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Sample records for adaptors regulate floral

  1. The human adaptor SARM negatively regulates adaptor protein TRIF–dependent Toll-like receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Carty, Michael; Goodbody, Rory; Schröder, Michael; Stack, Julianne; Moynagh, Paul N.; Bowie, Andrew G.

    2006-01-01

    Toll-like receptors discriminate between different pathogen-associated molecules and activate signaling cascades that lead to immune responses. The specificity of Toll-like receptor signaling occurs by means of adaptor proteins containing Toll–interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domains. Activating functions have been assigned to four TIR adaptors: MyD88, Mal, TRIF and TRAM. Here we characterize a fifth TIR adaptor, SARM, as a negative regulator of TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signalin...

  2. Cargo adaptors: structures illuminate mechanisms regulating vesicle biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Jon E; Richardson, Brian C; Fromme, J Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Cargo adaptors sort transmembrane protein cargos into nascent vesicles by binding directly to their cytosolic domains. Recent studies have revealed previously unappreciated roles for cargo adaptors and regulatory mechanisms governing their function. The adaptor protein (AP)-1 and AP-2 clathrin adaptors switch between open and closed conformations that ensure they function at the right place at the right time. The exomer cargo adaptor has a direct role in remodeling the membrane for vesicle fission. Several different cargo adaptors functioning in distinct trafficking pathways at the Golgi are similarly regulated through bivalent binding to the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) GTPase, potentially enabling regulation by a threshold concentration of Arf1. Taken together, these studies highlight that cargo adaptors do more than just adapt cargos.

  3. The human adaptor SARM negatively regulates adaptor protein TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Michael; Goodbody, Rory; Schröder, Martina; Stack, Julianne; Moynagh, Paul N; Bowie, Andrew G

    2006-10-01

    Toll-like receptors discriminate between different pathogen-associated molecules and activate signaling cascades that lead to immune responses. The specificity of Toll-like receptor signaling occurs by means of adaptor proteins containing Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domains. Activating functions have been assigned to four TIR adaptors: MyD88, Mal, TRIF and TRAM. Here we characterize a fifth TIR adaptor, SARM, as a negative regulator of TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling. Expression of SARM blocked gene induction 'downstream' of TRIF but not of MyD88. SARM associated with TRIF, and 'knockdown' of endogenous SARM expression by interfering RNA led to enhanced TRIF-dependent cytokine and chemokine induction. Thus, the fifth mammalian TIR adaptor SARM is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling.

  4. DMPD: The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15541655 The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Latour S, Veillette A. Se...min Immunol. 2004 Dec;16(6):409-19. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The SAP family of adaptors in immune ...regulation. PubmedID 15541655 Title The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Authors Latour S, Veill

  5. Regulation of Floral Stem Cell Termination in Arabidopsis

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    Toshiro eIto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, floral stem cells are maintained only at the initial stages of flower development, and they are terminated at a specific time to ensure proper development of the reproductive organs. Floral stem cell termination is a dynamic and multi-step process involving many transcription factors, chromatin remodeling factors and signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms involved in floral stem cell maintenance and termination, highlighting the interplay between transcriptional regulation and epigenetic machinery in the control of specific floral developmental genes. In addition, we discuss additional factors involved in floral stem cell regulation, with the goal of untangling the complexity of the floral stem cell regulatory network.

  6. Negative regulation of lymphocyte activation by the adaptor protein LAX.

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    Zhu, Minghua; Granillo, Olivia; Wen, Renren; Yang, Kaiyong; Dai, Xuezhi; Wang, Demin; Zhang, Weiguo

    2005-05-01

    The membrane-associated adaptor protein LAX is a linker for activation of T cells (LAT)-like molecule that is expressed in lymphoid tissues. Upon stimulation of T or B cells, it is phosphorylated and interacts with Grb2 and the p85 subunit of PI3K. LAX, however, is not capable of replacing LAT in the TCR signaling pathway. In this study we report that upon T or B cell activation, the LAX protein was up-regulated dramatically. Although disruption of the LAX gene by homologous recombination had no major impact on lymphocyte development, it caused a significant reduction in CD23 expression on mature B cells. Interestingly, naive LAX(-/-) mice had spontaneous germinal center formation. Compared with normal T and B cells, LAX(-/-) T and B cells were hyperresponsive and had enhanced calcium flux, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, MAPK and Akt activation, and cell survival upon engagement of the T or B AgRs. Our data demonstrate that LAX functions as a negative regulator in lymphocyte signaling.

  7. FON2 SPARE1 redundantly regulates floral meristem maintenance with FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 in rice.

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    Takuya Suzaki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available CLAVATA signaling restricts stem cell identity in the shoot apical meristem (SAM in Arabidopsis thaliana. In rice (Oryza sativa, FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2, closely related to CLV3, is involved as a signaling molecule in a similar pathway to negatively regulate stem cell proliferation in the floral meristem (FM. Here we show that the FON2 SPARE1 (FOS1 gene encoding a CLE protein functions along with FON2 in maintenance of the FM. In addition, FOS1 appears to be involved in maintenance of the SAM in the vegetative phase, because constitutive expression of FOS1 caused termination of the vegetative SAM. Genetic analysis revealed that FOS1 does not need FON1, the putative receptor of FON2, for its action, suggesting that FOS1 and FON2 may function in meristem maintenance as signaling molecules in independent pathways. Initially, we identified FOS1 as a suppressor that originates from O. sativa indica and suppresses the fon2 mutation in O. sativa japonica. FOS1 function in japonica appears to be compromised by a functional nucleotide polymorphism (FNP at the putative processing site of the signal peptide. Sequence comparison of FOS1 in about 150 domesticated rice and wild rice species indicates that this FNP is present only in japonica, suggesting that redundant regulation by FOS1 and FON2 is commonplace in species in the Oryza genus. Distribution of the FNP also suggests that this mutation may have occurred during the divergence of japonica from its wild ancestor. Stem cell maintenance may be regulated by at least three negative pathways in rice, and each pathway may contribute differently to this regulation depending on the type of the meristem. This situation contrasts with that in Arabidopsis, where CLV signaling is the major single pathway in all meristems.

  8. DMPD: Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17667936 Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. Watters TM, Kenny...tor adaptor proteins. Authors Watters TM, Kenny EF, O'Neill LA. Publication Immunol Cell Biol. 2007 Aug-Sep;

  9. SUPERMAN, a regulator of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, J L; Sakai, H; Jack, T; Weigel, D; Mayer, U; Meyerowitz, E M

    1992-03-01

    We describe a locus, SUPERMAN, mutations in which result in extra stamens developing at the expense of the central carpels in the Arabidopsis thaliana flower. The development of superman flowers, from initial primordium to mature flower, is described by scanning electron microscopy. The development of doubly and triply mutant strains, constructed with superman alleles and previously identified homeotic mutations that cause alterations in floral organ identity, is also described. Essentially additive phenotypes are observed in superman agamous and superman apetala2 double mutants. The epistatic relationships observed between either apetala3 or pistillata and superman alleles suggest that the SUPERMAN gene product could be a regulator of these floral homeotic genes. To test this, the expression patterns of AGAMOUS and APETALA3 were examined in superman flowers. In wild-type flowers, APETALA3 expression is restricted to the second and third whorls where it is required for the specification of petals and stamens. In contrast, in superman flowers, APETALA3 expression expands to include most of the cells that would normally constitute the fourth whorl. This ectopic APETALA3 expression is proposed to be one of the causes of the development of the extra stamens in superman flowers. The spatial pattern of AGAMOUS expression remains unaltered in superman flowers as compared to wild-type flowers. Taken together these data indicate that one of the functions of the wild-type SUPERMAN gene product is to negatively regulate APETALA3 in the fourth whorl of the flower. In addition, superman mutants exhibit a loss of determinacy of the floral meristem, an effect that appears to be mediated by the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA gene products.

  10. The clathrin adaptor Dab2 recruits EH domain scaffold proteins to regulate integrin β1 endocytosis.

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    Teckchandani, Anjali; Mulkearns, Erin E; Randolph, Timothy W; Toida, Natalie; Cooper, Jonathan A

    2012-08-01

    Endocytic adaptor proteins facilitate cargo recruitment and clathrin-coated pit nucleation. The prototypical clathrin adaptor AP2 mediates cargo recruitment, maturation, and scission of the pit by binding cargo, clathrin, and accessory proteins, including the Eps-homology (EH) domain proteins Eps15 and intersectin. However, clathrin-mediated endocytosis of some cargoes proceeds efficiently in AP2-depleted cells. We found that Dab2, another endocytic adaptor, also binds to Eps15 and intersectin. Depletion of EH domain proteins altered the number and size of clathrin structures and impaired the endocytosis of the Dab2- and AP2-dependent cargoes, integrin β1 and transferrin receptor, respectively. To test the importance of Dab2 binding to EH domain proteins for endocytosis, we mutated the EH domain-binding sites. This mutant localized to clathrin structures with integrin β1, AP2, and reduced amounts of Eps15. Of interest, although integrin β1 endocytosis was impaired, transferrin receptor internalization was unaffected. Surprisingly, whereas clathrin structures contain both Dab2 and AP2, integrin β1 and transferrin localize in separate pits. These data suggest that Dab2-mediated recruitment of EH domain proteins selectively drives the internalization of the Dab2 cargo, integrin β1. We propose that adaptors may need to be bound to their cargo to regulate EH domain proteins and internalize efficiently.

  11. The Lnk adaptor protein: a key regulator of normal and pathological hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Laura

    2012-12-01

    The development and function of blood cells are regulated by specific growth factors/cytokines and their receptors' signaling pathways. In this way, these factors influence cell survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Central to this positive and/or negative control are the adaptor proteins. Since their identification 10 years ago, members of the Lnk adaptor protein family have proved to be important activators and/or inhibitors in the hematopoietic, immune and vascular system. In particular, the generation of animal and cellular models for the Lnk and APS proteins has helped establish the physiological role of these molecules through the identification of their specific signaling pathways and the characterization of their binding partners. Moreover, the recent identification of mutations in the LNK gene in myeloproliferative disorders, as well as the correlation of a single nucleotide polymorphism on LNK with hematological, immune and vascular diseases have suggested its involvement in the pathophysiology of these malignancies. The latter findings have thus raised the possibility of addressing Lnk signaling for the treatment of certain human diseases. This review therefore describes the pathophysiological role of this adaptor protein in hematological malignancies and the potential benefits of Lnk therapeutic targeting.

  12. Src-like-adaptor protein (SLAP) differentially regulates normal and oncogenic c-Kit signaling.

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    Kazi, Julhash U; Agarwal, Shruti; Sun, Jianmin; Bracco, Enrico; Rönnstrand, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The Src-like-adaptor protein (SLAP) is an adaptor protein sharing considerable structural homology with Src. SLAP is expressed in a variety of cells and regulates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by direct association. In this report, we show that SLAP associates with both wild-type and oncogenic c-Kit (c-Kit-D816V). The association involves the SLAP SH2 domain and receptor phosphotyrosine residues different from those mediating Src interaction. Association of SLAP triggers c-Kit ubiquitylation which, in turn, is followed by receptor degradation. Although SLAP depletion potentiates c-Kit downstream signaling by stabilizing the receptor, it remains non-functional in c-Kit-D816V signaling. Ligand-stimulated c-Kit or c-Kit-D816V did not alter membrane localization of SLAP. Interestingly oncogenic c-Kit-D816V, but not wild-type c-Kit, phosphorylates SLAP on residues Y120, Y258 and Y273. Physical interaction between c-Kit-D816V and SLAP is mandatory for the phosphorylation to take place. Although tyrosine-phosphorylated SLAP does not affect c-Kit-D816V signaling, mutation of these tyrosine sites to phenylalanine can restore SLAP activity. Taken together the data demonstrate that SLAP negatively regulates wild-type c-Kit signaling, but not its oncogenic counterpart, indicating a possible mechanism by which the oncogenic c-Kit bypasses the normal cellular negative feedback control.

  13. The Hypoxic Regulator of Sterol Synthesis Nro1 Is a Nuclear Import Adaptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Yeh; C Lee; L Amzel; P Espenshade; M Bianchet

    2011-12-31

    Fission yeast protein Sre1, the homolog of the mammalian sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), is a hypoxic transcription factor required for sterol homeostasis and low-oxygen growth. Nro1 regulates the stability of the N-terminal transcription factor domain of Sre1 (Sre1N) by inhibiting the action of the prolyl 4-hydroxylase-like Ofd1 in an oxygen-dependent manner. The crystal structure of Nro1 determined at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution shows an all-{alpha}-helical fold that can be divided into two domains: a small N-terminal domain, and a larger C-terminal HEAT-repeat domain. Follow-up studies showed that Nro1 defines a new class of nuclear import adaptor that functions both in Ofd1 nuclear localization and in the oxygen-dependent inhibition of Ofd1 to control the hypoxic response.

  14. SUPERMAN, a regulator of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, John L.; Sakai, Hajime; Jack, Thomas; Weigel, Detlef; Mayer, Ulrike; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a locus, SUPERMAN, mutations in which result in extra stamens developing at the expense of the central carpels in the Arabidopsis thaliana flower. The development of superman flowers, from initial primordium to mature flower, is described by scanning electron microscopy. The development of doubly and triply mutant strains, constructed with superman alleles and previously identified homeotic mutations that cause alterations in floral organ identity, is also described. Essentially a...

  15. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-09-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking.

  16. SLAM-family receptors: immune regulators with or without SAP-family adaptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillette, André

    2010-03-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors and the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) family of intracellular adaptors are expressed in immune cells. By way of their cytoplasmic domain, SLAM-related receptors physically associate with SAP-related adaptors. Evidence is accumulating that the SLAM and SAP families play crucial roles in multiple immune cell types. Moreover, the prototype of the SAP family, that is SAP, is mutated in a human immunodeficiency, X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease. In the presence of SAP-family adaptors, the SLAM family usually mediates stimulatory signals that promote immune cell activation or differentiation. In the absence of SAP-family adaptors, though, the SLAM family undergoes a "switch-of-function," thereby mediating inhibitory signals that suppress immune cell functions. The molecular basis and significance of this mechanism are discussed herein.

  17. The clathrin adaptor AP-1 complex and Arf1 regulate planar cell polarity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Balmer, Sophie; Mendoza, Meg; Dussert, Aurore; Collu, Giovanna; Roman, Angel-Carlos; Weber, Ursula; Ciruna, Brian; Mlodzik, Marek

    2015-04-07

    A key step in generating planar cell polarity (PCP) is the formation of restricted junctional domains containing Frizzled/Dishevelled/Diego (Fz/Dsh/Dgo) or Van Gogh/Prickle (Vang/Pk) complexes within the same cell, stabilized via Flamingo (Fmi) across cell membranes. Although models have been proposed for how these complexes acquire and maintain their polarized localization, the machinery involved in moving core PCP proteins around cells remains unknown. We describe the AP-1 adaptor complex and Arf1 as major regulators of PCP protein trafficking in vivo. AP-1 and Arf1 disruption affects the accumulation of Fz/Fmi and Vang/Fmi complexes in the proximo-distal axis, producing severe PCP phenotypes. Using novel tools, we demonstrate a direct and specific Arf1 involvement in Fz trafficking in vivo. Moreover, we uncover a conserved Arf1 PCP function in vertebrates. Our data support a model whereby the trafficking machinery plays an important part during PCP establishment, promoting formation of polarized PCP-core complexes in vivo.

  18. The ubiquitin ligase RNF5 regulates antiviral responses by mediating degradation of the adaptor protein MITA.

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    Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Lu; Lei, Caoqi; Li, Ying; Mao, Ai-Ping; Yang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Lian; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2009-03-20

    Viral infection activates transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF3, which collaborate to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and elicit innate antiviral response. MITA (also known as STING) has recently been identified as an adaptor that links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 activation. Here, we showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF5 interacted with MITA in a viral-infection-dependent manner. Overexpression of RNF5 inhibited virus-triggered IRF3 activation, IFNB1 expression, and cellular antiviral response, whereas knockdown of RNF5 had opposite effects. RNF5 targeted MITA at Lys150 for ubiquitination and degradation after viral infection. Both MITA and RNF5 were located at the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and viral infection caused their redistribution to the ER and mitochondria, respectively. We further found that virus-induced ubiquitination and degradation of MITA by RNF5 occurred at the mitochondria. These findings suggest that RNF5 negatively regulates virus-triggered signaling by targeting MITA for ubiquitination and degradation at the mitochondria.

  19. Negative regulation of the endocytic adaptor disabled-2 (Dab2) in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetrit, David; Barzilay, Lior; Horn, Galit; Bielik, Tom; Smorodinsky, Nechama I; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2011-02-18

    Mitotic cells undergo extensive changes in shape and size through the altered regulation and function of their membrane trafficking machinery. Disabled 2 (Dab2), a multidomain cargo-specific endocytic adaptor and a mediator of signal transduction, is a potential integrator of trafficking and signaling. Dab2 binds effectors of signaling and trafficking that localize to different intracellular compartments. Thus, differential localization is a putative regulatory mechanism of Dab2 function. Furthermore, Dab2 is phosphorylated in mitosis and is thus regulated in the cell cycle. However, a detailed description of the intracellular localization of Dab2 in the different phases of mitosis and an understanding of the functional consequences of its phosphorylation are lacking. Here, we show that Dab2 is progressively displaced from the membrane in mitosis. This phenomenon is paralleled by a loss of co-localization with clathrin. Both phenomena culminate in metaphase/anaphase and undergo partial recovery in cytokinesis. Treatment with 2-methoxyestradiol, which arrests cells at the spindle assembly checkpoint, induces the same effects observed in metaphase cells. Moreover, 2-methoxyestradiol also induced Dab2 phosphorylation and reduced Dab2/clathrin interactions, endocytic vesicle motility, clathrin exchange dynamics, and the internalization of a receptor endowed with an NPXY endocytic signal. Serine/threonine to alanine mutations, of residues localized to the central region of Dab2, attenuated its phosphorylation, reduced its membrane displacement, and maintained its endocytic abilities in mitosis. We propose that the negative regulation of Dab2 is part of an accommodation of the cell to the altered physicochemical conditions prevalent in mitosis, aimed at allowing endocytic activity throughout the cell cycle.

  20. ATP binding to p97/VCP D1 domain regulates selective recruitment of adaptors to its proximal N-domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sheng Chia

    Full Text Available p97/Valosin-containing protein (VCP is a member of the AAA-ATPase family involved in many cellular processes including cell division, intracellular trafficking and extraction of misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD. It is a homohexamer with each subunit containing two tandem D1 and D2 ATPase domains and N- and C-terminal regions that function as adaptor protein binding domains. p97/VCP is directed to its many different functional pathways by associating with various adaptor proteins. The regulation of the recruitment of the adaptor proteins remains unclear. Two adaptor proteins, Ufd1/Npl4 and p47, which bind exclusively to the p97/VCP N-domain and direct p97/VCP to either ERAD-related processes or homotypic fusion of Golgi fragments, were studied here. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based assays allowed the study of binding kinetics in real time. In competition experiments, it was observed that in the presence of ATP, Ufd1/Npl4 was able to compete more effectively with p47 for binding to p97/VCP. By using non-hydrolysable ATP analogues and the hexameric truncated p97/N-D1 fragment, it was shown that binding rather than hydrolysis of ATP to the proximal D1 domain strengthened the Ufd1/Npl4 association with the N-domain, thus regulating the recruitment of either Ufd1/Npl4 or p47. This novel role of ATP and an assigned function to the D1 AAA-ATPase domain link the multiple functions of p97/VCP to the metabolic status of the cell.

  1. The ERECTA receptor kinase regulates Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem size, phyllotaxy and floral meristem identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Tali; Moreau, Fanny; Kutsher, Yaarit; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Carles, Cristel C; Eshed Williams, Leor

    2014-02-01

    In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) serves as a reservoir of pluripotent stem cells from which all above ground organs originate. To sustain proper growth, the SAM must maintain homeostasis between the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cells and cell recruitment for lateral organ formation. At the core of the network that regulates this homeostasis in Arabidopsis are the WUSCHEL (WUS) transcription factor specifying stem cell fate and the CLAVATA (CLV) ligand-receptor system limiting WUS expression. In this study, we identified the ERECTA (ER) pathway as a second receptor kinase signaling pathway that regulates WUS expression, and therefore shoot apical and floral meristem size, independently of the CLV pathway. We demonstrate that reduction in class III HD-ZIP and ER function together leads to a significant increase in WUS expression, resulting in extremely enlarged shoot meristems and a switch from spiral to whorled vegetative phyllotaxy. We further show that strong upregulation of WUS in the inflorescence meristem leads to ectopic expression of the AGAMOUS homeotic gene to a level that switches cell fate from floral meristem founder cell to carpel founder cell, suggesting an indirect role for ER in regulating floral meristem identity. This work illustrates the delicate balance between stem cell specification and differentiation in the meristem and shows that a shift in this balance leads to abnormal phyllotaxy and to altered reproductive cell fate.

  2. Nck adaptors are positive regulators of the size and sensitivity of the T-cell repertoire.

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    Roy, Edwige; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Holdorf, Amy D; Trubetskoy, Dmitry; Nabti, Sabrina; Küblbeck, Günter; Klevenz, Alexandra; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Leithäuser, Frank; Möller, Peter; Bladt, Friedhelm; Hämmerling, Günter; Arnold, Bernd; Pawson, Tony; Tafuri, Anna

    2010-08-31

    The size and sensitivity of the T-cell repertoire governs the effectiveness of immune responses against invading pathogens. Both are modulated by T-cell receptor (TCR) activity through molecular mechanisms, which remain unclear. Here, we provide genetic evidence that the SH2/SH3 domain containing proteins Nck lower the threshold of T-cell responsiveness. The hallmarks of Nck deletion were T-cell lymphopenia and hyporeactivity to TCR-mediated stimulation. In the absence of the Nck adaptors, peripheral T cells expressing a TCR with low avidity for self-antigens were strongly reduced, whereas an overall impairment of T-cell activation by weak antigenic stimulation was observed. Mechanistically, Nck deletion resulted in a significant decrease in calcium mobilization and ERK phosphorylation upon TCR engagement. Taken together, our findings unveil a crucial role for the Nck adaptors in shaping the T-cell repertoire to ensure maximal antigenic coverage and optimal T cell excitability.

  3. Developmental dynamics of floral gene regulation [ChIP-Seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pajoro, A.; Madrigal, P.; Kaufmann, K.

    2014-01-01

    Development of eukaryotic organisms is controlled by transcription factors that trigger specific and global changes in gene expression programmes. In plants, MADS-domain transcription factors act as master regulators of developmental switches and organ specification. However, the mechanisms by which

  4. Circadian regulation of sunflower heliotropism, floral orientation, and pollinator visits.

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    Atamian, Hagop S; Creux, Nicky M; Brown, Evan A; Garner, Austin G; Blackman, Benjamin K; Harmer, Stacey L

    2016-08-05

    Young sunflower plants track the Sun from east to west during the day and then reorient during the night to face east in anticipation of dawn. In contrast, mature plants cease movement with their flower heads facing east. We show that circadian regulation of directional growth pathways accounts for both phenomena and leads to increased vegetative biomass and enhanced pollinator visits to flowers. Solar tracking movements are driven by antiphasic patterns of elongation on the east and west sides of the stem. Genes implicated in control of phototropic growth, but not clock genes, are differentially expressed on the opposite sides of solar tracking stems. Thus, interactions between environmental response pathways and the internal circadian oscillator coordinate physiological processes with predictable changes in the environment to influence growth and reproduction.

  5. K-homology nuclear ribonucleoproteins regulate floral organ identity and determinacy in arabidopsis.

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    Encarnación Rodríguez-Cazorla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional control is nowadays considered a main checking point for correct gene regulation during development, and RNA binding proteins actively participate in this process. Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS WITH KH DOMAINS (FLK and PEPPER (PEP genes encode RNA-binding proteins that contain three K-homology (KH-domain, the typical configuration of Poly(C-binding ribonucleoproteins (PCBPs. We previously demonstrated that FLK and PEP interact to regulate FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC, a central repressor of flowering time. Now we show that FLK and PEP also play an important role in the maintenance of the C-function during floral organ identity by post-transcriptionally regulating the MADS-box floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS (AG. Previous studies have indicated that the KH-domain containing protein HEN4, in concert with the CCCH-type RNA binding protein HUA1 and the RPR-type protein HUA2, facilitates maturation of the AG pre-mRNA. In this report we show that FLK and PEP genetically interact with HEN4, HUA1, and HUA2, and that the FLK and PEP proteins physically associate with HUA1 and HEN4. Taken together, these data suggest that HUA1, HEN4, PEP and FLK are components of the same post-transcriptional regulatory module that ensures normal processing of the AG pre-mRNA. Our data better delineates the roles of PEP in plant development and, for the first time, links FLK to a morphogenetic process.

  6. Regulation of in vitro and in vivo immune functions by the cytosolic adaptor protein SKAP-HOM.

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    Togni, M; Swanson, K D; Reimann, S; Kliche, S; Pearce, A C; Simeoni, L; Reinhold, D; Wienands, J; Neel, B G; Schraven, B; Gerber, A

    2005-09-01

    SKAP-HOM is a cytosolic adaptor protein representing a specific substrate for the Src family protein tyrosine kinase Fyn. Previously, several groups have provided experimental evidence that SKAP-HOM (most likely in cooperation with the cytosolic adaptor protein ADAP) is involved in regulating leukocyte adhesion. To further assess the physiological role of SKAP-HOM, we investigated the immune system of SKAP-HOM-deficient mice. Our data show that T-cell responses towards a variety of stimuli are unaffected in the absence of SKAP-HOM. Similarly, B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated total tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphorylation of Erk, p38, and JNK, as well as immunoreceptor-mediated Ca(2+) responses, are normal in SKAP-HOM(-/-) animals. However, despite apparently normal membrane-proximal signaling events, BCR-mediated proliferation is strongly attenuated in the absence of SKAP-HOM(-/-). In addition, adhesion of activated B cells to fibronectin (a ligand for beta1 integrins) as well as to ICAM-1 (a ligand for beta2 integrins) is strongly reduced. In vivo, the loss of SKAP-HOM results in a less severe clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis following immunization of mice with the encephalitogenic peptide of MOG (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein). This is accompanied by strongly reduced serum levels of MOG-specific antibodies and lower MOG-specific T-cell responses. In summary, our data suggest that SKAP-HOM is required for proper activation of the immune system, likely by regulating the cross-talk between immunoreceptors and integrins.

  7. Lymphocytes and the Dap12 adaptor are key regulators of osteoclast activation associated with gonadal failure.

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    Adrienne Anginot

    Full Text Available Bone resorption by osteoclasts is necessary to maintain bone homeostasis. Osteoclast differentiation from hematopoietic progenitors and their activation depend on M-CSF and RANKL, but also requires co-stimulatory signals acting through receptors associated with DAP12 and FcRgamma adaptors. Dap12 mutant mice (KDelta75 are osteopetrotic due to inactive osteoclasts but, surprisingly, these mice are more sensitive than WT mice to bone loss following an ovariectomy. Because estrogen withdrawal is known to disturb bone mass, at least in part, through lymphocyte interaction, we looked at the role of mature lymphocytes on osteoclastogenesis and bone mass in the absence of functional DAP12. Lymphocytes were found to stimulate an early osteoclast differentiation response from Dap12-deficient progenitors in vitro. In vivo, Rag1-/- mice lacking mature lymphocytes did not exhibit any bone phenotype, but lost their bone mass after ovariectomy like KDelta75 mice. KDelta75;Rag1-/- double mutant female mice exhibited a more severe osteopetrosis than Dap12-deficient animals but lost their bone mass after ovariectomy, like single mutants. These results suggest that both DAP12 and mature lymphocytes act synergistically to maintain bone mass under physiological conditions, while playing similar but not synergistic co-stimulatory roles in protecting bone loss after gonadal failure. Thus, our data support a role for lymphocytes during osteoclast differentiation and suggest that they may function as accessory cells when regular osteoclast function is compromised.

  8. A Common Variant in the Adaptor Mal Regulates Interferon Gamma Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Cheallaigh, Clíona; Sheedy, Frederick J; Harris, James; Muñoz-Wolf, Natalia; Lee, Jinhee; West, Kim; McDermott, Eva Palsson; Smyth, Alicia; Gleeson, Laura E; Coleman, Michelle; Martinez, Nuria; Hearnden, Claire H A; Tynan, Graham A; Carroll, Elizabeth C; Jones, Sarah A; Corr, Sinéad C; Bernard, Nicholas J; Hughes, Mark M; Corcoran, Sarah E; O'Sullivan, Mary; Fallon, Ciara M; Kornfeld, Hardy; Golenbock, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen V; O'Neill, Luke A J; Lavelle, Ed C; Keane, Joseph

    2016-02-16

    Humans that are heterozygous for the common S180L polymorphism in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor Mal (encoded by TIRAP) are protected from a number of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), whereas those homozygous for the allele are at increased risk. The reason for this difference in susceptibility is not clear. We report that Mal has a TLR-independent role in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) receptor signaling. Mal-dependent IFN-γ receptor (IFNGR) signaling led to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 phosphorylation and autophagy. IFN-γ signaling via Mal was required for phagosome maturation and killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The S180L polymorphism, and its murine equivalent S200L, reduced the affinity of Mal for the IFNGR, thereby compromising IFNGR signaling in macrophages and impairing responses to TB. Our findings highlight a role for Mal outside the TLR system and imply that genetic variation in TIRAP may be linked to other IFN-γ-related diseases including autoimmunity and cancer.

  9. Four tomato FLOWERING LOCUS T-like proteins act antagonistically to regulate floral initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eCao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from vegetative growth to floral meristems in higher plants is regulated through the integration of internal cues and environmental signals. We were interested to examine the molecular mechanism of flowering in the day-neutral plant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. and the effect of environmental conditions on tomato flowering. Analysis of the tomato genome uncovered 13 PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein genes, and found six of them were FT-like genes which named as SlSP3D, SlSP6A, SlSP5G, SlSP5G1, SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3. 6 FT-like genes were analyzed to clarify their functional roles in flowering using transgenic and expression analyses. We found that SlSP5G, SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3 proteins were floral inhibitors whereas only SlSP3D/SFT (SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS was a floral inducer. SlSP5G was expressed at higher levels in long day (LD conditions compared to short day (SD conditions while SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3 showed the opposite expression patterns. The silencing of SlSP5G by VIGS (Virus induced gene silencing resulted in tomato plants that flowered early under LD conditions and the silencing of SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3 led to early flowering under SD conditions. The higher expression levels of SlSP5G under LD conditions were not seen in phyB1 mutants, and the expression levels of SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3 were increased in phyB1 mutants under both SD and LD conditions compared to wild type plants. These data suggest that SlSP5G, SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3 are controlled by photoperiod, and the different expression patterns of FT-like genes under different photoperiod may contribute to tomato being a day neutral plant. In addition, PHYB1 mediate the expression of SlSP5G, SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3 to regulate flowering in tomato.

  10. Regulation of ITAM adaptor molecules and their receptors by inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT signalling during late stage osteoclast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawawi, M.S.F. [Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) (Malaysia); Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Dharmapatni, A.A.S.S.K.; Cantley, M.D. [Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); McHugh, K.P. [University of Florida, College of Dentistry, Fl (United States); Haynes, D.R. [Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Crotti, T.N., E-mail: tania.crotti@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcineurin/NFAT inhibitors FK506 and VIVIT treated human PBMC derived osteoclasts in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential regulation of ITAM receptors and adaptor molecules by calcineurin/NFAT inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FK506 and VIVIT suppress ITAM factors during late phase osteoclast differentiation. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts are specialised bone resorptive cells responsible for both physiological and pathological bone loss. Osteoclast differentiation and activity is dependent upon receptor activator NF-kappa-B ligand (RANKL) interacting with its receptor RANK to induce the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1). The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-dependent pathway has been identified as a co-stimulatory pathway in osteoclasts. Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) and triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM2) are essential receptors that pair with adaptor molecules Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcR{gamma}) and DNAX-activating protein 12 kDa (DAP12) respectively to induce calcium signalling. Treatment with calcineurin-NFAT inhibitors, Tacrolimus (FK506) and the 11R-VIVIT (VIVIT) peptide, reduces NFATc1 expression consistent with a reduction in osteoclast differentiation and activity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhibiting calcineurin-NFAT signalling on the expression of ITAM factors and late stage osteoclast genes including cathepsin K (CathK), Beta 3 integrin ({beta}3) and Annexin VIII (AnnVIII). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were differentiated with RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) over 10 days in the presence or absence of FK506 or VIVIT. Osteoclast formation (as assessed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)) and activity (assessed by dentine pit resorption) were significantly reduced with treatment. Quantitative real

  11. Lipid raft-dependent FcepsilonRI ubiquitination regulates receptor endocytosis through the action of ubiquitin binding adaptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Molfetta

    Full Text Available The best characterized role for ubiquitination of membrane receptors is to negatively regulate signaling by targeting receptors for lysosomal degradation. The high affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI expressed on mast cells and basophils is rapidly ubiquitinated upon antigen stimulation. However, the nature and the role of this covalent modification are still largelly unknown. Here, we show that FcepsilonRI subunits are preferentially ubiquitinated at multiple sites upon stimulation, and provide evidence for a role of ubiquitin as an internalization signal: under conditions of impaired receptor ubiquitination a decrease of receptor entry is observed by FACS analysis and fluorescence microscopy. We also used biochemical approaches combined with fluorescence microscopy, to demonstrate that receptor endocytosis requires the integrity of specific membrane domains, namely lipid rafts. Additionally, by RNA interference we demonstrate the involvement of ubiquitin-binding endocytic adaptors in FcepsilonRI internalization and sorting. Notably, the triple depletion of Eps15, Eps15R and Epsin1 negatively affects the early steps of Ag-induced receptor endocytosis, whereas Hrs depletion retains ubiquitinated receptors into early endosomes and partially prevents their sorting into lysosomes for degradation. Our results are compatible with a scenario in which the accumulation of engaged receptor subunits into lipid rafts is required for receptor ubiquitination, a prerequisite for efficient receptor internalization, sorting and delivery to a lysosomal compartment.

  12. A Cyclic di-GMP-binding Adaptor Protein Interacts with Histidine Kinase to Regulate Two-component Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linghui; Venkataramani, Prabhadevi; Ding, Yichen; Liu, Yang; Deng, Yinyue; Yong, Grace Lisi; Xin, Lingyi; Ye, Ruijuan; Zhang, Lianhui; Yang, Liang; Liang, Zhao-Xun

    2016-07-29

    The bacterial messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) binds to a diverse range of effectors to exert its biological effect. Despite the fact that free-standing PilZ proteins are by far the most prevalent c-di-GMP effectors known to date, their physiological function and mechanism of action remain largely unknown. Here we report that the free-standing PilZ protein PA2799 from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa interacts directly with the hybrid histidine kinase SagS. We show that PA2799 (named as HapZ: histidine kinase associated PilZ) binds directly to the phosphoreceiver (REC) domain of SagS, and that the SagS-HapZ interaction is further enhanced at elevated c-di-GMP concentration. We demonstrate that binding of HapZ to SagS inhibits the phosphotransfer between SagS and the downstream protein HptB in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. In accordance with the role of SagS as a motile-sessile switch and biofilm growth factor, we show that HapZ impacts surface attachment and biofilm formation most likely by regulating the expression of a large number of genes. The observations suggest a previously unknown mechanism whereby c-di-GMP mediates two-component signaling through a PilZ adaptor protein.

  13. Positive and negative regulation of FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling by the adaptor protein LAB/NTAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minghua; Liu, Yan; Koonpaew, Surapong; Granillo, Olivia; Zhang, Weiguo

    2004-10-18

    Linker for activation of B cells (LAB, also called NTAL; a product of wbscr5 gene) is a newly identified transmembrane adaptor protein that is expressed in B cells, NK cells, and mast cells. Upon BCR activation, LAB is phosphorylated and interacts with Grb2. LAB is capable of rescuing thymocyte development in LAT-deficient mice. To study the in vivo function of LAB, LAB-deficient mice were generated. Although disruption of the Lab gene did not affect lymphocyte development, it caused mast cells to be hyperresponsive to stimulation via the FcepsilonRI, evidenced by enhanced Erk activation, calcium mobilization, degranulation, and cytokine production. These data suggested that LAB negatively regulates mast cell function. However, mast cells that lacked both linker for activation of T cells (LAT) and LAB proteins had a more severe block in FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling than LAT(-/-) mast cells, demonstrating that LAB also shares a redundant function with LAT to play a positive role in FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling.

  14. Regulation and function of the CD3¿ DxxxLL motif: a binding site for adaptor protein-1 and adaptor protein-2 in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Kastrup, J; Nielsen, B L

    1997-01-01

    Several receptors are downregulated by internalization after ligand binding. Regulation of T cell receptor (TCR) expression is an important step in T cell activation, desensitization, and tolerance induction. One way T cells regulate TCR expression is by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the TCR...

  15. Ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 positive macrophages and HO-1 up-regulation in intestinal muscularis resident macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Hanne B; Huizinga, Jan D; Larsen, Jytte O; Kirkeby, Svend

    2017-06-01

    Small intestinal muscularis externa macrophages have been associated with interstitial cells of Cajal. They have been proposed to play various roles in motility disorders and to take part in a microbiota-driven regulation of gastrointestinal motility. Our objective was to understand the reaction of resident macrophages of the musculature to a pro-inflammatory stimulator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were injected with LPS or saline and sacrificed after 6 hr. Whole mounts were stained with antibodies toward CD169, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1) (microglial/macrophage marker) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Cell densities were measured using unbiased stereology. iba1(pos) cells showed an overall higher density than CD169(pos) and HO-1(pos) cells. Most HO-1(pos) and iba1(pos) cells were positive for CD 169 in serosa and at Auerbach's plexus (AP). At the deep muscular plexus, mainly iba1(pos) cells were present, and were mostly CD169(neg) ; a few HO-1(pos) cells were present. A new subset of resident macrophages in the intestinal muscularis externa was discovered, identified as iba1(pos) CD169(neg) . HO-1 is constitutively present in most macrophages in serosa and at AP, suggesting a M2 phenotype. LPS-treatment results in an up-regulation of HO-1(pos) /CD169(neg) cells in serosa and at AP. Anat Rec, 300:1114-1122, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. The Anatomical Record published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 The Authors. The Anatomical Record published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Ionized calcium‐binding adaptor molecule 1 positive macrophages and HO‐1 up‐regulation in intestinal muscularis resident macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Jan D.; Larsen, Jytte O.; Kirkeby, Svend

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Small intestinal muscularis externa macrophages have been associated with interstitial cells of Cajal. They have been proposed to play various roles in motility disorders and to take part in a microbiota‐driven regulation of gastrointestinal motility. Our objective was to understand the reaction of resident macrophages of the musculature to a pro‐inflammatory stimulator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were injected with LPS or saline and sacrificed after 6 hr. Whole mounts were stained with antibodies toward CD169, ionized calcium‐binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1) (microglial/macrophage marker) and heme oxygenase‐1 (HO‐1). Cell densities were measured using unbiased stereology. Results: iba1pos cells showed an overall higher density than CD169pos and HO‐1pos cells. Most HO‐1pos and iba1pos cells were positive for CD 169 in serosa and at Auerbach's plexus (AP). At the deep muscular plexus, mainly iba1pos cells were present, and were mostly CD169neg; a few HO‐1pos cells were present. Conclusions: A new subset of resident macrophages in the intestinal muscularis externa was discovered, identified as iba1pos CD169neg. HO‐1 is constitutively present in most macrophages in serosa and at AP, suggesting a M2 phenotype. LPS‐treatment results in an up‐regulation of HO‐1pos/CD169neg cells in serosa and at AP. Anat Rec, 300:1114–1122, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. The Anatomical Record published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists PMID:27860408

  17. Small RNA and transcriptome deep sequencing proffers insight into floral gene regulation in Rosa cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jungeun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Roses (Rosa sp., which belong to the family Rosaceae, are the most economically important ornamental plants—making up 30% of the floriculture market. However, given high demand for roses, rose breeding programs are limited in molecular resources which can greatly enhance and speed breeding efforts. A better understanding of important genes that contribute to important floral development and desired phenotypes will lead to improved rose cultivars. For this study, we analyzed rose miRNAs and the rose flower transcriptome in order to generate a database to expound upon current knowledge regarding regulation of important floral characteristics. A rose genetic database will enable comprehensive analysis of gene expression and regulation via miRNA among different Rosa cultivars. Results We produced more than 0.5 million reads from expressed sequences, totalling more than 110 million bp. From these, we generated 35,657, 31,434, 34,725, and 39,722 flower unigenes from Rosa hybrid: ‘Vital’, ‘Maroussia’, and ‘Sympathy’ and Rosa rugosa Thunb. , respectively. The unigenes were assigned functional annotations, domains, metabolic pathways, Gene Ontology (GO terms, Plant Ontology (PO terms, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat terms. Rose flower transcripts were compared with genes from whole genome sequences of Rosaceae members (apple, strawberry, and peach and grape. We also produced approximately 40 million small RNA reads from flower tissue for Rosa, representing 267 unique miRNA tags. Among identified miRNAs, 25 of them were novel and 242 of them were conserved miRNAs. Statistical analyses of miRNA profiles revealed both shared and species-specific miRNAs, which presumably effect flower development and phenotypes. Conclusions In this study, we constructed a Rose miRNA and transcriptome database, and we analyzed the miRNAs and transcriptome generated from the flower tissues of four Rosa cultivars. The database provides a

  18. The ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP Pathways Display Synergistic Interactions in Regulating Floral Meristem Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi Landau

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, the production of flowers marks the beginning of the reproductive phase. At the emergence of flower primordia on the flanks of the inflorescence meristem, the WUSCHEL (WUS gene, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor starts to be expressed and establishes de novo stem cell population, founder of the floral meristem (FM. Similarly to the shoot apical meristem a precise spatial and temporal expression pattern of WUS is required and maintained through strict regulation by multiple regulatory inputs to maintain stem cell homeostasis. However, following the formation of a genetically determined fixed number of floral organs, this homeostasis is shifted towards organogenesis and the FM is terminated. In here we performed a genetic study to test how a reduction in ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways affects floral meristem activity and flower development. We revealed strong synergistic phenotypes of extra flower number, supernumerary whorls, total loss of determinacy and extreme enlargement of the meristem as compared to any double mutant combination indicating that the three pathways, CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII distinctively regulate meristem activity and that they act in parallel. Our findings yield several new insights into stem cell-driven development. We demonstrate the crucial requirement for coupling floral meristem termination with carpel formation to ensure successful reproduction in plants. We also show how regulation of meristem size and alternation in spatial structure of the meristem serve as a mechanism to determine flower organogenesis. We propose that the loss of FM determinacy due to the reduction in CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII activity is genetically separable from the AGAMOUS core mechanism of meristem termination.

  19. The ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP Pathways Display Synergistic Interactions in Regulating Floral Meristem Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Udi; Asis, Lior; Eshed Williams, Leor

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the production of flowers marks the beginning of the reproductive phase. At the emergence of flower primordia on the flanks of the inflorescence meristem, the WUSCHEL (WUS) gene, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor starts to be expressed and establishes de novo stem cell population, founder of the floral meristem (FM). Similarly to the shoot apical meristem a precise spatial and temporal expression pattern of WUS is required and maintained through strict regulation by multiple regulatory inputs to maintain stem cell homeostasis. However, following the formation of a genetically determined fixed number of floral organs, this homeostasis is shifted towards organogenesis and the FM is terminated. In here we performed a genetic study to test how a reduction in ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways affects floral meristem activity and flower development. We revealed strong synergistic phenotypes of extra flower number, supernumerary whorls, total loss of determinacy and extreme enlargement of the meristem as compared to any double mutant combination indicating that the three pathways, CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII distinctively regulate meristem activity and that they act in parallel. Our findings yield several new insights into stem cell-driven development. We demonstrate the crucial requirement for coupling floral meristem termination with carpel formation to ensure successful reproduction in plants. We also show how regulation of meristem size and alternation in spatial structure of the meristem serve as a mechanism to determine flower organogenesis. We propose that the loss of FM determinacy due to the reduction in CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII activity is genetically separable from the AGAMOUS core mechanism of meristem termination. PMID:25946150

  20. The ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP Pathways Display Synergistic Interactions in Regulating Floral Meristem Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Udi; Asis, Lior; Eshed Williams, Leor

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the production of flowers marks the beginning of the reproductive phase. At the emergence of flower primordia on the flanks of the inflorescence meristem, the WUSCHEL (WUS) gene, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor starts to be expressed and establishes de novo stem cell population, founder of the floral meristem (FM). Similarly to the shoot apical meristem a precise spatial and temporal expression pattern of WUS is required and maintained through strict regulation by multiple regulatory inputs to maintain stem cell homeostasis. However, following the formation of a genetically determined fixed number of floral organs, this homeostasis is shifted towards organogenesis and the FM is terminated. In here we performed a genetic study to test how a reduction in ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways affects floral meristem activity and flower development. We revealed strong synergistic phenotypes of extra flower number, supernumerary whorls, total loss of determinacy and extreme enlargement of the meristem as compared to any double mutant combination indicating that the three pathways, CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII distinctively regulate meristem activity and that they act in parallel. Our findings yield several new insights into stem cell-driven development. We demonstrate the crucial requirement for coupling floral meristem termination with carpel formation to ensure successful reproduction in plants. We also show how regulation of meristem size and alternation in spatial structure of the meristem serve as a mechanism to determine flower organogenesis. We propose that the loss of FM determinacy due to the reduction in CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII activity is genetically separable from the AGAMOUS core mechanism of meristem termination.

  1. An Arabidopsis F-box protein acts as a transcriptional co-factor to regulate floral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Eunyoung; Tan, Queenie K-G; Hill, Theresa A; Irish, Vivian F

    2008-04-01

    Plants flower in response to both environmental and endogenous signals. The Arabidopsis LEAFY (LFY) transcription factor is crucial in integrating these signals, and acts in part by activating the expression of multiple floral homeotic genes. LFY-dependent activation of the homeotic APETALA3 (AP3) gene requires the activity of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), an F-box component of an SCF ubiquitin ligase, yet how this regulation is effected has remained unclear. Here, we show that UFO physically interacts with LFY both in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction is necessary to recruit UFO to the AP3 promoter. Furthermore, a transcriptional repressor domain fused to UFO reduces endogenous LFY activity in plants, supporting the idea that UFO acts as part of a transcriptional complex at the AP3 promoter. Moreover, chemical or genetic disruption of proteasome activity compromises LFY-dependent AP3 activation, indicating that protein degradation is required to promote LFY activity. These results define an unexpected role for an F-box protein in functioning as a DNA-associated transcriptional co-factor in regulating floral homeotic gene expression. These results suggest a novel mechanism for promoting flower development via protein degradation and concomitant activation of the LFY transcription factor. This mechanism may be widely conserved, as homologs of UFO and LFY have been identified in a wide array of plant species.

