,especial-ly in Yunnan,Sichuan and Xinjiang.The earthquakes with high intensities had significant influences on the trans-portation system of Xinjiang.And in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces,the earthquakes with low intensity also had great influences on the

  18. Bootstrapping Pure Quantum Gravity in AdS3

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Jin-Beom; Lee, Sungjay

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional pure quantum gravity with negative cosmological constant is supposed to be dual to the extremal conformal field theory of central charge $c=24k$ in two dimensions. We employ the conformal bootstrap method to analyze the extremal CFTs, and find numerical evidence for the non-existence of the extremal CFTs for sufficiently large central charge ($k \\ge 20$). We also explore near-extremal CFTs, a small modification of extremal ones, and find similar evidence for their non-existence for large central charge. This indicates, under the assumption of holomorphic factorization, the pure gravity in the weakly curved AdS$_3$ do not exist as a consistent quantum theory.

  19. On Information Loss in AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS$_3$, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT$_2$ correlators at large central charge $c$: 'forbidden singularities' arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite $c$, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior of correlators at times $t \\sim S_{BH}$, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the $1/c$ expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify 'information-restoring' effects from heavy states that should correspo...

  20. An Investigation of AdS2 Backreaction and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Engelsöy, Julius; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski and develop an 1D effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1D version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  1. Correlation Functions of Winding Strings in AdS_3

    CERN Document Server

    Minces, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    We review certain results for amplitudes of spectral flowed operators in string theory on AdS_3. We present the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by correlators including w=1 operators. We then discuss the three point function of two w=1 and one w=0 operators in the x-basis, and perform a consistency check on the definition of the w=1 operator. We finally exhibit the steps in the calculation of the winding conserving four point functions for operators in arbitrary spectral flowed sectors, both in the m- and x-basis, under the only assumption that at least one of the operators is in the spectral flowed image of the highest weight discrete representation.

  2. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasobh, C.B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V.C. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Cochin (India)

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)

  3. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  4. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)

  5. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  6. International Programmes on ADS: The Asian ADS Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the management of radioactive wastes is a common issue for all the countries utilizing nuclear energy and also for those intending to start it, international multilateral collaboration must be of great importance for effective research and development of transmutation technology for long lived nuclides. Collaboration in Asian region, however, had been less active in comparison to European countries, though nuclear power generation would increase significantly in Asia. Considering this context, the former Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) convened the ‘International Symposium on Accelerator driven Transmutation Systems and Asia ADS Network Initiative’ on March 24 and 25, 2003 at Tokyo, Japan in cooperation with Kyoto University, Osaka University, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization and Tokyo Institute of Technology. Through the discussion in the symposium, common understanding was developed in Japanese, Korean and Chinese scientists concerning the importance of establishing an international network among Asian countries to facilitate information exchange for R&D of ADS. Based on this understanding, five workshops were held so far. The workshop covers the national R&D programmes on ADS including subcritical reactor physics, cross-section measurements, high energy particle physics, accelerator technology, material technology and MA fuel technology. From the fifth workshop, information exchange for R&D on innovative fast reactors for nuclear transmutation was also included

  7. Thermal transport in fractal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments on the thermal transport in systems with partial fractal geometry, silica aerogels, are reviewed. The individual contributions from phonons, fractons and particle modes, respectively, have been identified and can be described by quantitative models consistent with heat capacity...

  8. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  9. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  10. Capacity Expansion and Reliability Evaluation on the Networks Flows with Continuous Stochastic Functional Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hamzezadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many systems such as computer network, fuel distribution, and transportation system, it is necessary to change the capacity of some arcs in order to increase maximum flow value from source s to sink t, while the capacity change incurs minimum cost. In real-time networks, some factors cause loss of arc’s flow. For example, in some flow distribution systems, evaporation, erosion or sediment in pipes waste the flow. Here we define a real capacity, or the so-called functional capacity, which is the operational capacity of an arc. In other words, the functional capacity of an arc equals the possible maximum flow that may pass through the arc. Increasing the functional arcs capacities incurs some cost. There is a certain resource available to cover the costs. First, we construct a mathematical model to minimize the total cost of expanding the functional capacities to the required levels. Then, we consider the loss of flow on each arc as a stochastic variable and compute the system reliability.

  11. The future of globalisation. Changes in value adding networks in times of global climate change, rising energy cost and short traffic infrastructure capacities. A study; Die Zukunft der Globalisierung. Die Veraenderung von Wertschoepfungsnetzwerken in Zeiten des Klimawandels, steigender Energiekosten und knapper Verkehrsinfrastrukturkapazitaeten. Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretzke, Wolf-Ruediger [Barkawi Management Consultants GmbH und Co. KG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The authors examine the question of whether and to what extent globalization changes in the future. For this purpose, an expert survey is carried out. The results of this expert surveys are described in the contribution under consideration: (1) The vast majority of climate scientists says that limiting global warming to two degrees celsius only is possible if the developed industrial countries reduce their emissions by 80 % compared to the year 1990; (2) This inevitably requires interventions of the policy for sustainable management; (3) Despite the economic and financial crisis the policy shall not ease its ambitious targets in the medium term; (4) The threat of global warming is a global problem. The solution of this problem at political level requires a more advanced form of 'global governance'; (5) A significant increase in the petroleum price may affect the globally distributed industrial 'settlement structures' and the configuration of logistics networks. A possible adaptation may consist in multistage distribution systems with regional, customer-oriented stocks; (6) A stronger focus of companies to a low-polluting, sustainable business can be facilitated and supported by financial incentives; (7) It is not expected that professional buyers of companies do not sacrifice price advantages in low-wage countries; (8) Scale effects in the production by special factories result in a continuation of the current 'production footprints' even if this model significantly increases the transport intensity of the economy due to the longer distance between the place of production and the place of consumption; (9) In the logistics presumable there exists any other single measure to eliminate many pollutants such as the replacement of air cargo by sea freight; (10) Economic-historically, globalization has developed very quickly. The experts disagree on whether globalization slows down or whether the globalization changes at a constant speed.

  12. Integrated passenger terminal capacity analysis under the capacity constraints of surrounding road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuemei; Huang, Huang; Jia, Xinchang; Jiang, Nan

    2014-11-01

    Forecasting the demand of an integrated passenger terminal under the capacity constraints of its surrounding roads has always been a challenging problem for urban transportation terminals planning and construction in China. A bi-level model is proposed to forecast the passenger demand of an integrated terminal, whose throughput is restricted by the capacity of its surrounding road network. The upper level model maximizes the passenger flow of a terminal considering the capacity constraints of its surrounding road network. The User Equilibrium (UE) model is adopted as lower level model for traffic assignment. The adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) is applied to solve this bi-level problem. The West-Lanzhou integrated passenger terminal in the Lanzhou city of China is used to test the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model. Test results show that, to reduce traffic congestion at the terminal, priority should be given to transportation mode with higher performance.

  13. Durability of organobentonite-amended liner for decelerating chloroform transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shichong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-04-01

    Chloroform is added to landfill for suppressing methane generation, which however may transport through landfill liners and lead to contamination of groundwater. To decelerate chloroform transport, the enhanced sorption ability of clay liners following organobentonite addition was tested. In this study, we used batch sorption to evaluate sorption capacity of chloroform to organobentonite, followed by column tests and model simulations for assessing durability of different liners. Results show that adding 10% CTMAB-bentonite (organobentonite synthesized using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) increased the duration of a bentonite liner by 88.5%. CTMAB-bentonite consistently showed the highest sorption capacity (Qm) among six typical organobentonites under various environmental conditions. The removal rate of chloroform by CTMAB-bentonite was 3.6-23 times higher than that by natural soils. According to the results derived by model simulation, a 70-cm 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner exhibited much better durability than a 100-cm compact clay liner (CCL) and natural bentonite liner evidenced by the delayed and lower peak of eluent concentration. A minimum thickness of 65.8 cm of the 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner could completely sorb the chloroform in a 100-m-high landfill. The 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner exhibiting much better durability has the promise for reducing environmental risk of chloroform in landfill. PMID:26874063

  14. Port investment: towards an integrated planning of port capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study supports strategic planning of a node in a transportation network. It contributes to this by the development of a methodology for planning of port capacity in which port-commercial and public interests are integrated. The focus is the reaction of a single port on a change in the transport

  15. Limitations of empirical sediment transport formulas for shallow water and their consequences for swash zone modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wei; Pähtz, Thomas; He, Zhiguo; Cao, Zhixian

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric sediment concentrations computed by phase-resolving swash morphodynamic models are shown to exceed unity minus porosity (i.e. the maximal physically possible concentration value) by up to factor of $10^5$ when using standard expressions to compute the sediment transport rate. An ad hoc limit of sediment concentration is introduced as a means to evaluate consequences of exceeding physically realistic concentration by standard expressions. We find that implementation of this ad hoc limit strongly changes the quantitative and qualitative predictions of phase-resolving swash morphodynamic models, suggesting that existing swash predictions are unreliable. This is because standard expressions inappropriately consider or ignore the fact that the shallow swash water depth limits the storage capacity of transported sediment.

  16. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Boston U.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  17. Functional foods for added value

    OpenAIRE

    Mark-Herbert, Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    In this study innovation involves the development of a new product category; i.e. new products, new processes and new business. The development process is conveyed in narratives where a radically new product group, functional foods, is developed. These high-tech food products are associated with added value for the food business as well as for individuals and society at large. In the past decades Swedish food companies have faced an increasing competition. With increased competitive pressures...

  18. International Programmes on ADS: ISTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization, created to serve the goal of improving global safety and security. The European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States of America, on the basis of a multinational agreement, established ISTC in 1992. The ISTC focused its efforts on funding research projects related to key safety and security technologies including advanced nuclear technology. Since the first ISTC funded project in 1994, Accelerator Driven Systems, Transmutation research and a holistic approach to the nuclear fuel cycle were the areas where ISTC made a real impact on international development in these fields. Given the international dimension of the problem, the research communities of the ISTC member states quickly realized that ISTC projects offered a very flexible and fruitful cooperation platform to address many difficult issues of the nuclear fuel cycle. Highly competent expert communities of ISTC member states benefited from a well defined and transparent mode of operation of ISTC and objective oriented project funding strategy. The ISTC projects related to transmutation of radioactive waste and ADS can be classified in the following thematic areas: - ADS concepts; - Accelerator development; - Spallation target studies; - Nuclear data and spallation process studies; - Minor actinides studies related to ADS; - Partitioning and extraction

  19. An Overview of Local Capacity in Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, Salman

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a metric for performance evaluation of medium access schemes in wireless ad hoc networks known as local capacity. Although deriving the end-to-end capacity of wireless ad hoc networks is a difficult problem, the local capacity framework allows us to quantify the average information rate received by a receiver node randomly located in the network. In this article, the basic network model and analytical tools are first discussed and applied to a simple network to derive the local capacity of various medium access schemes. Our goal is to identify the most optimal scheme and also to see how does it compare with more practical medium access schemes. We analyzed grid pattern schemes where simultaneous transmitters are positioned in a regular grid pattern, ALOHA schemes where simultaneous transmitters are dispatched according to a uniform Poisson distribution and exclusion schemes where simultaneous transmitters are dispatched according to an exclusion rule such as node coloring and carrier s...

  20. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  1. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  2. Discontinuous symplectic capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Zehmisch, Kai; Ziltener, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Comment: We include generalizations to higher dimensions due to the unknown referee and Janko Latschev. We add examples of open sets with connected boundary on which the shell capacity is not continuous. 3rd and 4th version: minor changes, to appear in J. Fixed Point Theory Appl

  3. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  4. Routing Protocol of Sparse Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huxiong

    Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is an application of mobile ad hoc technology in transportation systems, it has become an important part of ITS. Since multi-hop link is hard to set up in sparse VANET, a traffic-aware routing (TAR) protocol is proposed which estimates vehicle average neighbors (VAN) of roads by exchanging beacon messages between encounter vehicles. Road with high VAN is preferred to be selected as part of forwarding path at intersection. Packets are forwarded to the next intersection in road in a greedy manner. Simulations show that TAR outperforms the compared protocols in terms of both packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay.

  5. Magnetic Mass in 4D AdS Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Araneda, Rene; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    We provide a fully-covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in 4D anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action, and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti) self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  6. Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  7. Towards Timelike Singularity via AdS Dual

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmick, Samrat

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Kasner geometry with spacelike singularity can be extended to bulk AdS-like geometry, furthermore one can study field theory on this Kasner space via its gravity dual. In this paper, we show that there exists a Kasner-like geometry with timelike singularity for which one can construct a dual gravity description. We then study various minimal surfaces including spacelike geodesics. Finally, we compute correlators of highly massive operators in the boundary field theory with a geodesic approximation.

  8. Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-08-01

    We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.

  9. AdS/Ricci-flat correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the AdS/Ricci-flat correspondence, a map between a class of asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes and a class of Ricci-flat spacetimes. We provide a detailed derivation of the map, discuss a number of extensions and apply it to a number of important examples, such as AdS on a torus, AdS black branes and fluids/gravity metrics. In particular, the correspondence links the hydrodynamic regime of asymptotically flat black p-branes or the Rindler fluid with that of AdS. It implies that this class of Ricci-flat spacetimes inherits from AdS a generalized conformal symmetry and has a holographic structure. We initiate the discussion of holography by analyzing how the map acts on boundary conditions and holographic 2-point functions

  10. Discrete capacity choice problems in repeated and scaled investment

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on real options are confined to the realm of continuous modelling while more practical discrete models are restricted by the methodology of solutions. This thesis applies the discount factor methodology to solve two scaling capacity choice problems: one is the scaling capacity expansions without switching options raised from Dxit and Pindyck (1994) and the other one is the case adding switching opportunities raised from Pindyck (1988). We respectively establish two discr...

