WorldWideScience

Sample records for added tax special

  1. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...... taxes distort relative prices, which in turn reduces average industry productivity through reallocations (the survival and increased market share of lower productivity firms). Importantly, numerical solutions of the model reveal that the relative welfare loss from using the unit tax increases...

  2. Management of Tax Payments Under the Definitive Value Added Tax Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurušs Māris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a large value added tax fraud in the European Union. The current value added tax system is universal as tax is applied to all parties involved in the chain transactions, thus creating a risk of tax losses if one of the parties involved in the chain transaction does not pay tax in good faith. There is the action plan to introduce the definitive value added tax to prevent tax fraud in intra-community transactions. However, in order to ensure normal value added tax administration in all member states, a number of measures are needed to be done. It is necessary to develop a mutual settlement mechanism in cases of intra-community transactions. The aim of this research is to develop a possible solution for the management of tax payments under the definitive value added tax regime. The results of the research show that to manage tax payments, several payment management systems can be used. However, as a solution, a special clearing system could be introduced. Quantitative research methods such as statistical methods were used in order to analyze the situation of tax fraud in EU and its main causes, as well as mathematical modeling methods to analyze the definitive VAT system and to calculate the balance between countries in an example for clearing mechanism.

  3. IS THE VALUE ADDED TAX A SUPERIOR SALES TAX IN ALL SALES TAXES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA ALİ SARILI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Value Added Tax (VAT is a tax imposed on the value added to a product at each stage of the production and distribution process. Value added is never taxed twice under VAT and thus cascading (tax on tax effects do not occur. It is a single tax on goods and services but the tax is collected multiple stages. At each of these stages, the amount of tax payable is computed by subtracting the tax previously paid on purchases from the tax charged on sales by the traders for each taxation period. In last three decades, VAT, a relatively new and better commodity taxation, has been introduced in many countries. It has replaced different types of sales taxes in such countries. This article attempts to evaluate VAT by comparing with other sales taxes.

  4. Tax expenditures and the efficiency of Croatian value added tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Sopek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to provide a systematic overview of value added taxation in Croatia along with main changes in relevant legislation and to estimate total amount of tax expenditures. Results show that the proportion of tax expenditures in GDP in Croatia in 2010 amounted to less than 4%, a proportion lower than in any of the EU new member states, as well as almost twice as low as the EU-27 average. It can be concluded that the Croatian value added taxation system is efficient in this way, as was additionally shown by an analysis according to which Croatia in 2010 had better efficiency indicators than all the observed EU member states. The Croatian VAT system is mainly harmonized with EU directives, but abolition of the zero rate is still expected; this will increase government revenue by approximately 0.4-0.8% of GDP, depending on a chosen scenario. It has been suggested that a detailed analysis of the overall value added taxation system should be initiated, with the aim of optimizing cost-benefits. The main focus should be placed on the determination of the optimal VAT registration threshold, the costs and benefits of the introduced reliefs and exemptions in the tax system and the potential effects of the repeal of the zero rate.

  5. Cost-savings accruable to removing value added tax from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Varsha Bangalee

    added tax (VAT), regardless of their therapeutic value in the private healthcare sector of. South Africa. ..... addition, removing VAT on selective medicines, such as essential ... through increased taxes on unhealthy consumption patterns.

  6. Value-Added Tax -- Can Schools Use It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Richard G.

    1973-01-01

    Defines the value-added tax and examines it in light of equity, economic effects, cost of administration, and stability and yield. Compares the tax with the property tax and suggests alternative ways in which States and the Federal Government may participate in the financing of education. (DN)

  7. 27 CFR 479.32 - Special (occupational) tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special (occupational) tax..., AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes § 479.32 Special (occupational) tax rates. (a) Prior to January 1, 1988, the special (occupational) tax rates were as follows: Per year or fraction...

  8. Tax Reforms in Nigeria: Case for Value Added Tax (VAT)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    amended based on destination principle to impose VAT on imported services rendered ... It was the view of Popoola (2009) that Nigeria tax administration and practice be structured ..... have low VAT rates, e.g. Nigeria, India and Malaysia.

  9. Value added tax-theoretical and practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Božidar B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Value added tax has been applied for four decades now and as a novelty it has already worn off both in theory and practice. It has indisputable advantages and relatively minor shortcomings compared to other forms of consumption taxation. Today it is one of the most widely used form of consumption tax in the world, being levied in about 120 countries accounting for around 70 per cent of the world population, including all European countries except Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Federation and the Republic of Srpska. The burden of value added tax is visible at each stage in the production and distribution chain, thus eliminating taxation accumulation and is borne ultimately by the final consumer of final goods and services in the consuming country. The consumption type is a dominant type of value added tax. It ensures that the fixed and current assets purchases are exempt from VAT, and as such, it encourages technological progress and investment. By applying the country of destination principle (VAT is chargeable in the country where the goods or services are consumed - exports are exempt from tax while imports are taxed, value added tax eliminates double taxation and retains tax sovereignty of the importing country. In the last ten years there have been attempts to introduce value added tax in Serbia. The introduction of value added tax is the condition for the accession to the EU and we should expect that the latest attempt to introduce this tax in the Serbia taxation system will be successful. Namely, VAT Act is expected to be passed during 2004 and enforced as of January 1, 2005.

  10. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER; Adnan GERÇEK

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added tax...

  11. Value-Added Taxes, Chain Effects, and Informality

    OpenAIRE

    Áureo de Paula; Jose A. Scheinkman

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates determinants of informal economic activity. We present an equilibrium model of informality and test its implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. A novel theoretical contribution in this model is the role of value added taxes in transmitting informality. It predicts that the informality of a firm is correlated to the informality of f...

  12. Determinants of value added tax revenue in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    WAWIRE, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Past studies that have been undertaken on the responsiveness of Value Added Tax revenues to changes in GDP in Kenya have found a positive relationship. However, the studies omit key determinants of tax revenues, such as the nature of the tax system, institutional, demographic and structural features of the economy. Due to this omission, the estimated income elasticities are unreliable for planning purposes, a situation that might be responsible for the recurring budget deficits. The...

  13. Changes of the value added tax in the tax-harmonization process with EC directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Votavová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to bring near the topical process of the assimilation the Czech law of value added tax to the EC-directives. The attention will be paid to the development of the harmonization this law in 1993 – 2003 and I will describe and analyse the choice sections of the value added tax law (with the effective date from 1. 5. 2004. I will explain the changes by tax rates.

  14. Amendments to the Law on Value Added Tax in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeana Beshi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze the objectives and effects of amendments in the Law on Value Added Tax (VAT as part of the new fiscal package in Kosovo. This paper is based on a quantitative analysis. Some of the methods used in this paperwork are: historical- , descriptive-, and comparative method. It relies on facts and researches conducted by international organizations, based on productive forces and on the development of economic capacities in general, also a comparative overview of the fiscal policies applied in different states. This paper presents also the challenges of Kosovo, towards EU, by harmonizing tax legislation, fiscal policy and combating tax evasion.

  15. Ad Valorem versus Unit Taxes in Oligopoly and Endogenous Market Conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In oligopoly, comparison of the tax pass-through favors the use of ad valorem taxes compared to unit taxes. We argue that, in addition to differences in tax pass-through, the two taxes have a dissimilar effect on firms' strategic interaction. The anticompetitive effects of the two taxes favor unit...

  16. Value Added Tax Gap in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stavjaňová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an estimation of tax evasion of value added tax in the Czech Republic during 2006–2012. For the estimation I have used the concept of tax gap which is based on a comparison of the theoretical tax liability in the economy with the actual tax receipts. According to my results the VAT gap in the Czech Republic gradually increased during the observed period and it is more than CZK 100 billion in the last three years. The most significant growth of VAT gap occurred between the years 2007 and 2008 and between 2011 and 2012 when the reduced VAT rate was increased by 4 percentage points. The second part of the paper focuses on impact of my estimates on tax policy of the Czech Republic. I discuss two different possibilities how the additional revenue gained from VAT gap reduction could be used – either to decrease the government deficit and therefore to meet the Maastricht criteria or to decrease tax burden on labour which influences particularly low income workers.

  17. Value-added tax fraud in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronowitz, A.A.; Laagland, D.C.G.; Paulides, G.

    1996-01-01

    Questions addressed in this project included:What are the existing control mechanisms and how do they operate? What public bodies are responsible for the fight against Value Added Tax (VAT) fraud and what are their competencies? What are the possibilities to exchange information between member

  18. Requirements for Logical Models for Value-Added Tax Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Larsen, Ken Friis

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are ubiquitous in commercial enterprises of all sizes and invariably need to account for the notion of value-added tax (VAT). The legal and technical difficulties in handling VAT are exacerbated by spanning a broad and chaotic spectrum of intricate country...

  19. Cost-savings accruable to removing value added tax from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the important and essential role that medicines play in any society, all medicines, including those identified as essential, are uniformly subjected to 14% value added tax (VAT), regardless of their therapeutic value in the private healthcare sector of South Africa. The aim of this article is to demonstrate ...

  20. Japanese Consumption Tax with Regard to Cross-Border Service Trading : A Comparison with EU-Type Value Added Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    細木, 宏和; ホソキ, ヒロカズ; Hirokazu, HOSOKI

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines a tax jurisdiction issue of the consumption tax system with regard to Japanese service trading. The Destination principle for service trading has not been established in Japanese consumption tax, but taxation at the place of consumption is gradually being adopted for value-added taxes in the EU. Under these circumstances, it is necessary for us to revise the Japanese consumption tax system in favor of taxation at the place of consumption, using EU-type value-added tax syst...

  1. 48 CFR 252.229-7006 - Value added tax exclusion (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Value added tax exclusion... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7006 Value added tax exclusion (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(f), use the following clause: Value Added Tax Exclusion (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997...

  2. The specifics of applying value added tax for local authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Grásgruber

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available If local authorities units carry out an economic activity, are considered to be taxable under Act No. 235/2004 Coll., On Value Added Tax as amended. Adjustment of VAT in all countries of the European Union is based on Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 on the common system of value added tax as amended. The application of this directive is binding for all EU member states and national treatment of VAT may diverge from the Directive only in cases where the Directive permits. Decisions of the European Court of Justice are of considerable importance during the interpretation of the Czech VAT Act.For the municipalities and regions article defines the activities that are considered to be an economic activity and activities that are deemed to exercise of public administration and are not therefore subject to VAT. Further the paper defines the concept of turnover of local authorities. At paper there are evaluating the impact of the application of VAT on municipalities and regions in the provision of the individual fulfillment. Great attention must municipalities and region devote to the problem of correct application of claim to tax deduction if they carry out the exercise of public administration, taxable activities and fulfillments exempt from VAT.

  3. The economic impact of reduced value added tax rates for groceries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomíra Martinková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The value added tax represents one of the most important sources of state budget revenues of EU Member States. The basic value added tax rate is in the EU currently between 15% in Luxembourg to 27% applied in Hungary. The revenues from this tax represent an average of 17.5% of all tax revenues of EU countries and create an average GDP of 7.0% (year 2016, EU 28. As revenues from value added tax represent a stable income of state budget, the legislative changes in the system of value added tax, mainly its reductions as well as its imposition on groceries, can significantly influence further macroeconomic development. In the last year, the government of the Slovak Republic implemented changes in universal indirect taxing in such way that in addition to the standard value added tax rate of 20%, the Act No. 268/2015 on Value added tax adopted in 2016 a decreased value added tax rate of 10% on selected groceries, in order to support domestic producers and reduce the tax burden of low-income and middle-income groups. According to the European Commission (2007, the reduced rate of value added tax in selected cases has its justification and importance in the country's economy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic impact of the applied reduced value added tax on food in the Slovak Republic in the context of household expenditures and revenues of the state budget.

  4. 1977 guidebook to California taxes with special emphasis on relationship to Federal taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    This book is designed to be a quick reference work on California State taxes. With this in mind, the amount of detail is kept to a minimum by assuming that the reader has some knowledge of Federal taxes that are generally similar to the major California taxes (or that he has access to the wealth of information about Federal taxes that is readily available). The book explains the four major California taxes (personal income tax, tax on corporate income, inheritance tax, and gift tax), whenever possible, in terms of the comparable Federal taxes. Differences between the two laws are pointed out, and cross-references make it possible to trace from a given provision in one law to a comparable provision in the other. Special attention is given to subjects peculiar to the California law. In addition to the major State taxes, the book provides general information about other taxes levied by the State. Property taxes are also discussed briefly, because of their statewide impact, although they are imposed by local governmental units.

  5. VALUE ADDED TAX IN THE ECONOMIC CRISIS CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to present the major aspects concerning the value added tax in the context of economic crisis in European Union countries and Romania. The paper realizes an analysis of the impact of economic crises on VAT in the European space underlining the current situation when the revenues from VAT represent a valuable source of financing the public expenditures. In Romania the economic crises has led to increasing o f VAT rate from 19% to 24%. This measure is an important fiscal measure for the state budget and this study tries to reflect the impact of this VAT rate increase on the public revenues and consumption.

  6. 26 CFR 25.6324-1 - Special lien for gift tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special lien for gift tax. 25.6324-1 Section 25... GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Procedure and Administration § 25.6324-1 Special lien for gift tax. For regulations concerning the special lien for the gift tax, see § 301.6324-1...

  7. On revenue and welfare dominance of ad valorem taxes in two-sided markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2009-01-01

    A benchmark result in public economics is that it is possible to increase both tax revenue and welfare by making a monopoly subject to ad valorem taxes rather than unit taxes. We show that such revenue and welfare dominance does not hold in two-sided markets.......A benchmark result in public economics is that it is possible to increase both tax revenue and welfare by making a monopoly subject to ad valorem taxes rather than unit taxes. We show that such revenue and welfare dominance does not hold in two-sided markets....

  8. 26 CFR 20.6324A-1 - Special lien for estate tax deferred under section 6166 or 6166A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) for payment of the estate tax. Such value must take into account any encumbrance on the property (such... the required value must be added to the agreement within 90 days after notice and demand from the... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special lien for estate tax deferred under...

  9. The Role of Value Added Tax on Economic Growth of Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The achievement of economic growth is crucial for countries sustainable development. Recently, Value Added Tax (VAT) becomes a major worldwide tax instrument which enhances economic growth. Being a tax levied on the final consumption of goods and services, VAT is collected at each stage of production and ...

  10. VALUE-ADDED TAX AND ITS EFFICIENCY: EU–28 AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Hodzic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses value-added tax (VAT, with special emphasis on efficiency in the EU-28 Member States and Turkey, over the period from 2009 to 2013. From the results of the analysis, we concluded that, the highest efficiency ratio (50.8 was recorded in Croatia in 2013. This indicates that Croatia’s value-added tax revenues as percentage of gross domestic product in the state budget were very high (12.7 in comparison to Turkey’s (9.0 in 2013. As such, VAT is one of the most important taxes in the EU-28 Member States and many countries worldwide, like Turkey. The current VAT system in EU-28 Member States and Turkey is quite complex for the growing number of businesses operating cross-border. To increase investment, competitiveness and growth, an action plan on VAT is proposed for the creation of a single VAT area. The VAT system needs to be more efficient and simpler for businesses to use.

  11. Value added tax evasion and excise duty fraud on fuel market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Semerád

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with analysis of current problems in the motor fuel market. It analyzes bottlenecks in setting the legislative changes in value added tax, excise tax and the legislation concerning fuels. The biggest problem is tax evasions that favor one group of business entities at the expense of another, and also cause that the state loses revenues mainly from indirect taxes. Therefore, attention is directed to quality control of fuels as a means of consumer protection and prevention of tax evasion and ways to combat tax evasion in import, distribution and storage of mineral oils. The examples are the most common errors found in fraudulent companies. Based on the data collected the possible ultimate evasion was estimated. Therefore, I propose that value added tax law should be amended and some other measures to improve supervision by public authorities like tax authorities and customs administration offices should be taken.

  12. A Study on Value Added Tax for Business Enterprise Taxation - An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    安部,知格

    2002-01-01

    In recent years,the argument whetter we should switch over the base of taxation for business enterprise from the income standard to other standards or not is rising. In these circumstances,as one of the other standards,the value-added tax has been taken up. The value-added tax appeared in Japan as the one which can be replaced income standard taxation for business enterprise by Shoup Mission in 1949. This paper considers the meaning of the value-added tax. Consequently,I think,the value-added...

  13. Value Added Tax Revisited: Toward a Reasonable Consumption Tax Reform in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yukinobu Kitamura

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a reasonable consumption tax (VAT) reform in Japan, after passing the tax reform bill in the Diet in August 2012. First, the macro (SNA) data indicates that tax revenue increases by about 12 trillion yen if the VAT rate is raised from 5% to 10%. Secondly, the VAT revenue function reveals the revenue elasticity with respect to 1% consumption increase is 0.96. This is very efficient. Thirdly, remaining tax administration issues are discussed. Fourthly the empirical consumer ...

  14. Energy, added sugar, and saturated fat contributions of taxed beverages and foods in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Carolina; Pedraza, Lilia S; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Aburto, Tania C; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the dietary contribution of taxed beverages and foods. Using 24-hour diet recall data from the Ensanut 2012 (n=10 096), we estimated the contribution of the items which were taxed in 2014 to the total energy, added sugar, and saturated fat intakes in the entire sample and by sociodemographic characteristics. The contributions for energy, added sugar, and saturated fat were found to be 5.5, 38.1, and 0.4%, respectively, for the taxed beverages, and 14.4, 23.8, and 21.4%, respectively, for the taxed foods. Children and adolescents (vs. adults), medium and high socioeconomic status (vs. low), urban area (vs. rural), and North and Center region (vs. South) had higher energy contribution of taxed beverages and foods. The energy contribution was similar between males and females. These taxes covered an important proportion of Mexicans' diet and therefore have the potential to improve it meaningfully.

  15. “Value Added Taxes, Chain Effects and Informality”, Second Version

    OpenAIRE

    Aureo de Paula; Jose A. Scheinkman

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates determinants of informal economic activity. We present an equilibrium model of informality and test its implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. A novel theoretical contribution in this model is the role of value added taxes in transmitting informality. It predicts that the informality of a firm is correlated to the informality of f...

  16. Practical aspects of value added tax in the agricultural enterprises in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax policy represents one of the EU integration policies. The aim of the tax policy is to remove the national differences in taxation systems by withdrawing the obstacles to the competition and free movement of goods, services, people and capital on the internal market. Tax harmonization has the greatest development in the area of value added taxation, but differences still can be found. Those differences influence not only the farming business. The paper is aimed on five EU member states – Czech Republic, Poland, Rumania, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Based on the EU regulations in the area of value added tax and the practical experience during its application, it is possible to identify the critical areas and to contribute to its correction and to provide the value added tax neutrality and efficiency on the EU territory.

  17. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on Fuel...

  18. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added taxes too. In this paper, we are trying to analyze the development of e-commerce in the world and e-taxation regulations and problems in the European Union (EU and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. The EU and OECD countries are making regulations in this issue. The last regulation is Base Erosion and Profit Shifting 15 point action plan in 2014. Taxation of the digital economy is the first action plan. In addition this, some regulations about taxation of digital economy are being done in Turkey in the case of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting action plan.

  19. The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    that "enterprises" conducting their business by illegal means should register as VAT vendors? ..... The issue confronting the courts was the maxim ex turpi causa non oritur actio in ...... Applying the principles of tax neutrality creating a moral dilemma? .... William Collins and Sons Co Ltd Collins English Dictionary 6 th ed.

  20. Analysis of Communes’ Potential Fall in Revenue Following Introduction of Ad Valorem Property Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnat Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The property tax reform is the subject of numerous discussions and multi-aspect analyses. One of the conclusions from the analyses is an argument referring to the risk of a substantial rise in financial charges imposed on objects of taxation. The replacement of property tax with ad valorem property tax is seen as a potential source of increased revenue for communes. However, some of the communes may experience the opposite effect, i.e. the risk of a revenue loss. Should the tax reform come into force, it will result in protests among the affected local governments. The paper presents the results of a study into the situation of an exemplary commune, where specific conditions that could lead to lowering the commune’s revenue due to the introduction of the ad valorem property tax may occur.

  1. The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of MP Finance Group CC (In Liquidation v CSARS the High Court of Appeal ruled that income "received by" a taxpayer from illegal gains will be taxable in the hands of the taxpayer. This article explores whether or not the decision in the MP Finance-case (and preceding cases on the taxation of illegal receipts can be applied to determine if illegal transactions are subject to VAT and moreover if a trader in illegal goods and services should register as a VAT vendor. Although strictly speaking no analogy can be drawn between the charging provisions for income tax and VAT, it is clear that in the determination of the taxability of illegal income, the courts applied the principle of tax neutrality. In terms of the principle of tax neutrality, taxes are not concerned with the legality or illegality of a transaction, but rather with whether the transaction complies with the requirements for it to be taxed or not. That said, the European Court of Justice has a different approach in applying this principle. According to the European Court of Justice where the intrinsic nature of the goods excludes it from the commercial arena (like narcotic drugs it should not be subject to VAT, but where the goods compete with a legal market it must be subject to VAT. Charging VAT on illegal transactions might give the impression that government benefits from criminal activities. However, if illegal transactions are not subject to VAT the trader in illegal goods will benefit as his products will be 14% cheaper than his rival’s. Is this necessarily a moral dilemma? In conclusion three arguments can be deduced on the question if illegal transactions should be subject to VAT:1. Illegal transactions should not be taxed at all. Illegal goods or services fall outside the sphere of the application of the charging provision in section 7(1 of the VAT Act. Moreover, taxing illegal transactions lends a quasi-validity to the contract and gives the impression that

  2. Employment and taxes in Latin America: An empirical study of the effects of payroll, corporate income and value-added taxes on labor outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically explores the effects of payroll taxes, value-added taxes and corporate income taxes on a variety of labor market outcomes such as participation, employment, informality, and wages. The results are based on nationallevel data of labor variables for 15 Latin American countries, and indicate that the effects of each tax are markedly different and may depend on several aspects of labor and tax institutions. Payroll taxes reduce employment and increase labor costs when their benefits are not valued by workers, but otherwise may increase labor participation and not raise labor costs. Value-added taxes increase informality and reduce skilled labor demand. In contrast, corporate income taxes may help reduce informality, especially among low education workers, but when tax enforcement capabilities are strong they may reduce labor participation and employment of medium- and high-education workers.

  3. The tax legislation of the natural gas in France (without AVT, the value added tax)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    These data on the TICGN (interior tax on the natural gas consumptions) evolution between 1996 and 2004, concern the industrial uses of the natural gas, the domestic uses and the natural gas uses as fuel. (A.L.B.)

  4. Ad valorem versus unit taxes: Monopolistic competition, heterogeneous firms, and intra-industry reallocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...... taxes distort relative prices, which in turn reduces average industry productivity through reallocations (the survival and increased market share of lower productivity firms). Importantly, numerical solutions of the model reveal that the relative welfare loss from using the unit tax increases...

  5. Tax Evasion, Tax Avoidance and The Influence of Special Interest Groups: Taxation in Iceland from 1930 to the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Johannes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on tax evasion and tax avoidance in Iceland, and on how special interest groups have shaped the taxation system to serve their own ends. The period covered is from 1930, when the present Icelandic system of power was established, to the present.

  6. Tax balance in agribusiness as a type of special balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of continuous compounding of business processes inevitably leads to application of increasingly complex instruments for the purposes of financial reporting in agribusiness. In this system the existential place and role of individual elements that alter the existing and acquire new functions comes into question. Balancing implies a regulated and consistent system in which every change leads to the creation of new relations and changing already established relationships. In this regard, in this paper we will focus on the place and role of tax balance in the group of special balances in agribusiness, as a very significant group of accounting instruments. Displaying information for users and situations in which they are used, balances gain their place in this classification. For the purposes of applying financial instruments, referring primarily to balances in agribusiness, it is necessary to know the way of their classification according to their functions. From this aspect, tax balance in agribusiness is a specific report, both in terms of its formal and material structure, which gives it the basis to belong to ordinary as well as special types of balances in agribusiness.

  7. Energy, added sugar, and saturated fat contributions of taxed beverages and foods in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Batis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the dietary contribution of taxed beverages and foods. Materials and methods. Using 24-hour diet recall data from the Ensanut 2012 (n=10 096, we estimated the contribution of the items which were taxed in 2014 to the total energy, added sugar, and saturated fat intakes in the entire sample and by sociodemographic characteristics. Results. The contributions for energy, added sugar, and saturated fat were found to be 5.5, 38.1, and 0.4%, respectively, for the taxed beverages, and 14.4, 23.8, and 21.4%, respectively, for the taxed foods. Children and adolescents (vs. adults, medium and high socioeconomic status (vs. low, urban area (vs. rural, and North and Center region (vs. South had higher energy contribution of taxed beverages and foods. The energy contribution was similar between males and females. Conclusions. These taxes covered an important proportion of Mexicans’ diet and therefore have the potential to improve it meaningfully.

  8. Handling value added tax (VAT) in economic evaluations: should prices include VAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Mickael; Christiansen, Terkel; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    In health economic evaluations, value added tax is commonly treated as a transfer payment. Following this argument, resources are valued equal to their net-of-tax prices in economic evaluations applying a societal perspective. In this article we argue that if there is the possibility that a new healthcare intervention may expand the healthcare budget, the social cost of input factors should be the gross-of-tax prices and not the net-of-tax prices. The rising interest in cost-benefit analysis and the use of absolute thresholds, net benefit estimates and acceptability curves in cost-effectiveness analysis makes this argument highly relevant for an appropriate use of these tools in prioritisation.

  9. 26 CFR 49.4264(c)-1 - Special rule for the payment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... international air transportation and such carrier shall collect the tax at the time the flight is rescheduled or... of his international air transportation between Chicago and New York became subject to tax. The... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special rule for the payment of tax. 49.4264(c...

  10. Supersymmetric black holes in AdS4 from very special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnecchi, Alessandra; Halmagyi, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes in AdS spacetime are inherently interesting for the AdS/CFT correspondence. Within a four dimensional gauged supergravity theory coupled to vector multiplets, the only analytic solutions for regular, supersymmetric, static black holes in AdS 4 are those in the STU-model due to Cacciatori and Klemm. We study a class of U(1)-gauged supergravity theories coupled to vector multiplets which have a cubic prepotential, the scalar manifold is then a very special Kähler manifold. When the resulting very special Kähler manifold is a homogeneous space, we find analytic solutions for static, supersymmetric AdS 4 black holes with vanishing axions. The horizon geometries of our solutions are constant curvature Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus

  11. Misreporting in the Value-Added Tax and the Optimal Enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoseini, M.

    2014-01-01

    A common fraud by registered traders in the value-added tax system is under-reporting sales and over-reporting purchases. This paper models this problem by linking the level of misreporting to the risk-aversion of taxpayers and the level of transactions with final consumers. In addition, it analyses

  12. How to Enforce Value-Added Tax? The Role of Inter-Sectoral Linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoseini, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper models and empirically tests a self-enforcing feature of the value added tax (VAT) which is absent in the theory: An incentive that makes formal traders buy from suppliers who pay VAT too. In addition, it explores how the government can deploy this feature to enforce VAT more

  13. The comparison between ad valorem and unit taxes under monopolistic competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that the welfare dominance of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition, extends to a Dixit-Stiglitz-type monopolistic competition framework with differentiated products, increasing returns to scale, entry/exit and love of variety. This result is obtained, even though...

  14. 26 CFR 1.31-2 - Credit for “special refunds” of employee social security tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... security tax. 1.31-2 Section 1.31-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.31-2 Credit for “special refunds” of employee social security tax. (a) In general. (1) In the case of an employee receiving wages from more than one employer...

  15. TAX AND ACCOUNTING IMPLICATIONS OF THE USE OF SPECIAL CHARGE SCHEME FOR SECOND-HAND GOODS TO THE PAWN SHOPS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE ECOBICI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the same time with the crisis deepening in Romania, pawn businessesare also growing. In this paper we discussed several issues concerning the choice of the schemeof registration and determination of value added tax at Pawn Shops, together with the tax andaccounting implications of this choice. Therefore, we presented the theoretical aspectsregarding the likelihood of Pawn Shops to choose the special scheme for second-hand goods, asthey are covered by the Fiscal Code. At the end of this paper we presented based on an examplethe tax and accounting implications of such special scheme as compared with the “normal”scheme regarding VAT at the Pawn Shops in Romania.

  16. Value added tax and the financial performance of quoted Agribusinesses in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwaoma Ironkwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the impact of value-added tax on corporate financial performance of quoted companies. To achieve this purpose, we developed some hypotheses and critically reviewed existing theoretical and empirical literatures. Agribusinesses quoted in the Nigerian Stock Exchange Factbook of 2009 were considered as the population for this study. The population elements include the General Managers, Chief Accountants, Finance Managers, Chief Internal Auditors, External Auditors, and Tax Administrators of the selected companies. A total of forty (42 respondents were considered for this study. A well structured questionnaire designed in five-point Likert Scale was administered on the respondents to elicit their responses. The data generated for this study were presented in tabular form and analyzed using frequencies and simple percentages while the stated hypotheses were statistically tested with the simple regression analysis and the t-test. Our findings indicated that Value-Added Tax (VAT impacted negatively on the financial performance of agribusinesses though the impact is of insignificant value. Based on our findings, we recommended that agribusinesses should endeavour to keep appropriate source documents of all transactions for efficient VAT operations and that the governments should ensure that proper tax incentive scheme is designed and fully implemented to promote the growth of agribusinesses, in Nigeria.

  17. THE VALUE ADDED TAX AND THE EVASION CHAIN OF INTRA-COMMUNITARIAN VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliman Eugen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship IRS taxpayer runs the risk of turning into a psychological war in which, however, given the positions held, the IRS is by far on a favorable footing. Between the apparently excessively formal position held by the IRS, which seems to conceal behind the laws, and the sometimes forced interpretation of the laws, by the taxpayer, there are the courts of law, also disturbed by the legislative changes which appear to have entered a perpetual motion. The objective of the fiscal administration regarding the value added tax is to combat tax evasion and fraud. It is very important to combat evasion in the VAT field because it represents the indirect tax of the largest share in the consolidated general budget. VAT evasion represents the intention of not paying the tax, withholding or not declaring it, or requesting its refund which would not be fit, due to the exaggeration of the deductible amount of the VAT. The essential aim of the IRS inspector is to verify the correctness of the declared amount of the value added tax. It should also be observed whether the incorrectness is deliberate or whether it was due to misunderstanding, carelessness or the ignorance of the payer. In all cases judgment is necessary, as for the cases of negligence the amount to be paid must be corrected and accompanied by applying fines and / or penalties, and in the cases of intended fraud legal actions are to be applied in order to obtain a conviction. Deceitful deductions represent other methods for tax evasion and are undertaken based on fake invoices, invoices often used several times for deduction, or invoices related to purchases that have never been made. Thus there are examples of economic agents who have practiced the right to deduct the VAT due to the acquisition of goods which consisted in the property of other economic agents. In other cases noticed was the deduction of VAT on goods or services that were not included in the activities of the economic

  18. VAT application in travel services pursuant to the Czech and EU legislations and a proposal for amendments in the Czech value-added tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The domain of value-added tax has been already fully harmonized. Its regulation dwells on the Council Directive 2006/112/EC on the common system of value-added tax, and all member countries of the European Union are obliged to provide for the implementation of this Directive into their national legislations similarly as the Czech Republic, which entered the European Union on 1 May 2004. The Act no. 235/2004 Coll. on the value-added tax as amended (hereinafter „value-added tax law“ should be therefore in line with the Directive. In reality however, some issues in the VAT law have not been fully harmonized yet. One of these issues is for example the application of a special routine for travel services according to §89 of the VAT law, which is in essential contradiction with the Directive in question, the controversial point being definition of the person of customer whom the Directive understands in a different way than the VAT law. Thus, the characterization of the problem based on the Czech and EU legislations with respect to jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the European Community forms a framework of the paper. Based on a comparative analysis of the application of special and ordinary routines in providing travel services to the customer by the taxpayer, tax incidence in his assessment base is determined. At the same time, the paper also includes a proposal for the change of the definition of customer in the VAT law so that the application of the given routine is fully in line with the EU Directive.

  19. Impact of regional special purpose local option sales tax (SPLOST) initiatives on county infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    In response to fiscal constraints on transportation funding and the need to address transportation problems and create regional solutions, Georgia is proposing a 1% regional Special-Purpose Local-Option Sales Tax (SPLOST). To accommodate this initiat...

  20. An Application in Healthcare Sector towards Accounting of Value Added Tax Generated by International Business Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçkin GÖNEN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The world has become into a single market and geographical boundaries has disappeared due to globalization in international commerce caused by recent rapid technological advancements in our country and internationally. The significance of export incentive is arising day by day in order to countries having a voice in the field in addition to developing market shares and improving competition powers. Besides, considering many times that our country faced with a foreign trade deficit made encouraging exports compulsory. On this basis, Value Added Tax Law numbered 3065, export exemptions made available for exporters are appeared as a successful and efficient implementation. The aim of this study is to reveal applicability of VAT in healthcare sector generated by international business transactions. Through this aim, sample case analysis is used as a qualitative research method. As a result of the research conducted, exemptions of VAT are applied to goods available for sale through inward processing regime. During the importation of raw materials which are going to be used for processing of goods to be exported by suspension system, taxes are paid in importation of raw materials thus paid VAT amounts in regime context are received back from affiliated tax office.