  2. A conserved function for Arabidopsis SUPERMAN in regulating floral-whorl cell proliferation in rice, a monocotyledonous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, A K; Kushalappa, K; Prasad, K; Vijayraghavan, U

    2000-02-24

    Studies of floral organ development in two dicotyledonous plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus, have shown that three sets of genes (A, B and C) can pattern sepals, petals, stamens and carpels [1] [2]. Mechanisms that define boundaries between these floral whorls are unclear, however. The Arabidopsis gene SUPERMAN (SUP), which encodes a putative transcription factor, maintains the boundary between stamens and carpels [3] [4] [5], possibly by regulating cell proliferation. By overexpressing SUP cDNA in rice, we examined whether its effects on whorl boundaries are conserved in a divergent monocotyledonous species. High-level ectopic SUP expression in transgenic rice resulted in juvenile death or dwarf plants with decreased axillary growth. Plants with lower levels of SUP RNA were vegetatively normal, but the flowers showed ubiquitous ventral carpel expansion. This was often coupled with reduced stamen number, or occurrence of third-whorl stamen-carpel mosaic organs. Additionally, proliferation of second-whorl ventral cells produced adventitious lodicules, and flowers lost the asymmetry that is normally inherent to this whorl. We predict that SUP is a conserved regulator of floral whorl boundaries and that it affects cell proliferation.

  3. The ASK1 gene regulates development and interacts with the UFO gene to control floral organ identity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Yang, M; Solava, J; Ma, H

    1999-09-01

    Normal flower development likely requires both specific and general regulators. We have isolated an Arabidopsis mutant ask1-1 (for -Arabidopsis skp1-like1-1), which exhibits defects in both vegetative and reproductive development. In the ask1-1mutant, rosette leaf growth is reduced, resulting in smaller than normal rosette leaves, and internodes in the floral stem are shorter than normal. Examination of cell sizes in these organs indicates that cell expansion is normal in the mutant, but cell number is reduced. In the mutant, the numbers of petals and stamens are reduced, and many flowers have one or more petals with a reduced size. In addition, all mutant flowers have short stamen filaments. Furthermore, petal/stamen chimeric organs are found in many flowers. These results indicate that the ASK1 gene affects the size of vegetative and floral organs. The ask1 floral phenotype resembles somewhat that of the Arabidopsis ufo mutants in that both genes affect whorls 2 and 3. We therefore tested for possible interactions between ASK1 and UFO by analyzing the phenotypes of ufo-2 ask1-1 double mutant plants. In these plants, vegetative development is similar to that of the ask1-1 single mutant, whereas the floral defects are more severe than those in either single mutant. Interior to the first whorl, the double mutant flowers have more sepals or sepal-like organs than are found in ufo-2, and less petals than ask1-1. Our results suggest that ASK1 interacts with UFO to control floral organ identity in whorls 2 and 3. This is very intriguing because ASK1 is very similar in sequence to the yeast SKP1 protein and UFO contains an F-box, a motif known to interact with SKP1 in yeast. Although the precise mechanism of ASK1 and UFO action is unknown, our results support the hypothesis that these two proteins physically interact in vivo. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Two tobacco AP1-like gene promoters drive highly specific, tightly regulated and unique expression patterns during floral transition, initiation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjin; Yan, Guohua; Wen, Zhifeng; An, Young-Qiang; Singer, Stacy D; Liu, Zongrang

    2014-02-01

    The genetic engineering of agronomic traits requires an array of highly specific and tightly regulated promoters that drive expression in floral tissues. In this study, we isolated and characterized two tobacco APETALA1-like (AP1-like) promoters (termed NtAP1La and NtAP1Lb1) in transgenic plants using the GUS reporter system, along with tissue-specific ablation analyses. Our results demonstrated that the two promoters are active in floral inflorescences but not in vegetative apical meristems or other vegetative tissues, as reflected by strong GUS staining and DT-A-mediated ablation of apical shoot tips during reproductive but not vegetative growth. We also showed that the NtAP1Lb1 promoter was more active than NtAP1La in inflorescences, as the former yielded higher frequencies and greater phenotypic evidence of tissue ablation compared to the latter. We further revealed that both promoters were uniformly expressed in the meristems of stage 1 and 2 floral buds, but were differentially expressed in floral organs later during development. While NtAP1La was found to be active in stage 4-5 carpels, later becoming confined to ovary tissue from stage 9 onwards, NtAP1Lb1 activity was apparent in all floral organs from stages 3 to 7, becoming completely absent in all floral organs from stage 11 onward. Therefore, it seems that the two tobacco promoters have acquired similar but distinct inflorescence-, floral meristem- and floral organ-specific and development-dependent regulatory features without any leaky activity in vegetative tissues. These features are novel and have rarely been observed in other flower-specific promoters characterized to date. The potential application of these promoters for engineering sterility, increasing biomass production and modifying flower architecture, as well as their putative use in flower-specific transgene excision, will be discussed.

  5. Internalization of LDL-receptor superfamily yolk-protein receptors during mosquito oogenesis involves transcriptional regulation of PTB-domain adaptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sanjay K; Jha, Anupma; Steinhauser, Amie L; Kokoza, Vladimir A; Washabaugh, Charles H; Raikhel, Alexander S; Foster, Woodbridge A; Traub, Linton M

    2008-04-15

    In the anautogenous disease vector mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, egg development is nutritionally controlled. A blood meal permits further maturation of developmentally repressed previtellogenic egg chambers. This entails massive storage of extraovarian yolk precursors by the oocyte, which occurs through a burst of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Yolk precursors are concentrated at clathrin-coated structures on the oolemma by two endocytic receptors, the vitellogenin and lipophorin receptors. Both these mosquito receptors are members of the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor superfamily that contain FxNPxY-type internalization signals. In mammals, this tyrosine-based signal is not decoded by the endocytic AP-2 adaptor complex directly. Instead, two functionally redundant phosphotyrosine-binding domain adaptors, Disabled 2 and the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein (ARH) manage the internalization of the FxNPxY sorting signal. Here, we report that a mosquito ARH-like protein, which we designate trephin, possess similar functional properties to the orthologous vertebrate proteins despite engaging AP-2 in an atypical manner, and that mRNA expression in the egg chamber is strongly upregulated shortly following a blood meal. Temporally regulated trephin transcription and translation suggests a mechanism for controlling yolk uptake when vitellogenin and lipophorin receptors are expressed and clathrin coats operate in previtellogenic ovaries.

  6. Functional analyses of Src-like adaptor (SLA), a glucocorticoid-regulated gene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansha, Muhammad; Carlet, Michela; Ploner, Christian; Gruber, Georg; Wasim, Muhammad; Wiegers, Gerrit Jan; Rainer, Johannes; Geley, Stephan; Kofler, Reinhard

    2010-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) cause apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in lymphoid cells and are used in the therapy of lymphoid malignancies. SLA (Src-like-adaptor), an inhibitor of T- and B-cell receptor signaling, is a promising candidate derived from expression profiling analyses in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Over-expression and knock-down experiments in ALL in vitro model revealed that transgenic SLA alone had no effect on survival or cell cycle progression, nor did it affect sensitivity to, or kinetics of, GC-induced apoptosis. Although SLA is a prominent GC response gene, it does not seem to contribute to the anti-leukemic effects of GC. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP) is upregulated in antigen-stimulated mast cells and acts as a negative regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Kiel; Qiao, Huihong; Beaven, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    Our studies in the RBL-2H3 mast cell line suggest that responses to antigen (Ag) are negatively modulated through upregulation of Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP). Ag stimulation of RBL-2H3 cells leads to increased levels of SLAP (but not SLAP2) transcripts and protein over a period of several hours. The effects of pharmacologic inhibitors indicate that the upregulation of SLAP is dependent on multiple signaling pathways. Knockdown of SLAP with anti-SLAP siRNA is associated with enhanced phosphorylation of Syk, the linker for activation of T cells (LAT), phospholipase C gamma, MAP kinases, and various transcription factors. Production of IL-3 and MCP-1, but not degranulation, is also enhanced. The upregulation of SLAP may thus serve to limit the duration of cytokine production in Ag-stimulated cells.

  8. Specification and maintenance of the floral meristem: interactions between positively-acting promoters of flowering and negative regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayraghavan, Usha; Prasad, Kalika; Meyerowitz, Elliot

    2005-01-01

    A combination of environmental factors and endogenous cues trigger floral meristem. initiation on the flanks of the shoot meristem. A plethora of regulatory genes have been implicated in this process. They function either as activators or as repressors of floral initiation. This review describes the mode of their action in a regulatory network that ensures the correct temporal and spatial control of floral meristem specification, its maintenance and determinate development.

  9. DEAD/H BOX 3 (DDX3) helicase binds the RIG-I adaptor IPS-1 to up-regulate IFN-beta-inducing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

    2010-04-01

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR) are members of the DEAD box helicases, and recognize viral RNA in the cytoplasm, leading to IFN-beta induction through the adaptor IFN-beta promoter stimulator-1 (IPS-1) (also known as Cardif, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein or virus-induced signaling adaptor). Since uninfected cells usually harbor a trace of RIG-I, other RNA-binding proteins may participate in assembling viral RNA into the IPS-1 pathway during the initial response to infection. We searched for proteins coupling with human IPS-1 by yeast two-hybrid and identified another DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase, DDX3 (DEAD/H BOX 3). DDX3 can bind viral RNA to join it in the IPS-1 complex. Unlike RIG-I, DDX3 was constitutively expressed in cells, and some fraction of DDX3 is colocalized with IPS-1 around mitochondria. The 622-662 a.a DDX3 C-terminal region (DDX3-C) directly bound to the IPS-1 CARD-like domain, and the whole DDX3 protein also associated with RLR. By reporter assay, DDX3 helped IPS-1 up-regulate IFN-beta promoter activation and knockdown of DDX3 by siRNA resulted in reduced IFN-beta induction. This activity was conserved on the DDX3-C fragment. DDX3 only marginally enhanced IFN-beta promoter activation induced by transfected TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) or I-kappa-B kinase-epsilon (IKKepsilon). Forced expression of DDX3 augmented virus-mediated IFN-beta induction and host cell protection against virus infection. Hence, DDX3 is an antiviral IPS-1 enhancer.

  10. A conserved serine residue regulates the stability of Drosophila Salvador and human WW domain-containing adaptor 45 through proteasomal degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di, E-mail: DiWu@mail.nankai.edu.cn; Wu, Shian

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Ser-17 is key for the stability of Drosophila Sav. •Ala mutation of Ser-17 promotes the proteasomal degradation of Sav. •Ser-17 residue is not the main target of Hpo-induced Sav stabilization. •Hpo-dependent and -independent mechanisms regulate Sav stability. •This mechanism is conserved in the homologue of Sav, human WW45. -- Abstract: The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls organ size through the coordinated regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Drosophila Salvador (Sav), which limits organ size, is a core component of the Hpo pathway. In this study, Ser-17 was shown to be important for the stability of Sav. Alanine mutation of Ser-17 promoted the proteasomal degradation of Sav. Destabilization and stabilization of the Sav protein mediated by alanine mutation of Ser-17 and by Hpo, respectively, were independent of each other. This implies that the stability of Sav is controlled by two mechanisms, one that is Ser-17-dependent and Hpo-independent, and another that is Ser-17-independent and Hpo-dependent. These dual mechanisms also regulated the human counterpart of Drosophila Sav, WW domain-containing adaptor 45 (WW45). The conservation of this regulation adds to its significance in normal physiology and tumorigenesis.

  11. Fission yeast arrestin-related trafficking adaptor, Arn1/Any1, is ubiquitinated by Pub1 E3 ligase and regulates endocytosis of Cat1 amino acid transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Nakashima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tsc1–Tsc2 complex homologous to human tuberous sclerosis complex proteins governs amino acid uptake by regulating the expression and intracellular distribution of amino acid transporters in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we performed a genetic screening for molecules that are involved in amino acid uptake and found Arn1 (also known as Any1. Arn1 is homologous to ART1, an arrestin-related trafficking adaptor (ART in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and contains a conserved arrestin motif, a ubiquitination site, and two PY motifs. Overexpression of arn1+ confers canavanine resistance on cells, whereas its disruption causes hypersensitivity to canavanine. We also show that Arn1 regulates endocytosis of the Cat1 amino acid transporter. Furthermore, deletion of arn1+ suppresses a defect of amino acid uptake and the aberrant Cat1 localization in tsc2Δ. Arn1 interacts with and is ubiquitinated by the Pub1 ubiquitin ligase, which is necessary to regulate Cat1 endocytosis. Cat1 undergoes ubiquitinations on lysine residues within the N-terminus, which are mediated, in part, by Arn1 to determine Cat1 localization. Correctively, Arn1 is an ART in S. pombe and contributes to amino acid uptake through regulating Cat1 endocytosis in which Tsc2 is involved.

  12. The Shc family protein adaptor, Rai, negatively regulates T cell antigen receptor signaling by inhibiting ZAP-70 recruitment and activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol Ferro

    Full Text Available Rai/ShcC is a member of the Shc family of protein adaptors expressed with the highest abundance in the central nervous system, where it exerts a protective function by coupling neurotrophic receptors to the PI3K/Akt survival pathway. Rai is also expressed, albeit at lower levels, in other cell types, including T and B lymphocytes. We have previously reported that in these cells Rai attenuates antigen receptor signaling, thereby impairing not only cell proliferation but also, opposite to neurons, cell survival. Here we have addressed the mechanism underlying the inhibitory activity of Rai on TCR signaling. We show that Rai interferes with the TCR signaling cascade one of the earliest steps--recruitment of the initiating kinase ZAP-70 to the phosphorylated subunit of the TCR/CD3 complex, which results in a generalized dampening of the downstream signaling events. The inhibitory activity of Rai is associated to its inducible recruitment to phosphorylated CD3, which occurs in the physiological signaling context of the immune synapse. Rai is moreover found as a pre-assembled complex with ZAP-70 and also constitutively interacts with the regulatory p85 subunit of PI3K, similar to neuronal cells, notwithstanding the opposite biological outcome, i.e. impairment of PI-3K/Akt activation. The data highlight the ability of Rai to establish interactions with the TCR and key signaling mediators which, either directly (e.g. by inhibiting ZAP-70 recruitment to the TCR or sequestering ZAP-70/PI3K in the cytosol or indirectly (e.g. by promoting the recruitment of effectors responsible for signal extinction prevent full triggering of the TCR signaling cascade.

  13. The Adaptor Protein SAP Directly Associates with CD3ζ Chain and Regulates T Cell Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Richard; Bertoglio, Jacques; Gesbert, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Mutations altering the gene encoding the SLAM associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease or XLP1. Its absence is correlated with a defective NKT cells development, a decrease in B cell functions and a reduced T cells and NK cells cytotoxic activities, thus leading to an immunodeficiency syndrome. SAP is a small 128 amino-acid long protein that is almost exclusively composed of an SH2 domain. It has been shown to interact with the CD150/SLAM family of receptors, and in a non-canonical manner with SH3 containing proteins such as Fyn, βPIX, PKCθ and Nck1. It would thus play the role of a minimal adaptor protein. It has been shown that SAP plays an important function in the activation of T cells through its interaction with the SLAM family of receptors. Therefore SAP defective T cells display a reduced activation of signaling events downstream of the TCR-CD3 complex triggering. In the present work, we evidence that SAP is a direct interactor of the CD3ζ chain. This direct interaction occurs through the first ITAM of CD3ζ, proximal to the membrane. Additionally, we show that, in the context of the TCR-CD3 signaling, an Sh-RNA mediated silencing of SAP is responsible for a decrease of several canonical T cell signaling pathways including Erk, Akt and PLCγ1 and to a reduced induction of IL-2 and IL-4 mRNA. Altogether, we show that SAP plays a central function in the T cell activation processes through a direct association with the CD3 complex. PMID:22912825

  14. Florigen-Encoding Genes of Day-Neutral and Photoperiod-Sensitive Maize Are Regulated by Different Chromatin Modifications at the Floral Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, Iride; Turner, Katie; Brivio, Roberta S; Hand, Andrew; Colasanti, Joseph; Rossi, Vincenzo

    2015-08-01

    The activity of the maize (Zea mays) florigen gene ZEA CENTRORADIALIS8 (ZCN8) is associated with the floral transition in both day-neutral temperate maize and short-day (SD)-requiring tropical maize. We analyzed transcription and chromatin modifications at the ZCN8 locus and its nearly identical paralog ZCN7 during the floral transition. This analysis was performed with day-neutral maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), where flowering is promoted almost exclusively via the autonomous pathway through the activity of the regulatory gene indeterminate1 (id1), and tropical teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) under floral inductive and noninductive photoperiods. Comparison of ZCN7/ZCN8 histone modification profiles in immature leaves of nonflowering id1 mutants and teosinte grown under floral inhibitory photoperiods reveals that both id1 floral inductive activity and SD-mediated induction result in histone modification patterns that are compatible with the formation of transcriptionally competent chromatin environments. Specific histone modifications are maintained during leaf development and may represent a chromatin signature that favors the production of processed ZCN7/ZCN8 messenger RNA in florigen-producing mature leaf. However, whereas id1 function promotes histone H3 hyperacetylation, SD induction is associated with increased histone H3 dimethylation and trimethylation at lysine-4. In addition, id1 and SD differently affect the production of ZCN7/ZCN8 antisense transcript. These observations suggest that distinct mechanisms distinguish florigen regulation in response to autonomous and photoperiod pathways. Finally, the identical expression and histone modification profiles of ZCN7 and ZCN8 in response to floral induction suggest that ZCN7 may represent a second maize florigen.

  15. The cell surface expression of SAP-binding receptor CD229 is regulated via its interaction with clathrin-associated adaptor complex 2 (AP-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, Juana M; Engel, Pablo; Martín, Margarita

    2003-05-09

    CD229 (Ly9) is a cell surface receptor selectively expressed on T and B lymphocytes, and it belongs to the CD150 receptor family. Like other receptors of this family, CD229 interacts with SAP/SH2D1a protein, mutation of which is responsible for the fatal X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. Receptors of the CD150 family function as costimulatory molecules, regulating cytokine production and cytotoxicity. Thus, their signaling and regulation in lymphocytes may be critical to an understanding of the pathogenesis of the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. Here we show that CD229 interacts with the mu(2) chain of the AP-2 adaptor complex that links transmembrane proteins to clathrin-coated pits. CD229 was the only member of the CD150 family associated with AP-2. We also show that the mu(2) chain interacts with the Y(470)EKL motif of CD229. The integrity of this site was necessary for CD229 internalization, but it was not involved in SAP recruitment. Moreover, CD229 binds to the AP-2 complex in T and B cell lines, and it is internalized rapidly from the cell surface on T cells after antibody ligation. In contrast, cross-linking of CD229 receptors with intact antibody inhibited CD229 internalization on B cells. However, when F(ab')(2) antibodies were used, CD229 internalization was similar on T and B cells, suggesting that Fcgamma receptors control CD229 cell surface expression. Furthermore, CD229 was regulated by T cell receptor and B cell receptor signaling because coligation with antibodies against anti-CD3 and anti-IgM increased the rate of CD229 endocytosis. These data suggest that CD229 cell surface expression on lymphocytes surface is strongly and differentially regulated within the CD150 family members.

  16. Adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper (APPL1) regulates the protein level of EGFR by modulating its trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Rin; Hahn, Hwa-Sun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Nguyen, Hong-Hoa [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jun-Mo [Department of Dermatology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jong-Sun, E-mail: kangj01@skku.edu [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Myong-Joon, E-mail: hahnmj@skku.edu [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer APPL1 regulates the protein level of EGFR in response to EGF stimulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of APPL1 accelerates the movement of EGF/EGFR from the cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of APPL1 enhances the activity of Rab5. -- Abstract: The EGFR-mediated signaling pathway regulates multiple biological processes such as cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Previously APPL1 (adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper 1) has been reported to function as a downstream effector of EGF-initiated signaling. Here we demonstrate that APPL1 regulates EGFR protein levels in response to EGF stimulation. Overexpression of APPL1 enhances EGFR stabilization while APPL1 depletion by siRNA reduces EGFR protein levels. APPL1 depletion accelerates EGFR internalization and movement of EGF/EGFR from cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF treatment. Conversely, overexpression of APPL1 decelerates EGFR internalization and translocation of EGF/EGFR to the perinuclear region. Furthermore, APPL1 depletion enhances the activity of Rab5 which is involved in internalization and trafficking of EGFR and inhibition of Rab5 in APPL1-depleted cells restored EGFR levels. Consistently, APPL1 depletion reduced activation of Akt, the downstream signaling effector of EGFR and this is restored by inhibition of Rab5. These findings suggest that APPL1 is required for EGFR signaling by regulation of EGFR stabilities through inhibition of Rab5.

  17. The adaptor protein SAP directly associates with PECAM-1 and regulates PECAM-1-mediated-cell adhesion in T-like cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Richard; Crouin, Catherine; Gandji, Leslie Yewakon; Bertoglio, Jacques; Gesbert, Franck

    2014-04-01

    SAP is a small cytosolic adaptor protein expressed in hematopoietic lineages whose main function is to regulate intracellular signaling pathways induced by the triggering of members of the SLAM receptor family. In this paper, we have identified the adhesion molecule PECAM-1 as a new partner for SAP in a conditional yeast two-hybrid screen. PECAM-1 is an immunoglobulin-like molecule expressed by endothelial cells and leukocytes, which possesses both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about PECAM-1 functions in T cells. We show that SAP directly and specifically interacts with the cytosolic tyrosine 686 of PECAM-1. We generated different T-like cell lines in which SAP or PECAM-1 are expressed or down modulated and we demonstrate that a diminished SAP expression correlates with a diminished PECAM-1-mediated adhesion. Although SAP has mainly been shown to associate with SLAM receptors, we evidence here that SAP is a new actor downstream of PECAM-1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cell-based Fluorescence Complementation Reveals a Role for HIV-1 Nef Protein Dimerization in AP-2 Adaptor Recruitment and CD4 Co-receptor Down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sherry T; Emert-Sedlak, Lori A; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2017-02-17

    The HIV-1 Nef accessory factor enhances viral infectivity, immune evasion, and AIDS progression. Nef triggers rapid down-regulation of CD4 via the endocytic adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex, a process linked to enhanced viral infectivity and immune escape. Here, we describe a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay to visualize the interaction of Nef with AP-2 and CD4 in living cells. Interacting protein pairs were fused to complementary non-fluorescent fragments of YFP and co-expressed in 293T cells. Nef interactions with both CD4 and AP-2 resulted in complementation of YFP and a bright fluorescent signal by confocal microcopy that localized to the cell periphery. Co-expression of the AP-2 α subunit enhanced the Nef·AP-2 σ2 subunit BiFC signal and vice versa, suggesting that the AP-2 α-σ2 hemicomplex interacts cooperatively with Nef. Mutagenesis of Nef amino acids Arg-134, Glu-174, and Asp-175, which stabilize Nef for AP-2 α-σ2 binding in a recent co-crystal structure, substantially reduced AP-2 interaction without affecting CD4 binding. A dimerization-defective mutant of Nef failed to interact with either CD4 or AP-2 in the BiFC assay, indicating that Nef quaternary structure is required for CD4 and AP-2 recruitment as well as CD4 down-regulation. A small molecule previously shown to bind the Nef dimerization interface also reduced Nef interactions with AP-2 and CD4 and restored CD4 expression to the surface of HIV-infected cells. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation for previous observations that dimerization-defective Nef mutants fail to down-regulate CD4 and validate the Nef dimerization interface as a target site for antiretroviral drug development. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Protein modifications regulate the role of 14-3-3γ adaptor protein in cAMP-induced steroidogenesis in MA-10 Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Ye, Xiaoying; Blonder, Josip; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-09-19

    The 14-3-3 protein family comprises adaptors and scaffolds that regulate intracellular signaling pathways. The 14-3-3γ isoform is a negative regulator of steroidogenesis that is hormonally induced and transiently functions at the initiation of steroidogenesis by delaying maximal steroidogenesis in MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells. Treatment of MA-10 cells with the cAMP analog 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP), which stimulates steroidogenesis, triggers the interaction of 14-3-3γ with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) in the cytosol, limiting STAR activity to basal levels. Over time, this interaction ceases, allowing for a 2-fold induction in STAR activity and maximal increase in the rate of steroid formation. The 14-3-3γ/STAR pattern of interaction was found to be opposite that of the 14-3-3γ homodimerization pattern. Phosphorylation and acetylation of 14-3-3γ showed similar patterns to homodimerization and STAR binding, respectively. 14-3-3γ Ser(58) phosphorylation and 14-3-3γ Lys(49) acetylation were blocked using trans-activator of HIV transcription factor 1 peptides coupled to 14-3-3γ sequences containing Ser(58) or Lys(49). Blocking either one of these modifications further induced 8-Br-cAMP-induced steroidogenesis while reducing lipid storage, suggesting that the stored cholesterol is used for steroid formation. Taken together, these results indicate that Ser(58) phosphorylation and Lys(49) acetylation of 14-3-3γ occur in a coordinated time-dependent manner to regulate 14-3-3γ homodimerization. 14-3-3γ Ser(58) phosphorylation is required for STAR interactions under control conditions, and 14-3-3γ Lys(49) acetylation is important for the cAMP-dependent induction of these interactions.

  20. Duplication and Divergence of Floral MADS-Box Genes in Grasses: Evidence for the Generation and Modification of Novel Regulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guixia Xu; Hongzhi Kong

    2007-01-01

    The process of flowering is controlled by a hierarchy of floral genes that act as flowering time genes, inflorescence/floral meristem identity genes, and/or floral organ-identity genes. The most important and well-characterized floral genes are those that belong to the MADS-box family of transcription factors. Compelling evidence suggests that floral MADS-box genes have experienced a few large-scale duplication events. In particular, the pre-core eudicot duplication events have been considered to correlate with the emergence and diversification of core eudicots. Duplication of floral MADS-box genes has also been documented in monocots, particularly in grasses, although a systematic study is lacking. In the present study, by conducting extensive phylogenetic analyses, we identified pre-Poaceae gene duplication events in each of the AP1, PI, AG, AGL11, AGL2/3/4, and AGL9gene lineages. Comparative genomic studies further indicated that some of these duplications actually resulted from the genome doubling event that occurred 66-70 million years ago (MYA). In addition, we found that after gene duplication, exonization (of intron sequences) and pseudoexonization (of exon sequences) have contributed to the divergence of duplicate genes in sequence structure and, possibly, gene function.

  1. Ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 positive macrophages and HO-1 up-regulation in intestinal muscularis resident macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Hanne B; Huizinga, Jan D; Larsen, Jytte O

    2017-01-01

    Small intestinal muscularis externa macrophages have been associated with interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). They have been proposed to play various roles in motility disorders and to take part in a microbiota-driven regulation of gastrointestinal motility. Our objective was to understand the rea...

  2. Ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 positive macrophages and HO-1 up-regulation in intestinal muscularis resident macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Hanne B; Huizinga, Jan D; Larsen, Jytte O;

    2017-01-01

    Small intestinal muscularis externa macrophages have been associated with interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). They have been proposed to play various roles in motility disorders and to take part in a microbiota-driven regulation of gastrointestinal motility. Our objective was to understand the rea...

  3. SH2 domain–containing adaptor protein B expressed in dendritic cells is involved in T-cell homeostasis by regulating dendritic cell–mediated Th2 immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Src homology 2 domain–containing adaptor protein B (SHB) is widely expressed in immune cells and acts as an important regulator for hematopoietic cell function. SHB silencing induces Th2 immunity in mice. SHB is also involved in T-cell homeostasis in vivo. However, SHB has not yet been studied and addressed in association with dendritic cells (DCs). Materials and Methods The effects of SHB expression on the immunogenicity of DCs were assessed by Shb gene silencing in mouse bone marrow–derived DCs (BMDCs). After silencing, surface phenotype, cytokine expression profile, and T-cell stimulation capacity of BMDCs were examined. We investigated the signaling pathways involved in SHB expression during BMDC development. We also examined the immunogenicity of SHB-knockdown (SHBKD) BMDCs in a mouse atopic dermatitis model. Results SHB was steadily expressed in mouse splenic DCs and in in vitro–generated BMDCs in both immature and mature stages. SHB expression was contingent on activation of the mitogen- activated protein kinase/Foxa2 signaling pathway during DC development. SHBKD increased the expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules without affecting the cytokine expression of BMDCs. When co-cultured with T cells, SHBKD in BMDCs significantly induced CD4+ T-cell proliferation and the expression of Th2 cytokines, while the regulatory T cell (Treg) population was downregulated. In mouse atopic dermatitis model, mice inoculated with SHBKD DCs developed more severe symptoms of atopic dermatitis compared with mice injected with control DCs. Conclusion SHB expression in DCs plays an important role in T-cell homeostasis in vivo by regulating DC-mediated Th2 polarization. PMID:28168174

  4. The Adaptor Protein SAP Regulates Type II NKT Cell Development, Cytokine Production and Cytotoxicity Against Lymphoma1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L.; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT cell TCR transgenic mouse model (24αβTg), we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells but not thymic epithelial cells meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Further, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT cell development by controlling Egr2 and PLZF expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IRF4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. PMID:25236978

  5. The adaptor protein SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L; Stein, Paul L; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-12-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT-cell TCR transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells, but not thymic epithelial cells, meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Furthermore, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development by controlling early growth response 2 protein and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Novel binding partners and differentially regulated phosphorylation sites clarify Eps8 as a multi-functional adaptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie L Cunningham

    Full Text Available Eps8 is involved in both cell signalling and receptor trafficking. It is a known phosphorylation substrate for two proteins involved in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR signalling pathway: the receptor itself and Src. Here we report a differential proteomic analysis of Eps8 aimed to identify specific FGFR and Src family kinase dependent phosphosites and co-associated phosphodependent binding partners. This study reveals a total of 22 Eps8 pTyr and pSer/Thr phosphorylation sites, including those that are dependent on Src family and FGFR kinase activity. Peptide affinity purification of proteins that bind to a selection of the pTyr phosphosites has identified a range of novel Eps8 binding partners including members of the intracellular vesicle trafficking machinery (clathrin and AP-2, proteins which have been shown to regulate activated receptor trafficking (NBR1 and Vav2, and proteins involved in receptor signalling (IRS4 and Shp2. Collectively this study significantly extends the understanding of Eps8 post-translational modification by regulated phosphorylation, identifies novel Eps8 binding partners implicated in receptor trafficking and signalling, and confirms the functions of Eps8 at the nexus of receptor signalling and vesicular trafficking.

  7. Changes in cis-regulatory elements of a key floral regulator are associated with divergence of inflorescence architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, E.; Della Pina, S.; Castel, R.; Souer, E.; Koes, R.

    2015-01-01

    Higher plant species diverged extensively with regard to the moment (flowering time) and position (inflorescence architecture) at which flowers are formed. This seems largely caused by variation in the expression patterns of conserved genes that specify floral meristem identity (FMI), rather than

  8. Changes in cis-regulatory elements of a key floral regulator are associated with divergence of inflorescence architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, E.; Della Pina, S.; Castel, R.; Souer, E.; Koes, R.

    2015-01-01

    Higher plant species diverged extensively with regard to the moment (flowering time) and position (inflorescence architecture) at which flowers are formed. This seems largely caused by variation in the expression patterns of conserved genes that specify floral meristem identity (FMI), rather than ch

  9. Adaptor Protein CD2AP and L-type Lectin LMAN2 Regulate Exosome Cargo Protein Trafficking through the Golgi Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sang-Ho; Oh, Sekyung; Nacke, Marisa; Mostov, Keith E; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2016-12-02

    Exosomes, 40-150-nm extracellular vesicles, transport biological macromolecules that mediate intercellular communications. Although exosomes are known to originate from maturation of endosomes into multivesicular endosomes (also known as multivesicular bodies) with subsequent fusion of the multivesicular endosomes with the plasma membrane, it remains unclear how cargos are selected for exosomal release. Using an inducible expression system for the exosome cargo protein GPRC5B and following its trafficking trajectory, we show here that newly synthesized GPRC5B protein accumulates in the Golgi complex prior to its release into exosomes. The L-type lectin LMAN2 (also known as VIP36) appears to be specifically required for the accumulation of GPRC5B in the Golgi complex and restriction of GPRC5B transport along the exosomal pathway. This may occur due to interference with the adaptor protein GGA1-mediated trans Golgi network-to-endosome transport of GPRC5B. The adaptor protein CD2AP-mediated internalization following cell surface delivery appears to contribute to the Golgi accumulation of GPRC5B, possibly in parallel with biosynthetic/secretory trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum. Our data thus reveal a Golgi-traversing pathway for exosomal release of the cargo protein GPRC5B in which CD2AP facilitates the entry and LMAN2 impedes the exit of the flux, respectively. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Tissue-Specific Floral Transcriptome Analysis of the Sexually Deceptive Orchid Chiloglottis trapeziformis Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis and Regulation of Its Unique UV-B Dependent Floral Volatile, Chiloglottone 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren C. J. Wong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Australian sexually deceptive orchid, Chiloglottis trapeziformis, employs a unique UV-B-dependent floral volatile, chiloglottone 1, for specific male wasp pollinator attraction. Chiloglottone 1 and related variants (2,5-dialkylcyclohexane-1,3-diones, represent a unique class of specialized metabolites presumed to be the product of cyclization between two fatty acid (FA precursors. However, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of precursors, intermediates, and transcriptional regulation remains to be discovered. Chiloglottone 1 production occurs in the aggregation of calli (callus on the labellum under continuous UV-B light. Therefore, deep sequencing, transcriptome assembly, and differential expression (DE analysis were performed across different tissue types and UV-B treatments. Transcripts expressed in the callus and labellum (∼23,000 transcripts were highly specialized and enriched for a diversity of known and novel metabolic pathways. DE analysis between chiloglottone-emitting callus versus the remainder of the labellum showed strong coordinated induction of entire FA biosynthesis and β-oxidation pathways including genes encoding Ketoacyl-ACP Synthase, Acyl-CoA Oxidase, and Multifunctional Protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed potential gene duplicates with tissue-specific differential regulation including two Acyl-ACP Thioesterase B and a Ketoacyl-ACP Synthase genes. UV-B treatment induced the activation of UVR8-mediated signaling and large-scale transcriptome changes in both tissues, however, neither FA biosynthesis/β-oxidation nor other lipid metabolic pathways showed clear indications of concerted DE. Gene co-expression network analysis identified three callus-specific modules enriched with various lipid metabolism categories. These networks also highlight promising candidates involved in the cyclization of chiloglottone 1 intermediates (e.g., Bet v I and dimeric α,β barrel proteins and orchestrating regulation of precursor

  11. Sequential action of FRUITFULL as a modulator of the activity of the floral regulators SVP and SOC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanzà, Vicente; Martínez-Fernández, Irene; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    The role in flowering time of the MADS-box transcription factor fruitfulL (FUL) has been proposed in many works. FUL has been connected to several flowering pathways as a target of the photoperiod, ambient temperature, and age pathways and it is has been shown to promote flowering in a partially redundant manner with suppressor of overexpression of constans 1 (SOC1). However, the position of FUL in these genetic networks, as well as the functional output of FUL activity during floral transition, remains unclear. In this work, a genetic approach has been undertaken to understand better the functional hierarchies involving FUL and other MADS-box factors with well established roles as floral integrators such as SOC1, short vegetative phase (svp) or flowering locus C (FLC). Our results suggest a prominent role of FUL in promoting reproductive transition when photoinductive signalling is suppressed by short-day conditions or by high levels of FLC expression, as in non-vernalized winter ecotypes. A model is proposed where the sequential formation of FUL-SVP and FUL-SOC1 heterodimers may mediate the vegetative and meristem identity transitions, counteracting the repressive effect of FLC and SVP on flowering.

  12. Changes in cis-regulatory elements of a key floral regulator are associated with divergence of inflorescence architectures.

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    Kusters, Elske; Della Pina, Serena; Castel, Rob; Souer, Erik; Koes, Ronald

    2015-08-15

    Higher plant species diverged extensively with regard to the moment (flowering time) and position (inflorescence architecture) at which flowers are formed. This seems largely caused by variation in the expression patterns of conserved genes that specify floral meristem identity (FMI), rather than changes in the encoded proteins. Here, we report a functional comparison of the promoters of homologous FMI genes from Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and Antirrhinum. Analysis of promoter-reporter constructs in petunia and Arabidopsis, as well as complementation experiments, showed that the divergent expression of leafy (LFY) and the petunia homolog aberrant leaf and flower (ALF) results from alterations in the upstream regulatory network rather than cis-regulatory changes. The divergent expression of unusual floral organs (UFO) from Arabidopsis, and the petunia homolog double top (DOT), however, is caused by the loss or gain of cis-regulatory promoter elements, which respond to trans-acting factors that are expressed in similar patterns in both species. Introduction of pUFO:UFO causes no obvious defects in Arabidopsis, but in petunia it causes the precocious and ectopic formation of flowers. This provides an example of how a change in a cis-regulatory region can account for a change in the plant body plan.

  13. A pair of floral regulators sets critical day length for Hd3a florigen expression in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hironori; Nonoue, Yasunori; Yano, Masahiro; Izawa, Takeshi

    2010-07-01

    The critical day length triggering photoperiodic flowering is set as an acute, accurate threshold in many short-day plants, including rice. Here, we show that, unlike the Arabidopsis florigen gene FT, the rice florigen gene Hd3a (Heading date 3a) is toggled by only a 30-min day-length reduction. Hd3a expression is induced by Ehd1 (Early heading date 1) expression when blue light coincides with the morning phase set by OsGIGANTEA(OsGI)-dependent circadian clocks. Ehd1 expression is repressed by both night breaks under short-day conditions and morning light signals under long-day conditions. Ghd7 (Grain number, plant height and heading date 7) was acutely induced when phytochrome signals coincided with a photosensitive phase set differently by distinct photoperiods and this induction repressed Ehd1 the next morning. Thus, two distinct gating mechanisms--of the floral promoter Ehd1 and the floral repressor Ghd7--could enable manipulation of slight differences in day length to control Hd3a transcription with a critical day-length threshold.

  14. Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R

  15. Transcriptional Regulations on the Low-Temperature-Induced Floral Transition in an Orchidaceae Species, Dendrobium nobile: An Expressed Sequence Tags Analysis

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    Shan Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernalization-induced flowering is a cold-relevant adaptation in many species, but little is known about the genetic basis behind in Orchidaceae species. Here, we reported a collection of 15017 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the vernalized axillary buds of an Orchidaceae species, Dendrobium nobile, which were assembled for 9616 unique gene clusters. Functional enrichment analysis showed that genes in relation to the responses to stresses, especially in the form of low temperatures, and those involving in protein biosynthesis and chromatin assembly were significantly overrepresented during 40 days of vernalization. Additionally, a total of 59 putative flowering-relevant genes were recognized, including those homologous to known key players in vernalization pathways in temperate cereals or Arabidopsis, such as cereal VRN1, FT/VRN3, and Arabidopsis AGL19. Results from this study suggest that the networks regulating vernalization-induced floral transition are conserved, but just in a part, in D. nobile, temperate cereals, and Arabidopsis.

  16. Genetic Enhancer Analysis Reveals that FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 and OsMADS3 Co-operatively Regulate Maintenance and Determinacy of the Flower Meristem in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yukiko; Tanaka, Wakana; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kurata, Tetsuya; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2017-05-01

    Meristems such as the shoot apical meristem and flower meristem (FM) act as a reservoir of stem cells, which reproduce themselves and supply daughter cells for the differentiation of lateral organs. In Oryza sativa (rice), the FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2) gene, which is similar to Arabidopsis CLAVATA3, is involved in meristem maintenance. In fon2 mutants, the numbers of floral organs are increased due to an enlargement of the FM. To identify new factors regulating meristem maintenance in rice, we performed a genetic screening of mutants that enhanced the fon2 mutation, and found a mutant line (2B-424) in which pistil number was dramatically increased. By using a map-based approach and next-generation sequencing, we found that the line 2B-424 had a complete loss-of-function mutation (a large deletion) in OsMADS3, a class C MADS-box gene that is known to be involved in stamen specification. Disruption of OsMADS3 in the fon2 mutant by CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9) technology caused a flower phenotype similar to that of 2B-424, confirming that the gene responsible for enhancement of fon2 was OsMADS3. Morphological analysis showed that the fon2 and osmads3 mutations synergistically affected pistil development and FM determinacy. We also found that whorl 3 was duplicated in mature flowers and the FM was enlarged at an early developmental stage in severe osmads3 single mutants. These findings suggest that OsMADS3 is involved not only in FM determinacy in late flower development but also in FM activity in early flower development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Mutation at the tomato excessive number of floral organs (ENO) locus impairs floral meristem development, thus promoting an increased number of floral organs and fruit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lozano, Antonia; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Pérez-Martín, Fernando; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Lozano, Rafael; Angosto, Trinidad

    2015-03-01

    A novel tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) mutant affected in reproductive development, excessive number of floral organs (eno), is described in this study. The eno plants yielded flowers with a higher number of floral organs in the three innermost floral whorls and larger fruits than those found in wild-type plants. Scanning-electron microscopy study indicated that the rise in floral organ number and fruit size correlates with an increased size of floral meristem at early developmental stages. It has been reported that mutation at the FASCIATED (FAS) gene causes the development of flowers with supernumerary organs; however, complementation test and genetic mapping analyses proved that ENO is not an allele of the FAS locus. Furthermore, expression of WUSCHEL (SlWUS) and INHIBITOR OF MERISTEM ACTIVITY (IMA), the two main regulators of floral meristem activity in tomato, is altered in eno but not in fas flowers indicating that ENO could exert its function in the floral meristem independently of FAS. Interestingly, the eno mutation delayed the expression of IMA leading to a prolonged expression of SlWUS, which would explain the greater size of floral meristem. Taken together, results showed that ENO plays a significant role in the genetic pathway regulating tomato floral meristem development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Building beauty: the genetic control of floral patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, J. U., and Weigel, D.

    2002-02-01

    OAK-B135 Floral organ identity is controlled by combinatorial action of homeotic genes expressed in different territories within the emerging flower. This review discusses recent progress in our understanding of floral homeotic genes, with an emphasis on how their region-specific expression is regulated.

  19. No time for candy: passionfruit (Passiflora edulis) plants down-regulate damage-induced extra floral nectar production in response to light signals of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Miriam M; Mazza, Carlos A; Astigueta, María S; Ciarla, Ana M; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2013-09-01

    Plant fitness is often defined by the combined effects of herbivory and competition, and plants must strike a delicate balance between their ability to capture limiting resources and defend against herbivore attack. Many plants use indirect defenses, such as volatile compounds and extra floral nectaries (EFN), to attract canopy arthropods that are natural enemies of herbivorous organisms. While recent evidence suggests that upon perception of low red to far-red (R:FR) ratios, which signal the proximity of competitors, plants down-regulate resource allocation to direct chemical defenses, it is unknown if a similar phytochrome-mediated response occurs for indirect defenses. We evaluated the interactive effects of R:FR ratio and simulated herbivory on nectar production by EFNs of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa). The activity of petiolar EFNs dramatically increased in response to simulated herbivory and hormonal treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Low R:FR ratios, which induced a classic "shade-avoidance" repertoire of increased stem elongation in P. edulis, strongly suppressed the EFN response triggered by simulated herbivory or MeJA application. Strikingly, the EFN response to wounding and light quality was localized to the branches that received the treatments. In vines like P. edulis, a local response would allow the plants to precisely adjust their light harvesting and defense phenotypes to the local conditions encountered by individual branches when foraging for resources in patchy canopies. Consistent with the emerging paradigm that phytochrome regulation of jasmonate signaling is a central modulator of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, our results demonstrate that light quality is a strong regulator of indirect defenses.

  20. Characterization of Toll-like receptors in primary lung epithelial cells: strong impact of the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C on the regulation of Toll-like receptors, adaptor proteins and inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weith Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial and viral exacerbations play a crucial role in a variety of lung diseases including COPD or asthma. Since the lung epithelium is a major source of various inflammatory mediators that affect the immune response, we analyzed the inflammatory reaction of primary lung epithelial cells to different microbial molecules that are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR. Methods The effects of TLR ligands on primary small airway epithelial cells were analyzed in detail with respect to cytokine, chemokine and matrix metalloproteinase secretion. In addition, the regulation of the expression of TLRs and their adaptor proteins in small airway epithelial cells was investigated. Results Our data demonstrate that poly(I:C, a synthetic analog of viral dsRNA, mediated the strongest proinflammatory effects among the tested ligands, including an increased secretion of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, GM-CSF, GRO-α, TARC, MCP-1, MIP-3α, RANTES, IFN-β, IP-10 and ITAC as well as an increased release of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-13. Furthermore, our data show that poly(I:C as well as type-1 and type-2 cytokines have a pronounced effect on the expression of TLRs and molecules involved in TLR signaling in small airway epithelial cells. Poly(I:C induced an elevated expression of TLR1, TLR2 and TLR3 and increased the gene expression of the general TLR adaptor MyD88 and IRAK-2. Simultaneously, poly(I:C decreased the expression of TLR5, TLR6 and TOLLIP. Conclusion Poly(I:C, an analog of viral dsRNA and a TLR3 ligand, triggers a strong inflammatory response in small airway epithelial cells that is likely to contribute to viral exacerbations of pulmonary diseases like asthma or COPD. The pronounced effects of poly(I:C on the expression of Toll-like receptors and molecules involved in TLR signaling is assumed to influence the immune response of the lung epithelium to viral and bacterial infections. Likewise, the regulation of TLR expression by type

  1. A flower is born: an update on Arabidopsis floral meristem formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denay, Grégoire; Chahtane, Hicham; Tichtinsky, Gabrielle; Parcy, François

    2017-02-01

    In Arabidopsis, floral meristems appear on the flanks of the inflorescence meristem. Their stereotypic development, ultimately producing the four whorls of floral organs, is essentially controlled by a network coordinating growth and cell-fate determination. This network integrates hormonal signals, transcriptional regulators, and mechanical constraints. Mechanisms regulating floral meristem formation have been studied at many different scales, from protein structure to tissue modeling. In this paper, we review recent findings related to the emergence of the floral meristem and floral fate determination and examine how this field has been impacted by recent technological developments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prolonged exposure to elevated temperature induces floral transition via up-regulation of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 and subsequent reduction of the ascorbate redox ratio in Oncidium hybrid orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Dan-Chu; Shen, Chin-Hui; SenthilKumar, Rajendran; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2014-12-01

    The bolting time of the Oncidium hybrid orchid is not season dependent and so it is a useful year-round model system to study thermal-induced flowering mechanisms in planta. Previously, we reported that a low ascorbate (AsA) content is essential for floral transition in Oncidium; however, the environmental factors governing initiation of the flowering process remained to be elucidated. The current study revealed that a prolonged elevated temperature treatment (30°C over a 14 d period) induces floral transition. This floral induction in response to thermal stress was associated with a significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and a lowered AsA redox ratio, as well as prominently up-regulated expression of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cytAPX1). Transcriptome analysis confirmed that increased temperature affected the differential expression of genes involved in antioxidant metabolism. Likewise, transgenic Arabidopsis ectopically overexpressing Oncidium cytAPX1 displayed an early-flowering phenotype and low AsA redox ratio under thermal stress, while cytAPX1 mutants, apx1-1 and apx1-2, exhibited a delayed-flowering phenotype and a high AsA redox ratio. Our present data illustrate that the floral transition response to thermal stress is mediated by the AsA redox ratio, and that CytAPX plays a pivotal role in modulating the AsA redox ratio in Oncidium hybrid orchid. Taken together, the results from this investigation of the thermal-induced flowering mechanism indicated that the AsA redox ratio is a master switch to mediate phase transition from the vegetative to reproductive stage.