  11. Strategic network design of Java Island fuel supply with production-transportation solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianawati, Fauzia; Farizal, -; Surjandari, Isti; Marzuli, Rully

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to find more efficient supply network, from refineries / imports to fuel terminal, which still uses the Tanker, Tank Trucks or Rail Tank Wagon with an alternative pipeline that are considered more efficient than other transport modes, as well as gaining pipeline transportation network optimization analysis tailored to the capabilities/ capacity of refinery production and capacity of the pipe mode. With the complexity of the number of 3 point sources of supply, 19 destination of terminal, 4 kinds of products and 4 types of transport modes, transport-production model modified by adding multi-modal transport and investment costs of new pipeline. Then coded in Lingo program which adopts Branch & Bound technique and input the processed data in order to obtain an optimal distribution pattern produced the lowest distribution costs. This B&B solution was also compared with SCO solution which is a metaheuristic method. The results of this study lead to the development of new modes of pipeline connections in amount of 4 alternatives, generated from the optimal solution, but still potentially earned savings of about IDR 1 Trillion per year from cost-efficiency of product procurement and transportation costs.

  12. Stability of charged global AdS4 spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Raúl; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS4 solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of this stability band scales down with the charge Q, and does not survive the blow up limit to a planar geometry.

  13. Stability of Charged Global AdS$_4$ Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Raúl; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS$_4$ solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of t...

  14. The ADS All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  15. Ad-hoc Network Based on ARM-Linux%基于ARM-Linux的Ad-hoc组网

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓华; 贾继洋

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to solve the problem of the contemporary communication system in the absence of any network, a new scheme of the Ad-hoc network based on ARM-Linux system is designed. Firstly, this paper introduces the transportation of the Linux2.6.36 and the driver of RT3070 on ARM11 platform. Then based on socket programming in TCP/IP, program designing of communication and tests are conducted on the ARM-Linux platform. Results have proved that the Ad-hoc network can use the least resources and costs to achieve reliable high rate communication. It is significant for practical application.%针对传统通信系统不能满足在无任何网络情况下的通信需求现状,设计并实现了一种由 ARM-Linux 系统及其外围部件组成的无线自组网(Ad-hoc)的通信方案.在 ARM11平台上完成了 Linux2.6.36操作系统和RT3070无线通信模块的驱动程序移植.利用基于TCP/IP协议的socket编程,编写测试程序,进行节点间无线通信传输实验.实验结果表明:本文搭建的Ad-hoc网络,可以用最少的资源和成本,实现节点间可靠的无线高速率通信,具有现实应用意义.

  16. International Programmes on ADS: IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA recognizes that there are four major challenges facing the long term development of nuclear energy as a part of the world’s energy mix: improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptance. Meeting the sustainability criteria is the driving force behind IAEA’s activity in the area of innovative transmutation reactor technology development and, in particular, Accelerator Driven Systems. The framework for all the IAEA activities in the ADS area is the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). In response to strong common R&D needs in the Member States, the TWG-FR acts as a catalyst for international information exchange and collaborative R&D. It provides a forum for exchange of non-commercial scientific and technical information, and a forum for international cooperation on generic research and development programmes on advances in fast reactors and fast spectrum accelerator driven systems. Its present members are the following 15 IAEA Member States: Belarus, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and United States of America, as well as 3 international organizations: ISTC, OECD-NEA, and EU (EC). As observers, the TWG-FR has welcomed Argentina and Belgium. Last but not least, the IAEA is providing the ADS Research and Development Database. It contains information about ADS related R&D programmes, existing and planned experimental facilities as well as programmes, methods and data development efforts, design studies, and so forth

  17. ADS activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of long-lived nuclear waste was under consideration in the Netherlands during a number of years. Within this framework different reactor concepts have been considered. One of the most promising concepts appears to be the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) or Fast Energy Amplifier (FEA), as it has been proposed by C. Rubbia of CERN. To unite the effort on accelerator driven reactor concepts in the Netherlands, KEMA, NIKHEF, ECN, KVI, and IRI have joined their forces in a co-operative program since 1996. Cupertino covers the technical fields of nuclear data, reactor physics, and innovative fuels. (author)

  18. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-03-01

    Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  19. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  20. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    that contribute to the neo-Schumpeterian economics literature and hopefully inspires further research into this area. The main findings of the dissertation can be divided into four distinct parts. First, diversity of individuals within firms is associated with firm innovative performance. This is in line......One of the most influential contributions to neo-Schumpeterian economics is Cohen and Levinthal‘s papers on absorptive capacity. Since their publication in the late 1980s and early 1990s the concept absorptive capacity has had substantial impact on research in economics and management, including...... international business, organizational economics, strategic management, technology management and last but not least neo-Schumpeterian economics. The goal of this dissertation is to examine what many consider as neglected arguments from the work by Cohen and Levinthal and thereby illuminate an otherwise...

  1. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...... model shows positive correlation between serving London and the efficiency scores. There is negative correlation between offering regional services (average length of journeys less than 40 mi) and the efficiency scores. The overall study and the results can provide helpful insights for railway...

  2. Deficiency of employability capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Pelse I.; Vilka L.

    2012-01-01

    Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a ...

  3. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  4. Functional Capacity Evaluation & Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Joseph J.

    2007-01-01

    Function, Impairment, and Disability are words in which many physicians have little interest. Most physicians are trained to deal with structure and physiology and not function and disability. The purpose of this article is to address some of the common questions that many physicians have with the use of functional capacity evaluation and disability and also to provide a unifying model that can explain the medical and societal variables in predicting disability. We will first define the funct...

  5. Enterprise’s performance evaluation on the basis of value added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Pacurari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Important indicator, used in performance analysis, value added expresses enterprise’s contribution to national gross domestic product. The value added through economic activity developed by enterprise should assure the remuneration of all its life  participants: employees, investors, state and enterprise itself. Information referring to enterprise capacity of generatingvalue added should be based on decisions concerning future enterprise decisions. The present article presents, by means of a case study, value added calculation (by subtractive and additivemethod and their analysis.

  6. A Survey of Multicast Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Waqar Farooq; Khan, Muazzam A.; Saad Rehman; Nazar Abbas Saqib

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are autonomous and self-configurable wireless ad hoc networks and considered as a subset of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). MANET is composed of self-organizing mobile nodes which communicate through a wireless link without any network infrastructure. A VANET uses vehicles as mobile nodes for creating a network within a range of 100 to 1000 meters. VANET is developed for improving road safety and for providing the latest services of intelligent transport sy...

  7. Entanglement Entropy of AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Melis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in understanding the entanglement entropy of gravitational configurations for anti-de Sitter gravity in two and three spacetime dimensions using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We derive simple expressions for the entanglement entropy of two- and three-dimensional black holes. In both cases, the leading term of the entanglement entropy in the large black hole mass expansion reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, whereas the subleading term behaves logarithmically. In particular, for the BTZ black hole the leading term of the entanglement entropy can be obtained from the large temperature expansion of the partition function of a broad class of 2D CFTs on the torus.

  8. Capacity Utilization and Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Fagnart, J.F.; Licandro, O.; Sneessens, Henri

    1997-01-01

    In a monopolistic competition framework, we propose a dynamic model in which capacity underutilization is a macroeconomic equilibrium feature relying on a diversity of microeconomic situations. Capacity underutilization follows from microeconomic uncertainty at the time firms must decide on their productive capacity. We settle a relationship between capacity utilization and markups via the effect of capacity utilization rate changes on firms' market power. We show that such a relationship inf...

  9. Condom ads slated for TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-20

    3 CBS-owned television stations and NBC's New York television station announced yesterday that they would begin accepting condom advertising. In addition, the ABC network announced it will begin running a 30-second public service message with Dr. C. Everett Koop, the US surgeon general, saying that condoms are the best protection against sexual transmission of AIDS. CBS said it will allow the 4 television stations and 18 radio stations it owns to accept condom advertising based on the attitudes of the local viewing or listening community. WCBS-TV in New York, WCAU-TV in Philadelphia and KCBS-TV in Los Angeles said they would accept such ads. CBS also owns a television station in Chicago. WCAU will air condom ads after 11 p.m. only, beginning probably next week, said Paul Webb, a station spokesman. "We recognize the legitimate sensitivities of some members of the community in regard to this issue," said Steve Cohen, the WCAU general manager. "However, it is the judgment of this station that the importance of providing information about the AIDS epidemic and means of prevention is an overriding consideration." NBC's New York television station, WNBC, announced that it will accept condom advertising and public service announcements. PMID:12269166

  10. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  11. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  12. Competence building capacity shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather

  13. Cultural energy analysis on broilers reared in different capacity poultry houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilgan Atilgan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained from 4 different capacity houses were evaluated to analyse the cultural energy and perfor- mance of broilers. Capacities of housings were 20,000, 25,000, 30,000 and 60,000 birds per production peri- od and they were assigned as HI, HII, HIII and HIV, respectively. The study was conducted in 2005 in which there were 6 production periods of 45 days. Data collected for each period were: date of starting and finish- ing; number of chicks entered and broilers sold; live weight at slaughter; carcass weight; feed consumption for starting, growing and finishing phase; labour; medication, vaccination and disinfectant; electricity con- sumption; heating and cooling methods and amount spent; distance for transportation of feed, chicks, broil- ers, wood shaving, limestone; and other miscellaneous expenditures. Ross 308 chickens in all houses received the same commercial feed and water ad libitum. Chicks were reared under a conventional temper- ature regimen. Chicks were fed starter, grower and finisher diets according to their ages. Even though capac- ities for houses were different their stocking densities were 16.36, 16.00, 16.38 and 16.54 birds/m2 for HI, HII, HIII and HIV, respectively. For cultural energy analysis, feed, transportation, labour, machinery, electric- ity, brooding, and other inputs were calculated and corresponding energy values for each input were obtained from literature. For the analysis it was assumed that carcasses would have 18.2% protein and 15.2% fat. Total cultural energy invested in broilers in HIII was lower than that of broilers in HI (P< 0.05. Energy input per kg live weight gain and per kg carcass of HIII were lower than that of HI (P< 0.05, P< 0.01, respective- ly. The HIII had lower cultural energy ratio for protein energy output than HI (0.01. Energy efficiency (kcal input/kcal output of HIII was better than that of HI (P< 0.01. Results of the study showed that increasing capacity of housings decreases

  14. Privatization of contact-handled transuranic waste transportation services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) currently stores and generates contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) waste at 10 major and 13 smaller sites across the United States. The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in May 1998 will begin the use of a radioactive waste transportation system to transport TRU waste from these sites to the WIPP for disposal. The DOE will transport CH-TRU waste in a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified type B package called the TRUPACT-II. The Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) has determined that the CH-TRU waste transportation system is sufficiently well defined to allow privatization, resulting in significant cost savings. The CAO manages the National Transuranic Program and has developed the National Transuranic (TRU) Waste Management Plan for integrating TRU waste management activities throughout the DOE complex. The management plan outlines an aggressive schedule for transporting and disposing of TRU waste at the WIPP. The WIPP is scheduled to begin receiving CH-TRU waste in May 1998, at which time five truck sets (a truck set consists of tractor, trailer, and three TRUPACT-IIs) will be in service. Starting in 1998, truck sets will be added until the fleet size reaches 20 in 2000. The WIPP CH-TRU waste-handling capacity will start at a rate of 250 shipments per year in 1998 and will increase to 850 shipments per year by the year 2000

  15. Methods of Evaluating Transportation and Logistics Operations in Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukinskiy Valery

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some issues related to different approaches to estimation of transport and logistic(s operations in supply networks; analysis is made of the methods and models of analytical description of those operations; it is shown that the works under consideration have no single approach to their accounting, which makes it impossible to form a model of a simple logistic network including such basic operations as transportation and storage; based on the classical model of Harris-Wilson, six versions have been obtained for a simple supply network showing, in particular, value added to the product price stemming from the previously performed logistic operations as well as restrictions associated with the load capacity (cargo capacity of the vehicle. The choice of an optimum version of the supply network is made based on the criterion of minimum total costs; there are supplied the examples of calculations for different versions of the developed models enabling estimation of the influence of transport and logistic operations on the efficiency of the supply network.

  16. Environmental Baseline File National Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics addressed include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions

  17. On thermodynamics of charged AdS black holes in extended phases space via M2-branes background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabab, M.; Masmar, K. [Cadi Ayyad University, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, FSSM, Marrakesh (Morocco); El Moumni, H. [Cadi Ayyad University, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, FSSM, Marrakesh (Morocco); Universite Ibn Zohr, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Agadir (Morocco)

    2016-06-15

    Motivated by a recent work on asymptotically AdS{sub 4} black holes in M-theory, we investigate both thermodynamics and the thermodynamical geometry of Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes from M2-branes. More precisely, we study AdS black holes in AdS{sub 4} x S{sup 7}, with the number of M2-branes interpreted as a thermodynamical variable. In this context, we calculate various thermodynamical quantities including the chemical potential, and examine their phase transitions along with the corresponding stability behaviors. In addition, we also evaluate the thermodynamical curvatures of the Weinhold, Ruppeiner, and Quevedo metrics for M2-branes geometry to study the stability of such a black object. We show that the singularities of these scalar curvature's metrics reproduce similar stability results to those obtained by the phase transition diagram via the heat capacities in different ensembles either when the number of the M2 branes or the charge is held fixed. Also, we note that all results derived in Belhaj et al. (Eur Phys J C 76(2):73, 2016) are recovered in the limit of the vanishing charge. (orig.)