  1. (Inefficiency of corporate income tax expenditures on underdeveloped areas of special tax treatment in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of various tax expenditures by the tax authorities, mostly in corporate income taxation (CIT, in order to kick start development in areas affected by the war as well as in economically underdeveloped areas has been characteristic of the Croatian tax system since 2000. Although the purpose of such forms of state aid was to foster economic development and equalize the level over the entire country, at the same time they caused forgone tax revenues and it is therefore necessary to analyze their advantages and disadvantages and evaluate their possible positive or negative effects. This paper deals with the analysis of tax expenditures in the system of CIT in Croatia and it investigates their effect on the budget and the possible advantages brought by their introduction. The main purpose of the paper is to answer the questions as to whether the expenditures that have been introduced in CIT justify their purpose and the goal of their introduction and what can be done to improve the existing CIT expenditures system.

  2. Algebraically special solutions in AdS/CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Gabriel Bernardi de; Reall, Harvey S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the AdS/CFT interpretation of the class of algebraically special solutions of Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant. Such solutions describe a CFT living in a 2+1 dimensional time-dependent geometry that, generically, has no isometries. The algebraically special condition implies that the expectation value of the CFT energy-momentum tensor is a local function of the boundary metric. When such a spacetime is slowly varying, the fluid/gravity approximation is valid and one can read off the values of certain higher order transport coefficients. To do this, we introduce a formalism for studying conformal, relativistic fluids in 2+1 dimensions that reduces everything to the manipulation of scalar quantities.

  3. Algebraically special solutions in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Gabriel Bernardi de; Reall, Harvey S. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge,Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-26

    We investigate the AdS/CFT interpretation of the class of algebraically special solutions of Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant. Such solutions describe a CFT living in a 2+1 dimensional time-dependent geometry that, generically, has no isometries. The algebraically special condition implies that the expectation value of the CFT energy-momentum tensor is a local function of the boundary metric. When such a spacetime is slowly varying, the fluid/gravity approximation is valid and one can read off the values of certain higher order transport coefficients. To do this, we introduce a formalism for studying conformal, relativistic fluids in 2+1 dimensions that reduces everything to the manipulation of scalar quantities.

  4. Supply of goods free of charge in value added tax system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consideration represents one of the cumulatively prescribed conditions for the taxation of supplies of goods in value added tax system. In the absence of consideration there is in general no basis for taxation, which makes room for untaxed final consumption - the case in which a taxpayer deducts input VAT on purchased good that is subsequently used for his own or another person's final consumption free of charge. In this paper, the author analyzes the situations in which, for taxation purposes, the supplies of goods free of charge will be treated equally as supplies for consideration and, relying on the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice, notes the deviations of the domestic practice from the communautaire one, while providing concrete recommendations for their elimination.

  5. Tax Incentives to Businesses in the Areas of Special State Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Marković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The legal and strategic framework for regional development in the Republic of Croatia, which includes the development of entrepreneurship, was established almost twenty years after Croatia had gained independence. Until then, less developed areas, i.e., areas with a special status in terms of certain reliefs and exemptions granted to citizens and economic entities had been supported through individual laws. Today, government authorities stimulate entrepreneurial activity through individual regulations in force, by corporate income tax exemptions. The state gives back corporate income tax (tax liability not subject to exemptions that taxpayers engaged in entrepreneurial activities had paid up to the state budget, to local self-government units as assistance from the state budget. By doing so, the government aims to reduce the gap between the developed and underdeveloped parts of the Republic of Croatia and encourage entrepreneurial activity in the smaller and less developed regions. The indicators of entrepreneurial activity in the area supported by the state: the number of enterprises, number of employees in an enterprise, the total revenue generated by entrepreneurial activities, profit and loss after tax and net operating profit/loss, provide insight into the performance of enterprises. In view of the above, the authors have analyzed the performance of enterprises entitled to tax relief in the areas of special state concern and provided an overview of financial resources (tax revenue which state authorities have waived to facilitate a more competitive business performance.

  6. The taxable events for the Value-Added Tax (VAT based on a Comparative Law approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Villanueva Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the definitions of the main taxable events for the Value-Added Tax (VAT based on a comparative approach to thelegislation of different countries (Spain, Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In this regard, it analyzes which legislations offer definitions according to the principles of generality, fiscal neutrality and legal certainty for VAT. Moreover, it points out that the VAT systems of those countries do not require as a condition for the configuration of the taxable events that the transactions involve a «value added» or a final consumption. In the specificcase of «supplies of goods», the VAT systems have a similar definition of the taxable event, although there are a few differences. However, in the case of«supplies of services», which is the most important taxable event for VAT, there are important differences at the time each country defines it. This is not a desirable effect for the international trade of services, since the lack of harmonization produces double taxation or double non taxation.

  7. The welfare comparison of corrective ad valorem and unit taxes under monopolistic competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dröge, Susanne; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2009-01-01

    such as environmental, health, and trade economics, policy makers use taxes to reduce the production/consumption volume in an industry, i.e., to correct an externality rather than to improve tax yield. This paper compares the two tax instruments with respect to equal corrective effect in a Dixit--Stiglitz setting...

  8. Professional Opinions And Attitudes On Tax Policy In Bosnia And Herzegovina With A Special Focus On The Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazović-Pita Lejla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on tax policy opinion survey data collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H among tax experts. A special focus of the survey was to investigate the consequences of the different institutional environments that exist between the two entities of the country. After having reviewed all previous tax reforms in B&H, the most interesting results suggest that respondents agree on the introduction of a progressive personal income tax (PIT and excise duty on luxury products, the maintenance of personal and family allowances and the maintenance of the current value added tax (VAT and corporate income tax (CIT rates. However, differences exist in the respondents’ perceptions about the introduction of reduced VAT rates, the regressivity of the VAT, and giving priority to the equity principle over the efficiency principle in taxation. Probability modelling highlighted these differences and indicated inconsistencies in the definition of the PIT tax base, namely the comprehensiveness of the PIT base under the S-H-S definition of income.

  9. 27 CFR 46.116 - Issuance, distribution, and examination of special tax stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... multiple locations, TTB will send to the taxpayer's principal place of business (or principal office in the... attachment to TTB Form 5630.5t required by § 46.101(b)(2). (b) Distribution of special tax stamps for... for each location listed on the attachment to TTB Form 5630.5t and that the information on each stamp...

  10. Value Added Tax and price stability in Nigeria: A partial equilibrium analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Ikpe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of Value Added Tax (VAT that was implemented in Nigeria in 1994 has generated much debate in recent times, especially with respect to its effect on the level of aggregate prices. This study empirically examines the influence of VAT on price stability in Nigeria using partial equilibrium analysis. We introduced the VAT variable in the framework of a combination of structuralist, monetarist and fiscalist approaches to inflation modelling. The analysis was carried out by applying multiple regression analysis in static form to data for the 1994-2010 period. The results reveal that VAT exerts a strong upward pressure on price levels, most likely due to the burden of VAT on intermediate outputs. The study rules out the option of VAT exemptions for intermediate outputs as a solution, due to the difficulty in distinguishing between intermediate and final outputs. Instead, it recommends a detailed post-VAT cost-benefit analysis to assess the social desirability of VAT policy in Nigeria.

  11. THE EU TAX TREATMENT COMPETITION FOR KNOWLEDGE BASED CAPITAL – THE SPECIAL CASE OF R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozmei Cătălina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Globalization spurs the diffusion of knowledge and encourages firms to incorporate investments in innovation in their portfolios because knowledge based capital (research & development, intellectual property, organisational capital, skills etc. is a key d river for competitiveness on all levels. This article aims to emphasize the differences in the R&D tax policy mix as a proxy for the knowledge based capital and analyse some R&D indicators for a number of 20 EU member states in order to sort and classify those countries in terms of R&D tax policy effectiveness. The results show that a higher corporate tax level even if is offset by a high tax subsidy does not lead to a high level business enterprise expenditure on R&D as a percentage of value added in industry. Moreover this paper highlights the need for designing a tax policy that promotesinnovation and gauges the loopholes of the tax system that activate profit shifting strategies.

  12. Consumer demand system estimation and value added tax reforms in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2014), s. 246-273 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD010033 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : consumer behavior * Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System * tax reforms Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.420, year: 2014 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1301_jansky.pdf

  13. The value-added tax implications of the temporary change in use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... 1In his Budget Speech on 17 February 2010, the then Minister of Finance, ... tax credit based only on the cost price of the property, and not on the initial open ... abode, except if the supply is commercial accommodation.

  14. "Intergovernmental Allocation of Value Added Tax in Japan: International comparison" (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuki Mochida

    2001-01-01

    There seems to be broad consensus in the literature that comprehensive VATs are most appropriately assigned to the central level of government. Japan's Local Consumption Tax is unique in the sense that it combines origin-based piggy backing on the national VAT with a clearing system that is intended to reflect the destination principle indirectly. This paper seeks to assess LCT in the light of general criteria; equity, efficiency and administrative simplicity. Studying international experienc...

  15. 建筑业营改增后的挑战及对策%Challenges and Countermeasures of the Construction Industry after replacing the Business Tax with a Value-added Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辰旭

    2017-01-01

    2016年3月24日,国家税务总局颁布了《关于全面推开营业税改征增值税试点的通知》(财税〔2016〕36号),决定从2016年5月1日起,将金融业、建筑业、房地产业、生活服务业由营业税改征增值税.建筑业作为我国支柱产业,由于建筑工程项目分布范围广,分支机构多,管理链条长等原因,使企业在进行营改增工作时面临增值税管理与税务筹划的双重挑战.根据建筑行业营改增后的政策,从会计核算,税务筹划,经营管理等方面提出解决方案,期望为促进营改增平稳过渡提供一些借鉴.%In March 24, 2016, the State Administration of Taxation issued the "notice on the full implementation of business tax VAT pilot" , from May 1, 2016, the financial industry, construction industry and real estate industry, life service industry replace the business tax with a value-added tax.As a pillar industry in our country, the wide range of construction projects, many branches, managing complex and other factors make the enterprises to face the double challenges of value added tax management and tax planning in the course of the Change from Business Tax to Value-Added Tax.According to the construction industry policy of the Change from Business Tax to Value-Added Tax, from accounting, tax planning, management put forward solutions, hoping to promote the smooth transition of the Change from Business Tax to Value-Added Tax to provide some reference.

  16. 浅析税法要求视觉下增值税会计核算相关建议%Suggestions on Value-added Tax Accounting under the Tax Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋新波

    2012-01-01

    现行税法要求下的增值税会计核算存在的主要问题是,会计报表相关会计增值税信息的反映揭露不足,会计主体闻的信息可比性缺失,税负有失公平、客观。实行现行税法要求下增值税会计核算,应构建“价税统一”的会计核算完善体系,坚持“财税分离”增值税会计核算原则,明确“费用观”的会计处理方法,逐步改进完善国家增值税体系机制,保证增值税会计核算实务处理走向正规化。%Under the current tax law, main problems exist in value-added tax accounting practice: the insufficient disclosure of value-added tax information in accounting statements, the omission of comparable information among accounting entities, and the less fair and objective tax burden. Coping measures are proposed in this paper including the establishment of a complete, unified sales revenue and tax accounting system, the principle of the separation between financial accounting and tax accounting, and an expense way of accounting, so as to gradually improve the mechanism for the value-added tax system and ensure the regularization of value-added tax accounting practices.

  17. Value Added Tax Impacton Economic Activity: Importance, Implication and Assessment –The Romanian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MUREȘAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of VAT upon the economic activity in Romania. By developing a new mathematical model we offer several dy-namic and effcient possibilities for observing the modifcations caused by the temporary reduc-tion of taxes upon the personal incomes which suggest that the resulting additional incomes are often saved and less consumed. Analyzing several temporary reductions in incomes, the model describes also a scheme regarding the developments of economic growth. Based on this scheme, are revealed the different arrangements in which a present economic activity infuences a future one. According to the proposed model, it is highlighted that the national income increases as a response to the aggregated demand.

  18. Social and political responses to ecological tax reform in Europe: an introduction to the special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, Simon; Dunne, Louise; Clinch, Peter; Beuermann, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the special issue on the Policies for Ecological Tax Reform: Assessment of Social Responses (PETRAS) project about responses to ecological tax reform (ETR) in Europe. Although ETR is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable effects, its implementation has been limited by problems of political acceptability. The project aimed to address the question of how to make such a policy more acceptable. It is the first study to examine in depth the thinking of members of the general public about the ETR policies and is also the first international comparative study of the thinking of ordinary business people about ETR policies. The PETRAS project methodology was based around the use of interviews and focus groups to inform the assessment of social responses to ETR policies and the development of improved designs for them. A number of issues emerged relating to awareness, trust, understanding of the purpose, visibility, incentives, regressivity, levels of taxation, terminology, communication about ETR and the use of alternative instruments. Together with these similarities, a pattern of differences between the countries can also be seen. The final section of this paper introduces the national studies described in the following papers. (author)

  19. Cost-savings accruable to removing value added tax from antiretrovirals in the South African private health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Bangalee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the important and essential role that medicines play in any society, all medicines, including those identified as essential, are uniformly subjected to 14% value added tax (VAT, regardless of their therapeutic value in the private healthcare sector of South Africa. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the potential cost-saving attained from the removal of VAT from the private sector pricing of essential medicines, using antiretroviral treatment as an example. Methods: An empirical analysis was undertaken to illustrate the potential cost-saving achieved by removing VAT from the Single Exit Price and the dispensing fee of essential medicines. This outcome was demonstrated by applying the methodology to an adult fixed dose combination 1st line antiretroviral regimen as well as to a group of 3rd line antiretroviral medicines. Results: The potential saving for the lowest priced generic and originator 1st line antiviral regimen accrued to ZAR 693.84 and ZAR 1085.04 over a year respectively. Regarding the 3rd line antiretroviral drugs, results yielded an annual saving of ZAR 1678.68 (darunavir, ZAR5741.04 (maraviroc and ZAR 159.48 (rilpivirine. Conclusions: Lobbying for the removal of VAT from the supply chain of medicines should be intensified. Policy development to monitor and recover lost government revenue through the removal of taxes should be explored.

  20. 26 CFR 1.904(b)-2 - Special rules for application of section 904(b) to alternative minimum tax foreign tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) to alternative minimum tax foreign tax credit. 1.904(b)-2 Section 1.904(b)-2 Internal Revenue... alternative minimum tax foreign tax credit. (a) Application of section 904(b)(2)(B) adjustments. Section 904(b)(2)(B) shall apply for purposes of determining the alternative minimum tax foreign tax credit under...

  1. A Failed Experiment: Georgia's Tax Credit Scholarships for Private Schools. Special Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Georgia is one of seven states that currently allow tax credits for scholarships to private schools. The law permits individual taxpayers in Georgia to reduce annual state taxes up to $2,500 for joint returns when they divert funds to a student scholarship organization (SSO). Georgia's law providing tax credits for private school tuition grants or…

  2. Who Gets the Credit? Who Pays the Consequences? The Illinois Tuition Tax Credit. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arohi; Keenan, Nancy

    In 1999, Illinois enacted a tuition tax credit program. Tax credit supporters suggest tax credits help low-income students. However, opponents argue that they disproportionately benefit higher-income families whose children are already attending private schools and may decrease already limited resources available to public schools. New data from…

  3. The detection and settlement of VAT fraud in four countries : Addendum to the report value-added tax fraud in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronowitz, A.A.; Laagland, D.C.G.; Paulides, G.

    1996-01-01

    This addendum to the report 'Value-added tax fraud in the European Union' gives additional information on the detection and settlement of VAT fraud in Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. See link to the report at: More information.

  4. The impact of the 2009 value added tax reform on enterprise investment and employment ‐ Empirical analysis based on Chinese tax survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the "National Tax Survey" enterprise data to assess the impact of China's nationwide VAT reform of 2009 on enterprise fixed-asset investment and employment. The main finding of our research is that the reform significantly increased business investment in fixed assets, but had no

  5. The Association between State Value-added Taxes and Tobacco Use in India- Evidence from GATS and TCP India Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S

    2017-08-30

    State value-added taxes (VAT) on tobacco products have been increased significantly in recent years in India. Evidence on how these VATs were associated with smoking is highly needed. State bidi and cigarette VAT rates were linked to Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-2010 and Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Survey waves 1 (2010-2011) and 2 (2012-2013), respectively. These linked data were used to analyze the associations between bidi VAT rates and bidi smoking, between cigarette VAT rates and cigarette smoking, and between the two VAT rates and dual use of bidis and cigarettes. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to examine GATS cross-sectional data, whereas Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were employed to examine longitudinal TCP data. We further stratified the analyses by gender. A 10% increase in cigarette VAT rates was associated with a 6.5% (p<0.001) decrease in dual use of cigarettes and bidis among adults and a 0.9% decrease (p<0.05) in cigarette smoking among males in TCP; and with a 21.6% decrease (p<0.05) in dual use among adults and a 17.2% decrease (p<0.001) in cigarette smoking among males in GATS. TCP analyses controlling for state fixed effects are less likely to be biased and indicate a cigarette price elasticity of - 0.44. As female smoking prevalence was extremely low, these associations were non-significant for females. Higher state cigarette VAT rates in India were significantly associated with lower cigarette smoking and lower dual use of cigarettes and bidis. Increasing state VAT rates may significantly reduce smoking in India. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. 75 FR 16666 - Liquor Dealer Recordkeeping and Registration, and Repeal of Certain Special (Occupational) Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    .... Skud, Deputy Assistant Secretary (Tax, Trade, and Tariff Policy). [FR Doc. 2010-7269 Filed 4-1-10; 8:45... D also borrowed regulations from 27 CFR part 31 (Alcohol Beverage Dealers) to reflect SOT policy...

  7. High-speed BWR power plant simulations on the special-purpose peripheral processor AD10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Mallen, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    A newly developed technique is described for fast, on-line simulations of normal and accidental transients in nuclear power plants. The technique is based on the utilization of the special-purpose peripheral processor AD10, which is specifically designed for high-speed systems simulations through integration of large systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The Peach Bottom-II Boiling Water Reactor power plant has been simulated and results are presented. It is shown that the new technique not only advances safety analyses but also supports plant monitoring, failure diagnosis and accident mitigation, as well as the training of nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  8. Tax Expenditures in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The tax system of the Republic of Croatia contains a large number of very diverse kinds of tax expenditures whose the declared aim is to achieve certain social and economic objectives. This paper considers all the items that constitute tax expenditures in Croatia, within the systems of the personal income tax, corporate income tax, and real estate transfer tax and value added tax. The objective of the article is to determine the real level of tax expenditures per form of tax in the 2001-2004 period. We hypothesised that the tax expenditures in the analysed forms of tax are both high and growing, which was ultimately borne out, for almost all the analysed items in the tax forms considered are growing.

  9. Special tax regimes for sportsmen = Systemy opodatkowania sportowców

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szwajdler

    2015-04-01

      E-mail: szwajdli@onet.eu     Abstract         The main purpose of this work is to show diversity of tax regimes for sportsmen. The author focuses on tax regulations in Germany and in France. In this work is showed, that  not only tax regimes, which are applicable to all sportsmen, are in force, but also regimes, which are applicable only to sportsmen who are non- residents. Author of this article is going to answer , if it is necessary to  treat sportsmen in other way than other taxpayers. In this work, the author analyses legal regulations and specialist literature. Key words: taxation of sportsmen, tax regimes for sportsmen, taxes.   Streszczenie         Głównym celem niniejszej pracy jest wskazanie na różnorodność systemów opodatkowania sportowców. Autor  skupia się przede wszystkim na regulacjach obowiązujących we Francji oraz w Niemczech. W pracy zostało wskazane, że specyficzne systemy opodatkowania sportowców dzielą się na konstrukcje prawne dotyczące wszystkich sportowców oraz na rozwiązania jurydyczne mające zastosowanie tylko do nierezydentów. Autor odpowiada w niniejszym artykule na pytanie, czy istnieją powody, dla których sportowcy powinny być opodatkowani w sposób odmienny, niż pozostali podatnicy. W pracy zastosowana została metoda polegająca na analizie tekstów prawnych oraz poglądów doktryny. Słowa kluczowe: opodatkowanie sportowców, systemy opodatkowania sportowców, podatki.

  10. Tax wedge on labour income in Croatia and the European Union : Preface to the special issue of Financial Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Urban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a preface to a special issue of Financial Theory and Practice, which is devoted to the comparison of tax wedge on labour income in Croatia and other EU countries. The articles in this issue have arisen from the students’ research project, undertaken in 2015. This Preface outlines the motivation behind the research project, explains the most important methodological issues, and reviews the literature on the measurement of tax wedge in Croatia.

  11. Tax optimization of companies

    OpenAIRE

    Dědinová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with tax optimization of companies. The thesis is divided into two main parts - the theoretical and practical part. The introduction of the theoretical part describes the history of taxes, their basic characteristics and the importance of their collection for today's society. Subsequently, the tax system of the Czech Republic with a focus on value added tax and corporation tax is presented. The practical part deals with specific possibilities of optimization of the a...

  12. History of the research ad hoc committee on 'dissemination of information' and the special ad hoc committee on 'dissemination of information' of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itabashi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Intellectual Resources Department, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    The Research ad hoc committee on 'Dissemination of information' of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan was held 15 times from Oct. 1970 to Mar 1973. After that, The Special ad hoc committee on 'Dissemination of information' of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan was held 115 times from Apr. 1973 to Mar 2009. The history of these two committees is described. Activity report is arranged including the information on change of the member and topics of the meeting, and the minutes. Furthermore, the document list on International Nuclear Information System (INIS) from Japan is included. (author)

  13. History of the research ad hoc committee on 'dissemination of information' and the special ad hoc committee on 'dissemination of information' of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Keizo

    2010-06-01

    The Research ad hoc committee on 'Dissemination of information' of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan was held 15 times from Oct. 1970 to Mar 1973. After that, The Special ad hoc committee on 'Dissemination of information' of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan was held 115 times from Apr. 1973 to Mar 2009. The history of these two committees is described. Activity report is arranged including the information on change of the member and topics of the meeting, and the minutes. Furthermore, the document list on International Nuclear Information System (INIS) from Japan is included. (author)

  14. Impact of the application of the Value Added Tax to imaging tests on out-of-pocket health expenses of households in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal; Silva-Illanes, Nicolás

    2015-12-09

    Out-of-pocket healthcare expense represents a challenge for health systems for it constitutes a barrier to health care, impacting the equality of access to healthcare systems, something particularly important in the Chilean health system. In this context, the Government recently raised the possibility of incorporating a tax on imaging tests, creating debate over its potential consequences. To explore the impact on household out-of-pocket healthcare expense by the implementation of a value added tax to imaging tests in Chile. Cross-sectional study using data of household expenditures from the VII Household Budget Survey. Out-of-pocket healthcare expense and catastrophic household expenses are calculated comparing two scenarios, with and without the inclusion of the proposed tax. Analyses are presented by income deciles to explore the differential equality impact. 42.8% of diagnostic test expense on household corresponds to imaging studies. Under a scenario of tax implementation, a relative increase of 1.1% of out-of-pocket expenses and 2.2% of catastrophic household expenses is observed. The groups that suffer the greatest impact are those with lower income levels, concentrating in the first fifth deciles. We conclude that, although the increase in the average out-of- pocket spending is moderate, this policy may involve a significant increase in the catastrophic expense of the population with the lowest incomes, thereby increasing health inequalities. Considering the challenges of health system financing in Chile, it appears that such fiscal policy would only worsen the possibility of moving towards lower levels of out-of-pocket of household expenses.

  15. The progressive tax

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the argumentative structure of Hayek on the relationship between power to tax and the progressive tax. It is observed throughout its work giving special attention to two works: The Constitution of Liberty (1959) and Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol3; The Political Order of Free People, 1979) Hayek describes one of the arguments most complete information bout SFP progressive tax systems (progressive tax). According to the author the history of the tax progressive system...

  16. A Study of Japanese Consumption Tax System : Mainly on Multiple Tax Rates and Input Tax Credit Methods

    OpenAIRE

    栗原, 克文

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important discussions on Japanese tax system reform includes how consumption tax (Value-added tax) system ought to be. Facing issues like depopulation, aging society and large budget deficit, consumption tax can be an effective source of revenue to secure social security. This article mainly focuses on multiple tax rates and input tax credit methods of Japanese consumption tax system. Because of regressive nature of consumption tax, tax rate reduction, exemption on foodstuffs ...

  17. Fiscal Drag as an Automatic Stability Tool, in the Case of New Regulation with Price Criteria in Automotive Sectors Special Consumption Tax (SCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman TARAKTAŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal drag is a result of real or nominal expanding economy and progressive taxation. In general, individuals are forced to enter the upper tax bracket depending on their increased income or expenditure. More tax burden can result in less consumption. Fiscal drag, lack of spending or excessive taxation can cause the economy to slow down. Traditional view suggests that fiscal drag may serve as a natural automatic stabilizer to cool the economy. However, this view ignores the supply side and in particular the potential effects of the high tax burden on economy. This study examines the extent to which the expected automatic stabilization function can be performed and the possible side effects on economic balances and income distribution of fiscal drag in our country in the case of new regulation with price criteria in automotive sectors Special Consumption Tax (SCT.

  18. Tax reforms - taxes without tax laws

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Vijaya Krushna Varma

    2009-01-01

    All Direct and Indirect taxes accompanied by tax laws, accounting, auditing and tax returns, can be abolished if a new tax system called "TOP Tax system" is adopted and implemented by all nations. Ultimate economic reforms will relieve 7 billion people of the world from the cobweb of ambiguous and complex tax structures, plethora of tax laws, mandatory and cumbersome accounting, auditing, tax returns and consequent quagmire of all tax related cases. Taxation, tax collection, tax enforce...

  19. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  20. An Affordable Proposal for Guardianship: The Special Needs Tax Credit Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jaret L.

    2009-01-01

    It was November of 2006, when the author was attending a guardianship conference in Ft. Lauderdale. The author attended as Prosperity Life Planning (www.prosperitylifeplanning.org) a small, educational nonprofit organization, through which he educates and advocates for parents through the special needs planning process with area attorneys, benefit…

  1. Tax Incentives to Businesses in the Areas of Special State Concern

    OpenAIRE

    Branimir Marković; Svjetlana Letinić; Verica Budimir

    2013-01-01

    The legal and strategic framework for regional development in the Republic of Croatia, which includes the development of entrepreneurship, was established almost twenty years after Croatia had gained independence. Until then, less developed areas, i.e., areas with a special status in terms of certain reliefs and exemptions granted to citizens and economic entities had been supported through individual laws. Today, government authorities stimulate entrepreneurial activity through individual re...

  2. THE WORLD OF TAx DEDUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Dujov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article a study and methodological foundations of the structure of taxes and fees. Disclosed the concept of elements of tax and duty. Focuses on the nature of the concept of «tax deduction». Provides legal and the author’s interpretation of the term «tax deduction». Examples of application of a tax deduction in the value-added tax and the tax to incomes of physical persons. the conclusions about the multilateral nature of the tax deduction.

  3. 27 CFR 70.431 - Imposition of taxes; regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... custody, without payment of internal revenue tax or customs duty attributable to the internal revenue tax... special tax returns, issuance and examination of special tax stamps, and notification of changes to special tax stamps. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1512-0472) [T.D...

  4. Tax penalties in SME tax compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Swistak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small business tax compliance requires special attention. On the one hand small businesses are often incapable of rigorously fulfilling their tax obligations, more vulnerable to external risks and tempted to exploit opportunities to be non-compliant. On the other hand, unlike larger businesses, they are usually sole proprietors or owner-operated businesses, hence highly responsive to personal, social, cognitive and emotional factors. These attributes pave the way to a better use of measures designed to influence their behavior and choices. This paper discusses the role and effectiveness of tax penalties in enhancing tax compliance in small businesses. It argues that tax penalties, although indispensable for tax enforcement, may not be a first-choice tool in ensuring tax compliance. Too punitive a tax regime is an important barrier to business formalization and increasing severity of tax penalties does not produce the intended results. To be effective, tax penalties should deter and motivate taxpayers rather than exert repressive measures against them.

  5. What do Americans think about federal tax options to support public transit, highways, and local streets and roads? results from year 3 of a national survey [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This research brief summarizes the results of Year 3 of a national random-digit-dial survey that explored public support for raising federal transportation revenues through gas, mileage, and sales taxes. This years survey added a special focus on ...

  6. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance.

  7. Prospects for tax reform in China following the 18th CPC National Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    After the 18th National Congress, the Chinese government should speed up tax reform and tax reduction. Tax structure should switch to direct tax. Consumption tax reform of lower tax burden could start within a short time. Replacing business tax by value-added tax should be quickly completed. Personal income tax reform should move toward comprehension. Uneven resource distribution should be taken into consideration in resource tax reform. Property tax should be included in the local financing ...

  8. 65% of host countries offer better return than Norway. 20-30% reduction of Special Tax needed to restore position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, H.H.

    1994-01-01

    Oil company executives are satisfied with the regulatory reform proposed by the Ministry of Industry and Energy (MIE), particularly the new terms for the Barents Sea. They do not, however, expect the changes to have any influence on exploration and development. A majority says that the tax hike of 1992 and the work currently in progress in the Ministry of Finance (MOF) to abolish or curb interest tax deductability already have done far more harm than the improvements offered by MIE. Today, the executives rank Norway as less attractive than 65% of all host countries in the world, while only 33% were considered more attractive ten years ago. 1 fig

  9. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US ...

  10. Tax me if you can

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Catrine; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    in the presence of a tax frame suggesting that participants use the tax as an excuse to rationalize their dishonest act. In addition, we tested whether adding an explanation for the adoption of the tax would increase honesty. We find evidence for reversed dishonesty with participants reporting significantly more...

  11. Tax me if you can

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Catrine; Piovesan, Marco

    in the presence of a tax frame suggesting that participants use the tax as an excuse to rationalize their dishonest act. In addition, we tested whether adding an explanation for the adoption of the tax would increase honesty. We find evidence for reversed dishonesty with participants reporting significantly more...

  12. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the U...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  13. 27 CFR 479.31 - Liability for tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for tax. 479.31... OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes § 479.31 Liability for tax. (a) General. Every person who... United States shall pay a special (occupational) tax at a rate specified by § 479.32. The tax shall be...

  14. Tax Responses in Platform Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    that a higher ad valorem tax may undermine a firm's incentive to differentiate its product from that of its competitors. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects of increasing specific taxes may be the opposite of those of increasing value added taxes....... price and thus buy less of the good. The present paper shows that this result need not hold in a two-sided market. On the contrary, a higher ad valorem tax may lower end-user prices and spur sales. Thus, two-sided platform firms may not at all engage in tax shifting via price increases. We further show......Two-sided platform firms serve distinct customer groups that are connected through interdependent demand, and include major businesses such as the media industry, banking, and the software industry. A well known result of tax incidence is that consumers of a more heavily taxed good pay a higher...

  15. From Emancipation through Employment to Emancipation through Entrepreneurship: An Analysis of the Special Labor Market Initiatives (BRYT and Tax Deduction for Domestic Services (RUT in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Kvist

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Debates on gender equality policy in Sweden assume that women’s labor market participation is central to gender equality and should be promoted via special initiatives and programs. This paper examines how gender equality discourses have changed over time, analyzing Swedish state labor market policy in the 1980s and 1990s, special labor market initiatives to eliminate gender segregation and encourage nontraditional gendered work choices, and contemporary state subsidies for paid domestic work (i.e., tax deduction for domestic services. Critically interpreting these reforms reveals consistencies and continuities in how labor market participation is viewed as the key promoter of gender equality, revealing transformations in how gender equality is understood and constructed. A transition is discernible from state-funded programs and reforms to governmental agencies/authorities and state subsidies to promote enterprise and the growth of specific labor market sectors.

  16. Impacto da participação especial em campos gigantes offshore de petróleo Impact of special participation tax in offshore petroleum giant fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mendes Gandra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando um cenário como estudo de caso, objetiva-se explorar o impacto econômico da Lei que rege a cobrança da Participação Especial (PE pela Agência Nacional do Petróleo (ANP sobre a decisão de investimento em projetos situados exclusivamente em campos gigantes de petróleo no Brasil. Embora este seja um exercício indutivo sem maiores pretensões, ele pode ser tomado como representativo para retratar a realidade das grandes empresas que têm em seu portfolio oportunidades de desenvolvimento de concessões com grande potencial petrolífero. Subsidiariamente, propõe-se uma alternativa ao modelo de tributação vigente.The main objective of this technical study is to show the economic impact of Special Participation Tax on decisions at projects of investments at Brazilian offshore fields with high production of petroleum. An alternative estimation approach is proposed in this paper for Special Participation Tax to facilitate the economic viability of offshore projects. This technical study is only a exercise of a real situation which big companies face when it have the opportunity to develop concessions with high potential of petroleum. Above all, we propose an alternative way to calculate the assessment.

  17. Tax Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Marcel; Hage, Jaap; Waltermann, Antonia; Akkermans, Bram

    2017-01-01

    Taxes are compulsory, unrequited payments to government. This chapter discusses the goals of taxation and provides an introduction to the most important taxes: taxes on income, taxes on goods and services, and taxes on property. Furthermore, the chapter offers insights to procedural issues of

  18. Tax Expenditures: A Theoretical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditures are an instrument frequently used when a government wishes to achieve certain economic and social effects. But because of the increasing number and scope of tax expenditures, their proper use, quality of administration and record-keeping have become a major challenge for the tax authorities and the whole of the government. The article considers and explains very diverse forms of tax expenditure such as reliefs, tax deductions, tax allowances, tax exceptions and special rates of taxation and the ways in which they are defined and calculated. The key problems in the analysis are the absence of a single definition and of methodology for the calculations; these ultimately make it impossible to compare tax expenditures between or among countries.