  3. Ubiquitylation of Fe65 adaptor protein by neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally down regulated 4-2 (Nedd4-2) via the WW domain interaction with Fe65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jeoung; Hyun, Sunghee; Chun, Jaesun; Shin, Sung Hwa; Kang, Sang Sun

    2009-08-31

    Fe65 has been characterized as an adaptor protein, originally identified as an expressed sequence tag (EST) corresponding to an mRNA expressed at high levels in the rat brain. It contains one WW domain and two phosphotyrosine interaction/phosphotyrosine binding domains (PID1/PID2). As the neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally down regulated 4-2 (Nedd4-2) has a putative WW domain binding motif ((72)PPLP(75)) in the N-terminal domain, we hypothesized that Fe65 associates with Nedd4-2 through a WW domain interaction, which has the characteristics of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. In this paper, we present evidence for the interaction between Fe65 WW domain and Nedd4-2 through its specific motif, using a pull down approach and co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, the co-localization of Fe65 and Nedd4-2 were observed via confocal microscopy. Co-localization of Fe65 and Nedd4-2 was disrupted by either the mutation of Fe65 WW domain or its putative binding motif of Nedd4-2. When the ubiquitin assay was performed, the interaction of Nedd4-2 (wt) with Fe65 is required for the cell apoptosis and the ubiquitylation of Fe65. We also observed that the ubiquitylation of Fe65 (wt) was augmented depending on Nedd4-2 expression levels, whereas the Fe65 WW domain mutant (W243KP245K) or the Nedd4-2 AL mutant ((72)PPLP(75) was changed to (72)APLA(75)) was under-ubiquitinated significantly. Thus, our observations implicated that the protein-protein interaction between the WW domain of Fe65 and the putative binding motif of Nedd4-2 down-regulates Fe65 protein stability and subcellular localization through its ubiquitylation, to contribute cell apoptosis.

  4. The fifth adaptor protein complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hirst

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Adaptor protein (AP complexes sort cargo into vesicles for transport from one membrane compartment of the cell to another. Four distinct AP complexes have been identified, which are present in most eukaryotes. We report the existence of a fifth AP complex, AP-5. Tagged AP-5 localises to a late endosomal compartment in HeLa cells. AP-5 does not associate with clathrin and is insensitive to brefeldin A. Knocking down AP-5 subunits interferes with the trafficking of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and causes the cell to form swollen endosomal structures with emanating tubules. AP-5 subunits can be found in all five eukaryotic supergroups, but they have been co-ordinately lost in many organisms. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis provides robust resolution, for the first time, into the evolutionary order of emergence of the adaptor subunit families, showing AP-3 as the basal complex, followed by AP-5, AP-4, and AP-1 and AP-2. Thus, AP-5 is an evolutionarily ancient complex, which is involved in endosomal sorting, and which has links with hereditary spastic paraplegia.

  5. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS 5 utilises distinct domains for regulation of JAK1 and interaction with the adaptor protein Shc-1.

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    Edmond M Linossi

    Full Text Available Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS5 is thought to act as a tumour suppressor through negative regulation of JAK/STAT and epidermal growth factor (EGF signaling. However, the mechanism/s by which SOCS5 acts on these two distinct pathways is unclear. We show for the first time that SOCS5 can interact directly with JAK via a unique, conserved region in its N-terminus, which we have termed the JAK interaction region (JIR. Co-expression of SOCS5 was able to specifically reduce JAK1 and JAK2 (but not JAK3 or TYK2 autophosphorylation and this function required both the conserved JIR and additional sequences within the long SOCS5 N-terminal region. We further demonstrate that SOCS5 can directly inhibit JAK1 kinase activity, although its mechanism of action appears distinct from that of SOCS1 and SOCS3. In addition, we identify phosphoTyr317 in Shc-1 as a high-affinity substrate for the SOCS5-SH2 domain and suggest that SOCS5 may negatively regulate EGF and growth factor-driven Shc-1 signaling by binding to this site. These findings suggest that different domains in SOCS5 contribute to two distinct mechanisms for regulation of cytokine and growth factor signaling.

  6. Gama-Tocopherol Accumulation and Floral Differentiation of Medicinal Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. in Response to Plant Growth Regulators

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    Mohammad SEDGHI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in biochemical and agronomical characteristics were studied in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. plants under different treatments with plant growth regulators (PGRs. The seeds were subjected to priming with PGRs before planting and plants unerwent foliar sprays with different solutions of PGRs at 10 day-intervals after flowering. y-tocopherol (y-toc content of grains was found to be increased under gibberellic acid (GA3 treatment. The accumulation of y-tocopherol in the grains of GA3 treated plants was approximately 19.5 % higher than the control and reached 220.2 mg kg-1 dry pumpkin grains. The number of female flowers per plant was positively affected by PGRs and was 10.1 and 1.89 respectively, in the naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and GA3 treated plants. A significant efficiency of treatments was observed upon fresh fruit yield. The yield increased from 4831 t ha-1 in the control to 6820 t ha-1 with NAA treatment. Priming treatments increased seedling emergence rate and percent. The highest seedling emergence rate was found in GA3 treated seeds.

  7. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Adaptor Protein Skp1 Is Glycosylated by an Evolutionarily Conserved Pathway That Regulates Protist Growth and Development*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Kazi; Zhao, Peng; Mandalasi, Msano; van der Wel, Hanke; Wells, Lance; Blader, Ira J.; West, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protist parasite of warm-blooded animals that causes disease by proliferating intracellularly in muscle and the central nervous system. Previous studies showed that a prolyl 4-hydroxylase related to animal HIFα prolyl hydroxylases is required for optimal parasite proliferation, especially at low O2. We also observed that Pro-154 of Skp1, a subunit of the Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF)-class of E3-ubiquitin ligases, is a natural substrate of this enzyme. In an unrelated protist, Dictyostelium discoideum, Skp1 hydroxyproline is modified by five sugars via the action of three glycosyltransferases, Gnt1, PgtA, and AgtA, which are required for optimal O2-dependent development. We show here that TgSkp1 hydroxyproline is modified by a similar pentasaccharide, based on mass spectrometry, and that assembly of the first three sugars is dependent on Toxoplasma homologs of Gnt1 and PgtA. Reconstitution of the glycosyltransferase reactions in extracts with radioactive sugar nucleotide substrates and appropriate Skp1 glycoforms, followed by chromatographic analysis of acid hydrolysates of the reaction products, confirmed the predicted sugar identities as GlcNAc, Gal, and Fuc. Disruptions of gnt1 or pgtA resulted in decreased parasite growth. Off target effects were excluded based on restoration of the normal glycan chain and growth upon genetic complementation. By analogy to Dictyostelium Skp1, the mechanism may involve regulation of assembly of the SCF complex. Understanding the mechanism of Toxoplasma Skp1 glycosylation is expected to help develop it as a drug target for control of the pathogen, as the glycosyltransferases are absent from mammalian hosts. PMID:26719340

  8. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Adaptor Protein Skp1 Is Glycosylated by an Evolutionarily Conserved Pathway That Regulates Protist Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Kazi; Zhao, Peng; Mandalasi, Msano; van der Wel, Hanke; Wells, Lance; Blader, Ira J; West, Christopher M

    2016-02-26

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protist parasite of warm-blooded animals that causes disease by proliferating intracellularly in muscle and the central nervous system. Previous studies showed that a prolyl 4-hydroxylase related to animal HIFα prolyl hydroxylases is required for optimal parasite proliferation, especially at low O2. We also observed that Pro-154 of Skp1, a subunit of the Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF)-class of E3-ubiquitin ligases, is a natural substrate of this enzyme. In an unrelated protist, Dictyostelium discoideum, Skp1 hydroxyproline is modified by five sugars via the action of three glycosyltransferases, Gnt1, PgtA, and AgtA, which are required for optimal O2-dependent development. We show here that TgSkp1 hydroxyproline is modified by a similar pentasaccharide, based on mass spectrometry, and that assembly of the first three sugars is dependent on Toxoplasma homologs of Gnt1 and PgtA. Reconstitution of the glycosyltransferase reactions in extracts with radioactive sugar nucleotide substrates and appropriate Skp1 glycoforms, followed by chromatographic analysis of acid hydrolysates of the reaction products, confirmed the predicted sugar identities as GlcNAc, Gal, and Fuc. Disruptions of gnt1 or pgtA resulted in decreased parasite growth. Off target effects were excluded based on restoration of the normal glycan chain and growth upon genetic complementation. By analogy to Dictyostelium Skp1, the mechanism may involve regulation of assembly of the SCF complex. Understanding the mechanism of Toxoplasma Skp1 glycosylation is expected to help develop it as a drug target for control of the pathogen, as the glycosyltransferases are absent from mammalian hosts.

  9. Role of adaptor proteins in secretory granule biogenesis and maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde L Bonnemaison

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the regulated secretory pathway, secretory granules (SGs store peptide hormones that are released on demand. SGs are formed at the trans-Golgi network (TGN and must undergo a maturation process to become responsive to secretagogues. The production of mature SGs requires concentrating newly synthesized soluble content proteins in granules whose membranes contain the appropriate integral membrane proteins. The mechanisms underlying the sorting of soluble and integral membrane proteins destined for SGs from other proteins are not yet well understood. For soluble proteins, luminal pH and divalent metals can affect aggregation and interaction with surrounding membranes. The trafficking of granule membrane proteins can be controlled by both luminal and cytosolic factors. Cytosolic adaptor proteins, which recognize the cytosolic domains of proteins that span the SG membrane, have been shown to play essential roles in the assembly of functional SGs. Adaptor protein 1A (AP-1A is known to interact with specific motifs in its cargo proteins and with the clathrin heavy chain, contributing to the formation of a clathrin coat. AP-1A is present in patches on immature SG membranes, where it removes cargo and facilitates SG maturation. AP-1A recruitment to membranes can be modulated by PACS-1 (Phosphofurin Acidic Cluster Sorting protein 1, a cytosolic protein which interacts with both AP-1A and cargo that has been phosphorylated by casein kinase II. A cargo/PACS-1/AP-1A complex is necessary to drive the appropriate transport of several cargo proteins within the regulated secretory pathway. The GGA (Golgi-localized, -ear containing, ADP-ribosylation factor binding family of adaptor proteins serve a similar role. We review the functions of AP-1A, PACS-1 and GGAs in facilitating the retrieval of proteins from immature SGs and review examples of cargo proteins whose trafficking within the regulated secretory pathway is governed by adaptor proteins.

  10. CD150 association with either the SH2-containing inositol phosphatase or the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase is regulated by the adaptor protein SH2D1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlapatska, L M; Mikhalap, S V; Berdova, A G; Zelensky, O M; Yun, T J; Nichols, K E; Clark, E A; Sidorenko, S P

    2001-05-01

    CD150 (SLAM/IPO-3) is a cell surface receptor that, like the B cell receptor, CD40, and CD95, can transmit positive or negative signals. CD150 can associate with the SH2-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP), the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2), and the adaptor protein SH2 domain protein 1A (SH2D1A/DSHP/SAP, also called Duncan's disease SH2-protein (DSHP) or SLAM-associated protein (SAP)). Mutations in SH2D1A are found in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Here we report that SH2D1A is expressed in tonsillar B cells and in some B lymphoblastoid cell lines, where CD150 coprecipitates with SH2D1A and SHIP. However, in SH2D1A-negative B cell lines, including B cell lines from X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome patients, CD150 associates only with SHP-2. SH2D1A protein levels are up-regulated by CD40 cross-linking and down-regulated by B cell receptor ligation. Using GST-fusion proteins with single replacements of tyrosine at Y269F, Y281F, Y307F, or Y327F in the CD150 cytoplasmic tail, we found that the same phosphorylated Y281 and Y327 are essential for both SHP-2 and SHIP binding. The presence of SH2D1A facilitates binding of SHIP to CD150. Apparently, SH2D1A may function as a regulator of alternative interactions of CD150 with SHP-2 or SHIP via a novel TxYxxV/I motif (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM)). Multiple sequence alignments revealed the presence of this TxYxxV/I motif not only in CD2 subfamily members but also in the cytoplasmic domains of the members of the SHP-2 substrate 1, sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin, carcinoembryonic Ag, and leukocyte-inhibitory receptor families.

  11. Challenges in using cultured primary rodent hepatocytes or cell lines to study hepatic HDL receptor SR-BI regulation by its cytoplasmic adaptor PDZK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Tsukamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PDZK1 is a four PDZ-domain containing cytoplasmic protein that binds to a variety of membrane proteins via their C-termini and can influence the abundance, localization and/or function of its target proteins. One of these targets in hepatocytes in vivo is the HDL receptor SR-BI. Normal hepatic expression of SR-BI protein requires PDZK1 - <5% of normal hepatic SR-BI is seen in the livers of PDZK1 knockout mice. Progress has been made in identifying features of PDZK1 required to control hepatic SR-BI in vivo using hepatic expression of wild-type and mutant forms of PDZK1 in wild-type and PDZK1 KO transgenic mice. Such in vivo studies are time consuming and expensive, and cannot readily be used to explore many features of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have explored the potential to use either primary rodent hepatocytes in culture using 2D collagen gels with newly developed optimized conditions or PDZK1/SR-BI co-transfected cultured cell lines (COS, HEK293 for such studies. SR-BI and PDZK1 protein and mRNA expression levels fell rapidly in primary hepatocyte cultures, indicating this system does not adequately mimic hepatocytes in vivo for analysis of the PDZK1 dependence of SR-BI. Although PDZK1 did alter SR-BI protein expression in the cell lines, its influence was independent of SR-BI's C-terminus, and thus is not likely to occur via the same mechanism as that which occurs in hepatocytes in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Caution must be exercised in using primary hepatocytes or cultured cell lines when studying the mechanism underlying the regulation of hepatic SR-BI by PDZK1. It may be possible to use SR-BI and PDZK1 expression as sensitive markers for the in vivo-like state of hepatocytes to further improve primary hepatocyte cell culture conditions.

  12. Removal of floral microbiota reduces floral terpene emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, Josep; Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Llusia, Joan; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Rico, Laura; Sardans, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume; Filella, Iolanda

    2014-10-01

    The emission of floral terpenes plays a key role in pollination in many plant species. We hypothesized that the floral phyllospheric microbiota could significantly influence these floral terpene emissions because microorganisms also produce and emit terpenes. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of removing the microbiota from flowers. We fumigated Sambucus nigra L. plants, including their flowers, with a combination of three broad-spectrum antibiotics and measured the floral emissions and tissular concentrations in both antibiotic-fumigated and non-fumigated plants. Floral terpene emissions decreased by ca. two thirds after fumigation. The concentration of terpenes in floral tissues did not decrease, and floral respiration rates did not change, indicating an absence of damage to the floral tissues. The suppression of the phyllospheric microbial communities also changed the composition and proportion of terpenes in the volatile blend. One week after fumigation, the flowers were not emitting β-ocimene, linalool, epoxylinalool, and linalool oxide. These results show a key role of the floral phyllospheric microbiota in the quantity and quality of floral terpene emissions and therefore a possible key role in pollination.

  13. Floral evolution: Beyond traditional viewpoint of pollinator mediated floral design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chunfeng; GUO Youhao

    2005-01-01

    Pollination biology provides new insight for understanding the evolutionary mechanism and process of the existing diversity in floral design of angiosperms. Evolutionary biologists have established some rules and models to try to explain the ubiquitous relationship between pollination system and floral evolution. However, as new techniques have been applied and more and more new pollination events found in recent years, the relationship between pollination system and floral evolution has become less clear. Researchers realized that floral evolution is more complicated and idiosyncratic than simple adaptive models. The traditional viewpoints of pollinator mediated floral design urgently need new reevaluation. This paper attempts to make a brief review of such main opinions and introduce their new insights according to recent studies. Finally, we also give some suggestions for future study by reviewing several new viewpoints about floral evolution.

  14. Photoperiod response and floral transition in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolabu, Tezera W; Tadege, Million

    2016-12-01

    Sorghum is a short day plant with strong photoperiod response and its cultivation for grain in temperate regions necessitated the development of photoperiod insensitive mutants that can flower rapidly in the long days of summer. Wild type genotypes grow vegetatively in summer accumulating significant biomass before floral transition ensues during the shorter days of fall. Thus, photoperiod insensitive mutants are grown for grain production while photoperiod sensitive wild type genotypes are grown for forage and biomass feedstock production in the United States. However, the molecular mechanism of photoperiod response and floral transition is poorly understood in sorghum. We have previously reported 3 FLOWERING LOCUS T homologues (SbFT1, SbFT8 and SbFT10) that serve as the ultimate mediators of photoperiod response and floral transition, but more work remains to be done to clearly define the molecular function of the upstream regulatory factors. One of the major QTL that accounts for 85% of the flowering time variation, which was reported to be encoding the PRR37 protein is now debated to be encoding the SbFT12 protein, raising further questions as to how SbFT12 may regulate sorghum florigens. Further molecular analyses will uncover the true nature of the day length sensors in sorghum and the mechanisms of their interactions with florigens to modulate photoperiod dependent vegetative growth and floral transition.

  15. Circadian rhythms in floral scent emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myles eFenske

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To successfully recruit pollinators, plants often release attractive floral scents at specific times of day to coincide with pollinator foraging. This timing of scent emission is thought to be evolutionarily beneficial to maximize resource efficiency while attracting only useful pollinators. Temporal regulation of scent emission is tied to the activity of the specific metabolic pathways responsible for scent production. Although floral volatile profiling in various plants indicated a contribution by the circadian clock, the mechanisms by which the circadian clock regulates timing of floral scent emission remained elusive. Recent studies using two species in the Solanaceae family provided initial insight into molecular clock regulation of scent emission timing. In Petunia hybrida, the benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP pathway is the major metabolic pathway that produces floral volatiles. Three MYB-type transcription factors, ODORANT1 (ODO1, EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS I (EOBI, and EOBII, all of which show diurnal rhythms in mRNA expression, act as positive regulators for several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway. Recently, in P. hybrida and Nicotiana attenuata, homologs of the Arabidopsis clock gene LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY have been shown to have a similar role in the circadian clock in these plants, and to also determine the timing of scent emission. In addition, in P. hybrida, PhLHY directly represses ODO1 and several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway during the morning as an important negative regulator of scent emission. These findings facilitate our understanding of the relationship between a molecular timekeeper and the timing of scent emission, which may influence reproductive success.

  16. ABC model and floral evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guisheng; MENG Zheng; KONG Hongzhi; CHEN Zhiduan; LU Anming

    2003-01-01

    The paper introduces the classical ABC model of floral development and thereafter ABCD, ABCDE and quartet models, and presents achievements in the studies on floral evolution such as the improved understanding on the relationship of reproductive organs between gnetophytes and angiosperms, new results in perianth evolution and identified homology of floral organs between dicots and monocots. The evo-devo studies on plant taxa at different evolutionary levels are useful to better understanding the homology of floral organs, and to clarifying the mysteries of the origin and subsequent diversification of flowers.

  17. Dermatoses among floral shop workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiboutot, D M; Hamory, B H; Marks, J G

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the increasing incidence of hand dermatitis in floral shop workers in the United States and its possible association to the plant Alstroemeria, a flower that has become popular since its introduction in 1981, prompted investigation of the prevalence and cause of hand dermatitis in a sample of floral workers. Fifty-seven floral workers were surveyed, and 15 (26%) reported hand dermatitis within the previous 12 months. Sixteen floral workers (eight with dermatitis) volunteered to be patch tested to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard and Perfume Trays, a series of eight pesticides and 20 plant allergens. Of four of seven floral designers and arrangers who reported hand dermatitis, three reacted positively to patch tests to tuliposide A, the allergen in Alstroemeria. Patch test readings for all other plant extracts were negative. A positive reading for a test to one pesticide, difolatan (Captafol), was noted, the relevance of which is unknown.

  18. The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is an F-box protein required for normal patterning and growth in the floral meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samach, A; Klenz, J E; Kohalmi, S E; Risseeuw, E; Haughn, G W; Crosby, W L

    1999-11-01

    Genetic and molecular studies have suggested that the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene, from Arabidopsis thaliana, is expressed in all shoot apical meristems, and is involved in the regulation of a complex set of developmental events during floral development, including floral meristem and floral organ identity. Results from in situ hybridization using genes expressed early in floral development as probes indicate that UFO controls growth of young floral primordia. Transgenic constructs were used to provide evidence that UFO regulates floral organ identity by activating or maintaining transcription of the class B organ-identity gene APETALA 3, but not PISTILLATA. In an attempt to understand the biochemical mode of action of the UFO gene product, we show here that UFO is an F-box protein that interacts with Arabidopsis SKP1-like proteins, both in the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro. In yeast and other organisms both F-box proteins and SKP1 homologues are subunits of specific ubiquitin E3 enzyme complexes that target specific proteins for degradation. The protein selected for degradation by the complex is specified by the F-box proteins. It is therefore possible that the role of UFO is to target for degradation specific proteins controlling normal growth patterns in the floral primordia, as well as proteins that negatively regulate APETALA 3 transcription.

  19. The Transmembrane Adaptor Protein SIT Inhibits TCR-Mediated Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Börge; Krieger, Tina; Kalinski, Thomas; Thielitz, Anja; Reinhold, Dirk; Roessner, Albert; Schraven, Burkhart; Simeoni, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAPs) organize signaling complexes at the plasma membrane, and thus function as critical linkers and integrators of signaling cascades downstream of antigen receptors. We have previously shown that the transmembrane adaptor protein SIT regulates the threshold for thymocyte selection. Moreover, T cells from SIT-deficient mice are hyperresponsive to CD3 stimulation and undergo enhanced lymphopenia-induced homeostatic proliferation, thus indicating that SIT inhibits TCR-mediated signaling. Here, we have further addressed how SIT regulates signaling cascades in T cells. We demonstrate that the loss of SIT enhances TCR-mediated Akt activation and increased phosphorylation/inactivation of Foxo1, a transcription factor of the Forkhead family that inhibits cell cycle progression and regulates T-cell homeostasis. We have also shown that CD4+ T cells from SIT-deficient mice display increased CD69 and CD40L expression indicating an altered activation status. Additional biochemical analyses further revealed that suppression of SIT expression by RNAi in human T cells resulted in an enhanced proximal TCR signaling. In summary, the data identify SIT as an important modulator of TCR-mediated signaling that regulates T-cell activation, homeostasis and tolerance. PMID:21957439

  20. A Factor Linking Floral Organ Identity and Growth Revealed by Characterization of the Tomato Mutant unfinished flower development (ufd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos-Pertíñez, Sandra; Quinet, Muriel; Ortíz-Atienza, Ana; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Pons, Clara; Giménez, Estela; Angosto, Trinidad; Granell, Antonio; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e., floral organ identity and growth) in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers. Thus, the growth of floral buds was blocked at an early stage of development; therefore, we named this mutant as unfinished flower development (ufd). Genetic analysis performed in a segregating population of 543 plants showed that the abnormal phenotype was controlled by a single recessive mutation. Global gene expression analysis confirmed that several MADS-box genes regulating floral identity as well as other genes participating in cell division and different hormonal pathways were affected in their expression patterns in ufd mutant plants. Moreover, ufd mutant inflorescences showed higher hormone contents, particularly ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and strigol compared to wild type. Such results indicate that UFD may have a key function as positive regulator of the development of floral primordia once they have been initiated in the four floral whorls. This function should be performed by affecting the expression of floral organ identity and growth genes, together with hormonal signaling pathways.

  1. A factor linking floral organ identity and growth revealed by characterization of the tomato mutant unfinished flower development (ufd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Poyatos-Pertíñez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e. floral organ identity and growth in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers. Thus, the growth of floral buds was blocked at an early stage of development; therefore, we named this mutant as unfinished flower development (ufd. Genetic analysis performed in a segregating population of 543 plants showed that the abnormal phenotype was controlled by a single recessive mutation. Global gene expression analysis confirmed that several MADS-box genes regulating floral identity as well as other genes participating in cell division and different hormonal pathways were affected in their expression patterns in ufd mutant plants. Moreover, ufd mutant inflorescences showed higher hormone contents, particularly ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC and strigol compared to wild type. Such results indicate that UFD may have a key function as positive regulator of the development of floral primordia once they have been initiated in the four floral whorls. This function should be performed by affecting the expression of floral organ identity and growth genes, together with hormonal signalling pathways.

  2. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  3. Control of floral transition in the bioenergy crop switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lifang; Fu, Chunxiang; Lin, Hao; Wolabu, Tezera W; Wu, Yanqi; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Tadege, Million

    2016-10-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, has been a target in the U.S. as a renewable bioenergy crop because of its ability to produce moderate to high biomass yield on marginal soils. Delaying flowering can increase vegetative biomass production by allowing prolonged growth before switching to the reproductive phase. Despite the identification of flowering time as a biomass trait in switchgrass, the molecular regulatory factors involved in controlling floral transition are poorly understood. Here we identified PvFT1, PvAPL1-3 and PvSL1, 2 as key flowering regulators required from floral transition initiation to development of floral organs. PvFT1 expression in leaves is developmentally regulated peaking at the time of floral transition, and diurnally regulated with peak at approximately 2 h into the dark period. Ectopic expression of PvFT1 in Arabidopsis, Brachypodium and switchgrass led to extremely early flowering, and activation of FT downstream target genes, confirming that it is a strong activator of flowering in switchgrass. Ectopic expression of PvAPL1-3 and PvSL1, 2 in Arabidopsis also activated early flowering with distinct floral organ phenotypes. Our results suggest that switchgrass has conserved flowering pathway regulators similar to Arabidopsis and rice.

  4. Exploring structure and interactions of the bacterial adaptor protein YjbH by crosslinking mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Eryani, Yusra; Ib Rasmussen, Morten; Kjellström, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    Adaptor proteins assist proteases in degrading specific proteins under appropriate conditions. The adaptor protein YjbH promotes the degradation of an important global transcriptional regulator Spx, which controls the expression of hundreds of genes and operons in response to thiol-specific oxida......Adaptor proteins assist proteases in degrading specific proteins under appropriate conditions. The adaptor protein YjbH promotes the degradation of an important global transcriptional regulator Spx, which controls the expression of hundreds of genes and operons in response to thiol......-specific oxidative stress in Bacillus subtilis. Under normal growth conditions, the transcription factor is bound to the adaptor protein and therefore degraded by the AAA+ protease ClpXP. If this binding is alleviated during stress, the transcription factor accumulates and turns on genes encoding stress...... and validate a structure model of YjbH and then to probe its interactions with other proteins. The core structure of YjbH is reminiscent of DsbA family proteins. One lysine residue in YjbH (K177), located in one of the α-helices outside the thioredoxin fold, crosslinked to both Spx K99 and Spx K117, thereby...

  5. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS Controls Meristem Identity and Organ Primordia Fate in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. D.; Haughn, G. W.

    1995-09-01

    A novel gene that is involved in regulating flower initiation and development has been identified in Arabidopsis. This gene has been designated UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), with five corresponding nuclear recessive alleles designated ufo[middot]1 to ufo[middot]5. Under short day-length conditions, ufo homozygotes generate more coflorescences than do the wild type, and coflorescences often appear apical to the first floral shoot, resulting in a period of inflorescence development in which regions of floral and coflorescence shoots are produced alternately. ufo enhances the phenotype of weak leafy alleles, and the double mutant Ufo-1 Apetala1-1 produces only coflorescence-like shoots, suggesting that these two genes control different aspects of floral initiation. Floral development was also altered in Ufo plants. Ufo flowers have an altered organ number in all whorls, and organs in the first, second, and third whorls exhibit variable homeotic transformations. Ufo single and double mutant phenotypes suggest that the floral changes result from reduction in class B floral homeotic gene expression and fluctuations in the expression boundaries of class C function and FLO10. Surprisingly, in situ hybridization analysis revealed no obvious differences in expression pattern or level in developing Ufo flowers compared with that of the wild type for any class B or C gene studied. We propose that UFO acts in concert with known floral initiation genes and regulates the domains of floral homeotic gene function.

  6. Styles of Creativity: Adaptors and Innovators in a Singapore Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Jessie; Seng, Tan Oon; Kwang, Ng Aik

    2007-01-01

    Kirton (1976) described two creative styles, namely adaptors and innovators. Adaptors prefer to "do things better" whilst, innovators prefer to "do things differently". This study explored the relationship between two creative styles (adaptor and innovator) and the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness,…

  7. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that it...

  8. The Emerging and Diverse Roles of Src-Like Adaptor Proteins in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolett Marton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Src-like adaptor proteins (SLAP-1 and SLAP-2 were mainly studied in lymphocytes, where they act as negative regulators and provide fine control of receptor signaling, recently, several other functions of these proteins were discovered. In addition to the well-characterized immunoregulatory functions, SLAP proteins appear to have an essential role in the pathogenesis of type I hypersensitivity, osteoporosis, and numerous malignant diseases. Both adaptor proteins are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, where they have mostly inhibitory effects on multiple intracellular signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the diverse effects of SLAP proteins.

  9. The motogenic and mitogenic responses to HGF are amplified by the Shc adaptor protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelicci, G; Giordano, S; Zhen, Z

    1995-01-01

    The receptor of Hepatocyte Growth Factor-Scatter Factor (HGF) is a tyrosine kinase which regulates cell motility and growth. After ligand-induced tyrosine phosphorylation, the HGF receptor associates with the Shc adaptor, via the SH2 domain. Site-directed mutagenesis of the HGF receptor indicates...

  10. Preliminary Proteomic Analysis of Tobacco Leaves Influenced by Floral Scent from Rose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Yu; Yuan Su; Xiaogan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in plant communication.There are many VOCs such as:aroma alcohols,esters and terpenes in rose floral scent.The tobacco would be influenced by floral scent from rose is unclear.To understand tobacco response induced by rose floral scent,we carried out proteomic analysis of tobacco leaves influenced by floral scent from rose using 2-DE.Protein profiles showed that 470 ±37 protein spots could be detected in sole tobacco and 319 ±18 in tobacco/rose respectively.Among them,26 protein spots showed 2-fold change in protein expression level,6 protein spots were up-regulated and 20 were down-regulated.We hope to acquire more information to interpret proteomic change of tobacco leaves influenced by floral scent from rose after MS identification above differential expression proteins.

  11. POWERDRESS and diversified expression of the MIR172 gene family bolster the floral stem cell network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rae Eden Yumul

    Full Text Available Termination of the stem cells in the floral meristem (also known as floral determinacy is critical for the reproductive success of plants, and the molecular activities regulating floral determinacy are precisely orchestrated during the course of floral development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, regulators of floral determinacy include several transcription factor genes, such as APETALA2 (AP2, AGAMOUS (AG, SUPERMAN (SUP, and CRABSCLAW (CRC, as well as a microRNA (miRNA, miR172, which targets AP2. How the transcription factor and miRNA genes are coordinately regulated to achieve floral determinacy is unknown. A mutation in POWERDRESS (PWR, a previously uncharacterized gene encoding a SANT-domain-containing protein, was isolated in this study as an enhancer of the weakly indeterminate ag-10 allele. PWR was found to promote the transcription of CRC, MIR172a, b, and c and/or enhance Pol II occupancy at their promoters, without affecting MIR172d or e. A mutation in mature miR172d was additionally found to enhance the determinacy defects of ag-10 in an AP2-dependent manner, providing direct evidence that miR172d is functional in repressing AP2 and thereby contributes to floral determinacy. Thus, while PWR promotes floral determinacy by enhancing the expression of three of the five MIR172 members as well as CRC, MIR172d, whose expression is PWR-independent, also functions in floral stem cell termination. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how transcriptional diversification and functional redundancy of a miRNA family along with PWR-mediated co-regulation of miRNA and transcription factor genes contribute to the robustness of the floral determinacy network.

  12. Transcriptional signatures of ancient floral developmental genetics in avocado (Persea americana; Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanderbali, André S; Albert, Victor A; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Altman, Naomi S; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2009-06-02

    The debate on the origin and evolution of flowers has recently entered the field of developmental genetics, with focus on the design of the ancestral floral regulatory program. Flowers can differ dramatically among angiosperm lineages, but in general, male and female reproductive organs surrounded by a sterile perianth of sepals and petals constitute the basic floral structure. However, the basal angiosperm lineages exhibit spectacular diversity in the number, arrangement, and structure of floral organs, whereas the evolutionarily derived monocot and eudicot lineages share a far more uniform floral ground plan. Here we show that broadly overlapping transcriptional programs characterize the floral transcriptome of the basal angiosperm Persea americana (avocado), whereas floral gene expression domains are considerably more organ specific in the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings therefore support the "fading borders" model for organ identity determination in basal angiosperm flowers and extend it from the action of regulatory genes to downstream transcriptional programs. Furthermore, the declining expression of components of the staminal transcriptome in central and peripheral regions of Persea flowers concurs with elements of a previous hypothesis for developmental regulation in a gymnosperm "floral progenitor." Accordingly, in contrast to the canalized organ-specific regulatory apparatus of Arabidopsis, floral development may have been originally regulated by overlapping transcriptional cascades with fading gradients of influence from focal to bordering organs.

  13. XB130: A novel adaptor protein in cancer signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, RUIYAO; ZHANG, JINGYAO; WU, QIFEI; MENG, FANDI; LIU, CHANG

    2016-01-01

    Adaptor proteins are functional proteins that contain two or more protein-binding modules to link signaling proteins together, which affect cell growth and shape and have no enzymatic activity. The actin filament-associated protein (AFAP) family is an important member of the adaptor proteins, including AFAP1, AFAP1L1 and AFAP1L2/XB130. AFAP1 and AFAP1L1 share certain common characteristics and function as an actin-binding protein and a cSrc-activating protein. XB130 exhibits certain unique features in structure and function. The mRNA of XB130 is expressed in human spleen, thyroid, kidney, brain, lung, pancreas, liver, colon and stomach, and the most prominent disease associated with XB130 is cancer. XB130 has a controversial effect on cancer. Studies have shown that XB130 can promote cancer progression and downregulation of XB130-reduced growth of tumors derived from certain cell lines. A higher mRNA level of XB130 was shown to be associated with a better survival in non-small cell lung cancer. Previous studies have shown that XB130 can regulate cell growth, migration and invasion and possibly has the effect through the cAMP-cSrc-phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Except for cancer, XB130 is also associated with other pathological or physiological procedures, such as airway repair and regeneration. PMID:26998266

  14. Modulation of lipoprotein receptor functions by intracellular adaptor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Peggy C; Bock, Hans H

    2006-10-01

    Members of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family are critically involved in a wide range of physiological processes including lipid and vitamin homeostasis, cellular migration, neurodevelopment, and synaptic plasticity, to name a few. Lipoprotein receptors exert these diverse biological functions by acting as cellular uptake receptors or by inducing intracellular signaling cascades. It was discovered that a short sequence in the intracellular region of all lipoprotein receptors, Asn-Pro-X-Tyr (NPXY) is important for mediating either endocytosis or signal transduction events, and that this motif serves as a binding site for phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain containing scaffold proteins. These molecular adaptors connect the transmembrane receptors with the endocytosis machinery and regulate cellular trafficking, or function as assembly sites for dynamic multi-protein signaling complexes. Whereas the LDL receptor represents the archetype of an endocytic lipoprotein receptor, the structurally closely related apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor activate a kinase-dependent intracellular signaling cascade after binding to the neuronal signaling molecule Reelin. This review focuses on two related PTB domain containing adaptor proteins that mediate these divergent lipoprotein receptor responses, ARH (autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein) and Dab1 (disabled-1), and discusses the structural and molecular basis of this different behaviour.

  15. Floral thermogenesis: An adaptive strategy of pollination biology in Magnoliaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruohan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Floral thermogenesis plays a crucial role in pollination biology, especially in plant-pollinator interactions. We have recently explored how thermogenesis is related to pollinator activity and odour release in Magnolia sprengeri. By analyzing flower temperatures, emission of volatiles, and insect visitation, we found that floral blends released during pistillate and staminate stages were similar and coincided with sap beetle visitation. Thus, odour mimicry of staminate-stage flowers may occur during the pistillate stage and may be an adaptive strategy of Magnolia species to attract pollinators during both stages, ensuring successful pollination. In addition to the biological significance of floral thermogenesis in Magnolia species, we explored the underlying regulatory mechanisms via profiling miRNA expression in M. denudata flowers during thermogenic and non-thermogenic stages. We identified 17 miRNAs that may play regulatory roles in floral thermogenesis. Functional annotation of their target genes indicated that these miRNAs regulate floral thermogenesis by influencing cellular respiration and light reactions. These findings increase our understanding of plant-pollinator interactions and the regulatory mechanisms in thermogenic plants.

  16. Floral development and floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K; Armstrong, Joseph E

    2011-10-01

    Background and Aims Anaxagorea is the phylogenetically basalmost genus in the large tropical Annonaceae (custard apple family) of Magnoliales, but its floral structure is unknown in many respects. The aim of this study is to analyse evolutionarily interesting floral features in comparison with other genera of the Annonaceae and the sister family Eupomatiaceae. Methods Live flowers of Anaxagorea crassipetala were examined in the field with vital staining, liquid-fixed material was studied with scanning electron microscopy, and microtome section series were studied with light microscopy. In addition, herbarium material of two other Anaxagorea species was cursorily studied with the dissecting microscope. Key Results Floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea is regularly whorled (with complex whorls) as in all other Annonaceae with a low or medium number of floral organs studied so far (in those with numerous stamens and carpels, phyllotaxis becoming irregular in the androecium and gynoecium). The carpels are completely plicate as in almost all other Annonaceae. In these features Anaxagorea differs sharply from the sister family Eupomatiaceae, which has spiral floral phyllotaxis and ascidiate carpels. Flat stamens and the presence of inner staminodes differ from most other Annonaceae and may be plesiomorphic in Anaxagorea. However, the inner staminodes appear to be non-secretory in most Anaxagorea species, which differs from inner staminodes in other families of Magnoliales (Eupomatiaceae, Degeneriacae, Himantandraceae), which are secretory. Conclusions Floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea shows that there is no signature of a basal spiral pattern in Annonaceae and that complex whorls are an apomorphy not just for a part of the family but for the family in its entirety, and irregular phyllotaxis is derived. This and the presence of completely plicate carpels in Anaxagorea makes the family homogeneous and distinguishes it from the closest relatives in Magnoliales.

  17. Floral therapy: Floral essences kinde-Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta M., Emma M.; Salud Pública. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Villarán, Jhon Eddowes; Facultad de Psicología. Universidad Garcilaso de la Vega.

    2014-01-01

    The work is a style of research: "Research in Action," which is the small-scale intervention in the functioning of the real world and a clase examination of the effects of such intervention, the ultimate goal being to improve practice. How to improve the practice af floral therapy in our country? Have the input for the preparation of flower remedies and therefore at this stage I had to get 21 flower essences Peruvian natural resources, in order to access and availability of floral therapy. Wh...

  18. Novel functional roles for PERIANTHIA and SEUSS during floral organ identity specification, floral meristem termination and gynoecial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April N. Wynn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The gynoecium is the female reproductive structure of angiosperm flowers. In Arabidopsis thaliana the gynoecium is composed of two carpels fused into a tube-like structure. As the gynoecial primordium arises from the floral meristem, a specialized meristematic structure, the carpel margin meristem (CMM, develops from portions of the medial gynoecial domain. The CMM is critical for reproductive competence because it gives rise to the ovules, the precursors of the seeds. Here we report a functional role for the transcription factor PERIANTHIA (PAN in the development of the gynoecial medial domain and the formation of ovule primordia that is revealed in aintegumenta (ant pan and seuss (seu pan double mutants. Additionally, enhanced disruptions of gynoecial morphology suggest that gynoecial patterning processes are disrupted in the seu pan double mutant. Previously, PAN was identified as a regulator of perianth organ number and as a direct activator of AGAMOUS expression in floral whorl four. However, the seu pan double mutants display enhanced ectopic AG expression in developing sepals and the partial transformation of sepals to petals indicating a novel role for PAN in the repression of AG in floral whorl 1. These results indicate that PAN functions as an activator or repressor of AG expression in a whorl specific fashion. The seu pan double mutants also display enhanced floral indeterminacy, resulting in the formation of fifth whorl structures and disruption of WUS expression patterns revealing a novel role for SEU in floral meristem termination.

  19. SLAM family receptors and SAP adaptors in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannons, Jennifer L; Tangye, Stuart G; Schwartzberg, Pamela L

    2011-01-01

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein, SAP, was first identified as the protein affected in most cases of X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal responses to Epstein-Barr virus infection, lymphoproliferative syndromes, and dysgammaglobulinemia. SAP consists almost entirely of a single SH2 protein domain that interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of SLAM and related receptors, including 2B4, Ly108, CD84, Ly9, and potentially CRACC. SLAM family members are now recognized as important immunomodulatory receptors with roles in cytotoxicity, humoral immunity, autoimmunity, cell survival, lymphocyte development, and cell adhesion. In this review, we cover recent findings on the roles of SLAM family receptors and the SAP family of adaptors, with a focus on their regulation of the pathways involved in the pathogenesis of XLP and other immune disorders.

  20. Role of SRC-like adaptor protein (SLAP) in immune and malignant cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Julhash U; Kabir, Nuzhat N; Rönnstrand, Lars

    2015-07-01

    SRC-like adaptor protein (SLAP) is an adaptor protein structurally similar to the SRC family protein kinases. Like SRC, SLAP contains an SH3 domain followed by an SH2 domain but the kinase domain has been replaced by a unique C-terminal region. SLAP is expressed in a variety of cell types. Current studies suggest that it regulates signaling of various cell surface receptors including the B cell receptor, the T cell receptor, cytokine receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases which are important regulator of immune and cancer cell signaling. SLAP targets receptors, or its associated components, by recruiting the ubiquitin machinery and thereby destabilizing signaling. SLAP directs receptors to ubiquitination-mediated degradation and controls receptors turnover as well as signaling. Thus, SLAP appears to be an important component in regulating signal transduction required for immune and malignant cells.

  1. TIR domain-containing adaptor SARM is a late addition to the ongoing microbe–host dialog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M.; Cai, Xiaohui; Godzik, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing proteins play important roles in defense against pathogens in both animals and plants, connecting the immunity signaling pathways via a chain of specific protein–protein interactions. Among them is SARM, the only TIR domain-containing adaptor that can negatively regulate TLR signaling. By extensive phylogenetic analysis, we show here that SARM is closely related to bacterial proteins with TIR domains, suggesting that this family has a different evolutionary history from other animal TIR-containing adaptors, possibly emerging via a lateral gene transfer from bacteria to animals. We also show evidence of several similar, independent transfer events, none of which, however, survived in vertebrates. An evolutionary relationship between the animal SARM adaptor and bacterial proteins with TIR domains illustrates the possible role that bacterial TIR-containing proteins play in regulating eukaryotic immune responses and how this mechanism was possibly adapted by the eukaryotes themselves. PMID:21110998

  2. Two tobacco AP1-like gene promoters with highly specific, tightly regulated and uniquely expressed activity during floral transition, initiation and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotech engineering of agronomic traits requires an array of highly specific and tightly regulated promoters in flower or other tissues. In this study, we isolated and characterized two tobacco AP1-like promoters (termed NtAP1La and NtAP1Lb1) in transgenic plants using GUS reporter and tissue-speci...

  3. Sterility Caused by Floral Organ Degeneration and Abiotic Stresses in Arabidopsis and Cereal Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Rae Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural floral organ degeneration or abortion results in unisexual or fully sterile flowers, while abiotic stresses lead to sterility after initiation of floral reproductive organs. Since normal flower development is essential for plant sexual reproduction and crop yield, it is imperative to have a better understanding of plant sterility under regular and stress conditions. Here, we review the functions of ABC genes together with their downstream genes in floral organ degeneration and the formation of unisexual flowers in Arabidopsis and several agriculturally significant cereal grains. We further explore the roles of hormones, including auxin, brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, gibberellic acid, and ethylene, in floral organ formation and fertility. We show that alterations in genes affecting hormone biosynthesis, hormone transport and perception cause loss of stamens/carpels, abnormal floral organ development, poor pollen production, which consequently result in unisexual flowers and male/female sterility. Moreover, abiotic stresses, such as heat, cold, and drought, commonly affect floral organ development and fertility. Sterility is induced by abiotic stresses mostly in male floral organ development, particularly during meiosis, tapetum development, anthesis, dehiscence, and fertilization. A variety of genes including those involved in heat shock, hormone signaling, cold tolerance, metabolisms of starch and sucrose, meiosis, and tapetum development are essential for plants to maintain normal fertility under abiotic stress conditions. Further elucidation of cellular, biochemical and molecular mechanisms about regulation of fertility will improve yield and quality for many agriculturally valuable crops.

  4. Pollinator-mediated evolution of floral signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestl, Florian P; Johnson, Steven D

    2013-05-01

    Because most plants rely on animals for pollination, insights from animal sensory ecology and behavior are essential for understanding the evolution of flowers. In this review, we compare and contrast three main types of pollinator responses to floral signals--receiver bias, 'adaptive' innate preferences, and associative learning--and discuss how they can shape selection on floral signals. We show that pollinator-mediated selection on floral signals can be strong and that the molecular bases of floral signal variation are often surprisingly simple. These new empirical and conceptual insights into pollinator-mediated evolution provide a framework for understanding patterns of both convergent (pollination syndromes) and advergent (floral mimicry) floral signal evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. LEAFY controls floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Weigel, Detlef; Alvarez, John; Smyth, David R.; Yanofsky, Martin F.; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    1992-01-01

    The first step in flower development is the generation of a floral meristem by the inflorescence meristem. We have analyzed how this process is affected by mutant alleles of the Arabidopsis gene LEAFY. We show that LEAFY interacts with another floral control gene, APETALA1, to promote the transition from inflorescence to floral meristem. We have cloned the LEAFY gene, and, consistent with the mutant phenotype, we find that LEAFY RNA is expressed strongly in young flower primordia. LEAFY expre...

  6. Optimization of multiplexed RADseq libraries using low-cost adaptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Hélène; Cariou, Marie; Terraz, Gabriel; Martinez, Sonia; El Filali, Adil; Veyssiere, Marine; Duret, Laurent; Charlat, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    Reduced representation genomics approaches, of which RADseq is currently the most popular form, offer the possibility to produce genome wide data from potentially any species, without previous genomic information. The application of RADseq to highly multiplexed libraries (including numerous specimens, and potentially numerous different species) is however limited by technical constraints. First, the cost of synthesis of Illumina adaptors including molecular identifiers (MIDs) becomes excessive when numerous specimens are to be multiplexed. Second, the necessity to empirically adjust the ratio of adaptors to genomic DNA concentration impedes the high throughput application of RADseq to heterogeneous samples, of variable DNA concentration and quality. In an attempt to solve these problems, we propose here some adjustments regarding the adaptor synthesis. First, we show that the common and unique (MID) parts of adaptors can be synthesized separately and subsequently ligated, which drastically reduces the synthesis cost, and thus allows multiplexing hundreds of specimens. Second, we show that self-ligation of adaptors, which makes the adaptor concentration so critical, can be simply prevented by using unphosphorylated adaptors, which significantly improves the ligation and sequencing yield.

  7. Evolutionary trends in the floral transcriptome: insights from one of the basalmost angiosperms, the water lily Nuphar advena (Nymphaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Chanderbali, André S; Altman, Naomi S; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2010-11-01

    Current understanding of floral developmental genetics comes primarily from the core eudicot model Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we explore the floral transcriptome of the basal angiosperm, Nuphar advena (water lily), for insights into the ancestral developmental program of flowers. We identify several thousand Nuphar genes with significantly upregulated floral expression, including homologs of the well-known ABCE floral regulators, deployed in broadly overlapping transcriptional programs across floral organ categories. Strong similarities in the expression profiles of different organ categories in Nuphar flowers are shared with the magnoliid Persea americana (avocado), in contrast to the largely organ-specific transcriptional cascades evident in Arabidopsis, supporting the inference that this is the ancestral condition in angiosperms. In contrast to most eudicots, floral organs are weakly differentiated in Nuphar and Persea, with staminodial intermediates between stamens and perianth in Nuphar, and between stamens and carpels in Persea. Consequently, the predominantly organ-specific transcriptional programs that characterize Arabidopsis flowers (and perhaps other eudicots) are derived, and correlate with a shift towards morphologically distinct floral organs, including differentiated sepals and petals, and a perianth distinct from stamens and carpels. Our findings suggest that the genetic regulation of more spatially discrete transcriptional programs underlies the evolution of floral morphology.

