WorldWideScience

Sample records for added transportation capacity

  1. Regulatory Approaches for Adding Capacity to Existing Hydropower Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curtis, Taylor L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kazerooni, Borna [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    In 2015, hydroelectric generation accounted for more than 6 percent of total net electricity generation in the United States and 46 percent of electricity generation from all renewables. The United States has considerable hydroelectric potential beyond what is already being developed. Nearly 7 GW of this potential is found by adding capacity to existing hydropower facilities. To optimize the value of hydroelectric generation, the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Vision Study highlights the importance of adding capacity to existing facilities. This report provides strategic approaches and considerations for Federal Energy Regulatory Commission licensed and exempt hydropower facilities seeking to increase generation capacity, which may include increases from efficiency upgrades. The regulatory approaches reviewed for this report include capacity and non-capacity amendments, adding capacity during relicensing, and adding capacity when converting a license to a 10-MW exemption.

  2. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeone O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  3. Only adding stationary storage to vaccine supply chains may create and worsen transport bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Claypool, Erin G; Weng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    Although vaccine supply chains in many countries require additional stationary storage and transport capacity to meet current and future needs, international donors tend to donate stationary storage devices far more often than transport equipment. To investigate the impact of only adding stationary storage equipment on the capacity requirements of transport devices and vehicles, we used HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains) to construct a discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain. We measured the transport capacity requirement for each mode of transport used in the Niger vaccine cold chain, both before and after adding cold rooms and refrigerators to relieve all stationary storage constraints in the system. With the addition of necessary stationary storage, the average transport capacity requirement increased from 88% to 144% for cold trucks, from 101% to 197% for pickup trucks, and from 366% to 420% for vaccine carriers. Therefore, adding stationary storage alone may worsen or create new transport bottlenecks as more vaccines flow through the system, preventing many vaccines from reaching their target populations. Dynamic modeling can reveal such relationships between stationary storage capacity and transport constraints.

  4. The concept of transport capacity in geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, John; Parsons, Anthony J.; Cooper, James R.; Gao, Peng; Gillies, John A.; Mao, Luca; Orford, Julian D.; Knight, Peter G.

    2015-12-01

    The notion of sediment-transport capacity has been engrained in geomorphological and related literature for over 50 years, although its earliest roots date back explicitly to Gilbert in fluvial geomorphology in the 1870s and implicitly to eighteenth to nineteenth century developments in engineering. Despite cross fertilization between different process domains, there seem to have been independent inventions of the idea in aeolian geomorphology by Bagnold in the 1930s and in hillslope studies by Ellison in the 1940s. Here we review the invention and development of the idea of transport capacity in the fluvial, aeolian, coastal, hillslope, débris flow, and glacial process domains. As these various developments have occurred, different definitions have been used, which makes it both a difficult concept to test, and one that may lead to poor communications between those working in different domains of geomorphology. We argue that the original relation between the power of a flow and its ability to transport sediment can be challenged for three reasons. First, as sediment becomes entrained in a flow, the nature of the flow changes and so it is unreasonable to link the capacity of the water or wind only to the ability of the fluid to move sediment. Secondly, environmental sediment transport is complicated, and the range of processes involved in most movements means that simple relationships are unlikely to hold, not least because the movement of sediment often changes the substrate, which in turn affects the flow conditions. Thirdly, the inherently stochastic nature of sediment transport means that any capacity relationships do not scale either in time or in space. Consequently, new theories of sediment transport are needed to improve understanding and prediction and to guide measurement and management of all geomorphic systems.

  5. On mobile wireless ad hoc IP video transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantzidis, Matheos

    2006-05-01

    Multimedia transports in wireless, ad-hoc, multi-hop or mobile networks must be capable of obtaining information about the network and adaptively tune sending and encoding parameters to the network response. Obtaining meaningful metrics to guide a stable congestion control mechanism in the transport (i.e. passive, simple, end-to-end and network technology independent) is a complex problem. Equally difficult is obtaining a reliable QoS metrics that agrees with user perception in a client/server or distributed environment. Existing metrics, objective or subjective, are commonly used after or before to test or report on a transmission and require access to both original and transmitted frames. In this paper, we propose that an efficient and successful video delivery and the optimization of overall network QoS requires innovation in a) a direct measurement of available and bottleneck capacity for its congestion control and b) a meaningful subjective QoS metric that is dynamically reported to video sender. Once these are in place, a binomial -stable, fair and TCP friendly- algorithm can be used to determine the sending rate and other packet video parameters. An adaptive mpeg codec can then continually test and fit its parameters and temporal-spatial data-error control balance using the perceived QoS dynamic feedback. We suggest a new measurement based on a packet dispersion technique that is independent of underlying network mechanisms. We then present a binomial control based on direct measurements. We implement a QoS metric that is known to agree with user perception (MPQM) in a client/server, distributed environment by using predetermined table lookups and characterization of video content.

  6. Beyond Fine Tuning: Adding capacity to leverage few labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodas, Nathan O.; Shaffer, Kyle J.; Yankov, Artem; Corley, Courtney D.; Anderson, Aryk L.

    2017-12-09

    In this paper we present a technique to train neural network models on small amounts of data. Current methods for training neural networks on small amounts of rich data typically rely on strategies such as fine-tuning a pre-trained neural networks or the use of domain-specific hand-engineered features. Here we take the approach of treating network layers, or entire networks, as modules and combine pre-trained modules with untrained modules, to learn the shift in distributions between data sets. The central impact of using a modular approach comes from adding new representations to a network, as opposed to replacing representations via fine-tuning. Using this technique, we are able surpass results using standard fine-tuning transfer learning approaches, and we are also able to significantly increase performance over such approaches when using smaller amounts of data.

  7. Dynamic transport capacity in gravel-bed river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. E. Lisle; B. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - Sediment transport capacity mediates the transfer and storage of bed material between alluvial reservoirs in a drainage system. At intermediate time scales corresponding to the evolution of sediment pulses, conditions governing bed-material transport capacity under the hydrologic regime respond to variations in storage and sediment flux as pulses extend,...

  8. Urban development control based on transportation carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Sjafruddin, A. H.

    2017-06-01

    Severe transportation problems in Indonesian urban areas are stimulated by one fundamental factor, namely lack of awareness on transportation carrying capacity in these areas development control. Urban land use development towards more physical coverage is typically not related with the capability of transportation system to accommodate additional trips volume. Lack of clear connection between development permit with its implication on the transportation side has led to a phenomenon of exceeding transport demand over supply capacity. This paper discusses the concept of urban land use development control which will be related with transport carrying capacity. The discussion would cover both supply and demand sides of transportation. From supply side, the analysis regarding the capacity of transport system would take both existing as well as potential road network capacity could be developed. From demand side, the analysis would be through the control of a maximum floor area and public transport provision. Allowed maximum floor area for development would be at the level of generating traffic at reasonable volume. Ultimately, the objective of this paper is to introduce model to incorporate transport carrying capacity in Indonesian urban land use development control.

  9. Multi-Stage Transportation Problem With Capacity Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Brezina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical transportation problem can be applied in a more general way in practice. Related problems as Multi-commodity transportation problem, Transportation problems with different kind of vehicles, Multi-stage transportation problems, Transportation problem with capacity limit is an extension of the classical transportation problem considering the additional special condition. For solving such problems many optimization techniques (dynamic programming, linear programming, special algorithms for transportation problem etc. and heuristics approaches (e.g. evolutionary techniques were developed. This article considers Multi-stage transportation problem with capacity limit that reflects limits of transported materials (commodity quantity. Discussed issues are: theoretical base, problem formulation as way as new proposed algorithm for that problem.

  10. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport techno...... rate (BER) measurements on the aggregated 100G stream.......Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...

  11. Capacities of cognitive and emotional empathy in relationship to interpersonal difficulties in alcohol dependant patients (AD)

    OpenAIRE

    Dethier, Marie; Blairy, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The term empathy refers to two related human abilities: mental perspective taking (cognitive empathy) and the vicarious sharing of emotions (emotional empathy). The main object of this study was to explore the relationship between capacities of both aspects of empathy and their relationships with interpersonal difficulties in alcohol-dependant patients (AD). The research in alcoholism empathy has focalised around one aspect of cognitive empathy - the capacity to infer an emotional state-, and...

  12. A memory and organizational aid improves AD research consent capacity: Results of a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubright, Jonathan; Sankar, Pamela; Casarett, David J; Gur, Ruben; Xie, Sharon X; Karlawish, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Objectives AD patients' early and progressive cognitive impairments hinder their capacity to provide informed consent. Unfortunately, the limited research on techniques to improve capacity has shown mixed results. Therefore, we tested whether a memory and organizational aid improves AD patient performance on measures of capacity and competency to give informed consent. Design, Setting, and Participants AD patients randomly assigned to standard consent, or standard plus a memory and organizational aid. Intervention Memory and organizational aid summarized at a 6th grade reading level the content of information mandated under the Common Rule's informed consent disclosure requirements. Measurements Three psychiatrists without access to patient data independently reviewed MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) interview transcripts to judge whether the patient was capable of providing informed consent. The agreement of at least two of three experts defined a participant as capable of providing informed consent. Secondary outcomes are MacCAT-CR measures of understanding, appreciation and reasoning, and comparison to cognitively normal older adult norms. Results AD intervention and control groups were similar in terms of age, education, and cognitive status. The intervention group was more likely to be judged competent than control group and had higher scores on MacCAT-CR measure of understanding. The intervention had no effect on measures of appreciation or reasoning. Conclusions A consent process that addresses an AD patients' deficits in memory and attention can improve capacity to give informed consent for early phase AD research. The results also validate the MacCAT-CR as an instrument to measure capacity, especially the understanding subscale. PMID:20808101

  13. Determinants of Capacity Utilization in Road Freight Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera

    2014-01-01

    Recent performance figures in the European road freight transport sector show that there is an excess capacity. To shed light on this phenomenon, this paper studies two aspects of capacity utilization in trucking: the extent of empty running and the load factor. The paper shows that they can...

  14. Sediment transport capacity as an objective of reservoir operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, Robert T.; ,

    1998-01-01

    A sediment transport capacity index was developed as a part of a program to develop methods of flushing flow analysis. The index can be used to develop reservoir operation strategies that consider the movement of sediment as one of the reservoir management goals. The sedimentation transport capacity index determines the instream flow for the maintenance of the substrate below a reservoir in a condition needed by a desirable ecosystem. It can also be used in investigating the impacts of reservoir on the river channel downstream of the reservoir. The method allows a reservoir operator the flexibility of meeting the streamflow needs with a mix of streamflows.

  15. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    Purpose This chapter discusses a central aspect of freight transportcapacity utilisation with a link to empty running of commercial freight vehicles. Methodology/approach The paper provides an overview of the literature on these topics and groups the contributions into two segments according...... to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... modelling literature and its main aim is analysing vehicle movement and usage in transport demand modelling context. A strand of this second group of contributions is the modelling of trip-chain and its implication on the level of capacity utilisation. Research limitations The review is not a comprehensive...

  16. Effect of endurance training on glucose transport capacity and glucose transporter expression in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, T; Stallknecht, B M; Pedersen, O

    1990-01-01

    exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training...... session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold...... number of glucose transporters....

  17. The development trend of adjusted value added in selected transport companies in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Šenec, Alexandr; Pazderková, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the development of the value added per employee in a public transport. The value added is adjusted by the reimbursement for demonstrable loss from state, region or municipality that guarantee transport services on the particular areas. The economy of transport companies combines the basic business target - a profit - and the possibility of the financial support from state, region or municipality in a form of a reimbursement for demonstrable loss. The article analyzes th...

  18. Adding strength to endurance training does not enhance aerobic capacity in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psilander, N; Frank, P; Flockhart, M; Sahlin, K

    2015-08-01

    The molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis is enhanced when resistance exercise is added to a bout of endurance exercise. The purpose of the present study was to examine if this mode of concurrent training translates into increased mitochondrial content and improved endurance performance. Moderately trained cyclists performed 8 weeks (two sessions per week) of endurance training only (E, n = 10; 60-min cycling) or endurance training followed by strength training (ES, n = 9; 60-min cycling + leg press). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and analyzed for enzyme activities and protein content. Only the ES group increased in leg strength (+19%, P endurance (+9%, P endurance performance (+4%, P training. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results demonstrate that concurrent training does not enhance muscle aerobic capacity and endurance performance in cyclists. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of endurance training on glucose transport capacity and glucose transporter expression in rat skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploug, T.; Stallknecht, B.M.; Pedersen, O.; Kahn, B.B.; Ohkuwa, T.; Vinten, J.; Galbo, H. (Panum Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1990-12-01

    The effect of 10 wk endurance swim training on 3-O-methylglucose (3-MG) uptake (at 40 mM 3-MG) in skeletal muscle was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Training resulted in an increase of approximately 33% for maximum insulin-stimulated 3-MG transport in fast-twitch red fibers and an increase of approximately 33% for contraction-stimulated transport in slow-twitch red fibers compared with nonexercised sedentary muscle. A fully additive effect of insulin and contractions was observed both in trained and untrained muscle. Compared with transport in control rats subjected to an almost exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold by training in fast-twitch red muscle fibers. In parallel to this, Western blot demonstrated a approximately 47% increase in GLUT-1 protein and a approximately 31% increase in GLUT-4 protein. This indicates that the increases in maximum velocity for 3-MG transport in trained muscle is due to an increased number of glucose transporters.

  20. Decreasing non-value-added nursing time transporting stable patients from the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selph, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    In the emergency department (ED), one non-value-added task is transporting stable patients to telemetry units. This process improvement intervention introduces a decision tree to determine which patients are stable enough to be safely transported nonmonitored, thus more efficiently using valuable nursing time. A decision tree was utilized to determine which patients would be transported nonmonitored. A data collection instrument was completed at the time of each nonmonitored transport of a patient, and data were collected over a 4-month period. A total of 280 patients met the criteria to be transported nonmonitored from the ED to the inpatient unit during the data collection period, saving an average of 20.7 hr per month. With appropriate use of the decision tree, clinical staff successfully determined the need for monitored transport of patients admitted to non-intensive care unit telemetry units from the ED. There were no adverse patient events.

  1. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-12-15

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.

  2. Lactate/H+ transport kinetics in rat skeletal muscle related to fibre type and changes in transport capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel; Pilegaard

    1998-01-01

    muscles, muscles of old rats and rats that had been subjected to high-intensity training, endurance training, repeated exposure to hypoxia, and hypothyroid or hyperthyroid treatments. The lactate/H+ transport capacity of red muscles was greater than that of white muscles, and this difference......Lactate/H+ transport kinetics were determined by means of the pH-sensitive probe BCECF in sarcolemmal giant vesicles, obtained from rat skeletal muscle, and related to variations in lactate/H+ transport capacity. Vesicle preparations were made from red and white muscles, mixed muscles, denervated...... and hypothyroidism was due to a decrease in Vmax. The denervation-induced decline in lactate/H+ transport capacity resulted from both an increased Km and a reduced Vmax. The present data show that muscle type differences and most changes in the lactate/H+ transport capacity are mediated by modifications in Vmax...

  3. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  4. Taxable capacity and effort of Ghana's value-added tax | Andoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Value-added tax (VAT) has not only brought dynamism in Ghana's revenue mobilisation landscape but also occupies a centre stage in the country's fiscal consolidation efforts. Interestingly, the VAT regime has undergone a number of discretionary reforms in a bid to generate as much revenue as possible for its fiscal ...

  5. Capacity and performance study of IEEE 802.11e in WLANs and ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mjøberg, Frank Roar

    2007-01-01

    This master thesis focuses on the IEEE 802.11e Enhanced Distribution Channel Access (EDCA). The IEEE 802.11e protocol became an IEEE standard in November 2005 and is a very popular research topic. Even though the protocol has been tested for faults and errors a long time there are still research topics to explore. This thesis will try to answer some of those topics. The main topic in this thesis is how the IEEE 802.11e MAC operates in a multihop ad hoc network. We discuss and evaluated th...

  6. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf Bin Zikria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet’s de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.

  7. Throughput Capacity of Selfish Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with General Node Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuming Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the throughput capacity of wireless networks considering the selfish feature of interaction between nodes. In our proposed network model, each node has a probability of cooperating to relay transmission. According to the extent of selfishness, we, by the application of percolation theory, construct a series of highways crossing the network. The transmission strategy is then divided into three consecutive phases. Comparing the rate in each phase, we find the bottleneck of rate is always in the highway phase. Finally, the result reveals that the node’s selfishness degrades the throughput with a factor of square root of the cooperative probability, whereas the node density has trivial impact on the throughput.

  8. Reconstructing inundation of the AD 1755 tsunami from sediment transport modeling and sedimentological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro; Santos, Angela; Gelfenbaum, Guy; La Selle, Seanpaul; Andrade, César

    2017-04-01

    The AD 1755 tsunami was the most destructive tsunami that affected the Atlantic coasts of Europe in historical times. Previous work, however, has not elucidated the succession of events during the tsunami. Important questions remain regarding the number of inundation and backwash phases as relates to deposition of sandy sediments recovered in the sedimentary record. Based on detailed geomorphological, geochemical, mineralogical and sedimentary studies of four low-lying coastal areas in the Algarve (Martinhal, Boca do Rio, Alcantarilha and Salgados) it was possible to establish sediment sources, transport paths and, tentatively, define typically 3 major sub-units within the AD 1755 tsunami deposits. The sediment source of this deposit is likely the dune and/or beach based on mineralogical and grain-size comparisons with modern surface samples. Furthermore, GPR profiles collected in the adjacent dune fields (in Alcantarilha and Salgados) establish the run-up (approximately 6m above msl) in this specific coastal sector. Tsunami deposits from AD1755 mostly consist of massive or normally-graded, landward thinning layers of shell-rich sand with an erosive base within the mud-dominated lowlands. Landward of the foredune, the AD1755 deposit is roughly 10 cm thick and thins in the landward and alongshore directions until it disappears a few hundred meters from the coast (with the exception of Boca do Rio where it exceeds 1km). Numerical models of tsunami inundation and sedimentation can provide useful insights into the dynamics of palaeotsunamis. In this work we present results from a 1D cross shore model used to test flow height controls on deposit thickness and also to detect the sediment source of the AD1755 deposit. Four possible sediment sources were tested (nearshore, beach, dune and lagoon) using synthetic, long-period waves to simulate the AD1755 tsunami. The combination of geological studies with numerical modeling of inundation and sediment transport produces a

  9. Effect of hydraulic parameters on sediment transport capacity in overland flow over erodible beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sediment transport is an important component of the soil erosion process, which depends on several hydraulic parameters like unit discharge, mean flow velocity, and slope gradient. In most of the previous studies, the impact of these hydraulic parameters on transport capacity was studied for non-erodible bed conditions. Hence, this study aimed to examine the influence of unit discharge, mean flow velocity and slope gradient on sediment transport capacity for erodible beds and also to investigate the relationship between transport capacity and composite force predictors, i.e. shear stress, stream power, unit stream power and effective stream power. In order to accomplish the objectives, experiments were carried out in a 3.0 m long and 0.5 m wide flume using four well sorted sands (0.230, 0.536, 0.719, 1.022 mm. Unit discharges ranging from 0.07 to 2.07 × 10−3 m2 s−1 were simulated inside the flume at four slopes (5.2, 8.7, 13.2 and 17.6% to analyze their impact on sediment transport rate. The sediment transport rate measured at the bottom end of the flume by taking water and sediment samples was considered equal to sediment transport capacity, because the selected flume length of 3.0 m was found sufficient to reach the transport capacity. The experimental result reveals that the slope gradient has a stronger impact on transport capacity than unit discharge and mean flow velocity due to the fact that the tangential component of gravity force increases with slope gradient. Our results show that unit stream power is an optimal composite force predictor for estimating transport capacity. Stream power and effective stream power can also be successfully related to the transport capacity, however the relations are strongly dependent on grain size. Shear stress showed poor performance, because part of shear stress is dissipated by bed irregularities, bed form evolution and sediment detachment. An empirical transport

  10. Maintenance of xylem network transport capacity: a review of embolism repair in vascular plants

    OpenAIRE

    Craig eBrodersen; Andrew eMcElrone

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of long distance water transport in xylem is essential to plant health and productivity. Both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions lead to embolism formation within the xylem resulting in lost transport capacity and ultimately death. Plants exhibit a variety of strategies to either prevent or restore hydraulic capacity through cavitation resistance with specialized anatomy, replacement of compromised conduits with new growth, and a metabolically active embolism repair mecha...

  11. Capacity, information and minority games in public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, P.C.; Kroon, L.; Vervest, P.; Maroti, G.

    2016-01-01

    Many public transport operators are faced with high peak demands. This leads to crowded vehicles and discomfort for the passengers. The increasing availability of information technologies creates new opportunities for passengers to avoid crowding and for operators to inform passengers and reallocate

  12. Dynamic Cooperative Clustering Based Power Assignment: Network Capacity and Lifetime Efficient Topology Control in Cooperative Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative communication (CC is used in topology control as it can reduce the transmission power and expand the transmission range. However, all previous research on topology control under the CC model focused on maintaining network connectivity and minimizing the total energy consumption, which would lead to low network capacity, transmission interruption, or even network paralysis. Meanwhile, without considering the balance of energy consumption in the network, it would reduce the network lifetime and greatly affect the network performance. This paper tries to solve the above problems existing in the research on topology control under the CC model by proposing a power assignment (DCCPA algorithm based on dynamic cooperative clustering in cooperative ad hoc networks. The new algorithm clusters the network to maximize network capacity and makes the clusters communicate with each other by CC. To reduce the number of redundant links between clusters, we design a static clustering method by using Kruskal algorithm. To maximize the network lifetime, we also propose a cluster head rotating method which can reach a good tradeoff between residual energy and distance for the cluster head reselection. Experimental results show that DCCPA can improve 80% network capacity with Cooperative Bridges algorithm; meanwhile, it can improve 20% network lifetime.

  13. Beyond a complete failure : The impact of partial capacity reductions on public transport network vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.; Jenelius, E.

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions often result with partial capacity reduction without resulting with a complete breakdown. This study aims to move beyond the analysis of complete failure by investigating the impacts of partial capacity reduction on public transport network performance. We analyse the relation between

  14. GLP-1 analog raises glucose transport capacity of blood-brain barrier in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, M.; Brock, B.; Egefjord, L.

    2017-01-01

    claim that the GLP-1 analog liraglutide may prevent the decline of blood-brain glucose transfer in AD. Methods: In this 26-week test of the hypothesis, we randomized 38 patients with AD to treatment with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (n = 18) or placebo (n = 20). We determined blood-brain glucose......Objectives: Glucose enters the brain tissue from plasma by facilitated diffusion across the two membranes of the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), mediated by the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). There is evidence in Alzheimer's disease (AD) of reduction of glucose transport across...... and degeneration. Hypothesis: The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution in AD, and GLP-1 may directly activate GLUT1 transport in brain capillary endothelium. For this reason, we here...

  15. Optimum Repartition of Transport Capacities in the Logistic System using Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BĂŞANU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Transportations take an essential role in logistics, interconnecting the majority of processes and operations within logistic system. The efficient use of transportation capacity is a priority whose achievement can diminish logistic costs. This objective is today difficult to achieve due to increasing complexity of transportation monitoring and coordination. This complexity is determined by transportation number and diversity, by the volume and diversity of orders, by increasing the targets to be supplied.Dynamic programming represents a highly useful tool for logistic managers, considering that its specific techniques and methods are oriented toward solving problems related to resource optimum allocation and utilization.The present paper presents briefly a series of theoretical elements of dynamic programming applied in logistics, based on which it is shown a mathematic model to determine the optimum policy for transport capacity repartition for the area attached to a logistic centre, through three distribution centres.

  16. Efficient packet transportation on complex networks with nonuniform node capacity distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuan; Niu, Kai; He, Zhiqiang; Lin, Jiaru; Jiang, Zhong-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Provided that node delivery capacity may be not uniformly distributed in many realistic networks, we present a node delivery capacity distribution in which each node capacity is composed of uniform fraction and degree related proportion. Based on the node delivery capacity distribution, we construct a novel routing mechanism called efficient weighted routing (EWR) strategy to enhance network traffic capacity and transportation efficiency. Compared with the shortest path routing and the efficient routing strategies, the EWR achieves the highest traffic capacity. After investigating average path length, network diameter, maximum efficient betweenness, average efficient betweenness, average travel time and average traffic load under extensive simulations, it indicates that the EWR appears to be a very effective routing method. The idea of this routing mechanism gives us a good insight into network science research. The practical use of this work is prospective in some real complex systems such as the Internet.

  17. The interaction between tolls and capacity investment in serial and parallel transport networks

    OpenAIRE

    De Borger, Bruno; Dunkerley, Fay; Proost, Stef

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the interaction between pricing and capacity decisions on simple serial and parallel transport networks. When individual links of the network are operated by different regional or national authorities, toll and capacity competition is likely to result. Moreover, the problem is potentially complicated by the presence of both local and transit demand on each link of the network. We bring together and extend the recent literature on the topic and, using bo...

  18. Intelligent transportation systems Professional Capacity Building Program : framework and overview for establishing a professional capacity building program for transportation management and traveler information services in support of ITS deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-30

    This document has been prepared to describe how the U.S. Department of Transportations (US DOT) Five- Year Strategic Plan for Professional Capacity Building for ITS Transportation Management and Traveler Information Services is being implemented, ...

  19. Transport capacity of wireless networks: benefits from multi-access computation coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goseling, Jasper; Gastpar, Michael; Weber, Jos H.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the effect on the transport capacity of wireless networks of different physical layer coding mechanisms. We compare the performance of traditional channel coding techniques, turning the wireless network in reliable point-to-point channels, with multi-access computation coding, in which

  20. Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism: A Novel Approach for Intelligent Transportation System Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ganeshkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indian four-lane express highway, millions of vehicles are travelling every day. Accidents are unfortunate and frequently occurring in these highways causing deaths, increase in death toll, and damage to infrastructure. A mechanism is required to avoid such road accidents at the maximum to reduce the death toll. An Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism, a novel and proactive approach, is proposed in this paper for achieving the best of Intelligent Transportation System using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network. ESPM intends to predict the possibility of occurrence of an accident in an Indian four-lane express highway. In ESPM, the emergency situation prediction is done by the Road Side Unit based on (i the Status Report sent by the vehicles in the range of RSU and (ii the road traffic flow analysis done by the RSU. Once the emergency situation or accident is predicted in advance, an Emergency Warning Message is constructed and disseminated to all vehicles in the area of RSU to alert and prevent the vehicles from accidents. ESPM performs well in emergency situation prediction in advance to the occurrence of an accident. ESPM predicts the emergency situation within 0.20 seconds which is comparatively less than the statistical value. The prediction accuracy of ESPM against vehicle density is found better in different traffic scenarios.

  1. Evaluation capacity assessment of the transport sector in South Africa: An innovative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basia D. Bless

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article was based on the study on the assessment of evaluation capacity in the transport sector in South Africa. The purpose of the study was to test the Six Sphere Framework (SSF, which is an innovative evaluation capacity diagnostic tool developed by the Centre for Learning on Evaluation and Results (CLEAR-AA based in South Africa.Objectives: The article presents the findings emanating from the study and new knowledge on how evaluation capacity assessments can be conducted in the transport sector in South Africa.Method: A variety of methods including a survey, semi-structured interviews, document review and focus group discussions were used to collect data from primary and secondary sources. In all the cases, research questions were structured around the six components of the framework. Similarly, the presentation of the findings was arranged in themes that mirror these components.Results: The article locates the SSF within the current evaluation capacity development literature and argues that existing evaluation capacity assessment tools are inadequate to understand pertinent issues affecting the use of evidence in the transport sector in South Africa.Conclusion: In this regard, the framework is recommended as an innovative tool to assist evaluation practitioners and scholars to better understand evaluation capacity constraints within a broader context that involves logistical, technical, contextual, social and political dimensions. It also offers an important insight on how these components interfaced to shape the organisational value system that impacts the use of evidence in the transport sector in South Africa.

  2. A high mitochondrial transport rate characterizes CNS neurons with high axonal regeneration capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Cartoni

    Full Text Available Improving axonal transport in the injured and diseased central nervous system has been proposed as a promising strategy to improve neuronal repair. However, the contribution of each cargo to the repair mechanism is unknown. DRG neurons globally increase axonal transport during regeneration. Because the transport of specific cargos after axonal insult has not been examined systematically in a model of enhanced regenerative capacity, it is unknown whether the transport of all cargos would be modulated equally in injured central nervous system neurons. Here, using a microfluidic culture system we compared neurons co-deleted for PTEN and SOCS3, an established model of high axonal regeneration capacity, to control neurons. We measured the axonal transport of three cargos (mitochondria, synaptic vesicles and late endosomes in regenerating axons and found that the transport of mitochondria, but not the other cargos, was increased in PTEN/SOCS3 co-deleted axons relative to controls. The results reported here suggest a pivotal role for this organelle during axonal regeneration.

  3. MIMO capacities and outage probabilities in spatially multiplexed optical transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Peter J; Foschini, Gerard J

    2011-08-15

    With wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) rapidly nearing its scalability limits, space-division multiplexing (SDM) seems the only option to further scale the capacity of optical transport networks. In order for SDM systems to continue the WDM trend of reducing energy and cost per bit with system capacity, integration will be key to SDM. Since integration is likely to introduce non-negligible crosstalk between multiple parallel transmission paths, multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) signal processing techniques will have to be used. In this paper, we discuss MIMO capacities in optical SDM systems, including related outage considerations which are an important part in the design of such systems. In order to achieve the low-outage standards required for optical transport networks, SDM transponders should be capable of individually addressing, and preferably MIMO processing all modes supported by the optical SDM waveguide. We then discuss the effect of distributed optical noise in MIMO SDM systems and focus on the impact of mode-dependent loss (MDL) on system capacity and system outage. Through extensive numerical simulations, we extract scaling rules for mode-average and mode-dependent loss and show that MIMO SDM systems composed of up to 128 segments and supporting up to 128 modes can tolerate up to 1 dB of per-segment MDL at 90% of the system's full capacity at an outage probability of 10(-4). © 2011 Optical Society of America

  4. A Comparison of Drug Loading Capacity of Cellactose with Two ad hoc Processed Lactose-Cellulose Direct Compression Excipients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marta CASALDERREY; Consuelo SOUTO; Angel CONCHEIRO; Jose Luis GOMEZ-AMOZA; Ramon MARTINEZ-PACHECO

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the drug loading capacity of Cellactose and two excipients of similar composition and similar particle size, prepared by dry granulation and extrusion-spheronization respectively...

  5. Logistical and ergonomic transportation capacity for refuse collection workers: a work physiology field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttmann, A; Laurig, W; Jäger, M

    1992-09-01

    In a work physiology field study, the work flow and the electrocardiogram were recorded throughout whole shifts for six male refuse (garbage) collection workers who transported and emptied 1.1 m3 refuse containers. The work rate (WR), indicated by the number of 1.1 m3 containers emptied per unit of time, and the work pulse rate (WPR) were determined in the data evaluation. The work pulse rate increases with the work rate. The functional relationship can be approximated by a linear regression function (WPR = 20.9 + 35.8.WR). The work pulse rate reaches such high values that it must be assumed that the work cannot be performed continuously throughout the whole working day. Consequently, regular breaks should be provided. When determining the necessary duration of the breaks, it was assumed that an equilibrium between fatigue and recovery should be maintained during the working day. The recovery breaks should be at least long enough for the heart rate to return to the resting level. The necessary duration of the breaks was determined on the basis of the present field study and the laboratory investigations described in the literature. A minimum duration of 10 min per working hour results from the calculations. The breaks should be taken regularly at about hourly intervals. A transportation-capacity model is provided for the planning of the deployment of refuse workers. It permits calculation of the number of 1.1 m3 containers a three-man crew, comprising the refuse collection truck driver and two loaders, can empty during one shift. Both the logistical and ergonomic transportation capacities can be determined using the model. The logistical transportation capacity (TCL) indicates the number of containers which can be emptied per shift by a crew when only criteria such as the optimal utilization of the working time are considered. The ergonomic transportation capacity (TCE) is understood as the number of containers which can be emptied per shift taking into

  6. Transport of divalent cations: cation exchange capacity of intact xylem vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Geijn, S C; Petit, C M

    1979-12-01

    The cation exchange capacity of the intact xylem vessels in cut shoots of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus spec.) has been determined. The cation exchange capacity is independent of the cation concentration in the transpiration stream, and is equal for Ca and Co. The high value of the cation exchange capacity (0.6 to 1 x 10(-7) equivalents per square centimeter vessel wall surface) leads to the hypothesis that the porous structure of the vessel wall, and not only the inner vessel wall surface, acts as a cation exchanger.Differences between anion ([(32)P]phosphate, [(45)Ca]EDTA(2-), [(115)Cd(m)]-EDTA(2-)), and cation ([(45)Ca](2+), [(115)Cd(m)](2+)) movement are explained in terms of transport with the transpiration flux or by exchange reactions. The competition between exchange sites and natural or synthetic ligands for the divalent cations is discussed.

  7. Transporting Capacity of Albumin in Patients with Severe Mechanical Injury During Intravascular Laser Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the parameters of the transporting capacity of albumin, in some biochemical plasma parameters, and in the impact of low-energy laser irradiation on the studied parameters were examined in patients with severe mechanical injury in the early posttraumatic period. Thirty patients aged 17 to 70 years who had a health status of 78 to 98 scores by the APACHE-III scale were examined. The results indicated that as a consequence of prior hypoxia of mixed genesis and subsequent reperfusion and later on due to the development of endogenous intoxication, there were changes in the transporting capacity of albumin and in the de Ritis coefficient, a reduction in cholesterol concentrations, and increases in the levels of triglycerides and in the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Early quantum hemotherapy as a part of complex treatment makes it possible to prevent the progressive deterioration of the transporting capacity of plasma albumin, the critical reduction in the effective concentration of albumin, contributes to a more rapid recovery of the lowered levels of cholesterol and to a further increase in the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, which is indicative of the recovered biosynthetic activity of the liver and its enhanced detoxifying activity.

  8. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography of proteins. IV. Protein adsorption capacity and transport in preparative mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Brian C S; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2011-01-21

    The adsorption isotherms of four model proteins (lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, ovalbumin, and BSA) on eight commercial phenyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography media were measured. The isotherms were softer than those usually seen in ion-exchange chromatography of proteins, and the static capacities of the media were lower, ranging from 30 to 110 mg/mL, depending on the ammonium sulfate concentration and the protein and adsorbent types. The protein-accessible surface area appears to be the main factor determining the binding capacity, and little correlation was seen with the protein affinities of the adsorbents. Breakthrough experiments showed that the dynamic capacities of the adsorbents at 10% breakthrough were 20-80% of the static capacities, depending on adsorbent type. Protein diffusivities in the adsorbents were estimated from batch uptake experiments using the pore diffusion and homogeneous diffusion models. Protein transport was affected by the adsorbent pore structures. Apparent diffusivities were higher at lower salt concentrations and column loadings, suggesting that adsorbed proteins may retard intraparticle protein transport. The diffusivities estimated from the batch uptake experiments were used to predict column breakthrough behavior. Analytical solutions developed for ion-exchange systems were able to provide accurate predictions for lysozyme breakthrough but not for ovalbumin. Impurities in the ovalbumin solutions used for the breakthrough experiments may have affected the ovalbumin uptake and led to the discrepancies between the predictions and the experimental results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity-The case of Nabucco and its open season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickl, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.pickl@univie.ac.a [University of Vienna, Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics (Austria); Wirl, Franz [University of Vienna, Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics (Austria)

    2011-04-15

    As a response to the Russian dominance of the EU's natural gas supplies and the EU's increasing gas demands, major gas pipeline projects are currently under way to enhance the EU's energy supply security. Oftentimes to raise financing and to allocate gas transportation capacities, auctions are carried out to allow gas shippers to book transportation rights. In recent years, auctions have emerged as one of the most successful allocation mechanisms in the microeconomic theory. However, different auction designs can lead to different outcomes making the choice of auction design a decisive one, especially for divisible-good auctions. This paper seeks to give a formulation of an optimal auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. Specifically three different mechanisms are tested: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. In addition, Nabucco is taken as a case study to empirically show results of such auction designs. Results show that a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation can be observed: allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central. - Research highlights: {yields} Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. {yields} Empirical market-survey of Nabucco pipeline project auction as input data. {yields} Testing of three different allocation mechanisms: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. {yields} Results show a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation. {yields} Allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. {yields} On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central.