  19. Elektronik Ticaretin Vergilendirilmesine İlişkin Türk Vergi Sisteminde Katma Değer Vergisi Açısından Bir Değerlendirme(An Evaluation of Taxation of Electronic Commerce Under Turkish Tax System According to Value Added Tax (VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus CERAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of internet has brought e-commerce to front as a new and contemporary instrument that enables to trade effectively and efficiently. However, because of extensive acceptance of internet in trade-life, the unusual ways of commerce and distribution channels have emerged and this has caused serious problems in taxation of e-commerce processes. Most of these problems are about the differences of taxation systems in different countries like how to evaluate the value added tax (VAT or how to tax the web-based incomes, etc. The solution of all these internet-related problems is about to be solved by OECD. In addition, EU mostly involves with taxation of VAT.

  20. Economic Concentration and the Federal Tax Code,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Special Analysis G. 0 ...-..... . . . .~....... 677 777 ".47- śf . -2- Retained Earnings: The divergence of the individual from the corporate income tax rate...up to a 38.5 percent tax on S retained earnings. After paying corporate income tax on their income, firms may distribute their earnings to shareholders...months) over net short-term capital losses. They are taxed at the regular corporate income tax rate on the excess of net short-term capital gains over

  1. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content

    OpenAIRE

    López-López, I.; Cofrades, Susana; Cañeque, V.; Díaz, M. Teresa; López, O.; Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P

  2. HOW GOOD IS GOODS AND SERVICES TAX

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sreemoyee Guha Roy

    2016-01-01

    Goods and Services Tax is a broad based and a single comprehensive tax levied on goods and services consumed in an economy. GST is levied at every stage of the production-distribution chain with applicable set offs in respect of the tax remitted at previous stages. It is basically a tax on final consumption. The Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a value added tax to be implemented in India, the decision on which is pending. GST is the only indirect tax that directly affects all sectors and sect...

  3. 48 CFR 1329.203-70 - DOC Federal tax exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOC Federal tax exemption... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Federal Excise Taxes 1329.203-70 DOC Federal tax exemption. (a) The Office of... enabling DOC and its contractors to purchase spirits (e.g., specially denatured spirits) tax-free for non...

  4. Corporate hedging under a resource rent tax regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frestad, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the ordinary corporate income tax, special purpose taxes are sometimes levied to extract abnormal profits arising from the use of natural resources. Such dual tax regimes exist in Norway for oil and hydropower, where the corresponding special purpose tax bases are unaffected by any derivatives payments. Dual tax firms with hedging programs therefore face the risk of potentially large discrepancies between the tax bases for corporate income tax and special purpose tax. I investigate how this tax base asymmetry influences the extent of hedging of value-maximizing firms facing hedgeable as well as unhedgeable risk. Dual tax firms facing deadweight costs in low-profit events generally demand less hedging than ordinary firms, but otherwise respond similarly to characteristics of the underlying risk exposures. The special purpose tax does not influence firms' hedge portfolios in the absence of deadweight cost. (author)

  5. Corporate hedging under a resource rent tax regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frestad, Dennis [Department of Economics and Business Administration, University of Agder, Serviceboks 422, 4604 Kristiansand (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    In addition to the ordinary corporate income tax, special purpose taxes are sometimes levied to extract abnormal profits arising from the use of natural resources. Such dual tax regimes exist in Norway for oil and hydropower, where the corresponding special purpose tax bases are unaffected by any derivatives payments. Dual tax firms with hedging programs therefore face the risk of potentially large discrepancies between the tax bases for corporate income tax and special purpose tax. I investigate how this tax base asymmetry influences the extent of hedging of value-maximizing firms facing hedgeable as well as unhedgeable risk. Dual tax firms facing deadweight costs in low-profit events generally demand less hedging than ordinary firms, but otherwise respond similarly to characteristics of the underlying risk exposures. The special purpose tax does not influence firms' hedge portfolios in the absence of deadweight cost. (author)

  6. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance. PMID:20502612

  7. Tax policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report contains information on the effects of additional tax incentives for the petroleum production industry. It considers the effects of additional incentives on petroleum production and federal revenues, the federal tax burden on new domestic petroleum production investments under current law, and the comparative tax treatment of petroleum production investments in the United States and other nations

  8. New taxes are late

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2007-01-01

    A special tax for monopolies is not the only new tax the cabinet of Robert Fico is yet to introduce. As of the beginning of the year, new excise taxes prescribed by Brussels should have entered into force in Slovakia. According to the new arrangements, we should pay for energy consumed and for the coal and natural gas used to produce heat. And so the energy prices for companies should have already increased. Although the deadline set by the European Commission has already passed, the cabinet has still not completed the final version of the relevant legislation. Work stopped after the elections. The Ministry is very careful when it comes to making statements related to the excise tax. 'We do not wish to talk about details. There are still some minor issues that require fine tuning,' said Adrian Belanik, General Director of the Tax and Customs Section. Companies will have to get ready for the new costs related to the new excise taxes. The only thing that is clear is that the new taxes will be paid on the electricity and fuel used for heat production. (authors)

  9. Tax Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Brehm Johansen, Mette

    to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model......This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented...... in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program...

  10. The validity and reliability of value-added and target-setting procedures with special reference to Key Stage 3

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Ian Robin

    2003-01-01

    The validity of value-added systems of measurement is crucially dependent upon there being a demonstrably unambiguous relationship between the so-called baseline, or intake measures, and any subsequent measure of performance at a later stage. The reliability of such procedures is dependent on the relationships between these two measures being relatively stable over time. A number of questions arise with regard to both the validity and reliability of value-added procedures at any level in educ...

  11. Tax responses in platform industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2010-01-01

    that a higher ad valorem tax may undermine a firm's incentive to differentiate its product from that of its competitors. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects of increasing specific taxes may be the opposite of those of increasing value added taxes....... price and thus buy less of the good. The present paper shows that this result need not hold in a two-sided market. On the contrary, a higher ad valorem tax may lower end-user prices and spur sales. Thus, two-sided platform firms may not at all engage in tax shifting via price increases. We further show......Two-sided platform firms serve distinct customer groups that are connected through interdependent demand, and include major businesses such as the media industry, banking, and the software industry. A well known result of tax incidence is that consumers of a more heavily taxed good pay a higher...

  12. Environmental taxes and transaction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J.

    1994-06-01

    A well-known tax policy principle in the case of environmental bads holds that optimality would apply to a special class of environmental taxes, the so called Pigovian or effluent taxes (or fees or charges). However, an interesting paradox arises here for effluent taxes are seldom chosen in practical policies by governments. An explanation for this discrepancy is that effluent taxes are generally supposed to bring about the highest amount of transaction costs in order to enforce this kind of tax. This would be caused by the fact that usually large numbers of agents are involved if effluents are taken as the principal tax base. Unfortunately this explanation seems to boomerang for it brings about an impossibility result: effluent taxes can never be first best taxes if transaction costs are allowed. Up till now theoretical economics has not paid much attention to this problem. In contrast this essay offers an explanation for the discrepancy and it shows why the impossibility theorem is a paradox. As soon as one allows for transaction costs in welfare analysis, one not only has to acknowledge that such costs are attached to the internalization device but also to the initial status quo. Moreover, the amount of transaction costs is not independent of the tax contracts themselves, neither are the benefits of regulation through taxation. Accordingly a more general welfare assessment of questions where it is optimal to levy environmental taxes shows that first best Pigovian taxes need not be effluent taxes (even if abatement is possible), although in some cases effluent taxes might still be the best policy option from an economic perspective. 31 refs

  13. Environmental taxes and transaction costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J. [Centre for Economic Policy OCFEB, Erasmus University Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-06-01

    A well-known tax policy principle in the case of environmental bads holds that optimality would apply to a special class of environmental taxes, the so called Pigovian or effluent taxes (or fees or charges). However, an interesting paradox arises here for effluent taxes are seldom chosen in practical policies by governments. An explanation for this discrepancy is that effluent taxes are generally supposed to bring about the highest amount of transaction costs in order to enforce this kind of tax. This would be caused by the fact that usually large numbers of agents are involved if effluents are taken as the principal tax base. Unfortunately this explanation seems to boomerang for it brings about an impossibility result: effluent taxes can never be first best taxes if transaction costs are allowed. Up till now theoretical economics has not paid much attention to this problem. In contrast this essay offers an explanation for the discrepancy and it shows why the impossibility theorem is a paradox. As soon as one allows for transaction costs in welfare analysis, one not only has to acknowledge that such costs are attached to the internalization device but also to the initial status quo. Moreover, the amount of transaction costs is not independent of the tax contracts themselves, neither are the benefits of regulation through taxation. Accordingly a more general welfare assessment of questions where it is optimal to levy environmental taxes shows that first best Pigovian taxes need not be effluent taxes (even if abatement is possible), although in some cases effluent taxes might still be the best policy option from an economic perspective. 31 refs.

  14. Evolution of tax revenue in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the dynamics of tax revenues in Romania in the period 2008 - 2013, following the installation of austerity caused by the global economic crisis. There are highlighted the earned revenues at the general consolidated budget by revenue category, according to the annual budget execution. The article deals mainly with the evolution of profit tax, income and salaries tax, value added tax and excise. .

  15. The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Chaloupka, Frank J; Blanchette, Jason G; Nguyen, Thien H; Heeren, Timothy C; Nelson, Toben F; Naimi, Timothy S

    2015-03-01

    U.S. studies contribute heavily to the literature about the tax elasticity of demand for alcohol, and most U.S. studies have relied upon specific excise (volume-based) taxes for beer as a proxy for alcohol taxes. The purpose of this paper was to compare this conventional alcohol tax measure with more comprehensive tax measures (incorporating multiple tax and beverage types) in analyses of the relationship between alcohol taxes and adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. Data on U.S. state excise, ad valorem and sales taxes from 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and other sources. For 510 state-year strata, we developed a series of weighted tax-per-drink measures that incorporated various combinations of tax and beverage types, and related these measures to state-level adult binge drinking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. In analyses pooled across all years, models using the combined tax measure explained approximately 20% of state binge drinking prevalence, and documented more negative tax elasticity (-0.09, P = 0.02 versus -0.005, P = 0.63) and price elasticity (-1.40, P tax. In analyses stratified by year, the R-squares for models using the beer combined tax measure were stable across the study period (P = 0.11), while the R-squares for models rely only on volume-based tax declined (P tax measures, combined tax measures (i.e. those incorporating volume-based tax and value-based taxes) yield substantial improvement in model fit and find more negative tax elasticity and price elasticity predicting adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. 26 CFR 1.1446-6 - Special rules to reduce a partnership's 1446 tax with respect to a foreign partner's allocable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... submit with a Form 8813, “Partnership Withholding Tax Payment Voucher (Section 1446),” and Form 8805... Payment Voucher (Section 1446),” filed for the first installment period. Under paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B) of...(b)(2)(i) for computation requirements for installment payments of 1446 tax when a partnership...

  17. Pedagogical Analysis of Higher Educational Standard of Bachelor's Professional Education with Specialization in Taxes and Taxation at the Universities of Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The problem of tax officials' training in Russian Federation is considered to be the main topic of the article. In the context of integration processes, the study of European countries' experience, in particular, of Russian Federation, as well as the implementation of progressive ideas of tax service specialists' professional training, have been…

  18. On Instructional Utility, Statistical Methodology, and the Added Value of ECD: Lessons Learned from the Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brian; Nugent, Rebecca; Rupp, Andre A.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue of "JEDM" was dedicated to bridging work done in the disciplines of "educational and psychological assessment" and "educational data mining" (EDM) via the assessment design and implementation framework of "evidence-centered design" (ECD). It consisted of a series of five papers: one…

  19. Annual tax compliance costs for small businesses: a survey of tax practitioners in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Smulders

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a baseline measurement for annual tax compliance costs for small businesses. An empirical study performed amongst tax practitioners to identify and measure the annual tax compliance costs for small businesses throughout South Africa revealed that R7 030 per annum is the average fee that tax practitioners charge their small business clients to ensure that their tax returns (for four key taxes – income tax, provisional tax, value added tax and employees’ tax are prepared, completed and submitted as SARS requires. From the perspective of time and cost, preparing, completing and submitting VAT returns takes the longest and costs the most. It is evident that, overall, the compliance costs are regressive: the smaller the business, the heavier the burden.

  20. Tax Administration Systems and Tax Consciousness of Income Tax and Consumption Tax

    OpenAIRE

    横山, 直子

    2015-01-01

    Tax compliance costs of consumption tax are relatively high. Tax compliance costs for self-assessment taxpayers are high, and for withholding income taxpayers, the compliance costs are small. That is to say, characteristics of tax compliance costs for income tax and consumption tax are various. And also characteristics of tax consciousness for income tax and consumption tax are many and various. The features of this paper are to clarify characteristics of tax compliance costs and tax consciou...

  1. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1.Although the 5th Environmental Action Programme of the EU in 1992 recommended the greater use of economic instruments such as environmental taxes, there has been little progress in their use since then at the EU level. At Member State level, however, there has been a continuing...... increase in the use of environmental taxes over the last decade, which has accelerated in the last 5-6 years. This is primarily apparent in Scandinavia, but it is also noticeable in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom.2.Evaluation studies of 16 environmental taxes have...... been identified and reviewed in this report. Within the limitations of the studies, it appears that these taxes have been environmentally effective (achieving their environmental objectives) and they seem to have achieved such objectives at reasonable cost. Examples of particularly successful taxes...

  2. Taxing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, R.; DeCanio, S.; Frech, H.E. III; Johnson, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    In this book, the authors have produced an analysis of state energy taxation. Their factual findings are of particular relevance to California and other states in their consideration of severance taxes on oil production. It turns out, for example, that while California's tax burden on oil producers is slightly below average among the states, the combined revenues from taxes and royalties (expressed as a percent of the value of production) indicate that California is not easy on oil producers. In fact, California's oil tax system appears to be particularly well suited to its oil industry. Much of the production in the state is relatively high-cost and economically marginal. The state must tread carefully in taxing this production, lest it force it to be curtailed

  3. Integration of Tax Administration to Curb Import and Domestic Tax Evasions in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Adu Kwame

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Government of Ghana’s plans to maximize tax mobilization, it recently integrated its Regional Collection Agencies (RCA namely; the Internal Revenue Service (IRS, Customs Excise and Preventive service (CEPS and the Value Added Tax (VAT Services into the Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA. This research aims to find out whether Ghana’s tax administration reform of integrating the RCA into GRA has dealt with the inefficiencies in tax administration with respect to personal income tax, company tax, value added tax (VAT, import duties and self employed tax collection. To that end, questionnaires, interviews, observation and the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning’s (MoFEP data on tax revenues were analyzed to establish whether there has been some level of efficiency in the mobilization of these taxes. From the field observation, it was discovered that many taxpayers in Ghana are not being issued receipts which could ensure proper accounting. Surprisingly, tax collectors from the RCAs were aware of this but refuse to act. Even though most of the taxes were not being collected, analysis of data from MoFEP showed an increase in revenue collection in the last four years and this has been attributed to the tax administration integration. The effect of tax evasion on the Ghanaian economy has also been thoroughly discussed

  4. The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Blanchette, Jason G.; Nguyen, Thien H.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Nelson, Toben F.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims U.S. studies contribute heavily to the literature about the tax elasticity of demand for alcohol, and most U.S. studies have relied upon specific excise (volume-based) taxes for beer as a proxy for alcohol taxes. The purpose of this paper was to compare this conventional alcohol tax measure with more comprehensive tax measures (incorporating multiple tax and beverage types) in analyses of the relationship between alcohol taxes and adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. Design Data on U.S. state excise, ad valorem and sales taxes from 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and other sources. For 510 state-year strata, we developed a series of weighted tax-per-drink measures that incorporated various combinations of tax and beverage types, and related these measures to state-level adult binge drinking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Findings In analyses pooled across all years, models using the combined tax measure explained approximately 20% of state binge drinking prevalence, and documented more negative tax elasticity (−0.09, P=0.02 versus −0.005, P=0.63) and price elasticity (−1.40, Ptax. In analyses stratified by year, the R-squares for models using the beer combined tax measure were stable across the study period (P=0.11), while the R-squares for models rely only on volume-based tax declined (Ptax measures, combined tax measures (i.e. those incorporating volume-based tax and value-based taxes) yield substantial improvement in model fit and find more negative tax elasticity and price elasticity predicting adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. PMID:25428795

  5. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  6. Integration of Tax Administration to Curb Import and Domestic Tax Evasions in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    John Adu Kwame; Eric Tutu Tchao; Kwasi Poku

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Government of Ghana’s plans to maximize tax mobilization, it recently integrated its Regional Collection Agencies (RCA) namely; the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Customs Excise and Preventive service (CEPS) and the Value Added Tax (VAT) Services into the Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA). This research aims to find out whether Ghana’s tax administration reform of integrating the RCA into GRA has dealt with the inefficiencies in tax administration with respect to personal income t...

  7. Tax incentives and enhanced oil recovery techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathis, J.S.

    1991-05-01

    Tax expenditures-reductions in income tax liability resulting from a special tax provision-are often used to achieve economic and social objectives. The arguments for petroleum production tax incentives usually encompass some combination of enhancing energy security, rewarding risk, or generating additional investment in new technologies. Generally, however, some portion of any tax expenditure is spend on activities that would have occurred anyway. This paper is a review of tax incentives for petroleum production found two to be of questionable merit. Others, including tax preferences for enhanced oil recovery methods, which offered the potential for better returns on the tax dollar. Increased use of enhanced oil recovery techniques could lead to additional environmental costs, however, and these need to be factored into any cost-benefit calculation

  8. Do international tax relations impede a shift towards expenditure taxation?

    OpenAIRE

    Genser, Bernd

    1990-01-01

    The paper questions the view that international tax relations had a decisive impact on the dismissal of expenditure tax scenarios as guidelines for recent national tax reforms in industrialized countries. It is argued that the introduction of consumption-type value-added tax systems must be regarded a step towards expenditure taxation favoured by international agreements and that double taxation treaties should not be regarded as a specific obstacle against a reform of national enterprise tax...

  9. Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Gravelle, Jane G.

    2009-01-01

    The federal government loses both individual and corporate income tax revenue from the shifting of profits and income into low-tax countries, often referred to as tax havens. Tax havens are located around the world with concentrations in the Caribbean and Europe. Corporate profit shifting may cost up to $60 billion in revenue and remedies are likely to involve tax law changes. Individual income tax losses more often arise from tax evasion, and are facilitated by the lack of information report...

  10. Should Utility-Reducing Media Advertising be Taxed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2009-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that people dislike ads in media products like TV programs. In such situations standard economic theory prescribes that the advertising volume can be optimally reduced by levying a tax on ads. However, making use of recent advances in the theory of Industrial Organizat......Empirical evidence suggests that people dislike ads in media products like TV programs. In such situations standard economic theory prescribes that the advertising volume can be optimally reduced by levying a tax on ads. However, making use of recent advances in the theory of Industrial...... Organization and two-sided markets we show that taxing ads may be counterproductive. In particular, we identify a number of situations in which ad-adverse consumers are negatively affected by the tax, and we even show that the tax may lead to higher ad volumes. This unorthodox reaction to a tax may arise when...

  11. Tax planning in corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nevodnicheva, Yulia

    2010-01-01

    This thesis "Tax planning in corporation" puts brain to legal entity income tax and it is looking for possible solutions in tax planning in corporation. The first part deals with the tax theory, the other part is the theory of tax planning, comparison of tax regimes and tax policy and tax revenue by optimizing both internationally and in the local aspect. The last part discusses options for optimizing tax

  12. GST IN INDIA: A KEY TAX REFORM AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Prashant Patil

    2018-01-01

    GST is one of the most crucial tax reforms in India which has been long waiting. It was hypothetical to be implemented from April 2010, but due to political issues and contradictory interests of various stakeholders it was still awaiting The Good and services tax (GST) is the prime and significant indirect tax reform since independence. The main idea of GST is to replace existing taxes like value-added tax, excise duty, service tax and sales tax. It is levied on manufacture sale and consumpti...

  13. 27 CFR 44.145 - Special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Operations by Export Warehouse Proprietors Inventories § 44.145 Special. A special inventory shall be made by the export warehouse proprietor whenever required by any...

  14. Financial sector taxation: Financial activities tax or financial transaction tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crises has revealed the need to improve and ensure the stability of the financial sector to reduce negative externalities, to ensure fair and substantial contribution of the financial sector to the public finances and the need to consolidate public finance. All those needs represent substantial arguments for the discussion about the introduction of financial sector taxation. There are discussed in the paper two possible schemes of financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax. The aim of the paper is to research the possibility of the introduction of financial sector taxation, to discuss the pros and cons of two major candidates on financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax and to suggest the possible candidate suitable for the implementation on the EU level. Financial transaction tax represents the tool suitable mainly on global level, for only in that case enables generate sufficient financial resources. From EU point of view is considered as less suitable, for it bears the risk of reallocation. Therefore the introduction of financial activities tax on EU level is considered as a better solution for the financial sector taxation in the EU, for financial sector is exempted from value added tax. With respect to the fact, that the implementation would represent the innovative approach to the financial sector taxation, there are no empirical proves and therefore this could be the subject of further research.

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... Eurostat and the Ministry of Economic Development. 4. .... regard to the application of special national schemes for small enterprises. ... 2013) mentions a two-year exemption from the tax on joint stock companies and local taxes. ... specialized support programs are developed, such as the introduction of the ...

  16. How to Set up an Effective Food Tax? Comment on "Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Céline

    2013-09-01

    Whereas public information campaigns have failed to reverse the rising trend in obesity, economists support food taxes as they suggest they can force individuals to change their eating behavior and make the agro-food industry think more about healthy food products. Excise taxes based on the unhealthy nutrient content would be more effective since they impact more on unhealthy food products than VAT (value-added-tax) taxes. Taxes based only on junk food products would avoid perverse effects on healthy nutrient. However, as eating behavior of consumers is complex, a modeling analysis would allow to assess unexpected effects on other unhealthy nutrients or products.

  17. Tax Policy in Action: 2016 Tax Amnesty Experience of the Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmiryzan Wasrinil Said

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax amnesty programs are often used by governments to improve tax compliance and to increase tax revenue. However, the policy choice to provide a tax amnesty often results in adverse consequences, including the violation of other legal rules. For this reason, the policy choice to offer a tax amnesty (‘tax amnesty policy’ is often controversial. The tax amnesty policy and resulting program offered by the Government of Indonesia has been criticized both because it is considered to be unfair and because it favors the perpetrators of tax evasion. In particular, the tax amnesty law offered special treatment to taxpayers who participated in the program, such as no checking of the source of funds, no checking of the financial statements reported by law enforcers, protection from punishment on the financial reports provided to the Director General of Taxation, and the requirement to pay only a small penalty. Tax amnesty programs also provide the potential for money laundering. This is certainly the case in Indonesia. In addition, tax amnesty programs weaken law enforcement in Indonesia; in particular, in the areas of corruption and money laundering. This is because law enforcement officers cannot investigate the perpetrators of white-collar crime that benefit from the tax amnesty program. Under the terms of the tax amnesty program, the financial data is not accessible by them.

  18. Thoughts on a comprehensive tax reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wanfu

    2015-01-01

    "The Decision on Several Major Issues Regarding the Deepening of Reform" adopted by the Third Plenum of the Eighteenth Session of the CPC Central Committee gave a new position to the next round of tax reform,and proposed its objectives,tone,mission,and core tasks.The new round of tax reform should cover a wide range of issues,including state governance,tax legislation,economic reform and development,social management,globalization,ecological and environmental protection,improvement of tax collection,as well as other related issues.Particular attention should be paid to replacing business tax with VAT,completing legislation on VAT,adjusting the scope,collection mechanisms,and rates of consumption tax;strengthening regulation and control,implementing a personal income tax system that considers both aggregate income and income by source,promoting real estate tax legislation,expanding the ad valorem natural resource tax,accelerating the gradual replacement of fees with taxes,and introducing legislation on environmental protection taxes.

  19. Parking taxes : evaluating options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to encouraging the use of alternative modes of transport, parking taxes can help to reduce congestion, air pollution, and urban sprawl. Various types of parking taxes were evaluated in this paper, as well as their impacts on parking supply, prices and travel patterns. Examples of various parking tax programs in major cities in Canada, Europe, the United States and Australia were presented. Parking tax programs were divided into 2 main categories: (1) per-space parking levies which distribute cost burdens and encourage property owners to manage parking supply more efficiently and (2) commercial parking taxes on parking rental transactions which discourage the pricing of parking and concentrate impacts in limited areas. Worksite parking levies were discussed, as well stormwater fees and employee parking as a taxable benefit. Typical parking facility financial costs were reviewed and best practices for structuring and implementing parking taxes to increase public acceptability were outlined. It was suggested that the tax base should be broad and well-defined. Local governments should increase parking prices to market rates before imposing special parking taxes, and taxes and fees should be structured to avoid undesirable land use. Parking tax reforms should be part of an overall parking and mobility management program. Stakeholders should be consulted to insure that regulations, administrative procedures and enforcement policies are efficient and fair. The establishment of an evaluation program to determine tax impacts on parking supply and pricing, economic activity, traffic and spillover problems was also recommended. 42 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  20. 78 FR 6272 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... regulations are relating to Additional Hospital Insurance Tax on income above threshold amounts (``Additional Medicare Tax''), as added by the Affordable Care Act. Specifically, these proposed regulations provide...

  1. Information sharing for consumption tax purposes : An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Jenny E.

    The paper studies the determinants of information sharing between Swedish tax authorities and 14 EU tax authorities for value-added tax (VAT) purposes. It is shown that trade-related variables (such as the partner country's net trade position and population size), reciprocity, and legal arrangements

  2. Pay your taxes where you add the value : how to avoid tax avoidance and abuse? An overview of measures taken and proposed with a special focus on developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Irene; Bouwman, Jan; Schutte, Nico; van Herwaarden, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This background paper shows: - why the OECD refers to a global ‘patchwork’ of domestic and anti-avoidance rules; - which measures the OECD in its BEPS Project recommends to address the mismatches and loopholes; and - to what extent the special needs of developing countries are recognized. Moreover

  3. Concept of Tax Advising Within Tax Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Bychkova; Makarova Nadiya

    2013-01-01

    Tax advising is strictly individual service requiring knowledge in the fields of law, tax and accounting. Tax advising includes not only advising on taxation models depending on the economic entity type of activity, but it also deals with issues of tax optimization. In the article the authors have offered their views on the concept of tax consulting in the area of tax optimization (tax planning). The subject matter has been a set of the most rational and important settings that allow you to u...

  4. Implementing a Progressive Consumption Tax: Advantages of Adopting the VAT Credit-Method System

    OpenAIRE

    Grinberg, Itai

    2006-01-01

    A credit–method value–added tax, a payroll tax, and a business–level wage subsidy can approximate the economic and distributional consequences of a subtraction–method X–tax. Such a credit–method progressive consumption tax has administrative advantages as compared to a subtraction–method progressive consumption tax, once certain political factors are taken into account. Further, unlike a subtraction–method system, a credit–method progressive consumption tax could easily interact with other ta...

  5. Tax compliance costs: A review of cost burdens and cost structures

    OpenAIRE

    Eichfelder, Sebastian; Vaillancourt, François

    2014-01-01

    Our paper provides a comprehensive report of empirical research on tax compliance costs. Compared to previous reviews, our focus is on average costs for sub-groups (individual taxpayers, small business-es, large businesses) and the composition of the cost burden with regards to different cost components(in-house time effort, external adviser costs, other monetary expenses), different taxes (e.g. income tax, value added tax) and different activities like tax accounting and tax planning. In add...

  6. Tax Expenditures--Shedding Light on Government Spending through the Tax System : Lessons from Developed and Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Polackova Brixi, Hana; Valenduc, Christian M.A.; Swift, Zhicheng Li

    2004-01-01

    Recently developing countries have focused attention on the usefulness of tax expenditures' in shaping prudent and transparent fiscal policy. In adopting a market economy, developing countries commonly use tax expenditures as major fiscal policy instruments. However, with limited theoretical understanding of, and ad hoc experience with, applying tax expenditures, developing countries now c...

  7. Effects of Added Resistance Training on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Serum Hormone Concentrations During Eight Weeks of Special Military Training Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kokko, Juha; Isoranta, Manne; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2015-11-01

    A high volume of military training has been shown to compromise muscle strength development. We examined effects of added low-volume resistance training during special military training (ST) period, which took place after basic training period. Male conscripts (n = 25) were assigned to standardized ST with added resistance training group (TG, n = 13) and group with standardized ST only (control) (CG, n = 12). Standardized ST with added resistance training group performed 2 resistance training sessions per week for 8 weeks: hypertrophic strength (weeks 1-3), maximal strength (weeks 4-6) and power training (weeks 7-8). Maximal strength tests, load carriage performance (3.2 km, 27 kg), and hormone concentrations were measured before and after ST (mean ± SD). Both groups improved similarly in their load carriage performance time (TG: 1,162 ± 116 seconds vs. 1,047 ± 81 seconds; CG: 1,142 ± 95 seconds vs. 1,035 ± 81 seconds) (p < 0.001) but decreased maximal strength of the lower extremities (TG: 5,250 ± 1,110 N vs. 4,290 ± 720 N; CG: 5,170 ± 1,050 N vs. 4,330 ± 1,230 N) and back muscles (TG: 4,290 ± 990 N vs. 3,570 ± 48 N; CG: 3,920 ± 72 N vs. 3,410 ± 53 N) (p ≤ 0.05). Maximal strength of the upper extremities improved in CG (1,040 ± 200 N vs. 1,140 ± 200 N) (p ≤ 0.05) but not in TG. Maximal strength of the abdominal muscles improved in TG (3,260 ± 510 N vs. 3,740 ± 75 N) (p ≤ 0.05) but not in CG. Testosterone concentration increased in CG (15.2 ± 3.6 nmol·L⁻¹ vs. 21.6 ± 5.0 nmol·L⁻¹) (p < 0.01) but not in TG (18.6 ± 4.3 nmol·L⁻¹ vs. 19.5 ± 9.4 nmol·L⁻¹). In conclusion, interference with strength gains might be related to the high volume of aerobic activities and too low volume of resistance training during ST. To develop strength characteristics, careful periodization and individualization should be adopted in ST.

  8. Tax Amnesty (in Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Kateryna Bornukova; Dzmitry Kruk; Gleb Shymanovich; Yuri Tserlukevich

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores international experience of tax amnesties. Despite the popular use of tax amnesties, the results are mixed. The main advantage of the tax amnesty is the possibility to increase tax collections and improve tax compliance. However, it does not account for adverse effect of amnesties on tax compliance and high direct and indirect costs of amnesties. The success of the tax amnesty depends largely on the state of the economy. We have identified target groups and discussed a que...

  9. Tax policy at the outskirts of EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterø Jensen, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    of Greenland's tax system, the paper's special focus will be on the corporate tax systemand its interplay with personal taxation, as well on as the system of import duties. In particular, wecarry out computations of effective marginal and average corporate tax rates, as well as average effectivetax burdens...... on consumption, labour income and capital income, and compare these to similarmeasures for EU countries. In addition, we outline how Greenland's economic policy in other areasinterferes with tax policy. Especially fishery regulation, management of government-owned companies,and housing policy have major...

  10. 27 CFR 70.81 - Notice and demand for tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice and demand for tax... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Notice and Demand § 70.81 Notice and demand for tax. (a) General... demanding payment thereof. Such notice shall be given as soon as possible and within 60 days. However, the...

  11. 77 FR 8184 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... these proposed regulations. The regulations affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. Special... of the Federal Register.] Sec. 1.909-6 Pre-2011 foreign tax credit splitting events. [The text of...

  12. Taxing food: implications for public health nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, Martin; Cowburn, Gill

    2005-12-01

    To set out a policy analysis of food taxes as a way of influencing food consumption and behaviour. The study draws on examples of food taxes from the developed world imposed at national and local levels. Studies were identified from a systemised search in six databases with criteria designed to identity articles of policy relevance. The dominant approach identified from the literature was the imposition of food taxes on food to raise general revenue, such as Value Added Tax in the European Union. Food taxes can be applied in various ways, ranging from attempts to directly influence behaviour to those which collect taxes for identified campaigns on healthy eating through to those applied within closed settings such as schools. There is a case for combining taxes of unhealthy foods with subsidies of healthy foods. The evidence from the literature concerning the use and impact of food taxes on food behaviour is not clear and those cases identified are mainly retrospective descriptions of the process. Many food taxes have been withdrawn after short periods of time due to industry lobbying. CONCLUSIONS FOR POLICY: Small taxes with the clear purpose of promoting the health of key groups, e.g. children, are more likely to receive public support. The focus of many tax initiatives is unclear; although they are generally aimed at consumers, another focus could be food manufacturers, using taxes and subsidies to encourage the production of healthier foods, which could have an effect at a population level. Further consideration needs to be given to this aspect of food taxes. Taxing food (and subsidies) can influence food behaviour within closed systems such as schools and the workplace.

  13. Taxing Snack Foods: Manipulating Diet Quality or Financing Information Programs?

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Kuchler; Abebayehu Tegene; J. Michael Harris

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates consumers' likely response to a proposed tax on snack foods that addresses public health issues generated by rising U.S. obesity rates. We estimate demands for particular snack foods and show they are price inelastic after accounting for quality variation. We calculate impacts of a range of ad valorem taxes on the demand for salty snack food. The impacts on dietary quality are small, and negligible at the lower tax rates. If taxes were earmarked for funding information...