  8. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  9. Effects of floral display on pollinator behavior and pollen dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Lulu Tang; Bing Han

    2007-01-01

    Complete understanding of floral function requires the recognition of floral traits at two aspects: floral design and floral display. Floral display, the fundamental unit of plant mating, refers to the number, type and arrangement of the open flowers on the plant in a certain period. Interactions between the flowers on a plant could influence pollinator behaviors on the plant and consequently may govern the mating outcomes. Pollinators prefer large floral displays, which often receive more vi...

  10. OsHAL3, a Blue Light-Responsive Protein, Interacts with the Floral Regulator Hd1 to Activate Flowering in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Shan, Jun-Xiang; Gao, Ji-Ping; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2016-02-01

    In flowering plants, photoperiodic flowering is controlled by a complicated network. Light is one of the most important environmental stimuli that control the timing of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive development. Several photoreceptors, including PHYA, PHYB, CRY2, and FKF1 in Arabidopsis and their homologs (OsPHYA, OsPHYB, OsPHYC, and OsCRY2) in rice, have been identified to be related to flowering. Our previous study suggests that OsHAL3, a flavin mononucleotide-binding protein, may function as a blue-light sensor. Here, we report the identification of OsHAL3 as a positive regulator of flowering in rice. OsHAL3 overexpression lines exhibited an early flowering phenotype, whereas downregulation of OsHAL3 expression by RNA interference delayed flowering under an inductive photoperiod (short-day conditions). The change in flowering time was not accompanied by altered Hd1 expression but rather by reduced accumulation of Hd3a and MADS14 transcripts. OsHAL3 and Hd1 colocalized in the nucleus and physically interacted in vivo under the dark, whereas their interaction was inhibited by white or blue light. Moreover, OsHAL3 directly bound to the promoter of Hd3a, especially before dawn. We conclude that OsHAL3, a novel light-responsive protein, plays an essential role in photoperiodic control of flowering time in rice, which is probably mediated by forming a complex with Hd1. Our findings open up new perspectives on the photoperiodic flowering pathway.

  11. Science Signaling Podcast for 12 July 2016: Adaptor proteins limit signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, H Steven; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2016-07-12

    This Podcast features an interview with Steven Wiley, senior author of a Research Article that appears in the 12 July 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about how the abundance of adaptor proteins and feedback regulators affect the flow of information downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Information flows through a signaling pathway by sequential interactions between core components of the pathway, many of which have enzymatic activity. Adaptor proteins do not directly participate in relaying the signal and do not have enzymatic activity, but are important for signaling because they facilitate interactions between the core components. Using quantitative methods, Shi et al demonstrated that core components of the EGFR pathway were highly abundant in both normal cells and cancer cells. However, adaptor proteins were present in much lower abundance in both cell types, indicating that it is the abundance of these proteins that limit signaling downstream of EGFR. The authors also found that differences in EGFR signaling between different cell types likely resulted from the variable abundance of feedback regulators.Listen to Podcast. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. UFO: an Arabidopsis gene involved in both floral meristem and floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J Z; Meyerowitz, E M

    1995-05-01

    We describe the role of the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene in Arabidopsis floral development based on a genetic and molecular characterization of the phenotypes of nine ufo alleles. UFO is required for the proper identity of the floral meristem and acts in three different aspects of the process that distinguishes flowers from shoots. UFO is involved in establishing the whorled pattern of floral organs, controlling the determinacy of the floral meristem, and activating the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA genes required for petal and stamen identity. In many respects, UFO acts in a manner similar to LEAFY, but the ufo mutant phenotype also suggests an additional role for UFO in defining boundaries within the floral primordia or controlling cell proliferation during floral organ growth. Finally, genetic interactions that prevent flower formation and lead to the generation of filamentous structures implicate UFO as a member of a new, large, and diverse class of genes in Arabidopsis necessary for flower formation.

  13. Floral ontogeny of Cneorum tricoccon L. (Rutaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris, P.; Smets, E.; De Coster, K.; Ronse De Craene, L.

    2006-01-01

    The floral ontogeny of the Spurge olive (Cneorum tricoccon L.) is studied by means of scanning electron microscopic observations. Special attention is paid to the sequence of initiation of the floral parts, the occurrence of septal cavities, and the development of the nectariferous tissue. The necta

  14. Versatile modes of peptide recognition by the AAA+ adaptor protein SspB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levchenko, Igor; Grant, Robert A.; Flynn, Julia M.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A. (MIT)

    2010-07-19

    Energy-dependent proteases often rely on adaptor proteins to modulate substrate recognition. The SspB adaptor binds peptide sequences in the stress-response regulator RseA and in ssrA-tagged proteins and delivers these molecules to the AAA+ ClpXP protease for degradation. The structure of SspB bound to an ssrA peptide is known. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between SspB and its recognition peptide in RseA. Notably, the RseA sequence is positioned in the peptide-binding groove of SspB in a direction opposite to the ssrA peptide, the two peptides share only one common interaction with the adaptor, and the RseA interaction site is substantially larger than the overlapping ssrA site. This marked diversity in SspB recognition of different target proteins indicates that it is capable of highly flexible and dynamic substrate delivery.

  15. Investigation of the adaptor protein PLIC-2 in multiple pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khiem Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available PLIC, Protein Linking IAP (CD47 to Cytoskeleton, have long since been implicated in connecting the extracellular membrane to the intracellular cell cytoskeleton. This phenomenon is supposedly achieved by bridging a receptor protein CD47 to vimentin, an intermediate filament, which in turn regulates integrin dependent cell spreading. Since the discovery of these proteins, the molecular details of the above-mentioned interactions and the underlying complexes are yet to be characterized. Several independent studies have together emphasized PLIC/Ubiquilin’s role in the proteasomal degradation pathway. This seems to be in contrast to the purported initial discovery of PLIC as a cytoskeletal adaptor protein. In an effort to reconcile the different roles associated with the ubiquitous PLIC proteins, we tested the involvement of PLIC-2 both in the proteasomal degradation pathway and as a protein linking the cell cytoskeleton to the cytoplasmic tail of CD47. This was achieved thorough an in vitro investigation of their binding interface using a combination of biophysical techniques. Our results show that the two terminal domains of PLIC-2 interact weakly with each other, while the C-terminal UBA domain interacts strongly with ubiquitin. Interestingly, no perceptible interaction was observed for PLIC-2 with the cytoplasmic tail of CD47 questioning its role as a “PLIC” protein linking the cell membrane to the cytoskeleton.

  16. Exploring structure and interactions of the bacterial adaptor protein YjbH by crosslinking mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Yusra; Ib Rasmussen, Morten; Kjellström, Sven; Højrup, Peter; Emanuelsson, Cecilia; von Wachenfeldt, Claes

    2016-09-01

    Adaptor proteins assist proteases in degrading specific proteins under appropriate conditions. The adaptor protein YjbH promotes the degradation of an important global transcriptional regulator Spx, which controls the expression of hundreds of genes and operons in response to thiol-specific oxidative stress in Bacillus subtilis. Under normal growth conditions, the transcription factor is bound to the adaptor protein and therefore degraded by the AAA+ protease ClpXP. If this binding is alleviated during stress, the transcription factor accumulates and turns on genes encoding stress-alleviating proteins. The adaptor protein YjbH is thus a key player involved in these interactions but its structure is unknown. To gain insight into its structure and interactions we have used chemical crosslinking mass spectrometry. Distance constraints obtained from the crosslinked monomer were used to select and validate a structure model of YjbH and then to probe its interactions with other proteins. The core structure of YjbH is reminiscent of DsbA family proteins. One lysine residue in YjbH (K177), located in one of the α-helices outside the thioredoxin fold, crosslinked to both Spx K99 and Spx K117, thereby suggesting one side of the YjbH for the interaction with Spx. Another lysine residue that crosslinked to Spx was YjbH K5, located in the long and presumably very flexible N-terminal arm of YjbH. Our crosslinking data lend support to a model proposed based on site-directed mutagenesis where the YjbH interaction with Spx can stabilize and present the C-terminal region of Spx for protease recognition and proteolysis. Proteins 2016; 84:1234-1245. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Selective autophagy of non-ubiquitylated targets in plants: looking for cognate receptor/adaptor proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko eVeljanovski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular homeostasis is essential for the physiology of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells, including plant cells, utilize two main pathways to adjust the level of cytoplasmic components, namely the proteasomal and the lysosomal/vacuolar pathways. Macroautophagy is a lysosomal/vacuolar pathway which, until recently, was thought to be non-specific and a bulk degradation process. However, selective autophagy which can be activated in the cell under various physiological conditions, involves the specific degradation of defined macromolecules or organelles by a conserved molecular mechanism. For this process to be efficient, the mechanisms underlying the recognition and selection of the cargo to be engulfed by the double-membrane autophagosome are critical, and not yet well understood. Ubiquitin (poly-ubiquitin conjugation to the target appears to be a conserved ligand mechanism in many types of selective autophagy, and defined receptors/adaptors recognizing and regulating the autophagosomal capture of the ubiquitylated target have been characterized. However, non-proteinaceous and non-ubiquitylated cargoes are also selectively degraded by this pathway. This ubiquitin-independent selective autophagic pathway also involves receptor and/or adaptor proteins linking the cargo to the autophagic machinery. Some of these receptor/adaptor proteins including accessory autophagy-related (Atg and non-Atg proteins have been described in yeast and animal cells but not yet in plants. In this review we discuss the ubiquitin-independent cargo selection mechanisms in selective autophagy degradation of organelles and macromolecules and speculate on potential plant receptor/adaptor proteins.

  18. Homeotic Genes and the ABCDE Model for Floral Organ Formation in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Murai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Floral organ formation has been the subject of intensive study for over 20 years, particularly in the model dicot species Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have led to the establishment of a general model for the development of floral organs in higher plants, the so-called ABCDE model, in which floral whorl-specific combinations of class A, B, C, D, or E genes specify floral organ identity. In Arabidopsis, class A, B, C, D, E genes encode MADS-box transcription factors except for the class A gene APETALA2. Mutation of these genes induces floral organ homeosis. In this review, I focus on the roles of these homeotic genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, particularly with respect to the ABCDE model. Pistillody, the homeotic transformation of stamens into pistil-like structures, occurs in cytoplasmic substitution (alloplasmic wheat lines that have the cytoplasm of the related wild species Aegilops crassa. This phenomenon is a valuable tool for analysis of the wheat ABCDE model. Using an alloplasmic line, the wheat ortholog of DROOPING LEAF (TaDL, a member of the YABBY gene family, has been shown to regulate pistil specification. Here, I describe the current understanding of the ABCDE model for floral organ formation in wheat.

  19. Extreme divergence in floral scent among woodland star species (Lithophragma spp.) pollinated by floral parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Magne; Schwind, Christopher; Raguso, Robert A; Thompson, John N

    2013-04-01

    A current challenge in coevolutionary biology is to understand how suites of traits vary as coevolving lineages diverge. Floral scent is often a complex, variable trait that attracts a suite of generalized pollinators, but may be highly specific in plants specialized on attracting coevolved pollinating floral parasites. In this study, floral scent variation was investigated in four species of woodland stars (Lithophragma spp.) that share the same major pollinator (the moth Greya politella, a floral parasite). Three specific hypotheses were tested: (1) sharing the same specific major pollinator favours conservation of floral scent among close relatives; (2) selection favours 'private channels' of rare compounds particularly aimed at the specialist pollinator; or (3) selection from rare, less-specialized co-pollinators mitigates the conservation of floral scent and occurrence of private channels. Dynamic headspace sampling and solid-phase microextraction were applied to greenhouse-grown plants from a common garden as well as to field samples from natural populations in a series of experiments aiming to disentangle the genetic and environmental basis of floral scent variation. Striking floral scent divergence was discovered among species. Only one of 69 compounds was shared among all four species. Scent variation was largely genetically based, because it was consistent across field and greenhouse treatments, and was not affected by visits from the pollinating floral parasite. The strong divergence in floral scents among Lithophragma species contrasts with the pattern of conserved floral scent composition found in other plant genera involved in mutualisms with pollinating floral parasites. Unlike some of these other obligate pollination mutualisms, Lithophragma plants in some populations are occasionally visited by generalist pollinators from other insect taxa. This additional complexity may contribute to the diversification in floral scent found among the Lithophragma

  20. Evolution and diversity of floral scent chemistry in the euglossine bee-pollinated orchid genus Gongora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington-Rauth, Molly C; Ramírez, Santiago R

    2016-07-01

    less variable within species than between species, and the analysis revealed exceptional levels of cryptic diversity. Gongora species were divided into 15 fragrance groups based on shared compounds. Fragrance groups indicate that floral scent variation is not predicted by taxonomic rank or biogeographic region. • Gongora orchids emit a diverse array of scent molecules that are largely species specific, and closely related taxa exhibit qualitatively and quantitatively divergent chemical profiles. It is shown that within a community, Gongora scent chemotypes are correlated with near non-overlapping bee pollinator assemblies. The results lend support to the hypothesis that floral scent traits regulate the architecture of bee pollinator associations. Thus, Gongora provides unique opportunities to examine the interplay between floral traits and pollinator specialization in plant-pollinator mutualisms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  1. Dynamics of DNA methylation and Histone H4 acetylation during floral bud differentiation in azalea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valledor Luis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to control the timing of flowering is a key strategy for planning production in ornamental species such as azalea, however it requires a thorough understanding of floral transition. Floral transition is achieved through a complex genetic network and regulated by multiple environmental and endogenous cues. Dynamic changes between chromatin states facilitating or inhibiting DNA transcription regulate the expression of floral induction pathways in response to environmental and developmental signals. DNA methylation and histone modifications are involved in controlling the functional state of chromatin and gene expression. Results The results of this work indicate that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone H4 acetylation have opposite and particular dynamics during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development in the apical shoots of azalea. Global levels of DNA methylation and histone H4 acetylation as well as immunodetection of 5-mdC and acetylated H4, in addition to a morphological study have permitted the delimitation of four basic phases in the development of the azalea bud and allowed the identification of a stage of epigenetic reprogramming which showed a sharp decrease of whole DNA methylation similar to that is defined in other developmental processes in plants and in mammals. Conclusion The epigenetic control and reorganization of chromatin seem to be decisive for coordinating floral development in azalea. DNA methylation and H4 deacetylation act simultaneously and co-ordinately, restructuring the chromatin and regulating the gene expression during soot apical meristem development and floral differentiation.

  2. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM FLORAL EXPLANTS OF CUPUASSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA DAS GRAÇAS RODRIGUES FERREIRA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies related to the in vitro cultivation of plants from theTheobroma genus and no effective micropropagation protocols for T.grandiflorum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the calli formation in cupuassu floral explants, targeting their organogenic or embryogenicdevelopment. Experiments were conducted in the Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory of EMBRAPA, Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil. Floral parts from unopened immature flower buds taken from seedless cupuassu trees were sterilized and employed as a source of explants. These explants were cultivated in Petri dishes in an induction medium consisting of MS salts and vitamins, supplemented with glycine(3 mg.L-1, lysine (0,4 mg.L-1, leucine (0,4 mg.L-1, arginine (0,4 mg.L-1, tryptophan (0,2 mg.L-1, 2,4-D (1 mg.L-1, kinetin (0,25 mg.L-1, coconut water (50 ml.L-1, sucrose (40 g.L-1, Gelrite (2,2 g.L-1 and pH adjusted to 5,8. Cultures were maintained in the dark for 3 weeks at 27°C and then subcultured for six weeks in medium without growth regulators supplemented with glycine (1 mg.L-1, lysine (0,2 mg.L-1, leucine (0,2 mg.L-1, arginine (0,2 mg.L-1, tryptophan (0,1 mg.L-1, coconut water (100 ml.L-1, sucrose (40 g.L-1, Gelrite (2,2 g.L-1 and pH 5,8. We used a completely randomized design with 10 replications of 5 explants per plate and four different explant sources: staminode, petal, ligule and ovary. As a result, we obtained a highercalli formation in theinduction medium when ovaries were used as source of explants. However, there was no development of somatic embryosor organogenic response in medium without growth regulators and further studies are being conducted.

  3. Leaf-produced floral signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevaart, Jan A D

    2008-10-01

    Florigen is the hypothetical leaf-produced signal that induces floral initiation at the shoot apex. The nature of florigen has remained elusive for more than 70 years. But recent progress toward understanding the regulatory network for flowering in Arabidopsis has led to the suggestion that FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) or its product is the mobile flower-inducing signal that moves from an induced leaf through the phloem to the shoot apex. In the past year, physical and chemical evidence has shown that it is FT protein, and not FT mRNA, that moves from induced leaves to the apical meristem. These results have established that FT is the main, if not the only, component of the universal florigen.

  4. Optimized Adaptor Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Efficient Genomic Walking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng XU; Rui-Ying HU; Xiao-Yan DING

    2006-01-01

    Genomic walking is one of the most useful approaches in genome-related research. Three kinds of PCR-based methods are available for this purpose. However, none of them has been generally applied because they are either insensitive or inefficient. Here we present an efficient PCR protocol, an optimized adaptor PCR method for genomic walking. Using a combination of a touchdown PCR program and a special adaptor, the optimized adaptor PCR protocol achieves high sensitivity with low background noise. By applying this protocol, the insertion sites of a gene trap mouse line and two gene promoters from the incompletely sequenced Xenopus laevis genome were successfully identified with high efficiency. The general application of this protocol in genomic walking was promising.

  5. A novel role of BELL1-like homeobox genes, PENNYWISE and POUND-FOOLISH, in floral patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lifeng; Patibanda, Varun; Smith, Harley M S

    2009-02-01

    Flowers are determinate shoots comprised of perianth and reproductive organs displayed in a whorled phyllotactic pattern. Floral organ identity genes display region-specific expression patterns in the developing flower. In Arabidopsis, floral organ identity genes are activated by LEAFY (LFY), which functions with region-specific co-regulators, UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) and WUSCHEL (WUS), to up-regulate homeotic genes in specific whorls of the flower. PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF) are redundant functioning BELL1-like homeodomain proteins that are expressed in shoot and floral meristems. During flower development, PNY functions with a co-repressor complex to down-regulate the homeotic gene, AGAMOUS (AG), in the outer whorls of the flower. However, the function of PNY as well as PNF in regulating floral organ identity in the central whorls of the flower is not known. In this report, we show that combining mutations in PNY and PNF enhance the floral patterning phenotypes of weak and strong alleles of lfy, indicating that these BELL1-like homeodomain proteins play a role in the specification of petals, stamens and carpels during flower development. Expression studies show that PNY and PNF positively regulate the homeotic genes, APETALA3 and AG, in the inner whorls of the flower. Moreover, PNY and PNF function in parallel with LFY, UFO and WUS to regulate homeotic gene expression. Since PNY and PNF interact with the KNOTTED1-like homeodomain proteins, SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) and KNOTTED-LIKE from ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA2 (KNAT2) that regulate floral development, we propose that PNY/PNF-STM and PNY/PNF-KNAT2 complexes function in the inner whorls to regulate flower patterning events.

  6. DORNRÖSCHEN, DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE, and PUCHI redundantly control floral meristem identity and organ initiation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, J W; Werr, W

    2017-06-15

    The biphasic floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana involves many redundant intersecting regulatory networks. The related AP2 transcription factors DORNRÖSCHEN (DRN), DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE (DRNL), and PUCHI individually execute well-characterized functions in diverse developmental contexts, including floral development. Here, we show that their combined loss of function leads to synergistic floral phenotypes, including reduced floral merosity in all whorls, which reflects redundant functions of all three genes in organ initiation rather than outgrowth. Additional loss of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2 functions results in the complete conversion of floral meristems into secondary inflorescence shoots, demonstrating that all five genes define an essential regulatory network for establishing floral meristem identity, and we show that their functions converge to regulate LEAFY expression. Thus, despite their largely discrete spatiotemporal expression domains in the inflorescence meristem and early floral meristem, PUCHI, DRN, and DRNL interdependently contribute to cellular fate decisions. Auxin might represent one potential non-cell-autonomous mediator of their gene functions, because PUCHI, DRN, and DRNL all interact with auxin transport and biosynthesis pathways. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. BRANCHED1 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T to repress the floral transition of the axillary meristems in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Masaki; Daimon, Yasufumi; Kurotani, Ken-ichi; Higo, Asuka; Pruneda-Paz, José L; Breton, Ghislain; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Kay, Steve A; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Endo, Motomu; Araki, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    Plant architecture shows a large degree of developmental plasticity. Some of the key determinants are the timing of the floral transition induced by a systemic flowering signal (florigen) and the branching pattern regulated by key factors such as BRANCHED1 (BRC1). Here, we report that BRC1 interacts with the florigen proteins FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) but not with TERMINAL FLOWER1, a floral repressor. FT protein induced in leaves moves into the subtended bud, suggesting that FT protein also plays a role in promotion of the floral transition in the axillary meristem (AM). The brc1-2 mutant shows an earlier floral transition in the axillary shoots compared with the wild type, suggesting that BRC1 plays a role in delaying the floral transition of the AMs. Genetic and gene expression analyses suggest that BRC1 interferes with florigen (FT and TSF) function in the AMs. Consistent with this, BRC1 ectopically expressed in the shoot apical meristem delays the floral transition in the main shoot. These results taken together suggest that BRC1 protein interacts with FT and TSF proteins and modulates florigen activity in the axillary buds to prevent premature floral transition of the AMs.

  8. Anti-adaptors use distinct modes of binding to inhibit the RssB-dependent turnover of RpoS (σS by ClpXP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimce eMicevski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Escherichia coli, σS is the master regulator of the general stress response. The level of σS changes in response to multiple stress conditions and it is regulated at many levels including protein turnover. In the absence of stress, σS is rapidly degraded by the AAA+ protease, ClpXP in a regulated manner that depends on the adaptor protein RssB. This two-component response regulator mediates the recognition of σS and its delivery to ClpXP. The turnover of σS however, can be inhibited in a stress specific manner, by one of three anti-adaptor proteins. Each anti-adaptor binds to RssB and inhibits its activity, but how this is achieved is not fully understood at a molecular level. Here we describe details of the interaction between each anti-adaptor and RssB that leads to the stabilization of σS. By defining the domains of RssB using partial proteolysis we demonstrate that each anti-adaptor uses a distinct mode of binding to inhibit RssB activity. IraD docks specifically to the N-terminal domain of RssB, IraP interacts primarily with the C-terminal domain, while IraM interacts with both domains. Despite these differences in binding, we propose that docking of each anti-adaptor induces a conformational change in RssB, which resembles the inactive dimer of RssB. This dimer-like state of RssB not only prevents substrate binding but also triggers substrate release from a pre-bound complex.

  9. Role of adaptor proteins in motor regulation and membrane transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Schlager (Max)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Active transport along the cytoskeleton is a process essential for proper cellular function. Although much is known about the motor proteins that generate the necessary force and the cytoskeleton that provides the cellular infrastructure, many questions still remain. Fo

  10. A survey of flowering genes reveals the role of gibberellins in floral control in rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remay, Arnaud; Lalanne, David; Thouroude, Tatiana; Le Couviour, Fabien; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, Laurence; Foucher, Fabrice

    2009-09-01

    Exhaustive studies on flowering control in annual plants have provided a framework for exploring this process in other plant species, especially in perennials for which little molecular data are currently available. Rose is a woody perennial plant with a particular flowering strategy--recurrent blooming, which is controlled by a recessive locus (RB). Gibberellins (GA) inhibit flowering only in non-recurrent roses. Moreover, the GA content varies during the flowering process and between recurrent and non-recurrent rose. Only a few rose genes potentially involved in flowering have been described, i.e. homologues of ABC model genes and floral genes from EST screening. In this study, we gained new information on the molecular basis of rose flowering: date of flowering and recurrent blooming. Based on a candidate gene strategy, we isolated genes that have similarities with genes known to be involved in floral control in Arabidopsis (GA pathway, floral repressors and integrators). Candidate genes were mapped on a segregating population, gene expression was studied in different organs and transcript abundance was monitored in growing shoot apices. Twenty-five genes were studied. RoFT, RoAP1 and RoLFY are proposed to be good floral markers. RoSPY and RB co-localized in our segregating population. GA metabolism genes were found to be regulated during floral transition. Furthermore, GA signalling genes were differentially regulated between a non-recurrent rose and its recurrent mutant. We propose that flowering gene networks are conserved between Arabidopsis and rose. The GA pathway appears to be a key regulator of flowering in rose. We postulate that GA metabolism is involved in floral initiation and GA signalling might be responsible for the recurrent flowering character.

  11. DMPD: Signalling adaptors used by Toll-like receptors: an update. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18706831 Signalling adaptors used by Toll-like receptors: an update. Kenny EF, O'Ne...ill LA. Cytokine. 2008 Sep;43(3):342-9. Epub 2008 Aug 15. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signalling adap...tors used by Toll-like receptors: an update. PubmedID 18706831 Title Signalling adaptors used by Toll-like r

  12. Similar genetic switch systems might integrate the floral inductive pathways in dicots and monocots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.H.; Jensen, C.S.; Petersen, K.

    2004-01-01

    A recent paper by Million Tadege et A shows that a SOC1-like gene from rice, OsSOC1, can complement the Arabidopsis soc1 mutant, and that ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis floral repressor FLC in rice delays flowering and up-regulation of OsSOC1 These findings, together with the identificatio...... of the wheat vernalization VRN1 locus as an AP1 homologue, suggest that related genetic switch systems control floral transition in dicots and monocots but that they are based on different MADS-box transcription factors....

  13. Programmed cell death in floral organs: how and why do flowers die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Hilary J

    2006-03-01

    Flowers have a species-specific, limited life span with an irreversible programme of senescence, which is largely independent of environmental factors, unlike leaf senescence, which is much more closely linked with external stimuli. Life span of the whole flower is regulated for ecological and energetic reasons, but the death of individual tissues and cells within the flower is co-ordinated at many levels to ensure correct timing. Some floral cells die selectively during organ development, whereas others are retained until the whole organ dies. Pollination is an important floral cell death trigger in many species, and its effects are mediated by the plant growth regulator (PGR) ethylene. In some species ethylene is a major regulator of floral senescence, but in others it plays a very minor role and the co-ordinating signals involved remain elusive. Other PGRs such as cytokinin and brassinosteroids are also important but their role is understood only in some specific systems. In two floral cell types (the tapetum and the pollen-tube) there is strong evidence for apoptotic-type cell death, similar to that in animal cells. However, in petals there is stronger evidence for an autophagous type of cell death involving endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles and the vacuole. Proteases are important, and homologues to animal caspases, key regulators of animal cell death, exist in plants. However, their role is not yet clear. There are similarities to cell death in other plant organs, and many of the same genes are up-regulated in both leaf and petal senescence; however, there are also important differences for example in the role of PGRs. Understanding gene regulation may help to understand cell death in floral organs better, but alone it cannot provide all the answers.

  14. Cooperative immunoregulatory function of the transmembrane adaptor proteins SIT and LAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Börge; Kalinski, Thomas; Reinhold, Dirk; Thielitz, Anja; Roessner, Albert; Schraven, Burkhart; Simeoni, Luca

    2013-03-01

    Lymphocyte activation is crucial for the generation of immune responses. In vitro studies have demonstrated that TRAPs are critical regulators of lymphocyte activation. However, more recent in vivo studies have demonstrated that with the exception of LAT, TRAPs, such as SIT, NTAL, and LAX, only minimally affect immune cell functions. Additional studies have suggested that the mild or the apparent lack of a phenotype displayed by most TRAP KO mice may be explained by functional redundancy among this family of adaptors. In fact, it has been shown that the phenotype of NTAL/LAT or SIT/TRIM double-deficient mice is more severe than that of the single KOs. Here, we have evaluated whether SIT and the related transmembrane adaptor LAX have overlapping functions by generating SIT/LAX DKO mice. We show that DKO, in contrast to single KO mice, accumulate large numbers of activated CD4(+) T cells in the spleen. Moreover, conventional B cells from DKO mice are hyperproliferative upon CD40 stimulation. Additionally, we found that DKO mice displayed an expansion of the B1 cell pool in the peritoneal cavity, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and an enhanced immune response to the T1-independent antigen, TNP-LPS. Finally, we demonstrate that SIT/LAX double deficiency resulted in a more pronounced breakdown of peripheral tolerance and the development of autoimmunity characterized by ANAs and renal disease (glomerulonephritis and proteinuria). Collectively, our data indicate that SIT and LAX are important negative regulators of immune responses that functionally cooperate.

  15. Structural basis for the interaction of the adaptor protein grb14 with activated ras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Qamra

    Full Text Available Grb14, a member of the Grb7-10-14 family of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins, is a tissue-specific negative regulator of insulin signaling. Grb7-10-14 contain several signaling modules, including a Ras-associating (RA domain, a pleckstrin-homology (PH domain, a family-specific BPS (between PH and SH2 region, and a C-terminal Src-homology-2 (SH2 domain. We showed previously that the RA and PH domains, along with the BPS region and SH2 domain, are necessary for downregulation of insulin signaling. Here, we report the crystal structure at 2.4-Å resolution of the Grb14 RA and PH domains in complex with GTP-loaded H-Ras (G12V. The structure reveals that the Grb14 RA and PH domains form an integrated structural unit capable of binding simultaneously to small GTPases and phosphoinositide lipids. The overall mode of binding of the Grb14 RA domain to activated H-Ras is similar to that of the RA domains of RalGDS and Raf1 but with important distinctions. The integrated RA-PH structural unit in Grb7-10-14 is also found in a second adaptor family that includes Rap1-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM and lamellipodin, proteins involved in actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement. The structure of Grb14 RA-PH in complex with H-Ras represents the first detailed molecular characterization of tandem RA-PH domains bound to a small GTPase and provides insights into the molecular basis for specificity.

  16. Do Plants Eavesdrop on Floral Scent Signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Christina M; Parachnowitsch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Plants emit a diverse array of volatile organic compounds that can function as cues to other plants. Plants can use volatiles emitted by neighbors to gain information about their environment, and respond by adjusting their phenotype. Less is known about whether the many different volatile signals that plants emit are all equally likely to function as cues to other plants. We review evidence for the function of floral volatile signals and conclude that plants are as likely to perceive and respond to floral volatiles as to other, better-studied volatiles. We propose that eavesdropping on floral volatile cues is particularly likely to be adaptive because plants can respond to these cues by adjusting traits that directly affect pollination and mating.

  17. Floral organogenesis of Delavaya toxocarpa (Sapindaceae; Sapindales)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Min CAO; Nian-He XIA

    2009-01-01

    The floral organogenesis and development of Delavaya toxocarpa Franch. (Sapindaceae) were studied under scanning electron microscope and light microscope to determine its systematic position within Sapindaceae. Flowers arise in terminal thyrses. The sepal primordia initiate in a spiral (2/5) sequence, which are not synchronous. The five petal primordia initiate almost synchronously and alternate with sepal primordia. Eight stamens initiate almost simultaneously and their differentiation precedes that of the petals. The last formed petal and one stamen initiate from a common primordium. Mature stamens curve inwards and cover the ovary in bud. The gynoecium begins as a hemispheric primordium on which two carpellary lobes arise simultaneously. Later in development a single gynocium is formed with two locules and two ovules per locule. Floral morphology suggests a closer affinity with Sapindaceae, although certain features of floral ontogenesis are similar to those observed in certain members of the former Hippocastanaceae, such as Handeliodendron.

  18. Spiral biasing adaptor for use in Si drift detectors and Si drift detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-05

    A drift detector array, preferably a silicon drift detector (SDD) array, that uses a low current biasing adaptor is disclosed. The biasing adaptor is customizable for any desired geometry of the drift detector single cell with minimum drift time of carriers. The biasing adaptor has spiral shaped ion-implants that generate the desired voltage profile. The biasing adaptor can be processed on the same wafer as the drift detector array and only one biasing adaptor chip/side is needed for one drift detector array to generate the voltage profiles on the front side and back side of the detector array.

  19. Mutation scanning of peach floral genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde H Dayton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutation scanning technology has been used to develop crop species with improved traits. Modifications that improve screening throughput and sensitivity would facilitate the targeted mutation breeding of crops. Technical innovations for high-resolution melting (HRM analysis are enabling the clinic-based screening for human disease gene polymorphism. We examined the application of two HRM modifications, COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR, to the mutation scanning of genes in peach, Prunus persica. The targeted genes were the putative floral regulators PpAGAMOUS and PpTERMINAL FLOWER I. Results HRM analysis of PpAG and PpTFL1 coding regions in 36 peach cultivars found one polymorphic site in each gene. PpTFL1 and PpAG SNPs were used to examine approaches to increase HRM throughput. Cultivars with SNPs could be reliably detected in pools of twelve genotypes. COLD-PCR was found to increase the sensitivity of HRM analysis of pooled samples, but worked best with small amplicons. Examination of QMC-PCR demonstrated that primary PCR products for further analysis could be produced from variable levels of genomic DNA. Conclusions Natural SNPs in exons of target peach genes were discovered by HRM analysis of cultivars from a southeastern US breeding program. For detecting natural or induced SNPs in larger populations, HRM efficiency can be improved by increasing sample pooling and template production through approaches such as COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR. Technical advances developed to improve clinical diagnostics can play a role in the targeted mutation breeding of crops.

  20. Role of SUPERMAN in maintaining Arabidopsis floral whorl boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H; Medrano, L J; Meyerowitz, E M

    1995-11-09

    The Arabidopsis gene SUPERMAN (SUP) is necessary for the proper spatial development of reproductive floral tissues. Recessive mutations cause extra stamens to form interior to the normal third whorl stamens, at the expense of fourth whorl carpel development. The mutant phenotype is associated with the ectopic expression of the B function genes, AP3 and PI, in the altered floral region, closer to the centre of the flower than in the wild type, and ap3 sup and pi sup double mutants exhibit a phenotype similar to ap3 and pi single mutants. These findings led to SUP being interpreted as an upstream negative regulator of the B function organ-identity genes, acting in the fourth whorl, to establish a boundary between stamen and carpel whorls. Here we show, using molecular cloning and analysis, that it is expressed in the third whorl and acts to maintain this boundary in developing flowers. The putative SUPERMAN protein contains one zinc-finger and a region resembling a basic leucine zipper motif, suggesting a function in transcriptional regulation.

  1. A genetic screen for modifiers of UFO meristem activity identifies three novel FUSED FLORAL ORGANS genes required for early flower development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J Z; Fletcher, J C; Chen, X; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-06-01

    In a screen to identify novel genes required for early Arabidopsis flower development, we isolated four independent mutations that enhance the Ufo phenotype toward the production of filamentous structures in place of flowers. The mutants fall into three complementation groups, which we have termed FUSED FLORAL ORGANS (FFO) loci. ffo mutants have specific defects in floral organ separation and/or positioning; thus, the FFO genes identify components of a boundary formation mechanism(s) acting between developing floral organ primordia. FFO1 and FFO3 have specific functions in cauline leaf/stem separation and in first- and third-whorl floral organ separation, with FFO3 likely acting to establish and FFO1 to maintain floral organ boundaries. FFO2 acts at early floral stages to regulate floral organ number and positioning and to control organ separation within and between whorls. Plants doubly mutant for two ffo alleles display additive phenotypes, indicating that the FFO genes may act in separate pathways. Plants doubly mutant for an ffo gene and for ufo, lfy, or clv3 reveal that the FFO genes play roles related to those of UFO and LFY in floral meristem initiation and that FFO2 and FFO3 may act to control cell proliferation late in inflorescence development.

  2. TIR domain-containing adaptor SARM is a late addition to the ongoing microbe-host dialog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M; Cai, Xiaohui; Godzik, Adam

    2011-04-01

    Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing proteins play important roles in defense against pathogens in both animals and plants, connecting the immunity signaling pathways via a chain of specific protein-protein interactions. Among them is SARM, the only TIR domain-containing adaptor that can negatively regulate TLR signaling. By extensive phylogenetic analysis, we show here that SARM is closely related to bacterial proteins with TIR domains, suggesting that this family has a different evolutionary history from other animal TIR-containing adaptors, possibly emerging via a lateral gene transfer from bacteria to animals. We also show evidence of several similar, independent transfer events, none of which, however, survived in vertebrates. An evolutionary relationship between the animal SARM adaptor and bacterial proteins with TIR domains illustrates the possible role that bacterial TIR-containing proteins play in regulating eukaryotic immune responses and how this mechanism was possibly adapted by the eukaryotes themselves. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Vegetative Buds, Floral Buds and Buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important floral crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, due to a lack of genomic resources, very little information is available concerning the molecular mechanisms of flower development in chrysanthemum.The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum vegetative buds, floral buds and buds were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 15.4 Gb of reads were assembled into 91,367 unigenes with an average length of 739 bp. A total of 43,137 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swissprot or NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Additionally, 25,424, 24,321 and 13,704 unigenes were assigned to 56 gene ontology (GO categories, 25 EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG categories, and 285 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, respectively. A total of 1,876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs (1,516 up-regulated, 360 down-regulated were identified between vegetative buds and floral buds, and 3,300 DEGs (1,277 up-regulated, 1,706 down-regulated were identified between floral buds and buds. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., AP2, MYB, MYC, WRKY, NAC and CRT as well as proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, plant hormone signal transduction, and the defense responses, among others, were considerably up-regulated in floral buds. Genes involved in the photoperiod pathway and flower organ determination were also identified. These genes represent important candidate genes for molecular cloning and functional analysis to study flowering regulation in chrysanthemum.This comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and signaling pathway components between the vegetative buds, floral buds and buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A wide range of genes was implicated in regulating the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. These results should aid researchers in the study of

  4. Major transcriptome reprogramming underlies floral mimicry induced by the rust fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana M Cano

    Full Text Available Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has yet to be investigated at the molecular or genomic level. To date, the molecular alterations underlying the development of pseudoflowers and the genes involved have not been described. To address this, we performed gene expression profiling to reveal 256 plant biological processes that are significantly altered in pseudoflowers. Among these biological processes, plant genes involved in cell fate specification, regulation of transcription, reproduction, floral organ development, anthocyanin (major floral pigments and terpenoid biosynthesis (major floral volatile compounds were down-regulated in pseudoflowers. In contrast, plant genes involved in shoot, cotyledon and leaf development, carbohydrate transport, wax biosynthesis, cutin transport and L-phenylalanine metabolism (pathway that results in phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde volatile production were up-regulated. These findings point to an extensive reprogramming of host genes by the rust pathogen to induce floral mimicry. We also highlight 31 differentially regulated plant genes that are enriched in the biological processes mentioned above, and are potentially involved in the formation of pseudoflowers. This work illustrates the complex perturbations induced by rust pathogens in their host plants, and provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced floral mimicry.

  5. Major Transcriptome Reprogramming Underlies Floral Mimicry Induced by the Rust Fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Riston H.; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Leonelli, Lauriebeth; MacLean, Dan; Hogenhout, Saskia A.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2013-01-01

    Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers) in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has yet to be investigated at the molecular or genomic level. To date, the molecular alterations underlying the development of pseudoflowers and the genes involved have not been described. To address this, we performed gene expression profiling to reveal 256 plant biological processes that are significantly altered in pseudoflowers. Among these biological processes, plant genes involved in cell fate specification, regulation of transcription, reproduction, floral organ development, anthocyanin (major floral pigments) and terpenoid biosynthesis (major floral volatile compounds) were down-regulated in pseudoflowers. In contrast, plant genes involved in shoot, cotyledon and leaf development, carbohydrate transport, wax biosynthesis, cutin transport and L-phenylalanine metabolism (pathway that results in phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde volatile production) were up-regulated. These findings point to an extensive reprogramming of host genes by the rust pathogen to induce floral mimicry. We also highlight 31 differentially regulated plant genes that are enriched in the biological processes mentioned above, and are potentially involved in the formation of pseudoflowers. This work illustrates the complex perturbations induced by rust pathogens in their host plants, and provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced floral mimicry. PMID:24069397

  6. Functional analyses of a flavonol synthase - like gene from Camellia nitidissima reveal its roles in flavonoid metabolism during floral pigmentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xing-Wen Zhou; Zheng-Qi Fan; Yue Chen; Yu-Lin Zhu; Ji-Yuan Li; Heng-Fu Yin

    2013-09-01

    The flavonoids metabolic pathway plays central roles in floral coloration, in which anthocyanins and flavonols are derived from common precursors, dihydroflavonols. Flavonol synthase (FLS) catalyses dihydroflavonols into flavonols, which presents a key branch of anthocyanins biosynthesis. The yellow flower of Camellia nitidissima Chi. is a unique feature within the genus Camellia, which makes it a precious resource for breeding yellow camellia varieties. In this work, we characterized the secondary metabolites of pigments during floral development of C. nitidissima and revealed that accumulation of flavonols correlates with floral coloration. We first isolated CnFLS1 and showed that it is a FLS of C. nitidissima by gene family analysis. Second, expression analysis during floral development and different floral organs indicated that the expression level of CnFLS1 was regulated by developmental cues, which was in agreement with the accumulating pattern of flavonols. Furthermore, over-expression of CnFLS1 in Nicotiana tabacum altered floral colour into white or light yellow, and metabolic analysis showed significant increasing of flavonols and reducing of anthocyanins in transgenic plants. Our work suggested CnFLS1 plays critical roles in yellow colour pigmentation and is potentially a key point of genetic engineering toward colour modification in Camellia.

  7. Induced floral heteromorphism in Petunia hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Kashikar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Floral heteromorphism induced in Petunia hybrida with several chemical mutagens and gamma-radiation is discussed. Potentials of these mutagens in inducing various forms are described. The effect of heteromorphism on flower production, pollen sterility and seed set besides cross and self compatibilities between different heteromorphic forms have also been reported.

  8. CsTFL1, a constitutive local repressor of flowering, modulates floral initiation by antagonising florigen complex activity in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yohei; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

    2015-08-01

    Chrysanthemums require repeated cycles of short-day (SD) photoperiod for successful anthesis, but their vegetative state is strictly maintained under long-day (LD) or night-break (NB) conditions. We have previously demonstrated that photoperiodic flowering of a wild diploid chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum seticuspe f. boreale) is controlled by a pair of systemic floral regulators, florigen (CsFTL3) and anti-florigen (CsAFT), produced in the leaves. Here, we report the functional characterisation of a local floral regulator, CsTFL1, a chrysanthemum orthologue of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 gene in Arabidopsis. Constitutive expression of CsTFL1 in C. seticuspe (CsTFL1-ox) resulted in extremely late flowering under SD and prevented up-regulation of floral meristem identity genes in shoot tips and leaves. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that both CsTFL1 and CsFTL3 interacted with CsFDL1, a bZIP transcription factor FD homologue, in the nucleus. The transient gene expression assay indicated that CsTFL1 suppresses flowering by directly antagonising the flower inductive activity of the CsFTL3-CsFDL1 complex. Our results suggest that strict maintenance of vegetative state under non-inductive photoperiod is achieved by the coordinated action of both the systemic floral inhibitor and local floral inhibitor CsTFL1, which is constitutively expressed in shoot tips.

  9. Identification of CMS as a cytosolic adaptor of the human pTalpha chain involved in pre-TCR function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, María N; Nusspaumer, Gretel; Fuentes, Patricia; González-García, Sara; Alcain, Juan; Toribio, María L

    2007-12-15

    The T-cell receptor beta (TCRbeta)/pre-TCRalpha (pTalpha) pre-TCR complex (pre-TCR) signals the expansion and differentiation of de-veloping thymocytes. Functional pro-perties of the pre-TCR rely on its unique pTalpha chain, which suggests the participation of specific intracellular adaptors. However, pTalpha-interacting molecules remain unknown. Here, we identified a polyproline-arginine sequence in the human pTalpha cytoplasmic tail that interacted in vitro with SH3 domains of the CIN85/CMS family of adaptors, and mediated the recruitment of multiprotein complexes involving all (CMS, CIN85, and CD2BP3) members. Supporting the physiologic relevance of this interaction, we found that 1 such adaptor, CMS, interacted in vivo with human pTalpha, and its expression was selectively up-regulated during human thymopoiesis in pre-TCR-activated thymocytes. Upon activation, pre-TCR clustering was induced, and CMS and polymerized actin were simultaneously recruited to the pre-TCR activation site. CMS also associated via its C-terminal region to the actin cytoskeleton in the endocytic compartment, where it colocalized with internalized pTalpha in traffic to lysosomal degradation. Notably, deletion of the pTalpha CIN85/CMS-binding motif impaired pre-TCR-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization and NFAT transcriptional activity, and precluded activation induced by overexpression of a CMS-SH3 N-terminal mutant. These results provide the first molecular evidence for a pTalpha intracellular adaptor involved in pre-TCR function.

  10. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risseeuw, Eddy; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Komendant, Kristina; Daskalchuk, Tim; Babic, Vivijan; Crosby, William; Datla, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  11. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Risseeuw

    Full Text Available Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  12. FENOLOGÍA FLORAL Y VISITANTES FLORALES EN Drimys granadensis (WINTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Katherine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue caracterizar las fases fenológicas florales y determinar los visitantes florales en una población natural de Drimys granadensis (Winteraceae ubicada en Altos de Yerbabuena (2850 m, cerros orientales de la Sabana de Bogotá, (Colombia. El desarrollo fenológico floral duró 9.5 días cuando la floración ocurrió en época soleada, 12.5 días en época lluviosa y 16 días cuando se excluyeron a los visitantes florales mediante embolsado. Se realizaron observaciones del recurso utilizado, fase fenólogica de la flor visitada y cargas polínicas en los visitante florales, los cuales correspondieron a 6 órdenes, 21 familias y 29 morfoespecies de insectos. Cuatro especies de coleópteros y dos de dípteros fueron considerados posibles polinizadores por su abundancia y carga de polen. Los resultados obtenidos se discuten en relación con aquellos reportados en otras especies del género Drimys y de la familia Winteraceae.

  13. FENOLOGÍA FLORAL Y VISITANTES FLORALES EN Drimys granadensis L.f. (WINTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XAVIER MARQUINEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue caracterizar las fases fenológicas florales y determinar los visitantes florales en una población natural de Drimys granadensis (nombre común: canelo; Winteraceae ubicada en Altos de Yerbabuena (2.850 m, cerros orientales de la Sabana de Bogotá, (Colombia. El desarrollo fenológico floral duró 9,5 días cuando la floración ocurrió en época soleada, 12,5 días en época lluviosa y 16 días cuando se excluyeron a los visitantes florales mediante embolsado. Se realizaron observaciones del recurso utilizado, fase fenólogica de la flor visitada y cargas polínicas en los visitante florales, los cuales correspondieron a seis órdenes, 21 familias y 29 morfoespecies de insectos. Cuatro especies de coleópteros y dos de dípteros fueron considerados posibles polinizadores por su abundancia y carga de polen. Los resultados obtenidos se discuten en relación con aquellos reportados en otras especies del género Drimys y de la familia Winteraceae.

  14. Adaptor-tagged competitive PCR: a novel method for measuring relative gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, K.