  10. Quantifying the impact of road capacity loss on urban electrified transportation networks: An optimization based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of electric vehicles and commercialization of public charging facilities have inspired the emerging trend of transportation electrification, which creates an urgent demand for systematic methodologies to analyze the performance of electrified transportation networks (ETNs while taking the interdependency across the transportation network and the power distribution network into account. This paper introduces a comprehensive mathematical formulation of the ETN from a system-level perspective, in which the steady-state distribution of the traffic flow is described by Wardrop user equilibrium, while the operating status of the power grid is characterized by a linearized branch power flow model. Moreover, this paper investigates the impact of road capacity degradation on the transportation network, which is quantified by the total vehicle travel time, as well as the power distribution network, which is quantified by the operating cost. The former gives rise to a nonlinear programming problem with complementarity constraints (NPCC, which is reformulated as a mixed integer linear program, thereby the global optimal solution can be found with moderate computational effort. The latter yields a max–min NPCC, which is transformed into an equivalent single-level NPCC; thus a commercial nonlinear solver is applicable to find a local solution. A derivative-free searching algorithm which relies on convex optimization is also suggested. Numerical case studies on a test system demonstrate the necessity of considering the intrinsic interdependency of the transportation and electricity infrastructures in designing and operating the ETN.

  11. Estimating the Capacity of Urban Transportation Networks with an Improved Sensitivity Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muqing Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The throughput of a given transportation network is always of interest to the traffic administrative department, so as to evaluate the benefit of the transportation construction or expansion project before its implementation. The model of the transportation network capacity formulated as a mathematic programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC well defines this problem. For practical applications, a modified sensitivity analysis based (SAB method is developed to estimate the solution of this bilevel model. The high-efficient origin-based (OB algorithm is extended for the precise solution of the combined model which is integrated in the network capacity model. The sensitivity analysis approach is also modified to simplify the inversion of the Jacobian matrix in large-scale problems. The solution produced in every iteration of SAB is restrained to be feasible to guarantee the success of the heuristic search. From the numerical experiments, the accuracy of the derivatives for the linear approximation could significantly affect the converging of the SAB method. The results also show that the proposed method could obtain good suboptimal solutions from different starting points in the test examples.

  12. Evaluating the use of unmanned aerial vehicles for transportation purposes : [parts A-D].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Advances in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology have enabled these tools to become : easier to use and afford. In a budget-limited environment, these flexible remote sensing : technologies can help address transportation agency needs in operatio...

  13. Competence and Capacity-Building Requirements in Transport and Logistics Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazaras Darius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses theoretical aspects of the qualitative assessment of logistics and transport specialists’ potential, as well as provides research results on competence and capacity-building process in preparation of logistics and transport specialists. The results enabled to identify problematic areas of graduate integration in the labour market and foresee the possible requirements for professional development. In some cases, internal motivation is related to problematic points or negative view from the environment, as well as poor understanding of knowledge benefits in the person’s practical life. Training and education is objectively at the meeting point between research, technological and organisational systems. In such conditions the objective of the education on logistics is to offer the customers the best possible service in the field of the transfer of knowledge in harmony with the trend in logistics programme development. The main problems and perspectives of logistics education and training process are discussed in this article.

  14. Use of Added Sugars Instead of Total Sugars May Improve the Capacity of the Health Star Rating System to Discriminate between Core and Discretionary Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menday, Hannah; Neal, Bruce; Wu, Jason H Y; Crino, Michelle; Baines, Surinder; Petersen, Kristina S

    2017-12-01

    The Australian Government has introduced a voluntary front-of-package labeling system that includes total sugar in the calculation. Our aim was to determine the effect of substituting added sugars for total sugars when calculating Health Star Ratings (HSR) and identify whether use of added sugars improves the capacity to distinguish between core and discretionary food products. This study included packaged food and beverage products available in Australian supermarkets (n=3,610). The product categories included in the analyses were breakfast cereals (n=513), fruit (n=571), milk (n=309), non-alcoholic beverages (n=1,040), vegetables (n=787), and yogurt (n=390). Added sugar values were estimated for each product using a validated method. HSRs were then estimated for every product according to the established method using total sugar, and then by substituting added sugar for total sugar. The scoring system was not modified when added sugar was used in place of total sugar in the HSR calculation. Products were classified as core or discretionary based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. To investigate whether use of added sugar in the HSR algorithm improved the distinction between core and discretionary products as defined by the Australian Dietary Guidelines, the proportion of core products that received an HSR of ≥3.5 stars and the proportion of discretionary products that received an HSR of <3.5 stars, for algorithms based upon total vs added sugars were determined. There were 2,263 core and 1,347 discretionary foods; 1,684 of 3,610 (47%) products contained added sugar (median 8.4 g/100 g, interquartile range=5.0 to 12.2 g). When the HSR was calculated with added sugar instead of total sugar, an additional 166 (7.3%) core products received an HSR of ≥3.5 stars and 103 (7.6%) discretionary products received a rating of ≥3.5 stars. The odds of correctly identifying a product as core vs discretionary were increased by 61% (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.26 to 2

  15. High-capacity transport, floor area ratio and its relationship with urbanization of metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, B.L. de; Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de

    2016-07-01

    Most of the world’s population lives in urban areas (54%). Near 42% of the global urban population live in cities with more than 1 million inhabitants, where problems associated with urban sprawl such as informal settlement, social-economic changes, environmental degradation and deficient high-capacity transport (HCT) systems are common. Meanwhile, urbanization and its associated transportation infrastructure define the relationship between city and countryside, between the city’s inner core and the periphery, between the citizen and his right to move. This article discusses and presents an overview about the relationship between the planning and extension of HCT systems and urban planning, (in the figure of the floor-area ratio - FAR- prescribed in regulations). The methodological approach consists of drawing a conceptual framework and studying 33 different cities of metropolitan areas on five continents. It’s noticed that areas in cities with a high construction potential but with an insufficient HCT negatively influence in urban mobility and hence the right to the city. We consider right to the city the various social and fundamental rights that, among others, includes the right to public transportation. Therefore there’s a real need of an integrated approach of community participation, FAR distribution, urban planning and transportation planning and so that urbanization, inevitable these days, takes place in a fair and harmonious way. (Author)

  16. Maintenance of xylem network transport capacity: a review of embolism repair in vascular plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig eBrodersen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of long distance water transport in xylem is essential to plant health and productivity. Both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions lead to embolism formation within the xylem resulting in lost transport capacity and ultimately death. Plants exhibit a variety of strategies to either prevent or restore hydraulic capacity through cavitation resistance with specialized anatomy, replacement of compromised conduits with new growth, and a metabolically active embolism repair mechanism. In recent years, mounting evidence suggests that metabolically active cells surrounding the xylem conduits in some, but not all, species are capable of restoring hydraulic conductivity. This review summarizes our current understanding of the osmotically driven embolism repair mechanism, the known genetic and anatomical components related to embolism repair, rehydration pathways through the xylem, and the role of capacitance. Anatomical differences between functional plant groups may be one of the limiting factors that allow some plants to refill while others do not, but further investigations are necessary to fully understand this dynamic process. Finally, xylem networks should no longer be considered an assemblage of dead, empty conduits, but instead a metabolically active tissue finely tuned to respond to ever changing environmental cues.

  17. Caloric restriction improves efficiency and capacity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Choi, Kyung-Mi [College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol-Koo, E-mail: cklee2005@korea.ac.kr [College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Calorie restriction (CR) increases electron transport chain (ETC) at both RNA and protein level. {yields} CR enhances mitochondrial membrane potential, and, regardless of ages, reduces reactive oxygen species. {yields} CR increases both efficiency and capacity of the ETC. {yields} CR induces intensive modulation at mitochondrial ETC where might be a major site leading to extension of lifespan. -- Abstract: Caloric restriction (CR) is known to extend lifespan in a variety of species; however, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that CR potentiated the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Indeed, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was increased by CR, and, regardless of ages, overall reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was decreased by CR. With these changes, overall growth rate of cells was maintained under various CR conditions, just like cells under a non-restricted condition. All of these data support increased efficiency and capacity of the ETC by CR, and this change might lead to extension of lifespan.

  18. Underestimation of the Maximal Capacity of the Mitochondrial Electron Transport System in Oligomycin-Treated Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S Ruas

    Full Text Available The maximal capacity of the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS in intact cells is frequently estimated by promoting protonophore-induced maximal oxygen consumption preceded by inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation by oligomycin. In the present study, human glioma (T98G and U-87MG and prostate cancer (PC-3 cells were titrated with different concentrations of the protonophore CCCP to induce maximal oxygen consumption rate (OCR within respirometers in a conventional growth medium. The results demonstrate that the presence of oligomycin or its A-isomer leads to underestimation of maximal ETS capacity. In the presence of oligomycin, the spare respiratory capacity (SRC, i.e., the difference between the maximal and basal cellular OCR, was underestimated by 25 to 45%. The inhibitory effect of oligomycin on SRC was more pronounced in T98G cells and was observed in both suspended and attached cells. Underestimation of SRC also occurred when oxidative phosphorylation was fully inhibited by the ATP synthase inhibitor citreoviridin. Further experiments indicated that oligomycin cannot be replaced by the adenine nucleotide translocase inhibitors bongkrekic acid or carboxyatractyloside because, although these compounds have effects in permeabilized cells, they do not inhibit oxidative phosphorylation in intact cells. We replaced CCCP by FCCP, another potent protonophore and similar results were observed. Lower maximal OCR and SRC values were obtained with the weaker protonophore 2,4-dinitrophenol, and these parameters were not affected by the presence of oligomycin. In permeabilized cells or isolated brain mitochondria incubated with respiratory substrates, only a minor inhibitory effect of oligomycin on CCCP-induced maximal OCR was observed. We conclude that unless a previously validated protocol is employed, maximal ETS capacity in intact cells should be estimated without oligomycin. The inhibitory effect of an ATP synthase blocker on potent

  19. A comparison of drug loading capacity of cellactose with two ad hoc processed lactose-cellulose direct compression excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalderrey, Marta; Souto, Consuelo; Concheiro, Angel; Gómez-Amoza, José Luis; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón

    2004-04-01

    This study compares the drug loading capacity of Cellactose and two excipients of similar composition and similar particle size, prepared by dry granulation and extrusion-spheronization respectively. The drugs evaluated were acetaminophen and furosemide. Acetaminophen did not significantly affect the flow properties of any of the excipients, whereas furosemide markedly worsened flow properties, eliminating the differences initially existing among the three excipients. For both drugs, tablet mechanical properties were clearly better with Cellactose than with the other excipients. Acetaminophen dissolution rate was very similar regardless of the excipient used, but furosemide dissolution rate was lower from Cellactose tablets than from tablets prepared with the other excipients. This important difference is discussed in terms of micropore structure, specific surface area, and wettability of tablets, and is attributable to the special structure of Cellactose particles.

  20. SLC2A9 is a high-capacity urate transporter in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Caulfield

    2008-10-01

    ] 0.9 to 1.05, p > 0.33 by meta-analysis of an SLC2A9 variant in six case-control studies including 11,897 participants. In a separate meta-analysis of four population studies including 11,629 participants we found no association of SLC2A9 with systolic (effect size -0.12 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.68 to 0.43, p = 0.664 or diastolic blood pressure (effect size -0.03 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.31, p = 0.82.This study provides evidence that SLC2A9 splice variants act as high-capacity urate transporters and is one of the first functional characterisations of findings from genome-wide association scans. We did not find an association of the SLC2A9 gene with blood pressure in this study. Our findings suggest potential pathogenic mechanisms that could offer a new drug target for gout.

  1. Value-added processing of peanut skins: antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, and procyanidin content of spray-dried extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constanza, Karen E; White, Brittany L; Davis, Jack P; Sanders, Timothy H; Dean, Lisa L

    2012-10-31

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol and filtered to remove insoluble material; the soluble extract was spray-dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of procyanidin oligomers (DP2-DP4) but low levels of monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymers. The addition of maltodextrin during spray-drying resulted in the formation of unknown polymeric compounds. Spray-drying also increased the proportion of flavan-3-ols and DP2 procyanidins in the extracts while decreasing larger procyanidins. Spray-dried powders had higher antioxidant capacity and total phenolics and increased solubility compared to milled skins. These data suggest that spray-dried peanut skin extracts may be a good source of natural antioxidants. Additionally, the insoluble material produced during the process may have increased value for use in animal feed due to enrichment of protein and removal of phenolic compounds during extraction.

  2. Erythropoietin, 2,3 DPG, oxygen transport capacity, and altitude training in adolescent Alpine skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Jin Hae; Ohno, Hideki; Kim, Chang Keun

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth during adolescence caused by metabolic changes and their metabolic response to anaerobic and aerobic exercise differs considerably from that in adults and this is especially true in the responses to stresses, such as altitude exposure. However, there is little information on the suitability of exercise training at altitude for young athletes. Six male Korean adolescent alpine skiers (13-17 yr), with a skiing career of 3-5 yr, participated in the study. All subjects were exposed to an altitude of 2700 m (8858 ft) for 5 wk and altitude exposure consisted of 6 d/wk of training (4-5 h/d), with living quarters at 2100 m (-6890 ft) (Tignes, France). The 5 wk of ski training at altitude were maintained at the same level (the same number of slalom and giant slalom skiing trials) as at sea level. There was a significant increase in oxygen transport capacity, despite decreased erythropoietin (EPO) production (-31%) after altitude training. Red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and 2,3 DPG concentrations increased significantly during altitude exposure and after return to sea level. Results indicate that applying altitude training in adolescent skiers may improve their endurance performance. However, EPO production during altitude training needs to be evaluated in larger future studies.

  3. Prediction of sand transport over immobile gravel from supply limited to capacity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prediction of the transport of sand in armored gravel reaches downstream of dams is complicated by variable bed conditions ranging from sand transported through gravel to sand in transport over buried gravel. Knowledge of the rate of sand transport in these conditions, however, is necessary for...

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  5. The Protective Effect of Icariin on Mitochondrial Transport and Distribution in Primary Hippocampal Neurons from 3× Tg-AD Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yijing; Han, Shuangxue; Huang, Xiuxian; Ni, Jiazuan; He, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-27

    Icariin, a pharmacologically active component isolated from the Chinese herb Epimedium, has been shown to improve spatial learning and memory abilities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats through inhibition of Aβ production and tau protein hyperphosphorylation. However, the potential mechanism of icariin-induced protective effects against mitochondrial dysfunctions in AD still remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of icariin on the modulation of mitochondrial transport and distribution in primary hippocampal cultures from triple-transgenic (3× Tg) AD mice. The results showed that icariin enhanced mitochondrial motility and increased mitochondrial index and mitochondrial length and size in the diseased neurons. Additionally, the expression of the key mitochondrial enzyme, pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α (PDHE1α), and the post synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), was preserved in AD neurons after icariin treatment, accompanied by a downregulation of Aβ and phosphorylated tau expression in the corresponding areas. Further study showed that icariin treatment resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and an increase in fusion protein Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2). These data indicate that icariin can promote mitochondrial transport, protect mitochondria against fragmentation and preserve the expression of mitochondrial and synaptic functional proteins in AD neurons. Thus, icariin may be a potential therapeutic complement for AD and other mitochondrial malfunction-related neuronal degenerative diseases.

  6. The Protective Effect of Icariin on Mitochondrial Transport and Distribution in Primary Hippocampal Neurons from 3× Tg-AD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Icariin, a pharmacologically active component isolated from the Chinese herb Epimedium, has been shown to improve spatial learning and memory abilities in Alzheimer’s disease (AD rats through inhibition of Aβ production and tau protein hyperphosphorylation. However, the potential mechanism of icariin-induced protective effects against mitochondrial dysfunctions in AD still remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of icariin on the modulation of mitochondrial transport and distribution in primary hippocampal cultures from triple-transgenic (3× Tg AD mice. The results showed that icariin enhanced mitochondrial motility and increased mitochondrial index and mitochondrial length and size in the diseased neurons. Additionally, the expression of the key mitochondrial enzyme, pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α (PDHE1α, and the post synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95, was preserved in AD neurons after icariin treatment, accompanied by a downregulation of Aβ and phosphorylated tau expression in the corresponding areas. Further study showed that icariin treatment resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1 and an increase in fusion protein Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2. These data indicate that icariin can promote mitochondrial transport, protect mitochondria against fragmentation and preserve the expression of mitochondrial and synaptic functional proteins in AD neurons. Thus, icariin may be a potential therapeutic complement for AD and other mitochondrial malfunction-related neuronal degenerative diseases.

  7. Quantifying the impact of road capacity loss on urban electrified transportation networks: An optimization based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wei; Jianhui Wang; Lei Wu

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of electric vehicles and commercialization of public charging facilities have inspired the emerging trend of transportation electrification, which creates an urgent demand for systematic methodologies to analyze the performance of electrified transportation networks (ETNs) while taking the interdependency across the transportation network and the power distribution network into account. This paper introduces a comprehensive mathematical formulation of the ETN from a system-l...

  8. Modeling Np and Pu transport with a surface complexation model and spatially variant sorption capacities: Implications for reactive transport modeling and performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) geochemical transport modeling is used to demonstrate the effects of speciation and sorption reactions on the ground-water transport of Np and Pu, two redox-sensitive elements. Earlier 1D simulations (Reardon, 1981) considered the kinetically limited dissolution of calcite and its effect on ion-exchange reactions (involving 90Sr, Ca, Na, Mg and K), and documented the spatial variation of a 90Sr partition coefficient under both transient and steady-state chemical conditions. In contrast, the simulations presented here assume local equilibrium for all reactions, and consider sorption on constant potential, rather than constant charge, surfaces. Reardon's (1981) seminal findings on the spatial and temporal variability of partitioning (of 90Sr) are reexamined and found partially caused by his assumption of a kinetically limited reaction. In the present work, sorption is assumed the predominant retardation process controlling Pu and Np transport, and is simulated using a diffuse-double-layer-surface-complexation (DDLSC) model. Transport simulations consider the infiltration of Np- and Pu-contaminated waters into an initially uncontaminated environment, followed by the cleanup of the resultant contamination with uncontaminated water. Simulations are conducted using different spatial distributions of sorption capacities (with the same total potential sorption capacity, but with different variances and spatial correlation structures). Results obtained differ markedly from those that would be obtained in transport simulations using constant Kd, Langmuir or Freundlich sorption models. When possible, simulation results (breakthrough curves) are fitted to a constant K d advection-dispersion transport model and compared. Functional differences often are great enough that they prevent a meaningful fit of the simulation results with a constant K d (or even a Langmuir or Freundlich) model, even in the case of Np, a weakly sorbed radionuclide under the

  9. Reduced dopamine receptors and transporters but not synthesis capacity in normal aging adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, Teresa M; Josef, Anika K; Mata, Rui; Morris, Evan D; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R

    2017-09-01

    Many theories of cognitive aging are based on evidence that dopamine (DA) declines with age. Here, we performed a systematic meta-analysis of cross-sectional positron emission tomography and single-photon emission-computed tomography studies on the average effects of age on distinct DA targets (receptors, transporters, or relevant enzymes) in healthy adults (N = 95 studies including 2611 participants). Results revealed significant moderate to large, negative effects of age on DA transporters and receptors. Age had a significantly larger effect on D1- than D2-like receptors. In contrast, there was no significant effect of age on DA synthesis capacity. The average age reductions across the DA system were 3.7%-14.0% per decade. A meta-regression found only DA target as a significant moderator of the age effect. This study precisely quantifies prior claims of reduced DA functionality with age. It also identifies presynaptic mechanisms (spared synthesis capacity and reduced DA transporters) that may partially account for previously unexplained phenomena whereby older adults appear to use dopaminergic resources effectively. Recommendations for future studies including minimum required samples sizes are provided. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microdialysis as a tool for in vivo investigation of glutamate transport capacity in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, T; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1995-01-01

    technique, we present a method that is suitable for the in vivo investigation of the capacity of cellular uptake of glutamate. Using 14C-mannitol as reference, we measured the cellular extraction and the cell membrane permeability of the test substance 3H-D-aspartate in the corpus striatum of the rat brain...

  11. Measuring the pollutant transport capacity of dissolved organic matter in complex matrixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.

    2003-01-01

    were used and evaluated, head-space solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), enhanced solubility (ES) and fluorescence quenching (FQ). It was concluded that for samples with complex matrixes it was possible to measure the net effect of the DOM binding capacity and the salting out effect of the matrix...

  12. Does recombinant human Epo increase exercise capacity by means other than augmenting oxygen transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Robach, P; Boushel, R

    2008-01-01

    before rHuEpo treatment). Blood buffer capacity remained unaffected by rHuEpo treatment and hemodilution. The augmented hematocrit did not compromise peak cardiac output. In summary, in healthy humans, rHuEpo increases maximal oxygen consumption due to augmented systemic and muscular peak oxygen delivery....

  13. Strain-tolerant High Capacity Silicon Anodes via Directed Lithium Ion Transport for High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jason

    2012-02-01

    Energy storage is an essential component of modern technology, with applications including public infrastructure, transportation systems, and consumer electronics. Lithium-ion batteries are the preeminent form of energy storage when high energy / moderate power densities are required. Improvements to lithium-ion battery energy / power density through the adoption of silicon anodes—with approximately an order of magnitude greater gravimetric capacity than traditional carbon-based anodes--have been limited by ˜300% strains during electrochemical lithium insertion which result in short operational lifetimes. In two different systems we demonstrated improvements to silicon-based anode performance via directed lithium ion transport. The first system demonstrated a crystallographic-dependent anisotropic electrochemical lithium insertion in single-crystalline silicon anode microstructures. Exploiting this anisotropy, we highlight model silicon anode architectures that limit the maximum strain during electrochemical lithium insertion. This self-strain-limiting is a result of selecting a specific microstructure design such that during lithiation the anisotropic evolution of strain, above a given threshold, blocks further lithium intercalation. Exemplary design rules have achieved self-strain-limited charging capacities ranging from 677 mAhg-1 to 2833 mAhg-1. A second system with variably encapsulated silicon-based anodes demonstrated greater than 98% of their initial capacity after 130+ cycles. This anode also can operate stably at high energy/power densities. A lithium-ion battery with this anode was able to continuously (dis)charge in 10 minutes, corresponding to a power / energy density of ˜1460 W/kg and ˜243 Wh/kg--up to 780% greater power density and 220% higher energy density than conventional lithium-ion batteries. Anodes were also demonstrated with areal capacities of 12.7 mAh/cm^2, two orders of magnitude greater than traditional thin-film silicon anodes.[4pt

  14. Adding faculty in transportation areas - year 2 & 3 : research progress on behavior and design of concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The NUTC provides funds to help departments build up their faculty in the transportation field over the next five years. Broad : areas will be considered as listed in the UTC mission or other areas that relate to State Departments of Transportation a...

  15. You've Got to Move It, Move It--Adding Logistics and Distribution to the Transportation Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roads, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Long gone are the days when the study of the internal combustion engine was the core of the transportation curriculum offered in most middle schools and high schools. To be competitive and successful, today's students need a more global understanding of transportation, distribution, and logistics systems. In response to this shift to include…

  16. Turbulence measurements over immobile gravel with additions of sand from supply limited to capacity transport conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurement of the turbulence that drives sand transport over and through immobile gravels is relevant to efforts to model sediment movement downstream of dams, where fine sediments are eroded from coarse substrates and are not replaced due to the presence of the upstream dam. The relative elevatio...

  17. Structural variations in wheat HKT1;5 underpin differences in Na+ transport capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Bo

    2017-11-27

    An important trait associated with the salt tolerance of wheat is the exclusion of sodium ions (Na+) from the shoot. We have previously shown that the sodium transporters TmHKT1;5-A and TaHKT1;5-D, from Triticum monoccocum (Tm) and Triticum aestivum (Ta), are encoded by genes underlying the major shoot Na+-exclusion loci Nax1 and Kna1, respectively. Here, using heterologous expression, we show that the affinity (Km) for the Na+ transport of TmHKT1;5-A, at 2.66 mM, is higher than that of TaHKT1;5-D at 7.50 mM. Through 3D structural modelling, we identify residues D471/a gap and D474/G473 that contribute to this property. We identify four additional mutations in amino acid residues that inhibit the transport activity of TmHKT1;5-A, which are predicted to be the result of an occlusion of the pore. We propose that the underlying transport properties of TmHKT1;5-A and TaHKT1;5-D contribute to their unique ability to improve Na+ exclusion in wheat that leads to an improved salinity tolerance in the field.

  18. The Design of an Ultra High Capacity Long Range Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Bucci, Gregory; Hare, Angela; Szolwinski, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the design of a 650 passenger aircraft with 8000 nautical mile range to reduce seat mile cost and to reduce airport and airway congestion. This design effort involves the usual issues that require trades between technologies, but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This paper will review the long range ultra high capacity or megatransport design problem and the variety of solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University.

  19. Increase of Optical Transfer Medium Transport Capacity and Consequent Increase of Safety and Reliability of Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Godec

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years we have been witnessing a rapid andundreamt of development in the communications field. Every·one wants to communicate with others all the time. Industry isa major generator of these changes. But users do not like fastand frequent changes because they usually mean nothing good.The majority is satisfied with basic necessities and there is ahuge problem in t1ying to convince them into something new.There is a difference between technical and marketing sector.We are dealing with economy, promises, contracts. But industrywants more: new users, fresh money for new investments.The aim of this article is to find a technical solution for increasingthe existent optical cable capacities. The purpose is notto replace the existing cables but to use advanced technologyand to improve economy, safety and reliability of all kinds ofcommunications which use optical transmission medium.

  20. SLC30A3 (ZnT3 oligomerization by dityrosine bonds regulates its subcellular localization and metal transport capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Salazar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-covalent and covalent homo-oligomerization of membrane proteins regulates their subcellular localization and function. Here, we described a novel oligomerization mechanism affecting solute carrier family 30 member 3/zinc transporter 3 (SLC30A3/ZnT3. Oligomerization was mediated by intermolecular covalent dityrosine bonds. Using mutagenized ZnT3 expressed in PC12 cells, we identified two critical tyrosine residues necessary for dityrosine-mediated ZnT3 oligomerization. ZnT3 carrying the Y372F mutation prevented ZnT3 oligomerization, decreased ZnT3 targeting to synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs, and decreased resistance to zinc toxicity. Strikingly, ZnT3 harboring the Y357F mutation behaved as a "gain-of-function" mutant as it displayed increased ZnT3 oligomerization, targeting to SLMVs, and increased resistance to zinc toxicity. Single and double tyrosine ZnT3 mutants indicate that the predominant dimeric species is formed between tyrosine 357 and 372. ZnT3 tyrosine dimerization was detected under normal conditions and it was enhanced by oxidative stress. Covalent species were also detected in other SLC30A zinc transporters localized in different subcellular compartments. These results indicate that covalent tyrosine dimerization of a SLC30A family member modulates its subcellular localization and zinc transport capacity. We propose that dityrosine-dependent membrane protein oligomerization may regulate the function of diverse membrane protein in normal and disease states.

  1. Accessibility appraisal of integrated land-use/transport policy strategies: more than just adding up travel time savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; Zondag, Barry; de Jong, Gerard; de Bok, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    We examine the accessibility benefits associated with some land-use policy strategies for the Netherlands that anticipate on expected climate change. A disaggregate logsum accessibility measure using the Dutch national land-use/transport interaction model TIGRIS XL is used to compute changes in

  2. Increasing the Process Capacity of a Knowledge Intensive Process Through the Use of Process Reengineering and Knowledge-Value Added Methodologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Errol

    2003-01-01

    .... Through business process reengineering and the KVA methodology, this thesis will seek to identify ways in which the performance of knowledge assets can be measured and make recommendations to improve the capacity of knowledge intensive processes, better enabling organizations to meet increased demand.

  3. Electrostatic protocol treatment lens. The purpose of this device is to transport Antiprotons from the new ELENA storage beam to all AD experiments. The electrostatic device was successfully tested in ASACUSA two weeks ago.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic protocol treatment lens. The purpose of this device is to transport Antiprotons from the new ELENA storage beam to all AD experiments. The electrostatic device was successfully tested in ASACUSA two weeks ago.

  4. On interaction between MAC and transport layers for media streaming in 802.11 ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Kitae; Helmy, Ahmed; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2004-10-01

    We examine the validity of TCP-friendliness and the utility of equation-based congestion control as a mean for the media streaming service in 802.11 multi-hop networks. Our investigation is motivated by the recent findings of the bandwidth-delay product of 802.11 multi-hop networks via intensive computer simulations. We show that TCP behavior in 802.11 multi-hop networks is generally inefficient and unstable because the standard TCP is too aggressive considering the low bandwidth-delay product of 802.11 networks. We introduce the concept of the `fractional window' mechanism (which resembles the stop-and-go protocol) for TCP, and show that the modified TCP is more stable and efficient while outperforming the legacy TCP in 802.11-based ad hoc networks. Finally, we show that many of the typical problems of TCP protocol (performance, network fairness, and TCP-friendliness) in 802.11 networks can be solved simply by increasing the bandwidth-delay product of 802.11 networks without any TCP modification. Based on this observation, we conclude that the assumption of the ideal steady-state TCP behavior is generally invalid in 802.11 multi-hop networking environment, and that congestion control based on TCP-friendly equation can hardly provide TCP-fair throughput and smoothness in 802.11 multi-hop networking environment.

  5. Influence of adding BaSnO3 nanoparticles on magnetic transport properties for CuTl-1223 phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ME. Barakat

    Full Text Available Co-precipitation method and solid-state reaction technique were used to synthesize BaSnO3 nanoparticles and (BaSnO3x/Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10−δ samples, 0.00 ≤ x ≤ 1.50 wt%, respectively. All samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and electrical resistivity measurements at different applied DC magnetic fields ranged from 0.29 to 4.40 kG. The relative volume fraction, superconducting transition temperature, Tc, and hole carriers concentration, P, were enhanced by increasing x up to 0.25 wt%, beyond which they were decreased for further increase in the addition of BaSnO3 nanoparticles. Both thermally activated flux creep (TAFC model and Ambegaokar and Halperin (AH theory were used to analyze the magnetoresistance data for (BaSnO3x/CuTl-1223 samples. An enhancement in the derived magnetic superconducting parameters, including the flux pinning energy, U, critical current density, Jc(0, and upper critical magnetic field, Bc2(0, as well as a decrement in the coherence length at 0 K, ξ(0, was achieved by adding BaSnO3 nanoparticles up to 0.25 wt%. A reverse trend was recorded for further addition of BaSnO3 nanoparticles. The electronic thermal conductivity, κe, was decreased by increasing applied magnetic fields below Tc. Keywords: CuTl-1223 phase, BaSnO3 nanoparticles, Flux pinning energy, Critical current density

  6. Onsager heat of transport at the n-octane liquid vapour interface: Effects of altering the size of the vapour-gap and of adding helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Leon F.

    2008-06-01

    Values of the Onsager heat of transport Q∗ measured at the n-octane liquid-vapour interface are consistent with the results of molecular dynamics calculations by Simon et al. [J.-M. Simon, S. Kjelstrup, D. Bedeaux, B. Hafskjold, J. Phys. Chem. B 108 (2004) 7186.] The measured value of Q∗ is independent of gas pressure but is affected by variations in the size of the vapour gap over which the temperature gradient is applied. Measurements with added helium indicate that Q∗ is negative for helium at the surface of n-octane, even though the enthalpy of solution is positive. The helium results can be understood on the basis of an existing model.

  7. Determination of the presence of antioxidants deriving from sage and oregano extracts added to animal fat by means of assessment of the radical scavenging capacity by photochemiluminescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, S; Zitterl-Eglseer, K; Jugl, M; Franz, C

    2001-04-01

    Herbs and their extracts with antioxidant capacity could be used directly as stabilisers of fat and indirectly as feed additives, in order to improve quality and shelf-life of meat and fat-containing food. In this work a sensitive analytical method is proposed for determination of the antioxidant activity measured by photochemiluminescence (PCL) in lard stabilised with extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) or oreganum (Origanum vulgare L.). A prior step of purification of fat samples is required, in order to separate and concentrate the phenolics from lipidic substances. The method was validated by determination of recovery rate and repeatability. In addition fat samples originating from pigs fed with feed additives of Salviae folium or Origani herba were analysed to investigate the supposed antioxidative effects, that could increase the shelf-life of meat products. In contrast with lard mixed with extracts of sage or oregano, back fat samples originating from pigs fed with feed additives of the same herbs didn't show a higher antioxidant activity than the control group. On the one hand it seems possible to keep perishable fat-containing food longer by an addition of an extract of sage or oregano due to their antioxidative properties, on the other hand administration of feed additives of dried herbs to pigs had no effect on quality and shelf-life of fat obtained from these animals.

  8. Hairy AdS solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales and Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru, E-mail: dumitru.astefanesei@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2016-11-10

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  9. Advanced computer technology - An aspect of the Terminal Configured Vehicle program. [air transportation capacity, productivity, all-weather reliability and noise reduction improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.

  10. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  11. Effects of diets with whole plant-origin proteins added with different ratios of taurine:methionine on the growth, macrophage activity and antioxidant capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ezequiel Aguillón Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 70-days feeding trial was performed to determine the effect of diets with whole plant-origin proteins added with different ratios of taurine:methionine on the growth, macrophage burst activity and antioxidant capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings. Triplicated groups of 70 fingerlings of an initial weight of 0.54±0.1 g (mean±±SD were fed diets with soy protein isolate and Spirulina powder as protein sources (46% crude protein and added (10 g/kg diet with different taurine and methionine ratios: 0.0 and 10.0 (diet T0/M100, 2.5 and 7.5 (diet T25/M75, 5.0 and 5.0 (diet T50/M50, 7.5 and 2.5 (diet T75/M25 and 10.0 and 0.0 (diet T100/M0, respectively. At the end of the trial, growth performance, lipid and protein contents in liver and muscle, macrophage burst activity and liver antioxidant activity, were determined. The growth performance, macrophage burst activity and antioxidant activity were improved as the taurine increased in the diets. The ratio of 7.5 and 2.5 g/kg of taurine:methionine in diets with SPI and Spirulina powder as protein sources (diet T75/M25, seems to be the best inclusion for rainbow trout fingerlings.

  12. Kansas Department of Transportation column expert : ultimate shear capacity of circular columns using the simplified modified compression field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The importance of the analysis of circular columns to accurately predict their ultimate confined : capacity under shear-flexure-axial force interaction domain is recognized in light of the extreme load event : imposed by the current American Associat...

  13. Assessment of the transportation route of oversize and excessive loads in relation to the load-bearing capacity of existing bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležel, Jiří; Novák, Drahomír; Petrů, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Transportation routes of oversize and excessive loads are currently planned in relation to ensure the transit of a vehicle through critical points on the road. Critical points are level-intersection of roads, bridges etc. This article presents a comprehensive procedure to determine a reliability and a load-bearing capacity level of the existing bridges on highways and roads using the advanced methods of reliability analysis based on simulation techniques of Monte Carlo type in combination with nonlinear finite element method analysis. The safety index is considered as a main criterion of the reliability level of the existing construction structures and the index is described in current structural design standards, e.g. ISO and Eurocode. An example of a single-span slab bridge made of precast prestressed concrete girders of the 60 year current time and its load bearing capacity is set for the ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state. The structure’s design load capacity was estimated by the full probability nonlinear MKP analysis using a simulation technique Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Load-bearing capacity values based on a fully probabilistic analysis are compared with the load-bearing capacity levels which were estimated by deterministic methods of a critical section of the most loaded girders.

  14. Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 Modulates the Viability and Invasive Capacity of Human Placental Cells and Fetoplacental Growth in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Vasilopoulou (Elisavet); L.S. Loubière (Laurence); H. Heuer (Heike); M. Trajkovic-Arsic (Marija); V.M. Darras (Veerle); T.J. Visser (Theo); G.E. Lash (Gendie); G.S. Whitley (Guy); C.J. McCabe (Christopher); J.A. Franklyn (Jayne); M.D. Kilby (Mark); S.Y. Chan (Shiao)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMonocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a well-established thyroid hormone (TH) transporter. In humans, MCT8 mutations result in changes in circulating TH concentrations and X-linked severe global neurodevelopmental delay. MCT8 is expressed in the human placenta throughout gestation,

  15. Rotina computacional e equação simplificada para modelar o transporte de sedimentos num Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico Computational routine and simplified equation for modeling sediment transport capacity in a Dystrophic Hapludox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar E. Cerquetani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram desenvolver rotina computacional para a solução da equação de Yalin e do diagrama de Shields e avaliar uma equação simplificada para modelar a capacidade de transporte de sedimento num Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico que possa ser utilizada no Water Erosion Prediction Project - WEPP, assim como em outros modelos de predição da erosão do solo. A capacidade de transporte de sedimento para o fluxo superficial foi representada como função-potência da tensão cisalhante, a qual revelou ser aproximação da equação de Yalin. Essa equação simplificada pôde ser aplicada em resultados experimentais oriundos de topografia complexa. A equação simplificada demonstrou acuracidade em relação à equação de Yalin, quando calibrada utilizando-se da tensão média cisalhante. Testes de validação com dados independentes demonstraram que a equação simplificada foi eficiente para estimar a capacidade de transporte de sedimento.The objectives of the present work were to develop a computational routine to solve Yalin equation and Shield diagram and to evaluate a simplified equation for modeling sediment transport capacity in a Dystrophic Hapludox that could be used in the Water Erosion Prediction Project - WEPP, as well as other soil erosion models. Sediment transport capacity for shallow overland flow was represented as a power function of the hydraulic shear stress and which showed to be an approximation to the Yalin equation for sediment transport capacity. The simplified equation for sediment transport could be applied to experimental data from a complex topography. The simplified equation accurately approximated the Yalin equation when calibrated using the mean hydraulic shear stress. Validation tests using independent data showed that the simplified equation had a good performance in predicting sediment transport capacity.