  14. Corporate hedging under a resource rent tax regime

    OpenAIRE

    Frestad, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Accepted version of an article in the journal: Energy Economics. Published version available on Science Direct: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2009.10.009 In addition to the ordinary corporate income tax, special purpose taxes are sometimes levied to extract abnormal profits arising from the use of natural resources. Such dual tax regimes exist in Norway for oil and hydropower, where the corresponding special purpose tax bases are unaffected by any derivatives payments. Dual tax firms w...

  15. Could targeted food taxes improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver; Gray, Alastair; Rayner, Mike; Rutter, Harry

    2007-08-01

    To examine the effects on nutrition, health and expenditure of extending value added tax (VAT) to a wider range of foods in the UK. A model based on consumption data and elasticity values was constructed to predict the effects of extending VAT to certain categories of food. The resulting changes in demand, expenditure, nutrition and health were estimated. Three different tax regimens were examined: (1) taxing the principal sources of dietary saturated fat; (2) taxing foods defined as unhealthy by the SSCg3d nutrient scoring system; and (3) taxing foods in order to obtain the best health outcome. Consumption patterns and elasticity data were taken from the National Food Survey of Great Britain. The health effects of changing salt and fat intake were from previous meta-analyses. (1) Taxing only the principal sources of dietary saturated fat is unlikely to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease because the reduction in saturated fat is offset by a rise in salt consumption. (2) Taxing unhealthy foods, defined by SSCg3d score, might avert around 2,300 deaths per annum, primarily by reducing salt intake. (3) Taxing a wider range of foods could avert up to 3,200 cardiovascular deaths in the UK per annum (a 1.7% reduction). Taxing foodstuffs can have unpredictable health effects if cross-elasticities of demand are ignored. A carefully targeted fat tax could produce modest but meaningful changes in food consumption and a reduction in cardiovascular disease.

  16. Estonian Tax Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Trasberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Estonian tax structure changes during the last decade and critically assesses the current situation. The country’s tax mix is rather unique among EU countries – it has one of the highest proportions of consumption taxes in total taxes and the lowest level of capital and profit taxes. Such an unbalanced tax structure creates risks for public finances, limits revenue collection and distorts the business environment.

  17. Collecting Taxes Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Collecting Taxes Database contains performance and structural indicators about national tax systems. The database contains quantitative revenue performance...

  18. From tax evasion to tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgain, Arnaud; Pieretti, Patrice; Zanaj, Skerdilajda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze within a simple model how a re- moval of bank secrecy can impact tax revenues and banks' profitability assuming that offshore centers are able to offer sophisticated but legal or not easily detectable tax planning. Two alternative regimes are considered. A first in which there is strict bank secrecy and a second where there is international information exchange for tax purposes. We show in particular that sharing tax information with onshore coun- tries can...

  19. Environmental taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Šinković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental taxes should result in an improvement or prevention of deterioration of the environment. Although more advanced than previously existing Act on Excise Duty on Passenger Cars, Other Motor Vehicles, Vessels and Aircrafts from the 1997th year, the new law will hardly Croatia bring visible environmental benefit. Its application should not be expected to reduce the negative impacts of road traffic on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions until it does not clearly define how it will be at least part of the funds collected under this levy will be spent on measures to encourage the use of say hybrid or electric vehicles. Yet we should not neglect the fact that there is still need to work on educating people about the importance of environmental protection and any measures to be taken in the sphere of environmental protection should follow economic policies with a particular community or a country.

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... permissible limits of financial sovereignty of religious confessions. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a ..... they get 50% discount on corporate taxation; they have value-added tax allowance.

  1. Legal aspects of Polish Tax and Social Security in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Parlińska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are describing legal aspects of treatment of farming sector in the tax and social security system in Poland. Tax System in Polish Agriculture is an integral part of Polish Tax System. Most taxes paid by farmers are property taxes, which supplied the budget of main local authority in Poland (municipality. In some cases farmers pay also personal income tax and value added tax like those, who run specific agricultural production as well individual farmers who operate through a limited liability company are subject to corporate income tax. The social security fund for farmers (known as KRUS was speared in 1990 from the social security system (ZUS. Farmers receive similar benefits with regard to health care, education, and social welfare although the contributions into the farmers system are lower then under the ZUS system.

  2. TOP TAX SYSTEM - A common tax system for all nations

    OpenAIRE

    VIJAYA KRUSHNA VARMA

    2011-01-01

    TOP Tax system is a new tax system which can be used as a common tax system for all nations. This new tax system will be without present tax system’s all Direct and Indirect taxes accompanied by tax laws, tax exemptions, multiple tax collection departments to relieve 7 billion people of the world from the cobweb of ambiguous and complex tax structures, plethora of tax laws, mandatory and cumbersome accounting, auditing, tax returns and consequent quagmire of all tax related cases. Taxation, t...

  3. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC

  4. Dynamic Tax Depreciation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the prof- itability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects.

  5. Dynamic tax depreciation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the profitability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects.

  6. Refundable Tax Credits

    OpenAIRE

    Congressional Budget Office

    2013-01-01

    In 1975, the first refundable tax credit—the earned income tax credit (EITC)—took effect. Since then, the number and cost of refundable tax credits—credits that can result in net payments from the government—have grown considerably. Those credits will cost $149 billion in 2013, CBO estimates, mostly for the EITC and the child tax credit.

  7. Reforming taxes on wine and other alcoholic beverage consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kym Anderson

    2010-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive review of AustraliaÂ’s tax system, the taxes on alcoholic beverages recently came under scrutiny. In its initial response to the review in May 2010, the government chose to not change those taxes, even though the review recommended the wine tax switch from an ad valorem to a volumetric basis and that all beverages be taxed to the same extent per litre of alcohol. This paper introduces a mini-symposium of three other papers aimed at contributing to what will be an on...

  8. Tax Planning for Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Weiqing

    2011-01-01

    @@ Tax planning is legal planning activities for tax savings, meaning tax payers make operation plans within the national policy framework and choose operation programs favorable to tax savings.Along with a maturing socialist market economy system in China, tax planning is becoming an integral part of enterprise management and operation.For a better tax planning, enterprises have to fully understand the meaning, get proficient at relevant strategies, and apply these methods to save taxes and realize the maximization of enterprise value while considering the actual situation.

  9. Tax havens and development

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Government Commission on Capital Flight from Poor Countries

    2009-01-01

    Tax havens harm both industrialised and developing countries, but the damaging impacts are largest in developing countries. This is partly because these countries are poor and thereby have more need to protect their national tax base, and partly because they generally have weaker institutions and thereby fewer opportunities for enforcing the laws and regulations they adopt. Tax treaties between tax havens and developing countries often contribute to a significant reduction in the tax base of...

  10. How to Set up an Effective Food Tax?; Comment on “Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Bonnet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas public information campaigns have failed to reverse the rising trend in obesity, economists support food taxes as they suggest they can force individuals to change their eating behavior and make the agro-food industry think more about healthy food products. Excise taxes based on the unhealthy nutrient content would be more effective since they impact more on unhealthy food products than VAT (value-added-tax taxes. Taxes based only on junk food products would avoid perverse effects on healthy nutrient. However, as eating behavior of consumers is complex, a modeling analysis would allow to assess unexpected effects on other unhealthy nutrients or products.

  11. TAX EVASION THROUGH FICTITIOUS ECONOMIC OPERATIONS, OBSTACLE TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIU-BOGDAN CONSTANTIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax evasion means the avoidance of declaring and paying taxes. The purpose of the research is to identify ways and mechanisms of tax evasion through fictitious economic operations and how this kind o tax evasion can influence sustainable development. The principal methods are researching tax evasion cases investigated by the Romanian authorities responsible for combating this phenomenon, court trials on tax evasion and using the bibliographic references in the field. The data used are obtained through open sources of the authorities specialized in combating tax evasion for the cases made public, the media and also from specialised literature. The principal results are that this type of tax evasion is manifested through transactions with “ghost companies”, with offshore companies and transactions between associated enterprises. The main causes of this problem are: high taxation, corruption, inefficient government and tax authorities, no fiscal education and very hard tax legislation. The consequences are that the state budget is affected, the companies that do business legally are affected and also the final consumers, so Romania will not have economic growth and the quality of life will not improve. The main conclusion is that in order to have sustainable development, tax evasion in general and this kind of tax evasion in particular must be eradicated. The measures that have to be taken are to prevent tax evasion and to tighten controls but without violating taxpayers rights and without making abuses

  12. The history of double tax conventions in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Arbutina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After a short introduction, the authors briefly describe the national experience in handling the problems of international double taxation through double tax conventions. This chapter is divided according to stages in the history of double tax conventions identified. The authors analyse the goals of tax treaty policies in differentiated stages with a survey of the economic implications. Special focus is placed on inter-country influences and the impact on and of international institutions and organisations through an examination of the influence of bilateral tax treaties on model tax conventions and vice versa. The fifth chapter presents concluding observations.

  13. Mapping Tax Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Tax compliance denotes the act of reporting and paying taxes in accordance with the tax laws. Current social science scholarship on tax compliance can almost entirely be divided into behavioural psychology analyses and critical tax studies. This article, which presents two cases of how tax...... compliance is constructed, challenges the explanatory reaches of today's social science approaches, arguing that an alternative approach to understanding tax compliance is worthwhile exploring. This other choice of approach, inspired by actor–network theory (ANT), adopts a more practice-oriented focus...... that studies tax compliance where it takes place as well as what it is made of. Consequently, this article argues that tax compliance is a socio-material assemblage and that complying is a distributed action. The article concludes by highlighting how an ANT approach contributes to the further theoretical...

  14. Integrating ICT Skills and Tax Software in Tax Education: A Survey of Malaysian Tax Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lai Ming; Nawawi, Nurul Hidayah Ahamad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the ICT skills needed by a fresh accounting graduate when first joining a tax firm; to find out usage of electronic tax (e-tax) applications in tax practice; to assess the rating of senior tax practitioners on fresh graduates' ICT and e-tax applications skills; and to solicit tax practitioners' opinion regarding…

  15. Modern aspects of tax regulation of investment activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Podakov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the tax regulation of investment activity in modern conditions. Scientists studied different views about the impact of tax regulations on the investment activity in the country. The author determines that the tax regulation of investment activity involves the use of state mechanisms taxation of certain measures to improve investment conditions. The subject is the state tax regulations, and the object is the investment activity of individual and institutional investors of any form of ownership including organizational and legal forms. Such regulation is performed by using complex special tools. The possible methods of tax stimulation of investment processes are described. The article deals with the current results of tax reform in Ukraine and predicts its possible consequences for agricultural producers. The rating positions of Ukraine according to international organizations are showed. The systematic analysis has been carried out and the impact of differential tax rates, tax exemption for a specified period, reducing the tax base, elimination of double taxation on investment activity in certain areas have been researched. The special instruments of investment activity tax regulation are considered. The options for improving investment activity by introducing effective tax regulation are determined.

  16. Tax Morality and Progressive Wage Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Simonovits

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of tax morality on progressive income (wage) taxation. We assume that transfers (cash-back) and public expenditures are financed from linear wage taxes. We derive the reported wages from individual utility maximization, when individuals obtain partial satisfaction from reporting wages (depending on their tax morality), and cannot be excluded from the use of public services. The government maximizes a utilitarian social welfare function, also taking into account the utili...

  17. Optimal income taxation with a risky asset : the triple income tax

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    We show in a two-period world with endogenous savings and two assets, one of them exhibiting a stochastic return, that an interest-adjusted income tax is optimal. This tax leaves a riskless component of interest income tax free and taxes the excess return with a special tax rate. There is no trade-off between risk allocation and efficiency in intertemporal consumption. Both goals are reached. As the resulting tax system divides income into three parts, the tax can also be called a Triple Inco...

  18. Deciding on Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse everyday reasoning in public administration. This is done by focusing on front line tax inspectors’ decisions about tax evasion. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents ethnography of bureaucracy and field audits. The material stems from...... fieldwork conducted in the Central Customs and Tax Administration. Findings – The paper shows that the tax inspectors reason about tax evasion in a casuistic manner. They pay attention to similar cases and to particular circumstances of the individual cases. In deciding on tax evasion, the inspectors do...

  19. Collaborative Tax Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article shows a new form of regulation within a tax administration where tax administrators abate tax evasion by nudging and motivating consumers to only purchase services from tax compliant businesses. This indirectly closes or forces tax evading businesses to change their practices, because...... stakeholders, i.e. the consumers, in the regulatory craft. The study is based on a qualitative methodology and draws on a unique case of regulation in the cleaning sector. This sector is at high risk of tax evasion and human exploitation of vulnerable workers operating in the informal economy. The article has...

  20. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....

  1. Does More Progressive Tax Make Tax Discipline Weaker?

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Damjanovic

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the disparity in tax base and tax collection. I address the tax collection problem with traditional industrial organization approach. Thus, I model the "tax minimization" industry where the supplier helps taxpayers to avoid their tax liability. I find that lower income inequality as well as a less progressive tax code may result in a smaller number of tax payers committing to their tax duties. Finally, I question the reduction in the highest ta...

  2. Hairy AdS solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  3. Hairy AdS solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales and Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru, E-mail: dumitru.astefanesei@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2016-11-10

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  4. The European integration process and the future of national tax systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Marina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the European Union (EU has had a huge impact on Europe which has become a substantially different place as compared to what it used to be in some earlier times. In the field of taxation, the EU Member States are generally required to fully implement of the process of tax harmonization. In fiscal terms, harmonization implies the coordination of particular taxes, tax structures and tax policies among states. As the primary objective of the EU is to establish the common market, to prevent distortion and to eliminate obstacles hindering the free movement of goods, services, capital and people, the first step towards accomplishing these goals has been the harmonization of indirect taxes: the Value Added Tax and (partly excises. The results have been much more inconspicuous in the harmonization of direct taxes: the personal-income tax, the corporate tax, and property taxes. The harmonization of direct taxes in the EU is still a current issue, particularly in view of the unfair tax competition and the need to strengthen and promote the development of the European common market. However, in reality, EU Member States consistently keep protecting their tax sovereignty and putting off the full harmonization of their legislation on direct taxes for some other time. In the contemporary circumstances, the activities which deserve undivided attention are the efforts aimed at improving tax cooperation between EU Member States and their tax administrations. In this paper, the author analyses the characteristics of tax harmonization and tax competition. Further on, the author discusses the arguments for and against tax harmonization, as well as the pros and cons of tax competition. Bearing in mind the current state of affairs, the evident problems in the field of tax harmonization at the EU level and the willingness of Member States to improve their tax cooperation, the author suggests possible directions for the development of national tax

  5. Environmental taxes in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report briefly presents and comments the amount of environmental taxes which have been collected in France in 2008. These taxes comprise energy taxes (nearly 68 per cent), transport taxes (nearly 28 per cent) and pollution and resource taxes (less than 5 per cent), and represent 2 per cent of the French GDP and 5 per cent of mandatory contributions. The share of environmental taxes is compared among the European Union countries. This shows that France is close to the average. It also appears that these taxes evolve slower than the GDP. An indicator is built up and commented: it relates the rate between energy taxes and the GDP on the one hand, and energy consumption on the other hand. This indicator displays a slow but significant decrease since the end of the last century

  6. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  7. Environmental taxes 1991 - 2001 (2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1991-2001 (and budget figure for 2002). Environmental taxes are a concept for pollution, energy, transportation and resource related taxes. Income of the government from environmental taxes have increased from 30,0 billions DDK in 1991 to 62,2 billions DDK in 2001 - a little more than a doubling. The environmental taxes' part of the total taxes' part og the total taxes has increased from 7,5% in 1991 to 9,4% in 2001. In 2001 the energy taxes are 57%, the transportation taxes 36% and the pollution and resource taxes 7% of the environmental taxes. (LN)

  8. Tax Incentives and Borrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alan, Sule; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Munk-Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effect of a Danish 1987 tax reform, which reduced the tax rate applied to interest deductions from 73% to 50% for households with high incomes, but less for households with middle or low incomes. Using high quality panel data we find that households responded to the reduced tax su...... subsidy by lowering interest payments and we find that the responsiveness to the tax subsidy varies by the initial level of interest payments....

  9. UK Tax Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, John F.

    1998-07-01

    The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.

  10. Dynamic tax depreciation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the profitability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects. Previous research focusses on the optimal choice of depreciation method under the assumption that the depreciation method has to be set ex ante and cannot be changed during the useful life of the asset...

  11. The history of double tax conventions in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Hrvoje Arbutina; Nataša Žunić Kovačević

    2014-01-01

    After a short introduction, the authors briefly describe the national experience in handling the problems of international double taxation through double tax conventions. This chapter is divided according to stages in the history of double tax conventions identified. The authors analyse the goals of tax treaty policies in differentiated stages with a survey of the economic implications. Special focus is placed on inter-country influences and the impact on and of international institutions and...

  12. Tax evasion – Notion and means to commit it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana G. IONAŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax evasion is the circumvention, by any means, from the enforcement or payment of taxes, contributions or any amounts owed to the state budget, the local budget, the state social insurance budget and the budgets for special funds by Romanian or foreign natural persons or companies, commonly referred to as tax payers in the text of the law. It is currently present under various methods and represents a direct and dangerous threat for society’s stability.

  13. [Cigarette taxes and demand in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Norman; Llorente, Blanca; Deaza, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Estimate price and income elasticities of aggregate demand for cigarettes in Colombia, by controlling for structural market changes since the late 1990s, to identify policy opportunities for taxes that could improve public health and increase tax revenues. Measurement of aggregate demand for cigarettes using gross income reported on value-added tax returns submitted to Colombia's National Tax and Customs Office (DIAN is the acronym in Spanish) by the tobacco product manufacturing industry, subtracting exports. A quarterly time series was obtained for the period 1994-2014. The econometric estimation using two-stage least squares controls for price endogeneity and uses a set of dummy variables to control for structural changes in the market and in its regulation. Demand is, from a statistical standpoint, sensitive to price and to income. Price elasticity of demand is -0.78 and income elasticity is 0.61. Inelastic demand implies that it is possible, through cigarette excise taxes, to meet public health targets and increase revenues simultaneously. The results also suggest that the considerable increase in household income in Colombia in the first decade of the 21st century increased purchasing power, which, lacking an accompanying tax increase, promoted cigarette consumption, with negative effects on public health, and wasted an opportunity to increase tax revenues.

  14. Economic Impact of Imposing Excise Tax on Plastic Bottles of Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mardanugraha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research simulates the effect of imposing excise tax on plastic container of drinks towards economic performance of beverage industry in Indonesia and governmentâ˘A ´Zs tax revenue. The results showed that by imposing excise tax on plastic cups and plastic bottles the government would lose tax revenue from value added tax (PPN and corporate income tax (PPh badan more than they gain additional revenue from excise tax. Hence, imposing excise tax on drink containers should serve a clear purpose and an undeniable reason. This paper recommends the government to develop proper excise infrastructure to extend the goods or services to be taxed. This paper also recommends the required stages for extending the excise tax.

  15. The Impact of Value Added Tax on the North Cyprus Economy: A Short Term Assessment = Katma Değer Vergisinin Kuzey Kıbrıs Ekonomisi Üzerine Etkisi : Kısa Dönem Değerlendirmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul GHAFOOR

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Value added tax was introduced in North Cyprus in 1996 to increase public revenue as well as to harmonize with Turkey and EU member countries. It is however evident that the budget deficit has rather increased after the introduction of VAT. The literature argues that VAT not only has potential to generate enough revenue to reduce the budget deficit but also encourages savings and investments. The question is why could North Cyprus not achieve these objectives? The present study was designed to answer this question. It evaluates the impact of VAT on the North Cyprus economy by using several macroeconomic variables such as total consumption, total domestic savings, public, private and total investments, government purchases, exports and imports. The impact of VAT has been studied through simple regression techniques with dummy variable for policy change.

  16. Would Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance Undermine a National Retail Sales Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew N.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that shifting to an indirect tax system (a national sales tax) will not necessarily reduce tax avoidance and tax evasion behavior by businesses and individuals, particularly if the tax rate is set high to maintain revenue neutrality. Lack of experience in administering a high-rate, indirect tax system precludes definitive statements regarding the likely extent of tax base erosion under a national sales tax.

  17. Features and Advantages of Using Tax Havens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botis S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of tax havens is tied to illicit money laundering process, evolving later under various illegal forms and currently they operate under the protective umbrella of beneficial jurisdictions belonging to some political protected States worldwide. For them to be capable of functioning, special conditions to attract investors have been created. The purpose of this study is to highlight the main features of the tax havens, their operating mechanism and peculiarities of their tax laws, offshore entities regime. The article concludes on the reason of the occurrence, the existence and proliferation of tax havens, as well as legislative efforts that are submitted worldwide to eradicate them in the perspective of future global economic and financial developments.

  18. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  19. Environmental taxes 1991 - 2000 (2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1991-2000 (and budget figure for 2001). Environmental taxes is a collective concept for pollution, energy, transportation and resource related taxes. Income of the government from environmental taxes have increased from 30,0 billions DDK in 1991 to 60,6 billions DDK in 2000 - a little more than a doubling. The environmental taxes' part of the total taxes has increased from 7,5% in 1991 to 9,7% in 2000. In 2000 the energy taxes are 55%, the transportation taxes 38% and the pollution and resource taxes 7% of the environmental taxes. (EHS)

  20. Distributional effects of a carbon tax in broader U.S. fiscal reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Aparna; Morris, Adele C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distributional implications of an illustrative $15 carbon tax imposed in 2010 on carbon in fossil fuels. We analyze its incidence across income classes and regions, both in isolation and when combined with measures that apply the carbon tax revenue to lowering other distortionary taxes in the economy. Consistent with earlier findings, we find that a carbon tax is regressive. Using tax swap simulations, we then subtract the burden of other taxes the carbon tax revenue could displace, and compute the net effect on households under three assumptions about how capital and labor income might be distributed. - Highlights: • Shows that a carbon tax by itself is regressive. • Burden of a carbon tax may be offset partly with a corporate tax swap. • Higher income households face negative tax rates under corporate tax swap. • Corporate tax swap results in wider regional variations in burden than labor tax swaps. • Adding sources side incidence of carbon tax makes tax less regressive

  1. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  2. A kettős adóztatás elkerüléséről szóló korai magyar egyezmények = Earlier tax treaties of Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Kolozs, Borbála

    2012-01-01

    Ennek a dolgozatnak az a célja, hogy bemutassa Magyarország történeti kettős adóztatás elkerüléséről szóló egyezményeit. A bevezetés, az első és a második fejezet a nemzetközi adózással kapcsolatos alapfogalmakat tisztázza. A harmadik fejezet Magyarország XVII-XVIII. századi gazdasági és politikai helyzetét írja le. Az ezt követő fejezetek a világháborúk előtti, közötti és utánuk következő időszak adóegyezményeinek történetével foglalkoznak. Az egyik fejezet a KGST tagállamok által kötött ket...

  3. GOODS AND SERVICE TAX ONE NATION ONE TAX IN INDIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Shuchi Sharma; Rupendra Prakash Yadav.

    2018-01-01

    Goods and Service Tax is a significant and logical step towards a comprehensive Indirect tax reform in India. This paper analyses the concept of Goods Service Tax and further discusses their impact on the various sectors in India. Brief description is given on Goods Service Tax background and Goods and Service Tax models helps to reduce tax burden. It aims at creating a single and unified market benefiting both corporate and economy because this is the only Indirect tax that directly affects ...

  4. Different Tax Systems among Nations and International Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    栗原, 克文

    2008-01-01

    As economic globalization proceeds, tax policies of one nation influence others more and greater pressures are imposed on tax systems and tax administrations.The possibility of tax avoidance will expand if cross-border transactions are abused.Specifically, tax system differentials among countries increase the opportunity for tax avoidance.Under some tax avoidance schemes, foreign entities which have no or little economic substance are used to create artificial losses, so that they can minimiz...

  5. Aggressive Tax Strategies and Corporate Tax Governance: An Institutional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarino, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of tax-aggressive strategies on corporate governance by adopting an agency perspective of the firm and discusses how certain corporate tax governance measures may limit these kinds of managerial actions. We first clarify a few basic concepts such as tax minimization, effective tax planning, tax avoidance, and tax evasion, which are important to understand in the discussion about aggressive tax behaviour. We further define the regulative concept of effective ta...

  6. Federal Solutions to School Fiscal Crises: Lessons from Nixon's Failed National Sales Tax for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Monoka; Hauptli, Meghan V.; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2012-01-01

    Applying a Multiple Streams framework, the article documents the development and ultimate undoing of what became known as the national sales tax plan for education. The authors identify four factors that coalesced to lead the Nixon administration to propose replacing local property taxes with a federal value-added tax to finance K-12 education.…

  7. Financing Schools and Property Tax Relief -- A State Responsibility. The Report in Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Washington, DC.

    This report is the first response to President Nixon's request to the Commission for an evaluation of the proposed replacement of school property taxes by a Federal value added tax. The report findings reveal that a federal program to bring tax relief is neither necessary nor desirable, and the Commission suggests that the States assume a greater…

  8. Tax structure and corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Popov Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an analysis of the impact of corruption, both administrative and state capture, on the tax structure is carried out. The authors established a negative correlation between the degree of corruption and the height of the effective tax burden, while isolating a simultaneous directly proportional impact of the nominal tax burden (which could reflect state intervention - the main corruption factor on the scope of corruption. The effects of corruption on the decrease of individual taxes' share in GDP are diversified, with impact on direct taxes as a whole being more observable. The mode of tax assessment significantly determines exposure of certain tax to the administrative corruption: it is generally larger in case of taxes assessed by the decision of the competent tax officials who are carrying out both assessment and audit, while in the case of self-assessment and withholding they just perform audits implying limited exposure to corruption. Corruptive state capture is present in the case of taxes which are important for influential corruptors. That is why in Serbia laws preventing taxation of capital gains or heavier taxation of dividends and other income paid to non-residents located in the tax havens were adopted, while by-laws which should have enabled implementation of prescribed lump sum taxation based on external signs of wealth have not been enacted. The authors concluded that the anti-corruption strategy should rely on the increasing role of self-assessment, which could reduce the room for administrative corruption. Unclear and imprecise formulations of the tax norms facilitate corruption, because they create room for arbitrariness in interpretation and implementation of the laws and by-laws. It is therefore necessary to surprises discretion, simplify tax procedure and diminish the number of tax relief's.

  9. GOODS AND SERVICE TAX IN INDIA: A SWOT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Devi

    2016-01-01

    Goods and Service Tax (GST) is a Value Added Tax (VAT), which hypothetically to be put into effect from April 2010, but because of conflicting interest of stakeholders and various political controversies it has been passed in both Houses of Parliament on Aug. 3, 2016. It alone indirect tax which influence the whole economy directly. It is aspiring as iron out wrinkles of current indirect taxes and has a far-reaching impact on GDP. India is a centralized constitutional economy. GST is applicab...

  10. Tax Policy in MENA Countries; Looking Back and Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Mansour

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews trends in taxation and revenue in MENA countries over 1990-2012, with a focus on non-resource taxes. On average, non-resource revenues declined slightly, while resource revenues soared. Country experiences vary: rates of main taxes and their revenues tend to be higher in the Magreb than in the Mashreq, except for the value-added tax, where lower rates are associated with equal or higher revenue; most oil producers raise little tax revenues—generally less than 5 percent of G...

  11. Tax-1 and Tax-2 similarities and differences: focus on post-translational modifications and NF-κB activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinian, Margret; Kfoury, Youmna; Dassouki, Zeina; El-Hajj, Hiba; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) share similar genetic organization, they have major differences in their pathogenesis and disease manifestation. HTLV-1 is capable of transforming T lymphocytes in infected patients resulting in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma whereas HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Numerous studies have provided accumulating evidence on the involvement of the viral transactivators Tax-1 versus Tax-2 in T cell transformation. Tax-1 is a potent transcriptional activator of both viral and cellular genes. Tax-1 post-translational modifications and specifically ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been implicated in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation and may contribute to its transformation capacity. Although Tax-2 has similar protein structure compared to Tax-1, the two proteins display differences both in their protein–protein interaction and activation of signal transduction pathways. Recent studies on Tax-2 have suggested ubiquitylation and SUMOylation independent mechanisms of NF-κB activation. In this present review, structural and functional differences between Tax-1 and Tax-2 will be summarized. Specifically, we will address their subcellular localization, nuclear trafficking and their effect on cellular regulatory proteins. A special attention will be given to Tax-1/Tax-2 post-translational modification such as ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, NF-κB activation, and protein–protein interactions involved in oncogenecity both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23966989

  12. Tax-1 and Tax-2 similarities and differences: Focus on post-translational modifications and NF-кB activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margret eShirinian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAlthough human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 share similar genetic organization, they have major differences in their pathogenesis and disease manifestation. HTLV-1 is capable of transforming T lymphocytes in infected patients and subsequently leads to adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL whereas HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Numerous studies have provided accumulating evidence on the involvement of the viral transactivators Tax-1 versus Tax-2 in T cell transformation. Tax-1 is a potent transcriptional activator of both viral and cellular genes. Tax-1 posttranslational modifications and specifically ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been implicated in NF-кB activation and may contribute to its transformation capacity. Although Tax-2 has similar protein structure compared to Tax-1, the two proteins display differences both in their protein-protein interaction and activation of signal transduction pathways. Recent studies on Tax-2 have suggested ubiquitylation and SUMOylation independent mechanisms of NF-кB activation. In this present review, structural and functional differences between Tax-1 and Tax- 2 will be summarized. Specifically, we will address their subcellular localization, nuclear trafficking and their effect on cellular regulatory proteins. A special attention will be given to Tax-1/Tax-2 post-translational modification such as ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, NF-кB activation and protein-protein interactions involved in oncogenecity both in vivo and in vitro.

  13. TAX BENEFITS FOR REGIONAL BUSINESS: NEED, SUFFICIENCY, EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Dovbiy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the tax benefits for the enterprises of Russia. Their analysis is carried out in the context of territorial affiliation of tax benefit. Tax benefits were granted as anti-crisis measures: promotion of entrepreneurship, reduction of informal employment, implementation of investment projects. Their granting was often characterized by haphazard nature. There were cases of abuse in the application of tax benefits. The entrepreneur must be ready to prove their right to benefits. Tax benefits have a triple effect: economic, fiscal-budgetary, social. The state tax policy allowed reducing the level of debt burden for 2016. Simultaneously, the increase in tax and non-tax revenues of the consolidated budgets was ensured. The authors analyze the regional and sectoral tax benefits. They are very diverse, especially for small businesses. This is due to socio-economic differentiation of regions. The magnitude of the regional tax burden is determined by the complex of factors: external and internal. The application of tax benefits is associated with big problems. First of all, this is a concealment of income. Secondly, there is a problem of “double” taxation. Difficulties are also associated with applying individual tax regimes: special economic zones, territories of advanced development. The problem of drawing “out of the shadow” of selfemployed citizens is very acute. There must be a special fee regime for them: there is no guarantee of employment for such citizens. The problems of regional taxation of entrepreneurial activity include, on the one hand, the availability and development of various benefits, and on the other hand, their nonsystem character, the impossibility of identifying and using various mechanisms in the aggregate, for example, the mechanisms for the development of entire industries and social directions in entrepreneurship. The authors emphasize that the conditions in which the modern economy of Russia is

  14. The three hurdles of tax planning: How business context, aims of tax planning, and tax manager power affect tax

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Anna; Schanz, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The question of why some companies pay more taxes than others is a widely investigated topic of interest. One of the famous suspect explanations is a phenomenon called tax avoidance. We develop a holistic theoretical concept of influences on corporate tax planning through a series of 19 in-depth German tax expert interviews. Our findings show that three distinct hurdles in the tax planning process can explain different levels of tax expense across companies. Those three hurdles are which tax ...

  15. Impact of a carbon tax on the Chilean economy: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Benavente, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the government of Chile announced their official commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below a business-as-usual projection by 2020. Due to the fact that an effective way to reduce emissions is to implement a national carbon tax, the goal of this article is to quantify the value of a carbon tax that will allow the achievement of the emission reduction target and to assess its impact on the economy. The approach used in this work is to compare the economy before and after the implementation of the carbon tax by creating a static computable general equilibrium model of the Chilean economy. The model developed here disaggregates the economy in 23 industries and 23 commodities, and it uses four consumer agents (households, government, investment, and the rest of the world). By setting specific production and consumptions functions, the model can assess the variation in commodity prices, industrial production, and agent consumption, allowing a cross-sectoral analysis of the impact of the carbon tax. The benchmark of the economy, upon which the analysis is based, came from a social accounting matrix specially constructed for this model, based on the year 2010. The carbon tax was modeled as an ad valorem tax under two scenarios: tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned only by producers and tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned by producers and households. The abatement cost curve has shown that it is more cost-effective to tax only producers, rather than to tax both producers and households. This is due to the fact that when compared to the emission level observed in 2010, a 20% emission reduction will cause a loss in GDP of 2% and 2.3% respectively. Under the two scenarios, the tax value that could lead to that emission reduction is around 26 US dollars per ton of CO_2-equivalent. The most affected productive sectors are oil refinery, transport, and electricity — having a contraction between 7% and 9%. Analyzing the electricity

  16. 26 CFR 1.6091-3 - Filing certain international income tax returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporations which claim the benefits of section 941 (relating to the special deduction for China Trade Act... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing certain international income tax returns... certain international income tax returns. The following income tax returns shall be filed as directed in...