    1997-01-01

    A simple and reliable PCR-based method to quantitate gene expression is described. Following the digestion of double-stranded cDNA by a restriction enzyme, an adaptor is ligated to a cDNA from a first RNA sample, and another adaptor to a second RNA sample. The two adaptors share a common sequence at the outer region, but differ in size. Equal amounts of the ligated samples are mixed, and amplified by an adaptor-primer and a primer specific to the gene of interest. Products derived from the tw...

  15. Unsaturated hydrocarbons with fruity and floral odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, C; Centini, M; Fedeli, P; Paoli, M L; Sega, A; Scesa, C; Pelosi, P

    2000-04-01

    Hydrocarbons usually do not exhibit odors of interest or well-defined character. However, certain cyclic alkenes have been associated with typical and pleasant notes, such as fruity, green, and floral. One of the best known examples is represented by the isomeric megastigmatrienes, endowed with a pleasant smell of tropical fruits. From the structures of these odorants, 24 analogues and homologues, most of them cyclic alkenes, but including also some open-chain alkenes, have been synthesized to define structural parameters related to the characteristic odors of these compounds. The number and position of double bonds, the substitution on the ring, and the size of the ring are the variables taken into account. Most of the new compounds present a mainly fruity character, associated in several cases with floral and green notes, producing an overall sensation described as "tropical fruit".

  16. Contributions of iridescence to floral patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Heather M; Kolle, Mathias; Alvarez-Fernandez, Ruben; Steiner, Ullrich; Glover, Beverley J

    2009-05-01

    The Hibiscus trionum flower is distinctly patterned, with white petals each with a patch of red pigment at the base, producing a 'bulls-eye' pattern on the whole flower. The red pigmented patches are also iridescent, due to the presence of a series of overlying cuticular striations that act as a diffraction grating. We have previously reported that scanning electron microscopy revealed a sharply defined difference between the surface structure overlying the pigmented patch and that over the rest of the petal, with the diffraction grating only present over the pigmented region. Here we show that differences in petal surface structure overlie differences in pigment color in three other species, in a range of different patterns. Floral patterns have previously been shown to be advantageous in pollinator attraction, and we discuss whether emphasis of pigment patterns by structural color may increase floral recognition by pollinators.

  17. Differential association of the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) family of adaptor proteins with the raft- and the non-raft brush border membrane fractions of NHE3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sultan (Ayesha); M. Luo (Ma); Q. Yu (Qingbao); B. Riederer (Beat Michel); W. Xia (Weiliang); M. Chen (Mingmin); S. Lissner (Simone); J.E. Gessner (Johannes); M. Donowitz (Mark); C. Chris Yun (C.); H. deJonge (Hugo); G. Lamprecht (Georg); U. Seidler (Ursula)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: Trafficking, brush border membrane (BBM) retention, and signal-specific regulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 is regulated by the Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor (NHERF) family of PDZ-adaptor proteins, which enable the formation of multiprotein complexes. It is uncl

  18. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  19. Unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2014-08-01

    Legumes, with their unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, play a vital role in ensuring future food security and mitigating the effects of climate change because they use less fossil energy and produce less greenhouse gases compared with N-fertilized systems. Grain legumes are second only to cereal crops as a source of human and animal food, and they contribute approximately one third of the protein consumed by the human population. The productivity of seed crops, such as grain legumes, is dependent on flowering. Despite the genetic variation and importance of flowering in legume production, studies of the molecular pathways that control flowering in legumes are limited. Recent advances in genomics have revealed that legume flowering pathways are divergent from those of such model species as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we discuss the current understanding of flowering time regulation in legumes and highlight the unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

  20. Unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lim Chee Liew; Mohan B.Singh; Prem L.Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Legumes, with their unique ability to fix atmo-spheric nitrogen, play a vital role in ensuring future food security and mitigating the effects of climate change because they use less fossil energy and produce less greenhouse gases compared with N-fertilized systems. Grain legumes are second only to cereal crops as a source of human and animal food, and they contribute approximately one third of the protein consumed by the human population. The productivity of seed crops, such as grain legumes, is dependent on flowering. Despite the genetic variation and importance of flowering in legume production, studies of the molecular pathways that control flowering in legumes are limited. Recent advances in genomics have revealed that legume flowering pathways are divergent from those of such model species as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we discuss the current understanding of flowering time regulation in legumes and highlight the unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

  1. Enteroviral Infection in a Patient with BLNK Adaptor Protein Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaserEddin, Adeeb; Shamriz, Oded; Keller, Baerbel; Alzyoud, Raed M; Unger, Susanne; Fisch, Paul; Prus, Evgenia; Berkun, Yakov; Averbuch, Diana; Shaag, Avraham; Wahadneh, Adel M; Conley, Mary Ellen; Warnatz, Klaus; Elpeleg, Orly; Stepensky, Polina

    2015-05-01

    B-cell linker (BLNK) protein is a non-redundant adaptor molecule in the signaling pathway activated by (pre) B-cell antigen receptor signals. We present two siblings with a homozygous deleterious frameshift mutation in BLNK, resulting in a block of B cell development in the bone marrow at the preB1 to preB2 stage, absence of circulating B cells and agammaglobulinemia. This is the first description of an enteroviral infection associated arthritis and dermatitis in a patient with BLNK deficiency.

  2. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation of Kv1.3 channel is disregulated by adaptor proteins Grb10 and nShc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks David R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotrophins are important regulators of growth and regeneration, and acutely, they can modulate the activity of voltage-gated ion channels. Previously we have shown that acute brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF activation of neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB suppresses the Shaker voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv1.3 via phosphorylation of multiple tyrosine residues in the N and C terminal aspects of the channel protein. It is not known how adaptor proteins, which lack catalytic activity, but interact with members of the neurotrophic signaling pathway, might scaffold with ion channels or modulate channel activity. Results We report the co-localization of two adaptor proteins, neuronal Src homology and collagen (nShc and growth factor receptor-binding protein 10 (Grb10, with Kv1.3 channel as demonstrated through immunocytochemical approaches in the olfactory bulb (OB neural lamina. To further explore the specificity and functional ramification of adaptor/channel co-localization, we performed immunoprecipitation and Western analysis of channel, kinase, and adaptor transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK 293. nShc formed a direct protein-protein interaction with Kv1.3 that was independent of BDNF-induced phosphorylation of Kv1.3, whereas Grb10 did not complex with Kv1.3 in HEK 293 cells. Both adaptors, however, co-immunoprecipitated with Kv1.3 in native OB. Grb10 was interestingly able to decrease the total expression of Kv1.3, particularly at the membrane surface, and subsequently eliminated the BDNF-induced phosphorylation of Kv1.3. To examine the possibility that the Src homology 2 (SH2 domains of Grb10 were directly binding to basally phosphorylated tyrosines in Kv1.3, we utilized point mutations to substitute multiple tyrosine residues with phenylalanine. Removal of the tyrosines 111–113 and 449 prevented Grb10 from decreasing Kv1.3 expression. In the absence of either adaptor protein

  3. Behavioural ecology: bees associate warmth with floral colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Adrian G; Whitney, Heather M; Arnold, Sarah E J; Glover, Beverley J; Chittka, Lars

    2006-08-01

    Floral colour signals are used by pollinators as predictors of nutritional rewards, such as nectar. But as insect pollinators often need to invest energy to maintain their body temperature above the ambient temperature, floral heat might also be perceived as a reward. Here we show that bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) prefer to visit warmer flowers and that they can learn to use colour to predict floral temperature before landing. In what could be a widespread floral adaptation, plants may modulate their temperature to encourage pollinators to visit.

  4. Knockdown of MYB305 disrupts nectary starch metabolism and floral nectar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangyu; Thornburg, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    MYB transcription factors have important roles during floral organ development. In this study, we generated myb305 RNAi knockdown tobacco plants and studied the role of MYB305 in the growth of the floral nectary. We have previously shown the MYB305 regulates the expression of flavonoid metabolic genes as well as of nectar proteins (nectarins); however, the myb305 plants showed other floral phenotypes that we investigate in these studies. The nectaries of myb305 plants show juvenile character at late stages of development and secrete reduced levels of nectar. Because starch metabolism is intimately involved in nectar secretion and is strongly regulated during normal nectary development, we examined the accumulation of starch in the nectaries of the myb305 plants. The myb305 plants accumulated lower levels of starch in their nectaries than did wild-type plants. The reduced starch correlated with the reduced expression of the ATP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (small subunit) gene in nectaries of the myb305 plants during the starch biosynthetic phase. Expression of genes encoding several starch-degrading enzymes including β-amylase, isoamylase 3, and α-amylase was also reduced in the myb305 plants. In addition to regulating nectarin and flavonoid metabolic gene expression, these results suggest that MYB305 may also function in the tobacco nectary maturation program by controlling the expression of starch metabolic genes.

  5. Mediator subunit18 controls flowering time and floral organ identity in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengui Zheng

    Full Text Available Mediator is a conserved multi-protein complex that plays an important role in regulating transcription by mediating interactions between transcriptional activator proteins and RNA polymerase II. Much evidence exists that Mediator plays a constitutive role in the transcription of all genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. However, evidence is mounting that specific Mediator subunits may control the developmental regulation of specific subsets of RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Although the Mediator complex has been extensively studied in yeast and mammals, only a few reports on Mediator function in flowering time control of plants, little is known about Mediator function in floral organ identity. Here we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, MEDIATOR SUBUNIT 18 (MED18 affects flowering time and floral organ formation through FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and AGAMOUS (AG. A MED18 loss-of-function mutant showed a remarkable syndrome of later flowering and altered floral organ number. We show that FLC and AG mRNA levels and AG expression patterns are altered in the mutant. Our results support parallels between the regulation of FLC and AG and demonstrate a developmental role for Mediator in plants.

  6. A Big-Five Personality Profile of the Adaptor and Innovator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang, Ng Aik; Rodrigues, Daphne

    2002-01-01

    A study explored the relationship between two creative types (adaptor and innovator) and the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), in 164 teachers in Singapore. Adaptors were significantly more conscientious than innovators, while innovators were significantly more…

  7. Novel and conserved microRNAs in soybean floral whorls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcheski, F R; Molina, L G; da Fonseca, G C; de Morais, G L; de Oliveira, L F V; Margis, R

    2016-01-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) correspond to a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs (19-24 nt) that regulates the gene expression, through mRNA target cleavage or translation inhibition. In plants, miRNAs have been shown to play pivotal roles in a wide variety of metabolic and biological processes like plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stress. Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide, due to the production of oil and its high protein content. The reproductive phase is considered the most important for soybean yield, which is mainly intended to produce the grains. The identification of miRNAs is not yet saturated in soybean, and there are no studies linking them to the different floral organs. In this study, three different mature soybean floral whorls were used in the construction of sRNA libraries. The sequencing of petal, carpel and stamen libraries generated a total of 10,165,661 sequences. Subsequent analyses identified 200 miRNAs sequences, among which, 41 were novel miRNAs, 80 were conserved soybean miRNAs, 31 were new antisense conserved soybean miRNAs and 46 were soybean miRNAs isoforms. We also found a new miRNA conserved in other plant species, and finally one miRNA-sibling of a soybean conserved miRNA. Conserved and novel miRNAs were evaluated by RT-qPCR. We observed a differential expression across the three whorls for six miRNAs. Computational predicted targets for miRNAs analyzed by RT-qPCR were identified and present functions related to reproductive process in plants. In summary, the increased accumulation of specific and novel miRNAs in different whorls indicates that miRNAs are an important part of the regulatory network in soybean flower.

  8. Is floral morphology a good predictor of floral visitors to Antirrhineae (snapdragons and relatives)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, B; Gómez, J M; Vargas, P

    2017-07-01

    The association between plants and flower visitors has been historically proposed as a main factor driving the evolutionary change of both flower and pollinator phenotypes. The considerable diversity in floral morphology within the tribe Antirrhineae has been traditionally related to pollinator types. We used empirical data on the flower visitors from 59 Antirrhineae taxa from the literature and our own field surveys, which provide an opportunity to test whether flower phenotypes are reliable predictors of visitors and pollinator niches. The degree of adjustment between eight key floral traits and actual visitors was explored by testing the predictive value of inferred pollinator syndromes (i.e. suites of floral traits that characterise groups of plant species related to pollination). Actual visitors and inferred pollinator niches (categorisation of visitors' association using a modularity algorithm) were also explored using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The bee pollinator niche is correctly classified for flowers with dull corolla colour, without nectar guides, as the most important predictor. Both predictive value and statistical classification prove useful in classifying Antirrhineae taxa and the bee pollinator niche, mostly as a consequence of the high proportion of genera and taxa with occluded corollas primarily visited by bees. Our predictive approach rendered a high Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of floral traits in the diagnosis of visitors/pollinator niches. In particular, a high PPV was found for bees as both visitors and forming pollinator niches. In addition, LDA showed that four pollinator niches are well defined based on floral traits. The large number of species visited by bees irrespective of pollinator syndromes leads us to hypothesise their generalist pollinator role, despite the phenotypically specialised flowers of Antirrhineae. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Air pollutants degrade floral scents and increase insect foraging times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Jose D.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Roulston, T.'ai; Chen, Bicheng; Pratt, Kenneth R.

    2016-09-01

    Flowers emit mixtures of scents that mediate plant-insect interactions such as attracting insect pollinators. Because of their volatile nature, however, floral scents readily react with ozone, nitrate radical, and hydroxyl radical. The result of such reactions is the degradation and the chemical modification of scent plumes downwind of floral sources. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are developed to investigate dispersion and chemical degradation and modification of floral scents due to reactions with ozone, hydroxyl radical, and nitrate radical within the atmospheric surface layer. Impacts on foraging insects are investigated by utilizing a random walk model to simulate insect search behavior. Results indicate that even moderate air pollutant levels (e.g., ozone mixing ratios greater than 60 parts per billion on a per volume basis, ppbv) substantially degrade floral volatiles and alter the chemical composition of released floral scents. As a result, insect success rates of locating plumes of floral scents were reduced and foraging times increased in polluted air masses due to considerable degradation and changes in the composition of floral scents. Results also indicate that plant-pollinator interactions could be sensitive to changes in floral scent composition, especially if insects are unable to adapt to the modified scentscape. The increase in foraging time could have severe cascading and pernicious impacts on the fitness of foraging insects by reducing the time devoted to other necessary tasks.

  10. The floral repressor BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT) modulates flowering initiation under high salinity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jae Yong; Park, Chung-Mo; Seo, Pil Joon

    2011-09-01

    Floral transition is coordinately regulated by both endogenous and exogenous cues to ensure reproductive success under fluctuating environmental conditions. Abiotic stress conditions, including drought and high salinity, also have considerable influence on this developmental process. However, the signaling components and molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of floral transition by environmental factors have not yet been defined. In this work, we show that the Arabidopsis BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT) gene, which encodes a member of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) family, regulates floral transition under conditions of high salinity. The BFT gene was transcriptionally induced by high salinity in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Transgenic plants overexpressing the BFT gene (35S:BFT) and BFT-deficient mutant (bft-2) plants were phenotypically indistinguishable from Col-0 plants in seed germination and seedling growth under high salinity. In contrast, although the floral transition was delayed significantly in Col-0 plants under high salinity, that of the bft-2 mutant was not affected by high salinity. We also observed that expression of the APETALA1 (AP1) gene was suppressed to a lesser degree in the bft-2 mutant than in Col-0 plants. Taken together, our observations suggest that BFT mediates salt stress-responsive flowering, providing an adaptive strategy that ensures reproductive success under unfavorable stress conditions.

  11. Transcriptome profile analysis of floral sex determination in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Qin, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiuyan; Feng, Zhuo; Du, Yalin

    2010-07-15

    Cucumber has been widely studied as a model for floral sex determination. In this investigation, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of apical tissue of a gynoecious mutant (Csg-G) and the monoecious wild-type (Csg-M) of cucumber in an attempt to isolate genes involved in sex determination, using the Solexa technology. The profiling analysis revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to the mutation, which resulted in the down-regulation of 600 genes and the up-regulation of 143 genes. The Solexa data were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in biogenesis, transport and organization of cellular component, macromolecular and cellular biosynthesis, localization, establishment of localization, translation and other processes. Furthermore, the expression of some of these genes depended upon the tissue and the developmental stage of the flowers of gynoecious mutant. The results of this study suggest two important concepts, which govern sex determination in cucumber. First, the differential expression of genes involved in plant hormone signaling pathways, such as ACS, Asr1, CsIAA2, CS-AUX1 and TLP, indicate that phytohormones and their crosstalk might play a critical role in the sex determination. Second, the regulation of some transcription factors, including EREBP-9, may also be involved in this developmental process.

  12. The adaptor protein FHL2 enhances the cellular innate immune response to influenza A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, Carolin; Hillesheim, Andrea; Walter, Beate M; Haasbach, Emanuel; Planz, Oliver; Ehrhardt, Christina; Ludwig, Stephan; Wixler, Viktor

    2012-07-01

    The innate immune response of influenza A virus-infected cells is predominantly mediated by type I interferon-induced proteins. Expression of the interferon β (IFNβ) itself is initiated by accumulating viral RNA and is transmitted by different signalling cascades that feed into activation of the three transcriptional elements located in the IFNβ promoter, AP-1, IRF-3 and NF-κB. FHL2 (four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2) is an adaptor molecule that shuttles between membrane and nucleus regulating signalling cascades and gene transcription. Here we describe FHL2 as a novel regulator of influenza A virus propagation. Using mouse FHL2 wild-type, knockout and rescued cells and human epithelial cells with different expression levels of FHL2 we showed that FHL2 decreases influenza A virus propagation by regulating the intrinsic cellular antiviral immune response. On virus infection FHL2 translocates into the nucleus, potentiating the IRF-3-dependent transcription of the IFNβ gene.

  13. Floral transition in maize infected with Sporisorium reilianum disrupts compatibility with this biotrophic fungal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaopeng; Gardiner, Jack; Xiao, Yannong; Zhao, Jiuran; Wang, Fengge; Zheng, Yonglian

    2013-05-01

    Sporisorium reilianum f. sp. zeae is an important biotrophic pathogen that causes head smut disease in maize. Head smut is not obvious until the tassels and ears emerge. S. reilianum has a very long life cycle that spans almost the entire developmental program of maize after the pathogen successfully invades the root. The aim of this study was to understand at a molecular level how this pathogen interacts with the host during its long life cycle, and how this interaction differs between susceptible and resistant varieties of maize after hyphal invasion. We investigated transcriptional changes in the resistant maize line Mo17 at four developmental stages using a maize 70mer-oligonucleotide microarray. We found that there was a lengthy compatible relationship between the pathogen and host until the early eighth-leaf stage. The resistance in Mo17 relied on the assignment of auxin and regulation of flavonoids in the early floral primordium during the early floral transition stage. We propose a model describing the putative mechanism of head smut resistance in Mo17 during floral transition. In the model, the synergistic regulations among auxin, flavonoids, and hyphal growth play a key role in maintaining compatibility with S. reilianum in the resistant maize line.

  14. Control of Floral Meristem Determinacy in Petunia by MADS-Box Transcription Factors1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Silvia; Shchennikova, Anna V.; Franken, John; Immink, Richard G.H.; Angenent, Gerco C.

    2006-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM), a small group of undifferentiated dividing cells, is responsible for the continuous growth of plants. Several genes have been identified that control the development and maintenance of the SAM. Among these, WUSCHEL (WUS) from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is thought to be required for maintenance of a stem cell pool in the SAM. The MADS-box gene AGAMOUS, in combination with an unknown factor, has been proposed as a possible negative regulator of WUS, leading to the termination of meristematic activity within the floral meristem. Transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida) plants were produced in which the E-type and D-type MADS-box genes FLORAL BINDING PROTEIN2 (FBP2) and FBP11, respectively, are simultaneously overexpressed. These plants show an early arrest in development at the cotyledon stage. Molecular analysis of these transgenic plants revealed a possible combined action of FBP2 and FBP11 in repressing the petunia WUS homolog, TERMINATOR. Furthermore, the ectopic up-regulation of the C-type and D-type homeotic genes FBP6 and FBP7, respectively, suggests that they may also participate in a complex, which causes the determinacy in transgenic plants. These data support the model that a transcription factor complex consisting of C-, D-, and E-type MADS-box proteins controls the stem cell population in the floral meristem. PMID:16428599

  15. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Vernalization- and Cytokinin-Induced Floral Transition in Dendrobium nobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhenzhen; Guo, Wenzhong; Li, Jinchi; Lin, Haisheng; He, Chunmei; Liu, Yunquan; Zhang, Qunyu; Liu, Wei

    2017-03-31

    Vernalization is required for floral initiation in Dendrobium. Interestingly, those beneficial effects can also be achieved by exogenous cytokinin application in greenhouses. Thus, an as yet unknown crosstalk/interaction may exist between vernalization and cytokinin signaling pathways. In this study, we showed, by de novo transcriptome assembly using RNA-seq data from both vegetative and reproductive tissue samples, that some floral transition-related genes-DnVRN1, FT, SOC1, LFY and AP1-were differentially expressed in low-temperature-challenged (LT) or thidiazuron (TDZ)-treated plants, compared to those mock-treated (CK). Both LT and TDZ upregulated SOC1, LFY and AP1, while the upregulation of DnVRN1 and FT was only LT-induced. We further found that LT promoted the upregulation of some key cytokinin signaling regulators, including several cytokinin biosynthesis-related genes and type-B response regulator (RR)-encoding genes, and that both LT and TDZ triggered the significant upregulation of some marker genes in the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway, indicating an important low temperature-cytokinin-GA axis in flowering. Our data thus have revealed a cytokinin-GA signal network underlying vernalization, providing a novel insight into further investigation of the molecular mechanism of floral initiation in Dendrobium.

  16. Agave tequilana MADS genes show novel expression patterns in meristems, developing bulbils and floral organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Sandoval, Silvia del Carmen; Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Simpson, June

    2012-03-01

    Agave tequilana is a monocarpic perennial species that flowers after 5-8 years of vegetative growth signaling the end of the plant's life cycle. When fertilization is unsuccessful, vegetative bulbils are induced on the umbels of the inflorescence near the bracteoles from newly formed meristems. Although the regulation of inflorescence and flower development has been described in detail for monocarpic annuals and polycarpic species, little is known at the molecular level for these processes in monocarpic perennials, and few studies have been carried out on bulbils. Histological samples revealed the early induction of umbel meristems soon after the initiation of the vegetative to inflorescence transition in A. tequilana. To identify candidate genes involved in the regulation of floral induction, a search for MADS-box transcription factor ESTs was conducted using an A. tequilana transcriptome database. Seven different MIKC MADS genes classified into 6 different types were identified based on previously characterized A. thaliana and O. sativa MADS genes and sequences from non-grass monocotyledons. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the seven candidate MADS genes in vegetative, inflorescence, bulbil and floral tissues uncovered novel patterns of expression for some of the genes in comparison with orthologous genes characterized in other species. In situ hybridization studies using two different genes showed expression in specific tissues of vegetative meristems and floral buds. Distinct MADS gene regulatory patterns in A. tequilana may be related to the specific reproductive strategies employed by this species.

  17. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Vernalization- and Cytokinin-Induced Floral Transition in Dendrobium nobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhenzhen; Guo, Wenzhong; Li, Jinchi; Lin, Haisheng; He, Chunmei; Liu, Yunquan; Zhang, Qunyu; Liu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Vernalization is required for floral initiation in Dendrobium. Interestingly, those beneficial effects can also be achieved by exogenous cytokinin application in greenhouses. Thus, an as yet unknown crosstalk/interaction may exist between vernalization and cytokinin signaling pathways. In this study, we showed, by de novo transcriptome assembly using RNA-seq data from both vegetative and reproductive tissue samples, that some floral transition-related genes—DnVRN1, FT, SOC1, LFY and AP1—were differentially expressed in low-temperature-challenged (LT) or thidiazuron (TDZ)-treated plants, compared to those mock-treated (CK). Both LT and TDZ upregulated SOC1, LFY and AP1, while the upregulation of DnVRN1 and FT was only LT-induced. We further found that LT promoted the upregulation of some key cytokinin signaling regulators, including several cytokinin biosynthesis-related genes and type-B response regulator (RR)-encoding genes, and that both LT and TDZ triggered the significant upregulation of some marker genes in the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway, indicating an important low temperature-cytokinin-GA axis in flowering. Our data thus have revealed a cytokinin-GA signal network underlying vernalization, providing a novel insight into further investigation of the molecular mechanism of floral initiation in Dendrobium. PMID:28361995

  18. Nickel accumulation by Streptanthus polygaloides (Brassicaceae) reduces floral visitation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, George A; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2014-02-01

    Hyperaccumulation is the phenomenon whereby plants take up and sequester in high concentrations elements that generally are excluded from above-ground tissues. It largely is unknown whether the metals taken up by these plants are transferred to floral rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether floral visitation is affected. We grew Streptanthus polygaloides, a nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator, in short-term Ni supplemented soils and control soils to determine whether Ni is accumulated in floral rewards and whether floral visitation is affected by growth in Ni-rich soils. We found that while supplementation of soils with Ni did not alter floral morphology or reward quantity (i.e., anther size or nectar volume), Ni did accumulate in the nectar and pollen-filled anthers-providing the first demonstration that Ni is accumulated in pollinator rewards. Further, S. polygaloides grown in Ni-supplemented soils received fewer visits per flower per hour from both bees and flies (both naïve to Ni-rich floral resources in the study area) relative to plants grown in control soils, although the probability a plant was visited initially was unaffected by Ni treatment. Our findings show that while Ni-rich floral rewards decrease floral visitation, floral visitors are not completely deterred, so some floral visitors may collect and ingest potentially toxic resources from metal-hyperaccumulating plants. In addition to broadening our understanding of the effects of metal accumulation on ecological interactions in natural populations, these results have implications for the use of insect-pollinated plants in phytoremediation.

  19. Does the relative importance of resource competition and architectural effect in floral variation vary with stages of floral ontogeny?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Qiu LIU; Shuang-Quan HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Variation in floral allocation within inflorescences has been attributed to resource competition and/or architectural effect.The two hypotheses were extensively studied and both hypotheses were partly supported by previous studies.However,the relative importance of resource competition and architectural effect may vary with stages of floral ontogeny in a species.To detect the effects ofontogenetic stages on floral variation,we manipulated the 6-flowered inflorescences ofAdenophorajasionifolia (Campanulaceae) by early,late,and non-thinning flowers.Our results indicated that pollen and ovule production of the remaining flowers were not significantly different between early and late thinning manipulations,suggesting that floral sex allocation was determined far before flowering,in support of the architectural effect hypothesis.Under hand-pollination treatments,early thinning but not late thinning resulted in a significant increase in seed number and seed set of the remaining flowers.Therefore,the increase in seed production of the remaining flowers related to the floral ontogeny.The resource competition for floral allocation was significant under early thinning rather than late thinning manipulation.Our results suggest that studies on floral variation within inflorescences should take into account the stages of floral ontogeny.

  20. Study on the isothermal forging process of MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenchen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal forging process is an effective method to manufacture complex-shaped components of hard-to-work materials, such as magnesium alloys. This study investigates the isothermal forging process of an MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor with three branches. The results show that two-step forging process is appropriate to form the adaptor forging, which not only improves the filling quality but also reduces the forging load compared with one-step forging process. Moreover, the flow line is distributed along the contour of the complex-shaped adaptor forging.

  1. PHF6 Degrees of Separation: The Multifaceted Roles of a Chromatin Adaptor Protein

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    Matthew A.M. Todd

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of chromatin regulation to human disease is highlighted by the growing number of mutations identified in genes encoding chromatin remodeling proteins. While such mutations were first identified in severe developmental disorders, or in specific cancers, several genes have been implicated in both, including the plant homeodomain finger protein 6 (PHF6 gene. Indeed, germline mutations in PHF6 are the cause of the Börjeson–Forssman–Lehmann X-linked intellectual disability syndrome (BFLS, while somatic PHF6 mutations have been identified in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Studies from different groups over the last few years have made a significant impact towards a functional understanding of PHF6 protein function. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of PHF6 with particular emphasis on how it interfaces with a distinct set of interacting partners and its functional roles in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus. Overall, PHF6 is emerging as a key chromatin adaptor protein critical to the regulation of neurogenesis and hematopoiesis.

  2. The p66(Shc adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response in early bovine embryos.

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    Dean H Betts

    Full Text Available The in vitro production of mammalian embryos suffers from high frequencies of developmental failure due to excessive levels of permanent embryo arrest and apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. The p66Shc stress adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response of somatic cells by regulating intracellular ROS levels through multiple pathways, including mitochondrial ROS generation and the repression of antioxidant gene expression. We have previously demonstrated a strong relationship with elevated p66Shc levels, reduced antioxidant levels and greater intracellular ROS generation with the high incidence of permanent cell cycle arrest of 2-4 cell embryos cultured under high oxygen tensions or after oxidant treatment. The main objective of this study was to establish a functional role for p66Shc in regulating the oxidative stress response during early embryo development. Using RNA interference in bovine zygotes we show that p66Shc knockdown embryos exhibited increased MnSOD levels, reduced intracellular ROS and DNA damage that resulted in a greater propensity for development to the blastocyst stage. P66Shc knockdown embryos were stress resistant exhibiting significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels, DNA damage, permanent 2-4 cell embryo arrest and diminished apoptosis frequencies after oxidant treatment. The results of this study demonstrate that p66Shc controls the oxidative stress response in early mammalian embryos. Small molecule inhibition of p66Shc may be a viable clinical therapy to increase the developmental potential of in vitro produced mammalian embryos.

  3. The Role of the Clathrin Adaptor AP-1: Polarized Sorting and Beyond

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    Fubito Nakatsu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The selective transport of proteins or lipids by vesicular transport is a fundamental process supporting cellular physiology. The budding process involves cargo sorting and vesicle formation at the donor membrane and constitutes an important process in vesicular transport. This process is particularly important for the polarized sorting in epithelial cells, in which the cargo molecules need to be selectively sorted and transported to two distinct destinations, the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Adaptor protein (AP-1, a member of the AP complex family, which includes the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelium-specific AP-1B, regulates polarized sorting at the trans-Golgi network and/or at the recycling endosomes. A growing body of evidence, especially from studies using model organisms and animals, demonstrates that the AP-1-mediated polarized sorting supports the development and physiology of multi-cellular units as functional organs and tissues (e.g., cell fate determination, inflammation and gut immune homeostasis. Furthermore, a possible involvement of AP-1B in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and cancer, is now becoming evident. These data highlight the significant contribution of AP-1 complexes to the physiology of multicellular organisms, as master regulators of polarized sorting in epithelial cells.

  4. The role of jasmonates in floral nectar secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Radhika

    Full Text Available Plants produce nectar in their flowers as a reward for their pollinators and most of our crops depend on insect pollination, but little is known on the physiological control of nectar secretion. Jasmonates are well-known for their effects on senescence, the development and opening of flowers and on plant defences such as extrafloral nectar. Their role in floral nectar secretion has, however, not been explored so far. We investigated whether jasmonates have an influence on floral nectar secretion in oil-seed rape, Brassica napus. The floral tissues of this plant produced jasmonic acid (JA endogenously, and JA concentrations peaked shortly before nectar secretion was highest. Exogenous application of JA to flowers induced nectar secretion, which was suppressed by treatment with phenidone, an inhibitor of JA synthesis. This effect could be reversed by additional application of JA. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine and its structural mimic coronalon also increased nectar secretion. Herbivory or addition of JA to the leaves did not have an effect on floral nectar secretion, demonstrating a functional separation of systemic defence signalling from reproductive nectar secretion. Jasmonates, which have been intensively studied in the context of herbivore defences and flower development, have a profound effect on floral nectar secretion and, thus, pollination efficiency in B. napus. Our results link floral nectar secretion to jasmonate signalling and thereby integrate the floral nectar secretion into the complex network of oxylipid-mediated developmental processes of plants.

  5. The role of SEUSS in auxin response and floral organ patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfluger, Jennifer; Zambryski, Patricia

    2004-10-01

    Genetic and physiological analyses implicate auxin flux in patterning, initiation and growth of floral organs. Within the Arabidopsis flower, the ETTIN/ARF3 transcription factor responds to auxin to effect perianth organ number and reproductive organ differentiation. This work describes a modifier of ettin that causes filamentous, mispositioned outer whorl organs and reduced numbers of malformed stamens in the double mutant. The modifier was discovered to be a new allele of the seuss (seu) mutant. SEU encodes a novel protein that is predicted to transcriptionally co-repress the AGAMOUS floral organ identity gene. The effects of seu on ett are shown to be independent of the SEU-AG pathway. Furthermore, morphological, physiological and genetic evidence implicate SEU in auxin-regulated growth and development. seu has a pleiotropic phenotype that includes reductions in several classic auxin responses such as apical dominance, lateral root initiation, sensitivity to exogenous auxin and activation of the DR5 auxin response reporter. seu displays a synergistic interaction with the auxin response mutant pinoid, producing flowers with few outer whorl organs. Collectively, these data suggest that SEU is a novel factor affecting auxin response. A model is proposed in which SEU functions jointly with ETT in auxin response to promote floral organ patterning and growth.

  6. FT-like proteins induce transposon silencing in the shoot apex during floral induction in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Shojiro; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Ayana; Fujita, Akiko; Shimatani, Zenpei; Terada, Rie; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kurata, Tetsuya; Shimamoto, Ko

    2015-02-24

    Floral induction is a crucial developmental step in higher plants. Florigen, a mobile floral activator that is synthesized in the leaf and transported to the shoot apex, was recently identified as a protein encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and its orthologs; the rice florigen is Heading date 3a (Hd3a) protein. The 14-3-3 proteins mediate the interaction of Hd3a with the transcription factor OsFD1 to form a ternary structure called the florigen activation complex on the promoter of OsMADS15, a rice APETALA1 ortholog. However, crucial information, including the spatiotemporal overlap among FT-like proteins and the components of florigen activation complex and downstream genes, remains unclear. Here, we confirm that Hd3a coexists, in the same regions of the rice shoot apex, with the other components of the florigen activation complex and its transcriptional targets. Unexpectedly, however, RNA-sequencing analysis of shoot apex from wild-type and RNA-interference plants depleted of florigen activity revealed that 4,379 transposable elements (TEs; 58% of all classifiable rice TEs) were expressed collectively in the vegetative and reproductive shoot apex. Furthermore, in the reproductive shoot apex, 214 TEs were silenced by florigen. Our results suggest a link between floral induction and regulation of TEs.

  7. Why Do Floral Perfumes Become Different? Region-Specific Selection on Floral Scent in a Terrestrial Orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karin; Sun, Mimi; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2016-01-01

    Geographically structured phenotypic selection can lead to adaptive divergence. However, in flowering plants, such divergent selection has rarely been shown, and selection on floral signals is generally little understood. In this study, we measured phenotypic selection on display size, floral color, and floral scent in four lowland and four mountain populations of the nectar-rewarding terrestrial orchid Gymnadenia odoratissima in two years. We also quantified population differences in these traits and pollinator community composition. Our results show positive selection on display size and positive, negative, or absence of selection on different scent compounds and floral color. Selection on the main scent compounds was consistently stronger in the lowlands than in the mountains, and lowland plants emitted higher amounts of most of these compounds. Pollinator community composition also differed between regions, suggesting different pollinators select for differences in floral volatiles. Overall, our study is the first to document consistent regional differences in selection on floral scent, suggesting this pattern of selection is one of the evolutionary forces contributing to regional divergence in floral chemical signaling. PMID:26886766

  8. Enzymatic production and emission of floral scent volatiles in Jasminum sambac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Paramita; Mukherjee, Chiranjit; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2017-03-01

    Floral scent composed of low molecular weight volatile organic compounds. The sweet fragrance of any evening blooming flower is dominated by benzenoid and terpenoid volatile compounds. Floral scent of Jasminum sambac (Oleaceae) includes three major benzenoid esters - benzylacetate, methylbenzoate, and methylsalicylate and three major terpene compounds viz. (E)-β-ocimene, linalool and α-farnesene. We analyzed concentrations and emission rates of benzenoids and terpenoids during the developmental stages of J. sambac flower. In addition to spatial emission from different floral parts, we studied the time-course mRNA accumulations of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the two representative genes of terpenoid pathway, namely 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) and terpene synthase (TPS). Further, in vitro activities of several enzymes of phenylpropanoid/benzenoid pathway viz., PAL and acetyl-coenzyme A: benzylalcohol acetyltransferase (BEAT), S-adenosyl-l-methionine: benzoic acid carboxyl methyl transferase (BAMT) and S-adenosyl-l-methionine: salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (SAMT) were studied. All the above enzyme activities along with the in vitro activities of DXR and TPS were found to follow a certain rhythm as observed in the emission of different benzenoid and terpenoid compounds. Linalool emission peaked after petal opening and coincided with maximal expression of JsTPS gene as evidenced from RT-PCR analyses (semi-quantitative). The maximum transcript accumulation of this gene was observed in flower petals, indicating that the petals of J. sambac flower play an important role as a major contributor of volatile precursors. The transcripts accumulation of JsDXR and JsTPS in different developmental stages and in different floral part showed that emissions of terpenoid volatiles in J. sambac flower are partially regulated at transcription levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The dynamics of soybean leaf and shoot apical meristem transcriptome undergoing floral initiation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chui E; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2013-01-01

    Flowering process governs seed set and thus affects agricultural productivity. Soybean, a major legume crop, requires short-day photoperiod conditions for flowering. While leaf-derived signal(s) are essential for the photoperiod-induced floral initiation process at the shoot apical meristem, molecular events associated with early floral transition stages in either leaves or shoot apical meristems are not well understood. To provide novel insights into the molecular basis of floral initiation, RNA-Seq was used to characterize the soybean transcriptome of leaf and micro-dissected shoot apical meristem at different time points after short-day treatment. Shoot apical meristem expressed a higher number of transcripts in comparison to that of leaf highlighting greater diversity and abundance of transcripts expressed in the shoot apical meristem. A total of 2951 shoot apical meristem and 13,609 leaf sequences with significant profile changes during the time course examined were identified. Most changes in mRNA level occurred after 1short-day treatment. Transcripts involved in mediating responses to stimulus including hormones or in various metabolic processes represent the top enriched GO functional category for the SAM and leaf dataset, respectively. Transcripts associated with protein degradation were also significantly changing in leaf and SAM implicating their involvement in triggering the developmental switch. RNA-Seq analysis of shoot apical meristem and leaf from soybean undergoing floral transition reveal major reprogramming events in leaves and the SAM that point toward hormones gibberellins (GA) and cytokinin as key regulators in the production of systemic flowering signal(s) in leaves. These hormones may form part of the systemic signals in addition to the established florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). Further, evidence is emerging that the conversion of shoot apical meristem to inflorescence meristem is linked with the interplay of auxin, cytokinin and GA

  10. The dynamics of soybean leaf and shoot apical meristem transcriptome undergoing floral initiation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui E Wong

    Full Text Available Flowering process governs seed set and thus affects agricultural productivity. Soybean, a major legume crop, requires short-day photoperiod conditions for flowering. While leaf-derived signal(s are essential for the photoperiod-induced floral initiation process at the shoot apical meristem, molecular events associated with early floral transition stages in either leaves or shoot apical meristems are not well understood. To provide novel insights into the molecular basis of floral initiation, RNA-Seq was used to characterize the soybean transcriptome of leaf and micro-dissected shoot apical meristem at different time points after short-day treatment. Shoot apical meristem expressed a higher number of transcripts in comparison to that of leaf highlighting greater diversity and abundance of transcripts expressed in the shoot apical meristem. A total of 2951 shoot apical meristem and 13,609 leaf sequences with significant profile changes during the time course examined were identified. Most changes in mRNA level occurred after 1short-day treatment. Transcripts involved in mediating responses to stimulus including hormones or in various metabolic processes represent the top enriched GO functional category for the SAM and leaf dataset, respectively. Transcripts associated with protein degradation were also significantly changing in leaf and SAM implicating their involvement in triggering the developmental switch. RNA-Seq analysis of shoot apical meristem and leaf from soybean undergoing floral transition reveal major reprogramming events in leaves and the SAM that point toward hormones gibberellins (GA and cytokinin as key regulators in the production of systemic flowering signal(s in leaves. These hormones may form part of the systemic signals in addition to the established florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT. Further, evidence is emerging that the conversion of shoot apical meristem to inflorescence meristem is linked with the interplay of auxin

  11. Progress Report for DOE DE-FG03-98ER20317 ''Regulation of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS'' Current and Final Funding Period: September 1, 2002, to December 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, D.

    2003-03-11

    OAK-B135 Results obtained during this funding period: (1) Phylogenetic footprinting of AG regulatory sequences Sequences necessary and sufficient for AGAMOUS (AG) expression in the center of Arabidopsis flowers are located in the second intron, which is about 3 kb in size. This intron contains binding sites for two transcription factors, LEAFY (LFY) and WUSCHEL (WUS), which are direct activators of AG. We used the new method of phylogenetic shadowing to identify new regulatory elements. Among 29 Brassicaceae, several other motifs, but not the LFY and WUS binding sites previously identified, are largely invariant. Using reporter gene analyses, we tested six of these motifs and found that they are all functionally important for activity of AG regulatory sequences in A. thaliana. (2) Repression of AG by MADS box genes A candidate for repressing AG in the shoot apical meristem has been the MADS box gene FUL, since it is expressed in the shoot apical meristem and since an activated version (FUL:VP16) leads to ectopic AG expression in the shoot apical meristem. However, there is no ectopic AG expression in full single mutants. We therefore started to generate VP16 fusions of several other MADS box genes expressed in the shoot apical meristem, to determine which of these might be candidates for FUL redundant genes. We found that AGL6:VP16 has a similar phenotype as FUL:VP16, suggesting that AGL6 and FUL interact. We are now testing this hypothesis. (3) Two candidate AG regulators, WOW and ULA Because the phylogenetic footprinting project has identified several new candidate regulatory motifs, of which at least one (the CCAATCA motif) has rather strong effects, we had decided to put the analysis of WOW and ULA on hold, and to focus on using the newly identified motifs as tools. We conduct ed yeast one-hybrid screen with two of the conserved motifs, and identified several classes of transcription factors that can interact with them. One of these is encoded by the PAN gene

  12. Increasing the efficiency of SAGE adaptor ligation by directed ligation chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Austin P.; Turner, Robin F. B.; Haynes, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    The ability of Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) to provide a quantitative picture of global gene expression relies not only on the depth and accuracy of sequencing into the SAGE library, but also on the efficiency of each step required to generate the SAGE library from the starting mRNA material. The first critical step is the ligation of adaptors containing a Type IIS recognition sequence to the anchored 3′ end cDNA population that permits the release of short sequence tags (SSTs) from defined sites within the 3′ end of each transcript. Using an in vitro transcript as a template, we observed that only a small fraction of anchored 3′ end cDNA are successfully ligated with added SAGE adaptors under typical reaction conditions currently used in the SAGE protocol. Although the introduction of ∼500-fold molar excess of adaptor or the inclusion of 15% (w/v) PEG-8000 increased the yield of the adaptor-modified product, complete conversion to the desired adaptor:cDNA hetero-ligation product is not achieved. An alternative method of ligation, termed as directed ligation, is described which exploits a favourable mass-action condition created by the presence of NlaIII during ligation in combination with a novel SAGE adaptor containing a methylated base within the ligation site. Using this strategy, we were able to achieve near complete conversion of the anchored 3′ end cDNA into the desired adaptor-modified product. This new protocol therefore greatly increases the probability that a SST will be generated from every transcript, greatly enhancing the fidelity of SAGE. Directed ligation also provides a powerful means to achieve near-complete ligation of any appropriately designed adaptor to its respective target. PMID:15247329

  13. Composition of the Floral Essential Oil of Brugmansia suaveolens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuel J Anthony; Willow Zuchowski; William N Setzer

    2009-01-01

      The floral essential oils of Brugmansia suaveolens, from Monteverde , Costa Rica , were collected at three different times of the day by hydrodistillation and the oils analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS...

  14. New functions for secondary compounds in floral nectar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Floral nectar, which is mainly composed of sugar, plays a major role in attracting pollinators. However, many studies show that most of the nectar also contains antiherbivore secondary compounds, such as phenolics, which could keep away some flower visitors.

  15. chemical profiles of honeys originating from different floral sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... Available online at http://www.jfas. ... quality honeys retail for premium prices, but these honeys are increasingly being ... distinguish between two floral sources in Malaysia. Ferulic ..... Pyrzynska K., Biesaga M., Trends Anal.

  16. Floral scent and pollinators of the holoparasite Pilostyles thurberi (Apodanthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedonia D Sipes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Floral scent is likely important to the pollination of parasitic plants, despite that it has not been well-studied. We studied the pollination ecology of the North American stem holoparasite Pilostyles thurberi (Apodanthaceae at two field sites in Texas. To identify effective pollinators, we collected floral visitors to P. thurberi flowers, observed their foraging behavior, and looked for P. thurberi pollen on their bodies. Augochloropsis metallica bees (Halictidae and eumenine potter wasps (Vespidae were pollinators. P. thurberi flowers are visually inconspicuous but produce a strong fruity fragrance. GC/MS analysis of whole floral extracts and dynamic headspace samples revealed the fragrance to be an unusually simple bouquet of raspberry ketone and several eugenols. Comparison of scent profiles to those from uninfected host plants (Dalea formosa allowed putative separation of parasite and host volatiles. This is the first report of the constituents of floral fragrance in Apodanthaceae.

  17. Contribution to the floral anatomy of leptospermum laevigatum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joshnson, CT

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available the development and only the epidermis of the inner and outer integuments develops into a seed coat. A brief description of the vascularisation of the flower and its floral ontogeny is also given...

  18. Cytological behaviour of floral organs and in silico characterization of differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments associated with ‘floral bud distortion’ in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRASHANT B. KALE; PRAVIN V. JADHAV; RACHANA S. WAKEKAR; M. P. MOHARIL; A. G. DESHMUKH; M. S. DUDHARE; R. S. NANDANWAR; S. S. MANE; J. G. MANJAYA; R. G. DANI

    2016-12-01

    An attempt was made to understand the ‘floral bud distortion’ (FBD), an unexplored disorder prevailing in soybean. Cytological behaviour of floral reproductive organs and in silico characterization of differentially expressed transcript-derivedfragments (TDFs) in symptomatic and asymptomatic soybean plants were carried out. Pollens in asymptomatic plants do not have defects in number, size, shape and function. However, in symptomatic plant, pollens were found nonviable, abnormalin shape and with reduced germination ability. Here, we employed a computational approach, exploring invaluable resources. The tissue-specific transcript profile of symptomatic and asymptomatic sources was compared to determine differentiallyexpressed TDFs associated with FBD to improve its basic understanding. A total of 60 decamer primers produced 197 scorable amplicons, ranged 162–1130 bp, of which 171 were monomorphic and 26 were differentially regulated. Reproducible TDFs were sequenced and characterized for their homology analysis, annotation, protein–protein interaction, subcellular localization and their physical mapping. Homology-based annotation of TDFs in soybean revealed presence of two characterized and seven uncharacterized hits. Annotation of characterized sequences showed presence of genes, namely auxin response factor 9(ARF9) and forkhead-associated (FHA) domain, which are directly involved in plant development through various pathways, such as hormonal regulation, plant morphology, embryogenesis and DNA repair.