  16. Reduction in cardiolipin decreases mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity and increases glucose transport into and across human brain cerebral microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu M; Mejia, Edgard M; Chang, Wenguang; Wang, Ying; Watson, Emily; On, Ngoc; Miller, Donald W; Hatch, Grant M

    2016-10-01

    Microvessel endothelial cells form part of the blood-brain barrier, a restrictively permeable interface that allows transport of only specific compounds into the brain. Cardiolipin is a mitochondrial phospholipid required for function of the electron transport chain and ATP generation. We examined the role of cardiolipin in maintaining mitochondrial function necessary to support barrier properties of brain microvessel endothelial cells. Knockdown of the terminal enzyme of cardiolipin synthesis, cardiolipin synthase, in hCMEC/D3 cells resulted in decreased cellular cardiolipin levels compared to controls. The reduction in cardiolipin resulted in decreased mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, increased pyruvate kinase activity, and increased 2-deoxy-[(3) H]glucose uptake and glucose transporter-1 expression and localization to membranes in hCMEC/D3 cells compared to controls. The mechanism for the increase in glucose uptake was an increase in adenosine-5'-monophosphate kinase and protein kinase B activity and decreased glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta activity. Knockdown of cardiolipin synthase did not affect permeability of fluorescent dextran across confluent hCMEC/D3 monolayers grown on Transwell(®) inserts. In contrast, knockdown of cardiolipin synthase resulted in an increase in 2-deoxy-[(3) H]glucose transport across these monolayers compared to controls. The data indicate that in hCMEC/D3 cells, spare respiratory capacity is dependent on cardiolipin. In addition, reduction in cardiolipin in these cells alters their cellular energy status and this results in increased glucose transport into and across hCMEC/D3 monolayers. Microvessel endothelial cells form part of the blood-brain barrier, a restrictively permeable interface that allows transport of only specific compounds into the brain. In human adult brain endothelial cell hCMEC/D3 monolayers cultured on Transwell(®) plates, knockdown of cardiolipin synthase results in decrease in mitochondrial

  17. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  18. Network transportation model with capacity restrictions for the Bolivia Brazil gas pipeline influence area; Modelo de transporte em rede com restricoes de capacidade para a area de influencia do Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricia Mannarino; Carpio, Lucio Guido Tapia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    We present the application of a network transportation model, with capacity restrictions, to determine the minimal cost of supply of a group of markets at the Bolivia Brazil Gas Pipeline influence area, as a function of city gate price. We consider the potential of integration of pipeline transportation at the South Cone, looking forward to supply the Brazilian market. The city gate price consists of the sum of commodity price plus transportation tariffs over every gas pipeline through which the gas passes (except distribution pipelines). There is no distinction related to product quality (e.g. heating value) among suppliers, or among end uses (thermal, thermoelectric or chemical). The model is numerically solved by linear programming. Flow direction alternatives and transportation tariffs alternatives (postal and by zone) are proposed. The model allows, among other applications: identification of the lowest cost supply strategy, identification of network flow capacity bottlenecks, determination of operation and expansion marginal costs using dual solution analysis, investigation of alternative sceneries through sensibility analysis and appreciation of non-optimal solutions that might be attractive. (author)

  19. Genome-wide exploration of silicon (Si) transporter genes, Lsi1 and Lsi2 in plants; insights into Si-accumulation status/capacity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Recep; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Ilker; Filiz, Ertugrul; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

    2017-04-01

    Silicon (Si) is a nonessential, beneficial micronutrient for plants. It increases the plant stress tolerance in relation to its accumulation capacity. In this work, root Si transporter genes were characterized in 17 different plants and inferred for their Si-accumulation status. A total of 62 Si transporter genes (31 Lsi1 and 31 Lsi2) were identified in studied plants. Lsi1s were 261-324 residues protein with a MIP family domain whereas Lsi2s were 472-547 residues with a citrate transporter family domain. Lsi1s possessed characteristic sequence features that can be employed as benchmark in prediction of Si-accumulation status/capacity of the plants. Silicic acid selectivity in Lsi1s was associated with two highly conserved NPA (Asn-Pro-Ala) motifs and a Gly-Ser-Gly-Arg (GSGR) ar/R filter. Two NPA regions were present in all Lsi1 members but some Ala substituted with Ser or Val. GSGR filter was only available in the proposed high and moderate Si accumulators. In phylogeny, Lsi1s formed three clusters as low, moderate and high Si accumulators based on tree topology and availability of GSGR filter. Low-accumulators contained filters WIGR, AIGR, FAAR, WVAR and AVAR, high-accumulators only with GSGR filter, and moderate-accumulators mostly with GSGR but some with A/CSGR filters. A positive correlation was also available between sequence homology and Si-accumulation status of the tested plants. Thus, availability of GSGR selectivity filter and sequence homology degree could be used as signatures in prediction of Si-accumulation status in experimentally uncharacterized plants. Moreover, interaction partner and expression profile analyses implicated the involvement of Si transporters in plant stress tolerance.

  20. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Cian; Bishop, David J

    2016-12-01

    McGinley C, Bishop DJ. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men. J Appl Physiol 121: 1290-1305, 2016. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00630.2016-This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid-base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1. We investigated whether 4 wk of work-matched, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), performed either just above the lactate threshold (HIITΔ20; n = 8), or close to peak aerobic power (HIITΔ90; n = 8), influenced adaptations in acid-base transport protein abundance, nonbicarbonate muscle buffer capacity (βmin vitro), and exercise capacity in active men. Training intensity did not discriminate between adaptations for most proteins measured, with abundance of MCT1, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 1, NBCe1, carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, and CAXIV increasing after 4 wk, whereas there was little change in CAIII and CAIV abundance. βmin vitro also did not change. However, MCT4 protein content only increased for HIITΔ20 [effect size (ES): 1.06, 90% confidence limits × / ÷ 0.77], whereas basigin protein content only increased for HIITΔ90 (ES: 1.49, × / ÷ 1.42). Repeated-sprint ability (5 × 6-s sprints; 24 s passive rest) improved similarly for both groups. Power at the lactate threshold only improved for HIITΔ20 (ES: 0.49; 90% confidence limits ± 0.38), whereas peak O2 uptake did not change for either group. Detraining was characterized by the loss of adaptations for all of the proteins measured and for repeated-sprint ability 6 wk after removing the stimulus of HIIT. In conclusion, 4 wk of HIIT induced improvements in each of the acid-base transport protein families, but, remarkably, a 40

  1. Building the capacity of health authorities to influence land use and transportation planning: Lessons learned from the Healthy Canada by Design CLASP Project in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, Alice; Perrotta, Kim; Evans, Heather; Kishchuk, Natalie A; Gram, Claire; Stanwick, Richard S; Swinkels, Helena M

    2014-08-06

    The main objective of the Healthy Canada by Design CLASP Initiative in British Columbia (BC) was to develop, implement and evaluate a capacity-building project for health authorities. The desired outcomes of the project were as follows: 1) increased capacity of the participating health authorities to productively engage in land use and transportation planning processes; 2) new and sustained relationships or collaborations among the participating health authorities and among health authorities, local governments and other built environment stakeholders; and 3) indication of health authority influence and/or application of health evidence and tools in land use and transportation plans and policies. This project was designed to enhance the capacity of three regional health authorities, namely Fraser Health, Island Health and Vancouver Coastal Health, and their staff. These were considered the project's participants. The BC regions served by the three health authorities cover the urban, suburban and rural spectrum across relatively large and diverse geographic areas. The populations have broad ranges in socio-economic status, demographic profiles and cultural and political backgrounds. The Initiative provided the three health authorities with a consultant who had several years of experience working on land use and transportation planning. The consultant conducted situational assessments to understand the baseline knowledge and skill gaps, assets and objectives for built environment work for each of the participating health authorities. On the basis of this information, the consultant developed customized capacity-building work plans for each of the health authorities and assisted them with implementation. Capacity-building activities were as follows: researching health and built environment strategies, policies and evidence; transferring health evidence and promising policies and practices from other jurisdictions to local planning contexts; providing training and

  2. Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes : Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  4. Epidermal growth factor decreases PEPT2 transport capacity and expression in the rat kidney proximal tubule cell line SKPT0193 cl.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo, Silvina A; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Amstrup, Jan

    2004-01-01

    transport capacity and expression in the rat proximal tubule cell line SKPT0193 cl.2 (SKPT), which expresses rat PEPT2 (rPEPT2) in the apical membrane. Treatment of SKPT cells with EGF during cell culture growth caused a dose-dependent decrease in rPEPT2 transport capacity and expression, as determined...... mechanisms in the proximal tubule cells. Our findings indicate that EGF decreases rPEPT2 expression by lowering transcription of the rat PepT2 gene or by decreasing rat PepT2 mRNA stability. Previous investigators routinely used SKPT cell culture media with a high (10 ng/ml) EGF concentration. Our study...... by studies of apical uptake of [14C]glycylsarcosine, rPepT2 mRNA levels, and immunostaining of SKPT cells with a rPEPT2-specific antibody. On the contrary, apical uptake of glucose and lysine was increased in EGF-treated cells, indicating that EGF was not acting generally to decrease apical nutrient uptake...

  5. Coordination between water transport capacity, biomass growth, metabolic scaling and species stature in co-occurring shrub and tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Duncan D; Sperry, John S

    2014-12-01

    The significance of xylem function and metabolic scaling theory begins from the idea that water transport is strongly coupled to growth rate. At the same time, coordination of water transport and growth seemingly should differ between plant functional types. We evaluated the relationships between water transport, growth and species stature in six species of co-occurring trees and shrubs. Within species, a strong proportionality between plant hydraulic conductance (K), sap flow (Q) and shoot biomass growth (G) was generally supported. Across species, however, trees grew more for a given K or Q than shrubs, indicating greater growth-based water-use efficiency (WUE) in trees. Trees also showed slower decline in relative growth rate (RGR) than shrubs, equivalent to a steeper G by mass (M) scaling exponent in trees (0.77-0.98). The K and Q by M scaling exponents were common across all species (0.80, 0.82), suggesting that the steeper G scaling in trees reflects a size-dependent increase in their growth-based WUE. The common K and Q by M exponents were statistically consistent with the 0.75 of ideal scaling theory. A model based upon xylem anatomy and branching architecture consistently predicted the observed K by M scaling exponents but only when deviations from ideal symmetric branching were incorporated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The capacity of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with in-frame deletions in putative ATP-binding cassette transporters to form biofilms and comparison with the wild type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ceruso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes (Lm is a food-borne pathogen responsible for human listeriosis, an invasive infection with high mortality rates. Lm has developed efficient strategies for survival under stress conditions such as starvation and wide variations in temperature, pH, and osmolarity. Therefore, Lm can survive in food under multiple stress conditions. Detailed studies to determine the mode of action of this pathogen for survival under stress conditions are important to control Lm in food. It has been shown that genes encoding for ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are induced in Lm in food, in particular under stress conditions. Previous studies showed that these genes are involved in sensitivity to nisin, acids, and salt. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of some ABC transporters in biofilm formation. Therefore, deletion mutants of ABC transporter genes (LMOf2365_1875 and LMOf2365_1877 were created in Lm F2365, and then were compared to the wild type for their capacity to form biofilms. Lm strain F2365 was chosen as reference since the genome is fully sequenced and furthermore this strain is particularly involved in food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis. Our results showed that DLMOf2365_1875 had an increased capacity to form biofilms compared to the wild type, indicating that LMOf2365_1875 negatively regulates biofilm formation. A deeper knowledge on the ability to form biofilms in these mutants may help in the development of intervention strategies to control Lm in food and in the environment.

  7. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    container. It now permits free transit of shipping containers from their western ports, if transported by rail directly to the U.S. ( Mireles , 2005, p...Transportation Industry Study Seminar. Mireles , Richard, Castillo. (2005, January). A Cure for West Coast Congestion. Logistics Today, Vol. 46, Issue 1. 1

  8. Creatine transporter (SLC6A8) knockout mice display an increased capacity for in vitro creatine biosynthesis in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Aaron P.; Ghobrial, Lobna; Wright, Craig R.; Lamon, Séverine; Brown, Erin L.; Kon, Michihiro; Skelton, Matthew R.; Snow, Rodney J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether skeletal muscle from whole body creatine transporter (CrT; SLC6A8) knockout mice (CrT-/y) actually contained creatine (Cr) and if so, whether this Cr could result from an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis. Gastrocnemius muscle from CrT-/y and wild type (CrT+/y) mice were analyzed for ATP, Cr, Cr phosphate (CrP), and total Cr (TCr) content. Muscle protein and gene expression of the enzymes responsible for Cr biosynthesis L-arginine:glycine a...

  9. Thermal management of instruments on space platforms using a high capacity two-phase heat transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendorf, S.; Fowle, A.; Almgren, D.

    1981-01-01

    A system utilizing a pumped, two-phase single component working fluid for heat exchange and transport services necessary to meet the temperature control requirements of typical orbiting instrument payloads on space platforms is described. The design characteristics of the system is presented, together with a presentation of a laboratory apparatus for demonstration of proof of concept. Results indicate that the pumped two-phase design concept can meet a wide range of thermal performance requirements with the only penalty being the requirement for a small liquid pump.

  10. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 modulates the viability and invasive capacity of human placental cells and fetoplacental growth in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisavet Vasilopoulou

    Full Text Available Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8 is a well-established thyroid hormone (TH transporter. In humans, MCT8 mutations result in changes in circulating TH concentrations and X-linked severe global neurodevelopmental delay. MCT8 is expressed in the human placenta throughout gestation, with increased expression in trophoblast cells from growth-restricted pregnancies. We postulate that MCT8 plays an important role in placental development and transplacental TH transport. We investigated the effect of altering MCT8 expression in human trophoblast in vitro and in a Mct8 knockout mouse model. Silencing of endogenous MCT8 reduced T3 uptake into human extravillous trophoblast-like cells (SGHPL-4; 40%, P<0.05 and primary cytotrophoblast (15%, P<0.05. MCT8 over-expression transiently increased T3 uptake (SGHPL-4∶30%, P<0.05; cytotrophoblast: 15%, P<0.05. Silencing MCT8 did not significantly affect SGHPL-4 invasion, but with MCT8 over-expression T3 treatment promoted invasion compared with no T3 (3.3-fold; P<0.05. Furthermore, MCT8 silencing increased cytotrophoblast viability (∼20%, P<0.05 and MCT8 over-expression reduced cytotrophoblast viability independently of T3 (∼20%, P<0.05. In vivo, Mct8 knockout reduced fetal:placental weight ratios compared with wild-type controls at gestational day 18 (25%, P<0.05 but absolute fetal and placental weights were not significantly different. The volume fraction of the labyrinthine zone of the placenta, which facilitates maternal-fetal exchange, was reduced in Mct8 knockout placentae (10%, P<0.05. However, there was no effect on mouse placental cell proliferation in vivo. We conclude that MCT8 makes a significant contribution to T3 uptake into human trophoblast cells and has a role in modulating human trophoblast cell invasion and viability. In mice, Mct8 knockout has subtle effects upon fetoplacental growth and does not significantly affect placental cell viability probably due to compensatory mechanisms in

  11. Evaluating the Capacity of Global CO2 Flux and Atmospheric Transport Models to Incorporate New Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Erickson, D. J.; Denning, A. S.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    As we enter the new era of satellite remote sensing for CO2 and other carbon cyclerelated quantities, advanced modeling and analysis capabilities are required to fully capitalize on the new observations. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. For application to current, planned, and future remotely sensed CO2 data, it is desirable that these models are accurate and unbiased at time scales from less than daily to multi-annual and at spatial scales from several kilometers or finer to global. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 1998 through 2006. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at lxi degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-2), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model's ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to in situ observations at sites in Northern mid latitudes and the continental tropics. The influence of key process representations is inferred. We find that the model can resolve much of the hourly to synoptic variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The seasonal cycle and its

  12. The modal transfer analysis by adding transport costs. Case study: The use of bus and private vehicle student Institut Teknologi Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliarto, H.; Alhamidi; Syahbandi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Since the last two years the Institut Teknologi Sumatera to accept new students in large numbers. Increasing the number of students is directly proportional to the increase of private vehicles that enter the campus it is not in line with the policy of the Institut Teknologi Sumatera as Smart, Friendly, and Forest Campus. Institut Teknologi Sumatera as Smart, Friendly, and Forest Campus fact has made some deal with mass public transport, Damri, to provide bus transportation to the Institut Teknologi Sumatera, but the number of bus users is still inferior to the number of private vehicle users. This study was conducted to see the modal transfer of the entire academic community ITERA, from private cars to public transport such as buses, with the addition of transportation costs in the form of parking rates. This study shows the dominant displacement can occur if the respondent charged parking fees of IDR 4.000. Besides the displacement mode of transportation from using private vehicles be using the bus can occur if Trans Lampung fix three systems including bus departure and arrival schedules, facility service providers that support, and the addition of the Bus Trans Lampung.

  13. Creatine transporter (SLC6A8) knockout mice display an increased capacity for in vitro creatine biosynthesis in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Aaron P; Ghobrial, Lobna; Wright, Craig R; Lamon, Séverine; Brown, Erin L; Kon, Michihiro; Skelton, Matthew R; Snow, Rodney J

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether skeletal muscle from whole body creatine transporter (CrT; SLC6A8) knockout mice (CrT(-/y)) actually contained creatine (Cr) and if so, whether this Cr could result from an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis. Gastrocnemius muscle from CrT(-/y) and wild type (CrT(+/y)) mice were analyzed for ATP, Cr, Cr phosphate (CrP), and total Cr (TCr) content. Muscle protein and gene expression of the enzymes responsible for Cr biosynthesis L-arginine:glycine amidotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) were also determined as were the rates of in vitro Cr biosynthesis. CrT(-/y) mice muscle contained measurable (22.3 ± 4.3 mmol.kg(-1) dry mass), but markedly reduced (P < 0.05) TCr levels compared with CrT(+/y) mice (125.0 ± 3.3 mmol.kg(-1) dry mass). AGAT gene and protein expression were higher (~3 fold; P < 0.05) in CrT(-/y) mice muscle, however GAMT gene and protein expression remained unchanged. The in vitro rate of Cr biosynthesis was elevated 1.5 fold (P < 0.05) in CrT(-/y) mice muscle. These data clearly demonstrate that in the absence of CrT protein, skeletal muscle has reduced, but not absent, levels of Cr. This presence of Cr may be at least partly due to an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis as evidenced by an increased AGAT protein expression and in vitro Cr biosynthesis rates in CrT(-/y) mice. Of note, the up regulation of Cr biosynthesis in CrT(-/y) mice muscle was unable to fully restore Cr levels to that found in wild type muscle.

  14. Extracellular glucose increases the coupling capacity of the yeast V H+-ATPase and the resistance of its H+ transport activity to nitrate inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila C Ribeiro

    Full Text Available V H(+-ATPase has an important role in a variety of key physiological processes. This enzyme is reversibly activated/partly inactivated by the addition/exhaustion of extracellular glucose. The current model of its regulation assumes the reversible disassembly/reassembly of ∼60-70% of the V1 and V0 membrane complexes, which are responsible for ATP hydrolysis and H(+ conductance, respectively. The number of assembled complexes determines the pump activity because disassembled complexes are inactive. The model predicts the identical catalytic properties for the activated and semi-active enzymes molecules. To verify the model predictions we have isolated total membranes from yeast spheroplasts that were pre-incubated either with or without glucose. Nitrate treatment of membranes revealed the similar ATPase inhibition for two enzyme states, suggesting that they have identical structures that are essential for ATP hydrolysis. However, H(+ transport was inhibited more than the ATPase activities, indicating a nitrate uncoupling action, which was significantly higher for the nonactivated enzyme. This finding suggests that the structure of the non-activated enzyme, which is essential for H(+ transport, is less stable than that of the activated enzyme. Moreover, the glucose activation of the pump increases i its coupling capacity; ii its K(M for ATP hydrolysis and ATP affinity for H(+ transport; iii the Vmax for H(+ transport in comparison with the Vmax for ATP hydrolysis and iv the immune reactivity of catalytic subunit A and regulatory subunit B by 9.3 and 2.4 times, respectively. The protein content of subunits A and B was not changed by extracellular glucose. We propose that instead of the dissociation/reassociation of complexes V1 and V0, changes in the extracellular glucose concentration cause reversible and asymmetrical modulations in the immune reactivity of subunits A and B by their putative biochemical modifications. This response asymmetrically

  15. Transportes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Fernández-Cano, Amalio

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento de materiales dentro de la Factoría está atendido por tres principales medios de transporte, en consonancia con las características del material y de los desplazamientos. Así se han establecido: sistemas de cintas transportadoras, una red ferroviaria de ancho normal y una completa malla de caminos enlazando funcionalmente las instalaciones.

  16. Checking Capacity for MIMO Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas.......Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas....

  17. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Alin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Zhaojun [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liang Yongchao, E-mail: ycliang@caas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  18. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  19. VALUE ADDED IN A LOGISTICS CENTER

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Skowron-Grabowska

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, the author has shown possibilities of creating added value in logistics centre from the theoretical point of view. Value creation in the supply literature commonly builds on the added value models One of such possibilities is preparing hierarchical model of creating added value through prediction of customers’ and enterprises’ in supply chain expectations. Another possibility pointed in the paper is creation of added value due to building special department of transportation and...

  20. Axion wormholes in AdS compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Thomas; Trigiante, Mario; Van Riet, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    We find regular axionic Euclidean wormhole solutions in Type IIB string theory compactified on {AdS}_5× {S}^5/{Z}_k . AdS/CFT enables a precise derivation of the axion content of the Euclidean theory, placing the string theory embedding of the wormholes on firm footing. This further sharpens the paradox posed by these solutions.

  1. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S.; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-05-03

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  2. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  3. Current status of AdS instability

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    arXiv:1403.6471 and thoroughly developed in arXiv:1407.6273. On the other hand the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of stable, time-periodic, asymptotically AdS solutions of Einstein equations [arXiv:1303.3186].

  4. AdS braneworld with Backreaction

    CERN Document Server

    Bilic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    We review the tachyon model derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the AdS5 bulk. The bulk geometry is based on the Randall-Sundrum II model extended to include the radion. The effective tachyon Lagrangian is modified due to the back-reaction of the brane on the bulk geometry.

  5. Round table. Will efficiency and growth of air transport be constrained by airport capacity?; Table ronde. L`efficacite et l`essor du transport aerien seront-ils contraints par la capacite des aeroports?``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condom, P. [International Foundation for Airline Passengers, INTERAVIA (Switzerland); Auger, J. [Aeroport de Montreal (Canada); Belotte, J.Y. [DGAC/SAB (France); Duret, E. [Aeroport de Paris (France); Eigl, Ch. [OACI, Bureau Europe et Atlantique Nord (France); Howard, G. [ACI north America (United States); Malher, G. [Chambre de Commerce et d`Industrie de Lyon, 69 (France); Meredith, J. [ATAG, (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    During this round table, the different participants of the symposium explain their opinion concerning the congestion of airspace, surface access and airports. The increase of airport capacity is also limited by government restrictions for environmental reasons and for the preservation of neighbouring residents` quality of life. Thus the question becomes `how to increase airports capacity and how to better use the existing capacities?`. Also, another bridle to airports capacity increase is the evolution of environmental regulations and public mentalities, in particular the psychological acceptance of the increase of air traffic. Concerning this last point, the US and European opinions are different. (J.S.)

  6. Lorentzian AdS, Wormholes and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Raul E; Silva, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the structure of two point functions for the QFT dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian AdS-wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of 5-dimensional second order Einstein Gauss Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS space times. We revisit the GKPW prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual QFT operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values phi_0^\\pm at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions, along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O^\\pm and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom leaving at each boundary. The AdS_(1+1) geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a ...

  7. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Winyard, Thomas [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy models of holographic QCD) from an n layer to an n+1-layer configuration are observed at topological charges 9 and 27 and further popcorn transitions for higher charges are predicted. Finally, a point-particle approximation for the model is derived and used to successfully predict the ring structures and popcorn transitions for higher charge solitons.

  8. AdS solutions through transgression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gauntlett, J.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sciences; Kim, Nakwoo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Physics and Research Inst. of Basic Science

    2008-07-15

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)

  9. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  10. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    Recent studies reveal that consumers respond favourably to “organic plus” products with additional ethical attributes. The aim of the current study is to explore whether consumers would notice and value further improvements in the animal welfare standards than those imposed by the organic...... it is probably valued less than expected. The added attributes need to be thoroughly considered when developing and marketing “organic plus” products, as their effect on other product characteristics (e.g. high prices) can detract from their added value....

  11. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  12. Numerical Simulations of Asymptotically AdS Spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantilan, Hans

    In this dissertation, we introduce a numerical scheme to construct asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes with Lorentzian signature, focusing on cases that preserve five-dimensional axisymmetry. We study the field theories that are dual to these spacetimes by appealing to the AdS/CFT correspondence in the regime where the gravity dual is completely described by Einstein gravity. The numerical scheme is based on generalized harmonic evolution, and we begin by obtaining initial data defined on some Cauchy hypersurface. For the study described in this dissertation, we use a scalar field to source deviations from pure AdS5, and obtain data that correspond to highly deformed black holes. We evolve this initial data forward in time, and follow the subsequent ringdown. What is novel about this study is that the initial horizon geometry cannot be considered a small perturbation of the final static horizon, and hence we are probing an initial non-linear phase of the evolution of the bulk spacetime. On the boundary, we find that the dual CFT stress tensor behaves like that of a thermalized N = 4 SYM fluid. We find that the equation of state of this fluid is consistent with conformal invariance, and that its transport coefficients match those previously calculated for an N = 4 SYM fluid via holographic methods. Modulo a brief transient that is numerical in nature, this matching appears to hold from the initial time onwards. We transform these solutions computed in global AdS onto a Minkowski piece of the boundary, and examine the temperature of the corresponding fluid flows. Under this transformation, the spatial profile of temperature at the initial time resembles a Lorentz-flattened pancake centered at the origin of Minkowski space. By interpreting the direction along which the data is flattened as the beam-line direction, our initial data can be thought of as approximating a head-on heavy ion collision at its moment of impact.

  13. Twistor methods for AdS$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Tim; Williams, Jack

    2016-01-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS$_5$ is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  14. MWAHCA: a multimedia wireless ad hoc cluster architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Juan R; Lloret, Jaime; Jimenez, Jose M; Sendra, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Ad hoc networks provide a flexible and adaptable infrastructure to transport data over a great variety of environments. Recently, real-time audio and video data transmission has been increased due to the appearance of many multimedia applications. One of the major challenges is to ensure the quality of multimedia streams when they have passed through a wireless ad hoc network. It requires adapting the network architecture to the multimedia QoS requirements. In this paper we propose a new architecture to organize and manage cluster-based ad hoc networks in order to provide multimedia streams. Proposed architecture adapts the network wireless topology in order to improve the quality of audio and video transmissions. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture uses some information such as each node's capacity and the QoS parameters (bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss). The architecture splits the network into clusters which are specialized in specific multimedia traffic. The real system performance study provided at the end of the paper will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.

  15. MWAHCA: A Multimedia Wireless Ad Hoc Cluster Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Juan R.; Jimenez, Jose M.; Sendra, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Ad hoc networks provide a flexible and adaptable infrastructure to transport data over a great variety of environments. Recently, real-time audio and video data transmission has been increased due to the appearance of many multimedia applications. One of the major challenges is to ensure the quality of multimedia streams when they have passed through a wireless ad hoc network. It requires adapting the network architecture to the multimedia QoS requirements. In this paper we propose a new architecture to organize and manage cluster-based ad hoc networks in order to provide multimedia streams. Proposed architecture adapts the network wireless topology in order to improve the quality of audio and video transmissions. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture uses some information such as each node's capacity and the QoS parameters (bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss). The architecture splits the network into clusters which are specialized in specific multimedia traffic. The real system performance study provided at the end of the paper will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal. PMID:24737996

  16. MWAHCA: A Multimedia Wireless Ad Hoc Cluster Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Ad hoc networks provide a flexible and adaptable infrastructure to transport data over a great variety of environments. Recently, real-time audio and video data transmission has been increased due to the appearance of many multimedia applications. One of the major challenges is to ensure the quality of multimedia streams when they have passed through a wireless ad hoc network. It requires adapting the network architecture to the multimedia QoS requirements. In this paper we propose a new architecture to organize and manage cluster-based ad hoc networks in order to provide multimedia streams. Proposed architecture adapts the network wireless topology in order to improve the quality of audio and video transmissions. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture uses some information such as each node’s capacity and the QoS parameters (bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss. The architecture splits the network into clusters which are specialized in specific multimedia traffic. The real system performance study provided at the end of the paper will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.

  17. The zinc transporter ZNT3 co-localizes with insulin in INS-1E pancreatic beta cells and influences cell survival, insulin secretion capacity, and ZNT8 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smidt, Kamille; Larsen, Agnete; Brønden, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Zinc trafficking in pancreatic beta cells is tightly regulated by zinc transporting (ZNTs) proteins. The role of different ZNTs in the beta cells is currently being clarified. ZNT8 transports zinc into insulin granules and is critical for a correct insulin crystallization and storage...... in the granules whereas ZNT3 knockout negatively affects beta cell function and survival. Here, we describe for the first time the sub-cellular localization of ZNT3 by immuno-gold electron microscopy and supplement previous data from knockout experiments with investigations of the effect of ZNT3 in a pancreatic...... beta cell line, INS-1E overexpressing ZNT3. In INS-1E cells, we found that ZNT3 was abundant in insulin containing granules located close to the plasma membrane. The level of ZNT8 mRNA was significantly decreased upon over-expression of ZNT3 at different glucose concentrations (5, 11 and 21 mM glucose...

  18. Human and institutional capacity building: Adding value to SANREM outputs

    OpenAIRE

    Hammett, T.

    2014-01-01

    This PowerPoint provides an introduction to the work of InnovATE, which promotes innovation in agricultural training and education (ATE). The program works to train and educate agricultural professionals in institutions that range from primary school to workforce development programs. This presentation describes the InnovATE program and its community of practice, lessons learned, and upcoming work.

  19. Adding Behavioural Science Capacity to Document Deterrents and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To address this important gap, this project will fund a Nigerian student's master's degree studies in psychology at the University of Ottawa. This training will help develop tools and strategies to identify the key psychosocial barriers and motivators to participation and retention in HIV vaccine research and clinical trials in ...

  20. RESTRUCTURED ELECTRICITY MARKETS: Three States' Experiences in Adding Generating Capacity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...., restructured electricity markets by shifting from service provided through a regulated monopoly-the local electric utility-to service provided through open competition among the local utility and its competitors...

  1. Adding Behavioural Science Capacity to Document Deterrents and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To address this important gap, this project will fund a Nigerian student's master's degree studies in psychology at the University of Ottawa. This training will help develop tools and strategies to identify the key ... Institute of Human Virology Nig Ltdgte. Pays d' institution. Nigeria. Site internet. http://www.ihvnigeria.org ...

  2. MacB ABC transporter is a dimer whose ATPase activity and macrolide-binding capacity are regulated by the membrane fusion protein MacA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong Ting; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Barrera, Nelson P; Frankish, Helen M; Velamakanni, Saroj; van Veen, Hendrik W; Robinson, Carol V; Borges-Walmsley, M Inês; Walmsley, Adrian R

    2009-01-09

    Gram-negative bacteria utilize specialized machinery to translocate drugs and protein toxins across the inner and outer membranes, consisting of a tripartite complex composed of an inner membrane secondary or primary active transporter (IMP), a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, and an outer membrane channel. We have investigated the assembly and function of the MacAB/TolC system that confers resistance to macrolides in Escherichia coli. The membrane fusion protein MacA not only stabilizes the tripartite assembly by interacting with both the inner membrane protein MacB and the outer membrane protein TolC, but also has a role in regulating the function of MacB, apparently increasing its affinity for both erythromycin and ATP. Analysis of the kinetic behavior of ATP hydrolysis indicated that MacA promotes and stabilizes the ATP-binding form of the MacB transporter. For the first time, we have established unambiguously the dimeric nature of a noncanonic ABC transporter, MacB that has an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain, by means of nondissociating mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation, and atomic force microscopy. Structural studies of ABC transporters indicate that ATP is bound between a pair of nucleotide binding domains to stabilize a conformation in which the substrate-binding site is outward-facing. Consequently, our data suggest that in the presence of ATP the same conformation of MacB is promoted and stabilized by MacA. Thus, MacA would facilitate the delivery of drugs by MacB to TolC by enhancing the binding of drugs to it and inducing a conformation of MacB that is primed and competent for binding TolC. Our structural studies are an important first step in understanding how the tripartite complex is assembled.

  3. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  4. Skil problemerne ad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    På grundlag af evalueringer og forskning i gymnasiereformen 2005 foreslås det at skille problemerne ad i forskellige niveauer. Herved kan der arbejdes med niveaudelte løsninger.......På grundlag af evalueringer og forskning i gymnasiereformen 2005 foreslås det at skille problemerne ad i forskellige niveauer. Herved kan der arbejdes med niveaudelte løsninger....

  5. Reforming Water, Adding Women?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    demand-responsive, enabling environment. • Decentralised water management – local govt. • Water users to ... Local groups lack the required technical and managerial capacities to achieve the mandated efficiency (solar ... Capacity building through different media: awareness campaigns, folk media, street theatre, engage ...

  6. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-03

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of N=8 supergravity on AdS{sub 4}, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã{sub max}. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy E≲ã{sub max}, while geodesics with E>ã{sub max} terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved “outward” in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green’s function has a branch point determined by ã{sub max} which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  7. Role of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the kinetics of low-affinity high-capacity Na{sup +}-dependent alanine transport in SHR proximal tubular epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vanda; Pinho, Maria Joao [Institute of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Jose, Pedro A. [Center for Molecular Physiology Research, Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Soares-da-Silva, Patricio, E-mail: pss@med.up.pt [Institute of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only. {yields} It is suggested that Na{sup +} binding in renal ASCT2 may be regulated by ROS in SHR PTE cells. -- Abstract: The presence of high and low sodium affinity states for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in immortalized renal proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells was previously reported (Am. J. Physiol. 293 (2007) R538-R547). This study evaluated the role of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake of ASCT2 in immortalized renal PTE cells from Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Na{sup +} dependence of [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake was investigated replacing NaCl with an equimolar concentration of choline chloride in vehicle- and apocynin-treated cells. Na{sup +} removal from the uptake solution abolished transport activity in both WKY and SHR PTE cells. Decreases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels in the extracellular medium significantly reduced Na{sup +}-K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of the low-affinity high-capacity component in SHR PTE cells, with no effect on the high-affinity low-capacity state of the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake. After removal of apocynin from the culture medium, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels returned to basal values within 1 to 3 h in both WKY and SHR PTE cells and these were found stable for the next 24 h. Under these experimental conditions, the Na{sup +}-K{sub m} and V{sub max} of the high-affinity low-capacity state were unaffected and the low-affinity high-capacity component remained significantly decreased 1 day but not 4 days after apocynin removal. In conclusion, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only

  8. Thermal stability analysis of nonlinearly charged asymptotic AdS black hole solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M.; Hamidi, S. F.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the four-dimensional nonlinearly charged black hole solutions have been considered in the presence of the power Maxwell invariant electrodynamics. Two new classes of anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions have been introduced according to different amounts of the parameters in the nonlinear theory of electrodynamics. The conserved and thermodynamical quantities of either of the black hole classes have been calculated from geometrical and thermodynamical approaches, separately. It has been shown that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is satisfied for either of the AdS black hole solutions we just obtained. Through the canonical and grand canonical ensemble methods, the black hole thermal stability or phase transitions have been analyzed by considering the heat capacities with the fixed black hole charge and fixed electric potential, respectively. It has been found that the new AdS black holes are stable if some simple conditions are satisfied.

  9. Antiproton-Decelerator (AD)

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    When the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) was stopped in 1996, because of its costly operation, a cheaper way of continuing low-energy antiproton physics was sought. The Antiproton-Collector (AC), added in 1987 to the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) to provide a tenfold intensity increase, was converted into the Antiproton-Decelerator (AD). Antiprotons from the target at 3.5 GeV/c are decelerated to 100 MeV/c, and fast-ejected to the experiments. Major changes were necessary. Above all, the conversion from a constant-field machine to one with a magnetic cycle, modulating the field by an impressive factor 35. New systems for stochastic and electron cooling had to be added. Beam diagnostics at an intensity of only 2E7 antiprotons was a challenge. In 2000, the AD began delivery of antiprotons to the experiments.