  17. SWOC ANALYSIS OF GOODS AND SERVICES TAX (GST): IMPLEMENTATION IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendra Holla

    2016-01-01

    Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a type of indirect tax and it is one of biggest reform in Indian tax structure. The Goods and Service Tax Bill or GST Bill, officially known as The Constitution (One Hundred and Twenty-Second Amendment) Bill, 2014. 16 years wait is almost finished when Rajya Sabha and Lokh Sabha passed ’The Goods and Service Tax Bill’ in the month of August, 2017. Good and Service tax is also known as ‘National Value Added Tax’. India is a developing country; the main source fo...

  18. THE TAX CONTROL AS A COMPONENT OF TAX ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zhuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the features of tax control in the system of taxes administration were investigated. The basic approaches to the determination of tax control were defined. Principles of tax control that must be kept were defined and it will ensure efficiency and effectiveness of tax control. Basic forms of tax control were characterized. An advantages of horizontal monitoring that is one of the form of tax controls were directed. Key words: tax control, tax control forms, horizontal monitoring, documentaries, desk and actual checks.

  19. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  20. TAX RESEARCH Financial Accounting versus Tax Accounting - Tax Rules’ Impact on Investment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti; Dr.Sc. Muhamet Aliu; MSc. Alban Elshani; Yllka Ahmeti

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides guidance for all those interested in research related to tax. In the study are included three main areas dealing with taxes and about taxes: (1) the role of information in corporation tax expenditures under the rules and laws of the country against financial statements according to international accounting standards, (2) case study PTK; how much effective tax and tax on extra profit has it paid (3) the impact of tax rules on investment decisions - the reasons and profits o...

  1. Tax avoidance, tax evasion, and tax flight: Do legal differences matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Friedrich; Kirchler, Erich; Maciejovsky, Boris

    2001-01-01

    Although from an economic point of view, legal considerations apart, tax avoidance, tax evasion and tax flight have similar effects, namely a reduction of revenue yields, and are based on the same desire to reduce the tax burden, it is likely that individuals perceive them as different and as unequally fair. Overall, 252 fiscal officers, business students, business lawyers, and entrepreneurs produced spontaneous associations to a scenario either describing tax avoidance, tax evasion, or tax f...

  2. TAX AMNESTY : SEBUAH HARAPAN TERHADAP CAPITAL INFLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Sisharini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation policy reforms has been done by the government with the issuance of Law No. 11 year 2016 about Tax Amnesty. The background of the issuance of this law : a there is still treasure the community both in the country and foreign who have not yet fully reported in the Annual Tax Income, b to increase state revenues and economic growth as well as awareness and compliance community in the implementation of tax obligations . Although the government wants tax amnesty� to secure tax revenue, but in general they wants it for the repatriation of capital. The goal is to increase the liquidity is getting tighter, so eventually bank deposits can be cheaper, bank lending rates fell and investment will� increase. In addition, the quality of economic growth will increase by decreasing of unemployment, inequality, and poverty. To obtain a Tax Amnesty, the tax payer must disclose truthfully how the property owned which have not paid or partially paid taxes in the Letter of Statement and pay the ransom that provisions stipulated in the Act, and not subject to administrative sanctions taxation and criminal sanctions in the area of taxation. The ransom money to be paid in full to the state treasury through the Bank Perception (Bank elected to hold funds Tax Amnesty. Institution Tax Amnesty container fund is 19 Banks, 19 securities firms, and 18 of the Investment Manager. Tax payers who intend to bring �funds owned to Indonesian territory, at least to invest of 3 years commencing from the funds transferred by the tax payer to the Special Account through the Bank Perception. Investment instruments include in the form of government securities of the Republic of Indonesia, the bonds of State BUMN, bond financing institution owned by the government, financial investments in the Bank's perception, bonds private companies whose trade is supervised by the Financial Services Authority, infrastructure investment through government cooperation with corporate

  3. 26 CFR 48.4042-2 - Special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Fuel Used on Inland Waterways § 48.4042-2 Special rules...)); (ii) The type of vessel in which fuel is consumed and the type of vessel in which cargo is transported...

  4. Measuring Tax Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an index of tax optimality thatmeasures the distance of some current tax structure from the optimal taxstructure in the presence of public goods. In doing so, we derive a [0, 1]number that reveals immediately how far the current tax configurationis from the optimal one and......, thereby, the degree of efficiency of a taxsystem. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show howthe basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivalentuniform tax, which measures the size of the public sector. A numericalexample is used to illustrate the method developed.......JEL Code: H21, H41.Keywords: Tax optimality index, excess burden, distance function.Authors Affiliations: Raimondos-Møller: Copenhagen Business School, CEPR,CESifo, and EPRU. Woodland: University of Sydney....

  5. Tax Strategy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how a functional tax strategy impacts the management control system (MCS) in a multinational enterprise (MNE) facing transfer pricing tax risks. Based on case study findings it is argued that the MCS in a multinational setting is contingent upon the MNE's response to its tax...... environment. Moreover, the paper extends existing contingency-based theory on MCS by illustrating the role of inter-organisational network collaboration across MNE transfer pricing tax experts. This collaboration, caused by a widely dispersed tax knowledge base, fuels the formal interactive control system...... and reduces tax uncertainty. The paper adopts an interdisciplinary approach for explaining findings, using contingency-based theory and network theory at the inter-organisational level....

  6. Progressive Taxation and Tax Morale

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Doerrenberg; Andreas Peichl

    2010-01-01

    As the link between tax compliance and tax morale is found to be robust, finding the determinants of tax morale can help to understand and fight tax evasion. In this paper we analyze the effect of progressive taxation on tax morale in a cross-country approach - which has not been investigated before. Our theoretical analysis leads to two testable predictions. First, an individual's tax morale is higher, the more progressive the tax schedule is. Second, the impact of tax progressivity on tax m...

  7. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  8. Tuition Tax Credits. Issuegram 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenblick, John; McGuire, Kent

    Approaches for using the federal income tax system to aid families of pupils attending private schools include: tax credits, tax deductions, tax deferrals, and education savings incentives. Tax credit structures can be made refundable and made sensitive to taxpayers' income levels, the level of education expenditures, and designated costs.…

  9. Taxing the Rich

    OpenAIRE

    Landier, Augustin; Plantin, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Affluent households can respond to taxation with means that are not economically viable for the rest of the population, such as sophisticated tax plans and international tax arbitrage. This article studies an economy in which an inequality-averse social planner faces agents who have access to a tax-avoidance technology with subadditive costs, and who can shape the risk profile of their income as they see fit. Subadditive avoidance costs imply that optimal taxation cannot be progre...

  10. Firm size and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Chongvilaivan, Aekapol; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2010-01-01

    The scale dependence in firm growth (smaller firms grow faster) is systematically reflected in the size distribution. This paper studies whether taxes affect the equilibrium firm size distribution in a cross-country context. The main finding is that the empirical association between firm growth and corporate tax (VAT) is positive (negative), with notable differences in the response of manufacturing firms and that of the others. We draw implications for recent debate on the impact of taxes and...

  11. Summary of Administration's modified Btu energy tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godley, G.E.; Moore, W.H.; Pate, M.L.; Schuldinger, M.

    1993-01-01

    The base tax rate is 25.7 cents per million Btus for coal, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gases, natural gasoline, nuclear-generated electricity, hydro, and imported electricity. Refined petroleum products are to be taxed at 59.9 cents/million Btus. The tax will be phased in beginning July 1, 1994 and will be indexed for inflation beginning January 1, 1998. The Btu content will be determined by: the actual content for coal; the national average Btu content for all other types of fuels; and the national average of Btus required to produce fossil fuel-generated electricity for nuclear and hydro-generated electricity. The paper explains collection points, special rules to permit pass-through of taxes, exemptions; and use and floor-stock taxes. It then goes on to discuss the objectives that the Administration has for this tax; the forecasted effect on consumers; offsets for low-income families; competitiveness; regional balance; and energy producers. Frequently asked questions and the answers are given

  12. Corporate income tax

    OpenAIRE

    Popová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    1 RESUMÉ Corporate Income Tax The aim of this diploma thesis on "Corporate Income Tax" is to outline the current legal background of the corporate income tax and asses and evaluate the most substantial changes regarding the Act no. 586/1992 Coll., Income Tax Act, as amended that have become effective as of January 1, 2014. The changes discussed in this thesis include especially, but are not limited to, the changes adopted in connection with the recodification of Czech Civil Law. This thesis c...

  13. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  14. 27 CFR 70.144 - Special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., under local law, one person is subrogated to the rights of another with respect to a lien or interest, such person shall be subrogated to such rights for purposes of any lien imposed by 26 U.S.C. 6321 or... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Lien for Taxes § 70.144 Special rules. (a) Actual notice or...

  15. Classical Corporation Tax as a Global Means of Tax Harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Kari, Seppo; Ylä-Liedenpoha, Jouko

    2002-01-01

    Classical corporation tax entails double taxation of corporate income. The alternative practice of imputing corporation tax to the domestic recipients of dividends is shown, in the case of a company with international owners, to effectively convert the imputation system back to a classical corporation tax. It also requires complex rules for exempting flow-through dividends from equalization tax to avoid the cumulation of corporation tax internationally. In contrast, classical corporation tax ...

  16. BEPS Action Plan: Global Tax Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Shelepov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the dynamics of economic and financial globalization, national tax authorities often do not have adequate tools to effectively combat tax avoidance practices that exploit gaps in the existing tax rules. To address the global problem of tax base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and the Group of 20 (G20 have consolidated their efforts on an equal footing. Their joint BEPS Action Plan allowed to involve more than 100 countries, both developing and advanced, in designing and implementing rules aimed at aligning the generation of profits and their taxation and increasing the predictability, transparency and flexibility of the international tax environment for business. This article examines the history of the BEPS project, emphasizing the mode of OECD-G20 engagement in global tax governance, describes the key recommendations made by international institutions to tackle BEPS and forecasts further developments in the area. The author pays special attention to the mechanisms designed to stimulate participation by non-OECD and non-G20 members in the BEPS project and the stance of business on the proposed reforms. He concludes that the work on BEPS is far from finished. Different interpretations of standards, risks of strengthening tax competition between countries and potentially excessive tax burdens on businesses should be addressed. In this regard, OECD and G20 should strengthen their efforts to ensure the participation of developing countries and the private sector, which would stimulate other reforms in international taxation to support global growth and development.

  17. 26 CFR 54.4981A-1T - Tax on excess distributions and excess accumulations (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Revenue Code of 1986, as added by section 1133 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-514) (TRA '86...) Determine the value of the individual's adjusted account balance on the next valuation date by adding (or... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on excess distributions and excess...

  18. Tax Havens, Growth, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong; Cheng, Chu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an endogenous growth model featuring tax havens, and uses it to examine how the existence of tax havens affects the economic growth rate and social welfare in high-tax countries. We show that the presence of tax havens generates two conflicting channels in determining the growth effect. First, the public investment effect states that tax havens may erode tax revenues and in turn decrease the government’s infrastructure expenditure, thereby reducing growth. Second, the t...

  19. Tax planning strategies for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thomas R; Schwartz, Richard W

    2002-07-01

    The development of tax reduction strategies is a critical aspect of both corporate and personal financial planning because taxes represent the largest annual expenditure for the majority of Americans. The categories of tax reduction strategies discussed include charitable-giving techniques, ways to maximize business deductions, shifting income to family members, education tax incentives, retirement planning, and small business tax considerations. One use for these tax savings is the enhancement of a corporation's capabilities to provide services to patients.

  20. Progressive Taxes and Firm Births

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Ulrich Bacher; Marius Brülhart

    2013-01-01

    Tax reform proposals in the spirit of the 'flat tax' model typically aim to reduce three parameters: the average tax burden, the progressivity of the tax schedule, and the complexity of the tax code. We explore the implications of changes in these three parameters on entrepreneurial activity, measured by counts of firm births. The Swiss fiscal system offers sufficient intra-national variation in tax codes to allow us to estimate these effects with considerable precision. We find that high ave...

  1. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  2. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  3. Waiting for tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinkopf, K.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the effect of tax credits and related legislation under consideration by Congress on the economics of the renewable energy industry. The topics discussed in the article include conflicting industry opinion on financial incentives, the effectiveness of current incentives, and alternative approaches. The article also includes a sidebar on tax incentives offered by state programs

  4. The impact of resource tax reform on China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huihui; Chen, ZhanMing; Wang, Jianliang; Fan, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Contributing to approximately two-thirds of primary energy consumption, coal usage is the focus of China's energy policies. To regulate the resource taxation system and reduce the burden of coal enterprises, the Chinese government launched a reform of its resource tax system in 2014 for coal, introducing the ad valorem system to replace the volume-based system that had been in place for the preceding thirty years. To assess the impact of the tax reform, this paper constructs two-stage dynamic game models by taking the coal and coal-fired power industries as the players. The market situations of shortage and oversupply are investigated separately. Empirical data are collected to estimate the model parameters for numerical simulations. The model results suggest that the tax reform will reduce both coal prices and the coal industry profitability if the tax levied on each ton of coal is maintained at the same level as before the reform, regardless of whether the market is in a shortage or an oversupply situation. However, the increased buyer's power will amplify the effect of the tax reform. The numerical simulations also provide an estimation of the tax rate of the ad valorem system that maintains the profit of the coal industry. Considering the demand and supply situations in China's coal market, policy recommendations are provided to guide further reform of China's resource tax system. - Highlights: • The paper examines the influence of resource tax reform on China's coal industry. • We construct two-stage game models between coal and coal-fired power industries. • Market situations of shortage and oversupply are studied in two taxation systems. • Coal price will decrease if maintaining the tax levied on each ton of coal the same. • To achieve the reform objective, the ad valorem tax rate should not be set too high.

  5. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87......Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...

  6. The distribution of cigarette prices under different tax structures: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Zahra, Nahleen; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-01-01

    Background The distribution of cigarette prices has rarely been studied and compared under different tax structures. Descriptive evidence on price distributions by countries can shed light on opportunities for tax avoidance and brand switching under different tobacco tax structures, which could impact the effectiveness of increased taxation in reducing smoking. Objective This paper aims to describe the distribution of cigarette prices by countries and to compare these distributions based on the tobacco tax structure in these countries. Methods We employed data for 16 countries taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project to construct survey-derived cigarette prices for each country. Self-reported prices were weighted by cigarette consumption and described using a comprehensive set of statistics. We then compared these statistics for cigarette prices under different tax structures. In particular, countries of similar income levels and countries that impose similar total excise taxes using different tax structures were paired and compared in mean and variance using a two-sample comparison test. Findings Our investigation illustrates that, compared with specific uniform taxation, other tax structures, such as ad valorem uniform taxation, mixed (a tax system using ad valorem and specific taxes) uniform taxation, and tiered tax structures of specific, ad valorem and mixed taxation tend to have price distributions with greater variability. Countries that rely heavily on ad valorem and tiered taxes also tend to have greater price variability around the median. Among mixed taxation systems, countries that rely more heavily on the ad valorem component tend to have greater price variability than countries that rely more heavily on the specific component. In countries with tiered tax systems, cigarette prices are skewed more towards lower prices than are prices under uniform tax systems. The analyses presented here demonstrate that more opportunities

  7. The distribution of cigarette prices under different tax structures: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Zahra, Nahleen; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    The distribution of cigarette prices has rarely been studied and compared under different tax structures. Descriptive evidence on price distributions by countries can shed light on opportunities for tax avoidance and brand switching under different tobacco tax structures, which could impact the effectiveness of increased taxation in reducing smoking. This paper aims to describe the distribution of cigarette prices by countries and to compare these distributions based on the tobacco tax structure in these countries. We employed data for 16 countries taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project to construct survey-derived cigarette prices for each country. Self-reported prices were weighted by cigarette consumption and described using a comprehensive set of statistics. We then compared these statistics for cigarette prices under different tax structures. In particular, countries of similar income levels and countries that impose similar total excise taxes using different tax structures were paired and compared in mean and variance using a two-sample comparison test. Our investigation illustrates that, compared with specific uniform taxation, other tax structures, such as ad valorem uniform taxation, mixed (a tax system using ad valorem and specific taxes) uniform taxation, and tiered tax structures of specific, ad valorem and mixed taxation tend to have price distributions with greater variability. Countries that rely heavily on ad valorem and tiered taxes also tend to have greater price variability around the median. Among mixed taxation systems, countries that rely more heavily on the ad valorem component tend to have greater price variability than countries that rely more heavily on the specific component. In countries with tiered tax systems, cigarette prices are skewed more towards lower prices than are prices under uniform tax systems. The analyses presented here demonstrate that more opportunities exist for tax avoidance and brand

  8. Carbon taxes: Their benefits, liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.K.; Thompson, L.L.J.

    1993-01-01

    A carbon tax holds much promise for helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, but administration will be a problem. Non-compliance, tilting the economic scales in favor of one energy source at the expense of another, and questions of equity between and within nations all must be addressed if the market-based efficiencies of a carbon tax are to become a concrete global reality. This article discusses carbon taxes in the following topic areas: how to set the rates for carbon taxes; administering the tax; international cooperation; type or form of tax; tax adjustments in existing taxes

  9. ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL INCOME TAX IN ROMANIA AND THE OTHER MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The high tax burden on labor in the European Union is a subject of analysis often encountered in thespeciality literature. This is probably due the fact that are more convenient to implement from the political point ofview - there is the responsibility of an anonymous administration and not the responsibility of Prime Minister orPresident.In recent years the personal taxation had a substantial increase in most European Union member states, aphenomenon that has generated some repercussions: it affects employment in the labor market, encouraging thesubstitution of labor with capital, increase unemployment, increase tax burden on labor and tax evasion amplificationgenerates employment orientation towards the ground. Growing importance given to personal income tax is largelydue to the fact that direct taxes within the EU this is a more stable basis of taxation. In Romania reduction in taxrevenue from income tax was offset by increased tax revenues from value added tax. The evolution of tax revenues fromdirect taxes is normal if we consider that the remaining incomes to the taxpayers were available for consumption,which led to higher levels of indirect taxes collected to the budget.The influence of employment on the labor market due to the size of the labor tax is explained by the fact thatthe option for such taxes is due to the ease of implement for policy makers but also by the fact that employees are notalways aware of these taxes.

  10. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  11. TAX REFORM AND NONCOMPLIANCE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Iswahyudi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Indonesia’s tax reforms of 2000 and 2008/2009 on taxpayers’ noncompliance. Noncompliance is defined as the difference between the Value Added Tax (VAT liability and the actual revenue. Data are mainly collected from the World Input-Output Database and Indonesia’s Central Board of Statistics. The methodology uses one of the ‘top-down’ approaches, in which national accounts figures are employed to arrive at an estimation of the VAT liability. It is found that compliance deteriorated when reform efforts were incomplete – that is when the reforms suffered from decelerations, setbacks or reversals. This paper contributes to the literature by providing a framework for analyzing the impact of tax reform on taxpayer’s compliance behavior.

  12. A note on the neutrality of profit taxes with tax evasion and tax avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Che-chiang Huang; Horn-in Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Traditional literature exploring the relationship between production and tax evasion ignores the impact of other activities on these two decisions. This paper incorporates firms' tax avoidance activities into the model of tax evasion. In contrast to conventional results, we find that profit tax is not necessarily neutral. In addition, the independency or separability of tax evasion and production decisions may not hold either whenever tax avoidance is present.

  13. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority that issued the tax act, though in some cases to a higher tax authority. This obligatory procedure was borrowed by the Russian tax system. The trial stage of tax dispute settlement in Germany is carried out by specialized courts, forming a two-level system for legal proceedings. Thus, the tax dispute submitted to the Court is settled first by the financial lands courts and then by the higher Federal Financial Court. However, the Federal Financial Court takes into consideration only certain categories of actions listed in the Act (the Regulations of finance courts (Finanzgerichtordnung. In Russia appeals of administrative review of tax conflicts, unlike in the German system, are handled by arbitration and general jurisdiction courts. The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation is the supreme judicial body for settling economic disputes and other cases considered by arbitration courts in implementing federal procedural judicial supervision over their activities and provides explanations regarding judicial practices. Arbitration courts established at the level of the Federation to resolve disputes involving commercial entities, e.g. enterprises and entrepreneurs, resolve the bulk of tax disputes. These courts are composed of specially created panels of judges known as bars, i.e. groups of judges who specialize in reviewing taxation cases.

  14. 48 CFR 52.229-4 - Federal, State, and Local Taxes (State and Local Adjustments).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... social security or other employment taxes, net income and franchise taxes, excess profits taxes, capital stock taxes, transportation taxes, unemployment compensation taxes, and property taxes. Excepted tax...

  15. 48 CFR 52.229-6 - Taxes-Foreign Fixed-Price Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... social security or other employment taxes, net income and franchise taxes, excess profits taxes, capital stock taxes, transportation taxes, unemployment compensation taxes, and property taxes. Excepted tax...

  16. The effects of different types of taxes on soft-drink consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikhbihi Adam, Abdulfatah; Smed, Sinne

    as well as between different container sizes. Especially the large sizes and discount brands provide considerable value for money to the consumer. Three different type of taxes is considered; a tax based on the content of added sugar in various SSB’s, a flat tax on soft-drinks alone and a size...... though detrimental health effects in terms of increased intake of diet soft-drinks has to be considered. A flat tax on soft-drinks decrease the intake of sugar, but leave total calorie intake unaltered due to substitution with other SSB’s. A tax aimed at removing the value added from purchasing large...... differentiated tax on soft-drinks that remove the value for money obtained by purchasing large container sizes. The scenarios are scaled equally in terms of obtained public revenue. Largest effect in terms of reduced intake of calories and sugar are obtained by applying the tax on sugar in all beverages, even...

  17. Energy taxes -- Some critical remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirl, F.

    1994-01-01

    The familiar concept of Pigouvian taxes has finally caught the interest of politicians as the various proposals for a pollution tax, often simplified to an energy tax, document. This paper reviews these proposals critically and points at some wrong presumptions. The suggestion to make the polluter liable for all damages is in general inefficient. In order to sell new taxes, politicians argue that Pigouvian taxes would not lower disposable income, because the associated revenues allow one to reduce other taxes (in particular, income taxes) correspondingly. However, strategic, noncompetitive energy producers may themselves attempt to internalize the external costs rather than to leave these tax revenues to the treasuries of the consuming countries. Moreover, the revenues from a commodity tax are potentially volatile. Finally, the conservation impact from Pigouvian energy taxes may fall short of expectations, in particular, if the tax is too low

  18. New Leverage for Increasing Tax Revenues in Turkey: Traditional Tax Applications Supported by Electronic Tax Audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Onkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is examined for the period 2000- 2015 in Turkey that increasing the electronic applications regarding tax audits had the effects on the required amount of tax levied as a result of tax audits. Tax Inspectors reach strategic information without uneasiness by means of electronic applications developed by some institutions such as Electronic Risk Analysis that Tax Inspection Board founded in 2011 and Revenue Administration as institutions designated by law for auditing tax in Turkey. Thus, this leads to an increase the tax revenues obtained in the course of tax audits compared to the times when there is not electronic applications.

  19. CAPITALISM EMERGING ERA TAX SYSTEMS OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokova Viktoria Aleksandrovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems: I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD. II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism. III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation. Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in the UK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have been analyzed; and , basing on the dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission. Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.

  20. Tax tips for forest landowners for the 2008 tax year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes key federal income tax provisions for forestland owners, foresters, loggers, forest product businesses, and tax practioners, and is current as of October 1, 2008.  Consult your tax and legal professionals for advice on your particular tax situation.

  1. New tax law hobbles tax-exempt hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, S J

    1982-03-01

    The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 left tax-exempt hospitals at a significant disadvantage in the competition for capital. Although the new law's accelerated depreciation schedules and liberalized investment tax credits contain some marginal benefits for tax-exempt hospitals, these benefits are probably more than offset by the impact of the law on charitable giving.

  2. Tax tips for forest landowners for the 2009 tax year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John Greene

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin summarizes federal income tax information useful to woodland owners in preparing their 2009 tax returns. It is current as of October 1, 2009, and supersedes Management Bulletin R8-MB 132. It should not be sonstrued as legal or accounting advice: consult your legal and tax professionals for advice on your particular tax situation.

  3. Effect of shadow economy - country's tax losses

    OpenAIRE

    Krumplytė, Jolita

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the content of shadow economy through the prism of the tax administration. The author provides the limitations of the study and methodologically based relationship between the shadow economy and the tax revenue not to be received to the national consolidate budget. Country's tax losses (tax gap) is the amount of the tax revenue that is not received to the country's consolidated budget in the tax non-payment effects: tax avoidance and tax evasion. Tax losses (tax gap) is t...

  4. Tax Evasion and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Johannesen, Niels; Zucman, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    .01% of the wealth distribution, a group that includes households with more than $45 million in net wealth. A simple model of the supply of tax evasion services can explain why evasion rises steeply with wealth. Taking tax evasion into account increases the rise in inequality seen in tax data since the 1970s......This paper attempts to estimate the size and distribution of tax evasion in rich countries. We combine random audits—the key source used to study tax evasion so far—with new micro-data leaked from large offshore financial institutions—HSBC Switzerland (“Swiss leaks”) and Mossack Fonseca (“Panama...... Papers”)—matched to population-wide wealth records in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. We find that tax evasion rises sharply with wealth, a phenomenon random audits fail to capture. On average about 3% of personal taxes are evaded in Scandinavia, but this figure rises to close to 30% in the top 0...

  5. Higher cigarette taxes--healthier people, wealthier state: the Hungarian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Tibor

    2007-09-01

    To prove that higher cigarette taxes eventually decrease smoking and do also increase state incomes from tobacco taxes by using Hungarian figures. Collection and analysis of available data on tobacco use, levels of excise and value added taxes on tobacco products and state incomes originating from the tobacco sector. In Hungary, regular tobacco tax increases resulted in decreased cigarette consumption and its lower prevalence figures in some population groups. State incomes have increased in spite of regular cigarette tax raises. Therefore, there is on conflict of interest between the health and finance portfolios in supporting further tobacco tax increases. Hungary should use regular, above the inflation tobacco tax raises as means for improving population health. Tobacco control advocates should prevent tobacco companies' attempts aimed at deterring decision makers from supporting such tax policies.

  6. TAX POLICY OF SERBIA IN THE FUNCTION OF DEVELOPING THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugoslav Anicic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Global mobility of capital and labour impose the issue of optimal tax structure of all countries. In some countries, direct taxes on income and profits are still dominant, while in other the main source of tax incomes are indirect taxes, primarily value added tax (VAT. Tax system of Serbia is specific for its big burdens for work, and smaller burden of profits and property in relation to EU countries. For long-term sustainable economic growth, among other things, more efficient tax system is required. Tax policy should contribute to elimination of essential macroeconomic imbalances of Serbian economy – high unemployment rate and high foreign trade deficit, without endangering international competitiveness of a company and favourable economic environment.

  7. Does an Uncertain Tax System Encourage "Aggressive Tax Planning"?

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm

    2014-01-01

    "Aggressive tax planning" (ATP) is typically characterized as a tax scheme that reduces the effective tax rate of a particular type of income to a level below the one sought by fiscal policy for this income. One motivation often suggested for its use is the uncertainty in tax liabilities introduced by a complicated and ever changing tax system. In this paper, I examine the impact of an uncertainty on the use of such tax schemes; by implication, I also examine how a simpler and more stable tax...

  8. Tax competition and tax harmonization in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of tax competition and harmonization within the European Union. It reveals the single difficulties connected with harmonization, identifies the problems arising from tax competition and points out the harmful tax competition as well. Single compulsory harmonized tax base in connection with prevailing tax competition in the area of tax rates is the suggested solution in the scope of direct taxation. As the solution in the area of indirect taxation could serve the introduction of “principle of origin”. This would cause remarkable administrative costs decrease not only for economic subjects but for tax authorities as well.

  9. Analysis of theories and interpretative criteria in fiscal or tax provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Nava-Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the subject of the interpretation of Tax law, as it constitutes one of the fundamental legal problems in the area. The basic aim of tax law is to regulate the form by which taxpayers contribute to the public expense of the State within the limits established by the Constitution. This interpretation presents special characteristics because it regulates the relations between the government and tax payers and contains special arrangements in dealing between them in terms of accounting, economics and finance. Because tax liability changes frequently, it is difficult to control the large number of daily specific situations that occur, therefore, the interpreter must determine whether the conduct that creates an obligation falls within the tax provision. The article studies the schools of interpretation, the methods that are located in each of the categories and the criteria of doctrinal interpretation of tax laws, also the interpretation according to the federal tax law.

  10. Excise Tax Avoidance: The Case of State Cigarette Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760

  11. Excise tax avoidance: the case of state cigarette taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20% smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... term solutions integrating the state information system with ing systems. Local problems ... state regulation, governmental control, alcoholic products, a ..... by RUR 1,470.30 mln or 1.7 times and environmental payments by RUR 168.5 mln or 1.2 times. .... and aircraft motor gasoline were added. (Tax Code of ...

  13. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...

  14. FACTUAL INDETERMINACY IN INTERNATIONAL TAX LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bogenschneider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal indeterminacy comes in a variety of forms identified here as: (i general legal indeterminacy; (ii factual indeterminacy; and (iii Mach/Feyerabend factual indeterminacy. The concept of general “legal indeterminacy” refers to problems in legal interpretation and has been extensively studied. “Factual indeterminacy” refers to the indeterminacy of facts as a matter of tax law when derived from separately indeterminate fields of law. “Mach/ Feyerabend factual indeterminacy” refers to fact words as derived from legal theory which provide the content for legal interpretation. The “facts” in tax law are not transcendent to law; in addition, the “fact” words of tax law cannot be simply imported from the field of economics. The incremental question of the origins of theory (as discussed by Karl Popper and Albert Einstein is also analyzed here. The theory of tax law originates with “sympathy with experience” or “intellectual love” (tr. Einfühlung of tax law by lawyers as reflected in the special heuristics and practices of the profession. Legal theory accordingly functions in similar fashion to scientific theory where a particular legal theory can be falsified (qua Popper or understood in pluralistic terms by incorporating auxiliary ideas.

  15. CEO Power, Corporate Tax Avoidance and Tax Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    GATOT SOEPRIYANTO

    2017-01-01

    My thesis investigates the association between CEO power, corporate tax avoidance and tax aggressiveness, using two organizational theory perspectives: self-interest and stewardship. I find that a powerful CEO engages in less corporate tax avoidance activities, which lends credence to the risk minimization motive of the stewardship perspective. My findings on the association between CEO power and tax aggressiveness show that powerful CEOs avoid risky tax avoidance strategies that expose a fir...

  16. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as e...

  17. Tax havens: Features, operations and solving tax evasion problems

    OpenAIRE

    Obradović-Ćuk, Jelena; Mitić, Petar; Dinić, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Tax haven offers minimal or no tax liability to foreign individuals and enterprises in economically and politically stable environment, where little or no financial information is shared with foreign tax authorities. The aim of this research is to create a comprehensive overview of the characteristics and operations of tax havens, as well as to point out to the ways to overcome the problem of tax evasion. The methodology used in the work is characteristic of social science research: analysis,...

  18. Dividends and Taxes: Evidence on Tax-Reduction Strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplinsky, Susan; Seyhun, H Nejat

    1990-01-01

    This article investigates two aspects of dividend tax avoidance not addressed by prior research. First, it examines the aggregate dividend tax savings provided to individuals through tax-exempt and tax-deferred accumulators. Using the Internal Revenue Service Individual Income Tax Model, it then proceeds to determine whether specific provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, such as the preferential treatment of capital gains, the investment-interest limitation, and the $100 dividend exclusion...

  19. International capital tax evasion and the foreign tax credit puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberley A. Scharf

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the role of international tax evasion for the choice of an optimal foreign tax credit by a capital exporting region. Since a foreign tax credit raises the opportunity cost of concealing foreign source income, it can be employed to discourage evasion activity. The existence of international tax evasion possibilities could thus help rationalize a choice of tax credit in excess of a deduction-equivalent credit level. Our analysis shows that, in general the optimal credit will...

  20. Tax Information Exchange with Developing Countries and Tax Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Julia; Zagler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The exchange of tax information has received ample attention recently, due to a number of recent headlines on aggressive tax planning and tax evasion. Whilst both participating tax authorities will gain when foreign investments (FDI) are bilateral, we demonstrate that FDI receiving nations will lose in asymmetric situations. We solve a bargaining model that proves that tax information exchange will only happen voluntarily with compensation for this loss. We then present empirical evidence in ...

  1. 26 CFR 1.907(c)-3 - FOGEI and FORI taxes (for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such a percentage of value solely for purposes of making the tax allocation in paragraph (a)(4) of this... creditable taxes under section 901, that the fair market value of the oil at the port is $10 per barrel, and... added to the oil beyond the well-head which is part of Y's tax base ($10-$9). (v) The royalty deductions...

  2. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.

  3. Tax Information Series, December 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-14

    to serve as an in-depth review or explanation of each topic discussed, rather its intent is to inform readers about updates in tax numerology and... NUMEROLOGY Tax Rates The 2000 federal income tax rates are: 15%, 28%, 31%, 36%, and 39.6%. The 2000 tax rates by filing status are

  4. Globalization, Tax Competition and Tax Burden İn Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli KARGI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 1990’s world was quite different from the world of 1950’s. Especially in the last twenty years, the increasing involvement of Japan in the world economy since the 1990s, in addition to the dominance of globalization and market economy throughout the world, the rapid spread of information resulting from the developments in IT-technology and the international competition emerging in the field of technology have all led to some significant developments in the world economy. Reduction of high mobility income and corporate tax rates due to tax competition may cause an unjust distribution of the tax burden. The fact that indirect taxation constitutes about 70% of the tax revenues obtained in Turkey can be taken as an indication of the unfairness in the distribution of tax burden in Turkey. In this study, following a definition of globalization and tax competition, classification of tax competition, reasons for increasing tax competition, benefits and losses of tax competition are explained, and changes introduced by various countries in their tax systems due to tax competition, the distribution of tax burden resulting from tax competition in Turkey and the effectiveness of the new income tax law in Turkey in terms of tax competition are analyzed.