  19. Evolution of double positive autoregulatory feedback loops in CYCLOIDEA2 clade genes is associated with the origin of floral zygomorphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xia; Pang, Hong-Bo; Liu, Bo-Ling; Qiu, Zhi-Jing; Gao, Qiu; Wei, Lai; Dong, Yang; Wang, Yin-Zheng

    2012-05-01

    Members of the CYCLOIDEA2 (CYC2) clade of the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PCF transcription factor genes are widely involved in controlling floral zygomorphy, a key innovation in angiosperm evolution, depending on their persistently asymmetric expression in the corresponding floral domains. However, it is unclear how this asymmetric expression is maintained throughout floral development. Selecting Primulina heterotricha as a model, we examined the expression and function of two CYC2 genes, CYC1C and CYC1D. We analyzed the role of their promoters in protein-DNA interactions and transcription activation using electrophoresis mobility shift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transient gene expression assays. We find that CYC1C and CYC1D positively autoregulate themselves and cross-regulate each other. Our results reveal a double positive autoregulatory feedback loop, evolved for a pair of CYC2 genes to maintain their expression in developing flowers. Further comparative genome analyses, together with the available expression and function data of CYC2 genes in the core eudicots, suggest that this mechanism might have led to the independent origins of floral zygomorphy, which are associated with plant-insect coevolution and the adaptive radiation of angiosperms.

  20. Phytoplasma-induced floral abnormalities in Catharanthus roseus are associated with phytoplasma accumulation and transcript repression of floral organ identity genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Ting; Chen, Jen-Chih; Lin, Chan-Pin

    2011-12-01

    Floral symptoms caused by phytoplasma largely resemble floral reversion in other plants. Periwinkle leaf yellowing (PLY) phytoplasma and peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma caused different degrees of floral abnormalities on infected periwinkle plants. The PLY phytoplasma-infected plants exhibited floral discoloration, virescence, small flowers, and only occasionally full floral reversion. In contrast, PnWB phytoplasma frequently induced complete floral reversion and resulted in a witches'-broom symptom from the floral reversion. Although different degrees of floral symptoms were induced by these two phytoplasmas, the morphological disorders were similar to those of other plants carrying SEPALLATA mutations or gene silencing. Here, we compared expression levels of organ-identity-related genes and pigmentation genes during floral symptom development. Accumulation of phytoplasmas in malformed flowers and their closely surrounding leaves was also compared. In infected plants, transcript abundance of all examined organ identity genes and pigmentation genes was suppressed. Indeed, CrSEP3, a SEPALLALA3 ortholog, showed the greatest suppression among genes examined. Of the pigmentation genes, transcript reduction of chalcone synthase was most highly correlated with the loss in floral pigmentation. Floral symptom severities were associated with the accumulation of either phytoplasmas. Interestingly, both phytoplasmas accumulated to higher levels in malformed flowers than in their surrounding leaves. Many plant pathogens manipulate host plant development to their advantage. It is intriguing to see whether phytoplasmas alter floral development to increase their population.

  1. Identification of actin binding protein, ABP-280, as a binding partner of human Lnk adaptor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X; Li, Y; Schembri-King, J; Jakes, S; Hayashi, J

    2000-08-01

    Human Lnk (hLnk) is an adaptor protein with multiple functional domains that regulates T cell activation signaling. In order to identify cellular Lnk binding partners, a yeast two-hybrid screening of human spleen cDNA library was carried out using human hLnk as bait. A polypeptide sequence identical to the C-terminal segment of the actin binding protein (ABP-280) was identified as a hLnk binding protein. The expressed hLnk and the FLAG tagged C-terminal 673 amino acid residues of ABP-280 or the endogenous ABP-280 in COS-7 cells could be co-immunoprecipitated using antibodies either to hLnk, FLAG or ABP-280, respectively. Furthermore, immunofluorescence confocal microscope showed that hLnk and ABP-280 co-localized at the plasma membrane and at juxtanuclear region of COS-7 cells. In Jurkat cells, the endogenous hLnk also associates with the endogenous ABP-280 indicating that the association of these two proteins is physiological. The interacting domains of both proteins were mapped using yeast two-hybrid assays. Our results indicate that hLnk binds to the residues 2006-2454 (repeats 19-23C) of ABP-280. The domain in hLnk that associates with ABP-280 was mapped to an interdomain region of 56 amino acids between pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 domains. These results suggest that hLnk may exert its regulatory role through its association with ABP-280.

  2. Targeting 14-3-3 adaptor protein-protein interactions to stimulate central nervous system repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kaplan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of developing treatments for central nervous system (CNS injuries is becoming more attainable with the recent identification of various drugs that can repair damaged axons. These discoveries have stemmed from screening efforts, large expression datasets and an improved understanding of the cellular and molecular biology underlying axon growth. It will be important to continue searching for new compounds that can induce axon repair. Here we describe how a family of adaptor proteins called 14-3-3s can be targeted using small molecule drugs to enhance axon outgrowth and regeneration. 14-3-3s bind to many functionally diverse client proteins to regulate their functions. We highlight the recent discovery of the axon-growth promoting activity of fusicoccin-A, a fungus-derived small molecule that stabilizes 14-3-3 interactions with their client proteins. Here we discuss how fusicoccin-A could serve as a starting point for the development of drugs to induce CNS repair.

  3. 14-3-3 adaptor protein-protein interactions as therapeutic targets for CNS diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Andrew; Ottmann, Christian; Fournier, Alyson E

    2017-09-14

    14-3-3s are a family of ubiquitously expressed adaptor proteins that regulate hundreds of functionally diverse 'client proteins.' In humans, there are seven isoforms with conserved structure and function. 14-3-3s typically bind to client proteins at phosphorylated serine/threonine motifs via a linear binding groove. Binding can have a variety of effects on the stability, activity and/or localization of the client protein. 14-3-3s are generating significant interest as potential drug targets for their involvement in cellular homeostasis and disease. They are especially abundant in the central nervous system (CNS) and are implicated in numerous CNS diseases, often through specific interactions with disease-relevant client proteins. Several tool compounds that can modulate 14-3-3 interactions with client proteins to elicit therapeutic effects have recently been described. Here we offer a perspective on the functions of 14-3-3s in neurons and the potential development of drugs to therapeutically target 14-3-3 PPIs for CNS diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polarity in the early floral meristem of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Rahere; Chandler, John William

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of angiosperm flowers depends on organ meristy and position. However, the signaling pathways that establish polarity and positional information remain largely unelucidated. Use of the founder-cell marker DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE (DRNL) in Arabidopsis has recently highlighted the importance of the abaxial-adaxial axis for early floral development. We have extended the use of DRNL::GFP to further characterize floral organogenesis in genotypes that are altered in floral organ meristy or position, including ettin (ett-3) and blade-on-petiole (bop)1-11 bop2-4 double mutants. The creation of supernumery sepals by the splitting of sepal founder-cell populations along an ab-/adaxial axis strengthens the importance of the ab-/adaxial developmental axis in early floral meristem development. Furthermore, we confirm the dependency of the wildtype sequence of sepal initiation on bract suppression and demonstrate that supernumery stamens derive from the imprecise resolution of a ring of DRNL expression. Expression of DRNL in apetala1 (ap1-1) and ap2-8 mutants reflect the altered whorl structure and show that these homeotic genes function upstream of DRNL. Analyzing the dynamism of early floral meristem ontogeny at a fine temporal and spatial resolution in Arabidopsis can reveal mechanisms of organogenesis and is applicable to other species with differing floral body plans in a comparative evolutionary context.

  5. The AP-3 adaptor complex is required for vacuolar function in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Zwiewka; Elena Feraru; Barbara M(o)ller; Inhwan Hwang; Mugurel I Feraru; Jürgen Kleine-Vehn; Dolf Weijers; Ji(n) Friml

    2011-01-01

    Subcellular trafficking is required for a multitude of functions in eukaryotic cells.It involves regulation of cargo sorting,vesicle formation,trafficking and fusion processes at multiple levels.Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are key regulators of cargo sorting into vesicles in yeast and mammals but their existence and function in plants have not been demonstrated.Here we report the identification of the protein-affected trafficking 4 (pat4) mutant defective in the putative δ subunit of the AP-3 complex.pat4 and pat2,a mutant isolated from the same GFP imaging-based forward genetic screen that lacks a functional putative AP-3 β,as well as dominant negative AP-3 μ transgenic lines display undistinguishable phenotypes characterized by largely normal morphology and development,but strong intracellular accumulation of membrane proteins in aberrant vacuolar structures.All mutants are defective in morphology and function of lytic and protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) but show normal sorting of reserve proteins to PSVs.Immunoprecipitation experiments and genetic studies revealed tight functional and physical associations of putative AP-3 β and AP-3 δ subunits.Furthermore,both proteins are closely linked with putative AP-3 μ and σ subunits and several components of the clathrin and dynamin machineries.Taken together,these results demonstrate that AP complexes,similar to those in other eukaryotes,exist in plants,and that AP-3 plays a specific role in the regulation of biogenesis and function of vacuoles in plant cells.

  6. Biologia floral de Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae floral biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Gonçalves Jardim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são apresentadas informações sobre a biologia floral de Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae, espécie florestal dióica de relevante importância econômica na região amazônica. O estudo foi realizado em uma área de várzea próximo à bacia do igarapé Murutucum, lado direito do rio Guamá, localizada no Campus da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias do Pará, na cidade de Belém, Estado do Pará, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2001. Avaliou-se a biologia floral desde o aparecimento dos botões florais até a senescência das flores estaminadas, bem como a formação de frutos nas flores pistiladas. Testes bioquímicos foram aplicados para verificação de odor, pigmentos, osmóforos e receptividade do estigma. A observação no comportamento dos visitantes florais foi realizada durante o período diurno, registrando-se os horários de visitas, tempo de permanência na flor e freqüência; alguns indivíduos foram coletados com rede entomológica e identificados no Departamento de Zoologia do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. A antese ocorreu entre 6 e 16 h nas flores estaminadas e entre 8 e 16 h nas flores pistiladas; a presença de odor foi constatada apenas nas flores estaminadas, enquanto os pigmentos e osmóforos foram encontrados em ambas as flores; o estigma mostrou-se receptivo no período entre 12 e 14 h. Os insetos da ordem diptera foram os visitantes mais freqüentes nas flores estaminadas e pistiladas e as espécies Copestylum sp. e Erystalys sp., as responsáveis pela polinização.Information was obtained on the floral biology of Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae, a dioecious arboreal species of great importance for the Amazon region economy. The study was carried out in the floodplain area near the Murucutu stream, on the right side of the Guamá River, at the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia-UFRA, Belém-Pará , from January to December 2001. Floral biology was assessed from

  7. MEMORIA Y APRENDIZAJE EN LA ESCOGENCIA FLORAL DE LAS ABEJAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARISOL AMAYA MÁRQUEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los polinizadores altamente especializados en su dieta, no hacen escogencias florales, ellos visitan un recurso específico siguiendo el dictado de la información almacenada en sus genes. En contraste, para la abeja social Apis mellifera una escogencia floral implica, la toma de una decisión, usualmente con criterio económico, basada en información aprendida y almacenada en alguna forma de memoria. Aunque existen numerosos estudios y modelos sobre la escogencia floral en abejas, la gran mayoría de éstos, han derivado sus conclusiones a partir de condiciones temporalmente fijas de la interacción. Muy pocos estudios han abordado la dinámica propia del contexto ecológico, en el cual el mercado floral de las abejas cambia con las estaciones del año y con los patrones diarios de antesis floral. Este cambio en la disponibilidad de especies florales enfrenta a los polinizadores, a realizar escogencias secuenciales acerca del alimento a explotar. En este trabajo abordo el tema del forrajeo secuencial en parches florales heterospecíficos, enfocándome en el uso que la abeja melífera hace de la información previamente aprendida en un contexto, cuando se enfrenta a la explotación de alimento en un contexto ecológicamente diferente. He realizado experimentos sobre escogencia floral simulando las condiciones de cambio del paisaje floral, exponiendo abejas individuales de A. mellifera a decidir sobre cuales especies forrajear en cada parche. Los resultados indican que la abeja invierte en procesos de aprendizaje en un muestreo inicial, pero una vez almacenada la información, utiliza una pieza de la información previamente aprendida (color para explotar parches florales heteroespecíficos siguiendo una imagen de búsqueda de color. En esta revisión discuto situaciones biológicas de la interacción planta-abeja, las cuales apoyan la idea que en la naturaleza el uso de imágenes de búsqueda de color por parte de abejas sociales puede ser m

  8. ULTRAPETALA1 and LEAFY pathways function independently in specifying identity and determinacy at the Arabidopsis floral meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhorn, Julia; Moreau, Fanny; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Carles, Cristel C

    2014-11-01

    The morphological variability of the flower in angiosperms, combined with its relatively simple structure, makes it an excellent model to study cell specification and the establishment of morphogenetic patterns. Flowers are the products of floral meristems, which are determinate structures that generate four different types of floral organs before terminating. The precise organization of the flower in whorls, each defined by the identity and number of organs it contains, is controlled by a multi-layered network involving numerous transcriptional regulators. In particular, the AGAMOUS (AG) MADS domain-containing transcription factor plays a major role in controlling floral determinacy in Arabidopsis thaliana in addition to specifying reproductive organ identity. This study aims to characterize the genetic interactions between the ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1) and LEAFY (LFY) transcriptional regulators during flower morphogenesis, with a focus on AG regulation. Genetic and molecular approaches were used to address the question of redundancy and reciprocal interdependency for the establishment of flower meristem initiation, identity and termination. In particular, the effects of loss of both ULT1 and LFY function were determined by analysing flower developmental phenotypes of double-mutant plants. The dependency of each factor on the other for activating developmental genes was also investigated in gain-of-function experiments. The ULT1 and LFY pathways, while both activating AG expression in the centre of the flower meristem, functioned independently in floral meristem determinacy. Ectopic transcriptional activation by ULT1 of AG and AP3, another gene encoding a MADS domain-containing flower architect, did not depend on LFY function. Similarly, LFY did not require ULT1 function to ectopically determine floral fate. The results indicate that the ULT1 and LFY pathways act separately in regulating identity and determinacy at the floral meristem. In particular, they independently

  9. Ascent Heating Thermal Analysis on Spacecraft Adaptor Fairings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Yen; Yuko, James; Motil, Brian

    2011-01-01

    When the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is launched, the spacecraft adaptor (SA) fairings that cover the CEV service module (SM) are exposed to aero heating. Thermal analysis is performed to compute the fairing temperatures and to investigate whether the temperatures are within the material limits for nominal ascent aeroheating case. The ascent heating is analyzed by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and engineering codes at Marshall Space Flight Center. The aeroheating environment data used for this work is known as Thermal Environment 3 (TE3) heating data. One of the major concerns is with the SA fairings covering the CEV SM and the SM/crew launch vehicle (CLV) flange interface. The TE3 heating rate is a function of time, wall temperature, and the spatial locations. The implementation of the TE3 heating rate as boundary conditions in the thermal analysis becomes challenging. The ascent heating thermal analysis on SA fairings and SM/CLV flange interface are performed using two commercial software packages: Cullimore & Ring (C&R) Thermal Desktop (TD) 5.1 and MSC Patran 2007r1 b. TD is the pre-and post-processor for SINDA, which is a finite-difference-based solver. In TD, the geometry is built and meshed, the boundary conditions are defined, and then SINDA is used to compute temperatures. MSC Pthermal is a finite-element- based thermal solver. MSC Patran is the pre- and post-processor for Pthermal. Regarding the boundary conditions, the convection, contact resistance, and heat load can be imposed in different ways in both programs. These two software packages are used to build the thermal model for the same analysis to validate each other and show the differences in the modeling details.

  10. TIRAP, an Adaptor Protein for TLR2/4, Transduces a Signal from RAGE Phosphorylated upon Ligand Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Murata, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Ono, Tomoyuki; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Motoyama, Akira; Hibino, Toshihiko; Kataoka, Ken; Huh, Nam-ho

    2011-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of a broad range of inflammatory, degenerative and hyperproliferative diseases. It binds to diverse ligands and activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Despite these pivotal functions, molecular events just downstream of ligand-activated RAGE have been surprisingly unknown. Here we show that the cytoplasmic domain of RAGE is phosphorylated at Ser391 by PKCζ upon binding of ligands. TIRAP and MyD88, which are known to be adaptor proteins for Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 (TLR2/4), bound to the phosphorylated RAGE and transduced a signal to downstream molecules. Blocking of the function of TIRAP and MyD88 largely abrogated intracellular signaling from ligand-activated RAGE. Our findings indicate that functional interaction between RAGE and TLRs coordinately regulates inflammation, immune response and other cellular functions. PMID:21829704

  11. A Developmental Basis for Stochasticity in Floral Organ Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho S Kitazawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stochasticity ubiquitously inevitably appears at all levels from molecular traits to multicellular, morphological traits. Intrinsic stochasticity in biochemical reactions underlies the typical intercellular distributions of chemical concentrations, e.g., morphogen gradients, which can give rise to stochastic morphogenesis. While the universal statistics and mechanisms underlying the stochasticity at the biochemical level have been widely analyzed, those at the morphological level have not. Such morphological stochasticity is found in foral organ numbers: Although the floral organ number is a hallmark of floral species, it can distribute stochastically even within an individual plant. The probability distribution of the floral organ number within a population is usually asymmetric, i.e., it is more likely to increase rather than decrease from the modal value, or vice versa. We combined field observations, statistical analysis, and mathematical modeling to study the developmental basis of the variation in floral organ numbers among 49 species mainly from Ranunculaceae and several other families from core eudicots. We compared six hypothetical mechanisms and found that a modified error function reproduced much of the asymmetric variation found in eudicot floral organ numbers. The error function is derived from mathematical modeling of floral organ positioning, and its parameters represent measurable distances in the floral bud morphologies. The model predicts two developmental sources of the organ-number distributions: stochastic shifts in the expression boundaries of homeotic genes and a semi-concentric (whorled-type organ arrangement. Other models species- or organ-specifically reproduced different types of distributions that reflect different developmental processes. The organ number variations could be an indicator of the inherent stochasticity in both the expression domain of homeotic genes and the organ positioning.

  12. A spatial dissection of the Arabidopsis floral transcriptome by MPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Leon Nidia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have further characterized floral organ-localized gene expression in the inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana by comparison of massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS data. Six libraries of RNA sequence tags from immature inflorescence tissues were constructed and matched to their respective loci in the annotated Arabidopsis genome. These signature libraries survey the floral transcriptome of wild-type tissue as well as the floral homeotic mutants, apetala1, apetala3, agamous, a superman/apetala1 double mutant, and differentiated ovules dissected from the gynoecia of wild-type inflorescences. Comparing and contrasting these MPSS floral expression libraries enabled demarcation of transcripts enriched in the petals, stamens, stigma-style, gynoecia, and those with predicted enrichment within the sepal/sepal-petals, petal-stamens, or gynoecia-stamens. Results By comparison of expression libraries, a total of 572 genes were found to have organ-enriched expression within the inflorescence. The bulk of characterized organ-enriched transcript diversity was noted in the gynoecia and stamens, whereas fewer genes demonstrated sepal or petal-localized expression. Validation of the computational analyses was performed by comparison with previously published expression data, in situ hybridizations, promoter-reporter fusions, and reverse transcription PCR. A number of well-characterized genes were accurately delineated within our system of transcript filtration. Moreover, empirical validations confirm MPSS predictions for several genes with previously uncharacterized expression patterns. Conclusion This extensive MPSS analysis confirms and supplements prior microarray floral expression studies and illustrates the utility of sequence survey-based expression analysis in functional genomics. Spatial floral expression data accrued by MPSS and similar methods will be advantageous in the elucidation of more comprehensive genetic

  13. Non-additive effects of genotypic diversity increase floral abundance and abundance of floral visitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Genung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the emerging field of community and ecosystem genetics, genetic variation and diversity in dominant plant species have been shown to play fundamental roles in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the importance of intraspecific genetic variation and diversity to floral abundance and pollinator visitation has received little attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an experimental common garden that manipulated genotypic diversity (the number of distinct genotypes per plot of Solidago altissima, we document that genotypic diversity of a dominant plant can indirectly influence flower visitor abundance. Across two years, we found that 1 plant genotype explained 45% and 92% of the variation in flower visitor abundance in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and 2 plant genotypic diversity had a positive and non-additive effect on floral abundance and the abundance of flower visitors, as plots established with multiple genotypes produced 25% more flowers and received 45% more flower visits than would be expected under an additive model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide evidence that declines in genotypic diversity may be an important but little considered factor for understanding plant-pollinator dynamics, with implications for the global decline in pollinators due to reduced plant diversity in both agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  14. Floral Scent in Wisteria: Chemical Composition, Emission Pattern and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile chemicals emitted from the flowers of Chinese wisteria (Wisteria sinenesis) and Japanese wisteria (W. floribunda) were collected using a dynamic headspace technique and identified by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. About 30 and 22 compounds were detected from Chinese wisteria and Ja...

  15. Floral visitation and reproductive traits of Stamenoid petals, a naturally occurring floral homeotic variant of Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziermann, Janine; Ritz, Markus S; Hameister, Steffen; Abel, Christian; Hoffmann, Matthias H; Neuffer, Barbara; Theissen, Günter

    2009-11-01

    Homeotic changes played a considerable role during the evolution of flowers, but how floral homeotic mutants initially survive in nature has remained enigmatic. To better understand the evolutionary potential of floral homeotic mutants, we established as a model system Stamenoid petals (Spe), a natural variant of Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae). In the flowers of Spe plants, petals are transformed into stamens, whereas all other floral organs are unaffected. In contrast with most other homeotic mutants, the Spe variant occurs in relatively stable populations in the wild. In order to determine how the profound change in floral architecture influences plant performance in the wild, we performed common garden experiments running over 3 years. Here, we show that Spe and wild-type plants attract the same assemblage of floral visitors: mainly hoverflies, wild bees and thrips. However, floral visitation is about twice as frequent in wild-type plants as in Spe plants. Nevertheless, the numbers of seeds per fruit were about the same in both variants. Wild-type plants produced more flowers, fruits and seeds per plant than Spe plants, whereas the germination capacity of Spe seeds was higher than that of the wild-type. Determination of volatile composition revealed monoterpenes and 3,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde, which were detected only in wild-type flowers, presumably because they are produced only by petals. Our data indicate that the similar fitness of Spe and wild-type C. bursa-pastoris in the field results from complex compensation between plant architecture and germination capacity. In contrast, flower structure and floral visitation are only of minor importance, possibly because C. bursa-pastoris is mainly self-pollinating.

  16. Are tetraploids more successful? Floral signals, reproductive success and floral isolation in mixed-ploidy populations of a terrestrial orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karin; Schiestl, Florian P

    2015-02-01

    Polyploidization, the doubling of chromosome sets, is common in angiosperms and has a range of evolutionary consequences. Newly formed polyploid lineages are reproductively isolated from their diploid progenitors due to triploid sterility, but also prone to extinction because compatible mating partners are rare. Models have suggested that assortative mating and increased reproductive fitness play a key role in the successful establishment and persistence of polyploids. However, little is known about these factors in natural mixed-ploidy populations. This study investigated floral traits that can affect pollinator attraction and efficiency, as well as reproductive success in diploid and tetraploid Gymnadenia conopsea (Orchidaceae) plants in two natural, mixed-ploidy populations. Ploidy levels were determined using flow cytometry, and flowering phenology and herbivory were also assessed. Reproductive success was determined by counting fruits and viable seeds of marked plants. Pollinator-mediated floral isolation was measured using experimental arrays, with pollen flow tracked by means of staining pollinia with histological dye. Tetraploids had larger floral displays and different floral scent bouquets than diploids, but cytotypes differed only slightly in floral colour. Significant floral isolation was found between the two cytotypes. Flowering phenology of the two cytotypes greatly overlapped, and herbivory did not differ between cytotypes or was lower in tetraploids. In addition, tetraploids had higher reproductive success compared with diploids. The results suggest that floral isolation and increased reproductive success of polyploids may help to explain their successful persistence in mixed-ploidy populations. These factors might even initiate transformation of populations from pure diploid to pure tetraploid. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  17. Floral nectary, nectar production dynamics and chemical composition in five nocturnal Oenothera species (Onagraceae) in relation to floral visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoń, Sebastian; Komoń-Janczara, Elwira; Denisow, Bożena

    2017-08-04

    Main conclusion The floral nectars were sucrose-dominant; however, nectar protein and amino acid contents differed, indicating that composition of nitrogenous compounds may vary considerably even between closely related plant species, irrespectively of nectary structure. Numerous zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering floral nectar; an aqueous solution produced by specialized secretory tissues, known as floral nectaries. Although many papers on nectaries and nectar already exist, there has been a little research into the structure of nectaries and/or nectar production and composition in species belonging to the same genus. To redress this imbalance, we sought, in the present paper, to describe the floral nectary, nectar production, and nectar composition in five nocturnal Oenothera species with respect to their floral visitors. The structure of nectaries was similar for all the species investigated, and comprised the epidermis (with nectarostomata), numerous layers of nectary parenchyma, and subsecretory parenchyma. Anthesis for a single flower was short (ca. 10-12 h), and flowers lasted only one night. The release of floral nectar commenced at the bud stage (approx. 4 h before anthesis) and nectar was available to pollinators until petal closure. Nectar concentration was relatively low (ca. 27%) and the nectar was sucrose-dominant, and composed mainly of sucrose, glucose and fructose. The protein content of the nectar was also relatively low (on average, 0.31 µg ml(-1)). Nevertheless, a great variety of amino acids, including both protein and non-protein types, was detected in the nectar profile of the investigated taxa. We noted both diurnal and nocturnal generalist, opportunistic floral insect visitors.

  18. Sub-cellular distribution of UNC-104(KIF1A) upon binding to adaptors as UNC-16(JIP3), DNC-1(DCTN1/Glued) and SYD-2(Liprin-α) in C. elegans neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C-C; Moncaleano, J D; Wagner, O I

    2011-03-10

    The accumulation of cargo (tau, amyloid precursor protein, neurofilaments etc.) in neurons is a hallmark of various neurodegenerative diseases while we have only little knowledge how axonal transport is regulated. Kinesin-3 UNC-104(KIF1A) is the major transporter of synaptic vesicles and recent reports suggest that a cargo itself can affect the motor's activity. Inspecting an interactome map, we identify three putative UNC-104 interactors, namely UNC-16(JIP3), DNC-1(DCTN1/Glued) and SYD-2(Liprin-α), known to be adaptors in essential neuronal protein complexes. We then employed the novel method bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay to visualize motor-adaptor complexes in the nervous system of living C. elegans. Interestingly, the binding of UNC-104 to each adaptor protein results in different sub-cellular distributions and has distinctive effects on the motor's motility. Specifically, if UNC-104 bound to UNC-16, the motor is primarily localized in the soma of neurons while bound to DNC-1, the motor is basically found in axonal termini. On the other hand, if UNC-104 is bound to SYD-2 we identify motor populations mostly along axons. Therefore, these three adaptors inherit different functions in steering the motor to specific sub-cellular locations in the neuron.

  19. MEMORIA Y APRENDIZAJE EN LA ESCOGENCIA FLORAL DE LAS ABEJAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMAYA MARISOL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN

    Los polinizadores altamente especializados en su dieta, no hacen escogencias florales, ellos visitan un recurso específico siguiendo el dictado de la información almacenada en sus genes. En contraste, para la abeja social Apis mellifera una escogencia floral implica, la toma de una decisión, usualmente con criterio económico, basada en información aprendida y almacenada en alguna forma de memoria. Aunque existen numerosos estudios y modelos sobre la escogencia floral en abejas, la gran mayoría de éstos, han derivado sus conclusiones a partir de condiciones temporalmente fijas de la interacción. Muy pocos estudios han abordado la dinámica propia del contexto ecológico, en el cual el mercado floral de las abejas cambia con las estaciones del año y con los patrones diarios de antesis floral. Este cambio en la disponibilidad de especies florales enfrenta a los polinizadores, a realizar escogencias secuenciales acerca del alimento a explotar. En este trabajo abordo el tema del forrajeo secuencial en parches florales heterospecíficos, enfocándome en el uso que la abeja melífera hace de la información previamente aprendida en un contexto, cuando se enfrenta a la explotación de alimento en un contexto ecológicamente diferente. He realizado experimentos sobre escogencia floral simulando las condiciones de cambio del paisaje floral, exponiendo abejas individuales de A. mellifera a decidir sobre cuales especies forrajear en cada parche. Los resultados indican que la abeja invierte en procesos de aprendizaje en un muestreo inicial, pero una vez almacenada la información, utiliza una pieza de la información previamente aprendida (color para explotar parches florales heteroespecíficos siguiendo una imagen de búsqueda de color. En esta revisión discuto situaciones biológicas de la interacción planta-abeja, las cuales apoyan la idea que en la naturaleza el uso de imágenes de búsqueda de color por parte de abejas

  20. The evolution of floral scent and insect chemical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestl, Florian P

    2010-05-01

    Plants have evolved a range of strategies to manipulate the behaviour of their insect partners. One powerful strategy is to produce signals that already have a role in the animals' own communication systems. To investigate to what extent the evolution of floral scents is correlated with chemical communication in insects, I analyse the occurrence, commonness, and evolutionary patterns of the 71 most common 'floral' volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in 96 plant families and 87 insect families. I found an overlap of 87% in VOCs produced by plants and insects. 'Floral' monoterpenes showed strong positive correlation in commonness between plants (both gymnosperms and angiosperms) and herbivores, whereas the commonness of 'floral' aromatics was positively correlated between angiosperms and both pollinators and herbivores. According to a multivariate regression analysis the commonness of 'floral' aromatics was best explained by their commonness in pollinators, whereas monoterpenes were best explained by herbivores. Among pollinator orders, aromatics were significantly more common in Lepidoptera than in Hymenoptera, whereas monoterpenes showed no difference among the two orders. Collectively, these patterns suggest that plants and insects converge in overall patterns of volatile production, both for attraction and defence. Monoterpenes seem to have evolved primarily for defence under selection by herbivores, whereas aromatics evolved signalling functions in angiosperms, primarily for pollinator attraction.

  1. Floral nectar guide patterns discourage nectar robbing by bumble bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne S Leonard

    Full Text Available Floral displays are under selection to both attract pollinators and deter antagonists. Here we show that a common floral trait, a nectar guide pattern, alters the behavior of bees that can act opportunistically as both pollinators and as antagonists. Generally, bees access nectar via the floral limb, transporting pollen through contact with the plant's reproductive structures; however bees sometimes extract nectar from a hole in the side of the flower that they or other floral visitors create. This behavior is called "nectar robbing" because bees may acquire the nectar without transporting pollen. We asked whether the presence of a symmetric floral nectar guide pattern on artificial flowers affected bumble bees' (Bombus impatiens propensity to rob or access nectar "legitimately." We discovered that nectar guides made legitimate visits more efficient for bees than robbing, and increased the relative frequency of legitimate visits, compared to flowers lacking nectar guides. This study is the first to show that beyond speeding nectar discovery, a nectar guide pattern can influence bees' flower handling in a way that could benefit the plant.

  2. Floral visitors of Ananas comosus in Ghana: A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kwapong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ananas comosus var comosus (L. Merr. is the third most important tropical fruit in the world production and the leading foreign exchange earner among fresh fruits exported from Ghana. A survey was conducted in pineapple farms in the Central region of Ghana to identify floral visitors and their activities on the flowers. Nectar concentration and energetics and effect of floral visitors on fruit production were determined. Fourteen species of butterflies and one ant species were the main insect floral visitors as well as four species of sunbirds. The mean nectar concentration was 23.3% (± 0.39, SE and pollination limitation did not significantly affect fruit yield (weight: p = 0.285; length: p = 0.056; width: p= 0.268. The study showed that butterflies, ants and sunbirds are the main floral visitors on A. comosus. However their visits did not results in pollination and fruit production was not affected in any way by floral visitation. Still, it was found that A. comosus provides an important nectar resource for its foragers. Even if pollination is not crucial in pineapple cultivation, it is still essential in pineapple breeding programs to promote genetic diversity and conservation.

  3. Floral Diversity in the Wetlands of Apete River, Eleyele Lake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floral Diversity in the Wetlands of Apete River, Eleyele Lake and Oba Dam in Ibadan, ... road construction and agricultural activities, but the floristic compositions of these ... A comparative assessment study of the floral of three wetlands in a ...

  4. Phosphorylation of innate immune adaptor proteins MAVS, STING, and TRIF induces IRF3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Cai, Xin; Wu, Jiaxi; Cong, Qian; Chen, Xiang; Li, Tuo; Du, Fenghe; Ren, Junyao; Wu, You-Tong; Grishin, Nick V; Chen, Zhijian J

    2015-03-13

    During virus infection, the adaptor proteins MAVS and STING transduce signals from the cytosolic nucleic acid sensors RIG-I and cGAS, respectively, to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and other antiviral molecules. Here we show that MAVS and STING harbor two conserved serine and threonine clusters that are phosphorylated by the kinases IKK and/or TBK1 in response to stimulation. Phosphorylated MAVS and STING then bind to a positively charged surface of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and thereby recruit IRF3 for its phosphorylation and activation by TBK1. We further show that TRIF, an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor signaling, activates IRF3 through a similar phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. These results reveal that phosphorylation of innate adaptor proteins is an essential and conserved mechanism that selectively recruits IRF3 to activate the type I IFN pathway. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Fuel combustion test in constant volume combustion chamber with built-in adaptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEONG; DongSoo; CHO; GyuBack; CHOI; SuJin; LEE; JinSoo

    2010-01-01

    Combustion tests of pre-mixture of methane and air in constant volume combustion chamber(CVCC) have been carried out by means of flame propagation photo and gas pressure measurement,the effects of CVCC body temperature,intake pressure of pre-mixture of methane and air,equivalence ratio and location of the built-in adaptor have been investigated.The whole combustion chamber can be divided into two parts,i.e.the upper combustion chamber and the lower combustion chamber,by the built-in adaptor with through hole.Owing to the built-in adaptor with through hole,jet ignition or compression ignition(auto-ignition) phenomena may occur in the lower combustion chamber,which is helpful to getting higher flame propagation velocity,higher combustion peak pressure,low cycle-to-cycle variation and more stable combustion process.

  6. Composition of the Floral Essential Oil of Brugmansia suaveolens

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    William N. Setzer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The floral essential oils of Brugmansia suaveolens, from Monteverde, Costa Rica, were collected atthree different times of the day by hydrodistillation and the oils analyzed by gas chromatography-massspectrometry (GC-MS. The floral essential oil showed a dramatic change in composition between the freshlyopened night (white blossoms and the rose-colored senescent blossoms the following day. The white blossomswere dominated by 1,8-cineole (72.1%, (E-nerolidol (11.7%, a-terpineol (5.3%, and phenethyl alcohol(3.2%, notably different from headspace analyses of B. suaveolens reported previously. The floral essential oilfrom “rose-colored” senescent blossoms of B. suaveolens showed dramatic decreases in 1,8-cineole (2.0%, (E-nerolidol (1.9%, and phenethyl alcohol (not detected, with concomitant increases in heptanal (10.2%, nonanal(17.4%, terpinen-4-ol (10.5%, and megastigmatrienones (35.5%.

  7. Floral ontogeny of Ruteae (Rutaceae) and its systematic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L; Wang, Y-Z; Li, Z-Y

    2012-01-01

    Floral development was investigated in Ruta graveolens and Psilopeganum sinense, representing two genera in the tribe Ruteae. Special attention was paid to the sequence of initiation of organ whorls in the androecium and gynoecium. The antepetalous stamens arise at the same level as the antesepalous stamens in both species. The carpels are antepetalous in both taxa, indicating the androecium in both genera is obdiplostemonous. Compared with floral ontogeny of the ancestral genus Phellodendron (Toddalioideae), the obdiplostemonous androecium is a derived condition. The floral apex in P. sinense is quadrangular before initiation of the two carpels. Additionally, there are four dorsal and four ventral traces in the ovary. Integrated morphological and anatomical evidence indicates that the bicarpellate gynoecium in Psilopeganum most likely evolved from a tetracarpellate ancestor. Considering the similarities in morphological, geographical and chromosomal features, the ancestor may be Ruta-like. Further molecular phylogenetic and genetic studies are needed to verify this assumption.

  8. Floral Ontogeny of Two Species in Magnolia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Xia Xu

    2006-01-01

    Floral ontogeny is described in two species of genus Magnolia (Magnoliaceae), Magnolia albosericea Chun et C. Tsoong, and M. amoena Cheng, representing subgenus Magnolia and subgenus Yulania in Magnolia, by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The sequence of initiation of floral organs is from proximal to distal. The three distinct outermost and middle organs are initiated in sequence, but ultimately form a single whorl, thus their ontogeny is consistent with a sepal interpretation. The last three tepals (petals) alternate with the preceding tepal whorl. The members of androecium and gynoecium arise spirally,although the androecium shows some intermedlacy between a spiral and whorled arrangement. The carpel primordia initiate in group of four to five. The order of stamen initiation within each tier is not determined.The floral ontogeny is remarkably homogeneous between the subgenus Magnolia and subgenus Yulania that does not support the resuming of genus Yulania.

  9. Stochastic occurrence of trimery from pentamery in floral phyllotaxis of Anemone (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho S. Kitazawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Merosity, indicating the basic number of floral organs such as sepals and petals, has been constrained to specific and stable numbers during the evolution of angiosperms. The ancestral flower is considered to have a spiral arrangement of perianth organs, as in phyllotaxis, the arrangement of leaves. How has the ancestral spiral evolved into flowers with specific merosities? To address this question, we studied perianth organ arrangement in the Anemone genus of the basal eudicot family Ranunculaceae, because various merosities are found in this genus. In three species, A. flaccida, A. scabiosa, and A. nikoensis that are normally pentamerous, we found positional arrangement of the excessive sixth perianth organ indicating the possibility of a transition from pentamerous to trimerous arrangement. Arrangement was intraspecifically stochastic, but constrained to three of five types, where trimerous arrangement was the most frequent in all species except for a form of A. scabiosa. The rank of frequency of the other two types was species-dependent. We connect these observations with classical theories of spiral phyllotaxis. The phyllotaxis model for initiation of the sixth organ showed that the three arrangements occur at a divergence angle <144°, indicating the spiral nature of floral phyllotaxis rather than a perfect penta-radial symmetry of 144°. The model further showed that selective occurrence of trimerous arrangement is mainly regulated by the organ growth rate. Differential organ growth as well as divergence angle may regulate transitions between pentamerous and trimerous flowers in intraspecific variation as well as in species evolution.

  10. The TIR-domain containing adaptor TRAM is required for TLR7 mediated RANTES production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enda Shevlin

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7 plays a vital role in the immune response to ssRNA viruses such as human rhinovirus (HRV and Influenza, against which there are currently no treatments or vaccines with long term efficacy available. Clearly, a more comprehensive understanding of the TLR7 signaling axis will contribute to its molecular targeting. TRIF related adaptor molecule (TRAM plays a vital role in TLR4 signaling by recruiting TRIF to TLR4, followed by endosomal trafficking of the complex and initiation of IRF3 dependent type I interferon production as well as NF-κB dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Towards understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate TLR7 functionality, we found that TRAM(-/- murine macrophages exhibited a transcriptional and translational impairment in TLR7 mediated RANTES, but not TNFα, production. Suppression of TRAM expression in human macrophages also resulted in an impairment in TLR7 mediated CCL5 and IFN-β, but not TNFα, gene induction. Furthermore, suppression of endogenous human TRAM expression in human macrophages significantly impaired RV16 induced CCL5 and IFNβ, but not TNFα gene induction. Additionally, TRAM-G2A dose-dependently inhibited TLR7 mediated activation of CCL5, IFNβ and IFNα reporter genes. TLR7-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 was impaired in TRAM(-/- cells. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies indicated that TRAM physically interacts with MyD88 upon TLR7 stimulation, but not under basal conditions. Our results clearly demonstrate that TRAM plays a, hitherto unappreciated, role in TLR7 signaling through a novel signaling axis containing, but not limited to, MyD88, TRAM and IRF3 towards the activation of anti-viral immunity.

  11. Unexpected diversity in Shisa-like proteins suggests the importance of their roles as transmembrane adaptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-03-01

    The Shisa family of single-transmembrane proteins is characterized by an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain and a proline-rich C-terminal region. Its founding member, Xenopus Shisa, promotes head development by antagonizing Wnt and FGF signaling. Recently, a mouse brain-specific Shisa protein CKAMP44 (Shisa9) was shown to play an important role in AMPA receptor desensitization. We used sequence similarity searches against protein, genome and EST databases to study the evolutionary origin and phylogenetic distribution of Shisa homologs. In addition to nine Shisa subfamilies in vertebrates, we detected distantly related Shisa homologs that possess an N-terminal domain with six conserved cysteines. These Shisa-like proteins include FAM159 and KIAA1644 mainly from vertebrates, and members from various bilaterian invertebrates and Porifera, suggesting their presence in the last common ancestor of Metazoa. Shisa-like genes have undergone large expansions in Branchiostoma floridae and Saccoglossus kowalevskii, and appear to have been lost in certain insects. Pattern-based searches against eukaryotic proteomes also uncovered several other families of predicted single-transmembrane proteins with a similar cysteine-rich domain. We refer to these proteins (Shisa/Shisa-like, WBP1/VOPP1, CX, DUF2650, TMEM92, and CYYR1) as STMC6 proteins (single-transmembrane proteins with conserved 6 cysteines). STMC6 genes are widespread in Metazoa, with the human genome containing 17 members. Frequent occurrences of PY motifs in STMC6 proteins suggest that most of them could interact with WW-domain-containing proteins, such as the NEDD4 family E3 ubiquitin ligases, and could play critical roles in protein degradation and sorting. STMC6 proteins are likely transmembrane adaptors that regulate membrane proteins such as cell surface receptors.

  12. The Toll-Like receptor adaptor TRIF contributes to otitis media pathogenesis and recovery

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    Pak Kwang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptor (TLR signalling is crucial for innate immune responses to infection. The involvement of TLRs in otitis media (OM, the most prevalent childhood disease in developed countries, has been implicated by studies in middle ear cell lines, by association studies of TLR-related gene polymorphisms, and by altered OM in mice bearing mutations in TLR genes. Activated TLRs signal via two alternative intracellular signaling molecules with differing effects; MyD88 (Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 inducing primarily interleukin expression and TRIF (Tir-domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon β mediating type I interferon (IFN expression. We tested the hypothesis that TRIF and type I IFN signaling play a role in OM, using a murine model of OM induced by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi. The ME inflammatory response to NTHi was examined in wild-type (WT and TRIF-/- mice by qPCR, gene microarray, histopathology and bacterial culture. Results Expression of TRIF mRNA was only modesty enhanced during OM, but both type I IFN signalling genes and type I IFN-inducible genes were significantly up-regulated in WT mice. TRIF-deficient mice showed reduced but more persistent mucosal hyperplasia and less leukocyte infiltration into the ME in response to NTHi infection than did WT animals. Viable bacteria could be cultured from MEs of TRIF-/- mice for much longer in the course of disease than was the case for middle ears of WT mice. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that activation of TRIF/type I IFN responses is important in both the pathogenesis and resolution of NTHi-induced OM.

  13. Study on the Development of Yunnan Floral E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulan; KUANG; Qifang; LI; Wangyun; NING

    2013-01-01

    Cut flower production in Yunnan accounts for 80%nationwide.In order to expand the Yunnan Flower sales channels,the promotion of the development of e-commerce is necessary.In 2012 China’s online shopping users reached 247 million people,but e-commerce of fresh flowers lagged behind due to the constraints of preservation facilities and logistics cost.The analysis of the factors restricting the development of floral e-commerce and the proposition of solutions to this problem can promote faster development of Yunnan floral e-commerce.

  14. Synthesis and odour properties of floral smelling compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, C; Centini, M; Sega, A; Napolitano, E; Pelosi, P; Scesa, C

    1996-04-01

    Synopsis To provide further information on the relationships between chemical structure and floral odour, here we report the synthesis and the odour evaluation of some spirane derivatives, designed as conformational models of our previously described floral odorants. One of the new compounds (5-methyl-benzo[1,3]dioxole-2-spiro-1-cyclohexane), in particular, is endowed with a particularly pleasant odour of white flowers, can be easily prepared from commercial products and is more stable than other odorants of the same class; these characteristics make this odorant suitable for being used as an additive in perfumery and cosmetics.

  15. The pleiotropic ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 affects plant height, floral development and grain yield in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deyong Ren; Li Zhu; Zhenyu Gao; Guojun Dong; Guangheng Zhang; Longbiao Guo; Dali Zeng; and Qian Qian; Yuchun Rao; Liwen Wu; Qiankun Xu; Zizhuang Li; Haiping Yu; Yu Zhang; Yujia Leng; Jiang Hu

    2016-01-01

    Moderate plant height and successful establish-ment of reproductive organs play pivotal roles in rice grain production. The molecular mechanism that controls the two aspects remains unclear in rice. In the present study, we characterized a rice gene, ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 (AFD1) that determined plant height, floral development and grain yield. The afd1 mutant showed variable defects including the dwarfism, long panicle, low seed setting and reduced grain yield. In addition, abnormal floral organs were also observed in the afd1 mutant including slender and thick hulls, and hull-like lodicules. AFD1 encoded a DUF640 domain protein and was ex-pressed in all tested tissues and organs. Subcellular localization showed AFD1-green fluorescent fusion protein (GFP) was localized in the nucleus. Meantime, our results suggested that AFD1 regulated the expression of cell division and expansion related genes.

  16. The pleiotropic ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 affects plant height, floral development and grain yield in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Deyong; Rao, Yuchun; Wu, Liwen; Xu, Qiankun; Li, Zizhuang; Yu, Haiping; Zhang, Yu; Leng, Yujia; Hu, Jiang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Zhenyu; Dong, Guojun; Zhang, Guangheng; Guo, Longbiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Moderate plant height and successful establishment of reproductive organs play pivotal roles in rice grain production. The molecular mechanism that controls the two aspects remains unclear in rice. In the present study, we characterized a rice gene, ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 (AFD1) that determined plant height, floral development and grain yield. The afd1 mutant showed variable defects including the dwarfism, long panicle, low seed setting and reduced grain yield. In addition, abnormal floral organs were also observed in the afd1 mutant including slender and thick hulls, and hull‐like lodicules. AFD1 encoded a DUF640 domain protein and was expressed in all tested tissues and organs. Subcellular localization showed AFD1‐green fluorescent fusion protein (GFP) was localized in the nucleus. Meantime, our results suggested that AFD1 regulated the expression of cell division and expansion related genes. PMID:26486996

  17. Floral Benzenoid Carboxyl Methyltransferases: From in Vitro to in Planta Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effmert,U.; Saschenbrecker, S.; Ross, J.; Negre, F.; Fraser, C.; Noel, J.; Dudareva, N.; Piechulla, B.