  18. Stringy Membranes in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Axenides, Minos; Linardopoulos, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    We study membrane configurations in AdS_{7/4}xS^{4/7}. The membranes are wrapped around the compact manifold S^{4/7} and are dynamically equivalent to bosonic strings in AdS_5. We thus conveniently identify them as "stringy membranes". For the case of AdS_7xS^4, their construction is carried out by embedding the Polyakov action for classical bosonic strings in AdS_5, into the corresponding membrane action. Therefore, every string configuration in AdS_5 can be realized by an appropriately chosen stringy membrane in AdS_7xS^4. We discuss the possibility of this being also the case for stringy membranes in AdS_4xS^7/Z^k (k > 1 or k = 1). By performing a stability analysis to the constructed solutions, we find that the (membrane) fluctuations along their transverse directions are organized in multiple Lam\\'{e} stability bands and gaps in the space of parameters of the configurations. In this membrane picture, strings exhibit a single band/gap structure. Since the spectrum of quadratic fluctuations is important fo...

  19. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Real-world industries are composed from heterogeneous firms and substantial intra-industry reallocations take place, i.e. high productivity firms squeeze out low productivity firms. Previous tax-tool comparisons have not included these central forces of industry structure. This paper examines a...... general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...... taxes distort relative prices, which in turn reduces average industry productivity through reallocations (the survival and increased market share of lower productivity firms). Importantly, numerical solutions of the model reveal that the relative welfare loss from using the unit tax increases...

  20. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  1. Surface retention capacity calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of

  2. Quantum reading capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2011-11-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.

  3. Enhancing human capacities

    CERN Document Server

    Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues

  4. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  5. Improved Method for Determining the Heat Capacity of Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Roger; Moran, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    An improved procedure for laboratory determination of the heat capacities of metals is described. The temperature of cold water is continuously recorded with a computer-interfaced temperature probe and the room temperature metal is added. The method is more accurate and faster than previous methods. It allows students to get accurate measurements…

  6. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model

  7. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model

  8. Evaluation model for safety capacity of chemical industrial park based on acceptable regional risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua Chen; Shukun Wang; Xiaoqun Tan

    2015-01-01

    The paper defines the Safety Capacity of Chemical Industrial Park (SCCIP) from the perspective of acceptable regional risk. For the purpose of exploring the evaluation model for the SCCIP, a method based on quantitative risk assessment was adopted for evaluating transport risk and to confirm reasonable safety transport capacity of chemical industrial park, and then by combining with the safety storage capacity, a SCCIP evaluation model was put forward. The SCCIP was decided by the smaller one between the largest safety storage capacity and the maximum safety transport capacity, or else, the regional risk of the park will exceed the acceptable level. The developed method was applied to a chemical industrial park in Guangdong province to obtain the maximum safety transport capacity and the SCCIP. The results can be realized in the regional risk control of the park effectively.

  9. Airport Capacity Forecast : Short-term forecasting of runway capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, Henk; Nibourg, Joyce; D'Estampes, Ludovic; Lezaud, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    International audience Airports expect major benefits from increasing predictability of the operation. This paper will investigate the use of forecast information to determine forecast airport capacity, which will allow airport stakeholders to optimize the use of their resources. The focus will be on forecasting runway capacity, at most airports the major factor for the overall airport capacity. The possibility to model forecast runway capacity, based on probabilistic inputs, will be inves...

  10. Thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. These include the BTZ black hole in new massive gravity, Schwarzschild-AdS black hole, and higher-dimensional AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. All thermodynamic quantities which are computed using the Abbot-Deser-Tekin method are used to study thermodynamic instability of AdS black holes. On the other hand, we investigate the s-mode Gregory-Laflamme instability of the massive graviton propagating around the AdS black holes. We establish the connection between the thermodynamic instability and the GL instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. This shows that the Gubser-Mitra conjecture holds for AdS black holes found from fourth-order gravity

  11. Impacts of technology on the capacity needs of the US national airspace system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausrotas, Raymond A.; Simpson, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the U.S. air transportation system is undertaken, focusing on airspace and airport capacity. Causes of delay and congestion are investigated. Aircraft noise is identified as the fundamental hindrance to capacity improvement. Research areas for NASA are suggested to improve capacity through technology.

  12. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  13. Which AdS3 configurations contribute to the SCFT2 elliptic genus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murthy, S.V.; Nawata, S.

    2011-01-01

    According to the AdS=CFT duality, the superconformal index of a superconformal eld theory should have an AdS interpretation as a Euclidean functional integral with periodic boundary conditions on the fermions. Unlike the thermal case, the Euclidean continuation of the supersymmetric AdS black hole d

  14. Coordination between stem water transport capacity and photosynthesis in corn and sorghum cultivars during progressive soil drying%土壤渐进干旱过程中玉米、高粱茎水分传输能力与光合作用的协调性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽敏; 李秧秧; 左力翔

    2013-01-01

    以两种不同抗旱性的玉米品种(“陕单21”和“郑单958”)和高梁品种(“晋中405”和“晋杂12”)为对象,研究了土壤渐进干旱过程中茎木质部水分传输能力与光合作用之间的协调关系,试图揭示玉米和高梁品种抗旱性差异的水力生理机制.结果表明:(1)相同土壤干旱程度下,玉米品种“郑单958”的叶水势、净光合速率(Pn)、最大光化学量子效率(Fv/Fm)和PSⅡ实际量子效率(ΦPSⅡ)高于“陕单21”,其气孔导度(Gs)及蒸腾速率(Tr)则低于“陕单21”.高梁品种“晋杂12”的Pn和ΦPSⅡ高于“晋中405”.表明玉米品种“郑单958”和高梁品种“晋杂12”的抗旱性相对较强.(2)土壤渐进干旱过程中,玉米和高梁光合气体交换参数(Pn、Gs及Tr)的下降早于叶绿素荧光参数(Fv/Fm、ΦPSⅡ)的下降,表明气孔关闭比PSⅡ活性受损要早.(3)抗旱性强的玉米品种“郑单958”和高梁品种“晋杂12”同时具有相对高的水分传输能力,其抵抗气穴化形成的能力更强,但高粱抵抗气穴化的能力不如玉米,高梁通过快速的栓塞来减少水分散失.(4)玉米Pn和Gs对茎木质部水分传输能力下降的敏感性高于高粱,抗旱性强的玉米和高梁品种Gs对木质部水分传输能力下降的敏感性更强.高梁能在低水分传输能力的情况下,维持较高的光合作用,反映了高粱保守性的水分利用策略.%Despite the fact of a strong linkage has been noted between xylem water transport capacity and photosynthesis in several woody plant species,not much research has studied such linkage in herbaceous plants.Herbaceous plants could be more vulnerable to drought-induced embolism than woody plants due to their lower xylem structure.Hence in a pot experiment,this paper investigated the coordination between stem water transport capacity and photosynthesis in corn cultivars (“Shaandan 21” and “Zhengdan 958”) and sorghum cultivars (

  15. Workshop on moisture buffer capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...

  16. TASI lectures on AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, Joao

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the AdS/CFT correspondence as a natural extension of QFT in a fixed AdS background. We start by reviewing some general concepts of CFT, including the embedding space formalism. We then consider QFT in a fixed AdS background and show that one can define boundary operators that enjoy very similar properties as in a CFT, except for the lack of a stress tensor. Including a dynamical metric in AdS generates a boundary stress tensor and completes the CFT axioms. We also discuss some applications of the bulk geometric intuition to strongly coupled QFT. Finally, we end with a review of the main properties of Mellin amplitudes for CFT correlation functions and their uses in the context of AdS/CFT.

  17. Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Overview: ReADS can analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and problem or maintenance records. ReADS uses text clustering algorithms to group loosely...

  18. Capacities on a finite lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Motoya

    2011-01-01

    In his influential work Choquet systematically studied capacities on Boolean algebras in a topological space, and gave a probabilistic interpretation for completely monotone (and completely alternating) capacities. Beyond complete monotonicity we can view a capacity as a marginal condition for probability distribution over the distributive lattice of dual order ideals. In this paper we discuss a combinatorial approach when capacities are defined over a finite lattice, and investigate Fr\\'{e}c...

  19. Material Developing for ADS Beam Window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYong-li; XUYuan-chao; LIHua-qing; NINGGuang-sheng; WANFa-rong; ZHAOFei

    2003-01-01

    The irradiation damage and the chemical interaction with the coolant for the ADS target and the structure materials are the key issues in ADS engineering. The developing of the materials that are irradiation and corrosion resistance is the important topic in ADS program in many countries. In this case,a topic of the material developing for the beam window has been proposed in our ADS program.

  20. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946

  1. Security Ads in Mobile Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasvi Kalra,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The apps consist of advertisements to promote their products. Not all of them are appropriate to resume. Therefore various algorithms have been used in order to block those apps from existence but none of them is completely successful. In our app we are using an antivirus which can by default block those spy apps and remove them from the web page. The algorithm which has been used makes use of various ant viruses in the background which detect irrelevant and intimate apps and then our algorithm will demolish them. Certain apps are non-trustworthy where one click can spy all the mobile data. They block those apps and works on security. We are working on secure ads for mobile apps. It can also work as a basic antivirus where it detects the viruses like malwares in any of your installed apps or downloads. It will create a popup of discarding or keeping it. Mobile applications can be downloaded from anywhere like amazon, googleplay, apps store etc. There is no rigorous verification of an application when it is uploaded to the market. One can easily develop a malicious application and upload it to the app market. The user itself is responsible for accepting the risk of an app available from secondary markets. Therefore, we have decided to develop this app to make the market more secure and bounded. In future, It will take the mobile market while consuming minimal additional resources and preserving user privacy.

  2. Implementing Smart Antenna System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Kulkarni P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the necessity of exchanging and sharing data increases, users demand easy connectivity, and fast networks whether they are at work, at home, or on the move. Nowadays, users are interested in interconnecting all their personal electronic devices (PEDs in an ad hoc fashion on the move. This type of network is referred to as Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET. When in such network a smart antenna System (SAS is implemented then we can achieve maximum capacity and improve the quality and coverage. So we are intended to implement such a SAS in the MANET. In this paper we have shown significance of Throughput and Bit Error Rate by implementing SAS in MANET using MATLABR2010a.

  3. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are t

  4. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can eith

  5. Modeling of Ad-hoc and Infrastructure Dual Mode Mobile Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Hung Chen; Hui-Nien Hung; Yi-Bing Lin; Nan-Fu Peng

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates a mobile telecommunications system that supports both ad hoc and infrastructure mode operations. Based on analytic and simulation models, our study investigates how base station (BS) and ad hoc channel capacity, and the mobility and locality of mobile stations affect the performance of a dual mode system. We show that a dual mode system can significantly outperform a single mode (infrastructure) system when the degree of locality is high. Furthermore, a dual mode system can support much faster mobile users with less BS channels in comparison to an infrastructure mode system. Our study quantitatively identifies the threshold value for the number of ad hoc channels such that beyond this threshold, increasing ad hoc channel capacity will not improve the performance of a dual mode system.

  6. Hybrid algorithm for project scheduling with capacity constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Xu; Wu Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the projects constrained by space capacity and resource transporting time,a project scheduling problem with capacity constraint was modeled.A hybrid algorithm is proposed,which uses the ideas of bi-level scheduling and project decomposition technology,and the genetic algorithm and tabu search is combined.Topological reordering technology is used to improve the efficiency of evaluation.Simulation results show the proposed algorithm can obtain satisfied scheduling results in acceptable time.

  7. Factors associated with the variability in caregiver assessments of the capacities of the patients with Alzheimer"s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Conde Sala, Josep Lluís; Reñé Ramírez, Ramon; Turró Garriga, Oriol; Gascón-Bayarri, J.; Juncadella i Puig, Montserrat; Moreno-Cordón, L.; Viñas Diez, V.; Vilalta Franch, Joan; Garre Olmo, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Several studies have identified certain caregiver factors that can produce variability in their assessments of the capacities of patients with Alzheimer"s disease (AD). Objectives: To identify the caregiver variables associated with variability in their ratings of patients" capacities. Methods: Consecutive sample of 221 out-patients with AD and their family caregivers. The capacities evaluated by caregivers were: the degree of functional disability, using the Disability A...

  8. Symmetry Breaking, Central Charges and the AdS_2/CFT_1 Correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoni, Mariano; Mignemi, Salvatore

    2000-01-01

    When two-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space (AdS_2) is endowed with a non-constant dilaton the origin of the central charge in the Virasoro algebra generating the asymptotic symmetries of AdS_2 can be traced back to the breaking of the SL(2,R) isometry group of AdS_2. We use this fact to clarify some controversial results appeared in the literature about the value of the central charge in these models.