  10. Economic evaluation of pipeline construction and capacity expansion projects; Avaliacao economica dos projetos de construcao e expansao de um gasoduto de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Leandro Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In this work, two investment projects that are characteristic of the recent phase of the Brazilian natural gas industry were economically valued, taking into account the government going Thermoelectric Priority Program or PPT: economical design of a gas pipeline, to be built and operated by a Proprietary Carrier, where the interest variable is the transport tariff that will remunerate the investment and pipeline expansion through compressor stations, sponsored by the only shipper in the system, as it aims at selling gas to a thermoelectric plant, where the interest variable is the net present value of the project. In both cases, some sensitive analyses of the interest variable to variables that carry greater uncertainty are presented. Results show that pipeline expansion is viable. (author)

  11. Increasing the reliability and capacity of Ukrainian gas transit system; Augmentation de la capacite et de la fiabilite du systeme Ukrainien de transport du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozgonyk, V.; Osinchuk, Z. [Naftogaz of Ukraine (Ukraine)

    2000-07-01

    Ukrainian gas transmission system plays a key role in the transit deliveries of Russian natural gas to European countries. Therefore special attention is paid to reliability and efficiency of the existing gas pipelines. The in-line inspections of pipelines as well as update methods of corrosion pipeline protection control and developed vibration diagnostic system for gas compressor units are used on a large scale. The program for gas transmission pipeline reconstruction and upgrading of 50 compressor stations of main lines is being under realization. Modernization of compressor stations will allow to increase turbine drivers' efficiency up to 34-36 per cent to save about 1-10{sup 9} cubic meters of fuel gas annually. The reliability of gas transit deliveries is supported by powerful underground gas storage facilities, situated mostly in the Western Ukraine. The expansion of gas pipe lines system is carried out that will increase transit capacity of Ukrainian gas trunk lines up to 160 -10{sup 9} cubic meters a year. (authors)

  12. On heat properties of AdS black holes in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, A. [Département de Physique, Faculté Polydisciplinaire, Université Sultan M. Slimane,Béni Mellal (Morocco); High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, FSSM, Cadi Ayyad University,Marrakesh (Morocco); Chabab, M.; Moumni, H. El; Masmar, K. [High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, FSSM, Cadi Ayyad University,Marrakesh (Morocco); Sedra, M.B. [Université Mohammed Premier, Ecole Nationale des Sciences Appliquées,Al Hoceima (Morocco); Département de Physique, LHESIR, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Tofail,Kénitra (Morocco); Segui, A. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza,E-50009-Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-05-28

    We investigate the heat properties of AdS Black Holes in higher dimensions. We consider the study of the corresponding thermodynamical properties including the heat capacity explored in the determination of the black hole stability. In particular, we compute the heat latent. To overcome the instability problem, the Maxwell construction, in the (T,S)-plane, is elaborated. This method is used to modify the the Hawking-Page phase structure by removing the negative heat capacity regions. Then, we discuss the thermodynamic cycle and the heat engines using the way based on the extraction of the work from a black hole solution.

  13. Preliminary design of four aircraft to service the California Corridor in the year 2010: The California Condor, California Sky-Hopper, high capacity short range transport tilt rotor aircraft needed to simplify intercity transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to design an aircraft for use in the California Corridor in the year 2010. The design process, completed by students in a senior design class at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, used a Class 1 airplane design analysis from Jan Roskam's Airplane Design. The California Condor (CC-38), a 38 passenger, 400 mph aircraft, was designed to meet the needs of tomorrow's passengers while conforming to the California Corridor's restrictions. Assumptions were made using today's technology with forecasts into 21st Century technology. Doubling today's commuter aircraft passenger capacity, travelling at Mach .57 with improved cruise efficiencies of over 10 percent, with the ability to land within field lengths of 4000 feet, are the CC-38's strongest points. The California Condor has a very promising future in helping to relieve the air traffic and airport congestion in the 21st Century.

  14. Creatine transporter (SLC6A8 knock out mice display an increased capacity for in vitro creatine biosynthesis in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Paul Russell

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether skeletal muscle from whole body creatine transporter (CrT; SLC6A8 knockout mice (CrT-/y actually contained creatine (Cr and if so, whether this Cr could result from an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis. Gastrocnemius muscle from CrT-/y and wild type (CrT+/y mice were analysed for ATP, Cr, Cr phosphate (CrP and total Cr (TCr content. Muscle protein and gene expression of the enzymes responsible for Cr biosynthesis L-arginine:glycine amidotransferase (AGAT and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT were also determined as were the rates of in vitro Cr biosynthesis. CrT-/y mice muscle contained measurable (22.3 ± 4.3 mmol.kg-1 dry mass, but markedly reduced (P<0.05 TCr levels compared with CrT+/y mice (125.0 ± 3.3 mmol.kg-1 dry mass. AGAT gene and protein expression were higher (~3 fold; P<0.05 in CrT-/y mice muscle, however GAMT gene and protein expression remained unchanged. The in vitro rate of Cr biosynthesis was elevated 1.5 fold (P<0.05 in CrT-/y mice muscle. These data clearly demonstrate that in the absence of CrT protein, skeletal muscle has reduced, but not absent, levels of Cr. This presence of Cr was most likely due to an up regulation of muscle Cr biosynthesis as evidenced by an increased AGAT protein expression and in vitro Cr biosynthesis rates in CrT-/y mice. Of note, the up regulation of Cr biosynthesis in CrT-/y mice muscle was unable to fully restore Cr levels to that found in wild type muscle.

  15. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  16. Adding and Deleting Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Images are added via the Drupal WebCMS Editor. Once an image is uploaded onto a page, it is available via the Library and your files. You can edit the metadata, delete the image permanently, and/or replace images on the Files tab.

  17. What Value "Value Added"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  18. Adding an extra storey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmark, Jesper; Dahl, Torben; Melgaard, Ebbe

    2007-01-01

    of them had to be renovated after a shorter period. In stead of just replacing the original roof with a new one, it is now a days rather common to ad an extra storey where that is possible according to local planning. The reason is as a rule based on economical benefits, but very often this extra storey...

  19. Manufacturing Capacity Utilization and Industrial Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the impact of manufacturing capacity utilization on industrial development in Nigeria during the period of 1976 – 2005. Manufacturing capacity utilization, value added and employment generation were regressed on index of industrial productivity (which served as the proxy for industrial development) ...

  20. Manufacturing Capacity Utilization and Industrial Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    The econometric evidence confirms that there is a long run positive relationship between Manufacturing capacity utilization, value added and index of industrial productivity in Nigeria. It was recommended based on this relationship that as a result of the low capacity utilization experienced in Nigeria, the government should ...

  1. Manufacturing Capacity Utilization and Industrial Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Abstract. This paper investigates the impact of manufacturing capacity utilization on industrial development in Nigeria during the period of 1976 – 2005. Manufacturing capacity utilization, value added and employment generation were regressed on index of industrial productivity (which served as the proxy for industrial ...

  2. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradl, H.B. [Bilfinger + Berger Bauaktiengesellschaft, Mannheim (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents.

  3. Ads in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Roro Retno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and cultural studies. Major conclusions showed that the beauty myth since the Dutch colonial period never been change. The main concept is always in colonialism’s idea: “white is better”. The West is better than the East.

  4. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2014-01-01

    jobs by discursively constructing job ads that appeal to both sexes. This argument is part of the broader field of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, and stakeholder management, which involves discussions of the obligations of corporations to acknowledge and mitigate......The article asks whether it is not the responsibility of corporations to address the issue of women being underrepresented in Danish management jobs. In other words, it is argued that corporations should be encouraged to engage more actively in the recruitment of both men and women for management...... the increasingly widespread impact that their activities have on communities and social structures. The article emphasises the need for more active engagement on the part of corporations by analysing the discursive construction of preferred candidates in a small sample of Danish management job ads. By means...

  5. Philosophia ad bellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Loboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper «Philosophia ad bellum» is being realized an attempt to classify philosophic approaches to the study of phenomenon of war by the analogy with the structure of «Just war theory» – 1. Philosophia ad bellum – «philosophy for war», where are investigated ways of using of philosophic methods of cognition in applied military sciences; 2. Philosophia supra bello – «philosophy above war», which investigates world­view, historic­philosophic, existential, logic­epistemological aspects of war; 3. Philosophia contra belli – «philosophy against war», where research of the essence of war gets its logical conclusion in grounding of the absurdity of thinking schemes which justify war as an act of violence. In the article was made historic­philosophic overview of the part «Philosophia ad bellum», where were showed tangent questions, which are considered by philosophic logic and theory of strategic intelligence. It was stated, that specialists if military intelligence admit the important role of researches in logic and theory of cognition in their professional work; were defined basic questions, which have the most essential interest for military professionals. There were analyzed ways of using of philosophic methods in developing military strategies, was made a conclusion that philosophy can be a basis of strategic failures and victories as well.

  6. AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS $3$-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for their volume. We give natu...

  7. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsato, R.; Olsson Sax, O.E.; Sfondrini, A.; Stefanski, B.; Torrielli, A.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones

  8. Temporal analysis of the connectivity and potential transport capacity of sediments in semiarid meso-basin, CE, Brazil. = Análise temporal da conectividade e da capacidade de transporte potencial de sedimentos em meso-bacia semiárida, CE, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wellington Batista Lopes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of energy and matter between two topographic units comprise the connectivity process. The identification of the connectivity patterns in the catchments allow to represent the linking degree between sediment producing areas and network drainage. The aim of this study was to evaluate spatial and temporal connectivity and estimate the potential capacity of sediment transport on a meso-semiarid Basin. The study area comprises the Representative Madalena Basin (RMB with area 124 km², located at federal state from Ceara, Brazil. The assessing the connectivity was done by using the quantitative index. The determination of peak discharge was by the method NRCS (Natural Resouces Conservation Service and the transport capacity (CT, t ha-1 yr-1 was calculated by the method of Morgan (2001. The results showed that: the connectivity potential index was not linearity, but a possible spatial distribution pattern of alternating between producing and receiving areas. The use and occupation of land is determinant in the spatial variation of peak flows; transportation capacity concerns associated with potential connectivity provides best estimates of erosion in the basin; in both models used, the use and occupation of soil was crucial in the results. = A transferência de energia e matéria entre duas unidades topográficas compreende o processo deconectividade. A identificação dos padrões de conectividade em uma bacia hidrográfica permite representar o grau de ligação entre áreas produtoras de sedimentos e a rede de drenagem. Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa analisar a conectividade espaço-temporal e estimar a capacidade potencial de transporte de sedimentos em uma meso-baciasemiárida. A área foco do estudo compreende a Bacia Representativa de Madalena (BRM com área de 124 km², localizada no Estado do Ceará, Brasil. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: conectividade, o pico de descarga e a capacidade de transporte de escoamento da

  9. 76 FR 71430 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) AGENCY: Department of.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Doug Arbuckle, Chief Scientist, Surveillance & Broadcast Services Pgm...

  10. Value-Added Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolfs Bems; Robert C. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    This paper updates the conceptual foundations for measuring real effective exchange rates (REERs) to allow for vertical specialization in trade. We derive a value-added REER describing how demand for the value added that a country produces changes as the price of its value added changes relative to competitors. We then compute this index for 42 countries from 1970-2009 using trade measured in value added terms and GDP deflators. There are substantial differences between value-added and conven...

  11. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  12. Ehrenfest's scheme and thermodynamic geometry in Born-Infeld AdS black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lala, Arindam

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the phase transition phenomena in Born-Infeld AdS black holes using Ehrenfest's scheme of standard thermodynamics. The critical points are marked by the divergences in the heat capacity. In order to investigate the nature of the phase transition, we analytically check both the Ehrenfest's equations near the critical points. Our analysis reveals that this is indeed a second order phase transition. Finally, we analyze the nature of the phase transition using state space geometry approach. This is found to be compatible with the Ehrenfest's scheme.

  13. Transport and logistics as network competencies in a localized industrial cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2004-01-01

    This chapter argues that transport is more than infrastructure and transport capacity for the processes governing industrial organisation.......This chapter argues that transport is more than infrastructure and transport capacity for the processes governing industrial organisation....

  14. Upgradable radio-over-fiber transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Hung; Tu, Liang-Shuo; Huang, Yi-Syuan; Li, Chung-Yi

    2017-10-01

    An upgradable radio-over-fiber (RoF) transport system is proposed based on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-composed wavelength selector. The passband window of the wavelength selector can be electrically adjusted to select a specific lightwave from multiple injected optical carriers and attenuate the others. By adding the VCSEL-composed wavelength selector installed inside each base station (BS), the proposed transport system can remain as the original tree topology, but its overall network capacity can be flexibly extended (reduced) by adding (removing) an additional optical carrier into (out of) the optical network. Each BS can dynamically receive data from one of the multiple injected optical carriers. This method is useful because the bandwidth requirement of each BS, which is serviced by an RoF transport system, may significantly change with the visitor flow rate. Experimental results prove that the BSs in the proposed upgradable RoF transport system can be reallocated to multiple logical RoF links and can be dynamically switched to receive data from any one of the logical RoF signals without modifying the original network structure. The transmission performances of these optical carriers are ensured by low bit error rate, clear eye, and optical/electrical spectra diagrams.

  15. Value Added in English Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ray; Tanya McCormack; Helen Evans

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007–8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other professionals in local and national governments. The article outlines the development of value-added models in England following the introduction of national t...

  16. Value Added in English Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  17. Augmenting transport versus increasing cold storage to improve vaccine supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    When addressing the urgent task of improving vaccine supply chains, especially to accommodate the introduction of new vaccines, there is often a heavy emphasis on stationary storage. Currently, donations to vaccine supply chains occur largely in the form of storage equipment. This study utilized a HERMES-generated detailed, dynamic, discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain to compare the impacts on vaccine availability of adding stationary cold storage versus transport capacity at different levels and to determine whether adding stationary storage capacity alone would be enough to relieve potential bottlenecks when pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines are introduced by 2015. Relieving regional level storage bottlenecks increased vaccine availability (by 4%) more than relieving storage bottlenecks at the district (1% increase), central (no change), and clinic (no change) levels alone. Increasing transport frequency (or capacity) yielded far greater gains (e.g., 15% increase in vaccine availability when doubling transport frequency to the district level and 18% when tripling). In fact, relieving all stationary storage constraints could only increase vaccine availability by 11%, whereas doubling the transport frequency throughout the system led to a 26% increase and tripling the frequency led to a 30% increase. Increasing transport frequency also reduced the amount of stationary storage space needed in the supply chain. The supply chain required an additional 61,269L of storage to relieve constraints with the current transport frequency, 55,255L with transport frequency doubled, and 51,791L with transport frequency tripled. When evaluating vaccine supply chains, it is important to understand the interplay between stationary storage and transport. The HERMES-generated dynamic simulation model showed how augmenting transport can result in greater gains than only augmenting stationary storage and can reduce stationary storage needs.

  18. AdS Black Hole with Phantom Scalar Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an AdS black hole solution with Ricci flat horizon in Einstein-phantom scalar theory. The phantom scalar fields just depend on the transverse coordinates x and y, which are parameterized by the parameter α. We study the thermodynamics of the AdS phantom black hole. Although its horizon is a Ricci flat Euclidean space, we find that the thermodynamical properties of the black hole solution are qualitatively the same as those of AdS Schwarzschild black hole. Namely, there exists a minimal temperature and the large black hole is thermodynamically stable, while the smaller one is unstable, so there is a so-called Hawking-Page phase transition between the large black hole and the thermal gas solution in the AdS space-time in Poincare coordinates. We also calculate the entanglement entropy for a strip geometry dual to the AdS phantom black holes and find that the behavior of the entanglement entropy is qualitatively the same as that of the black hole thermodynamical entropy.

  19. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  20. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jie [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-07-21

    Exact solutions to Einstein’s equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution’s appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  1. Holography in Lovelock Chern-Simons AdS gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Branislav; Miskovic, Olivera; Simić, Dejan

    2017-08-01

    We analyze holographic field theory dual to Lovelock Chern-Simons anti-de Sitter (AdS) gravity in higher dimensions using first order formalism. We first find asymptotic symmetries in the AdS sector showing that they consist of local translations, local Lorentz rotations, dilatations and non-Abelian gauge transformations. Then, we compute 1-point functions of energy-momentum and spin currents in a dual conformal field theory and write Ward identities. We find that the holographic theory possesses Weyl anomaly and also breaks non-Abelian gauge symmetry at the quantum level.

  2. AdS5 magnetized solutions in minimal gauged supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco; Radu, Eugen

    2017-08-01

    We construct a generalization of the AdS charged rotating black holes with two equal magnitude angular momenta in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. In addition to the mass, electric charge and angular momentum, the new solutions possess an extra-parameter associated with a non-zero magnitude of the magnetic potential at infinity. In contrast with the known cases, these new black holes possess a non-trivial zero-horizon size limit which describes a one parameter family of spinning charged solitons. All configurations reported in this work approach asymptotically an AdS5 spacetime in global coordinates and are free of pathologies.

  3. AdS5 magnetized solutions in minimal gauged supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Blázquez-Salcedo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We construct a generalization of the AdS charged rotating black holes with two equal magnitude angular momenta in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. In addition to the mass, electric charge and angular momentum, the new solutions possess an extra-parameter associated with a non-zero magnitude of the magnetic potential at infinity. In contrast with the known cases, these new black holes possess a non-trivial zero-horizon size limit which describes a one parameter family of spinning charged solitons. All configurations reported in this work approach asymptotically an AdS5 spacetime in global coordinates and are free of pathologies.

  4. Loops in AdS from conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Ofer; Alday, Luis F.; Bissi, Agnese; Perlmutter, Eric

    2017-07-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new use for conformal field theory (CFT) crossing equations in the context of AdS/CFT: the computation of loop amplitudes in AdS, dual to non-planar correlators in holographic CFTs. Loops in AdS are largely unexplored, mostly due to technical difficulties in direct calculations. We revisit this problem, and the dual 1 /N expansion of CFTs, in two independent ways. The first is to show how to explicitly solve the crossing equations to the first subleading order in 1 /N 2, given a leading order solution. This is done as a systematic expansion in inverse powers of the spin, to all orders. These expansions can be resummed, leading to the CFT data for finite values of the spin. Our second approach involves Mellin space. We show how the polar part of the four-point, loop-level Mellin amplitudes can be fully reconstructed from the leading-order data. The anomalous dimensions computed with both methods agree. In the case of ϕ 4 theory in AdS, our crossing solution reproduces a previous computation of the one-loop bubble diagram. We can go further, deriving the four-point scalar triangle diagram in AdS, which had never been computed. In the process, we show how to analytically derive anomalous dimensions from Mellin amplitudes with an infinite series of poles, and discuss applications to more complicated cases such as the N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  5. Storage and transportation of gasoline and diesel using molasses handling idle capacities of the sugar cane industry; Almacenamiento y transportacion de gasolina y combustible diesel en instalaciones dedicadas al trasiego de mieles finales derivadas de la refinacion de la cana de azucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavado, A.; Balmayor, M.; Rios, L.; Diego, O.; Rodriguez, R.; Valdes, R.; Ramila, R. [CUPET (Cuba). Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas

    1994-12-31

    Storage and transportation of gasoline and diesel using molasses handling idle capacities of the sugar cane industry. This paper present conclusions of a wide research program regarding utilization of idle capacities and facilities for molasses handling in storage and transportation of fuels (gasoline and diesel). The key goal of this research program was the investigation by IR Spectral Analysis of the dilution level of polysaccharides in hydrocarbons after a long period of storage; the influence of aromatic concentration in these fuels and the presence of oxygenates - MTBE, ETBE, TAME, alcohols, etc - in the gasoline. The paper also reports the results of bench tests carried on in a marine diesel engine, using a diesel fuel after long storage period in contact with molasses residue. (author) 7 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Black Hole Astrophysics in AdS Braneworlds

    CERN Document Server

    Emparan, R; Kaloper, Nemanja; Emparan, Roberto; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Kaloper, Nemanja

    2003-01-01

    We consider astrophysics of large black holes localized on the brane in the infinite Randall-Sundrum model. Using their description in terms of a conformal field theory (CFT) coupled to gravity, deduced in Ref. [1], we show that they undergo a period of rapid decay via Hawking radiation of CFT modes. For example, a black hole of mass ${\\rm few} \\times M_\\odot$ would shed most of its mass in $\\sim 10^4 - 10^5$ years if the AdS radius is $L \\sim 10^{-1}$ mm, currently the upper bound from table-top experiments. Since this is within the mass range of X-ray binary systems containing a black hole, the evaporation enhanced by the hidden sector CFT modes could cause the disappearance of X-ray sources on the sky. This would be a striking signature of RS2 with a large AdS radius. Alternatively, for shorter AdS radii, the evaporation would be slower. In such cases, the persistence of X-ray binaries with black holes already implies an upper bound on the AdS radius of $L \\la 10^{-2}$ mm, an order of magnitude better than...

  7. Logarithmic AdS waves and Zwei-Dreibein gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Goya, Andres F.; Merbis, Wout; Rosseel, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We show that the parameter space of Zwei-Dreibein Gravity (ZDG) in AdS(3) exhibits critical points, where massive graviton modes coincide with pure gauge modes and new 'logarithmic' modes appear, similar to what happens in New Massive Gravity. The existence of critical points is shown both at the

  8. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    OpenAIRE

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  9. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  10. Developing the UIC 406 Method for Capacity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex; Preston, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies an improvement cycle for analysing and enhancing capacity utilisation of an existing timetable. Macro and micro capacity utilisation are defined based on the discrete nature of capacity utilisation and different capacity metrics are analysed. In the category of macro asset...... utilisation, two methods of CUI and the UIC 406 are compared with each other. A British and a Danish case study are explored for a periodic and a nonperiodic timetable: 1- Freeing up capacity by omitting the train that has the highest capacity consumption (British case study). 2- Adding trains to use...

  11. Customer Driven Capacity Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Hübl, Alexander; Altendorfer, Klaus; Jodlbauer, Herbert; Pilstl, Josef

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this article is to develop a method for short and medium term capacity setting decisions for providing a market oriented level of available capacity for the investigated machine groups. An MTO (make to order) production system is considered. The basic concept is that the cumulative available capacity of the machine group has to be greater than or equal to the cumulative needed capacity influenced by the customer orders. The cumulative needed capacity is ...

  12. Transmission Strategies in MIMO Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakih Khalil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Precoding problem in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO ad hoc networks is addressed in this work. Firstly, we consider the problem of maximizing the system mutual information under a power constraint. In this context, we give a brief overview of the nonlinear optimization methods, and systematically we compare their performances. Then, we propose a fast and distributed algorithm based on the quasi-Newton methods to give a lower bound of the system capacity of MIMO ad hoc networks. Our proposed algorithm solves the maximization problem while diminishing the amount of information in the feedback links needed in the cooperative optimization. Secondly, we propose a different problem formulation, which consists in minimizing the total transmit power under a quality of signal constraint. This novel problem design is motivated since the packets are captured in ad hoc networks based on their signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR values. We convert the proposed formulation into semidefinite optimization problem, which can be solved numerically using interior point methods. Finally, an extensive set of simulations validates the proposed algorithms.

  13. Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS_4 perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Jai-akson, Puttarak; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude epsilon approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/epsilon^2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/epsilon^2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting phi^4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated....

  14. AdS sub 2 supergravity and superconformal quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Astorino, M; Klemm, D; Zanon, D

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the asymptotic dynamics of topological anti-de Sitter supergravity in two dimensions. Starting from the formulation as a BF theory, it is shown that the AdS sub 2 boundary conditions imply that the asymptotic symmetries form a super-Virasoro algebra. Using the central charge of this algebra in Cardy's formula, we exactly reproduce the thermodynamical entropy of AdS sub 2 black holes. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of the dilaton and its superpartner reduces to that of superconformal transformations that leave invariant one chiral component of the stress tensor supercurrent of a two-dimensional conformal field theory. This dynamics is governed by a supersymmetric extension of the de Alfaro-Fubini-Furlan model of conformal quantum mechanics. Finally, two-dimensional de Sitter gravity is also considered, and the dS sub 2 entropy is computed by counting CFT states.

  15. Entropy function and attractors for AdS black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, J F; Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2006-01-01

    We apply Sen's entropy formalism to the study of the near horizon geometry and the entropy of asymptotically AdS black holes in gauged supergravities. In particular, we consider non-supersymmetric electrically charged black holes with AdS_2 xS^{d-2} horizons in U(1)^4 and U(1)^3 gauged supergravities in d=4 and d=5 dimensions, respectively. We study several cases including static/rotating, BPS and non-BPS black holes in Einstein as well as in Gauss-Bonnet gravity. In all examples, the near horizon geometry and black hole entropy are derived by extremizing the entropy function and are given entirely in terms of the gauge coupling, the electric charges and the angular momentum of the black hole.

  16. AdS gravity and the scalar glueball spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vento, Vicente [Departament de Fisica Teorica, Universitat de Valencia y Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2017-09-15

    The scalar glueball spectrum has attracted much attention since the formulation of Quantum Chromodynamics. Different approaches give very different results for the glueball masses. We revisit the problem from the perspective of the AdS/CFT correspondence. (orig.)

  17. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  18. Conserved higher-spin charges in AdS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Gelfond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gauge invariant conserved conformal currents built from massless fields of all spins in 4d Minkowski space–time and AdS4 are described in the unfolded dynamics approach. The current cohomology associated with non-zero conserved charges is found. The resulting list of charges is shown to match the space of parameters of the conformal higher-spin symmetry algebra in four dimensions.

  19. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, André [Institut für Theoretische Physik & Center for Quantum Engineering and Spacetime Research,Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Strickland-Constable, Charles [Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-16

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of E{sub d(d)}×ℝ{sup +} generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  20. ADS Bumblebee comes of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin; Grant, Carolyn S.; Thompson, Donna M.; Chyla, Roman; McDonald, Steven; Shaulis, Taylor J.; Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Shapurian, Golnaz; Hostetler, Timothy W.; Templeton, Matthew R.; Lockhart, Kelly E.

    2018-01-01

    The ADS Team has been working on a new system architecture and user interface named “ADS Bumblebee” since 2015. The new system presents many advantages over the traditional ADS interface and search engine (“ADS Classic”). A new, state of the art search engine features a number of new capabilities such as full-text search, advanced citation queries, filtering of results and scalable analytics for any search results. Its services are built on a cloud computing platform which can be easily scaled to match user demand. The Bumblebee user interface is a rich javascript application which leverages the features of the search engine and integrates a number of additional visualizations such as co-author and co-citation networks which provide a hierarchical view of research groups and research topics, respectively. Displays of paper analytics provide views of the basic article metrics (citations, reads, and age). All visualizations are interactive and provide ways to further refine search results. This new search system, which has been in beta for the past three years, has now matured to the point that it provides feature and content parity with ADS Classic, and has become the recommended way to access ADS content and services. Following a successful transition to Bumblebee, the use of ADS Classic will be discouraged starting in 2018 and phased out in 2019. You can access our new interface at https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu

  1. Ad skepticisms: Antecedents and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Engaging customer is the burning issue for companies especially the service sector, either online or offline. Minimizing the customer disengagement is the same like reducing dissatisfaction or churn. Customer disengagement may be caused by many factors, ad skepticism is one of them; ad skepticism has two main antecedents personality variable and consumption/influencing varia-bles. This research explores the relationship of ad skepticism with customer disengagement through personality variables which are cynicism, reactance and self-esteem. The unit of analysis is the telecom and banking industry of Pakistan which is foreseeing an era of virtual currency and both are customer oriented industries. Only offline disengagement is researched and data is collected from the Business centers of telecom and banking branches dealing with virtual curren-cy in Pakistan. Hypothetical model is given after digging the relevant literature; model is tested through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Eight hypotheses were purposed from the connections of model, all hypotheses are accepted except the cynicism posi-tive effect on social ad skepticism. This can be due to commonality of social and charity in Paki-stani society, Muslims consider charity as a pious act and they do not think for cynic behavior in charity or social related works. The results manifest that customers in telecom industry are hav-ing ad skepticism and that is becoming the cause of their disengagement. Further, social ad skep-ticism has more impact on the customer disengagement than the general ad skepticism. While the reactance has more effect on general ad skepticism than other antecedents and cynicism has the lowest impact on social ad skepticism than other antecedents.

  2. III Adli Bilimler Kongresi - Posterler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    2000-08-01

    .85 cinayet, l’i (% 7.15 intihar orijinli idi. Olguların 6’sı (°/o 42.85 ölü duhul, 6'sı (% 42.85 müdahale sırasında, 2’si (% 14.28 tedavi sırasında ölmüş olduğu belirlendi. En sık yaralanan damarın femoral arter olduğu saptandı. Damar cerrahisi konusundaki gelişmelere rağmen olguların büyük bir kısmının ölü duhul ve müdahale sırasında ölmüş olması transport ve ilk yardım konusundaki bilinçsizlik ya da yanlış müdahaleye bağlı olduğu şeklinde değerlendirilebilir. Anahtar kelimeler: Adli otopsi, damar yaralanması. 1993-1997 YILLARI ARASINDA E.Ü.T.F. ADLİ TIP ANABİLİM DALI NDA HAKLARINDA RAPOR DÜZENLENEN GÖZ YARALANMASI OLGULARI Ekin Özgür AKTAŞ*, Süheyla ERTÜRK*, Aytaç KOÇAK*, İsmail Hamit HANCI*. ÖZET Ocak 1993- Aralık 1997 tarihleri arasındaki 5 yıllık dönemde adli raporlarının düzenlenmesi amacıyla E.Ü.T.F. Adli Tıp Anabilim Dalı'na müracaat ettirilen 1933 olgunun evrakı retrospektif olarak taranarak göz lezyonları nedeni ile haklarında rapor istenen 56 olguya (%2.9 ait evrak gönderilen makam, istenen rapor, yaş, cinsiyet, lezyonlu göz, yaralanma sebebi yönlerinden değerlendirildi. Olguların 32'si kat'i rapor, 24'ü malüliyet tayini için gönderilmişti. 52 olgu erkek (%92.8, 4 olgu (%7.2 kadındı. En çok yaralanan gözün sol göz olduğu (29 olgu, 20 olguda sağ gözün, 7 olguda da her iki gözün yaralandığı, orijin ola- rakta trafik kazalarının ilk sırayı aldığı (24 olgu saptandı. Anahtar Kelimeler: Göz yaralanmaları, malüliyet oranı, adli tıp. HEPATİT ve AIDS HASTAIIKLARININ KİŞİLERE KARŞI İŞLENEN SUÇLAR ve CİNSEL SALDIRILAR YÖNÜNDEN İNCELENMESİ Beyhan EGE*, İ.Hamit HANCI*, Aytaç KOÇAK*. ÖZET Bulaşıcı özelliğe sahip Hepatit ve AIDS hastalıklarının, kasıtlı olarak ya da ihmal sonucu başkalarına bulaştırılması TCK 456 ve 459. Madde’leri, cinsel saldırılarda ise mağdura bulaştırılması sonucu hastalanmasına neden olmas

  3. P-V criticality in AdS black holes of massive gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Fernando, Sharmanthie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we have studied the extended phase space thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble of black holes in massive gravity in AdS space. The black holes considered here belong to a theory of massive gravity where the graviton gain a mass due to Lorenz symmetry breaking. We have computed various thermodynamical quantities such as temperature, pressure, Gibbs free energy and specific heat capacity. The local and the global thermodynamical stability of the black holes are studied in detail. For a specific value of the parameter in the theory, the black holes undergo a first order phase transition similar to the Van der Waals phase transitions between gas and liquid under constant temperature. This transition is between the small and the large black hole. The critical exponents are computed at the critical values and shown to be the same as for the Van der Waals critical exponents.

  4. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  5. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  6. ADS/CFT and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  7. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  8. Maximal temperature of a gas in AdS spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2017-04-01

    Assuming only statistical mechanics and general relativity, we calculate the maximal temperature of gas of particles placed in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. If two particles with a given center of mass energy come close enough, according to classical gravity, they will form a black hole. We focus only on the black holes with a Hawking temperature lower than the environment, because they do not disappear. The number density of such black holes grows with the temperature in the system. At a certain finite temperature, the thermodynamical system will be dominated by black holes. This critical temperature is lower than the Planck temperature for the values of the AdS vacuum energy density below the Planck density. This result might be interesting from the AdS/CFT correspondence point of view, since it is different from the Hawking-Page phase transition, and it is not immediately clear what effect dynamically limits the maximal temperature of the thermal state on the CFT side of the correspondence.

  9. TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Main aspects that determine conditions of transportation industry effective management and decrease of transportation expenses are discussed. Theoretical concepts making it possible to solve the problem of scientific management of the whole country’s goods transportation costs are provided for. Main approaches are presented to the solution of motor transport operation ecological optimization problem as well as to the rise of motor transport workers’ labor productivity, to the increase of transportation vehicles use efficiency and to determine functional capacity of the motor transport complex.

  10. Silk Biomaterials with Vascularization Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongyan; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Shanshan; Lu, Qiang; Fan, Zhihai; Lu, Haijun; Lu, Guozhong; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-20

    Functional vascularization is critical for the clinical regeneration of complex tissues such as kidney, liver or bone. The immobilization or delivery of growth factors has been explored to improve vascularization capacity of tissue engineered constructs, however, the use of growth factors has inherent problems such as the loss of signaling capability and the risk of complications such as immunological responses and cancer. Here, a new method of preparing water-insoluble silk protein scaffolds with vascularization capacity using an all aqueous process is reported. Acid was added temporally to tune the self-assembly of silk in lyophilization process, resulting in water insoluble scaffold formation directly. These biomaterials are mainly noncrystalline, offering improved cell proliferation than previously reported silk materials. These systems also have appropriate softer mechanical property that could provide physical cues to promote cell differentiation into endothelial cells, and enhance neovascularization and tissue ingrowth in vivo without the addition of growth factors. Therefore, silk-based degradable scaffolds represent an exciting biomaterial option, with vascularization capacity for soft tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  11. Fermionic currents in AdS spacetime with compact dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, S.; Saharian, A. A.; Vardanyan, V.

    2017-09-01

    We derive a closed expression for the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the fermionic current density in a (D +1 )-dimensional locally AdS spacetime with an arbitrary number of toroidally compactified Poincaré spatial dimensions and in the presence of a constant gauge field. The latter can be formally interpreted in terms of a magnetic flux treading the compact dimensions. In the compact subspace, the field operator obeys quasiperiodicity conditions with arbitrary phases. The VEV of the charge density is zero and the current density has nonzero components along the compact dimensions only. They are periodic functions of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the flux quantum and tend to zero on the AdS boundary. Near the horizon, the effect of the background gravitational field is small and the leading term in the corresponding asymptotic expansion coincides with the VEV for a massless field in the locally Minkowski bulk. Unlike the Minkowskian case, in the system consisting of an equal number of fermionic and scalar degrees of freedom, with same masses, charges and phases in the periodicity conditions, the total current density does not vanish. In these systems, the leading divergences in the scalar and fermionic contributions on the horizon are canceled and, as a consequence of that, the charge flux, integrated over the coordinate perpendicular to the AdS boundary, becomes finite. We show that in odd spacetime dimensions the fermionic fields realizing two inequivalent representations of the Clifford algebra and having equal phases in the periodicity conditions give the same contribution to the VEV of the current density. Combining the contributions from these fields, the current density in odd-dimensional C -,P - and T -symmetric models are obtained. As an application, we consider the ground state current density in curved carbon nanotubes described in terms of a (2 +1 )-dimensional effective Dirac model.