    2005-01-01

    Benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases synthesize methyl esters (e.g., methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate), which are constituents of aromas and scents of many plant species and play important roles in plant communication with the surrounding environment. Within the past five years, eleven such carboxyl methyltransferases were isolated and most of them were comprehensively investigated at the biochemical, molecular and structural level. Two types of enzymes can be distinguished according to their substrate preferences: the SAMT-type enzymes isolated from Clarkia breweri, Stephanotis floribunda, Antirrhinum majus, Hoya carnosa, and Petunia hybrida, which have a higher catalytic efficiency and preference for salicylic acid, while BAMT-type enzymes from A. majus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Nicotiana suaveolens prefer benzoic acid. The elucidation of C. breweri SAMT's three-dimensional structure allowed a detailed modelling of the active sites of the carboxyl methyltransferases and revealed that the SAM binding pocket is highly conserved among these enzymes while the methyl acceptor binding site exhibits some variability, allowing a classification into SAMT-type and BAMT-type enzymes. The analysis of expression patterns coupled with biochemical characterization showed that these carboxyl methyltransferases are involved either in floral scent biosynthesis or in plant defense responses. While the latter can be induced by biotic or abiotic stress, the genes responsible for floral scent synthesis exhibit developmental and rhythmic expression pattern. The nature of the product and efficiency of its formation in plants depend on the availability of substrates, the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward benzoic acid and/or salicylic acid, and the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation at the enzyme level. The biochemical properties of benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases suggest that the genes involved in plant defenses

  18. FENOLOGÍA FLORAL Y VISITANTES FLORALES EN Drimys granadensis L.f. (WINTERACEAE Floral Phenology And Flower Visitors In Drimys granadensis L.f. (Winteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XAVIER MARQUINEZ

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue caracterizar las fases fenológicas florales y determinar los visitantes florales en una población natural de Drimys granadensis (nombre común: canelo; Winteraceae ubicada en Altos de Yerbabuena ( 2.850 m , cerros orientales de la Sabana de Bogotá, (Colombia. El desarrollo fenológico floral duró 9,5 días cuando la floración ocurrió en época soleada, 12,5 días en época lluviosa y 16 días cuando se excluyeron a los visitantes florales mediante embolsado. Se realizaron observaciones del recurso utilizado, fase fenólogica de la flor visitada y cargas polínicas en los visitante florales, los cuales correspondieron a seis órdenes, 21 familias y 29 morfoespecies de insectos. Cuatro especies de coleópteros y dos de dípteros fueron considerados posibles polinizadores por su abundancia y carga de polen. Los resultados obtenidos se discuten en relación con aquellos reportados en otras especies del género Drimys y de la familia Winteraceae.The purpose of this research was to characterize the flowering phenological phases and to determine the flower visitors in a natural population of Drimys granadensis (common name: canelo; Winteraceae in Altos de Yerbabuena, eastern mountains of Sabana de Bogotá ( Colombia . Floral phenology development lasted 9.5 days when flowering occurred under sunny conditions, 12.5 days under rainy conditions and 16 days when flower visitors were excluded using cloth bags. It was done observations related with the resources used, the phenological phases of visited flowers and the pollen load on the flower visitors. Visitors corresponded with 29 morphospecies, 6 orders y 21 families of insects. Four species of coleoptera and two species of diptera were considered as possible pollinators taking in account abundance and pollen load. The results are analyzed in relation with those reported for other species in the genus Drimys and in the family Winteraceae.

  19. MEMORIA Y APRENDIZAJE EN LA ESCOGENCIA FLORAL DE LAS ABEJAS Memory And Learning In Bees' Floral Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARISOL AMAYA MÁRQUEZ

    Full Text Available Los polinizadores altamente especializados en su dieta, no hacen escogencias florales, ellos visitan un recurso específico siguiendo el dictado de la información almacenada en sus genes. En contraste, para la abeja social Apis mellifera una escogencia floral implica, la toma de una decisión, usualmente con criterio económico, basada en información aprendida y almacenada en alguna forma de memoria. Aunque existen numerosos estudios y modelos sobre la escogencia floral en abejas, la gran mayoría de éstos, han derivado sus conclusiones a partir de condiciones temporalmente fijas de la interacción. Muy pocos estudios han abordado la dinámica propia del contexto ecológico, en el cual el mercado floral de las abejas cambia con las estaciones del año y con los patrones diarios de antesis floral. Este cambio en la disponibilidad de especies florales enfrenta a los polinizadores, a realizar escogencias secuenciales acerca del alimento a explotar. En este trabajo abordo el tema del forrajeo secuencial en parches florales heterospecíficos, enfocándome en el uso que la abeja melífera hace de la información previamente aprendida en un contexto, cuando se enfrenta a la explotación de alimento en un contexto ecológicamente diferente. He realizado experimentos sobre escogencia floral simulando las condiciones de cambio del paisaje floral, exponiendo abejas individuales de A. mellifera a decidir sobre cuales especies forrajear en cada parche. Los resultados indican que la abeja invierte en procesos de aprendizaje en un muestreo inicial, pero una vez almacenada la información, utiliza una pieza de la información previamente aprendida (color para explotar parches florales heteroespecíficos siguiendo una imagen de búsqueda de color. En esta revisión discuto situaciones biológicas de la interacción planta-abeja, las cuales apoyan la idea que en la naturaleza el uso de imágenes de búsqueda de color por parte de abejas sociales puede ser m

  20. Flavonoids patterns of French honeys with different floral origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, C.; Gil, M.I.; Garcia-Viguera, C.; Tomás-Barberán, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    The flavonoid profiles of 12 different unifloral French honey samples were analysed by HPLC to evaluate if these substances could be used as markers of the floral origin of honey. In this analysis, the characteristic flavonoids from propolis and/or beeswax (chrysin, galangin, tectochrysin, pinocembr

  1. Eugenol synthase genes in floral scent variation in Gymnadenia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok K; Schauvinhold, Ines; Pichersky, Eran; Schiestl, Florian P

    2014-12-01

    Floral signaling, especially through floral scent, is often highly complex, and little is known about the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary causes of this complexity. In this study, we focused on the evolution of "floral scent genes" and the associated changes in their functions in three closely related orchid species of the genus Gymnadenia. We developed a benchmark repertoire of 2,571 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in Gymnadenia odoratissima. For the functional characterization and evolutionary analysis, we focused on eugenol synthase, as eugenol is a widespread and important scent compound. We obtained complete coding complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of two copies of putative eugenol synthase genes in each of the three species. The proteins encoded by these cDNAs were characterized by expression and testing for activity in Escherichia coli. While G. odoratissima and Gymnadenia conopsea enzymes were found to catalyze the formation of eugenol only, the Gymnadenia densiflora proteins synthesize eugenol, as well as a smaller amount of isoeugenol. Finally, we showed that the eugenol and isoeugenol producing gene copies of G. densiflora are evolutionarily derived from the ancestral genes of the other species producing only eugenol. The evolutionary switch from production of one to two compounds evolved under relaxed purifying selection. In conclusion, our study shows the molecular bases of eugenol and isoeugenol production and suggests that an evolutionary transition in a single gene can lead to an increased complexity in floral scent emitted by plants.

  2. Flavonoids patterns of French honeys with different floral origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, C.; Gil, M.I.; Garcia-Viguera, C.; Tomás-Barberán, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    The flavonoid profiles of 12 different unifloral French honey samples were analysed by HPLC to evaluate if these substances could be used as markers of the floral origin of honey. In this analysis, the characteristic flavonoids from propolis and/or beeswax (chrysin, galangin, tectochrysin,

  3. The co-optimization of floral display and nectar reward

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prajakta V Belsare; Balasubramanian Sriram; Milind G Watve

    2009-12-01

    In most insect-pollinated flowers, pollinators cannot detect the presence of nectar without entering the flower. Therefore, flowers may cheat by not producing nectar and may still get pollinated. Earlier studies supported this ‘cheater flower’ hypothesis and suggested that the cost saving by cheater flowers could be the most predominant selective force in the evolution of nectarless flowers. Previous models as well as empirical studies have addressed the problem of optimizing the proportion of nectarless and nectarful flowers. However, there has been no attempt to optimize the investment in nectar production along with that in floral display. One of the key questions that arises is whether the floral display will evolve to be an honest indicator of nectar reward. We use a mathematical model to cooptimize the investments in nectar and floral display in order to achieve maximum reproductive success. The model assumes that pollinators rely on a relative rather than an absolute judgement of reward. A conspicuous floral display attracts naïve pollinators on the one hand and enhances pollinator learning on the other. We show that under these assumptions, plant–pollinator co-evolution leads to honest signalling, i.e. a positive correlation between display and reward.

  4. Trapping noctuid moths with synthetic floral volatile lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male and female noctuid moths were collected from plastic bucket traps that were baited with different synthetic floral chemicals and placed in peanut fields. Traps baited with phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and a blend of phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and benzaldehyde collected more soyb...

  5. An organized co-assembly of clathrin adaptors is essential for endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skruzny, Michal; Desfosses, Ambroise; Prinz, Simone; Dodonova, Svetlana O; Gieras, Anna; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Jakobi, Arjen J; Abella, Marc; Hagen, Wim J H; Schulz, Joachim; Meijers, Rob; Rybin, Vladimir; Briggs, John A G; Sachse, Carsten; Kaksonen, Marko

    2015-04-20

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the main trafficking route from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm, is critical to many fundamental cellular processes. Clathrin, coupled to the membrane by adaptor proteins, is thought to play a major structural role in endocytosis by self-assembling into a cage-like lattice around the forming vesicle. Although clathrin adaptors are essential for endocytosis, little is known about their structural role in this process. Here we show that the membrane-binding domains of two conserved clathrin adaptors, Sla2 and Ent1, co-assemble in a PI(4,5)P2-dependent manner to form organized lattices on membranes. We determined the structure of the co-assembled lattice by electron cryo-microscopy and designed mutations that specifically impair the lattice formation in vitro. We show that these mutations block endocytosis in vivo. We suggest that clathrin adaptors not only link the polymerized clathrin to the membrane but also form an oligomeric structure, which is essential for membrane remodeling during endocytosis.

  6. Expression analysis of the Toll-like receptor and TIR domain adaptor families of zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.H.; Krens, SF Gabby; Rodriguez, IA Medina; He, S; Bitter, W.; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa; Spaink, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The zebrafish genomic sequence database was analysed for the presence of genes encoding members of the Toll-like receptors (TLR) and interleukin receptors (IL-R) and associated adaptor proteins containing a TIR domain. The resulting predictions show the presence of one or more counterparts for the

  7. RECOMBINANT LENTIVIRUS-MEDIATED SILENCING OF ADAPTOR PROTEIN RUK/CIN85 EXPRESSION INFLUENCES BIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF TUMOR CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Samoylenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruk/CIN85 is an adaptor protein that plays important roles in the regulation of cellular processes such as cell death, proliferation and motility. It was recently shown that overexpression of Ruk/CIN85 increases the oncogenic potential of human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. It was the aim of the present study to investigate whether inhibition of Ruk/CIN85 expression has an effect on the biological properties of the cells. In order to down-regulate Ruk/CIN85 expression of small interfering RNA-based approach was used. For down-regulation of Ruk/CIN85 lentiviral constructs encoding Ruk/CIN85-specific small hairpin RNA sequences were generated. By using the obtained recombinant lentiviruses it was shown that inhibition of Ruk/CIN85 expression influences biological properties (motility, proliferation, ABCG2 expression, and ROS generation of various tumour cell types such as human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7, human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29, and Lewis mouse lung carcinoma cells.

  8. Scaffold functions of 14-3-3 adaptors in B cell immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tonika; Thomas, Lisa M; White, Clayton A; Li, Guideng; Pone, Egest J; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Class switch DNA recombination (CSR) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus crucially diversifies antibody biological effector functions. CSR involves the induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression and AID targeting to switch (S) regions by 14-3-3 adaptors. 14-3-3 adaptors specifically bind to 5'-AGCT-3' repeats, which make up for the core of all IgH locus S regions. They selectively target the upstream and downstream S regions that are set to undergo S-S DNA recombination. We hypothesized that 14-3-3 adaptors function as scaffolds to stabilize CSR enzymatic elements on S regions. Here we demonstrate that all seven 14-3-3β, 14-3-3ε, 14-3-3γ, 14-3-3η, 14-3-3σ, 14-3-3τ and 14-3-3ζ adaptors directly interacted with AID, PKA-Cα (catalytic subunit) and PKA-RIα (regulatory inhibitory subunit) and uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung). 14-3-3 adaptors, however, did not interact with AID C-terminal truncation mutant AIDΔ(180-198) or AIDF193A and AIDL196A point-mutants (which have been shown not to bind to S region DNA and fail to mediate CSR). 14-3-3 adaptors colocalized with AID and replication protein A (RPA) in B cells undergoing CSR. 14-3-3 and AID binding to S region DNA was disrupted by viral protein R (Vpr), an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), which inhibited CSR without altering AID expression or germline IH-CH transcription. Accordingly, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 directly interact with Vpr, which in turn, also interact with AID, PKA-Cα and Ung. Altogether, our findings suggest that 14-3-3 adaptors play important scaffold functions and nucleate the assembly of multiple CSR factors on S regions. They also show that such assembly can be disrupted by a viral protein, thereby allowing us to hypothesize that small molecule compounds that specifically block 14-3-3 interactions with AID, PKA and/or Ung can be used to inhibit unwanted CSR.

  9. Scaffold functions of 14-3-3 adaptors in B cell immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonika Lam

    Full Text Available Class switch DNA recombination (CSR of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH locus crucially diversifies antibody biological effector functions. CSR involves the induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID expression and AID targeting to switch (S regions by 14-3-3 adaptors. 14-3-3 adaptors specifically bind to 5'-AGCT-3' repeats, which make up for the core of all IgH locus S regions. They selectively target the upstream and downstream S regions that are set to undergo S-S DNA recombination. We hypothesized that 14-3-3 adaptors function as scaffolds to stabilize CSR enzymatic elements on S regions. Here we demonstrate that all seven 14-3-3β, 14-3-3ε, 14-3-3γ, 14-3-3η, 14-3-3σ, 14-3-3τ and 14-3-3ζ adaptors directly interacted with AID, PKA-Cα (catalytic subunit and PKA-RIα (regulatory inhibitory subunit and uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung. 14-3-3 adaptors, however, did not interact with AID C-terminal truncation mutant AIDΔ(180-198 or AIDF193A and AIDL196A point-mutants (which have been shown not to bind to S region DNA and fail to mediate CSR. 14-3-3 adaptors colocalized with AID and replication protein A (RPA in B cells undergoing CSR. 14-3-3 and AID binding to S region DNA was disrupted by viral protein R (Vpr, an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1, which inhibited CSR without altering AID expression or germline IH-CH transcription. Accordingly, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 directly interact with Vpr, which in turn, also interact with AID, PKA-Cα and Ung. Altogether, our findings suggest that 14-3-3 adaptors play important scaffold functions and nucleate the assembly of multiple CSR factors on S regions. They also show that such assembly can be disrupted by a viral protein, thereby allowing us to hypothesize that small molecule compounds that specifically block 14-3-3 interactions with AID, PKA and/or Ung can be used to inhibit unwanted CSR.

  10. Polimorfismo floral em Valeriana scandens L. (Valerianaceae Floral polymorphism in Valeriana scandens L. (Valerianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Duarte-Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram encontrados três morfos florais em Valeriana scandens L.: flor perfeita, flor pistilada 1 e flor pistilada 2. A perfeita possui corola maior que a dos demais morfos, com lobos reflexos na antese, giba proeminente e localizada na porção proximal do tubo floral; anteras maiores que as dos demais morfos, com pólen viável; estilete curto e estigma incluso, o menor ovário e saco embrionário estruturalmente normal, semelhante ao dos demais morfos. A pistilada 1 possui a giba menos proeminente, corola de tamanho intermediário em relação aos demais morfos, lobos radiais na antese; anteras pequenas, sem pólen e estilete longo e estigma exserto. A pistilada 2 possui lobos radiais na antese, anteras de comprimento semelhante às da perfeita, mas de menor largura, com pólen inviável; estilete mais curto, tal como o da flor perfeita, e estigma exserto, tal como o da flor pistilada 1. Nos três morfos, o nectário é formado por tricomas secretores unicelulares situados na epiderme da face interna da giba, e suas sementes são viáveis. As flores pistilada 2 e perfeita apresentam um septo que isola a giba do restante do tubo floral, formando uma câmara nectarífera. V. scandens L. é ginomonóica-ginodióica, expressão sexual inédita em Valerianaceae.Three floral morphs were found in Valeriana scandens L.: perfect, pistillate 1, and pistillate 2. In perfect flowers, the corolla is longer than in the other morphs, with reflexed lobes at anthesis and a prominent gibbus at the tube base; anthers are longer and contain viable pollen grains; the pistil has a short included style/stigma and the smallest ovary, but a structurally normal embryo sac similar to that of the other morphs. In pistillate 1 flowers, the corolla is intermediate in size, and has radially displayed lobes at anthesis, and a softly prominent gibbus; anthers are small and devoid of pollen; the pistil shows a long exerted style/stigma. In pistillate 2 flowers, the corolla

  11. RTK SLAP down: the emerging role of Src-like adaptor protein as a key player in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybenga-Groot, Leanne E; McGlade, C Jane

    2015-02-01

    SLAP (Src like adaptor protein) contains adjacent Src homology 3 (SH3) and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains closely related in sequence to that of cytoplasmic Src family tyrosine kinases. Expressed most abundantly in the immune system, SLAP function has been predominantly studied in the context of lymphocyte signaling, where it functions in the Cbl dependent downregulation of antigen receptor signaling. However, accumulating evidence suggests that SLAP plays a role in the regulation of a broad range of membrane receptors including members of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. In this review we highlight the role of SLAP in the ubiquitin dependent regulation of type III RTKs PDGFR, CSF-1R, KIT and Flt3, as well as Eph family RTKs. SLAP appears to bind activated type III and Eph RTKs via a conserved autophosphorylated juxtamembrane tyrosine motif in an SH2-dependent manner, suggesting that SLAP is important in regulating RTK signaling.

  12. Correlation Between Endogenous Hormones of Stem Apices and Fruit Locule Numbers in Tomatoes During Floral Bud Differentiation Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; LI Tian-lai; WANG Dan

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to elucidate the changes in the endogenous hormones of stem apices in tomatoes and the function of correlative endogenous hormones in tomatoes during floral bud differentiation stages. The tomato parents were crossed and reverse crossed by using two inbred lines of multi-locule (MLK1) and few-locule (FL1) with significant difference, and the relationship between endogenous hormones GA3, IAA, and ABA levels and ovary locule numbers of parents and progeny during floral bud differentiation initial stage, floral bud differentiation stage, sepal petal formation stage, carpel formation initial stage, and ovary locule complete formation stage was studied. GA3 levels in P1, P2, F3, and RF1 were consistent with locule numbers, and IAA and ABA levels were reverse to ovary locule numbers during the key stage. The correlation showed that, during sepal petal formation stage, the ovary locule numbers were positively correlated with GA3, GA3/IAA, and GA/ABA, and were negatively correlated with IAA and ABA. It was speculated that increasing GA3 levels or decreasing IAA and ABA levels of stem apices in tomato might be able to enhance ovary locule numbers. The sepal petal formation stage was an important stage which regulated endogenous hormones in the ovary locule formation.

  13. Invisible floral larcenies: microbial communities degrade floral nectar of bumble bee-pollinated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; García, Isabel M; Pérez, Ricardo

    2008-09-01

    The ecology of nectarivorous microbial communities remains virtually unknown, which precludes elucidating whether these organisms play some role in plant-pollinator mutualisms beyond minor commensalism. We simultaneously assessed microbial abundance and nectar composition at the individual nectary level in flowers of three southern Spanish bumble bee-pollinated plants (Helleborus foetidus, Aquilegia vulgaris, and Aquilegia pyrenaica cazorlensis). Yeasts were frequent and abundant in nectar of all species, and variation in yeast density was correlated with drastic changes in nectar sugar concentration and composition. Yeast communities built up in nectar from early to late floral stages, at which time all nectaries contained yeasts, often at densities between 10(4) and 10(5) cells/mm3. Total sugar concentration and percentage sucrose declined, and percentage fructose increased, with increasing density of yeast cells in nectar. Among-nectary variation in microbial density accounted for 65% (H. foetidus and A. vulgaris) and 35% (A. p. cazorlensis) of intraspecific variance in nectar sugar composition, and 60% (H. foetidus) and 38% (A. vulgaris) of variance in nectar concentration. Our results provide compelling evidence that nectar microbial communities can have detrimental effects on plants and/or pollinators via extensive nectar degradation and also call for a more careful interpretation of nectar traits in the future, if uncontrolled for yeasts.

  14. Epigenetic imbalance and the floral developmental abnormality of the in vitro-regenerated oil palm Elaeis guineensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaligot, Estelle; Adler, Sophie; Debladis, Émilie; Beulé, Thierry; Richaud, Frédérique; Ilbert, Pascal; Finnegan, E Jean; Rival, Alain

    2011-12-01

    The large-scale clonal propagation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is being stalled by the occurrence of the mantled somaclonal variation. Indeed, this abnormality which presents a homeotic-like conversion of male floral organs into carpelloid structures, hampers oil production since the supernumerary female organs are either sterile or produce fruits with poor oil yields. In the last 15 years, the prevailing point of view on the origin of the mantled floral phenotype has evolved from a random mutation event triggered by in vitro culture to a hormone-dependent dysfunction of gene regulation processes. In this review, we retrace the history of the research on the mantled variation in the light of the parallel advances made in the understanding of plant development regulation in model systems and more specifically in the role of epigenetic mechanisms. An overview of the current state of oil palm genomic and transcriptomic resources, which are key to any comparison with model organisms, is given. We show that, while displaying original characteristics, the mantled phenotype of oil palm is morphologically, and possibly molecularly, related to MADS-box genes mutants described in model plants. We also discuss the occurrence of comparable floral phenotypes in other palm species. Beyond its primary interest in the search for discriminating markers against an economically crippling phenotype, the study of the mantled abnormality also provides a unique opportunity to investigate the regulation of reproductive development in a perennial tropical palm. On the basis of recent results, we propose that future efforts should concentrate on the epigenetic regulation targeting MADS-box genes and transposable elements of oil palm, since both types of sequences are most likely to be involved in the mantled variant phenotype.

  15. The adaptor protein TRAF3 inhibits interleukin-6 receptor signaling in B cells to limit plasma cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wai W; Yi, Zuoan; Stunz, Laura L; Maine, Christian J; Sherman, Linda A; Bishop, Gail A

    2015-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is an adaptor protein that inhibits signaling by CD40 and by the receptor for B cell-activating factor (BAFF) and negatively regulates homeostatic B cell survival. Loss-of-function mutations in TRAF3 are associated with human B cell malignancies, in particular multiple myeloma. The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) supports the differentiation and survival of normal and neoplastic plasma cells. We found that mice with a deficiency in TRAF3 specifically in B cells (B-Traf3(-/-) mice) had about twice as many plasma cells as did their littermate controls. TRAF3-deficient B cells had enhanced responsiveness to IL-6, and genetic loss of IL-6 in B-Traf3(-/-) mice restored their plasma cell numbers to normal. TRAF3 inhibited IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)-mediated signaling by facilitating the association of PTPN22 (a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase) with the kinase Janus-activated kinase 1 (Jak1), which in turn blocked phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). Consistent with these results, the number of plasma cells in the PTPN22-deficient mice was increased compared to that in the wild-type mice. Our findings identify TRAF3 and PTPN22 as inhibitors of IL-6R signaling in B cells and reveal a previously uncharacterized role for TRAF3 in the regulation of plasma cell differentiation.

  16. Influence of pollination specialization and breeding system on floral integration and phenotypic variation in Ipomoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Guerrero, Víctor; Quesada, Mauricio; Armbruster, W Scott; Pérez-Barrales, Rocío; Smith, Stacey DeWitt

    2011-02-01

    Natural selection should reduce phenotypic variation and increase integration of floral traits involved in placement of pollen grains on stigmas. In this study, we examine the role of pollinators and breeding system on the evolution of floral traits by comparing the patterns of floral phenotypic variances and covariances in 20 Ipomoea species that differ in their level of pollination specialization and pollinator dependence incorporating phylogenetic relatedness. Plants with specialized pollination (i.e., those pollinated by one functional group or by few morphospecies) displayed less phenotypic variation and greater floral integration than generalist plants. Self-compatible species also displayed greater floral integration than self-incompatible species. Floral traits involved in pollen placement and pick up showed less variation and greater integration than floral traits involved in pollinator attraction. Analytical models indicate that both breeding system and the number of morphospecies had significant effects on floral integration patterns although only differences in the former were significant after accounting for phylogeny. These results suggest that specialist/self-compatible plants experience more consistent selection on floral traits than generalist/self-incompatible plants. Furthermore, pollinators and breeding system promote integration of floral traits involved in pollen placement and pick up rather than integration of the whole flower. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Arranging the bouquet of disease: floral traits and the transmission of plant and animal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Scott H; Koch, Hauke; Irwin, Rebecca E; Adler, Lynn S

    2014-05-01

    Several floral microbes are known to be pathogenic to plants or floral visitors such as pollinators. Despite the ecological and economic importance of pathogens deposited in flowers, we often lack a basic understanding of how floral traits influence disease transmission. Here, we provide the first systematic review regarding how floral traits attract vectors (for plant pathogens) or hosts (for animal pathogens), mediate disease establishment and evolve under complex interactions with plant mutualists that can be vectors for microbial antagonists. Attraction of floral visitors is influenced by numerous phenological, morphological and chemical traits, and several plant pathogens manipulate floral traits to attract vectors. There is rapidly growing interest in how floral secondary compounds and antimicrobial enzymes influence disease establishment in plant hosts. Similarly, new research suggests that consumption of floral secondary compounds can reduce pathogen loads in animal pollinators. Given recent concerns about pollinator declines caused in part by pathogens, the role of floral traits in mediating pathogen transmission is a key area for further research. We conclude by discussing important implications of floral transmission of pathogens for agriculture, conservation and human health, suggesting promising avenues for future research in both basic and applied biology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Wild bees preferentially visit Rudbeckia flower heads with exaggerated ultraviolet absorbing floral guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Horth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on the results of an experimental study that assessed the visitation frequency of wild bees to conspecific flowers with different sized floral guides. UV absorbent floral guides are ubiquitous in Angiosperms, yet surprisingly little is known about conspecific variation in these guides and very few studies have evaluated pollinator response to UV guide manipulation. This is true despite our rich understanding about learning and color preferences in bees. Historical dogma indicates that flower color serves as an important long-range visual signal allowing pollinators to detect the flowers, while floral guides function as close-range signals that direct pollinators to a reward. We initiated the work presented here by first assessing the population level variation in UV absorbent floral guides for conspecific flowers. We assessed two species, Rudbeckia hirta and R. fulgida. We then used several petal cut-and-paste experiments to test whether UV floral guides can also function to attract visitors. We manipulated floral guide size and evaluated visitation frequency. In all experiments, pollinator visitation rates were clearly associated with floral guide size. Diminished floral guides recruited relatively few insect visitors. Exaggerated floral guides recruited more visitors than smaller or average sized guides. Thus, UV floral guides play an important role in pollinator recruitment and in determining the relative attractiveness of conspecific flower heads. Consideration of floral guides is therefore important when evaluating the overall conspicuousness of flower heads relative to background coloration. This work raises the issue of whether floral guides serve as honest indicators of reward, since guide size varies in nature for conspecific flowers at the same developmental stage and since preferences for larger guides were found. To our knowledge, these are the first cut-and-paste experiments conducted to examine whether UV absorbent

  19. Evolution of Double Positive Autoregulatory Feedback Loops in CYCLOIDEA2 Clade Genes Is Associated with the Origin of Floral Zygomorphy[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xia; Pang, Hong-Bo; Liu, Bo-Ling; Qiu, Zhi-Jing; Gao, Qiu; Wei, Lai; Dong, Yang; Wang, Yin-Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Members of the CYCLOIDEA2 (CYC2) clade of the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PCF transcription factor genes are widely involved in controlling floral zygomorphy, a key innovation in angiosperm evolution, depending on their persistently asymmetric expression in the corresponding floral domains. However, it is unclear how this asymmetric expression is maintained throughout floral development. Selecting Primulina heterotricha as a model, we examined the expression and function of two CYC2 genes, CYC1C and CYC1D. We analyzed the role of their promoters in protein–DNA interactions and transcription activation using electrophoresis mobility shift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transient gene expression assays. We find that CYC1C and CYC1D positively autoregulate themselves and cross-regulate each other. Our results reveal a double positive autoregulatory feedback loop, evolved for a pair of CYC2 genes to maintain their expression in developing flowers. Further comparative genome analyses, together with the available expression and function data of CYC2 genes in the core eudicots, suggest that this mechanism might have led to the independent origins of floral zygomorphy, which are associated with plant–insect coevolution and the adaptive radiation of angiosperms. PMID:22649271

  20. Distribution of XTH, expansin, and secondary-wall-related CesA in floral and fruit abscission zones during fruit development in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Mutsumi; Satoh, Shinobu; Iwai, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    After fruit development is triggered by pollination, the abscission zone (AZ) in the fruit pedicel strengthens its adhesion to keep the fruit attached. We previously reported that xyloglucan and arabinan accumulation in the AZ accompanies the shedding of unpollinated flowers. After the fruit has developed and is fully ripened, shedding occurs easily in the AZ due to lignin accumulation. Regulation of cell wall metabolism may play an important role in these processes, but it is not well understood. In the present report, we used immunohistochemistry to visualize changes in the distributions of xyloglucan and arabinan metabolism-related enzymes in the AZs of pollinated and unpollinated flowers, and in ripened fruits. During floral abscission, we observed a gradual increase in polyclonal antibody labeling of expansin in the AZ. The intensities of LM6 and LM15 labeling of arabinan and xyloglucan, respectively, also increased. However, during floral abscission, we observed a large 1 day post anthesis (DPA) peak in the polyclonal antibody labeling of XTH in the AZ, which then decreased. These results suggest that expansin and XTH play important, but different roles in the floral abscission process. During fruit abscission, unlike during floral abscission, no AZ-specific expansin and XTH were observed. Although lignification was seen in the AZ of over-ripe fruit pedicels, secondary cell wall-specific cellulose synthase signals were not observed. This suggests that cellulose metabolism-related enzymes do not play important roles in the AZ prior to fruit abscission.

  1. Transcript and metabolite signature of maize source leaves suggests a link between transitory starch to sucrose balance and the autonomous floral transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coneva, Viktoriya; Guevara, David; Rothstein, Steven J; Colasanti, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about the nature of floral inductive cues in day-neutral plants that are insensitive to photoperiod variations and, therefore, rely on endogenous signals to initiate reproductive growth. The INDETERMINATE1 (ID1) transcription factor is a key regulator of the transition to flowering in day-neutral maize. The ID1 gene is expressed exclusively in developing leaves, where it controls the production or transmission of leaf-derived florigenic signals. Florigen-producing source leaves were compared with mature leaves of late-flowering id1 plants, and metabolite and gene expression differences associated with the floral transition in maize were observed. While id1 mutants have a similar capacity for photosynthesis to wild-type siblings, id1 source leaves show quantitative differences in carbohydrate allocation prior to the floral transition stage, with a marked increase in sucrose and other soluble sugars, accompanied by a decrease in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle organic acids. Importantly, source leaves of autonomous-flowering maize are typified by a higher transitory starch to sucrose ratio and a transcript profile enriched for sucrose synthesis and starch metabolism-related gene function. Finally, similar changes in transitory starch and sucrose are not observed in teosinte, the tropical progenitor of maize that requires short-day photoperiods to induce flowering. Together, these data define a transcript and metabolite signature associated with the autonomous floral transition in temperate maize leaves.

  2. Rice ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1, encoding an F-box protein, regulates meristem fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kyoko; Ito, Momoyo; Nagasawa, Nobuhiro; Kyozuka, Junko; Nagato, Yasuo

    2007-09-01

    Inflorescence architecture is one of the most important agronomical traits. Characterization of rice aberrant panicle organization 1 (apo1) mutants revealed that APO1 positively controls spikelet number by suppressing the precocious conversion of inflorescence meristems to spikelet meristems. In addition, APO1 is associated with the regulation of the plastchron, floral organ identity, and floral determinacy. Phenotypic analyses of apo1 and floral homeotic double mutants demonstrate that APO1 positively regulates class-C floral homeotic genes, but not class-B genes. Molecular studies revealed that APO1 encodes an F-box protein, an ortholog of Arabidopsis UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGAN (UFO), which is a positive regulator of class-B genes. Overexpression of APO1 caused an increase in inflorescence branches and spikelets. As the mutant inflorescences and flowers differed considerably between apo1 and ufo, the functions of APO1 and UFO appear to have diverged during evolution.

  3. Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators

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    Julieta Grajales-Conesa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como las variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia.Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms have evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant

  4. Caffeine in floral nectar enhances a pollinator's memory of reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G A; Baker, D D; Palmer, M J; Stabler, D; Mustard, J A; Power, E F; Borland, A M; Stevenson, P C

    2013-03-08

    Plant defense compounds occur in floral nectar, but their ecological role is not well understood. We provide evidence that plant compounds pharmacologically alter pollinator behavior by enhancing their memory of reward. Honeybees rewarded with caffeine, which occurs naturally in nectar of Coffea and Citrus species, were three times as likely to remember a learned floral scent as were honeybees rewarded with sucrose alone. Caffeine potentiated responses of mushroom body neurons involved in olfactory learning and memory by acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Caffeine concentrations in nectar did not exceed the bees' bitter taste threshold, implying that pollinators impose selection for nectar that is pharmacologically active but not repellent. By using a drug to enhance memories of reward, plants secure pollinator fidelity and improve reproductive success.

  5. The innate immunity adaptor SARM translocates to the nucleus to stabilize lamins and prevent DNA fragmentation in response to pro-apoptotic signaling.

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    Chad R Sethman

    Full Text Available Sterile alpha and armadillo-motif containing protein (SARM, a highly conserved and structurally unique member of the MyD88 family of Toll-like receptor adaptors, plays an important role in innate immunity signaling and apoptosis. Its exact mechanism of intracellular action remains unclear. Apoptosis is an ancient and ubiquitous process of programmed cell death that results in disruption of the nuclear lamina and, ultimately, dismantling of the nucleus. In addition to supporting the nuclear membrane, lamins serve important roles in chromatin organization, epigenetic regulation, transcription, nuclear transport, and mitosis. Mutations and other damage that destabilize nuclear lamins (laminopathies underlie a number of intractable human diseases. Here, we report that SARM translocates to the nucleus of human embryonic kidney cells by using its amino-terminal Armadillo repeat region. Within the nucleus, SARM forms a previously unreported lattice akin to the nuclear lamina scaffold. Moreover, we show that SARM protects lamins from apoptotic degradation and reduces internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in response to signaling induced by the proinflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha. These findings indicate an important link between the innate immunity adaptor SARM and stabilization of nuclear lamins during inflammation-driven apoptosis in human cells.

  6. The innate immunity adaptor SARM translocates to the nucleus to stabilize lamins and prevent DNA fragmentation in response to pro-apoptotic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethman, Chad R; Hawiger, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Sterile alpha and armadillo-motif containing protein (SARM), a highly conserved and structurally unique member of the MyD88 family of Toll-like receptor adaptors, plays an important role in innate immunity signaling and apoptosis. Its exact mechanism of intracellular action remains unclear. Apoptosis is an ancient and ubiquitous process of programmed cell death that results in disruption of the nuclear lamina and, ultimately, dismantling of the nucleus. In addition to supporting the nuclear membrane, lamins serve important roles in chromatin organization, epigenetic regulation, transcription, nuclear transport, and mitosis. Mutations and other damage that destabilize nuclear lamins (laminopathies) underlie a number of intractable human diseases. Here, we report that SARM translocates to the nucleus of human embryonic kidney cells by using its amino-terminal Armadillo repeat region. Within the nucleus, SARM forms a previously unreported lattice akin to the nuclear lamina scaffold. Moreover, we show that SARM protects lamins from apoptotic degradation and reduces internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in response to signaling induced by the proinflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha. These findings indicate an important link between the innate immunity adaptor SARM and stabilization of nuclear lamins during inflammation-driven apoptosis in human cells.

  7. The Immune Adaptor Molecule SARM Modulates Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production and Microglia Activation in the Brainstem and Restricts West Nile Virus Pathogenesis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szretter, Kristy J.; Samuel, Melanie A.; Gilfillan, Susan; Fuchs, Anja; Colonna, Marco; Diamond, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Sterile alpha and HEAT/Armadillo motif (SARM) is a highly conserved Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-containing adaptor protein that is believed to negatively regulate signaling of the pathogen recognition receptors Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4. To test its physiological function in the context of a microbial infection, we generated SARM−/− mice and evaluated the impact of this deficiency on the pathogenesis of West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic flavivirus that requires TLR signaling to restrict infection. Although SARM was preferentially expressed in cells of the central nervous system (CNS), studies with primary macrophages, neurons, or astrocytes showed no difference in viral growth kinetics. In contrast, viral replication was increased specifically in the brainstem of SARM−/− mice, and this was associated with enhanced mortality after inoculation with a virulent WNV strain. A deficiency of SARM was also linked to reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), decreased microglia activation, and increased neuronal death in the brainstem after WNV infection. Thus, SARM appears to be unique among the TIR adaptor molecules, since it functions to restrict viral infection and neuronal injury in a brain region-specific manner, possibly by modulating the activation of resident CNS inflammatory cells. PMID:19587044

  8. The immune adaptor molecule SARM modulates tumor necrosis factor alpha production and microglia activation in the brainstem and restricts West Nile Virus pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szretter, Kristy J; Samuel, Melanie A; Gilfillan, Susan; Fuchs, Anja; Colonna, Marco; Diamond, Michael S

    2009-09-01

    Sterile alpha and HEAT/Armadillo motif (SARM) is a highly conserved Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-containing adaptor protein that is believed to negatively regulate signaling of the pathogen recognition receptors Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4. To test its physiological function in the context of a microbial infection, we generated SARM(-/-) mice and evaluated the impact of this deficiency on the pathogenesis of West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic flavivirus that requires TLR signaling to restrict infection. Although SARM was preferentially expressed in cells of the central nervous system (CNS), studies with primary macrophages, neurons, or astrocytes showed no difference in viral growth kinetics. In contrast, viral replication was increased specifically in the brainstem of SARM(-/-) mice, and this was associated with enhanced mortality after inoculation with a virulent WNV strain. A deficiency of SARM was also linked to reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), decreased microglia activation, and increased neuronal death in the brainstem after WNV infection. Thus, SARM appears to be unique among the TIR adaptor molecules, since it functions to restrict viral infection and neuronal injury in a brain region-specific manner, possibly by modulating the activation of resident CNS inflammatory cells.

  9. Photoperiodic control of sugar release during the floral transition: What is the role of sugars in the florigenic signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Marchena, M Isabel; Romero, José M; Valverde, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Florigen is a mobile signal released by the leaves that reaching the shoot apical meristem (SAM), changes its developmental program from vegetative to reproductive. The protein FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) constitutes an important element of the florigen, but other components such as sugars, have been also proposed to be part of this signal. (1-5) We have studied the accumulation and composition of starch during the floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana in order to understand the role of carbon mobilization in this process. In A. thaliana and Antirrhinum majus the gene coding for the Granule-Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS) is regulated by the circadian clock (6,7) while in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the homolog gene CrGBSS is controlled by photoperiod and circadian signals. (8,9) In a recent paper(10) we described the role of the central photoperiodic factor CONSTANS (CO) in the regulation of GBSS expression in Arabidopsis. This regulation is in the basis of the change in the balance between starch and free sugars observed during the floral transition. We propose that this regulation may contribute to the florigenic signal and to the increase in sugar transport required during the flowering process.

  10. FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 promotes floral meristem determinacy in Arabidopsis.

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    Liu, Luping; Li, Bo; Liu, Xigang

    2016-10-02

    The transposase-derived transcription factor genes FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) and FAR-RED IMPAIRED RESPONSE1 (FAR1) have redundant and multifaceted roles in plant growth and development during the vegetative stage, including phytochrome A-mediated far-red light (FR) signaling and circadian clock entrainment. Little is known about their functions in the reproductive stage. We recently demonstrated that FHY3 plays important roles in shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintenance and floral meristem (FM) determinacy through its target genes CLAVATA3 (CLV3), SEPALLATA1 (SEP1) and SEP2. Here we present data that FHY3 but not its homolog, FAR1, has a distinct role in FM determinacy in a manner independent of its light signaling and circadian pathway functions. Moreover, genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that the homeostasis of the FM is critical for the regulation of FM activity.

  11. Grass meristems I: shoot apical meristem maintenance, axillary meristem determinacy and the floral transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautler, Michael; Tanaka, Wakana; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki; Jackson, David

    2013-03-01

    The vegetative and reproductive shoot architectures displayed by members of the grass family are critical to reproductive success, and thus agronomic yield. Variation in shoot architecture is explained by the maintenance, activity and determinacy of meristems, pools of pluripotent stem cells responsible for post-embryonic plant growth. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the major properties of grass shoot meristems, focusing on vegetative phase meristems and the floral transition, primarily in rice and maize. Major areas of interest include: the control of meristem homeostasis by the CLAVATA-WUSCHEL pathway and by hormones such as cytokinin; the initiation of axillary meristems and the control of axillary meristem dormancy; and the environmental and endogenous cues that regulate flowering time. In an accompanying paper, Tanaka et al. review subsequent stages of shoot development, including current knowledge of reproductive meristem determinacy and the fate transitions associated with these meristems.

  12. ER Adaptor SCAP Translocates and Recruits IRF3 to Perinuclear Microsome Induced by Cytosolic Microbial DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huansha; Liu, Xing; Huang, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Heng; Cui, Ye; Tang, Yijun; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also known as MITA, ERIS or MPYS) induces the activation of TBK1 kinase and IRF3 transcription factor, upon sensing of microbial DNAs. How IRF3 is recruited onto the STING signalosome remains unknown. We report here that silencing of the ER adaptor SCAP markedly impairs the IRF3-responsive gene expression induced by STING. Scap knockdown mice are more susceptible to HSV-1 infection. Interestingly, SCAP translocates from ER, via Golgi, to perinuclear microsome in a STING-dependent manner. Mechanistically, the N-terminal transmembrane domain of SCAP interacts with STING, and the C-terminal cytosolic domain of SCAP binds to IRF3, thus recruiting IRF3 onto STING signalosome. Mis-localization of SCAP abolishes its antiviral function. Collectively, this study characterizes SCAP as an essential adaptor in the STING signaling pathway, uncovering a critical missing link in DNAs-triggered host antiviral responses. PMID:26900919

  13. ER Adaptor SCAP Translocates and Recruits IRF3 to Perinuclear Microsome Induced by Cytosolic Microbial DNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also known as MITA, ERIS or MPYS induces the activation of TBK1 kinase and IRF3 transcription factor, upon sensing of microbial DNAs. How IRF3 is recruited onto the STING signalosome remains unknown. We report here that silencing of the ER adaptor SCAP markedly impairs the IRF3-responsive gene expression induced by STING. Scap knockdown mice are more susceptible to HSV-1 infection. Interestingly, SCAP translocates from ER, via Golgi, to perinuclear microsome in a STING-dependent manner. Mechanistically, the N-terminal transmembrane domain of SCAP interacts with STING, and the C-terminal cytosolic domain of SCAP binds to IRF3, thus recruiting IRF3 onto STING signalosome. Mis-localization of SCAP abolishes its antiviral function. Collectively, this study characterizes SCAP as an essential adaptor in the STING signaling pathway, uncovering a critical missing link in DNAs-triggered host antiviral responses.

  14. Accessibility, constraint, and repetition in adaptive floral evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessinger, Carolyn A; Hileman, Lena C

    2016-11-01

    Adaptive phenotypic evolution is shaped by natural selection on multiple organismal traits as well as by genetic correlations among traits. Genetic correlations can arise through pleiotropy and can bias the production of phenotypic variation to certain combinations of traits. This phenomenon is referred to as developmental bias or constraint. Developmental bias may accelerate or constrain phenotypic evolution, depending on whether selection acts parallel or in opposition to genetic correlations among traits. We discuss examples from floral evolution where genetic correlations among floral traits contribute to rapid, coordinated evolution in multiple floral organ phenotypes and suggest future research directions that will explore the relationship between the genetic basis of adaptation and the pre-existing structure of genetic correlations. On the other hand, natural selection may act perpendicular to a strong genetic correlation, for example when two traits are encoded by a subset of the same genes and natural selection favors change in one trait and stability in the second trait. In such cases, adaptation is constrained by the availability of genetic variation that can influence the focal trait with minimal pleiotropic effects. Examples from plant diversification suggest that the origin of certain adaptations depends on the prior evolution of a gene copy with reduced pleiotropic effects, generated through the process of gene duplication followed by subfunctionalization or neofunctionalization. A history of gene duplication in some developmental pathways appears to have allowed particular flowering plant linages to have repeatedly evolved adaptations that might otherwise have been developmentally constrained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ontogenetic origins of floral bilateral symmetry in Moringaceae (Brassicales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mark E

    2003-01-01

    Floral morphology of the 13 species of Moringa ranges from actinomorphic flowers with little hypanthium to highly zygomorphic flowers with well-developed hypanthia. Scanning electron and light microscopy were used to identify ontogenetic differences among two actinomorphic and eight zygomorphic species. All species show traces of zygomorphy between petal organogenesis and anther differentiation. At late organogenesis, zygomorphy is manifest by one petal being larger than the others, slight unidirectional maturation of the anthers, and in many species, some staminodes may be missing. At organ differentiation and beyond, the actinomorphic species show a trend toward increasing actinomorphy, whereas the zygomorphic features of early ontogeny are progressively accentuated throughout the ontogeny of the zygomorphic species. Because of the early traces of zygomorphy throughout the family, ontogeny in Moringa does not resemble that known from the sister taxon Caricaceae, which has flowers that are actinomorphic throughout ontogeny. Great intraspecific variation was found in floral plan in the actinomorphic-flowered species in contrast to the zygomorphic species. Each of the main clades in the family is distinguished by at least one feature of floral ontogeny. In general, ontogenetic differences that are congruent with deeper phylogenetic splits tend to occur earlier in ontogeny than those congruent with more recent divergences.

  16. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K

    2010-02-12

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology.

  17. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  18. The coincidence of critical day length recognition for florigen gene expression and floral transition under long-day conditions in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hironori; Izawa, Takeshi

    2013-05-01

    The photoperiodic control of flowering time is essential for the adaptation of plants to variable environments and for successful reproduction. The identification of genes encoding florigens, which had been elusive but were supposedly synthesized in leaves and then transmitted to shoot apices to induce floral transitions, has greatly advanced our understanding of the photoperiodic regulation of flowering. Studies on the photoperiodism of Arabidopsis, a model long-day plant, revealed the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of the Arabidopsis florigen gene FT, which is gradually induced in response to increase in day length. By contrast, in rice, a model short-day plant, the expression of the florigen gene Hd3a (an FT ortholog in rice) is regulated in an on/off fashion, with strong induction under short-day conditions and repression under long-day conditions. This critical day length dependence of Hd3a expression enables rice to recognize a slight change in the photoperiod as a trigger to initiate floral induction. Rice possesses a second florigen gene, RFT1, which can be expressed to induce floral transition under non-inductive long-day conditions. The complex transcriptional regulation of florigen genes and the resulting precise control over flowering time provides rice with the adaptability required for a crop species of increasing global importance.