  9. Amendments to the Law on Value Added Tax in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeana Beshi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze the objectives and effects of amendments in the Law on Value Added Tax (VAT as part of the new fiscal package in Kosovo. This paper is based on a quantitative analysis. Some of the methods used in this paperwork are: historical- , descriptive-, and comparative method. It relies on facts and researches conducted by international organizations, based on productive forces and on the development of economic capacities in general, also a comparative overview of the fiscal policies applied in different states. This paper presents also the challenges of Kosovo, towards EU, by harmonizing tax legislation, fiscal policy and combating tax evasion.

  10. Sediment transport capacity and flow-sediment relationship in different topographical units of different spatial scales in hilly loess region%黄土丘陵沟壑区多尺度地貌单元输沙能力及水沙关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲; 姚文艺; 王文龙; 杨二; 陈丽; 张攀

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion and sediment transport in Losses Plateau region are crucial for sustainable development of the local region and downstream of Yellow river due to the harmful sedimentation in the plain area. This study was to investigate the sediment transport capacity and flow-sediment relationship in different topographical units of different scales in loess region to explore the countermeasures for solving the sediment-related environmental issues. The Peijiamao watershed in losses region was selected as prototype for observation, including the embedded whole slope runoff plot (0.25 hm2) and 3 hydrological stations that were first branch of Qiaogou (subwatershed of Qiaogou watershed), Qiaogou watershed (subwatershed of Peijiamao watershed), and Peijiamao watershed (3930 hm2) with increasing scales, acting as 4 different topographical units. The rainfall, runoff and sediment contents data at these sites were recorded and collected from 1986 to 2008. Results showed that during the observation period the runoff depth and the sediment transport modulus at the annual timescales of the slope scale were more than that of the watershed scale, probably due to the well-known gravitational erosion occurring on the steeper slopes at slope scale in this region. When the spatial scale was up to the watershed scale, at the annual timescale the runoff depth increased with the spatial scale, but the sediment transport modulus decreased with spatial scale. However, at the inter-event timescale the maximum value of the runoff depth and the sediment transport modulus may occur at the different topographical units influenced by the rainfall process, rainfall duration, rainfall spatial distribution, the antecedent soil moisture content and other factors. Totally, 67.74% of the runoff peaks occurred at whole slope runoff plot and 29.03% at entire Peijiamao watershed. However, 38.71% of sediment transport modulus occurred at whole slope runoff plot and 48.39% occurred at entire Peijiamao

  11. Transport policy

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Transport is a fundamental component of all modern economies. Transport Policy presents a wide ranging collection of previously published articles which aim to provide the reader with an understanding of the main elements of transport policy.

  12. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  13. Reactivity monitoring in ADS systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring reactivity in an ADS should be performed on-line with a simple, accurate and robust technique. Within the range of experimental reactor techniques, no single technique can be selected which meet these requirements. Therefore a combination of different techniques has to be chosen in a way that various off-line techniques serve as a calibration for the on-line measurement technique. As an on-line measurement technique, the current/flux reactivity indicator is the most simple and robust solution. It is based on the fact that in a subcritical multiplying medium with a driving source the flux level is proportional to the driving source intensity, hence the beam current, and the reactivity level. However, since the proportionality constant depends on a number of core dependent parameters and detector characteristics, this current-to-flux indicator has to be calibrated on a regular basis. For this calibration, one could benefit from the occurrence of accelerator beam trips to determine the reactivity level in dollars by means of a prompt jump analysis of the flux level change. Hence, the prompt jump reactivity indicator could act as a first calibration tool of the current-to-flux indicator. Since the prompt jump indicator still relies on the value for the effective delayed neutron fraction to determine reactivity level, complementary techniques have to be used to obtain a more accurate determination of the reactivity. Techniques based on reactor noise methods such as RAPJA technique which is combination of the Rossi-alpha method and Prompt jump analysis can be used in this respect. In the future the bi-spectral ratio from the Cf - source driven noise analysis could be used for this purpose. (author)

  14. Historical Literature in the ADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.

    1997-12-01

    The Astrophysics Data System at http://adswww.harvard.edu is in the process of scanning the historical astronomical literature and making it available through the World Wide Web. We have scanned several volumes from the early 1800's of the "Astronomische Nachrichten", and the "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society", the two oldest astronomical journals. We also have several of the early volumes of the "Astrophysical Journal" and the "Astronomical Journal" available. For all the journals that we cover, we have scanned volume 1. These early volumes can be accessed on a page-by-page basis. We plan to continue to scan this historical literature and complete these journals within the next year. We are also collaborating with a preservation project at Harvard University. This project will microfilm selected parts of astronomical Observatory reports. We plan to scan these microfilms to produce electronic images of these reports and put them on-line in the ADS. We hope to eventually cover most of the astronomical literature. In order to organize the scanned pages into articles, we need tables of contents (ToC). The early issues of the journals did not have printed ToC pages, so this needs to be done by hand. We do not have the financial resources to build these ToCs. We are looking for collaborators who would be willing to work with us in building these ToCs for the older journals and observatory reports. If you are interested in such a project, please contact the first author at gei@cfa.harvard.edu.

  15. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  16. Light-cone AdS/CFT-adapted approach to AdS fields/currents, shadows, and conformal fields

    CERN Document Server

    Metsaev, R R

    2015-01-01

    Light-cone gauge formulation of fields in AdS space and conformal field theory in flat space adapted for the study of AdS/CFT correspondence is developed. Arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry fields in AdS space and arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry currents, shadows, and conformal fields in flat space are considered on an equal footing. For the massless and massive fields in AdS and the conformal fields in flat space, simple light-cone gauge actions leading to decoupled equations of motion are found. For the currents and shadows, simple expressions for all 2-point functions are also found. We demonstrate that representation of conformal algebra generators on space of currents, shadows, and conformal fields can be built in terms of spin operators entering the light-cone gauge formulation of AdS fields. This considerably simplifies the study of AdS/CFT correspondence. Light-cone gauge actions for totally symmetric arbitrary spin long conformal fields in flat space are presented. We apply our approach to the study of tota...

  17. Bidirectional ROF Links with Dynamic Capacity Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Chandan , Dharmendra Singh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available : Radio over fiber (ROF technology is an integration of wireless and fiber optic network. It plays vital role for broad band wireless communication. The well known advantages of optical as a transmission medium such as low loss, light weight, large bandwidth characteristics, small size and low cable cost make it the ideal and most flexible solution for efficiently transporting radio signals to remotely located antenna site in a wireless network. The joint venture of radio signal and optical fiber technology provides dynamic capacity allocation in radio over fiber links.

  18. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  19. Transport and metabolism of glycolic acid by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the excretion of glycolate from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the conditions affecting glycolate synthesis and metabolism were investigated. Although glycolate is synthesized only in the light, the metabolism occurs in the light and dark with greater metabolism in the light due to refixation of photorespiratory CO2. The amount of internal glycolate will affect the metabolism of externally added glycolate. When glycolate synthesis exceeds the metabolic capacity, glycolate is excreted from the cell. The transport of glycolate into the cells occurs very rapidly. Equilibrium is achieved at 40C within the time cells are pelleted by the silicone oil centrifugation technique through a layer of [14C] glycolate. Glycolate uptake does not show the same time, temperature and pH dependencies as diffusion of benzoate. Uptake can be inhibited by treatment of cells with N-ethylmaleimide and stimulated in the presence of valino-mycin/KCl. Acetate and lactate are taken up as quickly as glycolate. The hypothesis was made that glycolate is transported by a protein carrier that transports monocarboxylic acids. The equilibrium concentration of glycolate is dependent on the cell density, implying that there may be a large number of transporter sites and that uptake is limited by substrate availability

  20. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  1. Quantum Reading Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory [S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 090504 (2011)]. In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e., a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of "parallel" channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of an infinite block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantify...

  2. The progress of researches on ADS in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual study of Accelerator Driven System (ADS) had lasted for about five years and ended in 1999 in China. As one project of 'the major state basic research program (973)' in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five years program of basic research for ADS physics and related technology has been launched since 2000. CIAE (China Institute of Atomic Energy), IHEP (Institute of High Energy Physics), PKU-IHIP (Institute of Heavy Ion Physics in Peking University) and other institutions are jointly carrying on the research. The research activities are focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven sub-critical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and a RFQ accelerating structure of 3MeV will be built. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carried out and is being carrying on. The VENUS facility will be constructed as the basic experimental platform for the neutronic study in ADS blanket. It's a zero power sub-critical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external 14MeV neutron produced by a pulsed neutron genreator. The theoretical, experimental and simulation study on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS is carrying on to provide the database for ADS system analysis. the experimental high current beam injector consisted of ECR ion source, low energy beam transport system and RFQ type acceleration structure. The injector is one of the most important part of the medium energy high power proton accelerator and of worldwide interest in this community. The main results on ADS related researches and primary physical consideration of this verification system--the Venus program will be reported. (authors)

  3. Effect of Adaptive Delivery Capacity on Networked Traffic Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xian-Bin; DU Wen-Bo; CHEN Cai-Long; ZHANG Jun

    2011-01-01

    @@ We introduce an adaptive delivering capacity mechanism into the traffic dynamic model on scale-free networks under shortest path routing strategy and focus on its effect on the network capacity measured by the critical point(Rc) of phase transition from free flow to congestion.Under this mechanism,the total node's delivering capacity is fixed and the allocation of delivering capacity on node i is proportional to niφ,where ni is the queue length of node i and φ is the adjustable parameter.It is found that the network capacity monotonously increases with the increment of φ,but there exists an optimal value of parameter φ leading to the highest transportation efficiency measured by average travelling time(〈T〉).Our work may be helpful for optimal design of networked traffic dynamics.%We introduce an adaptive delivering capacity mechanism into the traffic dynamic model on scale-free networks under shortest path routing strategy and focus on its effect on the network capacity measured by the critical point (Rc) of phase transition from free flow to congestion.Under this mechanism, the total node's delivering capacity is fixed and the allocation of delivering capacity on node i is proportional to niφ, where ni is the queue length of node i and φ is the adjustable parameter.It is found that the network capacity monotonously increases with the increment of φ, but there exists an optimal value of parameter φ leading to the highest transportation efficiency measured by average travelling time (<T>).Our work may be helpful for optimal design of networked traffic dynamics.

  4. Bed capacity and surgical waiting lists: a simulation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Antelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Waiting time for elective surgery is a key problem in the current medical world. This paper aims to reproduce, by a Monte Carlo simulation model, the relationship between hospital capacity, inpatient activity, and surgery waiting list size in teaching hospitals. Inpatient activity is simulated by fitting a Normal distribution to real inpatient activity data, and the effect of the number of beds on inpatient activity is modelled with a linear regression model. Analysis is performed with data of the University Multi-Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela (Santiago de Compostela, Spain, by considering two scenarios regarding the elastiticity of demand with bed increase. If demand does not grow with an increase on bed capacity, small changes lead to drastic reductions in the waiting lists. However, if demand grows as bed capacity does, adding additional capacity merely makes waiting lists worse.

  5. Flat Currents of Green-Schwarz Superstring in AdS2 × S2 Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    From the κ symmetric action of ⅡB string in AdS2 × S2 background given by Zhou, we derive the equations of motion. By using the twisted dual transformation which was introduced by Hou, we construct the flat currents, conserving non-local charge with one free parameter, for the superstring in AdS2 × S2.

  6. Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed. PMID:19817565

  7. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  8. Perioperative functional residual capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, R W

    1991-04-01

    The literature dealing with the magnitude, mechanism and effects of reduced FRC in the perioperative period is reviewed. During general anaesthesia FRC is reduced by approximately 20%. The reduction is greater in the obese and in patients with COPD. The most likely mechanism is the loss of inspiratory muscle tone of the muscles acting on the rib cage. Gas trapping is an additional mechanism. Lung compliance decreases and airways resistance increases, in large part, due to decreased FRC. The larynx is displaced anteriorly and elongated, making laryngoscopy and intubation more difficult. The change in FRC creates or increases intrapulmonary shunt and areas of low ventilation to perfusion. This is due to the occurrence of compression atelectasis, and to regional changes in mechanics and airway closure which tend to reduce ventilation to dependent lung zones which are still well perfused. Abdominal and thoracic operations tend to increase shunting further. Large tidal volume but not PEEP will improve oxygenation, although both increase FRC. Both FRC and vital capacity are reduced following abdominal and thoracic surgery in a predictable pattern. The mechanism is the combined effect of incisional pain and reflex dysfunction of the diaphragm. Additional effects of thoracic surgery include pleural effusion, cooling of the phrenic nerve and mediastinal widening. Postoperative hypoxaemia is a function of reduced FRC and airway closure. There is no real difference among the various methods of active lung expansion in terms of the speed of restoration of lung function, or in preventing postoperative atelectasis/pneumonia. Epidural analgesia does not influence the rate of recovery of lung function, nor does it prevent atelectasis/pneumonia. PMID:2036700

  9. From the generalized uncertainty relations on fuzzy AdS2 to the Poincare geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positive and discrete unitary irreps of SU(1,1) are used to construct fuzzy (Euclidean) AdS2. Two different types of uncertainty relation involving the Weyl-Heisenberg and a weaker type are studied. It is shown that there are no generalized coherent states which simultaneously minimize the Weyl-Heisenberg uncertainty relations among three non-commuting embedding coordinates of the fuzzy AdS2. However, generalized squeezed states that simultaneously satisfy the three weaker uncertainty relations do exist, and reproduce some properties of the classical AdS2. Up to a common scaling factor in terms of the irrep label, the expectation values of the non-commuting coordinates over such states are described in the same manner as the classical AdS2, in terms of the Poincare coordinates. The expectation values on the fuzzy AdS2 tend to their corresponding values in the commutative limit. (orig.)