  12. New Features in ADS Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  13. Molecular imaging of acetylcholine vesicular transporter (VAChT) in demented patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) by IBVM-SPECT; Imagerie moleculaire du transporteur vesiculaire de l'acetylcholine (VACh) par le [123I]-5-iodobenzovezamicol dans la demence de type Alzheimer (DTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quetu, F.; Prunier, C.; Pogam, L.; Hommet, C.; Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L. [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Tours, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Faculte de Medecine de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Tamagnan, G.; Allard, M. [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Bordeaux, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Seibyl, J. [Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Alzheimer's disease (A.D.) is characterized by a premature decline of cholinergic neurons. The 5-I.B.V.M. is an analogue of the Vesamicol that binds to the presynaptic vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). The exploration of this target should be useful to make an early diagnosis of A.D.. Our first aim was to propose a method of non invasive VAChT quantification according to 5-I.B.V.M. kinetic. 5-I.B.V.M. was injected to four A.D. patients (age = 77 {+-} 3.9 years and M.M.S.E. = 24.5 {+-} 1.02) were included in this methodological study. The single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained at five, 20, 35 and 50 minutes, at then at three, five and 22 hours after intravenous injection of 5-I.B.V.M. (185 MBq). The time activity curves were obtained after SPECT images co registration on a MRI masque. Specific volume of interest (S.P.E. SPEcific) were manually drawn on striatum, pons, thalamus and para-hippocampic gyrus including hippocampus; reference volumes of interest (R.E.F. = REFerence) were drawn on frontal and occipital cerebral cortex. On the basis of uptake kinetic, two modeling approaches were considered: transient equilibrium model for reversible ligand (binding potential (B.P.) (S.P.E. - R.E.F.)/R.E.F.) and Patlak graphical analysis for irreversible tracers (slope given by Ki/DVref where Ki is the influx constant and DVref is the distribution volume of the reference region). We observed an inflection or a steady state of the activity curves in the different regions studied between 250 and 1400 minutes, what seems to confirm that the tracer is little reversible. B.P. values obtained at 21 hours with occipital areas as reference and Ki/DVref values were respectively 4.62 {+-} 0.42 and 0.07 {+-} 0.01. The S.P.E. classification according to B.P. and Ki/DVref values were similar to the classification according to the compartmental analysis (Kuhl 1994). The transient equilibrium model with late acquisition seems the more

  14. Solution-combustion synthesized nickel-substituted spinel cathode materials (LiNixMn2-xO4; 0≤x≤0.2) for lithium ion battery: enhancing energy storage, capacity retention, and lithium ion transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spherically shaped Ni-substituted LiNi(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) spinel cathode materials for lithium ion battery with high first cycle discharge capacity and remarkable cycling performance were synthesized using the solution...

  15. Entanglement entropy and duality in AdS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bakas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Small variations of the entanglement entropy δS and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian δE are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS4, using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, δS=δE, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric–magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy–momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  16. Fermionic continuous spin gauge field in (AdS space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Metsaev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fermionic continuous spin field propagating in (AdS space–time is studied. Gauge invariant Lagrangian formulation for such fermionic field is developed. Lagrangian of the fermionic continuous spin field is constructed in terms of triple gamma-traceless tensor–spinor Dirac fields, while gauge symmetries are realized by using gamma-traceless gauge transformation parameters. It is demonstrated that partition function of fermionic continuous spin field is equal to one. Modified de Donder gauge condition that considerably simplifies analysis of equations of motion is found. Decoupling limits leading to arbitrary spin massless, partial-massless, and massive fermionic fields are studied.

  17. Economic performance of irrigation capacity development to adapt to climate in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Frank A.; Crawford, Terry L.

    2016-09-01

    Growing demands for food security to feed increasing populations worldwide have intensified the search for improved performance of irrigation, the world's largest water user. These challenges are raised in the face of climate variability and from growing environmental demands. Adaptation measures in irrigated agriculture include fallowing land, shifting cropping patterns, increased groundwater pumping, reservoir storage capacity expansion, and increased production of risk-averse crops. Water users in the Gila Basin headwaters of the U.S. Lower Colorado Basin have faced a long history of high water supply fluctuations producing low-valued defensive cropping patterns. To date, little research grade analysis has investigated economically viable measures for irrigation development to adjust to variable climate. This gap has made it hard to inform water resource policy decisions on workable measures to adapt to climate in the world's dry rural areas. This paper's contribution is to illustrate, formulate, develop, and apply a new methodology to examine the economic performance from irrigation capacity improvements in the Gila Basin of the American Southwest. An integrated empirical optimization model using mathematical programming is developed to forecast cropping patterns and farm income under two scenarios (1) status quo without added storage capacity and (2) with added storage capacity in which existing barriers to development of higher valued crops are dissolved. We find that storage capacity development can lead to a higher valued portfolio of irrigation production systems as well as more sustained and higher valued farm livelihoods. Results show that compared to scenario (1), scenario (2) increases regional farm income by 30%, in which some sub regions secure income gains exceeding 900% compared to base levels. Additional storage is most economically productive when institutional and technical constraints facing irrigated agriculture are dissolved. Along with

  18. Introducing ADS 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  19. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-12-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  20. AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-06-05

    In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background.

  1. Smooth causal patches for AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Suvrat

    2017-06-01

    We review the paradox of low energy excitations of a black hole in anti-de Sitter space (AdS). An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than k T cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position-space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analysis, we show how this resolves the "Born rule" paradox of Marolf and Polchinski [J. High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 008, 10.1007/JHEP01(2016)008] and we verify our solution using an independent calculation. We then consider boundary states that are finely tuned to display a spontaneous excitation outside the causal patch of the infalling observer, and we propose a version of causal patch complementarity in AdS/CFT that resolves the paradox for such states as well.

  2. CAPACITY OF ROTARY LOADING MACHINE ON COAL STOCK FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Živković

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the cost of the stock facility, which might contain large coal masses (usually several hundreds of thousands of tons it is important to have the loading capacity adjusted to the transport and boiler capacity. In the case of either too small or too large capacity of loading machinery a technical incompatibility of the loading and transport system can occur, together with some unecessary investments in too large loading machines. This is why it is necessary to have an accurate determination of working conditions, specific for each stocking capacity (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. ADS-B in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bjarke Gosvig; Jensen, Morten; Birklykke, Alex

    2014-01-01

    them to the terrestrial receivers. This paper gives an overview of the GATOSS mission and of its highly-sensitive ADS-B software-defined radio receiver payload. Details of the design and implementation of the receiver's decoder are introduced. The first real-life, space-based results show that ADS......-B signals are indeed successfully received in space and retransmitted to a terrestrial station by the GATOSS nano-satellite orbiting at 700+ km altitudes, thus showing that GATOSS is capable of tracking flights, including transoceanic ones, from space....

  4. Metropolitan transportation planning. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, J.W.; Hobeika, A.G.; Hurst, C.J.; Stephens, N.T.; Stuart, R.C.; Walker, R.D.; Diewald, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    This textbook provides coverage of the urban transportation planning field. Emphasis is placed on the interdisciplinary aspects of real-world metropolitan transportation with an orientation toward problem solving. Attention is given to public transportation characteristics (e.g., speed, capacity), user costs, air and noise pollution, post-project evaluation, decision making and community involvement, transportation systems management, planning at strategy, policy, program, and project levels, and finance, budgeting, and related legislative and organizational concerns.

  5. High capacity optical links for datacentre connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Usuga, Mario; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    There is a timely and growing demand for high capacity optical data transport solutions to provide connectivity inside data centres and between data centres located at different geographical locations. The requirements for reach are in the order of 2 km for intra-datacentre and up to 100 km...

  6. AD HOC Networks for the Autonomous Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Davidescu; Negrus, Eugen

    2017-10-01

    The future of the vehicle is made of cars, roads and infrastructures connected in a two way automated communication in a holistic system. It is a mandatory to use Encryption to maintain Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability in an ad hoc vehicle network. Vehicle to Vehicle communication, requires multichannel interaction between mobile, moving and changing parties to insure the full benefit from data sharing and real time decision making, a network of such users referred as mobile ad hoc network (MANET), however as ad hoc networks were not implemented in such a scale, it is not clear what is the best method and protocol to apply. Furthermore the visibility of secure preferred asymmetric encrypted ad hoc networks in a real time environment of dense moving autonomous vehicles has to be demonstrated, In order to evaluate the performance of Ad Hoc networks in changing conditions a simulation of multiple protocols was performed on large number of mobile nodes. The following common routing protocols were tested, DSDV is a proactive protocol, every mobile station maintains a routing table with all available destinations, DSR is a reactive routing protocol which allows nodes in the MANET to dynamically discover a source route across multiple network hops, AODV is a reactive routing protocol Instead of being proactive. It minimizes the number of broadcasts by creating routes based on demand, SAODV is a secure version of AODV, requires heavyweight asymmetric cryptographic, ARIANDE is a routing protocol that relies on highly efficient symmetric cryptography the concept is primarily based on DSR. A methodical evolution was performed in a various density of transportation, based on known communication bench mark parameters including, Throughput Vs. time, Routing Load per packets and bytes. Out of the none encrypted protocols, It is clear that in terms of performance of throughput and routing load DSR protocol has a clear advantage the high node number mode. The encrypted

  7. Performance Analysis of Ad Hoc Dispersed Spectrum Cognitive Radio Networks over Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muneer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio systems can utilize dispersed spectrum, and thus such approach is known as dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems. In this paper, we first provide the performance analysis of such systems over fading channels. We derive the average symbol error probability of dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems for two cases, where the channel for each frequency diversity band experiences independent and dependent Nakagami- fading. In addition, the derivation is extended to include the effects of modulation type and order by considering M-ary phase-shift keying ( -PSK and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation -QAM schemes. We then consider the deployment of such cognitive radio systems in an ad hoc fashion. We consider an ad hoc dispersed spectrum cognitive radio network, where the nodes are assumed to be distributed in three dimension (3D. We derive the effective transport capacity considering a cubic grid distribution. Numerical results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis and show the performance of such networks.

  8. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... trains. This is due to network effects in the railway system and due to the fact that more trains results in lower punctuality....

  9. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...... networks that include several regions outside the visual system. The two visual capacity parameters are functionally separable, but seem to rely on largely overlapping brain areas....

  10. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  11. Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

  12. Facilities Management and Added Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims to present different models of the concept of the added value of Facilities Management (FM), including the FM Value Map, which forms the basis of research group in EuroFM, and to present some of the results of this research collaboration. Approach and methodology: The paper i...

  13. Black holes as bubbles of AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Giri, S.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we propose that bubbles of AdS within Minkowski spacetime, stabilized at a finite radius by stiff matter and an electromagnetic gas, can be an alternative endpoint of gravitational collapse. The bubbles are horizonless with a size up to 12.5% larger than their Schwarzschild radius depending on their charge. We argue that they are stable against small perturbations, and have thermodynamical properties similar to those of real black holes. We provide a realization of the bubbles within string theory that relies on a specific brane intersection giving rise to a shell carrying dissolved charges from lower dimensional D-branes as well as a gas of open strings. We also note that our construction provides a new way of understanding the entropy of Reissner-Nordström black holes in the extremal limit.

  14. Colliding waves on a string in AdS$_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Vegh, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the classical motion of a string in global AdS$_3$. The initially static string stretches between two antipodal points on the boundary circle. Both endpoints are perturbed which creates cusps at a steady rate. The cusps propagate towards the interior where they collide. The behavior of the string depends on the strength of forcing. Three qualitatively different phases can be distinguished: transparent, gray, and black. The transparent region is analogous to a standing wave. In the black phase, there is a horizon on the worldsheet and cusps never reach the other endpoint. The string keeps folding and its length grows linearly over time. In the gray phase, the string still grows linearly. However, cusps do cross to the other side. The transparent and gray regions are separated by a transition point where a logarithmic accumulation of cusps is numerically observed. A simple model reproduces the qualitative behavior of the string in the three phases.

  15. Massless AdS 2 scattering and Bethe ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, A.; Torrielli, A.

    2017-09-01

    We first analyse the integrable scattering theory describing the massless excitations of AdS 2 × S 2 × T 6 superstrings in the relativistic limit. The matrix part of the S-matrix is obtained in the BMN limit from the conjectured exact expression, and compared to known S-matrices with N=1 supersymmetry in 1 + 1 dimensions. A dressing factor, yet unknown for the complete theory, is here constructed based on relativistic crossing symmetry. We derive a Bethe-ansatz condition by employing a transfer-matrix technique based on the so-called free-fermion condition. This is known to overcome the problem of lack of a reference state. We then generalise the method to the massless non-relativistic case, and compare the resulting Bethe-ansatz condition with a simple massless limit of the one conjectured by Sorokin, Tseytlin, Wulff and Zarembo.

  16. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasobh, C.B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V.C. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Cochin (India)

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)

  17. Adiabatic pumping solutions in global AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo, Pablo; Mas, Javier; Musso, Daniele; Serantes, Alexandre

    2017-05-01

    We construct a family of very simple stationary solutions to gravity coupled to a massless scalar field in global AdS. They involve a constantly rising source for the scalar field at the boundary and thereby we name them pumping solutions. We construct them numerically in D = 4. They are regular and, generically, have negative mass. We perform a study of linear and nonlinear stability and find both stable and unstable branches. In the latter case, solutions belonging to different sub-branches can either decay to black holes or to limiting cycles. This observation motivates the search for non-stationary exactly timeperiodic solutions which we actually construct. We clarify the role of pumping solutions in the context of quasistatic adiabatic quenches. In D = 3 the pumping solutions can be related to other previously known solutions, like magnetic or translationally-breaking backgrounds. From this we derive an analytic expression.

  18. Worldsheet dilatation operator for the AdS superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, Israel [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,IRIS Haus, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-05-23

    In this work we propose a systematic way to compute the logarithmic divergences of composite operators in the pure spinor description of the AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} superstring. The computations of these divergences can be summarized in terms of a dilatation operator acting on the local operators. We check our results with some important composite operators of the formalism.

  19. Brownian motion in AdS/CFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Hubeny, V.E.; Rangamani, M.; Shigemori, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study Brownian motion and the associated Langevin equation in AdS/CFT. The Brownian particle is realized in the bulk spacetime as a probe fundamental string in an asymptotically AdS black hole background, stretching between the AdS boundary and the horizon. The modes on the string are excited by

  20. On the Connectivity and Multihop Delay of Ad Hoc Cognitive Radio Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    K. Jagannathan, and E. Modiano , “Delay analysis of maximum weight scheduling in wireless ad hoc networks,” in Proc. IEEE CISS, March 2009, pp. 389...394. [11] M. J. Neely and E. Modiano , “Capacity and delay tradeoffs for ad hoc mobile networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1917–1937

  1. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The allocation of infrastructure capacity among carriers is a major issue in various transport infrastructure sectors, and therefore a theoretical framework on slot allocation would be desirable to support rati...

  2. Wales transport strategy : a consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission Wales

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable Development Commission response to the 'One Wales : connecting the nation : the Wales transport strategy'. Issues raised include road pricing, biofuels, intra Wales air link, increased capacity on the M4, and living within environmental limits. Publisher PDF

  3. Thermal transport in fractal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments on the thermal transport in systems with partial fractal geometry, silica aerogels, are reviewed. The individual contributions from phonons, fractons and particle modes, respectively, have been identified and can be described by quantitative models consistent with heat capacity...

  4. Prokaryotic transport in electrohydrodynamic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulitsch-Fuchs, A.H.; Fuchs, E.C.; Wexler, A.D.; Freund, F.T.; Rothschild, L.J.; Cherukupally, A.; Euverink, G.J.W.

    When a high-voltage direct-current is applied to two beakers filled with water, a horizontal electrohydrodynamic (EHD) bridge forms between the two beakers. In this work we study the transport and behavior of bacterial cells added to an EHD bridge set-up. Organisms were added to one or to both

  5. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different cap...

  6. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... in rail passenger kilometers of European countries since 1996. However, costs are higher and efficiency is lower than European best practice. This paper provides an innovative methodology for assessing the efficiency of passenger operators in capacity utilization. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used...... to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...

  7. Forecast and capacity planning for Nogales' ports of entry : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document provides the final report of the activities performed under the project : Nogales POEs Traffic Study: Forecast and Capacity Planning for Nogales Ports of Entry : sponsored by the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) under Gran...

  8. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  9. Adaptability of the oxidative capacity of motoneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, G. R.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that a chronic change in neuronal activation can produce a change in soma oxidative capacity, suggesting that: (i) these 2 variables are directly related in neurons and (ii) ion pumping is an important energy requiring activity of a neuron. Most of these studies, however, have focused on reduced activation levels of sensory systems. In the present study the effect of a chronic increase or decrease in motoneuronal activity on motoneuron oxidative capacity and soma size was studied. In addition, the effect of chronic axotomy was studied as an indicator of whether cytoplasmic volume may also be related to the oxidative capacity of motoneurons. A quantitative histochemical assay for succinate dehydrogenase activity was used as a measure of motoneuron oxidative capacity in experimental models in which chronic electromyography has been used to verify neuronal activity levels. Spinal transection reduced, and spinal isolation virtually eliminated lumbar motoneuron electrical activity. Functional overload of the plantaris by removal of its major synergists was used to chronically increase neural activity of the plantaris motor pool. No change in oxidative capacity or soma size resulted from either a chronic increase or decrease in neuronal activity level. These data indicate that the chronic modulation of ionic transport and neurotransmitter turnover associated with action potentials do not induce compensatory metabolic responses in the metabolic capacity of the soma of lumbar motoneurons. Soma oxidative capacity was reduced in the axotomized motoneurons, suggesting that a combination of axoplasmic transport, intracellular biosynthesis and perhaps neurotransmitter turnover represent the major energy demands on a motoneuron. While soma oxidative capacity may be closely related to neural activity in some neural systems, e.g. visual and auditory, lumbar motoneurons appear to be much less sensitive to modulations in chronic activity levels.

  10. Incorporating travel time reliability into the Highway Capacity Manual. [supporting datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-30

    The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) historically has been among the most important reference guides used by transportation professionals seeking a systematic basis for evaluating the capacity, level of service, and performance measures for elements of ...

  11. Capacity analysis of a bypass of roundabouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlačik, Ivan; Slabý, Petr

    2017-09-01

    The capacity of the roads network mainly depends on the capacity of its nodal points - intersections. A connecting branch or a bypass is a lane or lanes inserted between two adjacent branches of a roundabout, providing redirection of vehicles, that would otherwise burden a circular lane. A bypass effect to the capacity of roundabouts, but also other types of level intersections, is undeniable. A connecting branch increases the total capacity of an intersection that takes a part of vehicles performing a manoeuver of the first right turn completely out of an intersection area. Redirecting vehicles reduces delay times at intersections and reduces queues at the entrance to an intersection. Bypasses improve the quality of transport. Limiting for the capacity of bypasses is the point of disconnection from the entrance into the roundabout and the connection point into the exit from the roundabout. Central parts of the bypasses have minimal effects on the capacity. The length of a bypass has to match with the maximum length of a queue of waiting vehicles at a given intensity level. The article deals with analysis of the bypass capacity at the roundabouts.

  12. Limitations of empirical sediment transport formulas for shallow water and their consequences for swash zone modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wei; Pähtz, Thomas; He, Zhiguo; Cao, Zhixian

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric sediment concentrations computed by phase-resolving swash morphodynamic models are shown to exceed unity minus porosity (i.e. the maximal physically possible concentration value) by up to factor of $10^5$ when using standard expressions to compute the sediment transport rate. An ad hoc limit of sediment concentration is introduced as a means to evaluate consequences of exceeding physically realistic concentration by standard expressions. We find that implementation of this ad hoc limit strongly changes the quantitative and qualitative predictions of phase-resolving swash morphodynamic models, suggesting that existing swash predictions are unreliable. This is because standard expressions inappropriately consider or ignore the fact that the shallow swash water depth limits the storage capacity of transported sediment.

  13. Presenilin 2-Dependent Maintenance of Mitochondrial Oxidative Capacity and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Contino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and yet the mechanisms underlying the impairment of mitochondrial function in AD remain elusive. Recent evidence suggested a role for Presenilins (PS1 or PS2 in mitochondrial function. Mutations of PSs, the catalytic subunits of the γ-secretase complex, are responsible for the majority of inherited AD cases (FAD. PSs were shown to be present in mitochondria and particularly enriched in mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM, where PS2 is involved in the calcium shuttling between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. We investigated the precise contribution of PS1 and PS2 to the bioenergetics of the cell and to mitochondrial morphology in cell lines derived from wild type (PS+/+, PS1/2 double knock-out (PSdKO, PS2KO and PS1KO embryos. Our results showed a significant impairment in the respiratory capacity of PSdKO and PS2KO cells with reduction of basal oxygen consumption, oxygen utilization dedicated to ATP production and spare respiratory capacity. In line with these functional defects, we found a decrease in the expression of subunits responsible for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS associated with an altered morphology of the mitochondrial cristae. This OXPHOS disruption was accompanied by a reduction of the NAD+/NADH ratio. Still, neither ADP/ATP ratio nor mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ were affected, suggesting the existence of a compensatory mechanism for energetic balance. We observed indeed an increase in glycolytic flux in PSdKO and PS2KO cells. All these effects were truly dependent on PS2 since its stable re-expression in a PS2KO background led to a complete restoration of the parameters impaired in the absence of PS2. Our data clearly demonstrate here the crucial role of PS2 in mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics, pointing toward its peculiar role in the formation and integrity of the electron

  14. 75 FR 66046 - Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 284 Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines... capacity on intrastate natural gas pipelines providing interstate transportation and storage services under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and Hinshaw pipelines providing such services pursuant...

  15. Light dependence of carboxylation capacity for C3 photosynthesis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosynthesis at high light is often modelled by assuming limitation by the maximum capacity of Rubisco carboxylation at low carbon dioxide concentrations, by electron transport capacity at higher concentrations, and sometimes by triose-phosphate utilization rate at the highest concentrations. Pho...

  16. Quantum Black Holes as Holograms in AdS Braneworlds

    CERN Document Server

    Emparan, R; Kaloper, Nemanja; Emparan, Roberto; Fabbri, Alessandro; Kaloper, Nemanja

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new approach for using the AdS/CFT correspondence to study quantum black hole physics. The black holes on a brane in an AdS$_{D+1}$ braneworld that solve the classical bulk equations are interpreted as duals of {\\it quantum-corrected} $D$-dimensional black holes, rather than classical ones, of a conformal field theory coupled to gravity. We check this explicitly in D=3 and D=4. In D=3 we reinterpret the existing exact solutions on a flat membrane as states of the dual 2+1 CFT. We show that states with a sufficiently large mass really are 2+1 black holes where the quantum corrections dress the classical conical singularity with a horizon and censor it from the outside. On a negatively curved membrane, we reinterpret the classical bulk solutions as quantum-corrected BTZ black holes. In D=4 we argue that the bulk solution for the brane black hole should include a radiation component in order to describe a quantum-corrected black hole in the 3+1 dual. Hawking radiation of the conformal field is then ...

  17. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  18. Optimization of ATSC Mobile Handheld Service Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omneya Issa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile TV has become a reality offered on several mobile delivery systems. Among them is the Advanced Television System Committee (ATSC system for mobile and handheld digital television services, known as ATSC Mobile DTV or ATSC M/H, which has moved from standardization to implementation. As the North American broadcast industry is preparing to provide Mobile DTV service to consumers, this work discusses important technical parameters that affect the TV service quality and capacity. Since additional error correction mechanisms were added to overcome mobile transmission problems, the available payload for M/H services is limited. This creates a need to efficiently use the available M/H bandwidth. The paper aims to optimize the Mobile DTV service capacity while maintaining an acceptable perceived quality. It presents tradeoffs between several factors affecting service capacity and signal robustness, which is prominent for designing Mobile TV broadcasting scenarios.

  19. The future of globalisation. Changes in value adding networks in times of global climate change, rising energy cost and short traffic infrastructure capacities. A study; Die Zukunft der Globalisierung. Die Veraenderung von Wertschoepfungsnetzwerken in Zeiten des Klimawandels, steigender Energiekosten und knapper Verkehrsinfrastrukturkapazitaeten. Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretzke, Wolf-Ruediger [Barkawi Management Consultants GmbH und Co. KG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The authors examine the question of whether and to what extent globalization changes in the future. For this purpose, an expert survey is carried out. The results of this expert surveys are described in the contribution under consideration: (1) The vast majority of climate scientists says that limiting global warming to two degrees celsius only is possible if the developed industrial countries reduce their emissions by 80 % compared to the year 1990; (2) This inevitably requires interventions of the policy for sustainable management; (3) Despite the economic and financial crisis the policy shall not ease its ambitious targets in the medium term; (4) The threat of global warming is a global problem. The solution of this problem at political level requires a more advanced form of 'global governance'; (5) A significant increase in the petroleum price may affect the globally distributed industrial 'settlement structures' and the configuration of logistics networks. A possible adaptation may consist in multistage distribution systems with regional, customer-oriented stocks; (6) A stronger focus of companies to a low-polluting, sustainable business can be facilitated and supported by financial incentives; (7) It is not expected that professional buyers of companies do not sacrifice price advantages in low-wage countries; (8) Scale effects in the production by special factories result in a continuation of the current 'production footprints' even if this model significantly increases the transport intensity of the economy due to the longer distance between the place of production and the place of consumption; (9) In the logistics presumable there exists any other single measure to eliminate many pollutants such as the replacement of air cargo by sea freight; (10) Economic-historically, globalization has developed very quickly. The experts disagree on whether globalization slows down or whether the globalization changes at a constant speed.

  20. Building capacity in Benin

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sigp1. Building capacity in. Benin. Training of technical staff of municipalities in the Okpara Basin of Benin in the use of GIS tools for water management, hydrological modeling and soil conservation. Introduction. A training workshop was ...

  1. Malicious node detection in ad-hoc wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Richard L.; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2003-07-01

    Advances in wireless communications and the proliferation of mobile computing devices has led to the rise of a new type of computer network: the ad-hoc wireless network. Ad-hoc networks are characterized by a lack of fixed infrastructure, which give ad-hoc networks a great deal of flexibility, but also increases the risk of security problems. In wired networks, key pieces of network infrastructure are secured to prevent unauthorized physical access and tampering. Network administrators ensure that everything is properly configured and are on-hand to fix problems and deal with intrusions. In contrast, the nodes in an ad-hoc network are responsible for routing and forwarding data in the network, and there are no network administrators to handle potential problems. This makes an ad-hoc network more vulnerable to a misconfigured, faulty, or compromised node. We propose a means for a node in an ad-hoc network to detect and handle these malicious nodes by comparing data available to the routing protocol, such as cached routes in Dynamic Source Routing, ICMP messages, and transport layer information, such as TCP timeouts. This data can then be used along with network probes to isolate the malicious node.

  2. Entanglement Entropy of AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Melis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in understanding the entanglement entropy of gravitational configurations for anti-de Sitter gravity in two and three spacetime dimensions using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We derive simple expressions for the entanglement entropy of two- and three-dimensional black holes. In both cases, the leading term of the entanglement entropy in the large black hole mass expansion reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, whereas the subleading term behaves logarithmically. In particular, for the BTZ black hole the leading term of the entanglement entropy can be obtained from the large temperature expansion of the partition function of a broad class of 2D CFTs on the torus.

  3. Sputnik: ad hoc distributed computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Gunnar; Lausser, Ludwig; Schmid, Florian; Kraus, Johann M; Kestler, Hans A

    2015-04-15

    In bioinformatic applications, computationally demanding algorithms are often parallelized to speed up computation. Nevertheless, setting up computational environments for distributed computation is often tedious. Aim of this project were the lightweight ad hoc set up and fault-tolerant computation requiring only a Java runtime, no administrator rights, while utilizing all CPU cores most effectively. The Sputnik framework provides ad hoc distributed computation on the Java Virtual Machine which uses all supplied CPU cores fully. It provides a graphical user interface for deployment setup and a web user interface displaying the current status of current computation jobs. Neither a permanent setup nor administrator privileges are required. We demonstrate the utility of our approach on feature selection of microarray data. The Sputnik framework is available on Github http://github.com/sysbio-bioinf/sputnik under the Eclipse Public License. hkestler@fli-leibniz.de or hans.kestler@uni-ulm.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  5. Environmental Baseline File: National Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-22

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics address include: shipmnents of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions.

  6. 77 FR 12105 - 56th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 186, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ...--Broadcast (ADS-B) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 186, Automatic Dependent Surveillance--Broadcast (ADS-B... 186, Automatic Dependent Surveillance--Broadcast (ADS-B) DATES: The meeting will be held March 20...

  7. Antismoking Ads at the Point of Sale: The Influence of Ad Type and Context on Ad Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice; Nonnemaker, James; Guillory, Jamie; Shafer, Paul; Parvanta, Sarah; Holloway, John; Farrelly, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Efforts are underway to educate consumers about the dangers of smoking at the point of sale (POS). Research is limited about the efficacy of POS antismoking ads to guide campaign development. This study experimentally tests whether the type of antismoking ad and the context in which ads are viewed influence people's reactions to the ads. A national convenience sample of 7,812 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 39 conditions. Participants viewed one of the four types of antismoking ads (negative health consequences-graphic, negative social consequences-intended emotive, benefits of quitting-informational, benefits of quitting-graphic) in one of the three contexts (alone, next to a cigarette ad, POS tobacco display). We assessed participants' reactions to the ads, including perceived effectiveness, negative emotion, affective dissonance, and motivational reaction. Graphic ads elicited more negative emotion and affective dissonance than benefits of quitting ads. Graphic ads elicited higher perceived effectiveness and more affective dissonance than intended emotive ads. Antismoking ads fared best when viewed alone, and graphic ads were least influenced by the context in which they were viewed. These results suggest that in developing POS campaigns, it is important to consider the competitive pro-tobacco context in which antismoking ads will be viewed.

  8. Capacity Expansion and Reliability Evaluation on the Networks Flows with Continuous Stochastic Functional Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hamzezadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many systems such as computer network, fuel distribution, and transportation system, it is necessary to change the capacity of some arcs in order to increase maximum flow value from source s to sink t, while the capacity change incurs minimum cost. In real-time networks, some factors cause loss of arc’s flow. For example, in some flow distribution systems, evaporation, erosion or sediment in pipes waste the flow. Here we define a real capacity, or the so-called functional capacity, which is the operational capacity of an arc. In other words, the functional capacity of an arc equals the possible maximum flow that may pass through the arc. Increasing the functional arcs capacities incurs some cost. There is a certain resource available to cover the costs. First, we construct a mathematical model to minimize the total cost of expanding the functional capacities to the required levels. Then, we consider the loss of flow on each arc as a stochastic variable and compute the system reliability.

  9. Cholesterol acceptor capacity is preserved by different mechanisms in preterm and term fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecks, Ulrich; Mohaupt, Markus G; Hütten, Matthias C; Maass, Nicolai; Rath, Werner; Escher, Geneviève

    2014-02-01

    Fetal serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations differ between preterm and term born neonates. An imbalance of the flow of cholesterol from the sites of synthesis or efflux from cells of peripheral organs to the liver, the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), is linked to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preterm delivery is a risk factor for the development of CVD. Thus, we hypothesized that RCT is affected by a diminished cholesterol acceptor capacity in preterm as compared to term fetuses. Cholesterol efflux assays were performed in RAW264.7, HepG2, and HUVEC cell lines. In the presence and absence of ABC transporter overexpression by TO-901317, umbilical cord sera of preterm and term born neonates (n = 28 in both groups) were added. Lipid components including high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein E were measured and related to fractional cholesterol efflux values. We found overall, fractional cholesterol efflux to remain constant between the study groups, and over gestational ages at delivery, respectively. However, correlation analysis revealed cholesterol efflux values to be predominantly related to HDL concentration at term, while in preterm neonates, cholesterol efflux was mainly associated with LDL In conclusion cholesterol acceptor capacity during fetal development is kept in a steady state with different mechanisms and lipid fractions involved at distinct stages during the second half of fetal development. However, RCT mechanisms in preterm neonates seem not to be involved in the development of CVD later in life suggesting rather changes in the lipoprotein pattern causative.

  10. Enterprise’s performance evaluation on the basis of value added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Pacurari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Important indicator, used in performance analysis, value added expresses enterprise’s contribution to national gross domestic product. The value added through economic activity developed by enterprise should assure the remuneration of all its life  participants: employees, investors, state and enterprise itself. Information referring to enterprise capacity of generatingvalue added should be based on decisions concerning future enterprise decisions. The present article presents, by means of a case study, value added calculation (by subtractive and additivemethod and their analysis.

  11. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Real-world industries are composed from heterogeneous firms and substantial intra-industry reallocations take place, i.e. high productivity firms squeeze out low productivity firms. Previous tax-tool comparisons have not included these central forces of industry structure. This paper examines...... a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...... taxes distort relative prices, which in turn reduces average industry productivity through reallocations (the survival and increased market share of lower productivity firms). Importantly, numerical solutions of the model reveal that the relative welfare loss from using the unit tax increases...

  12. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  13. Adding timing to the VELO

    CERN Document Server

    Mitreska, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high precision measurements of matter-antimatter asymmetries and searches for rare and forbidden decays, with the aim of discovering new and unexpected particles and forces. In 2030 the LHC beam intensity will increase by a factor of 50 compared to current operations. This means increased samples of the particles we need to study, but it also presents experimental challenges. In particular, with current technology it becomes impossible to differentiate the many (>50) separate proton-proton collisions which occur for each bunch crossing.\\\\ In this project a Monte Carlo simulation was developed to model the operation of a silicon pixel vertex detector surrounding the collision region at LHCb, under the conditions expected after 2030, after the second upgrade of the Vertex Locator(VELO).The main goal was studying the effect of adding '4D' detectors which save high-precision timing information, in addition to the usual three spatial coordinates, as charged particles pas...

  14. Topological AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Richmond, Paul; Sparks, James

    2017-12-01

    We define a holographic dual to the Donaldson-Witten topological twist of N=2 gauge theories on a Riemannian four-manifold. This is described by a class of asymptotically locally hyperbolic solutions to N=4 gauged supergravity in five dimensions, with the four-manifold as conformal boundary. Under AdS/CFT, minus the logarithm of the partition function of the gauge theory is identified with the holographically renormalized supergravity action. We show that the latter is independent of the metric on the boundary four-manifold, as required for a topological theory. Supersymmetric solutions in the bulk satisfy first order differential equations for a twisted Sp(1) structure, which extends the quaternionic Kähler structure that exists on any Riemannian four-manifold boundary. We comment on applications and extensions, including generalizations to other topological twists.

  15. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  16. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  17. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  18. Adding Four- Dimensional Data Assimilation (aka grid ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adding four-dimensional data assimilation (a.k.a. grid nudging) to MPAS.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is investigating the use of MPAS as the meteorological driver for its next-generation air quality model. To function as such, MPAS needs to operate in a diagnostic mode in much the same manner as the current meteorological driver, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The WRF operates in diagnostic mode using Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation, also known as "grid nudging". MPAS version 4.0 has been modified with the addition of an FDDA routine to the standard physics drivers to nudge the state variables for wind, temperature and water vapor towards MPAS initialization fields defined at 6-hour intervals from GFS-derived data. The results to be shown demonstrate the ability to constrain MPAS simulations to known historical conditions and thus provide the U.S. EPA with a practical meteorological driver for global-scale air quality simulations. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use bo

  19. Financial capacity in dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Laks, Jerson

    2017-07-01

    Financial capacity (FC) refers to a set of cognitively mediated abilities related to one's competency to manage propriety and income. Identifying intact from impaired FC in older persons with dementia is a growing concern in geriatric practice, but the best methods to assess this function still need to be determined. This study aims to review data on FC in dementia and on instruments used to assess this domain of capacity. Database search was performed in Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, LILACS and PsycINFO. Studies that objectively assessed FC in dementia of any etiology were included. Of a total of 125 articles, 10 were included. Mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD) was associated with impaired complex FC abilities, namely checkbook management, bank statement management and financial judgment, but simple FC skills were preserved. Moderate AD was associated with impairment in all domains of FC. The Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI) was applied in most of the selected studies and correlated with neuropsychological and neuroimaging variables. Early dementia is associated with partially preserved FC. More validation studies using objective and evidence-based FC assessment tools, such as the FCI, are still needed.

  20. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  1. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  2. Testamentary capacity and delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Peisah, Carmelle; Shulman, Kenneth; Finkel, Sanford

    2010-09-01

    With the aging of the population there will be a substantial transfer of wealth in the next 25 years. The presence of delirium can complicate the evaluation of an older person's testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence but has not been well examined in the existing literature. A subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to review how to assess prospectively and retrospectively testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence in patients with delirium. The subcommittee identified questions that should be asked in cases where someone changes their will or estate plan towards the end of their life in the presence of delirium. These questions include: was there consistency in the patient's wishes over time? Were these wishes expressed during a "lucid interval" when the person was less confused? Were the patient's wishes clearly expressed in response to open-ended questions? Is there clear documentation of the patient's mental status at the time of the discussion? This review with some case examples provides guidance on how to consider the question of testamentary capacity or susceptibility to undue influence in someone undergoing an episode of delirium.

  3. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  4. Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Overview: ReADS can analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and problem or maintenance records. ReADS uses text clustering algorithms to group loosely related...

  5. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The existing U.S. hub-and-spoke air transportation system is reaching saturation. Major aspects of the current system, such as capacity, safety, mobility, customer satisfaction, security, communications, and ecological effects, require improvements. The changing dynamics - increased presence of general aviation, unmanned autonomous vehicles, military aircraft in civil airspace as part of homeland defense - contributes to growing complexity of airspace. The system has proven remarkably resistant to change. NASA Langley Research Center and the National Institute of Aerospace conducted a workshop on Transportation Network Topologies on 9-10 December 2003 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The workshop aimed to examine the feasibility of traditional methods for complex system analysis and design as well as potential novel alternatives in application to transportation systems, identify state-of-the-art models and methods, conduct gap analysis, and thus to lay a foundation for establishing a focused research program in complex systems applied to air transportation.