  5. Goods and Services Tax (GST): The Importance of Comprehension Towards Achieving the Desired Awareness Among Malaysian

    OpenAIRE

    Othman Rani Diana; Mohd Pauzi Nur Farahah; Abu Bakar Siti Anis Nadia; Sapari Afidah; Karim Mohd Syazwan

    2017-01-01

    In line with the implementation of value added tax (VAT) by 160 countries, Malaysia has taken its own path with the introduction of goods and services tax (GST) starting from 1 April 2015 to replace its previous tax system. This new tax system has been announced on 25 October 2013, which has given about 17 months for businesses and people in Malaysia to make a complete preparation for GST. GST is proven to be the fairer tax system to overcome the previous one which was not only limited in sco...

  6. Tax Salience, Voting, and Deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Tax incentives can be more or less salient, i.e. noticeable or cognitively easy to process. Our hypothesis is that taxes on consumers are more salient to consumers than equivalent taxes on sellers because consumers underestimate the extent of tax shifting in the market. We show that tax salience...... biases consumers' voting on tax regimes, and that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism in the experimental laboratory. Pre-vote deliberation makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct and does not eliminate the bias in the typical committee. Yet, if voters can discuss...... their experience with the tax regimes they are less likely to be biased....

  7. Financial Transaction Tax (Davek na finančne transakcije

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Ahtik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Financial transaction tax has been proposed already by Keynes; however it has been introduced only in some individual countries and not globally, which would reduce possibilities for tax evasion. Nevertheless, the topic gained importance during the recent financial crisis – the tax is supposed to reduce risky activities of the financial industry and fill the budgets with the means for alleviating the consequences of the crisis, largely caused by the financial industry. Proposal of the European Commission is therefore the first concrete proposal that addresses a wider economic area. This paper investigates economic, theoretical rationale for the introduction of a financial transaction tax and studies its structure and consequences in several European countries: United Kingdom, France, Italy and Sweden. Special emphasis is given to the proposal of the European Commission that would, in case it is confirmed, apply also to Slovenia, although some concerns have arisen recently, weather Slovenia should introduce the tax or not.

  8. The role of auditing in detecting tax evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vržina Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forthcoming paper opens questions about new area of audit operations and a new practical challenge for audit profession - detecting tax frauds. A growing problem of tax evasion, expressed as an act of illegal reduction of tax liabilities, points out to the inability of state authorities to reduce or neutralize tax evasion volume. Created as a consequence of previous fact, forthcoming paper has an objective to examine whether, and in which way, auditing financial statements could contribute to initial signalizing of tax evasion through expressing opinion about veracity and objectivity of accounting statements. Special focus is put on related-party transactions with entities registered in offshore zones. As they progress more and more, these transaction become materially significant, thus becoming a subject of audit examination.

  9. An energy Btu tax alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Gehuang D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper extends the Ramsey tax rule and develops a tax rate by minimizing total excess burden, subject to government tax revenues. This tax rate is a function of its own and other fuels' price elasticities of compensated demand and supply, its own price and consumption level, other fuels' prices and consumption levels, and government revenues. It is this proposed tax rate, not the Ramsey tax ratio, that guides a government to levy a tax efficiently through a minimization of total excess burden. In the case of an energy tax, this tax rate provides direct guidance for taxation on various fuels. Moreover, total excess burden generated by the proposed tax rate is significantly less than that produced by the Clinton Administration's proposal

  10. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  11. Last hope: tax exemption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2016-01-01

    Economically it is not possible to make money with old depreciated nuclear power plants because of the success of renewable energies, It is only the expectation on significant tax relief that keeps the power plants in operation.

  12. Public Service? Tax Credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Albert

    1982-01-01

    Acknowledges the good work of private schools but resists the provision of further direct or indirect government aid to these schools. Argues that tax credits will adversely affect public education and American society. (Author/WD)

  13. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  14. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  15. Real Property Tax - 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  16. Real Property Tax - 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  17. Bubbling AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, Dario; Morales, Jose Francisco

    2005-01-01

    In the light of the recent Lin, Lunin, Maldacena (LLM) results, we investigate 1/2-BPS geometries in minimal (and next to minimal) supergravity in D = 6 dimensions. In the case of minimal supergravity, solutions are given by fibrations of a two-torus T 2 specified by two harmonic functions. For a rectangular torus the two functions are related by a non-linear equation with rare solutions: AdS 3 x S 3 , the pp-wave and the multi-center string. 'Bubbling', i.e. superpositions of droplets, is accommodated by allowing the complex structure of the T 2 to vary over the base. The analysis is repeated in the presence of a tensor multiplet and similar conclusions are reached, with generic solutions describing D1D5 (or their dual fundamental string-momentum) systems. In this framework, the profile of the dual fundamental string-momentum system is identified with the boundaries of the droplets in a two-dimensional plane. (author)

  18. Governance, Trust, and Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Schrøter Joensen, Juanna; Weihe, Guðrið

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries le...

  19. Timing Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Niepelt

    2004-01-01

    Standard models of tax evasion implicitly assume that evasion is either fully detected, or not detected at all. Empirically, this is not the case, casting into doubt the traditional rationales for interior evasion choices. I propose two alternative, dynamic explanations for interior tax evasion rates: Fines depending on the duration of an evasion spell, and different vintages of income sources subject to aggregate risk and fixed costs when switched between evasion states. The dynamic approach...

  20. Determinants of Aggressive Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...

  1. Who participates in tax avoidance?

    OpenAIRE

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Jacob, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of heterogeneity in legal tax avoidance strategies across individuals. Three conditions are required for a taxpayer to participate in tax avoidance: incentive, access, and awareness. Using rich Swedish administrative panel data with a unique link between corporate and individual tax returns, we analyze individual participation in legal tax planning around the 2006 Swedish tax reform. Our results suggest that closely held corporations are utilized to facilitate ...

  2. Accounting and Tax Issues Concerning Commercial Discounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Raluca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial discounts accounting presents a particular importance because, on the one hand, of their widely spread on a large scale in the commercial activity and on the second hand, due to the influence of the accounting and reporting method over the value added tax. The paper theoretically addresses commercial reductions and also their reflection in the accounting according with the latest regulations in force.

  3. Distributional consequences of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Birr-Pedersen, K.; Wier, M.

    2001-11-01

    Environmental taxes imposed on households have been introduced in many countries. However, few countries have reached the level of environmental taxation that is seen in Denmark today, although many are considering shifting the tax burden towards the consumption that is harming the environment. The total tax burden imposed on households in Denmark in the form of taxes on energy use of all kinds, water consumption and waste production, etc., is considerable. This paper analyses the individual taxes as well as the combination of all these taxes and duties related to environmental concerns, including taxes on heating, transport fuels, electricity, water, waste, plastic bags, registration of cars, annual car use, pesticides, etc. The distributional effect of taxes is examined in relation to household income, socio-economic class, residential location and family status. The shifting of the tax structure from high marginal income tax to consumption-based taxes, especially environmental taxes, might have distributional impacts amongst income groups which have not been considered part of the tax policy. The taxes are compared with respect to distributional impact. Do the effects of the different taxes vary to such an extent that this should be considered when designing tax policies? The hypothesis is that some environmental taxes associated with luxury income are less regressive than the average environmental tax. The results suggest that in Denmark taxes on petrol and registration duties for cars are progressive, whereas most other environmental taxes are regressive, especially the green taxes on water, retail containers and CO 2 . The distributional impacts are illustrated using household consumption survey data and data covering household expenditures on energy. The energy taxes and the more recently introduced green taxes are compared. The project is combining the direct and the indirect effect of taxes. The direct effect considers the taxes imposed directly on

  4. 26 CFR 1.1561-1 - General rules regarding certain tax benefits available to the component members of a controlled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with the special rule of section 441(f)(2)(A). See § 1.441-2. (c) Tax avoidance. The provisions of... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rules regarding certain tax benefits... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME...

  5. 26 CFR 31.6302(c)-1 - Use of Government depositories in connection with taxes under Federal Insurance Contributions Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Saturdays, Sundays, and Federal holidays. Example 1. For the eighth-monthly period April 1-3, 1991, Employer...) Exceptions—(1) Monthly returns. The provisions of this section are not applicable with respect to taxes for... SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Administrative Provisions of Special...

  6. World Tax Index: New Methodology for OECD Countries, 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Machova; Igor Kotlan

    2013-01-01

    This paper follows our previous article, Kotlán and Machová (2012a), which presented an indicator of the tax burden that can be used as an alternative to the tax quota, or for implicit tax rates in macroeconomic analyses. This alternative is an overall multi-criteria index called the WTI – the World Tax Index. The aim of this paper is to present the new World Tax Index 2013 and its methodology, which allowed us to compute it for all 34 OECD countries for the 2000–2012 period, with special ref...

  7. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jie [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-07-21

    Exact solutions to Einstein’s equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution’s appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  8. Environmental taxes and subsidies 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1970 - 2002 and statements of environmentally related subsidies for the years 1996 - 2002. Environmental taxes are a concept for pollution, energy, transportation, and resource related taxes. The State's revenue from environmental taxes have increased from 4,0 billions DKK in 1970 to 65,7 billions DKK in 2002. The environmental taxes' part of the GNP has increased from 3,2 % in 1970 to 4,8 % in 2002. The part of the environmental taxes of the total taxes and tariffs has increased from 8,2 % in 1970 to 9,8 % in 2002. >From 2001 to 2002 the environmental taxes increased with 5,6 %, primarily because the taxes in the transportation sector increased with 13,5 % due to more new cars. The pollution taxes increased with 6 % while the environmental taxes for energy increased with only 0,8 %. In 2002 the energy related taxes amounted to 54 %, the transport related taxes to 39 %, and pollution and resource related taxes amounted to 7 % of the total environmental taxes. The public environmentally related subsidies to companies and households has been on a stable level of a little more than 10 billions DKK through the latest years. The energy related subsidies have, however, been transferred to transport related subsidies, i.e. primarily subsidies to the public transport. (ln)

  9. TAX OPTIMIZATION, TAX AVOIDANCE OR TAX EVASION? CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE OFFSHORE COMPANIES’ LEGAL BACKGROUND

    OpenAIRE

    Eva ERDÕS

    2010-01-01

    Is it a legal or illegal activity to give money to establish offshore firms? What is the offshore practice is it a method of tax optimization, tax minimization or is it a harmful activity, which means tax avoidance or tax evasion. This question is very important in the European Union’s tax law system, because the EU tax law is against the harmful tax competition. Some member states’ legal system is permitted to use offshore companies’ rules, but in the European Union it is prohibited to estab...

  10. A taxing environment: evaluating the multiple objectives of environmental taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Hale, Brack W

    2002-12-15

    Environmental taxes have attracted attention in recent years as a tool to internalize environmental externalities. This paper evaluates Sweden's experience with environmental taxes in the energy sector by examining how environmental taxes compare with estimated environmental externalities associated with the use of oil, coal, natural gas, and forest residue fuels. We also analyze how environmental taxes influence fuel choices in the energy sector by comparing the production, environmental, and tax costs for the same fuels. We find that (i) the Swedish environmental taxes correspond imperfectly with environmental costs; (ii) the Swedish tax and subsidy system introduces changes in fuel choice decisions; (iii) the energy users are responding to the incentives created by the tax and subsidy systems in ways that are consistent with economic theory; and (iv) the Swedish experience with environmental taxes and subsidies bears directly on wider evaluations of energy policy approaches internationally.

  11. Review of Tax Policy and Reform Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes the activities of the 97th Congress on taxes. Reviews 1981 enactments and 1982 proposals regarding tax cuts, tax increases, indexing of tax brackets, interest earnings, depreciation, and business incentives. Examines tax administration problems and flat-rate tax proposals and discusses the progressive income tax. (Author/RW)

  12. The impact of tax forms on economic growth: Evidence from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaš Branimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the relevance of nexus between tax forms and economic growth and how they affect on gross domestic product in Serbia for the period 2006-2015. The impact is manifested through the analysis of three main tax forms: personal income tax (PIT, corporate income tax (CIT and value-added tax (VAT and their effect on the macroeconomic indicator as gross domestic product (GDP. The analysis is for a period of ten years in Serbia, where the regression model is constructed so that the GDP is defined as the dependent variable, while the tax forms are set as independent variables. To ensure correctly specified regression model, authors used the next test: VIF test, BP and BPG test, as well as Ramsey reset test. Results show a high degree of positive correlation between the observed variables and the positive impact of the personal income tax, corporate income tax and value-added tax on the gross domestic product, but it is only the impact of value added tax statistically significant.

  13. The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions | van Zyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores whether or not the decision in the MP Finance-case (and preceding cases on the taxation of illegal receipts) can be applied to determine if illegal transactions are subject to VAT and moreover if a trader in illegal goods and services should register as a VAT vendor. Although strictly speaking no analogy ...

  14. Tax Potential vs. Tax Effort; A Cross-Country Analysis of Armenia's Stubbornly Low Tax Collection

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Grigorian; Hamid R Davoodi

    2007-01-01

    Despite recording double digit growth since 2000, Armenia's tax-to-GDP ratio has been fairly stable at about 14½ percent. This paper catalogues a range of factors that may account for Armenia's stubbornly for tax collection by benchmarking Armenia's tax-to-GDP against some comparator countries and conducting an extensive econometric study of the main determinants of tax collection. We find empirical support for the hypothesis that the persistence of Armenia's low tax-GDP ratio can be traced t...

  15. Risk diversification and tax competition : the influence of risk correlations and tax provisions on tax competition

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, Markus; Reichl, Bettina

    2000-01-01

    From standard-portfolio-models the authors derive demand elasticities for risky assets, and combine the results with a simple non-cooperative model of tax competition between capital importing countries. They find that tax rates resulting from tax competition depend heavily on the correlations of capital market indices. If investment alternatives are not correlated, the outcome of both tax competition and a cooperative solution of tax harmonization are identical. The results suggest regional ...

  16. Energy taxes and subsidies downstream: transparency and dissemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissaour, A.

    2001-01-01

    The reasons why governments levy taxes are discussed with special reference to the energy sector. The article focuses on the quantitative aspect of policies and gives a guide to the relevant statistical sources. It summarises the basis of taxes and subsidies and discusses the incidence of energy taxation together with the structure of taxes and subsidies in energy downstream. It reviews the main sources of data and issues highlighted by published statistics and the impact of taxes levied on the consumption of energy products and other taxes (e.g. VAT) which directly affect end-user prices. Production-based levies such as royalties, petroleum revenue taxes, windfall taxes and import and export taxes on fuels are not discussed. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) theoretical foundations in a nutshell; (ii) the incidence of taxation; (iii) the structure and main features of energy taxation (iv) base rate and level of taxation (v) sources of data and methods and (vi) observability and comparability

  17. The Tax harmonization in open regionalism ; The European model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouloud MELIKAOUI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the subject of alternative regionalism or open regionalism and reality within the multilateral trading system, based on growing liberalization of trade, and the problem of compatibility between them, as well as the limits of economic policy harmonization in the framework of Open regionalism, special tax harmonization, in the light of economic and tax disparities of the Member States, with an overview of the European tax harmonization and limits. The Study concluded the importance of tax harmonization as a tool by activation of the concept of open regionalism, through facilitating capitals flows and investments between member states and reduction of the négatives phenomena of tax. It recommended the need to emphasizing on the importance of gradually harmonization for tax policy, and expand the rule of tax treaties and exchange of tax information and experiences between countries, This is in light a holistic approach to other economic policies as a the exchange rate policy and monetary policy, just as is the case in the European model.

  18. Paying taxes in Euro area countries: issues behind tax morale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Rutkauskas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates theoretical and practical aspects of tax morale in euro area countries. The attitude of households on tax payment – whether to pay taxes or not – is assessed quantitatively by employing dichotomous logit-probit regression analysis. Research is based on household level data received from World Values Survey and European Values Study. The results suggest that the main issues behind weak tax morale are corruption, disrespect to the country. Additionally tax morale is significantly affected by factors like age, gender, religiousness, gender, income and education. Article concludes on possible policy options in order to increase tax morale.

  19. Intracellular Localization and Cellular Factors Interaction of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax Proteins: Similarities and Functional Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Romanelli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1 and type 2 (HTLV-2 present very similar genomic structures but HTLV-1 is more pathogenic than HTLV-2. Is this difference due to their transactivating Tax proteins, Tax-1 and Tax-2, which are responsible for viral and cellular gene activation? Do Tax-1 and Tax-2 differ in their cellular localization and in their interaction pattern with cellular factors? In this review, we summarize Tax-1 and Tax-2 structural and phenotypic properties, their interaction with factors involved in signal transduction and their localization-related behavior within the cell. Special attention will be given to the distinctions between Tax-1 and Tax-2 that likely play an important role in their transactivation activity.

  20. Tax Efficiency vs. Tax Equity – Points of View regarding Tax Optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Aurelia Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Starting from the idea that tax equity requirements, administration costs and the tendency towards tax evasion determine the design of tax systems, it is important to identify a satisfactory efficiency/equity deal in order to build a tax system as close to optimum requirements as possible. Prior Work Previous studies proved that an optimum tax system is that through which it will be collected a level of tax revenues which will satisfy budgetary demands, while losing only a minimum ‘amount’ of welfare. In what degree the Romanian tax system meets these requirements? Approach We envisage analyzing the possibilities of improving Romanian tax system as to come nearest to optimum requirements. Results We can conclude fiscal system can uphold important improvements in what assuring tax equity is concerned, resulting in raising the degree of free conformation in the field of tax payment and, implicitly, the degree of tax efficiency. Implications Knowing to what extent it can be acted upon in the direction of finding that satisfactory efficiency/equity deal may allow oneself to identify the blueprint of a tax system in which the loss of welfare is kept down to minimum. Value For the Romanian institutions empowered to impose taxes, the knowledge of the possibilities of making the tax system more efficient can be important while aiming at reducing the level of evasion phenomenon.

  1. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2013 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John Greene

    2013-01-01

    This annual bulletin provides federal income tax reporting tips to assist forest landowners and their advisers in filing their 2013 income tax returns. The information presented here is current as of Sept. 15, 2013.

  2. Tax havens: Features, operations and solving tax evasion problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Ćuk Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax haven offers minimal or no tax liability to foreign individuals and enterprises in economically and politically stable environment, where little or no financial information is shared with foreign tax authorities. The aim of this research is to create a comprehensive overview of the characteristics and operations of tax havens, as well as to point out to the ways to overcome the problem of tax evasion. The methodology used in the work is characteristic of social science research: analysis, synthesis and discussion, comparative, inductive and historical analysis, together with the usage of relevant national and international sources. This paper describes the basic features of tax havens, as well as specific business models applied in them. A separate chapter deals with overcoming the problem of tax evasion, which is the main adverse effect of doing business through tax havens.

  3. Employment impacts of alcohol taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J; Powell, Lisa M; Jernigan, David H

    2017-12-01

    There is strong scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of increasing alcohol taxes for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related problems. Opponents have argued that alcohol tax increases lead to job losses. However, there has been no comprehensive economic analysis of the impact of alcohol taxes on employment. To fill this gap, a regional macroeconomic simulation model was used to assess the net impact of two hypothetical alcohol tax increases (a 5-cent per drink excise tax increase and a 5% sales tax increase on beer, wine, and distilled spirits, respectively) on employment in Arkansas, Florida, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and Wisconsin. The model accounted for changes in alcohol demand, average state income, and substitution effects. The employment impact of spending the new tax revenue on general expenditures versus health care was also assessed. Simulation results showed that a 5-cent per drink additional excise tax on alcoholic beverages with new tax revenues allocated to general expenditures increased net employment in Arkansas (802 jobs); Florida (4583 jobs); Massachusetts (978 jobs); New Mexico (653 jobs); and Wisconsin (1167 jobs). A 5% additional sales tax also increased employment in Arkansas (789 jobs; Florida (4493 jobs); Massachusetts (898 jobs); New Mexico (621 jobs); and Wisconsin (991 jobs). Using new alcohol tax revenues to fund health care services resulted in slightly lower net increases in state employment. The overall economic impact of alcohol tax increases cannot be fully assessed without accounting for the job gains resulting from additional tax revenues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. RETHINKING ECONOMICS-OF-CRIME MODEL OF TAX COMPLIANCE FROM BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE APPLIED TO ROMANIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ana Iancu(Nechita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Present paper tackles several research paradigms regarding tax compliance behavior that have been used to understand tax evasion phenomenon and tax avoidance behavior of the taxpayer. These notions have been studied by numerous researchers all over the world as phenomenon of tax evasion has a debating issue on every state agenda for several decades. First economic model of tax compliance behavior was developed in the early 1970s and since then researchers improved the model adding new elements from sociology, psychology, legal studies, finance, game theory, neurosciences, econophysics and others. This paper presents the most important developments of current theories regarding tax compliance behavior starting from the economics-of-crime model,till the 'slippery slope framework ', and more. It creates the premises for a Romanian model of tax compliance behavior according to national characteristics regarding taxpayers attitude towards tax avoidance, risk appetite or aversion upon enforcement of law through punishment and penalty, taxpayers’ trust in authority’s efficient spending of tax collected revenue to public budget and personal beliefs regarding notions like morality, cheating, honesty, social responsibility, loyalty, patriotism, civic duty, guilt, fairness, reciprocity or financial incentives. Recent models of tax compliance behavior underline the importance of the dynamics between all the actors involved in the fiscal system such as government, tax authorities, tax consultants and accountants and the behavior of all other taxpayers as a whole. Current research trends believe that these are mutually related. Another important aspect regarding taxpayer’s attitude towards tax avoidance is its own motivation to voluntarily pay taxes driven by intrinsic beliefs or by fear of penalty coming from enforcement of laws. On the contrary, other taxpayers choose to assume an extra share of risk and decide to avoid taxes hiding in anonymity of

  5. Tax morale : theory and empirical analysis of tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Torgler, Benno

    2003-01-01

    Tax morale is puzzling in our society. Observations show that tax compliance cannot be satisfactorily explained by the level of enforcement. Other factors may well be relevant. This paper contains a short survey of important theoretical and empirical findings in the tax morale literature, focussing on personal income tax morale. The following three key topics are discussed: moral sentiments, fairness and the relationship between taxpayer and government. The survey stresses the ...

  6. Capital Market Effects of Taxes and Corporate Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Tassius, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays: The first essay entitled “Tax Effects on Asset Pricing – New Evidence from Tax Reform Announcements in Germany”, co-authored with Michael Overesch, Chair of Business Taxation at the University of Cologne, not only presents price effects for German shares given rumors about lowering the German corporate tax rate but also shows price effects for bonds following a substantial cut in the German personal interest tax rate. The second essay “Capital Inco...

  7. Tax Competition and Double Tax Treaties with Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Siggelkow, Benjamin Florian

    2013-01-01

    In a two-period tax competition model with provision of local public goods, we analyze efficiency properties of double taxation reliefs incorporating either the exemption method, the tax credit system or the full taxation after deduction system. Foreign direct investments are presumed to be one-way and characterized by long-term mergers and acquisitions. We find that in case of (i) tax revenue maximization the exemption method implies inefficiently low tax rates, whereas the fu...

  8. A study of the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of income tax revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Eureka

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of Indonesian's income tax revenues in the period of 1983-2011. It points out two key features of the Indonesian's income tax reforms: 1) the tax reforms have embraced tax rates cutting and tax bases broadening apcomprehensive income tax system toward the schedular tax system. Then, regarding tax revenues, data shows that the Indonesian's nominal income tax revenues have increased considerably during that period; howev...

  9. Tax Incentives : Using Tax Incentives to Attract Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Morisset, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The increasing mobility of international firms and the gradual elimination of barriers to global capital flows have stimulated competition among governments to attract foreign direct investment, often through tax incentives. This note reviews the debate about the effectiveness of tax incentives, examining two much-contested questions: can tax incentives attract foreign investment? And what...

  10. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2012 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2012-01-01

    Federal income tax law contains provisions to encourage stewardship and management of private forest land. The primary goal of this bulletin is to assist forest landowners and their advisors with timber tax information they can use to file their 2012 in-come tax returns. The information presented here is current as of Sept. 15, 2012.

  11. Tax Evasion in the Presence of Negative Income Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Joulfaian, David; Rider, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the impact of marginal tax rates, which incorporate the earned income tax credit as it existed in 1988, on the reporting of income by low-level taxpayers. Concludes that the amount of income underreported does not appear to be affected by the relatively high marginal tax rates which occur in the phase out range, except for proprietors.

  12. Effects of carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelini, M.

    1992-01-01

    At the recent United Nations Conference held in Rio de Janeiro, a proposal was made by Italy to have surcharges be applied by OECD member countries on fossil fuels (carbon tax), primarily to fund pollution abatement technology transfer to developing countries and promote pollution abatement, energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources in industrialized countries. This paper assesses how the application of the proposed carbon tax might be successfully combined with additional fiscal policies favouring coal gasification and reforestation so as to provide energy policy strategists of oil-importing countries with a long term economically and environmentally viable alternative to petroleum imports

  13. Why Taxing Consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Robert Frank is famous for proposing an incremental tax on consumption. His proposition is motivated by the control of positional externalities, i.e. the costs that individuals impose on each other when they consume goods for securing or acquiring social status. A close analysis of Frank...... are controversial while the invocation of efficiency is actually grounded in an underlying view of social cooperation. Secondly, this chapter advances the idea that an ultimate justification for the choice of specific tax base (consumption, income and wealth) expresses such an underlying view. In other words...

  14. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  15. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... State (including franchise taxes). (4) Income tax component means that part of the cost-of-service that... deferred taxes becomes deficient in, or in excess of, amounts necessary to meet future tax liabilities. (2...

  16. Agreement of the silent partnership – tax and legal consequences of its conclusion and execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Zieniewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The institution of the silent partnership is not currently regulated by any legal act in the Polish legal system, although its importance in practice is not in doubt. As every action made in the economic sphere and economic execution of the contract is associated with specific effects on the basis of the tax laws. However, due to the lack of statutory regulation of the institution of silent partnership problematic is the question of determining the effects of tax legislation. Therefore, special attention is needed to determine the issue of these effects on the basis of income tax, tax on goods and services, transfer tax and the tax on inheritance and donations, as well as the question of liability for the tax liabilities of the silent partnership.

  17. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  18. Who Pays the Gasoline Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Chernick, Howard; Reschovsky, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes panel data over 11 years (both backward from 1982 and forward from 1982) to determine the average gasoline tax burden. Considers links between economic mobility, gasoline consumption, and excise tax increases.

  19. TEXAS TAXES: A COMPARISON WITH OTHER STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Stallmann, Judith I.; Jones, Lonnie L.

    1998-01-01

    This document is part of an educational series on Texas taxes. State and local taxes in Texas are compared with those of the fifty states and the District of Columbia. Taxes are compared per capita and per $1,000 of personal income. The taxes include: all state and local taxes, property taxes, sales and gross receipts taxes, personal income taxes, corporate income taxes and corporate franchise taxes. For each tax the national average, median, maximum and minimum are given along with the corre...

  20. Measuring Effective Tax Rates for Oil and Gas in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to provide cost of capital formulae for assessing the effects of taxation on the incentive to invest in oil and gas industries in Canada. The analysis is based on the assumption that businesses invest in capital until the after-tax rate of return on capital is equal to the tax-adjusted cost of capital. The cost of capital in absence of taxation is the inflation-adjusted cost of finance. The after-tax rate of return on capital is the annualized profit earned on a project net of the taxes paid by the businesses. For this purpose, we include corporate income, sales and other capital-related taxes as applied to oil and gas investments. For oil and gas taxation, it is necessary to account for royalties in a special way. Royalties are payment made by businesses for the right to extract oil and gas from land owned by the property holder. The land is owned by the province so the royalties are a rental payment for the benefit received from extracting the product from provincial lands. Thus, provincial royalty payments are a cost to oil and gas companies for using public property. However, since the provincial government is responsible for the royalty regime and could use taxes like the corporate income tax to extract revenue, one might think of royalties as part of the overall fiscal regime to raise revenue. In principle, one should subtract the rental benefit received from oil and gas businesses from taxes and royalty payments to assess the overall fiscal impact. This is impossible to do without measuring some explicit rental rate for use of provincial property. Further, royalty payments may distort economic decisions unlike a payment based on the economic rents earned on oil and gas projects. Instead, for comparability across jurisdictions, one might calculate the aggregate tax and royalty effective tax rates (such as between Alberta and Texas.

  1. Economic Effects Real Estate Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The real estate tax is usually a fiscal instrument which performs the property tax. When it comes to real property or immovable this term include: apartments, houses, land, cottages, excess housing landscape and more. The real estate tax as a form of the fiscal charges ownership or use of certain forms of real estate, and the revenue from this tax is levied on the area where the property is located regardless of the place of residence of its owner. The tax base for the calculation of this tax usually consists of the market, estimated or annuity value of certain real estate. This form of taxation in the Republic of Serbian applies from 1.1.2012., and its introduction has been replaced by former property taxes. The differences between the two concepts mentioned taxes are numerous and significant. Among the more important are: subject to taxation under the new concept of the real estate rather than law, a taxpayer is any property owner rather than the holder of rights to immovable property tax base is the market value of real estate which is replaced by the payment of taxes per square meter of usable area, the rate of property tax is determined local government, which can not be lower than 0.05% of the estimated value of the real estate nor higher than 0.5% of the appraised value of real estate. The last change, ie. The new law on Property Tax from 5.11.2015. was determined by the tax rate to 20%. The fact that local governments each of them determines the tax rate on real estate which range from high to low rates of multiple, makes this tax is progressive. Progression is particularly expressed in the distinction applied tax rates of developed and undeveloped municipalities, where we have a case that less developed tolerate a higher tax burden, which leads to negative economic effects. However, real estate tax has its own economic and social characteristics which must be aligned with the objectives of tax policy. This means that the real estate tax

  2. Tax optimization methods of international companies

    OpenAIRE

    Černá, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is focusing on methods of tax optimization of international companies. These international concerns are endeavoring tax minimization. The disparity of the tax systems gives to these companies a possibility of profit and tax base shifting. At first this thesis compares the differences of tax optimization, aggressive tax planning and tax evasion. Among the areas of the optimization methods, which are described in this thesis, belongs tax residention, dividends, royalty payments, tra...

  3. The Disappearing State Corporate Income Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Cornia, Gary; Edmiston, Kelly D.; Sjoquist, David L.; Wallace, Sally

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines alternative explanations for the decline over the past two decades in state corporate income taxes relative to the state economy. We employ a survey of state tax administrators, individual tax returns from Georgia and Utah, and panel data to explore the importance of tax policy, tax planning, and economic factors on the trend in state corporate taxes. We find that corporate tax planning and economic factors account for much of the relative decline, and that state tax polic...

  4. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  5. Petroleum tax and financial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.

    1993-03-01

    The work presented in this report focuses on tax motivated financial incentives in the Norwegian petroleum tax system. Of particular concern is the effects of the reserve fund requirement in the Joint Stock Companies Act. Our prime concern is the Norwegian petroleum tax system as applicable from January 1992, but for the sake of comparison, we have also examined the ''old'' Norwegian petroleum tax system. The findings presented in this report can be divided in two parts. Based on an overview over the development in debt and equity for the major part of companies operating on the Norwegian continental shelf it seems reasonable to divide the companies in three groups. The first group is companies which is not in a tax paying position, both ''foreign'' and domestic. These companies seem to use debt as their most important capital source. The second group is Norwegian companies in a tax paying position. These companies also seem to use debt as the most important capital source. The last group is ''foreign'' companies in a tax paying position. This is a group of companies that mainly use equity to finance their investments in the offshore sector. The second part of the report tries to explain these observations. In the report we compare the incentive effects in the new petroleum tax system to the old tax system. The incentives to finance investments with debt is stronger in the new tax system. Several explanations emerge. Firstly, in the old tax system the investor got an effective tax deduction of 12.8% for dividends. This is removed in the new system. Secondly, in the new system 78% tax is included in the financial statements after tax profit calculation and the maximum dividend calculation, while in the old tax system the withholding tax was excluded. 31 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

  6. Corporate tax structure and production

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Jeffrey; Shah, Anwar

    1993-01-01

    The authors provide an empirical framework for assessing the effects of tax policy on an array of producer decisions about output supplies and input demands in Mexico, Pakistan, and Turkey. They specify and estimate a dynamic production structure model with imperfect competition for selected industries in these countries. The model results suggest that tax policy affected production and investment and further that selective tax incentives such as investment tax credits, investment allowances,...