  10. Bandwidth Estimation For Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presents bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET, which uses some components of the two methods for the bandwidth estimation: 'Hello Bandwidth Estimation 'Listen Bandwidth Estimation. This paper also gives the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed method is based on the comparison of these two methods. Bandwidth estimation is an important issue in the Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET because bandwidth estimation in MANET is difficult, because each host has imprecise knowledge of the network status and links change dynamically. Therefore, an effective bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET is highly desirable. Ad hoc networks present unique advanced challenges, including the design of protocols for mobility management, effective routing, data transport, security, power management, and quality-of-service (QoS provisioning. Once these problems are solved, the practical use of MANETs will be realizable.

  11. A rigorous proof of MIMO channel capacity's increase with antenna number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jian-min; M.R. Soleymani; J.F.Hayes

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that adding more antennas at the transmitter or at the receiver may offer larger channel capacity, in the multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) communication systems. In this letter, a simple proof is presented for the fact that the channel capacity increases with an increase in the number of receiving antennas. The proof is based on the famous capacity formula of Foschini and Gans with matrix theory.

  12. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xishu; Zuidwijk, Rob; Koster, René; Dekker, Rommert

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can either choose to plan its investments proactively, taking into account possible responses from the other firm, or decide to respond reactively to the competition. In both cases, the optimal decision at...

  13. AGRICULTURAL VALUE ADDED: PROSPECTS FOR NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, David K.; Lim, Siew Hoon; Tweeten, Kathleen M.; Leistritz, F. Larry; Wilson, William W.; McKee, Gregory J.; Nganje, William E.; DeVuyst, Cheryl Sinn; Saxowsky, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report provides an overview of the important factors affecting investments in agricultural value-added ventures. The introductory section outlines current research on factors important in the location of economic activity. Research applied to specific agricultural value-added ventures, such as food manufacturing and livestock feeding and finishing operations, are discussed. A listing of resources available to entrepreneurs considering value-added investments concludes the i...

  14. Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.;

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded ...

  15. Phase transition and thermodynamical geometry for Schwarzschild AdS black hole in $AdS_5\\times{S^5}$ spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jia-Lin; Cai, Rong-Gen; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of a five-dimensional Schwarzschild AdS black hole in AdS 5 × S 5 spacetime by treating the cosmological constant as the number of colors in the boundary gauge theory and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential. It is found that the chemical potential is always negative in the stable branch of black hole thermodynamics and it has a chance to be positive, but appears in the unstable branch. We calculate the scalar curva...

  16. Ad-Coop Positioning System (ACPS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frattasi, Simone; Monti, Marco

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative solution for positioning determination in 4G wireless networks by introducing the Ad-Coop Positioning System (ACPS). The ACPS is supported by a hybrid cellular ad-hoc architecture, where the cellular network has a centralized control over the ad-hoc...... connections among pairs of mobiles. Specifically, peer-to-peer (P2P) communications are exploited in a mesh fashion within cellular-established clusters for cooperation-aided localization purposes (from that, the word ad-coop is derived). The major contribution of this work is the design of the data fusion...... to conventional hybrid positioning techniques in cellular networks....

  17. Anaerobic digester systems (ADS) for multiple dairy farms: A GIS analysis for optimal site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While anaerobic digester systems (ADS) have been increasingly adopted by large dairy farms to generate marketable energy products, like electricity, from animal manure, there is a growing need for assessing the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple farms that are not large enough to capitalize their own ADS. Using geographical information system (GIS) software, this study first identifies potential sites in a dairy region in Vermont, based on geographical conditions, current land use types, and energy distribution infrastructure criteria, and then selects the optimal sites for a given number of ADS, based on the number of dairy farms to be served, the primary energy input to output (PEIO) ratio of ADS, and the existing transportation network. This study suggests that GIS software is a valid technical tool for identifying the potential and optimal sites for ADS. The empirical findings provide useful information for assessing the returns of alternative numbers of ADS in this region, and the research procedures can be modified easily to incorporate any changes in the criteria for this region and can be applied in other regions with different conditions and criteria. - Highlights: • This study examines the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple dairy farms. • GIS is used to identify candidate sites and optimal locations for ADS in a dairy region. • Model includes environmental, social, infrastructure, and energy return criteria. • Empirical analysis provides scenario results on 1–15 ADS in the study region. • Method could be applied to other regions with different conditions and criteria

  18. About the theory of congested transport streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy GUK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Talked about a theory, based on integrity of continuous motion of a transport stream. Placing of car and its speed is in a stream - second. Principle of application of the generalized methods of design and new descriptions of the states of transport streams opens up. Travelling and transport potentials are set, and also external capacity of the system a «transport stream» is an exergy, that allows to make differential equation and decide the applied tasks of organization of travelling motion. Efficiency of application theory of waves is underlined with the new parameters of streams for management and increase of carrying capacity.

  19. Small plant capacity size is beautiful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharbanda, O.P.

    1979-09-01

    The main reason for building plants at sub-optimal sizes (with respect to production capacity) is that the market demand might be lower than forecasted, and it is more economical to run a small plant at full capacity than to run a large plant at partial capacity. Since plots of capital and operating costs per unit of production vs. plant size show rather flat minima, this can be accomplished with minimal increase in costs. The approximate optimum size of ammonia plants (tons/day) is 1000 in a developed country and 250 in a developing country; ethylene, 1200 and 500 for the same two categories, respectively; and styrene, 1000 and 400. The optimum plant size in developing countries is 0.25-0.5 times that in developed countries because costs other than capital-related, including transportation/distribution costs and other infrastructure costs, are proportionately more important in developing countries. Procedures for the economic analysis of plant size-related costs are discussed, with a tabulation of urea cost factors used as an example.

  20. Ad Hoc Selection of Voice over Internet Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, Mitchell G. (Inventor); Bullock, John T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a communication system technique involving ad hoc selection of at least two audio streams is provided. Each of the at least two audio streams is a packetized version of an audio source. A data connection exists between a server and a client where a transport protocol actively propagates the at least two audio streams from the server to the client. Furthermore, software instructions executable on the client indicate a presence of the at least two audio streams, allow selection of at least one of the at least two audio streams, and direct the selected at least one of the at least two audio streams for audio playback.

  1. Studies on urban vehicular ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongzi

    2013-01-01

    With the advancement of wireless technology, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a promising approach to realizing 'smart cities' and addressing many important transportation problems such as road safety, efficiency, and convenience.This brief provides an introduction to the large trace data set collected from thousands of taxis and buses in Shanghai, the largest metropolis in China. It also presents the challenges, design issues, performance modeling and evaluation of a wide spectrum of VANET research topics, ranging from realistic vehicular mobility models and opportunistic ro

  2. Economies of capacity use in decontamination of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the economies of capacity use regarding hot water decontamination to reduce postslaughter risk of pathogens in meat, taking interfarm heterogeneities of Salmonella risk and costs of transportation into account, using Denmark as a case study. If risk reduction goals are stated...

  3. Categorial compositionality III: F-(co)algebras and the systematicity of recursive capacities in human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2012-01-01

    Human cognitive capacity includes recursively definable concepts, which are prevalent in domains involving lists, numbers, and languages. Cognitive science currently lacks a satisfactory explanation for the systematic nature of such capacities (i.e., why the capacity for some recursive cognitive abilities-e.g., finding the smallest number in a list-implies the capacity for certain others-finding the largest number, given knowledge of number order). The category-theoretic constructs of initial F-algebra, catamorphism, and their duals, final coalgebra and anamorphism provide a formal, systematic treatment of recursion in computer science. Here, we use this formalism to explain the systematicity of recursive cognitive capacities without ad hoc assumptions (i.e., to the same explanatory standard used in our account of systematicity for non-recursive capacities). The presence of an initial algebra/final coalgebra explains systematicity because all recursive cognitive capacities, in the domain of interest, factor through (are composed of) the same component process. Moreover, this factorization is unique, hence no further (ad hoc) assumptions are required to establish the intrinsic connection between members of a group of systematically-related capacities. This formulation also provides a new perspective on the relationship between recursive cognitive capacities. In particular, the link between number and language does not depend on recursion, as such, but on the underlying functor on which the group of recursive capacities is based. Thus, many species (and infants) can employ recursive processes without having a full-blown capacity for number and language. PMID:22514704

  4. Performance Modeling of a Bottleneck Node in an IEEE 802.11 Ad-hoc Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Hans; Roijers, Frank; Mandjes, Michel R.H.; Kunz, T.; Ravi, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, often used in ad-hoc networks, has the tendency to share the capacity equally amongst the active nodes, irrespective of their loads. An inherent drawback of this fair-sharing policy is that a node that serves as a relay-node for multiple flows is likely to become a bott

  5. Performance modelieg of a bottleneck node in an IEEE 802.11 ad-hoc network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.L. van den; Mandjes, M.; Roijers, F.

    2006-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11 MAC-protocol, often used in ad-hoc networks, has the tendency to share the capacity equally amongst the active nodes, irrespective of their loads. An inherent drawback of this fair-sharing policy is that a node that serves as a relay-node for multiple flows is likely to become a bott

  6. On shape dependence of holographic entanglement entropy in AdS4/CFT3

    CERN Document Server

    Fonda, Piermarco; Tonni, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We study the finite term of the holographic entanglement entropy of finite domains with smooth shapes and for four dimensional gravitational backgrounds. Analytic expressions depending on the unit vectors normal to the minimal area surface are obtained for both stationary and time dependent spacetimes. The special cases of AdS4, asymptotically AdS4 black holes, domain wall geometries and Vaidya-AdS backgrounds have been analysed explicitly. When the bulk spacetime is AdS4, the finite term is the Willmore energy of the minimal area surface viewed as a submanifold of the three dimensional flat Euclidean space. For the static spacetimes, some numerical checks involving spatial regions delimited by ellipses and non convex domains have been performed. In the case of AdS4, the infinite wedge has been also considered, recovering the known analytic formula for the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence.

  7. Half BPS states in AdS5 x Yp,q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a class of solutions of IIB supergravity which are asymptotically AdS5 x Yp,q. They have an R x SO(4) x SU(2) x U(1) isometry and preserve half of the 8 supercharges of the background geometry. They are described by a set of second order differential equations that we have found and analysed in a previous paper, where we studied 1/8 BPS states in the maximally supersymmetric AdS5 x S5 background. These geometries correspond to certain chiral primary operators of the N = 1 superconformal quiver theories, dual to IIB theory on AdS5 x Yp,q. We also show how to recover the AdS5 x Yp,q backgrounds by suitably doubling the number of preserved supersymmetries. We then solve the differential equations perturbatively in a large AdS5 radius expansion, imposing asymptotic AdS5 x Yp,q boundary conditions. We compute the global baryonic and mesonic charges, including the R-charge. As for the computation of the mass, i.e. the conformal dimension Δ of the dual field theory operators, which is notoriously subtle in asymptotically AdS backgrounds, we adopt the general formalism due to Wald and collaborators, which gives a finite result, and verify the relation Δ = 3R/2, demanded by the N = 1 superconformal algebra

  8. Study Added of Waste Chicken Egg Shell in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng Wong Irwan Lie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the foundation of structure or construction that will receive the load transfer through to foundation. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small and cannot withstand the load transfer can result in the failure of construction. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small ground it is necessary to stabilize or improve the soil so that an increase in the carrying capacity of the land so that it can be used for construction. One material is commonly used for soil stabilization with the addition of lime. Waste chicken egg shell is waste that is still rarely used, the results of research [1], states that composition egg shell broadly consists of water (1,6% and dry material (98,4%. The total dry ingredients are there, in shell eggs contained mineral elements (95,1% and protein (3,3%. Based on the existing mineral composition, then the egg shells are composed of crystalline CaCO3 (98,43%, MgCO3 (0,84% and Ca3(PO42 (0,75%. This research was done by adding powdered chicken egg shell waste in clay with a composition of 5%, 7,5%, 10% and 14% with physical properties test and soil compaction test.

  9. Water transport in brain:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, Nanna; Hamann, Steffan; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cotransporters transport water in addition to their normal substrates, although the precise mechanism is debated; both active and passive modes of transport have been suggested. The magnitude of the water flux mediated by cotransporters may well be significant: both...... the number of cotransporters per cell and the unit water permeability are high. For example, the Na(+)-glutamate cotransporter (EAAT1) has a unit water permeability one tenth of that of aquaporin (AQP) 1. Cotransporters are widely distributed in the brain and participate in several vital functions: inorganic......(+)-lactate cotransporters. We have previously determined water transport capacities for these cotransporters in model systems (Xenopus oocytes, cell cultures, and in vitro preparations), and will discuss their role in water homeostasis of the astroglial cell under both normo- and pathophysiologal situations. Astroglia...

  10. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  11. Information capacity of quantum observable

    OpenAIRE

    Holevo, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give simple examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C

  12. Information capacity of quantum observable

    CERN Document Server

    Holevo, A S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give new examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C_{ea}>C.$

  13. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European rai...