  6. Effective ads: new technology answers old questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Couwenberg (Linda)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractMarketing experts commonly refer to ads as either “emotional” or “rational” in their appeal to consumers. This dichotomy of “thinking versus feeling” is most evident when it comes to discussions around what makes an ad effective. Some studies suggest that an ad that pulls on the

  7. Automated Experiments on Ad Privacy Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datta Amit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To partly address people’s concerns over web tracking, Google has created the Ad Settings webpage to provide information about and some choice over the profiles Google creates on users. We present AdFisher, an automated tool that explores how user behaviors, Google’s ads, and Ad Settings interact. AdFisher can run browser-based experiments and analyze data using machine learning and significance tests. Our tool uses a rigorous experimental design and statistical analysis to ensure the statistical soundness of our results. We use AdFisher to find that the Ad Settings was opaque about some features of a user’s profile, that it does provide some choice on ads, and that these choices can lead to seemingly discriminatory ads. In particular, we found that visiting webpages associated with substance abuse changed the ads shown but not the settings page. We also found that setting the gender to female resulted in getting fewer instances of an ad related to high paying jobs than setting it to male. We cannot determine who caused these findings due to our limited visibility into the ad ecosystem, which includes Google, advertisers, websites, and users. Nevertheless, these results can form the starting point for deeper investigations by either the companies themselves or by regulatory bodies.

  8. Contextual advertising using Google AdWords and Google AdSense

    OpenAIRE

    Mihok, Radovan

    2008-01-01

    The thesis introduces contextual advertising on internet using Google AdWords. The paper describes individual steps of an ad campaign (product choosing, ad types, keywords), its management and success evaluation (calculation of ROI and modified ROI).

  9. Value Added Products from Renewable Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Paul [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2014-07-31

    Cellulosic ethanol is an emerging biofuel that will make strong contributions to American domestic energy needs. In the US midwest the standard method for pretreatment of biomass uses hot acid to deconstruct lignocellulose. While other methods work, they are not in common use. Therefore it is necessary to work within this context to achieve process improvements and reductions in biofuel cost. Technology underlying this process could supplement and even replace commodity enzymes with engineered microbes to convert biomass-derived lignocellulose feedstocks into biofuels and valueadded chemicals. The approach that was used here was based on consolidated bioprocessing. Thermoacidophilic microbes belonging to the Domain Archaea were evaluated and modfied to promote deconvolution and saccharification of lignocellulose. Biomass pretreatment (hot acid) was combined with fermentation using an extremely thermoacidophilic microbial platform. The identity and fate of released sugars was controlled using metabolic blocks combined with added biochemical traits where needed. LC/MS analysis supported through the newly established Nebraska Bioenergy Facility provided general support for bioenergy researchers at the University of Nebraska. The primary project strategy was to use microbes that naturally flourish in hot acid (thermoacidophiles) with conventional biomass pretreatment that uses hot acid. The specific objectives were: to screen thermoacidophilic taxa for the ability to deconvolute lignocellulose and depolymerize associated carbohydrates; evaluate and respond to formation of “inhibitors” that arose during incubation of lignocellulose under heated acidic conditions; identify and engineer “sugar flux channeling and catabolic blocks” that redirect metabolic pathways to maximize sugar concentrations; expand the hydrolytic capacity of extremely thermoacidophilic microbes through the addition of deconvolution traits; and establish the Nebraska Bioenergy Facility (NBF

  10. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-03-01

    Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  11. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  12. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel...

  13. Amendments to the Law on Value Added Tax in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeana Beshi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze the objectives and effects of amendments in the Law on Value Added Tax (VAT as part of the new fiscal package in Kosovo. This paper is based on a quantitative analysis. Some of the methods used in this paperwork are: historical- , descriptive-, and comparative method. It relies on facts and researches conducted by international organizations, based on productive forces and on the development of economic capacities in general, also a comparative overview of the fiscal policies applied in different states. This paper presents also the challenges of Kosovo, towards EU, by harmonizing tax legislation, fiscal policy and combating tax evasion.

  14. Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juice with Added Chokeberry Powder (Aronia melanocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šic Žlabur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the influence of ultrasound assisted extraction on the bioactive compounds content, nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of apple juice with added chokeberry powder. The juice samples with added chokeberry powder had higher antioxidant capacity, irrespective of the extraction technique used. Apple juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound had significantly higher content of all analyzed bioactive compounds. The application of high intensity ultrasound significantly reduced the extraction time of the plant material. A positive correlation between vitamin C content, total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity was determined in juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound.

  15. Thermodynamic Volume in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Kiu; Ahn, Byoungjoon

    2018-01-01

    In this note, we study on extended thermodynamics of AdS black holes by varying cosmological constant. We found and discussed pressure and volume of both bulk and boundary physics through AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular, we derive the relation between thermodynamic volume and a chemical potential for M2 brane dual to four dimensional AdS space. In addition, we show that thermodynamic volume of hyperbolic black hole is related to `entanglement pressure' coming from a generalized first law of entanglement entropy.

  16. Adaptive Capacity Management in Bluetooth Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.

    With the Internet and mobile wireless development, accelerated by high-speed and low cost VLSI device evolution, short range wireless communications have become more and more popular, especially Bluetooth. Bluetooth is a new short range radio technology that promises to be very convenient, low...... of Bluetooth devices is increasing, a larger-scale ad hoc network, scatternet, is formed, as well as the booming of Internet has demanded for large bandwidth and low delay mobile access. This dissertation is to address the capacity management issues in Bluetooth networks. The main goals of the network capacity...... resource constraints in Bluetooth networks and adapt to mobility and frequent changes of the network topology, as well as to bursty traffic of Internet data applications, which are supposedly very common in Bluetooth. Some performance characteristics of these approaches are illustrated by analysis as well...

  17. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary ...... processes, with emphasis on exploitative learning. Before concluding, the paper addresses implications for theory and practice and limitations of this study....

  18. Capacity building in Nepal*

    OpenAIRE

    Dawe, Russell; Stobbe, Karl; Pokharel, Yagya Raj; Shrestha, Shrijana

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare providers from high-income countries often want to help underserved populations, but providing clinical care is not always a sustainable approach. Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS), in Nepal, has taken an innovative approach to capacity building in healthcare. PAHS has partnered with rural family doctors from Canada to provide clinical bedside teaching to medical students in PAHS’s rural program, thereby making a sustainable contribution to healthcare in Nepal.

  19. Capacity building in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Eric Dawe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare providers from high-income countries often want to help underserved populations, but providing clinical care is not always a sustainable approach. Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS, in Nepal, has taken an innovative approach to capacity building in healthcare. PAHS has partnered with rural family doctors from Canada to provide clinical bedside teaching to medical students in PAHS’s rural program, thereby making a sustainable contribution to healthcare in Nepal.

  20. Weather and road capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces s...

  1. CSTI High Capacity Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  2. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  3. Ad-hoc networking towards seamless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilovska, Liljana

    2006-01-01

    Ad-Hoc Networking Towards Seamless Communications is dedicated to an area that attracts growing interest in academia and industry and concentrates on wireless ad hoc networking paradigm. The persistent efforts to acquire the ability to establish dynamic wireless connections from anywhere to anyone with any device without prerequisite imbedded infrastructure move the communications boundaries towards ad-hoc networks. Recently, ad hoc networking has attracted growing interest due to advances in wireless communications, and developed framework for running IP based protocols. The expected degree of penetration of these networks will depend on the successful resolution of the key features. Ad-hoc networks pose many complex and open problems for researchers. Ad-Hoc Networking Towards Seamless Communications reveals the state-of-the-art in wireless ad-hoc networking and discusses some of the key research topics that are expected to promote and accelerate the commercial applications of these networks (e.g., MAC, rout...

  4. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  5. Impacts of technology on the capacity needs of the US national airspace system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausrotas, Raymond A.; Simpson, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the U.S. air transportation system is undertaken, focusing on airspace and airport capacity. Causes of delay and congestion are investigated. Aircraft noise is identified as the fundamental hindrance to capacity improvement. Research areas for NASA are suggested to improve capacity through technology.

  6. Transport of Divalent Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Geijn, Siebe C.; Petit, Charles M.

    1979-01-01

    The cation exchange capacity of the intact xylem vessels in cut shoots of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus spec.) has been determined. The cation exchange capacity is independent of the cation concentration in the transpiration stream, and is equal for Ca and Co. The high value of the cation exchange capacity (0.6 to 1 × 10−7 equivalents per square centimeter vessel wall surface) leads to the hypothesis that the porous structure of the vessel wall, and not only the inner vessel wall surface, acts as a cation exchanger. Differences between anion ([32P]phosphate, [45Ca]EDTA2−, [115Cdm]-EDTA2−), and cation ([45Ca]2+, [115Cdm]2+) movement are explained in terms of transport with the transpiration flux or by exchange reactions. The competition between exchange sites and natural or synthetic ligands for the divalent cations is discussed. Images PMID:16661112

  7. III Adli Bilimler Kongresi - Posterler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available POSTER ÖZETLERİ ADLİ ÇOCUK OTOPSİLERİ Y.Mustafa KARAGÖZ*, Mehmet ATILGAN*, Sema (Demirçin KARAGÖZ**, Refik AKMAN*. ÖZET Çocukluk döneminde meydana gelen ölümlerin aydınlatılması, sağlık hizmetlerinin yönlendirilmesinde olduğu kadar, yasal açıdan da farklı yaklaşımları gerektirdiğinden büyük önem taşımaktadır. Bu çalışmada çocuk otopsilerine ait verilerden yararlanılarak özellikle ölüm orijinleri ve yöresel farklılıklar açısından çocuk ölümlerinin irdelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. 1987-1996 yılları arasındaki 10 yıllık süre içinde Adli Tıp Kurumu Antalya Şube Müdürlüğü’nde otopsisi yapılan 940 olgudan 18 yaş ve altındaki 172 olgu çalışma kapsamına alınarak yaş grupları, cinsiyet, ölüm nedenleri ve orijinler açısından değerlendirilmiştir. Olguların % 58.1’i erkek, % 4l.9’u kadındır. Ölüm orijinleri arasında ilk sırada kazalar (%34.3 bulunmakta, ardından intiharlar (% 19.2 gelmektedir. Kazalarda % 40.6, intiharlarda % 72.8 olmak üzere her iki gruptaki ölüm nedenleri arasında da pestisit intoksikasyonları ilk sıradadır. Doğal ölümler % 16.9 oranında olup solunum sistemi hastalıkları ön plandadır. 0-4, 5-9, ve 10-14 yaş gruplarında kazalar, 15-18 yaş grubunda ise % 36.7 lik bir oranla intihar orijinli ölümler ilk sırada yer almıştır. GÖĞÜS VE BATINA NAFİZ KESİCİ DELİCİ ALET YARALANMALARINA BAĞLI ÖLÜMLERİN RETROSPEKTİF OLARAK DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ Süleyman GÖREN, Yaşar TIRAŞÇI. ÖZET Kesici delici aletler günümüzde çok yaygın olarak, çeşitli tip ve nitelikte evlerde ve birçok iş yerinde meslek ve sanat icrası için kullanılmaktadır. Bu aletlerin tip ve nitelikleri salt saldırı ve savunma silahı olarak kullanılan aletleri aratmayacak özelliktedir. Bu nedenle bölgedeki kesici delici alet yaralanması ile ölümler ve demografik özellikleri araştırılmaya değer görülmüştür. 1989 - 1996 y

  8. 33 CFR 183.41 - Persons capacity: Outboard boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motors for propulsion must not exceed the lesser of: (1) The maximum weight capacity determined under... the gunwale, and distributed equally forward and aft of that center in a plane parallel to the... propulsion must not exceed the value obtained by adding 32 pounds to the lesser of the values determined in...

  9. Joule-Thomson Expansion of Charged AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ökcü, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in $T-P$ plane and determine the cooling-heating regions.

  10. Joule-Thomson expansion of the charged AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oekcue, Oezguer; Aydiner, Ekrem [Istanbul University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in the T-P plane and determine the cooling-heating regions. (orig.)

  11. Static Einstein-Maxwell Black Holes with No Spatial Isometries in AdS Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen

    2016-11-25

    We explicitly construct static black hole solutions to the fully nonlinear, D=4, Einstein-Maxwell-anti-de Sitter (AdS) equations that have no continuous spatial symmetries. These black holes have a smooth, topologically spherical horizon (section), but without isometries, and approach, asymptotically, global AdS spacetime. They are interpreted as bound states of a horizon with the Einstein-Maxwell-AdS solitons recently discovered, for appropriate boundary data. In sharp contrast to the uniqueness results for a Minkowski electrovacuum, the existence of these black holes shows that single, equilibrium, black hole solutions in an AdS electrovacuum admit an arbitrary multipole structure.

  12. Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed.

  13. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  14. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats.

  15. Early hominin auditory capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  16. Water transport in brain:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, Nanna; Hamann, Steffan; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cotransporters transport water in addition to their normal substrates, although the precise mechanism is debated; both active and passive modes of transport have been suggested. The magnitude of the water flux mediated by cotransporters may well be significant: both...... the number of cotransporters per cell and the unit water permeability are high. For example, the Na(+)-glutamate cotransporter (EAAT1) has a unit water permeability one tenth of that of aquaporin (AQP) 1. Cotransporters are widely distributed in the brain and participate in several vital functions: inorganic......(+)-lactate cotransporters. We have previously determined water transport capacities for these cotransporters in model systems (Xenopus oocytes, cell cultures, and in vitro preparations), and will discuss their role in water homeostasis of the astroglial cell under both normo- and pathophysiologal situations. Astroglia...

  17. Studies on urban vehicular ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongzi

    2013-01-01

    With the advancement of wireless technology, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a promising approach to realizing 'smart cities' and addressing many important transportation problems such as road safety, efficiency, and convenience.This brief provides an introduction to the large trace data set collected from thousands of taxis and buses in Shanghai, the largest metropolis in China. It also presents the challenges, design issues, performance modeling and evaluation of a wide spectrum of VANET research topics, ranging from realistic vehicular mobility models and opportunistic ro

  18. Ad Hoc Selection of Voice over Internet Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, Mitchell G. (Inventor); Bullock, John T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a communication system technique involving ad hoc selection of at least two audio streams is provided. Each of the at least two audio streams is a packetized version of an audio source. A data connection exists between a server and a client where a transport protocol actively propagates the at least two audio streams from the server to the client. Furthermore, software instructions executable on the client indicate a presence of the at least two audio streams, allow selection of at least one of the at least two audio streams, and direct the selected at least one of the at least two audio streams for audio playback.

  19. Workshop on moisture buffer capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...

  20. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  1. Platform for capacity reservation in IP networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast development of multimedia devices and services causes the need for increase of the transport capacity of packet networks. OSPF-TE uses both the information about network topology and the link utilization when finding the routing path. Accordingly, it might find path even in the cases when the shortest path routing would cause overloaded link and dropped packets. In this paper we develop the platform for capacity reservation in IP networks. We implement OSPF-TE protocol as an extension of the existing OSPF. In addition, the basic functionalities of the reservation protocol and the user interface are implemented. We present the simulation environment for the verification of our implementation and for the analysis of various routing algorithms based on the information conveyed by OSPF-TE.

  2. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....../or glial cells: the solute carrier (SLC)1 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of glutamate, and the SLC6 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of dopamine, 5-HT, norepinephrine, glycine and GABA....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  3. Some Aspects of the Sediment Transport Capacities of Ogbese and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When tested, the predicted models for the two rivers performed well when compared with the established models (R2 = 0.998, 0.929). It is concluded that models which will be useful for scientific and engineering applications on the two rivers have been developed. (Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics: 2003 2 (1): ...

  4. Rough-Cut Capacity Planning in Multimodal Freight Transportation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    robustness as competing objectives. He applied a multicriteria decision analysis technique using epsilon constraints to scalarize the objective function...closing the gaps identified above. Addressing these questions requires the development of a new methodology and new modeling and analysis approaches to...support the analysis rather than contribute original work to any field of research. 9 Figure 2.1: Overview of Reviewed Literature Sources 10 Figure 2.2

  5. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are

  6. Research projects and capacity building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-10-04

    Oct 4, 2004 ... and capacity to adapt to change (Senge, 1990; Barth and Bartenstein,. 1998; Davenport et al., 1998; Senge et al., ... ing catchment management through enhanced stakeholder participa- tion. The special emphasis on capacity .... Change and resistance to change. Building capacity involves change and ...

  7. Study Added of Waste Chicken Egg Shell in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng Wong Irwan Lie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the foundation of structure or construction that will receive the load transfer through to foundation. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small and cannot withstand the load transfer can result in the failure of construction. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small ground it is necessary to stabilize or improve the soil so that an increase in the carrying capacity of the land so that it can be used for construction. One material is commonly used for soil stabilization with the addition of lime. Waste chicken egg shell is waste that is still rarely used, the results of research [1], states that composition egg shell broadly consists of water (1,6% and dry material (98,4%. The total dry ingredients are there, in shell eggs contained mineral elements (95,1% and protein (3,3%. Based on the existing mineral composition, then the egg shells are composed of crystalline CaCO3 (98,43%, MgCO3 (0,84% and Ca3(PO42 (0,75%. This research was done by adding powdered chicken egg shell waste in clay with a composition of 5%, 7,5%, 10% and 14% with physical properties test and soil compaction test.

  8. Scrutiny Heightens for "Value Added" Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    As value-added research designs gain in popularity and undergo increasing scrutiny, experts are beginning to wave cautionary flags about how best to make use of them in education. Value-added techniques for measuring student achievement appeal to administrators and policymakers at all levels of education because they quantify the gains that…

  9. Queueing Models for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Roland

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents models for the performance analysis of a recent communication paradigm: \\emph{mobile ad hoc networking}. The objective of mobile ad hoc networking is to provide wireless connectivity between stations in a highly dynamic environment. These dynamics are driven by the mobility of

  10. Validity of Maxwell equal area law for black holes conformally coupled to scalar fields in $$\\text {AdS}_5$$ AdS 5 spacetime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Zhen-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the $$P{-}V$$ P - V criticality and the Maxwell equal area law for a five-dimensional spherically symmetric AdS black hole with a scalar hair in the absence of and in the presence of a Maxwell field, respectively...

  11. Is there an added value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in sarcoidosis patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, R.G.; Lenssen, A.F.; de Vries, G.J.; Baughman, R.P.; van der Grinten, C.P.; Verschakelen, J.A.; de Vries, J.; Drent, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) with blood gas analysis may be helpful when there is a discrepancy between clinical findings and physiologic tests at rest. The aim of this study was to examine the added value of CPET compared to the measurement of the diffusing capacity of the

  12. Performance analysis of differentiated resource-sharing in a wireless ad-hoc network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijers, F.; van den Berg, H.; Mandjes, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we model and analyze a relay node in a wireless ad-hoc network; the capacity available at this node is used to both transmit traffic from the source nodes (towards the relay node), and to serve traffic at the relay node (so that it can be forwarded to successor nodes). Clearly, a

  13. Comparison of lymphocyte DNA damage levels and total antioxidant capacity in Korean and American diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Hyun A; Kang, Myung Hee

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to measure the in vitro antioxidant capacity of Korean diet (KD) with American diet (AD) as a control group and to examine the ex vivo DNA damage reduction effect on human lymphocytes. The KD applied in this study is the standard one-week meals for Koreans (2,000 kcal/day) suggested by 2010 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. The AD, which is the control group, is a one-week menu (2,000 kcal/day) that consists of foods that Americans would commonly take in according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The antioxidant capacity of each menu was measured by means of the total phenolic assay and 3 in vitro antioxidant activity assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACROO·)), while the extent of ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage was measured by means of the comet assay. When measured by means of TEAC assay, the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the KD of the day was higher than that of the AD (P antioxidant capacity (P TEAC) of the KD menu were significantly higher than those of the AD menu. Likewise, the ex vivo DNA damage reduction rate of the Korean seven-day menu was significantly higher than that of the American menu (P antioxidant capacity and DNA damage protective effect of KD, which consists generally of various plant foods, are higher than those of typical AD.

  14. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Mazhari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  15. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhari, N.S., E-mail: najmemazhari86@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Bahamonde, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.beltran.14@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia - Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Myrzakulov, Ratbay, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)

    2017-03-10

    The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  16. Thermodynamic geometry and phase transitions of AdS braneworld black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj, E-mail: cpankaj@iitk.ac.in; Sengupta, Gautam, E-mail: sengupta@iitk.ac.in

    2017-02-10

    The thermodynamics and phase transitions of charged RN–AdS and rotating Kerr–AdS black holes in a generalized Randall–Sundrum braneworld are investigated in the framework of thermodynamic geometry. A detailed analysis of the thermodynamics, stability and phase structures in the canonical and the grand canonical ensembles for these AdS braneworld black holes are described. The thermodynamic curvatures for both these AdS braneworld black holes are computed and studied as a function of the thermodynamic variables. Through this analysis we illustrate an interesting dependence of the phase structures on the braneworld parameter for these black holes.

  17. Google Advertising Tools Cashing in with AdSense and AdWords

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Harold

    2010-01-01

    With this book, you'll learn how to take full advantage of Google AdWords and AdSense, the sophisticated online advertising tools used by thousands of large and small businesses. This new edition provides a substantially updated guide to advertising on the Web, including how it works in general, and how Google's advertising programs in particular help you make money. You'll find everything you need to work with AdWords, which lets you generate text ads to accompany specific search term results, and AdSense, which automatically delivers precisely targeted text and image ads to your website.

  18. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freivogel, Ben; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /LBL, Berkeley; Hubeny, Veronika E.; /LBL, Berkeley /Durham U., Dept. of Math.; Maloney, Alexander; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Myers, Rob; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys. /Waterloo U.; Rangamani, Mukund; /LBL, Berkeley /Durham U., Dept. of Math.; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  19. [Tort Liability and School Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Allyn J.

    School districts, school employees, bus companies contracted by districts, and bus company employees could be involved in court litigation over student injury and student civil rights related to school bus transportation. Civil rights insurance should be added to general liability insurance and motor vehicle liability insurance. Students must be…

  20. Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

  1. 77 FR 58775 - Second Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Longline Catcher Processor Subsector of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... the economic efficiency of harvesting, and facilitate the conservation and management of fishery.... 1861a(b)- (e)) was added to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson... (Title XI), adding new sections 1111 and 1112 to finance capacity reduction costs. The Title XI...

  2. Collapse and Nonlinear Instability of AdS Space with Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choptuik, Matthew W.; Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.; Way, Benson

    2017-11-01

    We present a numerical study of rotational dynamics in AdS5 with equal angular momenta in the presence of a complex doublet scalar field. We determine that the endpoint of gravitational collapse is a Myers-Perry black hole for high energies and a hairy black hole for low energies. We investigate the time scale for collapse at low energies E , keeping the angular momenta J ∝E in anti-de Sitter (AdS) length units. We find that the inclusion of angular momenta delays the collapse time, but retains a t ˜1 /E scaling. We perturb and evolve rotating boson stars, and find that boson stars near AdS space appear stable, but those sufficiently far from AdS space are unstable. We find that the dynamics of the boson star instability depend on the perturbation, resulting either in collapse to a Myers-Perry black hole, or development towards a stable oscillating solution.

  3. Quantum corrections to short folded superstring in AdS × S × M

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beccaria, M.; Macorini, G.

    2013-01-01

    We consider integrable superstring theory on AdS × S × M where M = T or M = S × S with generic ratio of the radii of the two 3-spheres. We compute the one-loop energy of a short folded string spinning in AdS and rotating in S. The computation is performed by world-sheet small spin perturbation...... in the Bethe Ansatz. Remarkably, this contribution E turns out to be independent on the radii ratio. In the M = T limit, we discuss how E relates to a recent proposal for the dressing phase tested in the su(2) sector. We point out some difficulties suggesting that quantization of the AdS classical finite......-gap equations could be subtler than the easier AdS × S case....

  4. Impaired cognition in depression and Alzheimer (AD: a gradient from depression to depression in AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narahyana Bom de Araujo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess cognition in major depressed (MD, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and depression in AD elderly. Method Subjects were evaluated by Mini Mental, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Rey Complex Figure, Digit Span, Similarities, Trail Making A/B, Verbal Fluency and Stroop. One-way ANOVA and multivariate models were used to compare the performance of each group on neuropsychological tests. Results We evaluated 212 subjects. Compared to MD, attention, working memory, processing speed and recall showed significantly better in controls. Controls showed significantly higher performance in all cognitive measures, except in attention compared to AD. Verbal fluency, memory, processing speed and abstract reasoning in MD was significantly higher compared to AD. AD was significantly better in general cognitive state than depression in AD. All other cognitive domains were similar. Conclusion A decreasing gradient in cognition appeared from the control to depression in AD, with MD and AD in an intermediate position.

  5. Orbiting strings in AdS black holes and N=4 SYM at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, Adi; Petkou, Anastasios C

    2002-01-01

    Following Gubser, Klebanov and Polyakov [hep-th/0204051], we study strings in AdS black hole backgrounds. With respect to the pure AdS case, rotating strings are replaced by orbiting strings. We interpret these orbiting strings as CFT states of large spin similar to glueballs propagating through a gluon plasma. The energy and the spin of the orbiting string configurations are associated with the energy and the spin of states in the dual finite temperature N=4 SYM theory. We analyse in particular the limiting cases of short and long strings. Moreover, we perform a thermodynamic study of the angular momentum transfer from the glueball to the plasma by considering string orbits around rotating AdS black holes. We find that standard expectations, such as the complete thermal dissociation of the glueball, are borne out after subtle properties of rotating AdS black holes are taken into account.

  6. Opportunities for increasing domestic added value ofcocoa through trade regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Drajat

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The operation of multinational companies on cocoa bean trade in Indonesia related to the liberalization policy on trade and investment in Indonesia permits for multinational companies to operate in Indonesia and liable to buy cocoa bean directly from farmers. The problem encountered is the domestic market liberalization gives rise to changes in market power and results ini the dominant position of multinational companies. This research aimed to (i analyze the impact of the exercise of market power by cocoa multinational company, (ii to analyze the possibility of deregulation of cocoa bean domestic trade, and (iii to estimate the potential increase in added value of cocoa down-stream industry as a result of deregulation. Some steps of research conducted includes (i desk research, (ii field survey by interviewing samples of farmers, traders, exporters, processors, as well as other business participants, (iii special interviews with key persons related to regulation as well as deregulation of domestic trade and down-stream industry development, and (iv focussed group discussion involving related stakeholders of cocoa. The results showed that the impact of the exercise of market power by multinational companies refers to the decreasing market shares of national companies from 2007 to 2009. Based on the market power domination of multinational companies in one side and the lack of down-stream industry development in the other side, there is a possibility to deregulate the above policy by continuing the new regulation (export tax of cocoa beans, directing multinational exporters toward downstream industry by partnership with domestic-idle capacity processing industry and import tariff escalation for processed cocoa. By the new regulation, the opportunity to increase domestic added value becomes greater. This cocoa down-stream industry development will increase the potential domestic added value at least 10%. Key words : Liberalization, deregulation

  7. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  8. 78 FR 69929 - Fifty-Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 186, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 186, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast... RTCA Special Committee 186, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) DATES: The meeting will...

  9. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (PImpairment and healthy elders) show a significantly different profile on all examined domains of this new test according to their diagnosis, b) people with MCI from Greece do face problems in the domains outlined above (mainly financial decision making problems), and that c) subsequent changes in the Greek law should be made.

  10. Connectivity of vehicular ad hoc networks with continuous node distribution patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, W L; Wang, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The connectivity of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANets) can be affected by the special distribution patterns, usually dependent and non-uniform, of vehicles in a transportation network. In this study, we introduce a new framework for computing the connectivity in a VANet for continuous distribution patterns of communication nodes on a line in a transportation network. Such distribution patterns can be estimated from traffic densities obtained through loop detectors or other detectors. When com...

  11. High-capacity electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-02

    Jun 2, 2015 ... electrolyte to form a decomposition product that can be detrimental to capacity retention and cycle life. To stabilize such interface reactivity, the surface of the cathode particle is coated with inorganic oxides that are conducive to lithium transport. There have been numerous examples in literature in the ...

  12. Port investment : Towards an integrated planning of port capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study supports strategic planning of a node in a transportation network. It contributes to this by the development of a methodology for planning of port capacity in which port-commercial and public interests are integrated. The focus is the reaction of a single port on a change in the

  13. High-capacity electrode materials for electrochemical energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-02

    Jun 2, 2015 ... This review summarizes the current state-of-the art electrode materials used for high-capacity lithium-ion-based batteries and their significant role towards revolutionizing the electrochemical energy storage landscape in the area of consumer electronics, transportation and grid storage application.

  14. Simulation of traffic capacity of inland waterway network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; Mou, J.; Ligteringen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The inland waterborne transportation is viewed as an economic, safe and environmentally friendly alternative to the congested road network. The traffic capacity are the critical indicator of the inland shipping performance. Actually, interacted under the complicated factors, it is challenging to

  15. Logistics aspects of pipeline transport in the supply of petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Pienaar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial transportation of crude oil and petroleum products by pipeline is receiving increased attention in South Africa. Transnet Pipeline Transport has recently obtained permission from the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (Nersa to construct and operate a new petroleum products pipeline of 60 cm diameter from Durban to Gauteng. At an operating speed of 10 km/h the proposed 60 cm Transnet pipeline would be able to deliver 3,54 million litres of petroleum product per hour. This is equivalent to 89 deliveries per hour using road tank vehicles with an average carrying capacity of 40 000 litres of fuel per vehicle. This pipeline throughput is also equivalent to two trains departing per hour, each consisting of 42 petroleum tank wagons with an average carrying capacity of 42 500 litres of fuel per wagon. Considering that such road trucks and rail wagons return empty to the upstream refineries in Durban, it is clear that there is no tenable long-term alternative to pipeline transport:pipeline transport is substantially cheaper than road and rail transport;pipeline transport is much safer than rail and especially road transport; andpipeline transport frees up alternative road and rail transport capacity.Pipeline transport is a non-containerised bulk mode of transport for the carriage of suitable liquids (for example, petroleum commodities, which include crude oil, refined fuel products and liquid petro-chemicals, gas, slurrified coal and certain water-suspended ores and minerals. InSouth Africa, petroleum products account for the majority of commercial pipeline traffic, followed by crude oil and natural gas. There are three basic types of petroleum pipeline transport systems:Gathering pipeline systemsCrude oil trunk pipeline systemsRefined products pipeline systems Collectively, these systems provide a continuous link between extraction, processing, distribution, and wholesalers’ depots in areas of consumption. The following

  16. 27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Denaturation § 19.456 Adding denaturants. Denaturants and spirits shall be mixed in packages, tanks, or bulk... methods of mixing denaturants and spirits if he deems such denaturation will not hinder effective...

  17. The contribution of technology to added value

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, António S C

    2013-01-01

    There is a wide consensus that introduction of technology to the production process contributes to an overall economic value, however, confusion between technology, knowledge and capital often makes value calculations ambiguous and non-objective. The Contribution of Technology to Added Value addresses not only this issue of definition but also provides a production model to assess the value contribution of technology within the production process. A clarification  of fundamental semantics  provides a significant taxonomy for technology dependence, and allows understanding and modeling of how knowledge, technology and capital individually contribute to production and to value adding. A new technology dependence taxonomy is proposed and assessed following chapters explaining growth models, the KTC model and technology index values. Balancing theoretical knowledge with real-world data and applications The Contribution of Technology to Added Value clarifies the issue of value adding for a range of different vie...

  18. Hypoglycaemia when adding sulphonylurea to metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Christensen, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    when added to metformin. METHODS: A systematic review identified RCTs lasting 12-52 weeks and evaluating SUs added to inadequate metformin monotherapy (≥1000 mg/day) in type 2 diabetes. Adding RCTs investigating the active comparators from the identified SU trials, we established a coherent network...... of hypoglycaemia was lowest with gliclazide compared to glipizide (OR 0.22, CrI: 0.05 to 0.96), glimepiride (OR 0.40, CrI: 0.13 to 1.27), and glibenclamide (OR 0.21, CrI: 0.03 to 1.48). A major limitation is varying definitions of hypoglycaemia across studies. CONCLUSIONS: When added to metformin, gliclazide...

  19. A volatile tracer-assisted headspace analytical technique for determining the swelling capacity of superabsorbent polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Jiang, Ran; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on a new method for the determination of swelling capacity of superabsorbent polymers by a volatile tracer-assisted headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). Toluene was used as a tracer and added to the solution for polymers swelling test. Based on the differences of the tracer partitioned between the vapor and hydrogel phase before and after the polymer's swelling capacity, a transition point (corresponding to the material swelling capacity) can be observed when plotting the GC signal of toluene vs. the ratio of solution added to polymers. The present method has good precision (RSDpolymers at the elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An Alternative Path to the Boundary - the CFT as the Fourier Space of AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Tolfree, Ian M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we shed new light on the AdS/CFT duality by interpreting the CFT as the Fourier space of AdS. We make use of well known integral geometry techniques to derive the Fourier transformation of a function defined on the AdS hyperboloid. We show that the Fourier Transformation of a function on the hyperboloid is a function defined on the boundary. We find that the Green's functions from the literature are actually the Fourier weights (i.e. plane wave solutions) of the transformation a...

  1. The Tetrahedral Zamolodchikov Algebra and the {AdS_5× S^5} S-matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Vladimir; Staudacher, Matthias; Tsuboi, Zengo

    2017-08-01

    The S-matrix of the {AdS_5× S^5} string theory is a tensor product of two centrally extended su{(2|2)\\ltimes R^2 S-matrices, each of which is related to the R-matrix of the Hubbard model. The R-matrix of the Hubbard model was first found by Shastry, who ingeniously exploited the fact that, for zero coupling, the Hubbard model can be decomposed into two XX models. In this article, we review and clarify this construction from the AdS/CFT perspective and investigate the implications this has for the {AdS_5× S^5} S-matrix.

  2. Perioperative functional residual capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, R W

    1991-04-01

    The literature dealing with the magnitude, mechanism and effects of reduced FRC in the perioperative period is reviewed. During general anaesthesia FRC is reduced by approximately 20%. The reduction is greater in the obese and in patients with COPD. The most likely mechanism is the loss of inspiratory muscle tone of the muscles acting on the rib cage. Gas trapping is an additional mechanism. Lung compliance decreases and airways resistance increases, in large part, due to decreased FRC. The larynx is displaced anteriorly and elongated, making laryngoscopy and intubation more difficult. The change in FRC creates or increases intrapulmonary shunt and areas of low ventilation to perfusion. This is due to the occurrence of compression atelectasis, and to regional changes in mechanics and airway closure which tend to reduce ventilation to dependent lung zones which are still well perfused. Abdominal and thoracic operations tend to increase shunting further. Large tidal volume but not PEEP will improve oxygenation, although both increase FRC. Both FRC and vital capacity are reduced following abdominal and thoracic surgery in a predictable pattern. The mechanism is the combined effect of incisional pain and reflex dysfunction of the diaphragm. Additional effects of thoracic surgery include pleural effusion, cooling of the phrenic nerve and mediastinal widening. Postoperative hypoxaemia is a function of reduced FRC and airway closure. There is no real difference among the various methods of active lung expansion in terms of the speed of restoration of lung function, or in preventing postoperative atelectasis/pneumonia. Epidural analgesia does not influence the rate of recovery of lung function, nor does it prevent atelectasis/pneumonia.

  3. Countering A2/AD with Swarming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    inferior force can deny or delay a decisive engagement through time or attrition ultimately changing the political calculus.6 Using chess as an...deterrence in a non-nuclear scenario. Conventional deterrence is largely based on perceptions . Creating the wrong perception can cause conventional...necessarily defeat an enemy’s A2/AD strategy. Rather, the swarm needs to only create a perception that the U.S. is willing to fight within the A2/AD

  4. Mobile Offloading in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kalejaiye, Gabriel B. T.; Rondina, João A. S. R.; Albuquerque, Leonardo V. V. L.; Pereira, Taís L.; Campos, Luiz F. O.; Melo, Raphael A. S.; Mascarenhas, Daniel S.; Carvalho, Marcelo M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a strategy that was designed, implemented, and presented at the {\\it Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Interoperability and Cooperation (MANIAC) Challenge 2013}. The theme of the MANIAC Challenge 2013 was ``Mobile Data Offloading,'' and consisted on developing and comparatively evaluating strategies to offload infrastructure access points via customer ad hoc forwarding using handheld devices (e.g., tablets and smartphones). According to the challenge rules, a hop-by-hop bidding co...

  5. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2...