  7. System of National Accounts as an Information Base for Tax Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Lyapin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to those aspects of the system of national accounts, which together perform the role of information base of tax statistics. In our time, the tax system is one of the main subjects of the discussions about the methods and directions of its reform.Taxes are one of the main factors of regulation of the economy and act as an incentive for its development. Analysis of tax revenues to the budgets of different levels will enable to collect taxes and perform tax burden for various industries. From the amount of tax revenue it is possible to judge scales of reproductive processes in the country. It should be noted that taxes in the SNA are special. As mentioned earlier, in the SNA, taxes on products are treated in the form of income. At the same time, most economists prefer, their consideration in the form of consumption taxes, and taxes on various financial transactions (for example: taxes on the purchase/sale of securities are treated as taxes on production, including in cases when there are no services. It would be rational to revise and amend the SNA associated with the interpretation of all taxes and subsidies, to ensure better understanding and compliance with user needs.Taxes are an integral part of any state and an indispensable element of economic relations of any society. In turn, taxes and the budget are inextricably linked, as these relations have a clearly expressed, objective bilateral character. Taxes are the main groups of budget revenues, which makes it possible to finance all the government agencies and expenditure items, as well as the implementation of institutional subsidy units that make up the SNA sector “non-financial corporations”.The second side story is that taxes – a part of the money that is taken from producers and households. The total mass of taxes depends on the composition of taxes, tax rates, tax base and scope of benefits. The bulk of tax revenues also depends on possible changes in

  8. Waste Tax 1987-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.; Brendstrup, S.

    The report gives an ex-post evaluation of the Danish waste tax from 1987 to 1996. The evaluation shows that the waste tax has had a significant impact on the reductions in taxable waste. The tax has been decisive for the reduction in construction and demolition waste, while for the heavier...

  9. Tax Information Series, January 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    are important for taxpayers in the military community. Its goal is to inform legal assistance attorneys of updates in tax numerology and changes...should mail tax returns to the address on the envelope received with their tax package, or note the proper mailing address 2001 NUMEROLOGY Five

  10. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikova Je.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  11. 27 CFR 19.21 - Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax. 19.21 Section 19.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Gallonage Taxes § 19.21 Tax. (a) A tax is imposed by 26 U.S...

  12. Tax Rate and Tax Base Competition for Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Egger; Horst Raff

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that the large reduction in corporate tax rates and only gradual widening of tax bases in many countries over the last decades are consistent with tougher international competition for foreign direct investment (FDI). To make this point we develop a model in which governments compete for FDI using corporate tax rates and tax bases. The model’s predictions regarding the slope of policy reaction functions and the response of equilibrium tax parameters to trade costs and mark...

  13. 48 CFR 252.229-7011 - Reporting of Foreign Taxes-U.S. Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... all value added taxes and customs duties imposed by the recipient country. This exemption is in... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of Foreign Taxes... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7011 Reporting of Foreign Taxes—U.S...

  14. Consumption tax incidence: evidence from natural experiment in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zápal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), s. 149-166 ISSN 1802-792X Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : tax incidence * value added tax * difference-in-differences estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.vsfs.cz/periodika/acta-2014-02.pdf

  15. Consumption tax incidence: evidence from natural experiment in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zápal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), s. 149-166 ISSN 1802-792X Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : tax incidence * value added tax * difference-in-differences estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.vsfs.cz/periodika/acta-2014-02.pdf

  16. Impact of Electronic Tax Registers on VAT Compliance: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of use of Electronic Tax Registers (ETRs ) on Value Added Tax (VAT) compliance among private business firms in Kisumu city, Kenya. A sample of 233 private firms was selected from a population of 590 private firms using stratified sampling technique. The data was ...

  17. Can targeted food taxes and subsidies improve the diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses distributional effects of revenue-neutral tax reforms aimed at improving dietary quality and encouraging healthier grain consumption. Using data on household grain purchases, we analyse both the impact on dietary quality and the tax incidence among income groups of VAT reforms...... of the VAT reforms is therefore difficult to evaluate. With the exception of the lowest income group, the excise duty reforms seem to have a positive health effect across all other income groups, with increases in the intake of fibre and reductions in the intake of saturated fat, sugar and added sugar...... and the excise duty reforms appear to be progressive. The lowest income group pays less food taxes and generally faces a lower overall post-reform price level. The income group that increases its tax payments most is the one with the highest income. This is also the income group that faces the largest increase...

  18. Energy taxes in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilhjalmsson, A.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed survey, including data, of energy taxation, and related reforms and plans for reforms, in Iceland is presented. The current energy tax system here is mostly connected with consumption. There is as yet no taxation on air pollutants from fuel combustion. (AB)

  19. Economic and tax issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson O. Moffat; John L. Greene

    2002-01-01

    Economic conditions and tax policies affect land use decisions everywhere, but their effects on the rate of change in land use are particularly large in the wildland-urban interface. We begin this chapter with a brief economic history of the South and a description of the macroeconomic trends and conditions that affect microeconomics at the wildlandurban interface....

  20. Tax administration good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Végh, Gyöngyi; Gribnau, Hans

    2018-01-01

    There is no doubt that tax administration is a complex matter. It is institutionalised by a governance framework which is strongly influenced by legal traditions, state governance approaches, historical developments, and norms and values of society. While there are many common aspects of national

  1. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  2. Earned Income Tax Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems

  3. Recent Tax Law Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewski, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Describes provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 as they influence business and personal taxes. Also explains a recent ruling, the IRS Revenue Procedure 96-31, which will benefit businesses which did not claim all the depreciation expenses they were entitled to over the years. (KB)

  4. The costs of different energy taxes for stabilizing U.S. carbon dioxide emissions: An application of the Gemini model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, N.A.; Scheraga, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In the absence of policies to mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide, US emissions will grow substantially over the period 1990 to 2030. One option for mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions is to tax energy use. For example, fossil energy might be taxed according to its carbon content, heating value, or market value. Using a partial equilibrium model of US energy markets that combines detailed representation of technological processes with optimizing behavior by energy users and suppliers, the authors compare the costs of using carbon, Btu, and ad valorem taxes as instruments to implement a policy of emission stabilization. The authors also examine the differential impacts of these taxes on the mix of primary energy consumed in the US. The carbon tax induces the substitution of renewables and natural gas for coal and stabilizes carbon dioxide emissions at an estimated annual cost of $125 billion. The Btu tax induces the substitution of renewables for coal, but does not encourage the use of natural gas. The estimated cost of stabilization with the Btu tax is $210 billion per year. The ad valorem tax, like the Btu tax, does not encourage the substitution of natural gas for coal. It also causes a significant shift away from oil in comparison to the carbon tax. The cost of stabilizing emissions with the ad valorem tax is estimated at $450 billion per year

  5. THE IMPLICATIONS OF TAX MORALE ON TAX COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichita Ramona-Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the analysis of tax compliance behavior from the tax morale standpoint. We grounded our research on the idea that empirical studies constantly invalidating the assumptions of theoretical models of tax evasion show there are more factors influencing compliance than just the economic ones (e.g., audit probability, fine, tax rate, income. Giving the fact that audit probabilities are generally very low and that tax evasion is not as high as one could expect, tax morale might have to do with the high degrees of tax compliance registered around the world. In a stream of articles on taxation published beginning with the late 60n#8217;s, tax morale defined as the intrinsic motivation to comply or n#8220;internalised obligation to pay taxn#8221; (Braithwaite and Ahmed 2005 has been found to positively relate to tax compliance and negatively relate to shadow economy. This paper attempts to offer a broader view on the influence of tax morale on compliance behavior, covering articles ranging from national and cross-cultural surveys to experimental games. Moreover, the aim of the article is to emphasize the policy implications of tax morale research and the changes governments could make in order to raise the amount of public levies.

  6. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent...... over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as environmental pollution. We suggest that this situation leads to over-taxation for two reasons. First......, the absence of a strong and fully informed troop leader prevents rational coordination of collective action. Second, budget maximization leads to overwhelming fiscal pressure because bureaucracies are competing about resources just like fishermen or hunters (here named 'bureaucratic tax-seeking'). Taxing...

  7. String Theory on AdS Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop

  8. Everyday Representations of Tax Avoidance, Tax Evasion, and Tax Flight: Do Legal Differences Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchler, Erich; Maciejovsky, Boris; Schneider, Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    From an economic point of view, legal considerations apart, tax avoidance, tax evasion and tax flight have similar effects, namely a reduction of revenue yields, and are based on the same desire to reduce the tax burden. Due to legal differences and moral concerns it is, however, likely that individuals perceive them as different and as unequally fair. Overall, 252 fiscal officers, business students, business lawyers, and entrepreneurs produced spontaneous associations to a scenario either de...

  9. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  10. Impact of Maryland's 2011 alcohol sales tax increase on alcoholic beverage sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Waters, Hugh; Smart, Mieka; Jernigan, David H

    2016-07-01

    Increasing alcohol taxes has proven effective in reducing alcohol consumption, but the effects of alcohol sales taxes on sales of specific alcoholic beverages have received little research attention. Data on sales are generally less subject to reporting biases than self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption. We aimed to assess the effects of Maryland's July 1, 2011 three percentage point increase in the alcohol sales tax (6-9%) on beverage-specific and total alcohol sales. Using county-level data on Maryland's monthly alcohol sales in gallons for 2010-2012, by beverage type, multilevel mixed effects multiple linear regression models estimated the effects of the tax increase on alcohol sales. We controlled for seasonality, county characteristics, and national unemployment rates in the main analyses. In the 18 months after the tax increase, average per capita sales of spirits were 5.1% lower (p sales were 3.2% lower (p sales were 2.5% lower (p sales trends in the 18 months prior to the tax increase. Overall, the alcohol sales tax increase was associated with a 3.8% decline in total alcohol sold relative to what would have been expected based on sales in the prior 18 months (p increased alcohol sales taxes may be as effective as excise taxes in reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. Sales taxes also have the added advantages of rising with inflation and taxing the highest priced beverages most heavily.

  11. The Tax Base And The Tax Bill. Tax Implications of Development: A Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Deb; Northup, Jim

    The property tax base in Vermont's towns are overburdened as property taxes are usually the only funding method available to finance schools, police departments, highway work, recreation programs, and government in general. Attempting to offer their citizens a balanced program of services without exorbitant taxes, local officials are striving to…

  12. Credits and Exemptions for Children. Tax Facts from the Tax Policy Center. Tax Notes[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit (CTC), Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC), and the dependent exemption all provide benefits to families with children. In 2009, a single mom (or dad) with two children can receive benefits ranging from $0 to about $7,500--depending on her income, age of the children, and where the children live. While…

  13. Bribes and Business Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joulfaian, David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of governance, in particular bribes to tax officials, in shaping business tax compliance behavior in transition economies. The empirical results show that business noncompliance rises with the frequency of tax related bribes. More specifically, the findings from 27 economies suggest that tax evasion thrives when bribes to tax officials are commonplace. These findings are robust to a number of specifications that control for firm and country attributes as well as address the potential endogeneity of bribes.

  14. ADA APA SETELAH TAX AMNESTY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antin Okfitasari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: What is the matter After Tax Amnesty? This study analyzes the taxpayer obligation after tax amnesty and the consequences that arise if they fail to perform their obligations. The research uses descriptive qualitative approach through literature study. The research shows that there are some obligations for taxpayers to be done. Failure and misconduct in the implementation of obligations after tax amnesty, will result in consequences of sanctions, tax amnesty cancellation, and examination. Finally the relief that should be obtained taxpayers tax amnesty participants will turn into a boomerang because of it.

  15. Export Taxes under Bertrand Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie; Roger Clarke

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...

  16. Mechanisms for Teaching Typewriting to Special Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosetti, Mary Ellen

    1979-01-01

    Gives examples of specialized typewriting instructional methods for students with disabilities, involving modifications to typewriters, using special keyboards, and adding sensory devices for different impairments. (MF)

  17. 26 CFR 48.4217-2 - Limitation on amount of tax applicable to certain leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Provisions... in arm's length transactions the same type and model of article. In case of a lease to which section... engaged in the business of selling in arm's length transactions the same type and model of an article as...

  18. Opportunities for increasing domestic added value ofcocoa through trade regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Drajat

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The operation of multinational companies on cocoa bean trade in Indonesia related to the liberalization policy on trade and investment in Indonesia permits for multinational companies to operate in Indonesia and liable to buy cocoa bean directly from farmers. The problem encountered is the domestic market liberalization gives rise to changes in market power and results ini the dominant position of multinational companies. This research aimed to (i analyze the impact of the exercise of market power by cocoa multinational company, (ii to analyze the possibility of deregulation of cocoa bean domestic trade, and (iii to estimate the potential increase in added value of cocoa down-stream industry as a result of deregulation. Some steps of research conducted includes (i desk research, (ii field survey by interviewing samples of farmers, traders, exporters, processors, as well as other business participants, (iii special interviews with key persons related to regulation as well as deregulation of domestic trade and down-stream industry development, and (iv focussed group discussion involving related stakeholders of cocoa. The results showed that the impact of the exercise of market power by multinational companies refers to the decreasing market shares of national companies from 2007 to 2009. Based on the market power domination of multinational companies in one side and the lack of down-stream industry development in the other side, there is a possibility to deregulate the above policy by continuing the new regulation (export tax of cocoa beans, directing multinational exporters toward downstream industry by partnership with domestic-idle capacity processing industry and import tariff escalation for processed cocoa. By the new regulation, the opportunity to increase domestic added value becomes greater. This cocoa down-stream industry development will increase the potential domestic added value at least 10%. Key words : Liberalization, deregulation

  19. Advanced training of tax consultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adigamova Farida F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to review and analyze the data on the necessity to provide an educational environment for training and advanced training of tax consultants in Russia. The article considers the types of tax consulting, the historical background of training financiers in Russia, as well as identifies conditions determining the significance of tax consulting. The research establishes the connection between the negative attitude to tax payment and tax evasion. The advanced training of tax consultants should be a continuous process as they need to take into account both external and internal taxpayers risks associated with the development of law and law-enforcement practice. Obviously, the training of tax consultants should take into account the experience of developed foreign countries, such as Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and other European countries as well. In Russia, it is necessary to open educational institutions, which will not only be involved in the certification of tax consultants, but also provide training courses. These courses should contribute to constant increase of tax consultants knowledge, consider the tax treatment of economic activities, as well changes in the legislation, economics, finance, accounting, manufacturing processes, which will improve the quality of services provided by tax consultants.

  20. Theoretical Provision of Tax Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feofanova Iryna V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the questions, giving answers to which is necessary for scientific substantiation of the tax transformation in Ukraine. The article analyzes the structural-logical relationships of the theories, providing substantiation of tax systems and transformation of them. Various views on the level of both the tax burden and the distribution of the tax burden between big and small business have been systematized. The issues that require theoretical substantiation when choosing a model of tax system have been identified. It is determined that shares of both indirect and direct taxes and their rates can be substantiated by calculations on the basis of statistical data. The results of the presented research can be used to develop the algorithm for theoretical substantiation of tax transformation

  1. Responsible Investment: Taxes and Paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutinen Reijo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxes have become an issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR, but the role of taxation is to some extent an ambiguous and controversial issue in the CSR framework. Similarly, another unclear question is what role investors who are committed to sustainable and responsible investment (SRI see taxes as having on their environmental, social, and governance (ESG agenda. Corporate taxes have an inverse relationship with the return of the investors: taxes paid directly affect what is left on the bottom line, reducing the return of investors. However, investors are now more aware of tax-related risks, which can include different forms of reputation risk. Corporate tax planning may increase the returns, but those increased returns are riskier. This study focuses particularly on the relationship between SRI and taxation. We find that tax matters are considered to be on the ESG agenda, but their role and significance in the ESG analysis is unclear.

  2. Businessmen´s tax evasions

    OpenAIRE

    Karásková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is categorize businessmen's tax evasions at personal income tax and find out their portion on total tax evasions. In the first chapter I focus on tax avoidance and tax evasion, causes of tax evasion and his measurement. Next parts of this thesis focus on businessmen's tax evasion at personal income tax. In the second part I describe some very frequented cases of tax evasions revealed by revenue authorities. In the last part I analyse these tax evasions, c...

  3. Winding strings and AdS3 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troost, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We start a systematic study of string theory in AdS 3 black hole backgrounds. Firstly, we analyse in detail the geodesic structure of the BTZ black hole, including spacelike geodesics. Secondly, we study the spectrum for massive and massless scalar fields, paying particular attention to the connection between Sl(2,R) subgroups, the theory of special functions and global properties of the BTZ black holes. We construct classical strings that wind the black holes. Finally, we apply the general formalism to the vacuum black hole background, and formulate the boundary spacetime Virasoro algebra in terms of worldsheet operators. We moreover establish the link between a proposal for a ghost free spectrum for Sl(2,R) string propagation and the massless black hole background, thereby claryfing aspects of the AdS 3 /CFT correspondence. (author)

  4. Redistributive Effects of Income Tax Rates and Tax Base 1984-2009: Evidence from Japanese Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Takeshi; Kitamura, Yukinobu

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to examine how and to what extent changes in income tax rates and income tax deductions affect income inequality from longitudinal perspectives, by using microdata from Japanese individuals and households. The findings of this paper could shed light on the effects of tax rates and tax deduction on tax progressivity. First, redistributive effects of the Japanese income tax are likely to decline for the period 1984-2009. Second, the income tax reforms, i.e...

  5. Warped AdS3 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li Wei; Padi, Megha; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l -2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS 3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,R) x U(1)-invariant warped AdS 3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS 3 . We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS 3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS 3 . Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS 3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS 3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c R -formula and c L -formula.

  6. 75 FR 33740 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service.... 7805. * * * Par. 5. Section 49.0-3 is added to read as follows: Sec. 49.0-3 Introduction; cosmetic...--Cosmetic Services Sec. 49.5000B-1 Indoor tanning services. [The text of this proposed Sec. 49.5000B-1 is...

  7. Taxing carbon in fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Rob

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that both the Climate Change Levy and the fuel duty tax are outdated even before they are implemented. Apparently, the real problems are not in the bringing of road fuels into the scope of the Climate Change Levy but in introducing reforms to improve integration of greenhouse gases and taxation. Both fuel duty and the Levy are aimed at maximising efficiency and reducing air pollution. The system as it stands does not take into account the development of a market where the management and trading of carbon and greenhouse gases may jeopardise the competitiveness of UK businesses. It is argued that an overhaul of climate and emissions-related law is necessary. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) a fixation on energy; (ii) no focus on CO 2 ; (iii) carbon markets - beyond the levy and (iv) tax structure. (UK)

  8. TAX RESEARCH Financial Accounting versus Tax Accounting - Tax Rules’ Impact on Investment Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidance for all those interested in research related to tax. In the study are included three main areas dealing with taxes and about taxes: (1 the role of information in corporation tax expenditures under the rules and laws of the country against financial statements according to international accounting standards, (2 case study PTK; how much effective tax and tax on extra profit has it paid (3 the impact of tax rules on investment decisions - the reasons and profits of the company and the host country. We will try to summarize here the three areas of study and come to some conclusions on how to deal with fiscal policy in Kosovo. In addition, we will offer our opinion on some interesting and important questions for future research.

  9. Energy prices and taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices at all market levels: import prices, industry prices and consumer prices. The statistics cover main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity, giving for imported products an average price both for importing country and country of origin. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country

  10. INTERPRETATION OF TAX TREATIES

    OpenAIRE

    Uzeltürk, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Nations benefit economically when their companies work abroad and develop their strength in international markets. Economic power also brings international political power and prestige. When dealing with international business, taxation is one o f the most important problems. Double taxation, which is to tax the same profit by two or more countries, is a serious obstacle that confronts international enterprises. Unless double taxation is avoided it will be difficult for enterprises to conduct...

  11. The impact of the special participation tax at offshore concessions with high production of hydrocarbons; O impacto da participacao especial na decisao de investimento em projetos de concessoes offshore com superproducao de hidrocarbonetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandra, Rodrigo Mendes; Poznyakov, Karolina Maria. E-mails: rodrigo_gandra@ig.com.br; karolina@ig.com.br

    2004-07-01

    The main objective this technical study is to show the economic impact of payment of Special Participation into capex of projects in fields with high production of hydrocarbons. We would like to show how the actual payment of Special Participation can be really hard to the economic viability of projects. Even so, this technical study take an induction, it mays be showed as a representation to retract the real situation in a big companies that which have considerable opportunities for development of concessions with high potential to produce hydrocarbons. We are willing to present a sample of an alternative assessment. (author)

  12. INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONALIZATION OF TAX LAW ON RUSSIAN TAX LAW ENFORCEMENT IN THE AREA OF CORPORATE TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject. The influence of internationalization of tax law on Russian tax law enforcement in the area of corporate taxation is considered in the article.The purpose of the paper is to analyze influence of internationalization of tax law on Russian tax law enforcement in the area of corporate taxation.Methodology. The author uses methods of theoretical analysis, particularly the theory of integrative legal consciousness, as well as legal methods, including formal legal method and methods of comparative law.Results, scope of application. The development of Russian tax legislation is influenced by acts of international organizations, primarily the Action Plan aimed at combating base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS.Trends of regulation of corporate taxation in relationships with participation of a foreign element are considered in the article. The main issues of realization of norms in the area of corporate direct taxation are brought into light, and namely, taxation of royalties, intra-group expenses, thin capitalization rules and transfer pricing. Tax agreements concluded by the Russian Federation do not contain special rules aimed at combating abuses (in contrast, for example, from European anti-avoidance rules.In recent years Russian tax law introduced institutions that had been established and applied in the tax law of foreign countries. These processes are moving forward and are characterized by frequent changes of legislation, which indicates that the concept of deoffshorization and implementation of the BEPS plan is not always elaborated at the stage of adoption of bills.Conclusions. The author comes to the conclusion that the most relevant and most controversial issues are taxation of payment of royalties, debt financing and intra-group expenses. The practice of applying the CFC rules is just starts forming. In addition, there is a tendency to increase the quality and quantity of information sources used by tax authorities to collect

  13. Limited indications of tax stamp discordance and counterfeiting on cigarette packs purchased in tobacco retailers, 97 counties, USA, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Golden, Shelley D; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-12-01

    Increasing the per-unit cost of tobacco products is one of the strongest interventions for tobacco control. In jurisdictions with higher taxes in the U.S., however, cigarette pack litter studies show a substantial proportion of littered packs lack the appropriate tax stamp. More limited but still present counterfeiting also exists. We sought to examine the role of tobacco retailers as a source for untaxed and counterfeit products. Data collectors purchased Newport Green (menthol) or Marlboro Red cigarette packs in a national probability-based sample of tobacco retailers (in 97 counties) from June-October 2012. They made no effort to buy counterfeit or untaxed cigarettes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the presence, tax authority, and type (low-tech thermal vs. encrypted) of cigarette pack tax stamps; concordance of tax stamps with where the pack was purchased; and, for Marlboro cigarettes, publicly available visible indicators of counterfeiting. We purchased 2147 packs of which 2033 had tax stamps. Packs missing stamps were in states that do not require them. We found very limited discordance between store location and tax stamp(s) (tax stamps (13%). This occurred entirely with low-tech tax stamps and was not identified with encrypted tax stamps. We found no clear evidence of counterfeit products. Almost all tax stamps matched the location of purchase. Litter studies may be picking up legal tax avoidance instead of illegal tax evasion or, alternatively, purchase of illicit products requires special request by the purchaser.

  14. DISPARITIES OF THE REGIONS OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC IN TERMS OF TAX REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Sobotovičová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of disparities in the tax revenue and yield coefficients of individual regions of the Czech Republic in the period from 2005 to 2014. The subject-matter of the research are the income taxes and the value-added tax, which are important tax revenues of public budgets and the source of financing of the regional and municipal budgets. For a comparison of the regions, the spot method is used. According to the results, the ranking of the regions is compiled. The spot method is based on the model region, which reaches the maximum values of a selected indicator. Furthermore, we calculated the indexes of revenues, along with yield coefficients of the value added tax as well as the corporate and personal income tax for each region. Tax revenues are affected in particular by legislative changes, but also by geographic, demographic and socio-economic differences among the regions. The authors have verified an assumption that individual regions have the same position in terms of both investigated variables. This assumption was not confirmed. It was found that the order of the regions for the examined variables was different. On the contrary, regions with a high share of tax revenues have low values in terms of tax yield coefficients.

  15. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  16. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  17. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  18. Tax Policy Trends: Republicans Reveal Proposed Tax Overhaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available REPUBLICANS REVEAL PROPOSED TAX OVERHAUL The White House and Congressional Republicans have revealed their much-anticipated proposal for reform of the U.S. personal and corporate tax systems. The proposal titled, “UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR FIXING OUR BROKEN TAX CODE” outlines a number of central policy changes, which will significantly alter the U.S. corporate tax system. The proposal includes a top federal marginal rate reduction for the sole proprietorships, partnerships and S corporation—small business equivalents— from 39.6% to 25% (state income tax rates would no longer be deductible. Large corporations would also see a meaningful federal rate reduction given the proposed drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 20%. Additionally, the proposal includes a generous temporary measure intended to stimulate investment, full capital expensing for machinery with a partial limitation of interest deductions.

  19. Controversies regarding evolution of Tax Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Gabriela DUȚĂ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Originally designed purely to meet the state's financial targets, which were subsequently added as a result of the evolution of human society, a series of economic and social objectives, the tax system is the result of thought, decision and action of the human factor, “expression of the political will of a organized human community, set in a particular territory and having sufficient autonomy to be able, through the bodies they represent, to equip itself with a whole series of legal rules and, in particular tax” .

  20. Accounting for product substitution in the analysis of food taxes targeting obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhen; Beghin, John C; Jensen, Helen H

    2013-11-01

    We extend the existing literature on food taxes targeting obesity. We systematically incorporate the implicit substitution between added sugars and solid fats into a comprehensive food demand system and evaluate the effect of taxes on sugars and fats. The approach conditions how food and obesity taxes affect total calorie intake. The proposed methodology accounts for the ability of consumers to substitute leaner low-fat and low-sugar items for rich food items within the same food group. We calibrate this demand system approach using recent food intake data and existing estimates of price and income elasticities of demand. The demand system accounts for both the within-food group substitution and the substitution across these groups. Simulations of taxes on added sugars and solid fat show that the tax impact on consumption patterns is understated and the induced welfare loss is overstated when not allowing for the substitution possibilities within food groups. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Tax reliefs in legal entities' capital gains tax

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Reducing a national corporate tax rate and introducing numerous/ ample tax reliefs may have adverse effects on a country's reputation as it is perceived as being susceptible to unfair tax competition practices and prone to allowing the subsidiaries of foreign companies to enter the national market at any cost (even at the expense of preserving its natural assets). For this reason, it is essential to find the right balance between the need to attract foreign capital (on the one hand) and the p...

  2. Tax policy: The fiscal revenue effects of international tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Beznoska, Martin; Hentze, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In the course of the 'Panama Papers' discussion, questions arise concerning the fiscal effects of international profit shifting and tax avoidance. A recent OECD study estimates the worldwide corporate tax losses to lie between 4 and 10 percent of the revenues. Applied to Germany, this would reflect between 3 and 7 billion Euro or maximum 1 percent of total tax revenues. However, the estimation underlies questionable assumptions and therefore severe uncertainties.

  3. Inheritance tax: Limit corporate privileges and spread tax burden

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    After the inheritance tax ruling by the German Federal Constitutional Court, legislators will have to limit the wide-ranging exemptions on company assets. In recent years, they have exempted half of all assets subject to inheritance tax. In particular, large transfers consisting mainly of corporate assets benefit from the favorable conditions. In 2012 and 2013, over half of all transfers of five million euros or more were tax exempt, and over 90 percent of transfers of 20 million euros or mor...

  4. Foreign Direct Investments and Tax Correlation: Some of EU Countries and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali YAVUZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the globalizing world; individuals, markets and capital are more mobile than the past for that reason countries are in cutthroat competition for attract the direct and indirect investments. Especially, developing countries overview their own tax policy and perform incentive measures including tax incentives to attract the direct investments which have a positive effect of production and employment level. In this process, some countries achieve their goals and some are not. The purpose of this study evaluate the difference of tax policies in Turkey which in EU candidacy process and some old central, east Europe countries which are in EU and the main rival of Turkey to attracting direct investments. In this evaluation process, changing income tax, corporate tax, value added tax and performance of attracking the direct investments which was performed in selected countries, were evaluated by comparative

  5. Impact of standard rate of VAT on tax mix in EU 27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Šinkyříková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Value Added Tax (VAT is one of the key resources within tax collection and therefore VAT effectiveness and VAT complexity represent one of the current world topics. Standard rates of VAT may and may not be the simple key to define whether VAT is important in the tax mix or not. This paper focuses on the question whether the amount of the VAT rate has an impact on the share of VAT in the tax mix. The VAT share on total taxes is studied in connection of average and median standard rates applied so as to answer the question: “Do the countries with higher share of VAT in the tax mix set its standard rates of VAT beyond the average of EU 27?” The paper examines this issue using data EU member countries, especially EU 27, in years 1995–2010.

  6. CAPITALISM EMERGING ERA TAX SYSTEMS OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктория Александровна Цокова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems:I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD.II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism.III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation.Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in theUK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have  been analyzed;  and , basing on the  dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the  capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers  range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment  of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission.Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-55

  7. 17 CFR 256.408 - Taxes other than income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC.... (a) This account shall include the amount of state unemployment insurance, franchise taxes, federal...

  8. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso; Joaquín Texeira Quirós

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the...

  9. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the accounting documents that companies must present and through which the stock variables and the accounting documents’ work flow is transformed into cash flow.Findings: An implementation on the basis of the accounting documents that Spanish companies must present. Practical Implications: This paper defines the procedure to follow in order to determine the tax base of a cash flow corporate income tax on the basis of its accounts, which would allow an estimation of this tax figure’s revenue impact.Originality/ Value: The design of a tax base of cash flows for companies. The accounting approximation carried out to determine the cash flows justifies the fact that the tax base proposal is technically possible.

  10. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    model. These suggestions are confirmed by the case of the Danish waste tax with its fixed price approach and perverse incentives compared to that of achieving environmental target levels in a cost-minimising way. Thus, we recommend that bureaucratic institutions should coordinate their tax......-seeking efforts to maximise budgets in the long run and that the ministries that collect green tax revenues should not be allowed to control these revenues. Furthermore, our results dictate that postulated effects from green tax intervention need to be demonstrated....

  11. Slovenian income taxes and analysis of their tax expenditure in 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditure analyses have been an important element in the supervision of reform processes linked to implementing different kinds of tax incentive and the management of a correct tax policy. The paper provides an evaluation of tax expenditure in Slovenia relating to personal income tax and corporate income tax. Four consecutive tax years were selected for the calculation of the tax expenditure on personal income tax (2006-09, while three consecutive years were selected for the corporate income tax calculation (2008-10. The tax expenditure calculated for personal income tax was highest in 2006 and reached 5.2% of GDP. After several changes in personal income tax, expenditures decreased to around 3% of GDP in the following three years. The tax expenditure calculated for corporate income tax was much lower as compared to GDP than for personal income tax, reaching around 0.2% of GDP.

  12. The end of the Dutch car tax?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besseling, P.J.; Lebouille, R.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the project 'Paying differently for mobility' an option that is considered is to switch the Dutch Tax on Motor cars and Vehicles (BPM) to a higher tariff for the future road pricing system. Due to some special characteristics of the BPM, this will be a highly complex financial operation. In this article, we explore three variants for their effect on the vehicle market and on the budget. We also explain the advantages and disadvantages for several groups of car owners. [nl

  13. TAX HAVENS AND THE MONEY LAUNDERING PHENOMENON

    OpenAIRE

    STEFAN MIHU

    2011-01-01

    By using tax havens, the multinational companies are able to exercise an efficient fiscal management that covers also the area of the repatriation of the dividends in foreign currency. The choice of whether or not to use a fiscal paradise resides in the desire of the maximum avoidance of the fiscal burden. The option of investing in a fiscal paradise is based on an economic efficiency calculus named in the speciality literature “option pricing”. It refers to the total material profit obtained...

  14. The HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax is modified by the ubiquitin related modifier 1 (Urm1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hleihel, Rita; Khoshnood, Behzad; Dacklin, Ingrid; Omran, Hayssam; Mouawad, Carine; Dassouki, Zeina; El-Sabban, Marwan; Shirinian, Margret; Grabbe, Caroline; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2018-04-17

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy secondary to chronic human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 infection, triggered by the virally encoded oncoprotein Tax. The transforming activity and subcellular localization of Tax is strongly influenced by posttranslational modifications, among which ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been identified as key regulators of the nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of Tax, as well as its ability to activate NF-κB signaling. Adding to the complex posttranslational modification landscape of Tax, we here demonstrate that Tax also interacts with the ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (Urm1). Conjugation of Urm1 to Tax results in a redistribution of Tax to the cytoplasm and major increase in the transcription of the NF-ĸB targets Rantes and interleukin-6. Utilizing a tax-transgenic Drosophila model, we show that the Urm1-dependent subcellular targeting of Tax is evolutionary conserved, and that the presence of Urm1 is strongly correlated with the transcriptional output of Diptericin, an antimicrobial peptide and established downstream target of NF-κB in flies. These data put forward Urm1 as a novel Tax modifier that modulates its oncogenic activity and hence represents a potential novel target for developing new strategies for treating ATL.

  15. TAX COMPONENT OF FISCAL POLICY OF INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS OF NATIONAL ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Danilov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of using fiscal levers to regulate the national economy competitiveness. What kind of tax levers should be used in order to increase the competitiveness of the national economy is justified. Taxes are the main source of fiscal revenue of the country, which depends on the inherent principles of optimizing the tax system, determined Ukraine's withdrawal from the crisis and raising the country's competitiveness. It is proposed differentiation in income tax rates, depending on whether the company is engaged in innovation and investment activity or not. Changing the rate of value added tax in a downward will reduce the revenue of the country. For enterprises that are not exporting products to decrease the amount of working capital for a certain period Fiscal policy that promotes the removal of the country's financial and economic crisis and the increasing competitiveness of the state, should be challenging. In order to implement incentive effects of taxes set forth in the tax code, we propose a linear programming model of the budget (revenue and expenditure . Building the economic and mathematical optimization model with possible actions challenging the tax factors of individual taxes and the possibilities of using the proceeds of certain taxes on certain items of expenditure budget.