  14. Using Wikipedia categories for ad hoc search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of category information for ad hoc retrieval in Wikipedia. We show that techniques for entity ranking exploiting this category information can also be applied to ad hoc topics and lead to significant improvements. Automatically assigned target categories are good sur

  15. Queueing models for mobile ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de Roland

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents models for the performance analysis of a recent communication paradigm: mobile ad hoc networking. The objective of mobile ad hoc networking is to provide wireless connectivity between stations in a highly dynamic environment. These dynamics are driven by the mobility of stations

  16. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  17. Geometric finiteness, holography and quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that there exists a precise kinematical notion of holography for the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole. This follows from the fact that the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole spacetime is a geometrically finite hyperbolic manifold. For such manifolds a theorem of Sullivan provides a one-to-one correspondence between the hyperbolic structure in the bulk and the conformal structure of its boundary. Using this theorem we obtain the holographic quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole.

  18. Google Advertising Tools Cashing in with AdSense and AdWords

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Harold

    2010-01-01

    With this book, you'll learn how to take full advantage of Google AdWords and AdSense, the sophisticated online advertising tools used by thousands of large and small businesses. This new edition provides a substantially updated guide to advertising on the Web, including how it works in general, and how Google's advertising programs in particular help you make money. You'll find everything you need to work with AdWords, which lets you generate text ads to accompany specific search term results, and AdSense, which automatically delivers precisely targeted text and image ads to your website.

  19. An improved AFS phase for AdS3 string integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    We propose a number of modifications to the classical term in the dressing phase for integrable strings in AdS3 x S3 x S3 x S1, and check these against existing perturbative calculations, crossing symmetry, and the semiclassical limit of the Bethe equations. The principal change is that the phase for different masses should start with a term Q_1 Q_2, like the one-loop AdS3 dressing phase, rather than Q_2 Q_3 as for the original AdS5 AFS phase.

  20. Holographic Complexity and Fidelity Susceptibility as Holographic Information Dual to Different Volumes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Mazhari, N S; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Faizal, Mir; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2016-01-01

    The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution and a solution with cylindrically symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not any such dependence.

  1. On circular strings in (AdS3 × S 3)ϰ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aritra; Panigrahi, Kamal L.

    2016-09-01

    The so called one-parameter (often called ϰ) deformed AdS string sigma models have attracted a lot of attention lately in the study of integrability in string theory. We construct various circular string solutions in the (AdS3 × S 3) ϰ background and describe the characteristics of such solutions qualitatively. We study the Bohr-Sommerfeld like quantization for these string states to characterise the motion. Further we find a `long' string limit of such circular strings in the ϰ-deformed AdS3 and find a novel dependence of the oscillation number on the energy in the next to leading order expansion.

  2. On circular strings in $(AdS_3 \\times S^3)_{\\varkappa}$

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Aritra

    2016-01-01

    The so called one-parameter (often called $\\varkappa$) deformed $AdS$ string sigma models have attracted a lot of attention lately in the study of integrability in string theory. We construct various circular string solutions in the $(AdS_3 \\times S^3)_{\\varkappa}$ background and describe the characteristics of such solutions qualitatively. We study the Bohr-Sommerfeld like quantization for these string states to characterise the motion. Further we find a `long' string limit of such circular strings in the $\\varkappa$-deformed $AdS_3$ and find a novel dependence of the oscillation number on the energy in the next to leading order expansion.

  3. The concept of added value of FM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This chapter presents research perspectives and theoretical reflections on the concept of added value of FM from a variety of academic fields. Methodology: A literature review of the most influential journals within the academic fields of Facilities Management (FM), Corporate Real Estate...... conceptualization of the concept of added value of FM is of utmost importance for further research into the added value of FM and well-considered, evidence- based Value Adding Management in practice. Research limitations: Due to limited time not all FM-related journals could be included in the literature review....... The included journals were analysed over a time period of ten years, with a focus on interesting topics and less on a thematic cross-paper analysis in-depth. Originality/value: Usually the concept of added value is discussed from a mono-disciplinary point of view. The different backgrounds of the authors add...

  4. Turbulent strings in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    We study nonlinear dynamics of the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory using the AdS/CFT duality. In the gravity side, the flux tube is realized by a fundamental string whose endpoints are attached to the AdS boundary. We perturb the endpoints in various ways and numerically compute the time evolution of the nonlinearly oscillating string. As a result, cusps can form on the string, accompanied by weak turbulence and power law behavior in the energy spectrum. When cusps traveling on the string reach the boundary, we observe the divergence of the force between the quark and antiquark. Minimal amplitude of the perturbation below which cusps do not form is also investigated. No cusp formation is found when the string moves in all four AdS space directions, and in this case an inverse energy cascade follows a direct cascade.

  5. ROMANIAN ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDS ABSOBTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bosie (Ungureanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to absorb European funds is part of a state complex integrated admninistrative capacity, a component of a state as a whole. The analysis in this article starts from the theoretical development by studying the reports made by the Romanian Government, correlated with the European Union reports on funds and Romanian legislation. This analysis of the EU's structural funds, highlights the importance of accessing them and the degree to which Romania and member countries benefits of income support.European funds are meant to supplement a member of the Union funds to the extent that they are accessed through the projects. Money allocated on type of operation is distributed in amounts proportionate to that state needs. Money distributed will be justified by their realization of infrastructure projects, environment, transport, human resources development, rural and regional development.Theoretical research lay the foundation for determining administrative capacity in Romania from the first time of defining the concept until now. Empirical research reveals the degree of absorption of which is that Romania has in comparison with some EU countries, former socialist countries present democratic states.The absorption capacity of European funds determine the strength of a state administrative management issues in the management of monetary dated. Power in handling management administrative problems can be efficient in higher manner and it’s represented by cost-benefit analysis and the degree of satisfaction of citizen interest. As public services are financially supported and developed, the degree of citizen satisfaction is greater in an implemented decentralized administrative system.

  6. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M;

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....../or glial cells: the solute carrier (SLC)1 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of glutamate, and the SLC6 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of dopamine, 5-HT, norepinephrine, glycine and GABA....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  7. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freivogel, Ben; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /LBL, Berkeley; Hubeny, Veronika E.; /LBL, Berkeley /Durham U., Dept. of Math.; Maloney, Alexander; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Myers, Rob; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys. /Waterloo U.; Rangamani, Mukund; /LBL, Berkeley /Durham U., Dept. of Math.; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  8. Energy Transformed - Building Capacity in the Engineering Profession

    OpenAIRE

    Desha, Cheryl; Hargroves, Karlson 'Charlie'

    2010-01-01

    This chapter has discussed the need for urgent capacity building in the engineering profession in the area of energy efficiency, focusing on higher education institutions. We have considered the complexity of the issue within the higher education sector, where the problem is two-fold: energy efficiency knowledge and skills are not yet being taught; and the process for curriculum renewal is generally slow and ad hoc. Moreover, there are a number of organisational and curriculum influences that...

  9. Opportunities for increasing domestic added value ofcocoa through trade regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Drajat

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The operation of multinational companies on cocoa bean trade in Indonesia related to the liberalization policy on trade and investment in Indonesia permits for multinational companies to operate in Indonesia and liable to buy cocoa bean directly from farmers. The problem encountered is the domestic market liberalization gives rise to changes in market power and results ini the dominant position of multinational companies. This research aimed to (i analyze the impact of the exercise of market power by cocoa multinational company, (ii to analyze the possibility of deregulation of cocoa bean domestic trade, and (iii to estimate the potential increase in added value of cocoa down-stream industry as a result of deregulation. Some steps of research conducted includes (i desk research, (ii field survey by interviewing samples of farmers, traders, exporters, processors, as well as other business participants, (iii special interviews with key persons related to regulation as well as deregulation of domestic trade and down-stream industry development, and (iv focussed group discussion involving related stakeholders of cocoa. The results showed that the impact of the exercise of market power by multinational companies refers to the decreasing market shares of national companies from 2007 to 2009. Based on the market power domination of multinational companies in one side and the lack of down-stream industry development in the other side, there is a possibility to deregulate the above policy by continuing the new regulation (export tax of cocoa beans, directing multinational exporters toward downstream industry by partnership with domestic-idle capacity processing industry and import tariff escalation for processed cocoa. By the new regulation, the opportunity to increase domestic added value becomes greater. This cocoa down-stream industry development will increase the potential domestic added value at least 10%. Key words : Liberalization, deregulation

  10. Optimal transport on supply-demand networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu-Han; Zhao, Li-Chao; Zhou, Changsong; Zhou, Tao

    2009-01-01

    Previously, transport networks are usually treated as homogeneous networks, that is, every node has the same function, simultaneously providing and requiring resources. However, some real networks, such as power grid and supply chain networks, show a far different scenario in which the nodes are classified into two categories: the supply nodes provide some kinds of services, while the demand nodes require them. In this paper, we propose a general transport model for those supply-demand networks, associated with a criterion to quantify their transport capacities. In a supply-demand network with heterogenous degree distribution, its transport capacity strongly depends on the locations of supply nodes. We therefore design a simulated annealing algorithm to find the optimal configuration of supply nodes, which remarkably enhances the transport capacity, and outperforms the degree target algorithm, the betweenness target algorithm, and the greedy method. This work provides a start point for systematically analyzin...

  11. School Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Educator, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This special section on student transportation offers a case study of a school system that recycles buses for safety drills; articles on fuel-saving strategies, the pros and cons of contracting for transportation services or operating a publicly owned bus fleet, and advice on full cost accounting for transportation costs; and a transportation…

  12. A Grassmann Path From AdS$_3$ to Flat Space

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Chethan; Roy, Shubho

    2013-01-01

    We show that interpreting the inverse AdS$_3$ radius $1/l$ as a Grassmann variable results in a formal map from gravity in AdS$_3$ to gravity in flat space. The underlying reason for this is the fact that $ISO(2,1)$ is the Inonu-Wigner contraction of $SO(2,2)$. We show how this works for the Chern-Simons actions, demonstrate how the general (Banados) solution in AdS$_3$ maps to the general flat space solution, and how the Killing vectors, charges and the Virasoro algebra in the Brown-Henneaux case map to the corresponding quantities in the BMS$_3$ case. Our results straightforwardly generalize to the higher spin case: the recently constructed flat space higher spin theories emerge automatically in this approach from their AdS counterparts. We conclude with a discussion of singularity resolution in the BMS gauge as an application.

  13. Two gravitational shock waves on the AdS3 brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gravitational shock wave is a solution to Einstein equations describing the gravitational field of a massless particle. We obtain such a geometry for a particle moving on a AdS3 brane embedded in a AdS4 bulk (the lower dimensional version of the ''locally localized gravity'' model of Karch and Randall). In order to do this, we use two different techniques. First, we solve directly Einstein equations sourced by a massless particle. Then we boost to the speed of light the AdS3 brane black hole solution of Emparan et al. while sending its mass parameter to zero. Surprisingly, we obtain two different results. We discuss the origin of these two different solutions both in the bulk and in the CFT picture. As a by-product, we derive the expression for the shock wave associated to a transversally accelerating particle in AdS4

  14. Impaired cognition in depression and Alzheimer (AD: a gradient from depression to depression in AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narahyana Bom de Araujo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess cognition in major depressed (MD, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and depression in AD elderly. Method Subjects were evaluated by Mini Mental, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Rey Complex Figure, Digit Span, Similarities, Trail Making A/B, Verbal Fluency and Stroop. One-way ANOVA and multivariate models were used to compare the performance of each group on neuropsychological tests. Results We evaluated 212 subjects. Compared to MD, attention, working memory, processing speed and recall showed significantly better in controls. Controls showed significantly higher performance in all cognitive measures, except in attention compared to AD. Verbal fluency, memory, processing speed and abstract reasoning in MD was significantly higher compared to AD. AD was significantly better in general cognitive state than depression in AD. All other cognitive domains were similar. Conclusion A decreasing gradient in cognition appeared from the control to depression in AD, with MD and AD in an intermediate position.

  15. On Critical Massive (Super)Gravity in adS3

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    We review the status of three-dimensional "general massive gravity" (GMG) in its linearization about an anti-de Sitter (adS) vacuum, focusing on critical points in parameter space that yield generalizations of "chiral gravity". We then show how these results extend to N=1 super-GMG, expanded about a supersymmetric adS vacuum, and also to the most general `curvature-squared' N=1 supergravity model.

  16. Ad Hoc Network Securing Policy%Ad hoc网络安全策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志远; 张曼曼

    2006-01-01

    本文首先介绍了Ad hoc网络的产生、定义、特点和应用,然后在探讨Ad hoc网络的安全需求的基础上,着重分析了移动Ad hoc网络易于遭受的攻击,最后讨论并提出了Ad Hoc网络的一些安全策略.

  17. On the gauge dependence of the AdS instability problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrakopoulos, Fotios V; Pedraza, Juan F; Yang, I-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Previous work on the AdS instability problem within the two-time framework (TTF) has found an "oscillating singularity" whose presence depends on the gauge choice. We give a physical interpretation of this singularity as a diverging redshift between the boundary and the center of AdS. This signals a genuine breakdown of the linearized gravity. One can also identify the diverging redshift through a back-reaction calculation purely in the boundary gauge, where the TTF result stays regular.