  6. Categorial Compositionality III: F-(co)algebras and the Systematicity of Recursive Capacities in Human Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Human cognitive capacity includes recursively definable concepts, which are prevalent in domains involving lists, numbers, and languages. Cognitive science currently lacks a satisfactory explanation for the systematic nature of such capacities (i.e., why the capacity for some recursive cognitive abilities–e.g., finding the smallest number in a list–implies the capacity for certain others–finding the largest number, given knowledge of number order). The category-theoretic constructs of initial F-algebra, catamorphism, and their duals, final coalgebra and anamorphism provide a formal, systematic treatment of recursion in computer science. Here, we use this formalism to explain the systematicity of recursive cognitive capacities without ad hoc assumptions (i.e., to the same explanatory standard used in our account of systematicity for non-recursive capacities). The presence of an initial algebra/final coalgebra explains systematicity because all recursive cognitive capacities, in the domain of interest, factor through (are composed of) the same component process. Moreover, this factorization is unique, hence no further (ad hoc) assumptions are required to establish the intrinsic connection between members of a group of systematically-related capacities. This formulation also provides a new perspective on the relationship between recursive cognitive capacities. In particular, the link between number and language does not depend on recursion, as such, but on the underlying functor on which the group of recursive capacities is based. Thus, many species (and infants) can employ recursive processes without having a full-blown capacity for number and language. PMID:22514704

  7. Managing Capacity Through Reward Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Byung-Do Kim; Mengze Shi; Kannan Srinivasan

    2004-01-01

    Rewarding customers with own products or services has become an increasingly popular practice across a spectrum of industries such as airlines, hotels, and telecommunication. In these service industries, firms face demand uncertainty and strict short-term capacity constraint. When the market demand is low, firms hold excess capacities that would lead to intense price competition. In this paper we study the adoption and design of reward programs in the context of capacity management. We demons...

  8. Battery prices and capacity sensitivity: Electric drive vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The increase in fluctuating power production requires an increase in flexibility in the system as well. Flexibility can be found in generation technologies with fast response times or in storage options. In the transport sector, the proportion of electric drive vehicles is expected to increase over...... the next decade or two. These vehicles can provide some of the flexibility needed in the power system, in terms of both flexible demand and electricity storage. However, what are the batteries worth to the power system? And does the value depend on battery capacity? This article presents an analysis...... of the integrated power and transport system, focusing on the sensitivity of the power system configuration according to battery capacity and price of the electric drive vehicle. The value of different battery capacities is estimated, given that the batteries are used for both driving and storage. Likewise...

  9. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    2004-12-01

    The ADS now provides a search system for close to 4 million records. The data are organized in 4 databases, Astronomy/Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, Instrumentation, and ArXiv Preprints. The ADS is a NASA funded project and is free to use for everybody world-wide. We have recently extracted a large number of references from article reference lists. We now have over 16 million citing/cited reference pairs. This provides a very comprehensive citation database. During the last year we implemented a full text search system. This allows you to search the full text of all journals that we have scanned. This provides a unique way to find information, especially from the older literature. We recently implemented a customized notification service, called myADS. This service lets you specify several queries that are executed against new entries in the database whenever the database is updated. It also informs about new citations to your articles and new preprints, as well as what other articles are of interest to the users of the ADS. The ADS can be accessed at http://ads.harvard.edu

  10. Gauge symmetries and holographic anomalies of Chern-Simons and transgression AdS gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Pablo [Centro Universitario Regional Este (CURE), Universidad de la República, Uruguay,Ruta 9 Km 207, Rocha (Uruguay)

    2015-04-20

    We review the issue of gauge and gravitational anomalies with backgrounds, offering a new outlook on some aspects of these questions. We compute the holographic anomalies of hypothetical theories dual, in the sense of the AdS-CFT correspondence, to Chern-Simons AdS gravity. Those anomalies are either gauge anomalies, associated to the AdS gauge group of the theory, or diffeomorphism anomalies, with each kind related to the other. AdS gauge anomalies include Weyl, Lorentz (gravitational) and gauge translations while diffeomorphism anomalies include gravitational and Weyl (or scale) anomalies. Our results therefore go beyond previous investigations on Chern-Simons AdS gravity holograpic anomalies, that dealt only with Weyl anomalies. Furthermore, our calculations were done allowing a non vanishing torsion, unlike previous works that considered only the zero torsion, or metric, case. As a result of using suitable action principles for Chern-Simons AdS gravity, coming from Transgression forms, we obtain finite results without the need for further regularization. Our results are of potential interest for Lovelock gravity theories, as it has been shown that the boundary terms dictated by the transgressions for Chern-Simons gravity are also suitable to regularize Lovelock theories. The Wess-Zumino consistency condition ensures that anomalies of the generic form computed here should appear for these and other theories.

  11. Evaluation of wind capacity credit considering key system parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.; Karki, R.; Billinton, R. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Power Systems Research Group

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the importance of considering the capacity credit of wind sources given that wind power penetration in power generation continues to increase. The capacity credit of a wind source is the amount of conventional capacity that can be replaced by wind energy without the loss of system reliability. As such, the reliability benefit of adding a wind energy conversion system to a power system must be analyzed. A quantitative index was used to examine the effect of key system variables on system reliability in order to estimate wind capacity credit as a function of wind penetration in electric power systems. The size and the composition of the generating system were among the parameters examined along with the wind regime at the wind farm locations and the wind power penetration level. The method for evaluating the adequacy of a power system includes separate steps for wind data modeling, wind turbine generator (WTG) modeling, combined wind and conventional generation unit modeling, load modeling and convolution of generation and load models to obtain the system risk indices. The loss of load expectation (LOLE) was also used as the risk index for reliability evaluation. The different factors that affect the capacity credit of WTG were combined to obtain the general relationship between the effective capacity ratio (ECR) and the wind penetration level (WPL). The study showed that WTG capacity credit is highly influenced by the WPL, and the wind regime at the wind farm location. The size and composition of the system and the generating units, and the LOLE reliability criterion did not have much influence on the ECR of wind sources. The obtained results were combined to produce a general approximate relationship between the wind capacity credit and the wind penetration. It was concluded that the general approximation of capacity credit of wind sources presented in this study could prove useful in determining the capacity credit of wind sources at different

  12. Declining physical capacity but maintained aerobic activity in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedervall, Ylva; Kilander, Lena; Aberg, Anna Cristina

    2012-05-01

    The longitudinal influences on physical capacity and habitual aerobic activity level in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are unclear. Therefore, changes in physical capacity and aerobic activity level were evaluated. Twenty-five individuals with AD were assessed annually for 2 years, by 10-m walk test, 6-minute walk test, and timed up-and-go (TUG) single/dual tasks. Habitual aerobic activity was assessed by diary registrations. The AD group showed a lower physical capacity than controls at baseline but comparable levels of aerobic activity. During the follow-up period, physical capacity declined in the AD group, but the aerobic activity levels changed only marginally. Our results show that in the early stages of AD, people are capable of maintaining health-promoting aerobic activity levels, despite a decline in their physical capacity. Additionally, it appears that cognitive dysfunction contributes to an impaired physical capacity. The TUG tasks might, therefore, be useful for detecting early signs of cognitive impairment.

  13. Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded ...

  14. Strategy development management of Multimodal Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterova Natalia S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief overview of works on the development of transport infrastructure for multimodal transportation and integration of Russian transport system into the international transport corridors. The technology for control of the strategy, that changes shape and capacity of Multi-modal Transport Network (MTN, is considered as part of the methodology for designing and development of MTN. This technology allows to carry out strategic and operational management of the strategy implementation based on the use of the balanced scorecard.

  15. Performances of the HL (Hyperloop) transport system

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Milakis, D.; Janic, M.; Cools, M.; S Limbourg

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with an analysis of performances of the HL (Hyperloop) transport system considered as an advanced transport alternative to the existing APT (Air Passenger Transport) and HSR (High Speed Rail) systems. The considered performances are operational, financial, social and environmental. The operational performance include capacity and quality of service provided to the system’s users-passengers with attributes such as door-to-door travel time consisting of the access and egress ti...

  16. Supersymmetric AdS_2× Σ _2 solutions from tri-sasakian truncation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karndumri, Parinya

    2017-10-01

    A class of AdS_2× Σ _2, with Σ _2 being a two-sphere or a hyperbolic space, solutions within four-dimensional N=4 gauged supergravity coupled to three-vector multiplets with dyonic gauging is identified. The gauged supergravity has a non-semisimple SO(3)\\ltimes (T^3,\\hat{T}^3) gauge group and can be obtained from a consistent truncation of 11-dimensional supergravity on a tri-sasakian manifold. The maximally symmetric vacua contain AdS_4 geometries with N=1,3 supersymmetry corresponding to N=1 and N=3 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in three dimensions. We find supersymmetric solutions of the form AdS_2× Σ _2 preserving two supercharges. These solutions describe twisted compactifications of the dual N=1 and N=3 SCFTs and should arise as near horizon geometries of dyonic black holes in asymptotically AdS_4 space-time. Most solutions have hyperbolic horizons although some of them exhibit spherical horizons. These provide a new class of AdS_2× Σ _2 geometries with known M-theory origin.

  17. Strategic Capacity Investment Under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper considers investment decisions within an uncertain dynamic and competitive framework. Each investment decision involves to determine the timing and the capacity level. In this way we extend the main bulk of the real options theory where the capacity level is given. We consider a

  18. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a

  19. Contemporaneous assessment of testamentary capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Kenneth I; Peisah, Carmelle; Jacoby, Robin; Heinik, Jeremia; Finkel, Sanford

    2009-06-01

    Challenges to wills on the basis of lack of testamentary capacity and/or undue influence are likely to increase over the next generation. Since contemporaneous assessment of testamentary capacity can be a powerful influence on the outcome of such challenges, there will be an associated increase in requests for expert assessment of testamentary capacity. There is a need to provide such potential experts with the knowledge and guidelines necessary to conduct assessments that will be helpful to the judicial system. A subcommittee of the International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) task force on "Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence" was formed to establish guidelines for contemporaneous assessment of testamentary capacity. The task-specific criteria for testamentary capacity as outlined by Lord Chief Justice Cockburn in the well-known Banks v. Goodfellow case are described. Additional issues are identified for probing and documentation. This is designed to determine whether the testator can formulate a coherent, rational testamentary plan that connects his/her beliefs, values and relationships with the proposed disposition of assets. Rules of engagement by the expert assessor are defined as well as an approach to the clinical examination for testamentary capacity resulting in a clear and relevant report. Guidelines for experts who are asked to provide a contemporaneous opinion on testamentary capacity should help to inform disputes resulting from challenges to wills. A consistent clinical approach will help the courts to make their determinations.

  20. Concrete Operations and Attentional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael; Lindenberger, Ulman

    1989-01-01

    To test predictions regarding the attentional capacity requirements of Piaget's stage of concrete operations, a battery of concrete operational tasks and two measures of attentional capacity were administered to 120 first-, second-, and third-graders. Findings concern class inclusion, transitivity of length and weight, and multiplication of…

  1. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Background: Levels of endoscopic demand and capacity in West Africa are unclear. Objectives: This paper aims to: 1. describe the current labor and endoscopic capacity, 2. quantify the impact of a mixed-meth- ods endoscopy course on healthcare professionals in West Africa, and 3. quantify the types of diagnoses ...

  2. Improving African health research capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat...

  3. AdS/CFT duality user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natsuume, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    This book describes applications of the AdS/CFT duality to the "real world." The AdS/CFT duality is an idea that originated from string theory and is a powerful tool for analyzing strongly-coupled gauge theories using classical gravitational theories. In recent years, it has been shown that one prediction of AdS/CFT is indeed close to the experimental result of the real quark–gluon plasma. Since then, the AdS/CFT duality has been applied to various fields of physics; examples are QCD, nuclear physics, condensed-matter physics, and nonequilibrium physics.   The aim of this book is to provide background materials such as string theory, black holes, nuclear physics, condensed-matter physics, and nonequilibrium physics as well as key applications of the AdS/CFT duality in a single volume. The emphasis throughout the book is on a pedagogical and intuitive approach focusing on the underlying physical concepts. It also includes step-by-step computations for important results, which are useful for beginners.   Th...

  4. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  5. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  6. Non-spherical collapse in AdS and early thermalization in RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eunseok; Sin, Sang-Jin

    2013-10-01

    In the flat space, non-spherical shells collapse to give globular cluster after many oscillations. We show that in anti de Sitter space, they form black holes in one dynamical time. We propose that this is the mechanism of early thermalization in strong quark-gluon plasma in gravity dual. This is traced back to the a remarkable property of AdS: the period in radial motion is amplitude independent in spite of the non-linearity of the equation of motion. We investigate the interaction effect numerically and observe the same qualitative behavior for the attractive forces. For repulsive interactions, particles halt at a small but finite radius for long time due to the specific structure of the bulk AdS propagator. It helps hair creation in the AdS black hole.

  7. On thermodynamics of AdS black holes in M-theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, A. [Universite Sultan Moulay Slimane, Departement de Physique, LIRST, Faculte Polydisciplinaire, Beni Mellal (Morocco); Cadi Ayyad University, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, FSSM, Marrakesh (Morocco); Chabab, M.; Masmar, K. [Cadi Ayyad University, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, FSSM, Marrakesh (Morocco); El Moumni, H. [Cadi Ayyad University, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, FSSM, Marrakesh (Morocco); Universite Ibn Zohr, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Agadir (Morocco); Sedra, M.B. [Universite Ibn Tofail, Departement de Physique, LASIMO, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2016-02-15

    Motivated by recent work on asymptotically AdS{sub 4} black holes in M-theory, we investigate the thermodynamics and thermodynamical geometry of AdS black holes from M2- and M5-branes. Concretely, we consider AdS black holes in AdS{sub p+2} x S{sup 11-p-2}, where p = 2,5 by interpreting the number of M2- (and M5-branes) as a thermodynamical variable. More precisely, we study the corresponding phase transition to examine their stabilities by calculating and discussing various thermodynamical quantities including the chemical potential. Then we compute the thermodynamical curvatures from the Quevedo metric for M2- and M5-branes geometries to reconsider the stability of such black holes. The Quevedo metric singularities recover similar stability results provided by the phase-transition program. It has been shown that similar behaviors are also present in the limit of large N. (orig.)

  8. Spinning strings in AdS3×S3 with NS–NS flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Hernández

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sigma model describing closed strings rotating in AdS3×S3 is known to reduce to the one-dimensional Neumann–Rosochatius integrable system. In this article we show that closed spinning strings in AdS3×S3×T4 in the presence of NS–NS three-form flux can be described by an extension of the Neumann–Rosochatius system. We consider closed strings rotating with one spin in AdS3 and two different angular momenta in S3. For a class of solutions with constant radii we find the dependence of the classical energy on the spin and the angular momenta as an expansion in the square of the 't Hooft coupling of the theory.

  9. QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, R. Carcasses [Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Goity, Jose L. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Trinchero, Roberto C. [Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-02-01

    The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.

  10. Extended Hamiltonian action for arbitrary spin fields in flat and AdS space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2013-05-01

    Totally symmetric, arbitrary spin massless and massive free fields in flat and AdS space and conformal fields in flat space are studied. An extended gauge-invariant Hamiltonian action for such fields is obtained. The action is constructed out of phase space fields and Lagrangian multipliers which are free of algebraic constraints. Gauge transformations of the phase space fields and Lagrangian multipliers are derived. Use of the Poincaré parametrization of AdS space allows us to treat fields in flat space and AdS space on an equal footing. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  11. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  12. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  13. Introduction to AdS/CFT correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Nastase, Horatiu

    2015-01-01

    Providing a pedagogical introduction to the rapidly developing field of AdS/CFT correspondence, this is one of the first texts to provide an accessible introduction to all the necessary concepts needed to engage with the methods, tools and applications of AdS/CFT. Without assuming anything beyond an introductory course in quantum field theory, it begins by guiding the reader through the basic concepts of field theory and gauge theory, general relativity, supersymmetry, supergravity, string theory and conformal field theory, before moving on to give a clear and rigorous account of AdS/CFT correspondence. The final section discusses the more specialised applications, including QCD, quark-gluon plasma and condensed matter. This book is self-contained and learner-focused, featuring numerous exercises and examples. It is essential reading for both students and researchers across the fields of particle, nuclear and condensed matter physics.

  14. Value added meat marketing around the globe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebitus, Carola; Mueller Loose, Simone

    In highly competitive meat markets it is important to offer value added products to consumers. Thus, we need to understand which attributes are especially valued by consumers. This track session will contribute to a better understanding of consumer preferences for value added meats across different...... countries and simultaneously address different stages of the food chain by acknowledging factors such as breeding, forage (fat content), meat cuts as well as product labelling and packaging. Comparing consumers’ choices for value added pork and beef across different countries is the main theme and focus...... practices will be examined and the economic and technological dimensions of meat packaging will be related to each other presenting work from the US and Germany. Lastly, we will uncover the competitive nature between different beef cuts for Italian consumers....

  15. Pengukuran Kinerja Keuangan dengan Pendekatan Egonomic Value Added dan Financial Value Added

    OpenAIRE

    Felisia

    2011-01-01

    Performance measurement has become an important indicator not only for companies but also for investors. It indicates the capability of companies in managing their capital. Performance measurement can be divided into financial and non-financial performance measurement. This article will discuss further about financial performance measurement using Economic Value Added (EVA) and Financial Value Added (FVA) Economic Value Added was developed by Stern, Stewart & Company, while Financial Value...

  16. Inventory theory, mode choice and network structure in freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combes, F.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    In passenger transport, hub-and-spoke networks allow the transportation of small passenger flows with competitive frequencies, in a way that direct line networks cannot. Equivalently, in freight transport, it can be expected that small shipper-receiver flows of high added value commodities transit

  17. 75 FR 47753 - Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... comment on several upcoming issues of interest concerning surface transportation accessibility. The... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Parts 27, 37, and 38 RIN 2105-AD54 Transportation for Individuals With...

  18. Alternative path to the boundary: The CFT as the Fourier transform in AdS space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolfree, Ian M.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper we shed new light on the AdS/CFT duality by interpreting the CFT as the Fourier transform in AdS space. We make use of well-known integral geometry techniques to derive the Fourier transformation of a function defined on the AdS hyperboloid. We show that the Fourier transformation of a function on the hyperboloid is a function defined on the boundary. We find that the Green’s functions from the literature are actually the Fourier weights (i.e. plane wave solutions) of the transformation and that the boundary values of fields appearing in the correspondence are the Fourier components of the transformation. One is thus left to interpret the CFT as the quantized version of a classical theory in AdS and the dual operator as the Fourier coefficients. Group theoretic considerations are discussed in relation to the transformation and its potential use in constructing QCD-like theories. In addition, we consider possible implications involving understanding the dual of AdS black holes.

  19. iAd Production Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This beginner's guide focuses on getting you through all the major learning points in a smooth, logical order. You'll also see how to avoid some common pitfalls. This book is for brands, advertisers and developers who want to create compelling, emotive, iAd advertisements that generate revenue and increase brand awareness. You don't need previous experience of creating adverts or apps for iPhone and iPad, as you'll be taken through the entire process to make motion-rich, beautiful ads.

  20. Ad hoc networks telecommunications and game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Benslama, Malek; Batatia, Hadj

    2015-01-01

    Random SALOHA and CSMA protocols that are used to access MAC in ad hoc networks are very small compared to the multiple and spontaneous use of the transmission channel. So they have low immunity to the problems of packet collisions. Indeed, the transmission time is the critical factor in the operation of such networks. The simulations demonstrate the positive impact of erasure codes on the throughput of the transmission in ad hoc networks. However, the network still suffers from the intermittency and volatility of its efficiency throughout its operation, and it switches quickly to the satura

  1. Tribunales arbitrales ad hoc en el Mercosur

    OpenAIRE

    Bou Franch, Valentín

    2011-01-01

    El Mercosur tiene establecido un procedimiento obligatorio de solución de controversias comerciales entre sus Estados miembros. No obstante, en caso de surgir una controversia, el Estado demandante y el demandado pueden pactar de mutuo acuerdo que la misma no se someta al procedimiento ordinario de solución, sino a un Tribunal arbitral ad hoc. En este trabajo, se analiza la elaboración de las dos listas de árbitros, la constitución de cada Tribunal arbitral ad hoc, el procedimiento y la oblig...

  2. Adding value to corporate ventures through governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skat-Rørdam, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This working paper examines the governance of corporate ventures based upon a qualitative interview based case study of a European industrial conglomerate. The purpose is to explore the value adding mechanisms of governance, that are considered more critical to the success of corporate ventures...... than the control mechanisms widely explored in connection with the governance of large public corporations. The paper provides examples of how value can be added as well as perspectives on the challenges and effectivenes here-off as evaluated by venture CEO's and venture board members...

  3. Vehicular ad hoc network security and privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, X

    2015-01-01

    Unlike any other book in this area, this book provides innovative solutions to security issues, making this book a must read for anyone working with or studying security measures. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Security and Privacy mainly focuses on security and privacy issues related to vehicular communication systems. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to vehicular ad hoc network and its unique security threats and privacy concerns and then illustrates how to address those challenges in highly dynamic and large size wireless network environments from multiple perspectives. This book is richly illustrated with detailed designs and results for approaching security and privacy threats.

  4. QCD condensates in ADS/QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on some issues about condensates and renormalization in AdS/QCD models. In particular we consider the consistency of the AdS/QCD approach for scale dependent quantities as the chiral condensate questioned in some recent papers and the 4D meaning of the 5D cosmological constant...... in a model in which the QCD is dual to a 5D gravity theory. We will be able to give some arguments that the cosmological constant is related to the QCD gluon condensate....

  5. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  7. Nicaragua - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  8. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  9. Adding value to carbon dioxide from ethanol fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yixiang; Isom, Loren; Hanna, Milford A

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from ethanol production facilities is increasing as more ethanol is produced for alternative transportation fuels. CO(2) produced from ethanol fermentation processes is of high purity and is nearly a saturated gas. Such highly-concentrated source of CO(2) is a potential candidate for capture and utilization by the CO(2) industry. Quantity, quality and capture of CO(2) from ethanol fermentations are discussed in this review. The established and emerging value-added opportunities and markets for CO(2) from ethanol plants also are reviewed. The majority of CO(2) applications are dedicated to serving carbonated beverage and food processing and preservation markets. Beyond traditional merchant markets, the potential for exploring some fresh and profitable markets are discussed including carbon sources in chemical industries for the following: enhanced oil recovery; production of chemicals, fuels, and polymers; and production of algae-based biofuels through CO(2) fixation by microalgae. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metal chaperones: a holistic approach to the treatment of AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony Adlard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As the burden of proof for the role of metal ion dysregulation in the pathogenesis of multiple CNS disorders grows, it has become important to more precisely identify and differentiate the biological effects of various pharmacological modulators of metal ion homeostasis. This is particularly evident in disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, where the use of metal chaperones (that transport metals, as opposed to chelators (which exclude metals from biological interactions, may prove to be the first truly disease modifying approach for this condition. The purpose of this mini-review is to highlight the emerging notion that metal chaperones, such as PBT2 (Prana Biotechnology, modulate a variety of critical pathways affecting key aspects of the AD cascade to provide a more holistic approach to the treatment of this disease.

  11. Regular capacities on metrizable spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Cherkovskyi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that for a (not necessarily compact metric space: the metrics on the space of capacities in the sense of Zarichnyi and Prokhorov are equal; completeness of the space of capacities is equivalent to completeness of the original space. It is shown that for the capacities on metrizable spaces the properties of $\\omega$-smoothness and of $\\tau$-smoothness are equivalent precisely on the separable spaces, and the properties of $\\omega$-smoothness and of regularity w.r.t. some (then w.r.t. any admissible metric are equivalent precisely on the compact spaces.

  12. Transport service

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Cerruti / FI

    2006-01-01

    A large number of pallet-crates (panières grillagées), which are used for transporting equipment and for removals, have been dispatched to various locations around the CERN site. We kindly request all users who may have such crates in their possession and no longer need them to make the necessary arrangements (EDH request to the Transport Group) to return them to Building 133, as we currently have no more in stock. Claude CERRUTI / FI-PI

  13. An optimisation framework for determination of capacity in railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    Within the railway industry, high quality estimates on railway capacity is crucial information, that helps railway companies to utilise the expensive (infrastructure) resources as efficiently as possible. This paper therefore proposes an optimisation framework to estimate the capacity of a railway...... network based on a mix of train types, the infrastructure and rolling stock used. The framework consist of two steps. In the first step the maximum number of trains is found according to the predefined mix of train types. In the second step additional trains are added based on weights assigned...... to the train types. This is done using a mathematical model which is solved with a heuristic. The developed approach is used on a case network to obtain the capacity of the given railway system. Furthermore, we test different parameters to explore computation time, precision and sensitivity to input...

  14. ENEA presenta sistema ADS per trattamento scorie

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Arriva il sistema Ads (Accelerator driven system) per il trattamento dei rifiuti radioattivi. Lo studio di fattibilita' per l' innovativa tecnologia, realizzato da un gruppo di lavoro congiunto Enea, Cea, Cern e Ansaldo, e' stato presentato oggi nel corso di un workshop presieduto dal premio Nobel per la fisica, Carlo Rubbia" (1/2 page).

  15. Added value: The differences that count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bouchet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinging to a simplistic conceptualization of the concept of added value might impair our capability to develop insights to what really matters today when companies seek to make differences within the global market. Today it is more necessary than ever to take into account the importance of language and culture as competitive factors.

  16. Accelerator development in India for ADS programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LEHIPA), as front-end injector of the 1 GeV accelerator for the ADS programme, has been initiated. The major components of LEHIPA (20 MeV, 30 mA) are a 50 keV ECR ion source, a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV drift ...

  17. "Value Added" Gauge of Teaching Probed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A new study by a public and labor economist suggests that "value added" methods for determining the effectiveness of classroom teachers are built on some shaky assumptions and may be misleading. The study, due to be published in February in the "Quarterly Journal of Economics," is the first of a handful of papers now in the…

  18. CERN Enters the Second Year AD

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    2001 is the year that physics at CERN's new Antiproton Decelerator (AD) really gets up to speed. Changes to the AD since 2000 mean that this year the three experiments, ASACUSA, ATHENA, and ATRAP have had more intense antiproton beams to work with since physics started on 7 May. CERN's Antiproton Decelerator - major improvements for 2001. The AD is a unique machine. Its job is to decelerate not accelerate particle beams, and it has to handle beam energies that vary by an unprecedented factor of 35 from injection to ejection. Since the machine was designed to operate at fixed energy in its first incarnation as a collector of antiprotons for CERN's 1980s proton antiproton collider, this factor of 35 presented a big challenge to the AD team. The team's design goal was to hang onto a quarter of the injected antiprotons through their vertiginous fall in energy, and to repeat the deceleration cycle once per minute. Improvements to the machine over the winter shutdown and through the first four weeks of 2001 run...

  19. Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…

  20. Ad-Hoc Transient Communities Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Bert; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Brouns, Francis; Fetter, Sibren; Berlanga, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Van den Berg, B., Van Rosmalen, P., Sloep, P. B., Brouns, F., Fetter, S., & Berlanga, A. J. (2009). Ad-Hoc Transient Communities Simulation. The Netlogo application is distributed as a java applet and for that matter part of an archive which contains also the NetlogoLiteJar and the index.htm to

  1. Adding calcium improves lithium ferrite core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessoff, H.

    1969-01-01

    Adding calcium increases uniformity of grain growth over a wide range of sintering temperatures and reduces porosity within the grain. Ferrite cores containing calcium have square hysteresis loops and high curie temperatures, making them useful in coincident current memories of digital electronic computers.

  2. The foresight of AD de Groot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Nieuwenhuis, A. F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Study success rates in higher education were already described in an article in Pedagogische Studien in 1959. Professor A.D. de Groot, internationally well-known by his research on Thought and choice in chess, analysed the success rate figures provided by Statistics Netherlands. Based on the

  3. Epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dawadimi region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data from the patients included in this retrospective study were collected from the Leishmaniasis Control Center of Ad-Dawadimi District of Saudi Arabia. A total of 370 patients with CL were recorded from ...

  4. Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chaoli

    2009-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

  5. Value-Added Analysis in Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Michael R.; Brown, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Value-added data provide a viable alternative for gauging school effectiveness--one virtually free of the confounding effects of student demographics and other factors relating to student learning. How is it different from other measuring methods? It concentrates on growth, rather than attainment. This strengthens the concept and measurement of…

  6. Value Added School Review Field Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Value-Added School Review (VSR)" is an analytical model designed to assist schools in identifying and addressing opportunities for school improvement. The model works best when it is focused purposefully on students and the student learning outcomes as defined in the "Guide to Education". It complements the processes…

  7. Value-Added Modeling in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hushman, Glenn; Hushman, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The educational reform movement in the United States has resulted in a variety of states moving toward a system of value-added modeling (VAM) to measure a teacher's contribution to student achievement. Recently, many states have begun using VAM scores as part of a larger system to evaluate teacher performance. In the past decade, only "core…

  8. DAWN: Dynamic Ad-hoc Wireless Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-19

    Wireless Network 1 Introduction The network-centric battlefield includes sensors, troop carriers, unmanned air vehicle (UAV), aircraft, smart ...Bellman Control Heritage Award. • Honorary Doctorate at Technical University of Crete. • Best paper award at 2008 IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems.

  9. Ad-Coop Positioning System (ACPS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frattasi, Simone; Monti, Marco

    2008-01-01

    -hoc connections among pairs of mobiles. Specifically, peer-to-peer (P2P) communications are exploited in a mesh fashion within cellular-established clusters for cooperation-aided localization purposes (from that, the word ad-coop is derived). The major contribution of this work is the design of the data fusion...

  10. Swift Trust in Distributed Ad Hoc Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-04

    not visible or likely to be in close proximity . Page 22 Swift Trust in Distributed Ad hoc Teams Humansystems® mission ended, the servers were...simply allow less “ poetic license” when making judgements about other people. Perhaps asking about a more ambiguous behaviour or task would have yielded

  11. A Comprehensive study of a New Multipath Energy Aware Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chettibi, Saloua

    2009-01-01

    S. Chettibi, M. Benmohammed, "A comprehensive study of a new multipath energy aware routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks"; International Conference on Systems and Information Processing, ICSIP'09, May 02 – 04, 2009, Guelma, Algeria; Maximizing network lifetime is a very challenging issue in routing protocol design for Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs), since mobile nodes are powered by limited-capacity batteries. Furthermore, replacing or recharging batteries is often impossible in criti...

  12. Amyloid-Beta Induced Changes in Vesicular Transport of BDNF in Hippocampal Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, Bianca; Eckenstaler, Robert; R?nicke, Raik; Leschik, Julia; Lutz, Beat; Reymann, Klaus; Lessmann, Volkmar; Brigadski, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important growth factor in the CNS. Deficits in transport of this secretory protein could underlie neurodegenerative diseases. Investigation of disease-related changes in BDNF transport might provide insights into the cellular mechanism underlying, for example, Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To analyze the role of BDNF transport in AD, live cell imaging of fluorescently labeled BDNF was performed in hippocampal neurons of different AD...

  13. An alternative perspective to observe the critical phenomena of dilaton AdS black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Jie-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    The critical phenomena of dilaton AdS black holes are probed from a totally different perspective other than the $P-v$ criticality and the $q-U$ criticality discussed in the former literature. We investigate not only the two point correlation function but also the entanglement entropy of dilaton AdS black holes. We achieve this goal by solving the equation of motion constrained by the boundary condition numerically and we concentrate on $\\delta L$ and $\\delta S$ which have been regularized by subtracting the terms in pure AdS with the same boundary region. For both the two point correlation function and the entanglement entropy, we consider $4\\times2\\times2=16$ cases due to different choices of parameters. The van der Waals like behavior can be clearly witnessed from all the $T-\\delta L$ ($T-\\delta S$) graphs for $qAdS black holes are disclosed. Furthermore, we discuss the stability of dilaton...

  14. Value Added to What? How a Ceiling in the Testing Instrument Influences Value-Added Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedel, Cory; Betts, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Value-added measures of teacher quality may be sensitive to the quantitative properties of the student tests upon which they are based. This article focuses on the sensitivity of value added to test score ceiling effects. Test score ceilings are increasingly common in testing instruments across the country as education policy continues to…

  15. Integrability of the AdS_5 x S^5 superstring and its deformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the author's PhD thesis, this article reviews the application of integrability to the spectral problem of strings on AdS_5 x S^5 and its deformations. We begin with a pedagogical introduction to integrable field theories culminating in the description of their finite-volume spectra through

  16. On Critical Massive (Super)Gravity in adS(3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Rosseel, Jan; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K.; Aldaya,; Barcelo, C; Jaramillo, JL

    2011-01-01

    We review the status of three-dimensional "general massive gravity" (GMG) in its linearization about an anti-de Sitter (adS) vacuum, focusing on critical points in parameter space that yield generalizations of "chiral gravity". We then show how these results extend to,N = 1 super-GMG, expanded about

  17. The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Heath, R.

    2013-01-01

    Building on previous research on the processing of newspaper ads, this comprehensive field study, with 26,556 newspaper readers and 290 unique advertisements, investigated the combined effects of position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics. The results show a

  18. Near horizon data and physical charges of extremal AdS black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astefanesei, D.; Banerjee, N.; Dutta, S.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the physical charges and discuss the properties of a large class of five-dimensional extremal AdS black holes by using the near horizon data. Our examples include baryonic and electromagnetic black branes, as well as supersymmetric spinning black holes. In the presence of the gauge

  19. Multi-Skyrmions on AdS2 × S2, rational maps and popcorn transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Tallarita, Gianni

    2017-08-01

    By combining two different techniques to construct multi-soliton solutions of the (3 + 1)-dimensional Skyrme model, the generalized hedgehog and the rational map ansatz, we find multi-Skyrmion configurations in AdS2 ×S2. We construct Skyrmionic multi-layered configurations such that the total Baryon charge is the product of the number of kinks along the radial AdS2 direction and the degree of the rational map. We show that, for fixed total Baryon charge, as one increases the charge density on ∂ (AdS2 ×S2) , it becomes increasingly convenient energetically to have configurations with more peaks in the radial AdS2 direction but a lower degree of the rational map. This has a direct relation with the so-called holographic popcorn transitions in which, when the charge density is high, multi-layered configurations with low charge on each layer are favored over configurations with few layers but with higher charge on each layer. The case in which the geometry is M2 ×S2 can also be analyzed.

  20. Avoiding Ad Avoidance: Factors Affecting the Perception of Online Banner Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the effect of search type, ad saliency, and ad repetition on the perception of online banner advertisements. In the first study, 48 student participants conducted simulated search tasks using mixed factorial design where search type (known-item vs. exploratory) was manipulated within-subject and the banner saliency level…

  1. Geometry and supersymmetry of heterotic warped flux AdS backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-07-01

    We classify the geometries of the most general warped, flux AdS backgrounds of heterotic supergravity up to two loop order in sigma model perturbation theory. We show under some mild assumptions that there are no AdS n backgrounds with n ≠ 3. Moreover the warp factor of AdS3 backgrounds is constant, the geometry is a product AdS 3 × M 7 and such solutions preserve, 2, 4, 6 and 8 supersymmetries. The geometry of M 7 has been specified in all cases. For 2 supersymmetries, it has been found that M 7 admits a suitably restricted G 2 structure. For 4 supersymmetries, M 7 has an SU(3) structure and can be described locally as a circle fibration over a 6-dimensional KT manifold. For 6 and 8 supersymmetries, M 7 has an SU(2) structure and can be described locally as a S 3 fibration over a 4-dimensional manifold which either has an anti-self dual Weyl tensor or a hyper-Kähler structure, respectively. We also demonstrate a new Lichnerowicz type theorem in the presence of α' corrections.

  2. The complete AdS_3 x S^3 x T^4 worldsheet S-matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsato, Riccardo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370952170; Sax, Olof Ohlsson; Sfondrini, Alessandro|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330983083; jr, Bogdan Stefanski

    2014-01-01

    We derive the non-perturbative worldsheet S matrix for fundamental excitations of Type IIB superstring theory on AdS_3 x S^3 x T^4 with Ramond-Ramond flux. To this end, we study the off-shell symmetry algebra of the theory and its representations. We use these to determine the S matrix up to scalar

  3. The bound state S-matrix for AdS5×S5 superstring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutyunov, G.E.; de Leeuw, M.; Torrielli, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determine the S-matrix that describes scattering of arbitrary bound states in the light-cone string theory in AdS5×S5. The corresponding construction relies on the Yangian symmetry and the superspace formalism for the bound state representations. The basic analytic structure supporting the

  4. S-matrix for strings on η-deformed AdS5 x S5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutyunov, Gleb; Borsato, Riccardo; Frolov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    We determine the bosonic part of the superstring sigma model Lagrangian on η-deformed AdS5 × S5, and use it to compute the perturbative world-sheet scattering matrix of bosonic particles of the model. We then compare it with the large string tension limit of the q-deformed S-matrix and find exact

  5. The S-matrix of the AdS5xS5 superstring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, M.

    2010-01-01

    According to the gauge-string duality conjecture, the spectrum of scaling dimensions of composite gauge invariant operators of the planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions should be equivalent to the energy spectrum of superstrings propagating in the AdS5 x S5 space-time,

  6. S-matrix for strings on η-deformed AdS5 x S5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutyunov, G.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326372822; Borsato, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370952170; Frolov, S.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the bosonic part of the superstring sigma model Lagrangian on η-deformed AdS5 x S5, and use it to compute the perturbative world-sheet scattering matrix of bosonic particles of the model. We then compare it with the large string tension limit of the q-deformed S-matrix and find exact

  7. Characterization of cells transformed by Ad5/Ad12 hybrid early region I plasmids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Houweling, A.; Schrier, P.I.; Bos, J.L.; Eb, A.J. van der

    1982-01-01

    Early region I (EI) of the human adenoviruses consists of two transcriptional units, EIa and EIb. We have constructed plasmids containing hybrid EI regions from the nononcogenic adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) and the highly oncogenic Ad12. Each plasmid essentially contains the EIa region of one serotype

  8. Covariant anomalies and Hawking radiation from Kaluza–Klein AdS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 80; Issue 2. Covariant anomalies and Hawking radiation from Kaluza–Klein AdS ... angular momentum and energy momentum tensor are derived here. Our results support the common view that Hawking radiation is the quantum effect arising at the event horizon.