  16. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  17. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  18. Tax Havens in the Offshore World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Through taxation governments get money to fulfil their role in society. It plays a major role ininvestment decisions and can be also an innoportunity for taxpayers. Tax havens are tax free areasthat have the status of states and function legally. Their main business is to attract money bycreating taxpayers friendly environments and by total secrecy. Panama is the biggest USinfluencedtax haven. Tax evasion through tax havens is illegal and is the evading of declaringand paying taxes. Tax avoidance through tax havens is the legally avoiding of declaring andpaying taxes. Tax havens are not illegal but are immoral because vast amounts of money drainfrom the states around the world to them.

  19. Principles of taxation as a means of implementing fiscal function of the tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. О. Гетьман

    2015-05-01

    of the mechanisms of their creation and operation; determine whether the taxation principles for the reform of the tax system of Ukraine; forecasting the development of the industry in the areas of finance, which determine its integrity, consistency, effectiveness, stability, interconnectedness its legal institutions. The object of study is social relations that emerge and operate under the influence of legal regulation of taxation principles, as a means of implementing fiscal function of tax. Purpose of the study constitutes legal norms that reinforce the principles of taxation and provide their detailed formation mechanism of implementation through the special tax instruments (taxes, duties and other compulsory payments. Paper main body. description of  the features of the tax should be based on the effect of the significant leverage in tax regulation. Still another sustained a lively discussion about the number and nature of these functions. According to the author, the most balanced view of the tax system functions can provide three of them: adjusting, fiscal and  control. Last one, in the opinion of the author  expresses the main purpose of the tax - the formation of public funds needs funding for state and local communities.It is clear that the function of the tax system affecting the corresponding homogeneous kind of public relations should provide for a holistic effect on the ordering process receipts from taxes and duties (mandatory payments. As a particular manifestation of the sense of these features can be found at every level of the tax regulation. It is, as on general regulations affecting the behavior of tax administration and then refined and detailed rules all tax laws and regulations more narrow focus concerning certain specific elements of the tax or fee.Legislative detailing how all functions of taxes, and each of them separately, systematically done by defining principles - in the current Tax Code of Ukraine, this century 4 «Basic principles

  20. Tax Cut Legislation: What's Fair? Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Teaching Economics, Davis, CA.

    Front and center in 2001 domestic policy debates is President George W. Bush's proposed tax relief plan. The U.S. federal tax is a progressive tax code, predicated on the assumption that "people who are most able to pay should pay the most." A progressive tax system makes an individual's tax bill increase faster than his/her income. The…

  1. Assessment of a progressive electricity tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Progressive electricity tax implies that the tax rate increases with consumption so that the tax paid per kWh consumed increases when the consumption increases beyond a certain level. This elucidation discusses principal and practical aspects of such a tax. It is advised against the establishment of a progressive electricity tax. The objections are of principal, economical and administrative character

  2. Introducing the Microcomputer into Undergraduate Tax Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillaway, Manson P.; Savage, Allan H.

    Although accountants have used computers for tax planning and tax return preparation for many years, tax education has been slow to reflect the increasing role of computers in tax accounting. The following are only some of the tasks that a business education department offering undergraduate tax courses for accounting majors should perform when…

  3. Which Countries Become Tax Havens?

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala; James R. Hines Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors influencing whether countries become tax havens. Roughly 15 percent of countries are tax havens; as has been widely observed, these countries tend to be small and affluent. This paper documents another robust empirical regularity: better-governed countries are much more likely than others to become tax havens. Using a variety of empirical approaches, and controlling for other relevant factors, governance quality has a statistically significant and quantitativel...

  4. Tax Shield, Insolvenz und Zinsschranke

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Sven; Lahmann, Alexander; Schwetzler, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag analysiert den Wertbeitrag fremdfinanzierungsbedingter Steuervorteile (Tax Shield) unter realistischen Bedingungen (keine Negativsteuer; mögliche Insolvenz) für unterschiedliche Finanzierungspolitiken. Zusätzlich wird der Effekt der sogenannten Zinsschranke auf den Wert des Tax Shield ermittelt. Die Bewertung des Tax Shield mit und ohne Zinsschranke findet im einperiodigen Fall auf der Basis von Optionspreismodellen und im mehrperiodigen Fall auf der Basis von Monte Carlo Simul...

  5. Tax incentives in emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Brodzka, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Emerging economies have introduced tax incentives for various reasons. In some countries in transition, such instruments may be seen as a counterweight to the investment disincentives inherent in the general tax system. In other countries, the incentives are intended to offset other disadvantages that investors may face, such as a lack of infrastructure, complicated and antiquated laws, bureaucratic complexities and weak administration. The article brings closer the issue of tax incentives of...

  6. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda’s charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of q...

  7. The 1990 utility tax conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on the Sixth Annual Utility Tax Conference held in Washington, D.C. in October. Topics of the conference concerned tax issues associated with depreciable assets, employee benefits plans, valuation on utility property, pollution control, and restructuring and reorganization. Also discussed briefly were the tax changes being considered at that time as part of the negotiation of the details of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act

  8. Energy taxes, environment and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Gaern Hansen, L.; Bech-Ravn, C.; Ramskov, J.L.

    2006-11-01

    Economic theory about foreign trade and competition as well as empirical studies of relevance are not making evident that industries in general should pay lower environmental taxes than other kind of consumers. Consequently, economic theory cannot justify the present Danish energy tax regime where households are required to pay high energy taxes whereas industries are allowed to pay low energy taxes. On the contrary, it is more likely that reduced industry taxes will result in reduced welfare to society, lower income and lower employment as compared to a scenario of equal energy taxes. Theory can justify, however, a stepwise introduction of green taxes in order to make industries and markets adapt to the new regulatory framework. Moreover, some theoretical contributions argue that under certain circumstances one could point to a need for protecting certain kinds of industries (e.g. industries employing unskilled labour), but an exclusive tax reduction given to all industries is not supported by economic theory. By using the GTAP model we have calculated the welfare effect of levelling Danish energy taxes so households and industries have to pay equal energy taxes. The GTAP model has a good and international reputation for being designed to analyse international trade and competitiveness. We find that levelling the Danish energy taxes will increase welfare in Denmark by 1.3% equivalent to DKK 8 billion. The Danish energy tax reform, however, will cause an increase in CO 2 emissions in neighbouring countries. The calculation does not consider the influence of the EU market for tradable CO 2 permits introduced as from January 2005. (au)

  9. Firm strategy and consumer behaviour under a complex tobacco tax system: implications for the effectiveness of taxation on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuk, Oğuz; Özmen, M Utku

    2017-05-01

    The current tobacco taxation scheme in Turkey, a mix of high ad valorem tax and low specific tax, contains incentives for firms and consumers to change pricing and consumption patterns, respectively. The association between tax structure and price and tax revenue stability has not been studied in detail with micro data containing price segment information. In this study, we analyse whether incentives for firms and consumers undermine the effectiveness of tax policy in reducing consumption. We calculate alternative taxation scheme outcomes using differing ad valorem and specific tax rates through simulation analysis. We also estimate price elasticity of demand using detailed price and volume statistics between segments via regression analysis. A very high ad valorem rate provides strong incentives to firms to reduce prices. Therefore, this sort of tax strategy may induce even more consumption despite its initial aim of discouraging consumption. While higher prices dramatically reduce consumption of economy and medium price segment cigarettes, demand for premium segment cigarettes is found to be highly price-inelastic. The current tax scheme, based on both ad valorem and specific components, introduces various incentives to firms as well as to consumers which reduce the effectiveness of the tax policy. Therefore, on the basis of our theoretical predictions, an appropriate tax scheme should involve a balanced combination of ad valorem and specific rates, away from extreme ( ad valorem or specific dominant) cases to enhance the effectiveness of tax policy for curbing consumption. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. WAGE TAX ACCOUNTING IN THE AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nftaliia Bondarhuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to determine the order of accounting taxation wage and directions of its improvement in the agricultural enterprise. It was identified, that the accuracy of calculation of the related to wage amounts of mandatory payments to the budget depends on the correct definition of the amount of wage and its structure. It is noted, that in our country income tax from individuals and military collection is deducted from wages. Single social contributions is charged on the labor remuneration fund. Main accounts which are used for displaying in accounting for taxation of wages and basic accounting records were shown. It was stated, that taxation of wages, which is less than the minimum, despite the simple theoretical explanation, on practice is very time-consuming process which requires a certain sequence, accuracy and attentiveness. To improve the process of wages taxation we propose to calculate the amounts of the Single social contribution charged on wage which is less than minimum, in a specially developed form, which will help to simplify calculation of the Single social contribution on wage, which is less than minimum, that will help to improve wage tax accounting. Key words: taxes, accounting, wage, taxation of wage on enterprise.

  11. Improvement of Tax Incentives of Small Innovative Business in Russia and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Nikulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions activity of small innovative business, as the most flexible component of the innovation economy of the country is particularly important. However, due to the specifics of their activities small innovative business needs state support, including in the field of a tax policy. In this connection, consideration of tax incentives for small innovative business activity is relevant and timely. The purpose of this study is to identify the main directions of improvement of tax incentives for small innovative business in Russia through the use of foreign experience. The study used data analysis and comparisons to identify features of the tax incentives of small innovative business in Russia and abroad. In determining the main directions of improving, the study used the method of forecasting on the basis of the results of the analysis and comparison. The article described the basic instruments of tax incentives for activities of small innovation business in Russia. The article analyzed foreign experience of application of tax privileges and preferences. The article developed and substantiated recommendations on the improvement of the Russian system of tax incentives of activity of small innovative business. The authors make conclusion that the Russian system of tax incentives is ineffective and needs to be reformed by increasing the number of tax benefits, and the development of a special tax regime through the use of foreign experience.

  12. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore......, Denmark is currently the only country within the European Union which has introduced a tax on CO2; although Germany and the Netherlands are also considering doing so, the Danish CO2 tax has been effective since 1 January 1993....

  13. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda’s charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market. PMID:27274568

  14. MUNICIPAL TAX HARMONIZATION; ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsy Tortolero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work is a desk study to establish the technical and economic criteria that help to minimize double taxation at the municipal level of this tax in Venezuela, specifically for: industrial taxpayer, the taxpayer eventual merchant and / or walking, and to taxpayer service providers and implementers works on Hence the choice of the Tax Harmonisation Law of Municipal Public power in Article 162 of the Code, and the business tax. The methodology is based on the quantitative paradigm, with documentary research design, descriptive level - explanatory. Concluding that the criteria depend on the connecting factors set forth in the Law, and they are the same governing tax under study.

  15. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda's charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market.

  16. Enhancing the Alberta Tax Advantage with a Harmonized Sales Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberta enjoys a reputation as a fiercely competitive jurisdiction when it comes to tax rates. But the reality is that the province can do better with a tax mix that has greater emphasis on consumption, rather than income tax levies. While Alberta has a personal tax advantage compared to other Canadian jurisdictions — but not the United States — it relies most heavily on income taxes and non-resource revenues that impinges on investment and saving. Taxes on new investment in Alberta’s non-resource sectors are no better than average, compared to other countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD, so it is not exceptionally attractive to many different kinds of investors. And Alberta’s corporate income tax rate is not much more competitive than the world average for manufacturing and service companies. By introducing the Harmonized Sales Tax with a provincial rate of 8 per cent (in addition to the federal 5 per cent rate, Alberta has the ability to make its tax system more competitive. An HST would even allow the province to entirely eliminate income tax for the majority of families. And because the HST would be easily administered using the same collection mechanisms that already exist for the GST, implementing a new Alberta HST could be done relatively smoothly and with minimal additional administration costs. Adopting an Alberta HST is the simplest, most efficient and fairest way to reform the provincial tax system, and will deliver noticeable benefits to Albertans, most visibly in the form of significant income tax relief. It would enable the province to raise the income-tax exemption from $17,593 to $57,250, making it possible for couples to earn up to $114,500 free of any provincial income taxes. In addition, the province could lower income tax rates for income over that amount from 10 to nine per cent. And with the revenue from the HST, Alberta would have the capacity to lower its general corporate

  17. 26 CFR 1.641(a)-1 - Imposition of tax; application of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imposition of tax; application of tax. 1.641(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.641(a)-1 Imposition of tax; application of tax. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1970, section 641 prescribes...

  18. AdS solutions through transgression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo

    2008-01-01

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or 'transgression' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS 3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial.

  19. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S.; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-05-03

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  20. TAX TREATMENT SPECIFIC TO INTRA COMMUNITY COMMERCIAL BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS - ACQUISITION AND INTRA-COMMUNITY SUPPLY OF GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliu -Popa Lucia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Romania's accession to the European Union has imposed harmonize national legislation with Community law, registering significant changes in the tax area, particularly on value added tax. In order to determine the person liable to pay value added tax, related to intra-community commercial transactions, must to clarify tax matters for those operations. Given the complexity of intra-community commercial transactions and their taxation, in the following issues we will address the intra-community trade in goods, with reference to specific tax treatment of supplies and intra-community acquisitions of goods. To do this we will consider more specific situations that arise in trade relationship between EU Member States, examples that will allow us to draw some conclusions on tax matters arising in intracommunity commercial relationship

  1. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine inventory and will be properly identified. Juice or concentrated juice to which wine spirits are added will...

  2. Optimal Tax Depreciation under a Progressive Tax System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielhouwer, J.L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Kort, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the effect of a progressive tax system on optimal tax depreciation. By using dynamic optimization we show that an optimal strategy exists, and we provide an analytical expression for the optimal depreciation charges. Depreciation charges initially decrease over time,

  3. Specialized financing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, J.

    1992-01-01

    Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

  4. Canada's gas taxes = highway robbery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    This report was prepared for the second annual 'gas honesty day' (May 18, 2000) in an effort to draw attention to the frustration of Canadian taxpayers with gasoline retailers and the petroleum industry for the inordinately and unjustifiably high prices for gasoline at the pump. The report points out that the public outcry is, in fact, misdirected since the largest profiteers at the pumps, the federal government, remains largely unscathed. It is alleged in the report that gas taxes are tantamount to highway robbery. Ostensibly collected for road construction and maintenance, of the almost $ 5 billion collected in 1999, only a paltry $ 194 million was returned to the provinces for roadway and highway spending. The 10-year average of federal returns to the the provinces from tax on gasoline is a meager 4.7 per cent, which fell even further to 4.1 per cent in 1998-1999. Gasoline tax revenues continue to climb, while government commitment to real roadway and highway spending continues to decline. This document attempts to shed some light on the pricing structure for gasoline. Without defending or explaining the non-tax portion of the pump price charged by Canada's oil companies, which is a task for the oil companies to undertake, the document makes a concerted effort to raise public awareness and focus public attention on government's involvement, namely that gas taxes represent on average about 50 per cent of the pump price and that the majority of the taxes collected are not put back into road and highway improvements. The Canadian Taxpayers Federation, authors of this report, expect that by focusing debate on the issue of gasoline taxes a broad support for a lowering of the overall tax burden on motorists will result. Among other things, the CTF advocates reduction of federal and provincial fuel taxes to levels commensurate with highway funding; dedication of fuel tax revenues to highway construction and maintenance; elimination of the sales and goods

  5. Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax......As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than......-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes....

  6. Deferred Tax Assets and Deferred Tax Expense Against Tax Planning Profit Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the probability of earnings management performed by Property and Real Estate companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in the period 2011-2015. How to do the management to influence the accounting numbers can be either profit management through deferred tax assets, deferred tax expense and tax planning in the financial statements. This paper examines the effect of deferred tax assets deferred tax burden, and tax planning to earnings management conducted by the company. Data of the research is to use secondary data from company financial statements that were downloaded from the official website of Indonesia Stock Exchange. Using sampling technique is performed by purposive sampling. The study population is the Property and Real Estate companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period 2011-2015. The study take sample as many as 34 companies Property and Real Estate in the Stock Exchange in 2011-2015. Hypothesis testing uses multiple regressions with SPSS software version 22. The result shows that the Deferred Tax Assets positive and significant effect on earnings management; while deferred tax expense and tax planning significant negative effect on earnings management.

  7. Tax evasion and the law in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enya Matthew Nwocha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has dealt with the incidence of tax evasion and how the law in Nigeria has tackled the problem. It came against the background of massive tax evasion in the country which has resulted in the loss of needed revenue for development. Most individuals eligible to pay tax are not usually amenable to doing so willingly thereby resulting in tax evasion and tax avoidance. Neglect or refusal to pay tax invariably attracts various ranges of punishment. All of these issues have been discussed in this paper under introduction, conceptual framework, grounds for imposition of tax, statutory provisions on tax evasion, reasons for and implications of tax evasion, recommendations and conclusion. The paper in discussing the subject has focused on the principal tax legislations in the country, namely, the Personal Income Tax Act, Companies Income Tax Act, and the Federal Inland Revenue Service Act.

  8. Boundaries between Fair and Harmful Tax Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szwajdler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition. The author analyses OECD’s reports and literature related to the tax competition. In the beginning, the author presents the notion of tax competition and its division into fair and unfair tax competition. Differences between tax heaven and preferential tax regime are also discussed. In the summary, the author highlights that boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition are not obvious, but there are well-known guidelines, which let distinguish above-mentioned issues. The author considers that there are real tax burden, effective exchange of tax information and transparency in the fair tax regime. The author states that taxpayer can do justified tax planning in such tax system.

  9. Typology of taxpayers and tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niesiobedzka Malgorzata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue how to reduce of tax evasion is widely discussed in the literature. A public authority may affect the behavior of taxpayers, not only through economic factors, but also by strengthen fiscal discipline. In this process especially role play such issues as tax morale, tax mentality and perceived tax justice. The purpose of the study was to identify groups of taxpayers with similar attitudes towards taxes and similar tax behaviors. Cluster analysis elicited four types of tax payers: Intrinsic Tax Payer, External Tax Payer, Intrinsic Tax Evader, External Tax Evader. In the study the most common were the first two types of taxpayers. Elicited types correspond with motivational tax postures identified by Braithwaite(2001, 2003 and Torgler (2003. The conclusions sum up the key issues discussed, policy implications and the limitation of the analysis.

  10. "PAY NOW, ARGUE LATER" RULE – BEFORE AND AFTER THE TAX ADMINISTRATION ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carika Keulder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The South African Revenue Service (SARS is entrusted with the duty of collecting tax on behalf of the South African government. In order to ensure effective and prompt collection of taxes, the payment of tax is not suspended pending an objection or an appeal, unless directed otherwise. This is also known as the "pay now, argue later" rule, and, for value-added tax purposes, is provided for in terms of section 36 of the Value-Added Tax Act 89 of 1991. The "pay now, argue later" rule in terms of section 36 of the Value-Added Tax Act prima facie infringes on a taxpayer's right of access to the courts as envisaged in section 34 of the Constitution. This is due to the fact that a taxpayer is obliged to pay tax before being afforded the opportunity to challenge the assessment in a court. In Metcash Trading Ltd v Commissioner for the South African Revenue Service, the Constitutional Court held the "pay now, argue later" rule in terms of section 36 to be constitutional. Olivier, however, does not agree with the court on several matters. Amongst the problems she indicates are that the taxpayer does not have access to the courts at the time the rule is invoked, and that the court did not consider the fact that there might be less invasive means available which would ensure that SARS's duty is balanced with the taxpayer's right of access to the courts. Guidelines were also issued which provide legal certainty regarding the factors SARS may consider in determining whether the payment of tax should be suspended or not. These guidelines also evoked some points of criticism. Since 1 October 2012, the "pay now, argue later" rule has been applied in terms of section 164 of the Tax Administration Act 28 of 2011. The question arises whether this provision addresses the problems identified in respect of section 36 of the Value-Added Tax Act and the guidelines. In comparing these sections, only slight differences emerged. The most significant difference is that

  11. 26 CFR 1.9002-5 - Special rules relating to interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-5 Special rules relating to... notice and demand for payment of the unpaid tax to the date of payment; or (ii) In the case of... issuance of the notice and demand for such payment. [T.D. 6490, 25 FR 8373, Sept. 1, 1960] ...

  12. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs

  13. Carbon taxes and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India's rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) open-quotes Grandfathered emissionsclose quotes: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) open-quotes Equal per capita emissionsclose quotes: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions

  14. WACC and a Generalized Tax Code

    OpenAIRE

    Husmann, Sven; Kruschwitz, Lutz; Löffler, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    We extend the WACC approach to a tax system having a firm income tax and a personal income tax of the investor as well. We use an artificial tax system incorporating most of the G-7 national tax codes as for example the classical or the imputation systems. On our website (www.wacc.de) WACC formulas according to many of the actual G-7 national tax codes can be found.

  15. Tax Multipliers: Pitfalls in Measurement and Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Riera-Crichton; Carlos A. Vegh; Guillermo Vuletin

    2012-01-01

    We contribute to the literature on tax multipliers by analyzing the pitfalls in identification and measurement of tax shocks. Our main focus is on disentangling the discussion regarding the identification of exogenous tax policy shocks (i.e., changes in tax policy that are not the result of policymakers responding to output fluctuations) from the discussion related to the measurement of tax policy (i.e., finding a tax policy variable under the direct control of the policymaker). For this purp...

  16. International cooperation in good tax governance

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Brodzka

    2013-01-01

    In times of crisis and uncertainty the countries look for solutions that will protect tax revenues from tax base erosion. In attempts of increasing the level of tax collection they try to fight tax avoidance and tax evasion. Among the difficult challenges faced by governments, there are also aspects of maintaining their competitive position and keeping measures to stimulate countries’ economic development. Among the issues related to fiscal policy there are also the matters of good tax govern...

  17. Symmetric tax competition under formula apportionment

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2002-01-01

    This paper compares property taxation to a corporate income tax based on formula apportionment in a model where identical countries compete to attract capital. We find that if countries can pair a residence-based capital tax with a property tax (source tax on capital) the tax equilibrium is efficient. In contrast, the use of a 2-factor FA scheme based on sales and capital combined with a residence-based capital tax leads to an inefficient outcome.

  18. An Analysis of Tax Buoyancy Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Rasheed

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By using econometric techniques for estimating tax elasticities, this paper findssignificant but low tax buoyancy rates for GDP, M0 and volume of trade. Surprisingly,the theoretically important factor of tax evasion (SFTR was found to be ineffective. Thisindicates that SFTR is not an adequate measure of tax evasion. There is no significantassociation between tax revenue growth and investment, credit, public debt and inflation.This illustrates the weakness of the tax regime in Pakistan.

  19. TAX EXPENDITURES IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo

    2004-01-01

    This paper takes a broad approach in the sense that only the fundamental structure elements of each tax system are considered as part of the benchmark tax system. Moreover, this paper will go beyond the traditional tax expenditure reporting by taking into account an ideal tax system with minor distortions as part of the benchmark. Because of having an ideal tax system as a norm, the report makes some judgments about the appropriateness of the ideal tax structure in the Dominican Republic and ...

  20. Tax Treaty Interpretation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Roch, María Teresa; Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides insight in the interpretation of Spanish double taxation conventions. Taking as a premise the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and the wording of Article 3(2) OECD Model Convention, the authors explore the relevance of mutual agreements, tax authority practice and foreign court decisions on the tax treaty interpretation.

  1. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  2. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing...

  3. A choice experiment on tax: Are income and consumption taxes equivalent?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Mori, Tomoharu; Ohtake, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    We test the equivalence of income and consumption taxes through a choice experiment. Under a given set of income and consumption parameters, subjects were asked to choose among an income tax of 20%, a consumption tax of 25% (which is an equivalent tax burden), a consumption tax of 22%, and a consumption tax of 20%. Our results showed that subjects prefer income tax to consumption tax when the nominal consumption tax rate is higher than the nominal income tax rate. However, subjects tend to pr...

  4. THE VAT SPLIT-PAYMENT MECHANISM, MEASURE FOR COMBATING TAX EVASION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONUT - GHEORGHE CARAUS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to improve the methods of collecting and detecting value-added tax amounts is an increasingly difficult process for tax authorities. In this respect, a rigorous analysis of the ways in which the state manages to prevent or combat VAT evasion, in the context in which VAT fraud accounts for about 60% of Romania's total tax evasion, is required. Therefore, the new provisions concerning the VAT split payments, applicable from January 1, 2018 for all categories of taxpayers, can contribute significantly to the efficiency of collection, of the amounts derived from the VAT, as well as to reduce tax evasion in the field of value added tax and providing a fair competitive environment, by eliminating benefits for economic operators with incorrect tax behavior who do not pay VAT to the State budget. Also, through these measures taken by the state, the main motivation for the introduction of the value added tax splitpayments mechanism, contributes to the increase of the voluntary compliance degree by providing the financial resources for the payment of VAT due to the State budget.

  5. Energy taxes in practice. Energy tax - electricity tax - biofuel quota - energy tax compliance. 3. upd. and rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Roland M.; Thoms, Anahita

    2016-01-01

    You need a quick and easy overview of the legal provisions of the energy tax law? You would like to understand the relationship between the European and national regulations and their impact on the daily practice? This manual prepares the energy tax, electricity tax and biofuel quota law for you clearly on and illustrated by examples, what to look in practice in order to avoid pitfalls. It picks up especially contentious issues and problems, discusses the relevant case law and the relevant regulations and finally gives precise recommendations for daily practice. Based on practice notes, examples and diagrams you can easily identify how to transfer the legal requirements on the own workspaces or optionally can use tax breaks. This includes information on both simplified - and thus less subject to error - methods and to tax exemptions and credits. The manual is complemented by forms, extracts from the Combined Nomenclature and an online material collection with regulatory and legal texts. [de

  6. Electronic Commerce: A Taxing Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven John Simon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environment for individuals and organizations impacted by the tax debate. Those individuals and organizations might include online business customers, remote sellers both traditional (mail order and online, tax equity organizations, and governmental bodies. Current tax obligations are explored based on landmark legal decisions. Potential short and long -term solutions are assessed.

  7. Current status of AdS instability

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    arXiv:1403.6471 and thoroughly developed in arXiv:1407.6273. On the other hand the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of stable, time-periodic, asymptotically AdS solutions of Einstein equations [arXiv:1303.3186].

  8. AdS. Klein-Gordon equation

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, Ll.

    2014-01-01

    I propose a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in the framework of AdS space-time and exhibit a four parameter family of solutions among which there is a two parameter family of time-dependent bound states.

  9. THE FLAT TAX - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EXISTING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiau (Macavei Laura - Liana

    2011-07-01

    taxation but they have several tax rates for different types of income. Analyzing the flat tax jurisdiction we concluded that none of the existing models is a true flat tax as designed by Hall and Rabushka. The study is important given the fact that it can provide useful information for future studies in connecting the effects generated by the adoption of flat tax with the design of the system. This can give intelligence for the exiting models in correcting and improving their features in order to become more efficient. This can also provide precious design information for the jurisdictions desirous of implementing flat tax systems. The added value of this paperwork consists in the determination of the main features of the existing flat tax systems in relation with the theoretical system designed by Hall and Rabushka and in the fact that it provides precious structured information for future studies allowing to connect the effects of the flat fiscal model with its characteristics.

  10. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  11. Correlates of Tax Compliance of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludele Akinloye Akinboade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation provides a predictable and stable flow of revenue to finance development objectives. This is important in a country like Cameroon that has serious challenges with meeting its development objectives. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are significant for economic growth in the country, contributing as much as about 22 percent of the gross domestic product. SMEs generate taxable incomes. They also collect employment and value added taxes on behalf of the government. Taxation, however, imposes high cost to small businesses. SMEs are less tax compliant in comparison to large businesses. SMEs are considered the ‘hard to tax group from the informal sector.’ As such, the literature suggests that only a fraction of their taxable incomes is reported to tax authorities. Against this background, factors that correlate with tax compliance of 575 small and medium size companies in Cameroon are discussed from a survey of companies in the manufacturing and wholesale sectors. High registration cost and time-consuming processes promote tax non-compliance. The perception that tax system is corrupt discourages registration and filing compliance. When there are too many compliance hurdles, the probability of filing compliance is reduced. However, a fair and static system encourages filing and registration compliance. A clear and consistent tax system promotes filing compliance. Authorities that understand their responsibilities and are willing to respond to enquiries during the registration process promote tax compliance in general.

  12. A Review of Factors for Tax Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the variables of tax compliance analysed by researchers from various countries and adapting them to the Romanian conditions to create a model to include factors that influence decision of tax compliance. Tax compliance has been studied in economics by analysing the individual decision of a representative person between paying taxes and evading taxes. In the research of tax compliance have been done many empirical studies that emphasized the impact of a wide variety of potential determinants of voluntary compliance with individual income/profit tax filing and reporting obligations. The most important determinants identified are: economic factors as the level of income, audit probabilities, tax audit, tax rate, tax benefits, penalties, fines and other non-economic factors as attitudes toward taxes, personal, social and national norms, perceived fairness etc.

  13. Inheritance tax - an equitable tax no longer: time for abolition?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    Statistics from HM Revenue & Customs predict that receipts from inheritance tax will amount to some £3.56 billion in the tax year 2006/07. This compares to £1.68 billion in 1997/98. This paper explores the reason for the large increase in inheritance tax revenues and, in the light of those findings, together with a consideration of the recent public reaction to the changes to the inheritance taxation of trusts announced in the Budget 2006 and incorporated in the Finance Act 2006, argues t...

  14. Tax Havens and Effective Tax Rates: An Analysis of Private versus Public European Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Jaafar; John Thorton

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of tax-haven operations on the effective corporate tax burdens of publicly listed and privately held firms domiciled in Europe. In particular, we consider how European firmsÕ tax haven operations interacts with factors such listing status and home-country tax reporting systems to determine the relative tax burdens of publicly listed and private firms. Our main empirical results show that tax haven operations is associated with lower effective tax rates for both private a...

  15. CONFLICTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL TAX LAW AND ANSWERS OF THE EUROPEAN TAX LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Éva ERDÕS

    2011-01-01

    This study tries to show the essence of the international tax law, and gives a definition of it, as the origine of the international tax conflicts, but secondly the international tax law solved the international tax conflicts. One device of the solving method of the international tax law is the international treaties between the Member States about the avoidance of the double taxation. We should give a definition to the European tax law, as the result of the European tax harmonisation, but th...

  16. 26 CFR 1.164-3 - Definitions and special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... States, or a political subdivision of any of the foregoing, or by the District of Columbia. (b) Real... qualify as ad valorem. For example, a motor vehicle tax based on weight, model year, and horsepower, or... foreign country. A tax-imposed by a political subdivision of a foreign country is considered to be imposed...

  17. Lorentzian AdS, Wormholes and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Raul E; Silva, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the structure of two point functions for the QFT dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian AdS-wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of 5-dimensional second order Einstein Gauss Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS space times. We revisit the GKPW prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual QFT operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values phi_0^\\pm at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions, along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O^\\pm and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom leaving at each boundary. The AdS_(1+1) geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a ...

  18. The association between tax structure and cigarette price variability: findings from the ITC Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thompson, Mary; O'Connor, Richard J

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that more opportunities exist for tax avoidance when cigarette excise tax structure departs from a uniform specific structure. However, the association between tax structure and cigarette price variability has not been thoroughly studied in the existing literature. To examine how cigarette tax structure is associated with price variability. The variability of self-reported prices is measured using the ratios of differences between higher and lower prices to the median price such as the IQR-to-median ratio. We used survey data taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project in 17 countries to conduct the analysis. Cigarette prices were derived using individual purchase information and aggregated to price variability measures for each surveyed country and wave. The effect of tax structures on price variability was estimated using Generalised Estimating Equations after adjusting for year and country attributes. Our study provides empirical evidence of a relationship between tax structure and cigarette price variability. We find that, compared to the specific uniform tax structure, mixed uniform and tiered (specific, ad valorem or mixed) structures are associated with greater price variability (p≤0.01). Moreover, while a greater share of the specific component in total excise taxes is associated with lower price variability (p≤0.05), a tiered tax structure is associated with greater price variability (p≤0.01). The results suggest that a uniform and specific tax structure is the most effective tax structure for reducing tobacco consumption and prevalence by limiting price variability and decreasing opportunities for tax avoidance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Powerful subjects of tax law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dementyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.6The subject. Competence of government bodies and their officials in the sphere of application of the tax law is considered in the article.The purpose of research is to determine the ratio of tax enforcement and application of the tax law, as well as the relationship between the concepts “party of tax enforcement” and “participant of tax legal relations”.Main results and scope of their application. The circle of participants of tax legal relations is broader than the circle of parties of tax law enforcement. The participants of tax legal relations are simultaneously the subjects of tax law, because they realize their tax status when enter into the tax relationships. The tax and customs authorities are the undoubted parties of the tax law enforcement.Although the financial authorities at all levels of government are not mentioned by article 9 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation as participants of tax relations, they are parties of tax enforcement, because they make the agreement for deferment or installment payment of regional and local taxes.Scope of application. Clarification of participants of tax legal relations and determination of their mutual responsibility is essential to effective law enforcement.Conclusion. It was concluded that the scope tax law enforcement is tax proceedings, not administrative proceedings, civil (arbitration proceedings or enforcement proceedings.The application of the tax law is carried out not only in the form of tax relations, but also in relations of other branches of law.

  20. Relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Inger, Kerry Katharine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance. Prior studies find that firm value is positively associated with overall measures of tax avoidance; I extend this research by providing evidence that investors distinguish between methods of tax reduction in their valuation of tax avoidance. The impact of tax avoidance on firm value is a function of tax risk, permanence of tax savings, tax planning costs, implicit taxes and contrasts in disclosures of tax re...