  18. Ads/CFT correspondence and symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study, using the dual AdS description, the vacua of field theories where some of the gauge symmetry is broken by expectation values of scalar fields. In such vacua, operators built out of the scalar fields acquire expectation values, and we show how to calculate them from the behavior of perturbations to the AdS background near the boundary. Specific examples include the N = 4 SYM theory, and theories on D3-branes placed on orbifolds and conifolds. We also clarify some subtleties of the AdS/CFT correspondence that arise in this analysis. In particular, we explain how scalar fields in AdS space of sufficiently negative mass-squared can be associated with CFT operators of two possible dimensions. All dimensions are bounded from below by (d-2)/2; this is the unitarity bound for scalar operators in d-dimensional field theory. We further argue that the generating functional for correlators in the theory with one choice of operator dimension is a Legendre transform of the generating functional in the theory with the other choice

  19. Study of ADS-B Data Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; LIU Wei; ZHU Yanbo

    2011-01-01

    In western China,the terrain and meteorological conditions are so complex that it is not suitable to construct new radar stations.Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast(ADS-B) is a totally new surveillance method,so before practically applied and operated in China,abundant tests and evaluations are necessary to validate the performance of ADS-B and guarantee the operational security.During the flight tests,we collect the data of radar,ADS-B and high accuracy position and compare the performance of ADS-B with radar based on high accuracy position.To solve the asynchronous problem among radar data,ADS-B data and real-time kinematic(RTK) data caused by different update rates,this article proposes the technique of synchronizing multi-surveil- lance data by extrapolating from the data of low update rate to high update rate according to velocity and heading.Meanwhile,because radar data,ADS-B data and RTK data are expressed in different coordinates and cannot be compared each other,this article provides a method to unifying the coordinates of multi-surveillance data.By the analysis and evaluation,we can conclude that the performance of ADS-B is better than radar.

  20. Half BPS states in AdS_5 x Y^{p,q}

    CERN Document Server

    Gava, Edi; Milanesi, Giuseppe; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study a class of solutions of IIB Supergravity which are asymptotically AdS_5 x Y^{p,q}. They have an R x SO(4) x SU(2) x U(1) isometry and preserve half of the 8 supercharges of the background geometry. They are described by a set of second order differential equations that we have found and analysed in a previous paper, where we studied 1/8 BPS states in the maximally supersymmetric AdS_5 x S^5 background. These geometries correspond to certain chiral primary operators of the N=1 superconformal quiver theories, dual to IIB theory on AdS_5 x Y^{p,q}. We also show how to recover the AdS_5 x Y^{p,q} backgrounds by suitably doubling the number of preserved supersymmetries. We then solve the differential equations perturbatively in a large AdS_5 radius expansion, imposing asymptotic AdS_5 x Y^{p,q} boundary conditions. We compute the global baryonic and mesonic charges, including the R-charge. As for the computation of the mass, i.e. the conformal dimension D of the dual field theory operators, which is notor...

  1. An Algorithm for Localization in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Barani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Positioning a node in Vehicular Ad-Hoc networks is one of the most interested research areas in recent years. In many Ad-Hoc networks such as Vehicular Ad-Hoc networks in which the nodes are considered as vehicles, move very fast in streets and highways. So, to have a safe and fast transport system, any vehicle should know where a traffic problem such as a broken vehicle occurs. GPS is one of the equipments which have been widely used for positioning service. Problem statement: Vehicle can use a GPS receiver to determine its position. But, all vehicles have not been equipped with GPS or they cannot receive GPS signals in some places such as inside of a tunnel. In these situations, the vehicle should use a GPS free method to find its location. Approach: In this study, a new method based on transmission range had been suggested. Results: This algorithm had been compared with a similar algorithm ODAM in same situations. The best performance for Optimized Disseminating Alarm Message (ODAM is when 40% of nodes are equipped with GPS. Conclusion: We executed our algorithm on this situation and compared it with ODAM results. At the end of this study, we can see our algorithm in compare to ODAM has better results.

  2. Service placement in ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenburg, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Service provisioning in ad hoc networks is challenging given the difficulties of communicating over a wireless channel and the potential heterogeneity and mobility of the devices that form the network. Service placement is the process of selecting an optimal set of nodes to host the implementation of a service in light of a given service demand and network topology. The key advantage of active service placement in ad hoc networks is that it allows for the service configuration to be adapted continuously at run time. ""Service Placement in Ad Hoc Networks"" proposes the SPi service placement fr

  3. Effects of Ce on damping capacity of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正华; 郭学锋; 张忠明

    2004-01-01

    The microstructures and damping capacity of AZ91D cast alloys containing various Ce contents were investigated. Damping capacity (Q-1) of the alloys was measured by cantilever beam technique, and the relationship between damping capacity and strain amplitude was investigated. The results show that Al4 Ce phase is formed in AZ91D alloy after adding a certain quantity of Ce contents, then as-cast microstructures of the alloys are refined.Meanwhile the damping capacity of the alloys is also improved. When the mass fraction of Ce is 0.7 %, the most obvious refinement effect and the maximum damping capacity can be obtained. When the damping capacity (Q-1) is 2. 728 × 10-3 , 61% increment can be obtained compared with unmodified AZ91D alloy. The damping capacity of the alloys is relative to strain amplitude, and the damping behavior can be explained by the theory of Granato and Lucke.

  4. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg;

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  5. 76 FR 4994 - Agency Information Collection: Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Traffic and Capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... consolidation. Traffic Forecasting The FAA uses traffic, operational and capacity data as important safety... and others of the effect major changes or innovations are having on the air transportation...

  6. SEDIMENT-REMOVING CAPACITY AND RIVER MOTION DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Yin WANG; Yongsheng WU

    2001-01-01

    Unsteady flow in fluvial rivers scours or deposits sediment, and exhibits sediment-removing capaciiy,which is defined as the capacity of the flow to remove sediment from per unit length of a river channel to other places per time. Differing from the well-defined sediment-carrying capacity, which is the feature of the mean flow and explains how much sediment load the flow can transport through the channel, the sediment-removing capacity is the feature of unsteady, non-equilibrium flow and represents the capability of the flow to change the channel shape and location. Measurement of the sediment-removing capacity was performed at 12 cross sections of the wandering lower Yellow River. Analysis demonstrates that the removing capacity depends mainly on the fluctuation intensity of the flow discharge. The power spectrum of discharge is presented with Fourier transformation and it revealed the mechanism of high measurement frequency-high sediment removing capacity. The movement of a river channel within the fluvial plain is defined as the river motion. The patterns of river motion are aggradation, degradation, widening,translation, rotation, wandering, bifurcation, and migration from one channel to another channel. The speed of the river motion is given as a function of the sediment-removing capacity.

  7. Fluctuation-driven capacity distribution in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximizing robustness and minimizing cost are common objectives in the design of infrastructure networks. However, most infrastructure networks evolve and operate in a highly decentralized fashion, which may significantly impact the allocation of resources across the system. Here, we investigate this question by focusing on the relation between capacity and load in different types of real-world communication and transportation networks. We find strong empirical evidence that the actual capacity of the network elements tends to be similar to the maximum available capacity, if the cost is not strongly constraining. As more weight is given to the cost, however, the capacity approaches the load nonlinearly. In particular, all systems analyzed show larger unoccupied portions of the capacities on network elements subjected to smaller loads, which is in sharp contrast with the assumptions involved in (linear) models proposed in previous theoretical studies. We describe the observed behavior of the capacity-load relation as a function of the relative importance of the cost by using a model that optimizes capacities to cope with network traffic fluctuations. These results suggest that infrastructure systems have evolved under pressure to minimize local failures, but not necessarily global failures that can be caused by the spread of local damage through cascading processes

  8. Estimating the Capacity of the Location-Based Advertising Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Larsen, Hans Ravnkjær; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    Delivering "relevant" advertisements to consumers carrying mobile devices is regarded by many as one of the most promising mobile business opportunities. The relevance of a mobile ad depends on at least two factors: (1) the proximity of the mobile consumer to the product or service being advertised......, and (2) the match between the product or service and the interest of the mobile consumer. The interest of the mobile consumer can be either explicit (expressed by the mobile consumer) or implicit (inferred from user characteristics). This paper tries to empirically estimate the capacity of the mobile...... advertising channel, i.e., the number of relevant ads that can be delivered to mobile consumers. The estimations are based on a simulated mobile consumer population and simulated mobile ads. Both of the simulated data sets are realistic and derived based on real world data sources about population geo...

  9. Antioxidant capacity of vegetables, spices and dressings relevant to nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninfali, Paolino; Mea, Gloria; Giorgini, Samantha; Rocchi, Marco; Bacchiocca, Mara

    2005-02-01

    Vegetables are the most important sources of phenolics in the Mediterranean diet. Phenolics, especially flavonoids, are suggested as being essential bioactive compounds providing health benefits. In this study, twenty-seven vegetables, fifteen aromatic herbs and some spices consumed in Central Italy (the Marches region) were studied to reveal total phenolic, flavonoid and flavanol content as well as their antioxidant capacity measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. A comparison in terms of antioxidant capacity was made between different salads, as well as between salads to which aromatic herbs had been added. Lemon balm and marjoram at a concentration of 1.5 % w/w increased by 150 % and 200 % respectively the antioxidant capacity of a salad portion. A 200 g portion of a salad enriched with marjoram corresponded to an intake of 200 (SD 10) mg phenolics and 4000 (SD 300) ORAC units (micromol Trolox equivalents). Olive oils and wine or apple vinegars were the salad dressings that provided the highest increase in antioxidant capacity. Among the spices tested, cumin and fresh ginger made the most significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity. The results are useful in surveying the antioxidant parameters of vegetables, herbs and spices produced and consumed in our geographical area as well as in quantifying the daily intake of phenolics and ORAC units. The results can be used in public health campaigns to stimulate the consumption of vegetables able to provide significant health protection in order to prevent chronic diseases.

  10. 九寨沟旅游陆地交通环境承载力及其调控模式研究初论%Preliminary study on carrying capacity and its control mode of land transport environment in Jiuzhaigou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 冯山; 刘延国

    2013-01-01

    carrying capacity and its control mode of land transport environment in Jiuzhaigou has a high theoretical and practical significance.

  11. AdS/CFT duality learnt by linear response theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note is a practical-minded review of AdS/CFT duality based on the linear response theory. Art of calculation by AdS/CFT is explained in relation to the hydrodynamic concept. The readers are not assumed to be familiar with superstring theory. Relation between the gauge theory and the gravity theory is explained in Appendixes. The text consists of five sections in 25 pages including exercise problems as listed in the following table of contents: Section 1. Introduction; Section 2. 'GKP-Witten Relation' with subsection 2.1 Left side of GKP-Witten Relation (field theory) and subsection 2.2 Right side of GKP-Witten Relation (gravity theory); Section 3. 'Practical Calculation of Transport Coefficients: Hydrodynamics' with subsections 3.1 N=4 gauge theory: thermodynamic quantities, 3.2 Calculation of shear viscosity, 3.3 Universality of η/s, 3.4 Corrections and causality hydrodynamics; Section 4. 'Practical Calculation of Transport Coefficient: Holographic Superconductivity' with subsections 4.1 Holographic superconductivity, 4.2 Critical phenomena of holographic superconductivity, 4.3 Conductivity of holographic superconductivity, 4.4 Comments. Section 5. Exercise, five problems are given. Five pages of Appendixes 'D3 Brane and AdS/CFT' consists of A.1 D3 brane and gauge theory, A.2 D3 brane and gravity and A.3 Gauge theory and Gravity. This note is mainly based on the lectures delivered at the Summer Institute 2009 and at intense course of Tohoku University Astronomical Institute. (S. Funahashi)

  12. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures.    This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...

  13. Quantum channel capacities - multiparty communication

    CERN Document Server

    Demianowicz, M; Demianowicz, Maciej; Horodecki, Pawel

    2006-01-01

    We analyze different aspects of multiparty communication over quantum memoryless channels and generalize some of key results known from bipartite channels to that of multiparty scenario. In particular, we introduce multiparty versions of minimal subspace transmission fidelity and entanglement transmission fidelity. We also provide alternative, local, versions of fidelities and show their equivalence to the global ones in context of capacity regions defined. The equivalence of two different capacity notions with respect to two types of the fidelities is proven. In analogy to bipartite case it is shown, via sufficiency of isometric encoding theorem, that additional classical forward side channel does not increase capacity region of any quantum channel with $k$ senders and $m$ receivers which represents a compact unit of general quantum networks theory. The result proves that recently provided capacity region of multiple access channel ([M. Horodecki et al, Nature {\\bf 436} 673 (2005)], [J.Yard et al, quant-ph/0...

  14. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mauricio; Dincecco, Mark

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal innova...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples.......We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...

  15. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincecco, Mark; Prado, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal innova...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples.......We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...

  16. Heat capacities and thermodynamic properties of annite (aluminous iron biotite)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, B.S.; Robie, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The heat capacities have been measured between 7 and 650 K by quasi-adiabatic calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. At 298.15 K and 1 bar, the calorimetric entropy for our sample is 354.9??0.7 J/(mol.K). A minimum configurational entropy of 18.7 J/(mol.K) for full disorder of Al/Si in the tetrahedral sites should be added to the calorimetric entropy for third-law calculations. The heat capacity equation [Cp in units of J/mol.K)] Cp0 = 583.586 + 0.075246T - 3420.60T-0.5 - (4.4551 ?? 106)T-2 fits the experimental and estimated heat capacities for our sample (valid range 250 to 1000 K) with an average deviation of 0.37%. -from Authors

  17. An optimisation framework for determination of capacity in railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    Within the railway industry, high quality estimates on railway capacity is crucial information, that helps railway companies to utilise the expensive (infrastructure) resources as efficiently as possible. This paper therefore proposes an optimisation framework to estimate the capacity of a railway...... network based on a mix of train types, the infrastructure and rolling stock used. The framework consist of two steps. In the first step the maximum number of trains is found according to the predefined mix of train types. In the second step additional trains are added based on weights assigned...... to the train types. This is done using a mathematical model which is solved with a heuristic. The developed approach is used on a case network to obtain the capacity of the given railway system. Furthermore, we test different parameters to explore computation time, precision and sensitivity to input...