  9. Research projects and capacity building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-10-04

    Oct 4, 2004 ... bility of promoting research and developing research capacity. In an effort to include .... responsibilities so as to jointly create the learning environment and enabling conditions in ..... a Learning Organization. London: Nicholas ...

  10. Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurship Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurship Capacity Development from the Perspective of a Nigerian University. ... KCA Journal of Business Management ... The study therefore recommends that the Nigerian Universities Commission (NUC) should review the national tertiary educational and related policies to ...

  11. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures.    This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi......There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...

  12. Development of a high capacity variable conductance heat pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, R.; Hembach, R.; Edelstein, F.; Loose, J.

    1973-01-01

    The high-capacity, pressure-primed, tunnel-artery wick concept was used in a gas-controlled variable conductance heat pipe. A variety of techniques were employed to control the size of gas/vapor bubbles trapped within the artery. Successful operation was attained with a nominal 6-foot long, 1-inch diameter cold reservoir VCHP using ammonia working fluid and nitrogen control gas. The pipe contained a heat exchanger to subcool the liquid in the artery. Maximum transport capacity with a 46-inch effective length was 1200 watts level (more than 50,000 watt-inches) and 800 watts at 0.5-inch adverse tilt.

  13. Economies of capacity use in decontamination of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the economies of capacity use regarding hot water decontamination to reduce postslaughter risk of pathogens in meat, taking interfarm heterogeneities of Salmonella risk and costs of transportation into account, using Denmark as a case study. If risk reduction goals are stated...... at the processing plant level, then the exploitation of the favorable cost-effectiveness properties of hot water slaughtering requires fairly ambitious risk reduction goals and thus high use of decontamination capacity. If instead risk reduction goals are formulated for the sector as a whole, the cost...

  14. Installation Capacity Assessment of Damaged Deepwater Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide exploration and development of subsea and deepwater reservoirs has laid down some new and old engineering challenges to the offshore pipeline industry. This requires large D/t pipelines to be installed at water depths in the vicinity of up to 2700m. The deepwater collapse and buckle propagation event is almost unavoidable as the pipe wall thickness cannot be always determined from the codes and standards due to the limit state criteria. These codes also do not consider any fabrication imperfections and sustained damages emanating from transportation and handling. The objective of this paper is to present the Finite Element Analysis (FEA of dented pipes with D/t ratio more than 45, which is outside the applicability of current design codes, and to investigate the effects on installation capacity of these various damage sizes in terms of collapse and buckle propagation.

  15. High Capacity Radio over Fiber Transmission Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    confirmed that this configuration provides high linear end-to-end transmission links and is capable of transparent transport of high spectral efficient modulation formats. Furthermore, this thesis introduces a novel approach for the generation and detection of high speed wireless signals in mm-wave......This thesis expands the state-of-the-art on the detection of high speed wireless signals using optics. Signal detection at speeds over 1 Gbps at carrier Radio Frequency (RF) ranging from 5 GHz to 100 GHz have been achieved by applying novel concepts on optical digital coherent receivers....... This achievement has satisfied the requirements on transmission robustness and high capacity of next generation hybrid optical fibre-wireless networks. One important contribution of this thesis is the novel concept of photonic downconversion with free-running pulsed laser source for phase modulated Radio...

  16. Black hole formation in AdS Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Nils; Kolly, Allison; Frey, Andrew R.; Kunstatter, Gabor

    2016-10-01

    AdS spacetime has been shown numerically to be unstable against a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. In [1], the authors presented a preliminary study of the effects on stability of changing the local dynamics by adding a Gauss-Bonnet term to the Einstein action. Here we provide further details as well as new results with improved numerical methods. In particular, we elucidate new structure in Choptuik scaling plots. We also provide evidence of chaotic behavior at the transition between immediate horizon formation and horizon formation after the matter pulse reflects from the AdS conformal boundary. Finally, we present data suggesting the formation of naked singularities in spacetimes with ADM mass below the algebraic bound for black hole formation.

  17. Black hole formation in AdS Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deppe, Nils [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science andDepartment of Physics, Cornell University,122 Sciences Drive, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kolly, Allison [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University,805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montréal, Québec H3A 0B9 (Canada); Frey, Andrew R.; Kunstatter, Gabor [Department of Physics and Winnipeg Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Winnipeg,515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9 (Canada)

    2016-10-17

    AdS spacetime has been shown numerically to be unstable against a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. In http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.071102, the authors presented a preliminary study of the effects on stability of changing the local dynamics by adding a Gauss-Bonnet term to the Einstein action. Here we provide further details as well as new results with improved numerical methods. In particular, we elucidate new structure in Choptuik scaling plots. We also provide evidence of chaotic behavior at the transition between immediate horizon formation and horizon formation after the matter pulse reflects from the AdS conformal boundary. Finally, we present data suggesting the formation of naked singularities in spacetimes with ADM mass below the algebraic bound for black hole formation.

  18. Parameterization of wind turbine impacts on hydrodynamics and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, Aurélie; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Pinon, Grégory; Magar, Vanesa; Gross, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Monopile foundations of offshore wind turbines modify the hydrodynamics and sediment transport at local and regional scales. The aim of this work is to assess these modifications and to parameterize them in a regional model. In the present study, this is achieved through a regional circulation model, coupled with a sediment transport module, using two approaches. One approach is to explicitly model the monopiles in the mesh as dry cells, and the other is to parameterize them by adding a drag force term to the momentum and turbulence equations. Idealised cases are run using hydrodynamical conditions and sediment grain sizes typical from the area located off Courseulles-sur-Mer (Normandy, France), where an offshore windfarm is under planning, to assess the capacity of the model to reproduce the effect of the monopile on the environment. Then, the model is applied to a real configuration on an area including the future offshore windfarm of Courseulles-sur-Mer. Four monopiles are represented in the model using both approaches, and modifications of the hydrodynamics and sediment transport are assessed over a tidal cycle. In relation to local hydrodynamic effects, it is observed that currents increase at the side of the monopile and decrease in front of and downstream of the monopile. In relation to sediment transport effect, the results show that resuspension and erosion occur around the monopile in locations where the current speed increases due to the monopile presence, and sediments deposit downstream where the bed shear stress is lower. During the tidal cycle, wakes downstream of the monopile reach the following monopile and modify the velocity magnitude and suspended sediment concentration patterns around the second monopile.

  19. A lithium-ion sulfur battery using a polymer, polysulfide-added membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Marco; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-01-05

    In this paper we report the performances of a lithium-ion sulfur battery characterized by a polymer configuration. The cell, based on a sulfur-carbon cathode, a Li-Sn-C nanostructured anode and a PEO-based, polysulfide-added electrolyte, shows very good electrochemical performances in terms of stability and delivered capacity. The remarkable cell performances are ascribed to the mitigation of the cathode dissolution process due to the buffer action ensured by the polysulfide added to the polymer electrolyte. This electrolyte configuration allows the achievement of a stable capacity ranging from 500 to 1500 mAh gS(-1), depending on the cycling rate. The use of a polymer electrolyte and the replacement of the lithium metal with a Li-Sn-C nanostructured alloy are expected to guarantee high safety content, thus suggesting the battery here studied as advanced energy storage system.

  20. Effect of Sea Lettuce (Ulva lactuca on Soil Water Holding Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Hulusi Dede

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca on soil water-holding capacity and the variation by over time were investigated. Sea lettuce (algae was collected from the Black Sea coast, rinsed with rain water and dried to constant weight. Dried algae were added to soil at rate of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%. Mixtures were filling the pots and incubated for 0, 20, 40, 60 days at 25 ºC. At the end of the incubation, soil organic matter and water holding capacity were determined. Adding of algae to soil was increased the porosity and water holding capacity. The amount of the organic matter was decreased by the incubation progress. At the 20 and 40 days, micro-porosity was increased, air capacity decreased and water-holding capacity has not changed. At the 60th incubation days, reduction of organic matter content was slowed, air capacity was reached to normal values and water holding capacity was decreased. Total porosity was not changed. At the beginning (0th and the 60th incubation days, the distinctive dose was obtained at 5% for porosity and water holding capacity increases. Increased doses of the above have been limited. The optimum dose of 5% as determined by the addition of algae was increased soil water holding capacity by 48% on average.

  1. Feasibility study on a complete system of production, transportation and utilization of about 7 MTa of CWS from Shenmu area and Yellow Sea (China). Results of a Beijing symposium on the subject in Beijing (April 1994) and creation of a World Laboratory research centre ad hoc in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, G.; Wang Zuna [ICSC World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland). Project NET-1

    1996-12-31

    The authors had occasion at a coal-water slurry conference in Clearwater to present a preliminary part of a feasibility study, in cooperation with an Italian and a Chinese team, for a complete integrated project of mining, slurryfication, transportation via pipeline, and utilization of 7 millions tons/year of coal. This study started in 1987 and was presented to the Chinese authority on April 1994 in a specific symposium in Beijing with a participation of 60 scientists from Italy and P.R. China. During this long period of cooperation and exchange between the parties, it was possible to organize a complete and advanced Centre of Research in Beijing supplied with modern equipment that is now in full operation and is producing work of very good quality. The goal of this paper is to summarize the above mentioned experience and describe the new Centre, the present status and the future developments. The study and the equipment of the Centre was sponsored by the World Laboratory an International Institution established in Lausanne under the presidency of Prof. A. Zichichi. This organization supported particularly by the Italian government is responsible for several programs of cooperation between N-S-E-W countries in all the critical areas of planetary importance (health, energy, agriculture, food, environment).

  2. Integrated transport strategies for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Replogle, M. [Environmental Defense Fund Transportation Project, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Metropolitan transportation and land development patterns in most of the world are growing increasingly unsustainable. Many factors point to the need for adoption of a new paradigm for sustainable transportation and community development in both high and low income countries: overpopulation, growing air pollution, limited physical and economic capacity to expand automobile-based transportation systems without community destruction, growing inequality in the distribution of resources, and the urgent need to limit global CO{sub 2} emissions to slow the place of global warming. This paper discusses the new paradigm for integrated and sustainable transport strategies. (author) 9 refs.

  3. The Asian Dust and Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (AD-NET: Strategy and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishizawa Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have operated a ground-based lidar network AD-Net using dual wavelength (532, 1064nm depolarization Mie lidar continuously and observed movement of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols in East Asia since 2001. This lidar network observation contributed to understanding of the occurrence and transport mechanisms of Asian dust, validation of chemical transport models, data assimilation and epidemiologic studies. To better understand the optical and microphysical properties, externally and internally mixing states, and the movements of Asian dust and airpollution aerosols, we go forward with introducing a multi-wavelength Raman lidar to the AD-Net and developing a multi-wavelength technique of HSRL in order to evaluate optical concentrations of more aerosol components. We will use this evolving AD-Net for validation of Earth-CARE satellite observation and data assimilation to evaluate emissions of air pollution and dust aerosols in East Asia. We go forward with deploying an in-situ instrument polarization optical particle counter (POPC, which can measure size distributions and non-sphericity of aerosols, to several main AD-Net sites and conducting simultaneous observation of POPC and lidar to clarify internally mixed state of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols transported from the Asian continent to Japan.

  4. Polynomial Time Algorithms for Some Multi-Level Lot-Sizing Problems with Production Capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Hoesel (Stan); H.E. Romeijn (Edwin); D. Romero Morales (Dolores); A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a model for a serial supply chain in which production, inventory, and transportation decisions are integrated, in the presence of production capacities and for different transportation cost functions. The model we study is a generalization of the traditional single-item

  5. Polynomial Time Algorithms For Some Multi-Level Lot-Sizing Problems With Production Capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Hoesel (Stan); H.E. Romeijn (Edwin); D. Romero Morales (Dolores); A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a model for a serial supply chain in which production, inventory, and transportation decisions are integrated, in the presence of production capacities and for different transportation cost functions. The model we study is a generalization of the traditional single-item

  6. Prevalence, proximity and predictors of alcohol ads in Central Harlem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Jernigan, Meghan; Lee, Tammy

    2007-01-01

    Aims: This study examined the prevalence of alcohol ads, the spatial relationship between alcohol ads and schools, churches and playgrounds, and area-level determinants of alcohol ad density in Central Harlem, New York City. Methods...

  7. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chi eYu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC and workload capacity (WLC. Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2 and parametrically (Experiment 2. Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making.

  8. Evolutionary algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dorronsoro, Bernabé; Danoy, Grégoire; Pigné, Yoann; Bouvry, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Describes how evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to identify, model, and minimize day-to-day problems that arise for researchers in optimization and mobile networking. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), vehicular networks (VANETs), sensor networks (SNs), and hybrid networks—each of these require a designer’s keen sense and knowledge of evolutionary algorithms in order to help with the common issues that plague professionals involved in optimization and mobile networking. This book introduces readers to both mobile ad hoc networks and evolutionary algorithms, presenting basic concepts as well as detailed descriptions of each. It demonstrates how metaheuristics and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to help provide low-cost operations in the optimization process—allowing designers to put some “intelligence” or sophistication into the design. It also offers efficient and accurate information on dissemination algorithms topology management, and mobility models to address challenges in the ...

  9. Quantum load balancing in ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, M.; Shariat, S.; Barnaghi, P.; Hoseinitabatabaei, S. A.; Vahid, S.; Tafazolli, R.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a novel approach in targeting load balancing in ad hoc networks utilizing the properties of quantum game theory. This approach benefits from the instantaneous and information-less capability of entangled particles to synchronize the load balancing strategies in ad hoc networks. The quantum load balancing (QLB) algorithm proposed by this work is implemented on top of OLSR as the baseline routing protocol; its performance is analyzed against the baseline OLSR, and considerable gain is reported regarding some of the main QoS metrics such as delay and jitter. Furthermore, it is shown that QLB algorithm supports a solid stability gain in terms of throughput which stands a proof of concept for the load balancing properties of the proposed theory.

  10. Constrained Delaunay Triangulation for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Satyanarayana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometric spanners can be used for efficient routing in wireless ad hoc networks. Computation of existing spanners for ad hoc networks primarily focused on geometric properties without considering network requirements. In this paper, we propose a new spanner called constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT which considers both geometric properties and network requirements. The CDT is formed by introducing a small set of constraint edges into local Delaunay triangulation (LDel to reduce the number of hops between nodes in the network graph. We have simulated the CDT using network simulator (ns-2.28 and compared with Gabriel graph (GG, relative neighborhood graph (RNG, local Delaunay triangulation (LDel, and planarized local Delaunay triangulation (PLDel. The simulation results show that the minimum number of hops from source to destination is less than other spanners. We also observed the decrease in delay, jitter, and improvement in throughput.

  11. Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-07-14

    Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment.

  12. AD/HD: POSSIBLE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl REICHELT

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show that a more exact diagnosis and dietary intervention in AD/HD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Di­sor­der is possible and probable. The clinical symptom based diagnosis we suggest may be supplemented with physiological tests. A ge­netic and environmental inter-action is clearly involved and explainable using phenyl­ke­tonuria as a model.Method: Examining peer reviewed published papers on gut to blood, blood to brain inter­action and effect of interventions in AD/HD and our own studies in the field. The various treatment options are discussed.Results: It can be shown that a gut to brain activity is possible and probable, and dietary intervention is useful and probably safer than drugs. Preliminary data on a small five year follow up of dietary intervention is shown.

  13. Accelerator development in India for ADS programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. At BARC, development of a Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator. (LEHIPA), as front-end injector of the 1 GeV accelerator for the ADS programme, has been initiated. The major components of LEHIPA (20 MeV, 30 mA) are a 50 keV ECR ion source, a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 ...

  14. AdS-Flows and Weyl Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidhuber, C

    2000-01-01

    An analogy is noted between RG flow equations in 4-dimensional gauge theory, as derived from the AdS/CFT correspondence, and the RG flow equations in 4-dimensional field theory coupled to a particular limit of Weyl supergravity. This suggests a possible theory of dynamical 3-branes with fluctuating 4-dimensional conformal factor. The argument involves a map from flows in 4-dimensional gauge theories to flows in a class of 2-dimensional sigma models.

  15. Drag cancellation by added-mass pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Giorgio-Serchi, F

    2016-01-01

    A submerged body subject to a sudden shape-change experiences large forces due to the variation of added-mass energy. While this phenomenon has been studied for single actuation events, application to sustained propulsion requires studying \\textit{periodic} shape-change. We do so in this work by investigating a spring-mass oscillator submerged in quiescent fluid subject to periodic changes in its volume. We develop an analytical model to investigate the relationship between added-mass variation and viscous damping and demonstrate its range of application with fully coupled fluid-solid Navier-Stokes simulations at large Stokes number. Our results demonstrate that the recovery of added-mass kinetic energy can be used to completely cancel the viscous damping of the fluid, driving the onset of sustained oscillations with amplitudes as large as four times the average body radius $r_0$. A quasi-linear relationship is found to link the terminal amplitude of the oscillations $X$, to the extent of size change $a$, wit...

  16. PERBEDAAN PERUSAHAN PENCIPTA ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED POSITIF DENGAN ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED NEGATIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suripto Suripto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was to explain and analyze the different variable of Inflation Rate,Exchange Rate, Interest Rate, Ratio Plant Asset, Size Measure Company, Profitability, Growth ,LD / E, TD / TA, Stock of Return, Book To Market between company having Economic ValueAdded ( Positive and company having Economic Value Added ( Negative . Analysis which wasused in this research was multivariate analysis of variant (MANOVA. There was different variableof Inflation Rate, Exchange Rate, Interest Rate, Ratio Plant Asset, Size Measure Company,Profitability, Growth , LD / E, TD / TA, Stock of Return, Book To Market between companyhaving Economic Value Added ( Positive and negative EVA. However, by partial, only differentsale size was significant

  17. Sucrose transporters of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Christina; Grof, Christopher P L

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances have provided new insights into how sucrose is moved from sites of synthesis to sites of utilisation or storage in sink organs. Sucrose transporters play a central role, as they orchestrate sucrose allocation both intracellularly and at the whole plant level. Sucrose produced in mesophyll cells of leaves may be effluxed into the apoplasm of mesophyll or phloem parenchyma cells by a mechanism that remains elusive, but experimentally consistent with facilitated transport or energy-dependent sucrose/H(+) antiport. From the apoplasm, sucrose/H(+) symporters transport sucrose across the plasma membrane of cells making up the sieve element/companion cell (SE/CC) complex, the long distance conduits of the phloem. Phloem unloading of sucrose in key sinks such as developing seeds involves two sequential transport steps, sucrose efflux followed by sucrose influx. Besides plasma membrane specific sucrose transporters, sucrose transporters on the tonoplast contribute to the capacity for elevated sucrose accumulation in storage organs such as sugar beet roots or sugarcane culms. Except for several sucrose facilitators from seed coats of some leguminous plants all sucrose transporters cloned to date, including recently identified vacuolar sucrose transporters, have been characterised as sucrose/H(+) symporters. Transporters functioning to efflux sucrose into source or sink apoplasms as well as those supporting sucrose/H(+) antiport on tonoplasts, remain to be identified. Sucrose transporter expression and activity is tightly regulated at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional as well as post-translational levels. Light quality and phytohormones play essential regulatory roles and the sucrose molecule itself functions as a signal. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An approach for economic analysis of intermodal transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bahri; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  19. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  20. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  1. Adsorption and transport of methane in biochars derived from waste wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R

    2015-09-01

    Mitigation of landfill gas (LFG) is among the critical aspects considered in the design of a landfill cover in order to prevent atmospheric pollution and control global warming. In general, landfill cover soils can partially remove methane (CH4) through microbial oxidation carried out by methanotrophic bacteria present within them. The oxidizing capacity of these landfill cover soils may be improved by adding organic materials, such as biochar, which increase adsorption and promote subsequent or simultaneous oxidation of CH4. In this study, seven wood-derived biochars and granular activated carbon (GAC) were characterized for their CH4 adsorption capacity by conducting batch and small-scale column studies. The effects of influential factors, such as exposed CH4 concentration, moisture content and temperature on CH4 adsorption onto biochars, were determined. The CH4 transport was modeled using a 1-D advection-dispersion equation that accounted for sorption. The effects of LFG inflow rates and moisture content on the combined adsorption and transport properties of biochars were determined. The maximum CH4 adsorption capacity of GAC (3.21mol/kg) was significantly higher than that of the biochars (0.05-0.9mol/kg). The CH4 gas dispersion coefficients for all of the biochars ranged from 1×10(-3) to 3×10(-3)m(2)s(-1). The presence of moisture significantly suppressed the extent of methane adsorption onto the biochars and caused the methane to break through within shorter periods of time. Overall, certain biochar types have a high potential to enhance CH4 adsorption and transport properties when used as a cover material in landfills. However, field-scale studies need to be conducted in order to evaluate the performance of biochar-based cover system under a more dynamic field condition that captures the effect of seasonal and temporal changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effective ADE models for first-order mobile-immobile solute transport: Limits on validity and modeling implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K.

    2015-12-01

    Quasi-1D mobile-immobile transport processes which have exponentially distributed random waiting times in both mobile and immobile states are common in hydrologic models (for example, of transport subject to kinetic sorption). The central limit theorem implies that eventually such transport will be expressible with an effective ADE (i.e. a generalization of the common retardation factor approach with an added Fickian dispersion coefficient accounting for the effect of trapping). Previous works have determined formulae for the value of this coefficient based on the transport properties. However, the time until convergence to Gaussian behavior has not previously been quantified. To this end, exact Green's functions characterizing the transport at all times are derived for the case of pure advection. The Green's functions are expressed in terms of three dimensionless parameters, representing location, time, and capacity coefficient. In the pre-Gaussian regime, a parametric study characterizing concentration profile asymmetry as a function of the capacity coefficient is performed. Next, heuristics are presented in terms of the dimensionless parameters for the time until the effective ADE adequately reflects reality. For strongly retarded solute, the time until effective ADE validity is found inversely proportional to release (e.g., desorption) rate. The nature of the effective dispersion coefficient is examined, and the possibility of large trapping-driven dispersion even in cases where batch experiments would detect negligible trapping is demonstrated. Collectively, these results call into question reliance on retardation factors derived from batch experiments for many practical transport modeling efforts; knowledge of both the trapping and release kinetics appears essential.

  3. Pressure and Compressibility of Conformal Field Theories from the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Dolan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The equation of state associated with N = 4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills in four dimensions, for S U ( N in the large N limit, is investigated using the AdS/CFT correspondence. An asymptotically AdS black-hole on the gravity side provides a thermal background for the Yang–Mills theory on the boundary in which the cosmological constant is equivalent to a volume. The thermodynamic variable conjugate to the cosmological constant is a pressure, and the P - V diagram of the quark-gluon plasma is studied. It is known that there is a critical point where the heat capacity diverges, and this is reflected in the isothermal compressibility. Critical exponents are derived and found to be mean field in the large N limit. The same analysis applied to three- and six-dimensional conformal field theories again yields mean field exponents associated with the compressibility at the critical point.

  4. A reference accelerator scheme for ADS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biarrotte, Jean-Luc; Bousson, Sébastien; Junquera, Tomas; Mueller, Alex C.; Olivier, Aurélia

    2006-06-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for transmutation of nuclear waste typically require 350 MeV-1 GeV accelerators delivering proton fluxes of 5-10 mA for demonstrators, and 20-50 mA for large industrial systems. Thus, such machines belong to the category of the so-called HPPA (High-Power Proton Accelerators), with multi-megawatt beam power. HPPA are presently developed and constructed at great pace for their broad utility in fundamental or applied science. Compared to other HPPA, many features and requirements are similar for the ADS driver. However, there is a need for exceptional reliability: because of the induced thermal stress to the sub-critical core, the number of unwanted "beam-trips" should not exceed a few per year, a requirement that is several orders of magnitude above usual performance. Consecutive to the work of the European Technical Working Group (ETWG) on ADS, the Preliminary Design Study of an Experimental ADS (PDS-XADS) was launched in 2001 as a 5th Framework Program EC project. A special Working Package (WP3) was dedicated to the accelerator design, taking especially into account that the issue of "beam-trips" could be a potential "show-stopper" for ADS technology in general. A reference solution, based on a linear superconducting accelerator with its associated doubly achromatic beam line, has been worked out to some detail. For high reliability, the proposed design is intrinsically fault tolerant, relying on highly modular "de-rated" components associated to a fast digital feedback system. The proposed solution also appears to be robust concerning operational aspects like maintenance and radioprotection. A roadmap for construction as well as the required consolidated budget was elaborated. A program for the remaining R&D, focused on experimental reliability demonstration of prototypical components has been elaborated. This R&D will be performed in the 6th Framework Program EC project EUROTRANS, which presently is just starting. EC Contract No

  5. Measuring the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma using potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessutti, L S; Macedo, D V; Kubota, L T; Alves, A A

    2013-10-15

    The use of potentiometry to measure plasma antioxidant capacity to contribute to oxidative stress evaluation is presented. In this assay, plasma (n=60) diluted (0.3 to 1 ml) in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, NaCl 9%, was submitted to potentiometry. A platinum wire was the working electrode and saturated calomel the reference. The results are presented as the difference between sample and buffer potential (ΔE). ΔE presented a good inverse correlation with added increasing concentrations of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L; R=-0.99), urate (9.0-150 μmol/L; R=-0.99), and bilirubin (0.78-13 μmol/L; R=-0.99). Increase in the antioxidant capacity decreased ΔE. Depletion of the antioxidant capacity by tert-butylhydroperoxide (6.5-50 μmol/L) presented a direct correlation (0.97) with ΔE. Furthermore, ΔE presented an inverse correlation (R=-0.99) with increased antioxidant capacity of plasma (FRAP) induced by the addition of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L). The response of the potentiometric method proved be adequate for measuring the plasma antioxidant depletion induced by acute exhaustive exercise in rats (control, n=15; exercised, n=15). This exercise decreased the concentration of urate (ppotentiometry for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  7. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION BY URBAN TRANSPORT WHILE USING VARIOUS NUMBER OF FIXED-ROUTE TRANSPORT FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chumachenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of services which are offered by urban passenger transport determines a living standard of country’s inhabitants. The executed analysis of methods for quality assessment of passenger transportation service by urban transport has shown that it is expedient to use complex indices for such assessment. The existing methods for quality assessment of urban passenger transport do not fully take into account subjective passengers’ evaluation of service quality criteria. The investigations conducted with the purpose to estimate significance of quality assessment criteria pertaining to urban pas-senger transport operation for passengers have made it possible to formalize importance of the given significance. A complex index of urban passenger transport quality has been prepared that includes such isolated quality indicators as pedestrian mo-tion component, waiting time, travel time, dynamic factor of capacity usage. It has been determined that it is possible to plan quality of passenger transportation while using transport process simulation. Influence of technological parameters on quality parameters can be determined with the help of the developed simulation model for quality assessment of transportation pro-cess on route of urban passenger transport. While using the simulation model regularities in changing a complex quality index of urban passenger transport have been analyzed according to number of transport facilities operating on route. Simulation results have shown that changes in number of transport facilities significantly exert an influence on the value of dynamic fac-tor of transport facility capacity usage, waiting time for transport facility and time travel. This leads to changes in quality of transportation process. Analysis of the obtained results has permitted to make a conclusion that every route with certain parameters has such rational number of transport facilities that ensures maximum efficiency of urban passenger

  8. Silicon on conductive self-organized TiO2 nanotubes - A high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbarov, Jassen; Kunze-Liebhäuser, Julia

    2014-07-01

    The study of high energy density electrode materials is central to the development of Li+-ion batteries. Si is among the most promising anode materials for next generation Li+-ion batteries. Model composite electrodes of self-organized, conductive titania (TiO2-x-C) nanotubes coated with silicon (Si) via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are produced and studied in terms of their lithiation/delithiation characteristics. The nanotube array provides direct one dimensional electron transport to the current collector, without the need of adding binders or conductive additives. Both components of the composite can be lithiated delivering 120 μAh cm-2 total capacity for a film thickness of 1 μm and a Si loading of ∼10 wt.%. 86% capacity retention upon 88 cycles at a rate of C/5 and 60 μAh cm-2 total capacity at a rate of 10 C are achieved owing to the low lateral expansion and thus good adhesion of the thin Si coating to the TiO2-x-C nanotubes, and due to the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) in ethylene-carbonate (EC), dimethyl-carbonate (DMC), vinylene-carbonate (VC) electrolyte with 1 M LiPF6.

  9. Niacin Therapy Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Particles and Total Cholesterol Efflux Capacity But Not ABCA1-Specific Cholesterol Efflux in Statin-Treated Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsein, Graziella E; Hutchins, Patrick M; Isquith, Daniel; Vaisar, Tomas; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Heinecke, Jay W

    2016-02-01

    We investigated relationships between statin and niacin/statin combination therapy and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein particles (HDL-P) and cholesterol efflux capacity, 2 HDL metrics that might better assess cardiovascular disease risk than HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. In the Carotid Plaque Composition Study, 126 subjects with a history of cardiovascular disease were randomized to atorvastatin or combination therapy (atorvastatin/niacin). At baseline and after 1 year of treatment, the concentration of HDL and its 3 subclasses (small, medium, and large) were quantified by calibrated ion mobility analysis (HDL-PIMA). We also measured total cholesterol efflux from macrophages and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. Atorvastatin decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 39% and raised HDL-C by 11% (P=0.0001) but did not increase HDL-PIMA or macrophage cholesterol efflux. Combination therapy raised HDL-C by 39% (Pniacin therapy. Statin therapy increased HDL-C levels but failed to increase HDL-PIMA. It also reduced ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. Adding niacin to statin therapy increased HDL-C and macrophage efflux, but had much less effect on HDL-PIMA. It also failed to improve ABCA1-specific efflux, a key cholesterol exporter in macrophages. Our observations raise the possibility that niacin might not target the relevant atheroprotective population of HDL. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  11. Fermi Transport

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Fermi Transport. Joseph Samuel. Figure 1. It shows the sphere of directions in green, with three radial directions labeled. 1, 2, 3. The polarisation vectors are shown in red perpendicular to the radius vector and therefore tangential to the sphere. If the direction of a light ray changes from 1 to. 2 to 3 to 1, the polarisation vector ...

  12. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  13. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  14. High-precision dating of volcanic events (A.D. 1301-1995) using ice cores from Law Dome, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Anne S.; van Ommen, Tas D.; Curran, Mark A. J.; Morgan, Vin; Souney, Joe M.; Mayewski, Paul A.

    2001-11-01

    A record of volcanic activity over the period A.D. 1301-1995 has been extracted from three Law Dome ice cores (East Antarctica). The record dating is unambiguous at the annual level from A.D. 1807 to 1995 and has an uncertainty of ±1 year at A.D. 1301. Signals from 20 eruptions are preserved in the record, including those of two unknown eruptions with acid deposition beginning in A.D. 1810.8 and A.D. 1685.8. The beginning of the ice core signal from the A.D. 1815 Tambora eruption is observed in the austral summer of A.D. 1816/1817. The mean observed stratospheric transport and deposition time to Law Dome from the eruption site is 1.5 years (σ = 0.6 years) from 11 well-dated eruptions. The largest eruption observed in the Law Dome record has its maximum in A.D. 1460 with volcanic sulfate deposition beginning in the austral winter of A.D. 1459. This event is also observed in other ice core records and is attributed to the volcano Kuwae, with an eruption date in the range A.D. 1455.9-1459.9 if all sources of error are considered. This is at least three years later than the date previously ascribed by dendrochronological and historical studies.

  15. D-instanton in AdS sub 5 and instanton in SYM sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, C S; Wu, Y Y

    1999-01-01

    Following the observation of Banks and Green that the D-instantons in AdS sub 5 correspond to the instantons in four-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, we study in more detail this correspondence for individual instantons. The supergravity solution for a D-instanton in AdS sub 5 is found using the ansatz used previously for D-instantons in flat space. We check that the actions and supersymmetries match between the D-instanton solution and the Yang-Mills instanton. Generalizing this result, we propose that any supergravity solution satisfying the ansatz corresponds to a (anti-) self-dual Yang-Mills configuration. Using this ansatz a family of identities for correlation functions in the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are derived.

  16. AdS5 vacua from type IIB supergravity on T 1 ,1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Jan; Muranaka, Constantin

    2017-06-01

    We study maximally supersymmetric Anti-de Sitter backgrounds in consistent \\mathcal{N}=2 truncations of type IIB supergravity compactified on the Sasaki-Einstein manifold T 1,1. In particular, we focus on truncations that contain fields coming from the nontrivial second and third cohomology forms on T 1,1. These give rise to \\mathcal{N}=2 super-gravity coupled to two vector- and two hypermultiplets (Betti-vector truncation) or one vector- and three hypermultiplets (Betti-hyper truncation), respectively. We find that both truncations admit AdS5 backgrounds with the gauge group always being broken but containing at least an U(1) R factor. Moreover, in both cases we show that the moduli space of AdS vacua is nontrivial and of maximal dimension. Finally, we explicitly compute the metrics on these moduli spaces.

  17. P-V criticality of AdS black holes in a general framework

    CERN Document Server

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting the cosmological constant as pressure, it has been observed that AdS black holes behave as van der Waals system. The critical exponents for the phase transition for all AdS black holes are exactly same as those for the van der Waals system. Till now this has been observed case by case. Here, without using any specific form of the black hole metric, we present a general framework based on just two universal inputs. These are the general forms of the Smarr formula and the first law of thermodynamics. We find that the same values of the critical exponents can be obtained by this general analysis. Therefore there is no need to investigate for a particular metric. The importance of our analysis is that it highlights the observed universality, as well as revels the reason for such universality.

  18. Free field realization of superstring theory on AdS3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Diego M. E-mail: dmhof@yahoo.com.ar; Nunez, Carmen A

    2004-07-01

    The Coulomb gas representation of expectation values in SU(2) conformal field theory developed by Dotsenko is extended to the SL(2,R) WZW model and applied to bosonic string theory on AdS3 and to Type II superstrings on AdS3 x N. The spectral flow symmetry is included in the free field realization of vertex operators creating superstring states of both Ramond and Neveu-Schwarz sectors. Conjugate representations for these operators are constructed and a background charge prescription is designed to compute correlation functions. Two and three point functions of bosonic and fermionic string states in arbitrary winding sectors are calculated. Scattering amplitudes that violate winding number conservation are also discussed. (author)

  19. AdS5 compactifications with punctures in massive IIA supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Ibrahima; Passias, Achilleas; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    We find AdS5 solutions holographically dual to compactifications of six- dimensional N = (1, 0) supersymmetric field theories on Riemann surfaces with punctures. We simplify a previous analysis of supersymmetric AdS5 IIA solutions, and with a suitable Ansatz we find explicit solutions organized in three classes, where an O8-D8 stack, D6-and D4-branes are simultaneously present, localized and partially localized. The D4-branes are smeared over the Riemann surface and this is interpreted as the presence of a uniform distribution of punctures. For the first class we identify the corresponding six-dimensional theory as an E-string theory coupled to a quiver gauge theory. The second class of solutions lacks D6-branes and its central charge scales as n 5/2, suggesting a five-dimensional origin for the dual field theory. The last class has elements of the previous two.

  20. Bulk Fields and Supersymmetry in a Slice of AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Gherghetta, Tony; Gherghetta, Tony; Pomarol, Alex

    2000-01-01

    Five-dimensional models where the bulk is a slice of AdS have the virtue of solving the hierarchy problem. The electroweak scale is generated by a ``warp'' factor of the induced metric on the brane where the standard model fields live. However, it is not necessary to confine the standard model fields on the brane and we analyze the possibility of having the fields actually living in the slice of AdS. Specifically, we study the behaviour of fermions, gauge bosons and scalars in this geometry and their implications on electroweak physics. These scenarios can provide an explanation of the fermion mass hierarchy by warp factors. We also consider the case of supersymmetry in the bulk, and analyze the conditions on the mass spectrum. Finally, a model is proposed where the warp factor generates a small (TeV) supersymmetry-breaking scale, with the gauge interactions mediating the breaking to the scalar sector.