  18. Affine transformations and analytic capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Thomas; O'Farrell, Anthony G.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic capacities are set functions defined on the plane which may be used in the study of removable singularities, boundary smoothness and approximation of analytic functions belonging to some function space. The symmetric concrete Banach spaces form a class of function spaces that include most spaces usually studied. The Beurling transform is a certain singular integral operator that has proved useful in analytic function theory. It is shown that the analytic capacity associated to ...

  19. Capacity achieving multiwrite WOM codes

    OpenAIRE

    Shpilka, Amir

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we give an explicit construction of a capacity achieving family of binary t-write WOM codes for any number of writes t, that have a polynomial time encoding and decoding algorithms. The block length of our construction is N=(t/\\epsilon)^{O(t/(\\delta\\epsilon))} when \\epsilon is the gap to capacity and encoding and decoding run in time N^{1+\\delta}. This is the first deterministic construction achieving these parameters. Our techniques also apply to larger alphabets.

  20. Carrying Capacity:An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shaofeng

    2004-01-01

    The concept of carrying capacity is derived from ecology, with widespread contentions of its theoretical connotations and applications in the international academic community, especially the impact of human activities on the environment.Disputes on carrying capacity have been occurring not only among biologists and ecologists, but also among mainstream economists. Based on their efforts,the author makes an attempt to describe its origin,connotations, problems, measurement, and at the same time note the latest international progress in this field.

  1. Tactical Ad hoc Network Clustering%战术Ad hoc网分群研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长通; 刘行兵; 张聪品

    2010-01-01

    分级Ad hoc网结构与战术Ad hoc网结构相似,但存在本质差别,分级Ad hoc网群组的形成及群成员产生随机,而战术Ad hoc子网指挥员节点和成员固定.文中分析战术Ad hoc网的特点,定义了节点参数,进行了节点状态描述.通过群组的规划,提出了节点自定位部署算法.

  2. String in AdS Black Hole: A Thermo Field Dynamic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cantcheff, M. Botta; Gadelha, Alexandre L.; Marchioro, Dafni F. Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Based on Maldacena's description of an eternal AdS-black hole, we reassess the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD) formalism in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The model studied here involves the maximally extended AdS-Schwarschild solution and two (non-interacting) copies of the CFT associated to the global AdS spacetime, along with an extension of the string by imposing natural gluing conditions in the horizon. We show that the gluing conditions in the horizon define a string boundary st...

  3. The Tetrahedron Zamolodchikov Algebra and the AdS5 x S5 S-matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Mitev, Vladimir; Tsuboi, Zengo

    2012-01-01

    The S-matrix of the AdS5 x S5 string theory is a tensor product of two centrally extended su(2|2) S-matrices, each of which is related to the R-matrix of the Hubbard model. The R-matrix of the Hubbard model was first found by Shastry, who ingeniously exploited the fact that, for zero coupling, the Hubbard model can be decomposed into two XX models. In this article, we review and clarify this construction from the AdS/CFT perspective and investigate the implications this has for the AdS5 x S5 S-matrix.

  4. Heat kernels on cone of AdS2 and k-wound circular Wilson loop in AdS5 × S5 superstring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    We compute the one-loop world-sheet correction to partition function of {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that should be representing k-fundamental circular Wilson loop in planar limit. The 2d metric of the minimal surface ending on k-wound circle at the boundary is that of a cone of AdS2 with deficit 2π (1-k). We compute the determinants of 2d fluctuation operators by first constructing heat kernels of scalar and spinor Laplacians on the cone using the Sommerfeld formula. The final expression for the k-dependent part of the one-loop correction has simple integral representation but is different from earlier results.

  5. Introduction to AdS-CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Nastase, Horatiu

    2007-01-01

    These lectures present an introduction to AdS-CFT, and are intended both for begining and more advanced graduate students, which are familiar with quantum field theory and have a working knowledge of their basic methods. Familiarity with supersymmetry, general relativity and string theory is helpful, but not necessary, as the course intends to be as self-contained as possible. I will introduce the needed elements of field and gauge theory, general relativity, supersymmetry, supergravity, strings and conformal field theory. Then I describe the basic AdS-CFT scenario, of ${\\cal N}=4 $ Super Yang-Mills's relation to string theory in $AdS_5\\times S_5$, and applications that can be derived from it: 3-point functions, quark-antiquark potential, finite temperature and scattering processes, the pp wave correspondence and spin chains. I also describe some general properties of gravity duals of gauge theories.

  6. Underweight Seniors May Have Added Alzheimer's Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160278.html Underweight Seniors May Have Added Alzheimer's Risk Study links lower body weight to increased ... older adults' risk of the memory-robbing disorder Alzheimer's disease, new research suggests. The study included 280 ...

  7. Phase transition and thermodynamical geometry for Schwarzschild AdS black hole in $AdS_5\\times{S^5}$ spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jia-Lin; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    We study thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of a five-dimensional Schwarzschild AdS black hole in $AdS_5\\times{S^5}$ spacetime by treating the cosmological constant as the number of colors in the boundary gauge theory and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential. It is found that the chemical potential is always negative in the stable branch of black hole thermodynamics and it has a chance to be positive, but appears in the unstable branch. We calculate scalar curvatures of the thermodynamical Weinhold metric, Ruppeiner metric and Quevedo metric, respectively and we find that the divergence of scalar curvature is related to the divergence of specific heat with fixed chemical potential in the Weinhold metric and Ruppeiner metric, while in the Quevedo metric the divergence of scalar curvature is related to the divergence of specific heat with fixed number of colors and the vanishing of the specific heat with fixed chemical potential.

  8. Women May Need Added Therapy for Rosacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants for Rosacea Research Women May Need Added Therapy Rosacea can be a trying condition under the best ... or recommend any particular medications, products, equipment or treatments. Rosacea may vary substantially from one patient to another, ...

  9. Genes Might Explain Hispanics' Added Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160528.html Genes Might Explain Hispanics' Added Longevity Differences in 'genetic ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Genes and Gene Therapy Hispanic American Health Recent Health ...

  10. Multilevel security model for ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Changda; Ju Shiguang

    2008-01-01

    Modern battlefield doctrine is based on mobility, flexibility, and rapid response to changing situations.As is well known, mobile ad hoc network systems are among the best utilities for battlefield activity. Although much research has been done on secure routing, security issues have largely been ignored in applying mobile ad hoc network theory to computer technology. An ad hoc network is usually assumed to be homogeneous, which is an irrational assumption for armies. It is clear that soldiers, commanders, and commanders-in-chief should have different security levels and computation powers as they have access to asymmetric resources. Imitating basic military rank levels in battlefield situations, how multilevel security can be introduced into ad hoc networks is indicated, thereby controlling restricted classified information flows among nodes that have different security levels.

  11. A guide to gauging ad effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashill, J

    1987-09-01

    Techniques that have proven successful in private industry can help hospital executives increase their accountability for advertising expenditures. Among these techniques are: The random telephone survey, which can be used to measure whether the hospital's awareness level among the public has increased as the result of a particular ad; The focus group, which assists the hospital in evaluating how it is perceived in relation to other hospitals in its market; The pretest, to determine which ads to eliminate from a campaign and which ones to refine; Educational seminars and direct-response ads; Reliable baseline data on patients and services for use in comparing figures before and after an ad has been used. Above all, careful planning is required to enable the marketing staff to determine what it wishes to accomplish through advertising and to set measurable goals that reflect its expectations for each component of a campaign. PMID:10283482

  12. Trust Based Routing in Ad Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Mikita V.; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    Ad Hoc network often termed as an infrastructure-less, self- organized or spontaneous network.The execution and survival of an ad-hoc network is solely dependent upon the cooperative and trusting nature of its nodes. However, this naive dependency on intermediate nodes makes the ad-hoc network vulnerable to passive and active attacks by malicious nodes and cause inflict severe damage. A number of protocols have been developed to secure ad-hoc networks using cryptographic schemes, but all rely on the presence of trust authority. Due to mobility of nodes and limitation of resources in wireless network one interesting research area in MANET is routing. This paper offers various trust models and trust based routing protocols to improve the trustworthiness of the neighborhood.Thus it helps in selecting the most secure and trustworthy route from the available ones for the data transfer.

  13. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  14. Osmotic water transport in aquaporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Alsterfjord, Magnus; Beitz, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    molecules give rise to no water transport. Accordingly, the rate of water transport is proportional to the reflection coefficient σ, while the solute permeability, P(S), is proportional to 1 - σ. The model was tested in aquaporins heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. A variety of aquaporin channel...... sizes and geometries were obtained with the two aquaporins AQP1 and AQP9 and mutant versions of these. Osmotic water transport was generated by adding 20 mM of a range of different-sized osmolytes to the outer solution. The osmotic water permeability and the reflection coefficient were measured......Abstract  We test a novel, stochastic model of osmotic water transport in aquaporins. A solute molecule present at the pore mouth can either be reflected or permeate the pore. We assume that only reflected solute molecules induce osmotic transport of water through the pore, while permeating solute...

  15. Logistics aspects of pipeline transport in the supply of petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Pienaar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial transportation of crude oil and petroleum products by pipeline is receiving increased attention in South Africa. Transnet Pipeline Transport has recently obtained permission from the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (Nersa to construct and operate a new petroleum products pipeline of 60 cm diameter from Durban to Gauteng. At an operating speed of 10 km/h the proposed 60 cm Transnet pipeline would be able to deliver 3,54 million litres of petroleum product per hour. This is equivalent to 89 deliveries per hour using road tank vehicles with an average carrying capacity of 40 000 litres of fuel per vehicle. This pipeline throughput is also equivalent to two trains departing per hour, each consisting of 42 petroleum tank wagons with an average carrying capacity of 42 500 litres of fuel per wagon. Considering that such road trucks and rail wagons return empty to the upstream refineries in Durban, it is clear that there is no tenable long-term alternative to pipeline transport:pipeline transport is substantially cheaper than road and rail transport;pipeline transport is much safer than rail and especially road transport; andpipeline transport frees up alternative road and rail transport capacity.Pipeline transport is a non-containerised bulk mode of transport for the carriage of suitable liquids (for example, petroleum commodities, which include crude oil, refined fuel products and liquid petro-chemicals, gas, slurrified coal and certain water-suspended ores and minerals. InSouth Africa, petroleum products account for the majority of commercial pipeline traffic, followed by crude oil and natural gas. There are three basic types of petroleum pipeline transport systems:Gathering pipeline systemsCrude oil trunk pipeline systemsRefined products pipeline systems Collectively, these systems provide a continuous link between extraction, processing, distribution, and wholesalers’ depots in areas of consumption. The following

  16. Overview of PbBi-Cooled Reactor Development and ADS Program in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -ER will be built by 2022. The design parameter of ADS-ER is similar with the MYRRHA project which consists of a LBE cooled reactor, a proton accelerator with 600-1000 MeV/10mA, and a LBE spallation target. The design thermal power of this ADS reactor is about 100 MW. In the third phase, an ADS demonstration reactor named ADS-DEMO will be built by 2032. The ADS-DEMO has a significant capacity for nuclear waste transmutation which consists of a LBE cooled reactor (about 1 GWth), a proton accelerator (1.5 GeV/∼10mA) coupled with windowless LBE spallation target. (author)

  17. International Trade Effects of Value Added Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Krugman; Martin Feldstein

    1989-01-01

    The actual value added tax systems used in many countries differ significantly from the completely general VAT that has been the focus of most economic analyses. In practice, VAT systems exempt broad classes of consumer goods and services. This has important implications for the effect of the VAT on international trade. A value added tax is sometimes advocated as a way of improving a country's international competitiveness because GATT rules permit the tax to be levied on imports and rebated ...

  18. AD HOC P2P on Android

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Sathya; Byun, YoungJoon; Cebrowski Institute; CSUMB, C.S.I.T. Program

    2011-01-01

    In conjunction with the NPS C.S. Department MWC Group, this research looks at establishing an Ad Hoc Peer-to-Peer network on cell phones, specifically using the Android OS. Work comprised of Android Device, Library, and Application Design. The Library used was AODV (Ad Hoc on demand Distance Vector) and hardware devices must be controlled directly in addition to application enhancements. A prototype has been created and communication was achieved. Future work to include enhancements to contro...

  19. Massive Gravity in Ads and Minkowski Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Porrati, M.

    2004-01-01

    I review some interesting features of massive gravity in two maximally symmetric backgrounds: Anti de Sitter space and Minkowski space. While massive gravity in AdS can be seen as a spontaneously broken, UV safe theory, no such interpretation exists yet in the flat-space case. Here, I point out the problems encountered in trying to find such completion, and possible mechanisms to overcome them.

  20. Security Threats in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Kamanashis; Ali, Md. Liakat

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of communication devices or nodes that wish to communicate without any fixed infrastructure and pre-determined organization of available links. The nodes in MANET themselves are responsible for dynamically discovering other nodes to communicate. Although the ongoing trend is to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their certain unique properties, the main challenge is the vulnerability to security attacks. A number of challenges like o...