  19. Use of Conversion Adaptors to Clone Antigen Genes in Lambda gt11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    gradients of 19, 30, and 50%. with 4 units ofT 4 DNA ligase for 60 min at Chromosomal DNA was prepared by dode- 16°C. Because the adaptor-insert...0.75 M and 6.5%. respectively. After chill- Biotec. Madison. WI) and 0.5 unit of T4 ing on ice for I h. the mixture was centri- DNA ligase , in 5ul of

  20. Identification of Cargo for Adaptor Protein (AP) Complexes 3 and 4 by Sucrose Gradient Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Wu, Xu Na; Schrodt, Jens; Müdsam, Christina; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2016-09-01

    Intracellular vesicle trafficking is a fundamental process in eukaryotic cells. It enables cellular polarity and exchange of proteins between subcellular compartments such as the plasma membrane or the vacuole. Adaptor protein complexes participate in the vesicle formation by specific selection of the transported cargo. We investigated the role of the adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) and adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) in this selection process by screening for AP-3 and AP-4 dependent cargo proteins. Specific cargo proteins are expected to be mis-targeted in knock-out mutants of adaptor protein complex components. Thus, we screened for altered distribution profiles across a density gradient of membrane proteins in wild type versus ap-3β and ap-4β knock-out mutants. In ap-3β mutants, especially proteins with transport functions, such as aquaporins and plasma membrane ATPase, as well as vesicle trafficking proteins showed differential protein distribution profiles across the density gradient. In the ap-4β mutant aquaporins but also proteins from lipid metabolism were differentially distributed. These proteins also showed differential phosphorylation patterns in ap-3β and ap-4β compared with wild type. Other proteins, such as receptor kinases were depleted from the AP-3 mutant membrane system, possibly because of degradation after mis-targeting. In AP-4 mutants, membrane fractions were depleted for cytochrome P450 proteins, cell wall proteins and receptor kinases. Analysis of water transport capacity in wild type and mutant mesophyll cells confirmed aquaporins as cargo proteins of AP-3 and AP-4. The combination of organelle density gradients with proteome analysis turned out as a suitable experimental strategy for large-scale analyses of protein trafficking.

  1. Floral homeotic C function genes repress specific B function genes in the carpel whorl of the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica

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    Yellina Aravinda L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The floral homeotic C function gene AGAMOUS (AG confers stamen and carpel identity and is involved in the regulation of floral meristem termination in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis ag mutants show complete homeotic conversions of stamens into petals and carpels into sepals as well as indeterminacy of the floral meristem. Gene function analysis in model core eudicots and the monocots rice and maize suggest a conserved function for AG homologs in angiosperms. At the same time gene phylogenies reveal a complex history of gene duplications and repeated subfunctionalization of paralogs. Results EScaAG1 and EScaAG2, duplicate AG homologs in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica show a high degree of similarity in sequence and expression, although EScaAG2 expression is lower than EScaAG1 expression. Functional studies employing virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS demonstrate that knock down of EScaAG1 and 2 function leads to homeotic conversion of stamens into petaloid structures and defects in floral meristem termination. However, carpels are transformed into petaloid organs rather than sepaloid structures. We also show that a reduction of EScaAG1 and EScaAG2 expression leads to significantly increased expression of a subset of floral homeotic B genes. Conclusions This work presents expression and functional analysis of the two basal eudicot AG homologs. The reduction of EScaAG1 and 2 functions results in the change of stamen to petal identity and a transformation of the central whorl organ identity from carpel into petal identity. Petal identity requires the presence of the floral homeotic B function and our results show that the expression of a subset of B function genes extends into the central whorl when the C function is reduced. We propose a model for the evolution of B function regulation by C function suggesting that the mode of B function gene regulation found in Eschscholzia is ancestral and the C-independent regulation as

  2. UFO in the Arabidopsis inflorescence apex is required for floral-meristem identity and bract suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Shelley R; Klenz, Jennifer E; Haughn, George W

    2006-03-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene of Arabidopsis encodes an F-box protein required for the determination of floral-organ and floral-meristem identity. Mutation of UFO leads to dramatic changes in floral-organ type which are well-characterized whereas inflorescence defects are more subtle and less understood. These defects include an increase in the number of secondary inflorescences, nodes that alternate between forming flowers and secondary inflorescences, and nodes in which a single flower is subtended by a bract. Here, we show how inflorescence defects correlate with the abnormal development of floral primordia and establish a temporal requirement for UFO in this process. At the inflorescence apex of ufo mutants, newly formed primordia are initially bract-like. Expression of the floral-meristem identity genes LFY and AP1 are confined to a relatively small adaxial region of these primordia with expression of the bract-identity marker FIL observed in cells that comprise the balance of the primordia. Proliferation of cells in the adaxial region of these early primordia is delayed by several nodes such that primordia appear "chimeric" at several nodes, having visible floral and bract components. However, by late stage 2 of floral development, growth of the bract generally ceases and is overtaken by development of the floral primordium. This abnormal pattern of floral meristem development is not rescued by expression of UFO from the AP1 promoter, indicating that UFO is required prior to AP1 activation for normal development of floral primordia. We propose that UFO and LFY are jointly required in the inflorescence meristem to both promote floral meristem development and inhibit, in a non-cell autonomous manner, growth of the bract.

  3. A comparison of floral integration between selfing and outcrossing species: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornoni, Juan; Ordano, Mariano; Pérez-Ishiwara, Rubén; Boege, Karina; Domínguez, César A

    2016-02-01

    Floral integration is thought to be an adaptation to promote cross-fertilization, and it is often assumed that it increases morphological matching between flowers and pollinators, increasing the efficiency of pollen transfer. However, the evidence for this role of floral integration is limited, and recent studies have suggested a possible positive association between floral integration and selfing. Although a number of explanations exist to account for this inconsistency, to date there has been no attempt to examine the existence of an association between floral integration and mating system. This study hypothesized that if pollinator-mediated pollen movement among plants (outcrossing) is the main factor promoting floral integration, species with a predominantly outcrossing mating system should present higher levels of floral integration than those with a predominantly selfing mating system. A phylogenetically informed meta-analysis of published data was performed in order to evaluate whether mating system (outcrossing vs. selfing) accounts for the variation in floral integration among 64 species of flowering plants. Morphometric floral information was used to compare intra-floral integration among traits describing sexual organs (androecium and gynoecium) and those corresponding to the perianth (calix and corolla). The analysis showed that outcrossing species have lower floral integration than selfing species. This pattern was caused by significantly higher integration of sexual traits than perianth traits, as integration of the latter group remained unchanged across mating categories. The results suggest that the evolution of selfing is associated with concomitant changes in intra-floral integration. Thus, floral integration of sexual traits should be considered as a critical component of the selfing syndrome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  4. New Insights to Clathrin and Adaptor Protein 2 for the Design and Development of Therapeutic Strategies

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    Ebbe Toftgaard Poulsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP has been extensively studied for its role as the precursor of the β-amyloid protein (Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, our understanding of the normal function of APP is still patchy. Emerging evidence indicates that a dysfunction in APP trafficking and degradation can be responsible for neuronal deficits and progressive degeneration in humans. We recently reported that the Y682 mutation in the 682YENPTY687 domain of APP affects its binding to specific adaptor proteins and leads to its anomalous trafficking, to defects in the autophagy machinery and to neuronal degeneration. In order to identify adaptors that influence APP function, we performed pull-down experiments followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS on hippocampal tissue extracts of three month-old mice incubated with either the 682YENPTY687 peptide, its mutated form, 682GENPTY687 or its phosphorylated form, 682pYENPTY687. Our experiments resulted in the identification of two proteins involved in APP internalization and trafficking: Clathrin heavy chain (hc and its Adaptor Protein 2 (AP-2. Overall our results consolidate and refine the importance of Y682 in APP normal functions from an animal model of premature aging and dementia. Additionally, they open the perspective to consider Clathrin hc and AP-2 as potential targets for the design and development of new therapeutic strategies.

  5. The N-Terminus of the Floral Arabidopsis TGA Transcription Factor PERIANTHIA Mediates Redox-Sensitive DNA-Binding.

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    Nora Gutsche

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis TGA transcription factor (TF PERIANTHIA (PAN regulates the formation of the floral organ primordia as revealed by the pan mutant forming an abnormal pentamerous arrangement of the outer three floral whorls. The Arabidopsis TGA bZIP TF family comprises 10 members, of which PAN and TGA9/10 control flower developmental processes and TGA1/2/5/6 participate in stress-responses. For the TGA1 protein it was shown that several cysteines can be redox-dependently modified. TGA proteins interact in the nucleus with land plant-specific glutaredoxins, which may alter their activities posttranslationally. Here, we investigated the DNA-binding of PAN to the AAGAAT motif under different redox-conditions. The AAGAAT motif is localized in the second intron of the floral homeotic regulator AGAMOUS (AG, which controls stamen and carpel development as well as floral determinacy. Whereas PAN protein binds to this regulatory cis-element under reducing conditions, the interaction is strongly reduced under oxidizing conditions in EMSA studies. The redox-sensitive DNA-binding is mediated via a special PAN N-terminus, which is not present in other Arabidopsis TGA TFs and comprises five cysteines. Two N-terminal PAN cysteines, Cys68 and Cys87, were shown to form a disulfide bridge and Cys340, localized in a C-terminal putative transactivation domain, can be S-glutathionylated. Comparative land plant analyses revealed that the AAGAAT motif exists in asterid and rosid plant species. TGA TFs with N-terminal extensions of variable length were identified in all analyzed seed plants. However, a PAN-like N-terminus exists only in the rosids and exclusively Brassicaceae homologs comprise four to five of the PAN N-terminal cysteines. Redox-dependent modifications of TGA cysteines are known to regulate the activity of stress-related TGA TFs. Here, we show that the N-terminal PAN cysteines participate in a redox-dependent control of the PAN interaction with a highly

  6. Bias in ligation-based small RNA sequencing library construction is determined by adaptor and RNA structure.

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    Ryan T Fuchs

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing (HTS has become a powerful tool for the detection of and sequence characterization of microRNAs (miRNA and other small RNAs (sRNA. Unfortunately, the use of HTS data to determine the relative quantity of different miRNAs in a sample has been shown to be inconsistent with quantitative PCR and Northern Blot results. Several recent studies have concluded that the major contributor to this inconsistency is bias introduced during the construction of sRNA libraries for HTS and that the bias is primarily derived from the adaptor ligation steps, specifically where single stranded adaptors are sequentially ligated to the 3' and 5'-end of sRNAs using T4 RNA ligases. In this study we investigated the effects of ligation bias by using a pool of randomized ligation substrates, defined mixtures of miRNA sequences and several combinations of adaptors in HTS library construction. We show that like the 3' adaptor ligation step, the 5' adaptor ligation is also biased, not because of primary sequence, but instead due to secondary structures of the two ligation substrates. We find that multiple secondary structural factors influence final representation in HTS results. Our results provide insight about the nature of ligation bias and allowed us to design adaptors that reduce ligation bias and produce HTS results that more accurately reflect the actual concentrations of miRNAs in the defined starting material.

  7. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

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    Zhang Xiaohong

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04 generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage

  8. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Victor A; Soltis, Douglas E; Carlson, John E; Farmerie, William G; Wall, P Kerr; Ilut, Daniel C; Solow, Teri M; Mueller, Lukas A; Landherr, Lena L; Hu, Yi; Buzgo, Matyas; Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Frohlich, Michael W; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Bliss, Barbara J; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tanksley, Steven D; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Pamela S; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2005-01-01

    Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04) generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i) proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii) many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii) phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage-specific gene duplication and

  9. Study on Floral and Pollen Characters of Tetraploid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-xin; CHEN Jian-guo; CHEN Dong-ling; SONG Zhao-jian; DAI Bing-cheng; CAI De-tian

    2009-01-01

    Polyploidization is the evolution trend of many crops, and the yield increased obviously after polyploidization. The polyploidization of rice often brings "gigas" of both vegetative organs and seeds. Howevere, in rice breeding, it is required for restoring lines to have not only big anthers but also abundant pollens. People often doubt that the enlargement of the floral organ may just be enlargement of cell size in polyploid rice. So, it is of significance to study characteristics of floral organs and pollens of several tetraploid rice varieties or lines. Floral organ and pollen characteristics of Sg99012 and HN2026 were studied comparatively by stages and different ploidy levels, with the materials 9311, HD9802S, and PA64S as the control. The results showed that chromosome doubling had much more influence on floral characteristics of every lines than seeding by stages, and the tetraploids of every lines displayed "gigas". In correlation analysis, spikelet length, spikelet width, and anther length had significant correlation; spikelet width and anther width had significant correlation, too. Both seeding by stages and chromosome doubling made the correlations of characters between every floral organ changed to some extent. Seeding by stages had little effect on pollen diameter and fertility of HN2026-4X and Sg99012-4X. But chromosome doubling increased pollen size of every lines remarkably, and also increased the pollen quantity of PMeS (polyploid meiosis stability) restoring line HN2026-4X and gene map restoring line 9311-4X remarkably, whereas only had little effect on that of sterile lines. Moreover, chromosome doubling changed pollen fertility and made the number of fertility pollen of 9311 reduced significantly, but the pollen fertility of HN2026 (PMeS restoring line) and PA64S (sterile line) almost had no change after chromosome doubling. The results showed that tetraploid restoring lines had advantage of abundant and big size pollens, and tetraploid sterile

  10. Floral abundance, richness, and spatial distribution drive urban garden bee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, M; Philpott, S M

    2017-03-01

    In urban landscapes, gardens provide refuges for bee diversity, but conservation potential may depend on local and landscape features. Foraging and population persistence of bee species, as well as overall pollinator community structure, may be supported by the abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources. Floral resources strongly differ in urban gardens. Using hand netting and pan traps to survey bees, we examined whether abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources, as well as ground cover and garden landscape surroundings influence bee abundance, species richness, and diversity on the central coast of California. Differences in floral abundance and spatial distribution, as well as urban cover in the landscape, predicted different bee community variables. Abundance of all bees and of honeybees (Apis mellifera) was lower in sites with more urban land cover surrounding the gardens. Honeybee abundance was higher in sites with patchy floral resources, whereas bee species richness and bee diversity was higher in sites with more clustered floral resources. Surprisingly, bee species richness and bee diversity was lower in sites with very high floral abundance, possibly due to interactions with honeybees. Other studies have documented the importance of floral abundance and landscape surroundings for bees in urban gardens, but this study is the first to document that the spatial arrangement of flowers strongly predicts bee abundance and richness. Based on these findings, it is likely that garden managers may promote bee conservation by managing for floral connectivity and abundance within these ubiquitous urban habitats.

  11. Macroevolutionary patterns of ultraviolet floral pigmentation explained by geography and associated bioclimatic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Matthew H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Selection driven by biotic interactions can generate variation in floral traits. Abiotic selection, however, also contributes to floral diversity, especially with respect to patterns of pigmentation. Combining comparative studies of floral pigmentation and geography can reveal the bioclimatic factors that may drive macroevolutionary patterns of floral color. We create a molecular phylogeny and measure ultraviolet (UV) floral pattern for 177 species in the Potentilleae tribe (Rosaceae). Species are similar in flower shape and visible color but vary in UV floral pattern. We use comparative approaches to determine whether UV pigmentation variation is associated with geography and/or bioclimatic features (UV-B, precipitation, temperature). Floral UV pattern was present in half of the species, while others were uniformly UV-absorbing. Phylogenetic signal was detected for presence/absence of pattern, but among patterned species, quantitative variation in UV-absorbing area was evolutionarily labile. Uniformly UV-absorbing species tended to experience higher UV-B irradiance. Patterned species occurring at higher altitudes had larger UV-absorbing petal areas, corresponding with low temperature and high UV exposure. This analysis expands our understanding of the covariation of UV-B irradiance and UV floral pigmentation from within species to that among species, and supports the view that abiotic selection is associated with floral diversification among species.

  12. The olfactory component of floral display in Asimina and Deeringothamnus (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Katherine R; Raguso, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Floral scent is a key component of floral display, and probably one of the first floral attractants linking insect pollinators to the radiation of Angiosperms. In this article, we investigate floral scent in two extra-tropical genera of Annonaceae. We discuss floral scent in the context of differing pollination strategies in these genera, and compare their scent to that of a close tropical relative. Floral volatiles were collected for Annona glabra, Asimina and Deeringothamnus whole flowers and dissected floral organs, using a standardized static-headspace solid phase microextraction method. Scents were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and identified using known standards. The floral scents of these species are highly dynamic, varying between floral organs, sexual stages and species. Maroon-flowered species of Asimina produce 'yeasty' odors, dominated by fermentation volatiles and occasionally containing sulfurous or nitrogenous compounds. White-flowered species of Asimina and Deeringothamnus produce pleasant odors characterized by lilac compounds, benzenoids and hydrocarbons. Annona glabra produces a strong, fruity-acetonic scent dominated by 3-pentanyl acetate and 1,8-cineole. The fermented/decaying scents of maroon-flowered species of Asimina suggest mimicry-based pollination strategies similar to aroids and stapeliads, whereas the pleasant scents of white-flowered species of Asimina suggest honest, reward-based pollination strategies. The scent of Annona glabra is typical of specialized beetle pollination systems common to tropical Annonaceae.

  13. Floral gradient in flowering tobacco in relation to free amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENYONGNING; WENANLI

    1993-01-01

    By employing TCLs (thin cell layers) culture, the floral gradient in flowering tobacco of different developmental stages was confirmed. The TCLs from early flowering tobacco regenerated more floral buds than those from the tobacco plants in full blooming or fruiting stages. Analysis of free amino acid levels revealed the acropetal gradient of Pro in flowering tobacco stem. L-Pro. L-Trp. D,L-Met and L-Arg were respectively added into the culture medium for testing their influence on floral bud formation from tobacco pedicel segments. Only L-Trp evidently enhanced the floral bud neoformation.

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana CENTRORADIALIS homologue (ATC) acts systemically to inhibit floral initiation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nien-Chen; Jane, Wann-Neng; Chen, Jychian; Yu, Tien-Shin

    2012-10-01

    Floral initiation is orchestrated by systemic floral activators and inhibitors. This remote-control system may integrate environmental cues to modulate floral initiation. Recently, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was found to be a florigen. However, the identity of systemic floral inhibitor or anti-florigen remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana CENTRORADIALIS homologue (ATC), an Arabidopsis FT homologue, may act in a non-cell autonomous manner to inhibit floral initiation. Analysis of the ATC null mutant revealed that ATC is a short-day-induced floral inhibitor. Cell type-specific expression showed that companion cells and apex that express ATC are sufficient to inhibit floral initiation. Histochemical analysis showed that the promoter activity of ATC was mainly found in vasculature but under the detection limit in apex, a finding that suggests that ATC may move from the vasculature to the apex to influence flowering. Consistent with this notion, Arabidopsis seedling grafting experiments demonstrated that ATC moved over a long distance and that floral inhibition by ATC is graft transmissible. ATC probably antagonizes FT activity, because both ATC and FT interact with FD and affect the same downstream meristem identity genes APETALA1, in an opposite manner. Thus, photoperiodic variations may trigger functionally opposite FT homologues to systemically influence floral initiation.

  15. The euAP1 protein MPF3 represses MPF2 to specify floral calyx identity and displays crucial roles in Chinese lantern development in Physalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Ji-Si; Zhao, Man; Gong, Pichang; Riss, Simone; Saedler, Rainer; He, Chaoying

    2013-06-01

    The Chinese lantern phenotype or inflated calyx syndrome (ICS) is a postfloral morphological novelty in Physalis. Its origin is associated with the heterotopic expression of the MADS box gene 2 from Physalis floridana (MPF2) in floral organs, yet the process underlying its identity remains elusive. Here, we show that MPF3, which is expressed specifically in floral tissues, encodes a core eudicot APETALA1-like (euAP1) MADS-domain protein. MPF3 was primarily localized to the nucleus, and it interacted with MPF2 and some floral MADS-domain proteins to selectively bind the CC-A-rich-GG (CArG) boxes in the MPF2 promoter. Downregulating MPF3 resulted in a dramatic elevation in MPF2 in the calyces and androecium, leading to enlarged and leaf-like floral calyces; however, the postfloral lantern was smaller and deformed. Starch accumulation in pollen was blocked. MPF3 MPF2 double knockdowns showed normal floral calyces and more mature pollen than those found in plants in which either MPF3 or MPF2 was downregulated. Therefore, MPF3 specifies calyx identity and regulates ICS formation and male fertility through interactions with MPF2/MPF2. Furthermore, both genes were found to activate Physalis floridana invertase gene 4 homolog, which encodes an invertase cleaving Suc, a putative key gene in sugar partitioning. The novel role of the MPF3-MPF2 regulatory circuit in male fertility is integral to the origin of ICS. Our results shed light on the evolution and development of ICS in Physalis and on the functional evolution of euAP1s in angiosperms.

  16. Floral biology of Stachytarpheta maximiliani Scham. (Verbenaceae and its floral visitors Biologia floral de Stachytarpheta maximiliani Scham. (Verbenaceae e seus visitantes florais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana de Freitas Barbola

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the reproductive system of Stachytarpheta maximiliani (Verbenaceae, including its floral biology, nectar and pollen availability and insect foraging patterns, identifying whose species act as pollinators. It was carried out in a Brazilian Atlantic rain forest site. Observations on the pollination biology of the Verbenaceae S. maximiliani indicate that their flowering period extends from September through May. Anthesis occurs from 5:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. and nectar and pollen are available during all the anthesis. Many species of beetles, hemipterans, flies, wasps, bees and butterflies visit their flowers, but bees and butterflies are the most frequent visitors. The flowers are generally small, gathered in dense showy inflorescences. A complex of floral characteristcs, such as violet-blue color of flowers, long floral tubes, without scents, nectar not exposed, high concentration of sugar in nectar (about 32%, allowed identification of floral syndromes (melittophily and psicophily and function for each visitor. The bees, Bombus morio, B. atratus, Trigonopedia ferruginea, Xylocopa brasilianorum and Apis mellifera and the butterflies Corticea mendica mendica, Corticea sp., Vehilius clavicula, Urbanus simplicius, U. teleus and Heraclides thoas brasiliensis, are the most important pollinators.Este estudo descreve alguns aspectos do sistema reprodutivo de Stachytarpheta maximiliani (Verbenaceae, incluindo características da flor, disponibilidade de néctar e pólen e o padrão de forrageio dos insetos visitantes florais, em uma área de Floresta Atlântica, no sul do Brasil. Observações sobre sua biologia floral indicam que esta espécie tem um período de floração que se estende de setembro a maio, antese diurna (das 5:30h às 17:00h e oferta de néctar e pólen praticamente durante todo o período de antese. Suas flores são visitadas por diferentes espécies de coleópteros, dípteros, hemípteros, himenópteros e lepid

  17. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A

    2016-09-19

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes.

  18. Variation in the strength of association among pollination systems and floral traits: evolutionary changes in the floral traits of Bornean gingers (Zingiberaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shoko; Kawakita, Atsushi; Ooi, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Tamiji

    2013-03-01

    Diversification of floral traits in angiosperms is often attributed to have been driven by adaptations to pollinators. Nevertheless, phylogenetic studies on the relationships among evolutionary changes in floral traits and pollination systems are still limited. We examined the relationships between floral trait changes and pollinator shifts in Bornean gingers (Zingiberaceae). These plants have strongly zygomorphic flowers pollinated by spiderhunter birds, bees of the genus Amegilla, and halictid bees. • We identified pollination systems through field observations and recorded petal color, quantity of floral rewards, and seven measures of flower morphology in 28 ginger species. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from nucleotide sequences of the matK and ITS regions. We examined the correlations between the evolution of pollination systems and floral traits using phylogenetically independent contrasts. • Significant association was found between pink color and spiderhunter pollination, orange and Amegilla pollination, and yellow and white and halictid pollination. Sugar production was higher in spiderhunter-pollinated species and lower in halictid-pollinated. Meanwhile, there was a significant association only for a subset of the floral morphological characters measured. Floral tube length, which is often thought to evolve to match the lengths of pollinator probing apparatuses, did not show any correlation. • There is considerable variation in the strength of association among pollination systems and floral traits. Lack of significant correlation in some traits could partly be explained by floral functions other than pollination, such as adaptations to prevent herbivore damage to the ovules. Further studies on these factors may improve understanding of plant-pollinator interactions.

  19. Plasticity of floral longevity and floral display in the self-compatible biennial Sabatia angularis (Gentianaceae): untangling the role of multiple components of pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigler, Rachel B

    2017-01-01

    Plasticity of floral traits in response to pollination can enable plants to maximize opportunities for pollen import and export under poor pollination conditions, while minimizing costs under favourable ones. Both floral longevity and display are key traits influencing pollination. While pollination-induced flower wilting is widely documented, we lack an understanding of the multifactorial complexity of this response, including the influence of other pollination components, costs of extended longevity and subsequent impacts on floral display. Plasticity of floral longevity was experimentally evaluated in Sabatia angularis in response to multiple pollination factors: pollen addition, removal, and source (self, single-donor outcross, multiple-donor outcross) and timing of pollination. Effects of pollen quantity were further evaluated by exploiting variation in autonomous self-pollen deposition. Delayed pollination costs were tested comparing seed set from early versus late pollinations. Finally, I compared floral display metrics (peak floral display, time to peak flower, flowering duration, mean flowering rate) between experimentally pollinated and control plants. Floral longevity was highly plastic in response to pollen addition and its timing, and the response was dose-dependent but insensitive to pollen source. Pollen removal tended to extend floral longevity, but only insofar as it precluded pollination-induced wilting via autonomous self-pollination. Under delayed pollination, the wilting response was faster and no cost was detected. Pollination further led to reduced peak floral displays and condensed flowering periods. Floral longevity and display plasticity could optimize fitness in S. angularis, a species prone to pollen limitation and high inbreeding depression. Under pollinator scarcity, extended floral longevities offer greater opportunities for pollen receipt and export at no cost to seed set, reproductive assurance via autonomous self-pollination and

  20. U1 Adaptor Oligonucleotides Targeting BCL2 and GRM1 Suppress Growth of Human Melanoma Xenografts In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Goraczniak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available U1 Adaptor is a recently discovered oligonucleotide-based gene-silencing technology with a unique mechanism of action that targets nuclear pre-mRNA processing. U1 Adaptors have two distinct functional domains, both of which must be present on the same oligonucleotide to exert their gene-silencing function. Here, we present the first in vivo use of U1 Adaptors by targeting two different human genes implicated in melanomagenesis, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2 and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1, in a human melanoma cell xenograft mouse model system. Using a newly developed dendrimer delivery system, anti-BCL2 U1 Adaptors were very potent and suppressed tumor growth at doses as low as 34 µg/kg with twice weekly intravenous (iv administration. Anti-GRM1 U1 Adaptors suppressed tumor xenograft growth with similar potency. Mechanism of action was demonstrated by showing target gene suppression in tumors and by observing that negative control U1 Adaptors with just one functional domain show no tumor suppression activity. The anti-BCL2 and anti-GRM1 treatments were equally effective against cell lines harboring either wild-type or a mutant V600E B-RAF allele, the most common mutation in melanoma. Treatment of normal immune-competent mice (C57BL6 indicated no organ toxicity or immune stimulation. These proof-of-concept studies represent an in-depth (over 800 mice in ~108 treatment groups validation that U1 Adaptors are a highly potent gene-silencing therapeutic and open the way for their further development to treat other human diseases.

  1. TRAM is involved in IL-18 signaling and functions as a sorting adaptor for MyD88.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Ohnishi

    Full Text Available MyD88, a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor homology (TIR domain-containing adaptor protein, mediates signals from the Toll-like receptors (TLR or IL-1/IL-18 receptors to downstream kinases. In MyD88-dependent TLR4 signaling, the function of MyD88 is enhanced by another TIR domain-containing adaptor, Mal/TIRAP, which brings MyD88 to the plasma membrane and promotes its interaction with the cytosolic region of TLR4. Hence, Mal is recognized as the "sorting adaptor" for MyD88. In this study, a direct interaction between MyD88-TIR and another membrane-sorting adaptor, TRAM/TICAM-2, was demonstrated in vitro. Cell-based assays including RNA interference experiments and TRAM deficient mice revealed that the interplay between MyD88 and TRAM in cells is important in mediating IL-18 signal transduction. Live cell imaging further demonstrated the co-localized accumulation of MyD88 and TRAM in the membrane regions in HEK293 cells. These findings suggest that TRAM serves as the sorting adaptor for MyD88 in IL-18 signaling, which then facilitates the signal transduction. The binding sites for TRAM are located in the TIR domain of MyD88 and actually overlap with the binding sites for Mal. MyD88, the multifunctional signaling adaptor that works together with most of the TLR members and with the IL-1/IL-18 receptors, can interact with two distinct sorting adaptors, TRAM and Mal, in a conserved manner in a distinct context.

  2. Biología floral de Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae

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    María T. Amela García

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento reproductivo muestra que Passiflora foetida es autocompatible. Observaciones de las características florales y de los visitantes durante la antesis, más el análisis del polen transportado, permitieron identificar el síndrome floral (melitofilia y las funciones de cada visitante. La antesis ocurre desde las 6 hasta las 11 hs. Se identificaron 3 fases florales: 1 estigmas por encima de las anteras, 2 estigmas a la altura de las anteras, 3 estigmas por encima de las anteras; los radii, los pétalos y los sépalos se incurvan. Los estigmas están receptivos durante toda la antesis. La concentración de azúcares del néctar es 34 %. El color predominante en el espectro visible es el blanco. En el espectro UV, los estambres y el gineceo contrastan con el limen y el androginóforo; pueden ser una guía de néctar. Tres especies de himenópteros fueron los visitantes más frecuentes y constantes: Ptiloglossa tarsata (Colletidae siempre contactan las anteras y los estigmas cuando liban, transportan un alto porcentaje de polen de P. foetida y visitan flores en fase 1 y 2; pueden ser considerados los principales polinizadores. Pseudaugochloropsis sp. (Halictidae raramente contactan las anteras o los estigmas cuando perforan el limen para acceder al néctar y visitan flores en fase 2 y 3; son ladrones de néctar que raramente polinizan. Augochlorella sp. (Halictidae recolectan polen sin tocar los estigmas y visitan flores en fase 2 y 3; son hurtadores de polen.A reproductive experiment shows that Passiflora foetida is autocompatible. Observations of floral characteristics and visitors during anthesis, plus the analysis of pollen allowed identification of floral syndrome (melittophily and functions for each visitor. Anthesis occurs from 6 to 11 AM. Three floral phases were identified: 1 stigmas above anthers, 2 stigmas at anther level, 3 stigmas above anthers; radii, petals and sepals become incurved. The stigmas are receptive during the

  3. A dynamical phyllotaxis model to determine floral organ number.

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    Miho S Kitazawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available How organisms determine particular organ numbers is a fundamental key to the development of precise body structures; however, the developmental mechanisms underlying organ-number determination are unclear. In many eudicot plants, the primordia of sepals and petals (the floral organs first arise sequentially at the edge of a circular, undifferentiated region called the floral meristem, and later transition into a concentric arrangement called a whorl, which includes four or five organs. The properties controlling the transition to whorls comprising particular numbers of organs is little explored. We propose a development-based model of floral organ-number determination, improving upon earlier models of plant phyllotaxis that assumed two developmental processes: the sequential initiation of primordia in the least crowded space around the meristem and the constant growth of the tip of the stem. By introducing mutual repulsion among primordia into the growth process, we numerically and analytically show that the whorled arrangement emerges spontaneously from the sequential initiation of primordia. Moreover, by allowing the strength of the inhibition exerted by each primordium to decrease as the primordium ages, we show that pentamerous whorls, in which the angular and radial positions of the primordia are consistent with those observed in sepal and petal primordia in Silene coeli-rosa, Caryophyllaceae, become the dominant arrangement. The organ number within the outmost whorl, corresponding to the sepals, takes a value of four or five in a much wider parameter space than that in which it takes a value of six or seven. These results suggest that mutual repulsion among primordia during growth and a temporal decrease in the strength of the inhibition during initiation are required for the development of the tetramerous and pentamerous whorls common in eudicots.

  4. Pollinator and herbivore attraction to cucurbita floral volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Elizabeth S; Theis, Nina; Adler, Lynn S

    2007-09-01

    Mutualists and antagonists may place conflicting selection pressures on plant traits. For example, the evolution of floral traits is typically studied in the context of attracting pollinators, but traits may incur fitness costs if they are also attractive to antagonists. Striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum) feed on cucurbits and are attracted to several volatiles emitted by Cucurbita blossoms. However, the effect of these volatiles on pollinator attraction is unknown. Our goal was to determine whether pollinators were attracted to the same or different floral volatiles as herbivorous cucumber beetles. We tested three volatiles previously found to attract cucumber beetles in a factorial design to determine attraction of squash bees (Peponapis pruinosa), the specialist pollinators of cucurbita species, as well as the specialist herbivore A. vittatum. We found that 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene was attractive to both the pollinator and the herbivore, indole was attractive only to the herbivore, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde was attractive only to the pollinator. There were no interactions among volatiles on attraction of squash bees or cucumber beetles. Our results suggest that reduced indole emission could benefit plants by reducing herbivore attraction without loss of pollination, and that 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene might be under conflicting selection pressure from mutualists and antagonists. By examining the attraction of both mutualists and antagonists to Cucurbita floral volatiles, we have demonstrated the potential for some compounds to influence only one type of interaction, while others may affect both interactions and possibly result in tradeoffs. These results shed light on the potential evolution of fragrance in native Cucurbita, and may have consequences for yield in agricultural settings.

  5. Comparative Genetics of Floral Morphology in Diploid and Allotetraploid Gossypium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEE Peng W

    2008-01-01

    @@ The cultivated Gossypium A genome diploid species G.arboreum and G.herbaceum and the allotetraploid species G.hirsutum and G.barbadense share common morphology for various floral traits,which offers an ideal system in which to investigate genetic mechanisms that differentiate diploid and tetraploid genomes.For example,knowing how a single phenotype behaves in the diploids,and comparing the same trait with different dosage effects in the tetraploids,may provide a means to study inter- and intra-genomic interactions in the polyploid genome.

  6. New function of the adaptor protein SH2B1 in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced neurite outgrowth.

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    Chien-Hung Shih

    Full Text Available Neurite outgrowth is an essential process for the establishment of the nervous system. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF binds to its receptor TrkB and regulates axonal and dendritic morphology of neurons through signal transduction and gene expression. SH2B1 is a signaling adaptor protein that regulates cellular signaling in various physiological processes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of SH2B1 in the development of the central nervous system. In this study, we show that knocking down SH2B1 reduces neurite formation of cortical neurons whereas overexpression of SH2B1β promotes the development of hippocampal neurons. We further demonstrate that SH2B1β promotes BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth and signaling using the established PC12 cells stably expressing TrkB, SH2B1β or SH2B1β mutants. Our data indicate that overexpressing SH2B1β enhances BDNF-induced MEK-ERK1/2, and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. Inhibition of MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT pathways by specific inhibitors suggest that these two pathways are required for SH2B1β-promoted BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, SH2B1β enhances BDNF-stimulated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 at serine 727. Finally, our data indicate that the SH2 domain and tyrosine phosphorylation of SH2B1β contribute to BDNF-induced signaling pathways and neurite outgrowth. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that SH2B1β promotes BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth through enhancing pathways involved MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT.

  7. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yafei; Zhang, Teng; Broholm, Suvi K; Tähtiharju, Sari; Mouhu, Katriina; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2016-09-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a floral homeotic gene in Fraxinus nigra causing earlier flowering and homeotic alterations in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Hyung Lee; Paula M. Pijut

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive sterility, which can be obtained by manipulating floral organ identity genes, is an important tool for gene containment of genetically engineered trees. In Arabidopsis, AGAMOUS (AG) is the only C-class gene responsible for both floral meristem determinacy and floral organ identity, and its mutations produce...

  9. Terapia floral: una alternativa de tratamiento para la mujer de edad mediana Floral therapy: an alternative treatment for the middle-age

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    Margeris Yanes Calderón

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un trabajo dirigido a los Médicos de Familia sobre la aplicación de los remedios (esencias, elíxires florales de Bach durante la etapa climatérica. Se describen los 5 elíxires florales que han tenido mayor indicación en la consulta de climaterio del Policlínico Docente "Ana Betancourt," en el municipio Playa de la Ciudad de La Habana, así como su forma de preparación y administración. Se citan algunas esencias florales de nueva generación, que por su vibración y calidad podrían indicarse en esta etapa de la vida femenina. En aquellas mujeres de edad mediana (climatéricas, donde predominen los síntomas psicológicos sobre los circulatorios, genitourinarios y generales, la terapia floral se impone como una alternativa de tratamiento para mejorar su calidad de vida.A paper directed to the family physicians on the application of Bach's floral remedies (essence oils and elixirs during the climateric period was made. The 5 floral elixirs that have been prescribed the most at the climacteric office of "Ana Betancourt" Teaching Polyclinic, in Playa municipality, Havana City, as well as their mode of preparation and administration are described. Some new generation floral essences that due to their vibration and quality may be indicated at this stage of females' life, are mentioned. In those middle-aged women (climacteric among whom the psychological symptoms prevailed over the circulatory, genitourinary and general symptoms, the floral therapy constitutes an alternative treatment to improve their quality of life.

  10. Floral Reversion in Arabidopsis suecica Is Correlated with the Onset of Flowering and Meristem Transitioning.

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    Amelia Asbe

    Full Text Available Angiosperm flowers are usually determinate structures that may produce seeds. In some species, flowers can revert from committed flower development back to an earlier developmental phase in a process called floral reversion. The allopolyploid Arabidopsis suecica displays photoperiod-dependent floral reversion in a subset of its flowers, yet little is known about the environmental conditions enhancing this phenotype, or the morphological processes leading to reversion. We have used light and electron microscopy to further describe this phenomenon. Additionally, we have further studied the phenology of flowering and floral reversion in A. suecica. In this study we confirm and expand upon our previous findings that floral reversion in the allopolyploid A. suecica is photoperiod-dependent, and show that its frequency is correlated with the timing for the onset of flowering. Our results also suggest that floral reversion in A. suecica displays natural variation in its penetrance between geographic populations of A. suecica.

  11. Study on Supercooling Point and Freezing Point in Floral Organs of Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Under the environment of an artificial climate chamber, supercooling point (SCP) and freezing point (FP) in flower and young fruit at different development stages and freezing injuries of floral organs were studied. The apricot cultivars tested were Kety, Golden Sun and Honghebao. With the development of flower buds, SCP and FP increased, which indicated that their cold resistance decreased. SCP and FP varied with different floral organs. For different apricot cultivars, it was found that, the lower SCP or FP in floral organs was, the more resistant capacity the cultivar had, and the larger the temperature interval from SCP to FP was. SCP was not a constant value, but a range. Frequency distribution of SCP in petals was more dispersing than that in stamens and pistils. Floral organs could maintain a supercooling state to avoid ice formation, but they were sensitive to freezing. Once floral organs froze, they turned brown after thawing.

  12. The Myb-domain protein ULTRAPETALA1 INTERACTING FACTOR 1 controls floral meristem activities in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Fanny; Thévenon, Emmanuel; Blanvillain, Robert; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose Manuel; Dumas, Renaud; Parcy, François; Morel, Patrice; Trehin, Christophe; Carles, Cristel C

    2016-04-01

    Higher plants continuously and iteratively produce new above-ground organs in the form of leaves, stems and flowers. These organs arise from shoot apical meristems whose homeostasis depends on coordination between self-renewal of stem cells and their differentiation into organ founder cells. This coordination is stringently controlled by the central transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS), which is both necessary and sufficient for stem cell specification in Arabidopsis thaliana ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1) was previously identified as a plant-specific, negative regulator of WUS expression. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation remain unknown. ULT1 protein contains a SAND putative DNA-binding domain and a B-box, previously proposed as a protein interaction domain in eukaryotes. Here, we characterise a novel partner of ULT1, named ULT1 INTERACTING FACTOR 1 (UIF1), which contains a Myb domain and an EAR motif. UIF1 and ULT1 function in the same pathway for regulation of organ number in the flower. Moreover, UIF1 displays DNA-binding activity and specifically binds to WUS regulatory elements. We thus provide genetic and molecular evidence that UIF1 and ULT1 work together in floral meristem homeostasis, probably by direct repression of WUS expression. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Distinct adaptor proteins assist exit of Kre2-family proteins from the yeast ER

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    Yoichi Noda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Svp26 protein of S. cerevisiae is an ER- and Golgi-localized integral membrane protein with 4 potential membrane-spanning domains. It functions as an adaptor protein that facilitates the ER exit of Ktr3, a mannosyltransferase required for biosynthesis of O-linked oligosaccharides, and the ER exit of Mnn2 and Mnn5, mannosyltransferases, which participate in the biosynthesis of N-linked oligosaccharides. Ktr3 belongs to the Kre2 family, which consists of 9 members of type-II membrane proteins sharing sequence similarities. In this report, we examined all Kre2 family members and found that the Golgi localizations of two others, Kre2 and Ktr1, were dependent on Svp26 by immunofluorescence microscopy and cell fractionations in sucrose density gradients. We show that Svp26 functions in facilitating the ER exit of Kre2 and Ktr1 by an in vitro COPII budding assay. Golgi localization of Ktr4 was not dependent on Svp26. Screening null mutants of the genes encoding abundant COPII membrane proteins for those showing mislocalization of Ktr4 in the ER revealed that Erv41 and Erv46 are required for the correct Golgi localization of Ktr4. We provide biochemical evidence that the Erv41-Erv46 complex functions as an adaptor protein for ER exit of Ktr4. This is the first demonstration of the molecular function of this evolutionally conserved protein complex. The domain switching experiments show that the lumenal domain of Ktr4 is responsible for recognition by the Erv41-Erv46 complex. Thus, ER exit of Kre2-family proteins is dependent on distinct adaptor proteins and our results provide new insights into the traffic of Kre2-family mannosyltransferases.

  14. Adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 are essential for generation of synaptic vesicles from activity-dependent bulk endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Giselle; Cousin, Michael A

    2012-04-25

    Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis is the dominant synaptic vesicle retrieval mode during high intensity stimulation in central nerve terminals. A key event in this endocytosis mode is the generation of new vesicles from bulk endosomes, which replenish the reserve vesicle pool. We have identified an essential requirement for both adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 in this process by employing morphological and optical tracking of bulk endosome-derived synaptic vesicles in rat primary neuronal cultures. We show that brefeldin A inhibits synaptic vesicle generation from bulk endosomes and that both brefeldin A knockdown and shRNA knockdown of either adaptor protein 1 or 3 subunits inhibit reserve pool replenishment from bulk endosomes. Conversely, no plasma membrane function was found for adaptor protein 1 or 3 in either bulk endosome formation or clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Simultaneous knockdown of both adaptor proteins 1 and 3 indicated that they generated the same population of synaptic vesicles. Thus, adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 play an essential dual role in generation of synaptic vesicles during activity-dependent bulk endocytosis.

  15. Proteasome inhibition, the pursuit of new cancer therapeutics, and the adaptor molecule p130Cas

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    Anderson Kenneth C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current interest in proteasome inhibitors for cancer therapy has stimulated considerable research efforts to identify the molecular pathway to their cytotoxicity with a view to identifying the mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance as well as informing the development of new drugs. Zhao and Vuori describe this month in BMC Biology experiments indicating a novel role of the adaptor protein p130Cas in sensitivity to apoptosis induced not only by proteasome inhibitors but also by the unrelated drug doxorubicin. See research article: http:// http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/9/73

  16. Identification of major quantitative trait loci underlying floral pollination syndrome divergence in Penstemon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessinger, Carolyn A; Hileman, Lena C; Rausher, Mark D

    2014-08-05

    Distinct floral pollination syndromes have emerged multiple times during the diversification of flowering plants. For example, in western North America, a hummingbird pollination syndrome has evolved more than 100 times, generally from within insect-pollinated lineages. The hummingbird syndrome is characterized by a suite of floral traits that attracts and facilitates pollen movement by hummingbirds, while at the same time discourages bee visitation. These floral traits generally include large nectar volume, red flower colour, elongated and narrow corolla tubes and reproductive organs that are exerted from the corolla. A handful of studies have examined the genetic architecture of hummingbird pollination syndrome evolution. These studies find that mutations of relatively large effect often explain increased nectar volume and transition to red flower colour. In addition, they suggest that adaptive suites of floral traits may often exhibit a high degree of genetic linkage, which could facilitate their fixation during pollination syndrome evolution. Here, we explore these emerging generalities by investigating the genetic basis of floral pollination syndrome divergence between two related Penstemon species with different pollination syndromes--bee-pollinated P. neomexicanus and closely related hummingbird-pollinated P. barbatus. In an F2 mapping population derived from a cross between these two species, we characterized the effect size of genetic loci underlying floral trait divergence associated with the transition to bird pollination, as well as correlation structure of floral trait variation. We find the effect sizes of quantitative trait loci for adaptive floral traits are in line with patterns observed in previous studies, and find strong evidence that suites of floral traits are genetically linked. This linkage may be due to genetic proximity or pleiotropic effects of single causative loci. Interestingly, our data suggest that the evolution of floral traits

  17. Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces bee visitation and plant seed set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Cause; Naughton, Ida; Boser, Christina; Alarcón, Ruben; Hung, Keng-Lou James; Holway, David

    2015-01-01

    Ants often visit flowers, but have only seldom been documented to provide effective pollination services. Floral visitation by ants can also compromise plant reproduction in situations where ants interfere with more effective pollinators. Introduced ants may be especially likely to reduce plant reproductive success through floral visitation, but existing experimental studies have found little support for this hypothesis. Here, we combine experimental and observational approaches to examine the importance of floral visitation by the nonnative Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on plant species native to Santa Cruz Island, California, USA. First, we determine how L. humile affects floral visitor diversity, bee visitation rates, and levels of pollen limitation for the common, focal plant species island morning glory (Calystegia macrostegia ssp. macrostegia). Second, we assess the broader ecological consequences of floral visitation by L. humile by comparing floral visitation networks between invaded and uninvaded sites. The Argentine ant and native ants both visited island morning glory flowers, but L. humile was much more likely to behave aggressively towards other floral visitors and to be the sole floral occupant. The presence of L. humile in morning glory flowers reduced floral visitor diversity, decreased rates of bee visitation, and increased levels of pollen limitation. Network comparisons between invaded and uninvaded. sites revealed differences in both network structure and species-level attributes. In. invaded sites, floral visitors were observed on fewer plant species, ants had a higher per-plant interaction strength relative to that of other visitors, and interaction strengths between bees and plants were weaker. These results illustrate that introduced ants can negatively affect plant reproduction and potentially disrupt pollination services at an ecosystem scale.

  18. Floral traits and pollination ecology of European Arum hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Marion; Liagre, Suzanne; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Kolano, Bozena; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Schönenberger, Jürg; Gibernau, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Hybridisation is common in plants and can affect the genetic diversity and ecology of sympatric parental populations. Hybrids may resemble the parental species in their ecology, leading to competition and/or gene introgression; alternatively, they may diverge from the parental phenotypes, possibly leading to the colonisation of new ecological niches and to speciation. Here, we describe inflorescence morphology, ploidy levels, pollinator attractive scents, and pollinator guilds of natural hybrids of Arum italicum and A. maculatum (Araceae) from a site with sympatric parental populations in southern France to determine how these traits affect the hybrid pollination ecology. Hybrids were characterised by inflorescences with a size and a number of flowers more similar to A. italicum than to A. maculatum. In most cases, hybrid stamens were purple, as in A. maculatum, and spadix appendices yellow, as in A. italicum. Hybrid floral scent was closer to that of A. italicum, but shared some compounds with A. maculatum and comprised unique compounds. Also, the pollinator guild of the hybrids was similar to that of A. italicum. Nevertheless, the hybrids attracted a high proportion of individuals of the main pollinator of A. maculatum. We discuss the effects of hybridisation in sympatric parental zones in which hybrids exhibit low levels of reproductive success, the establishment of reproductive barriers between parental species, the role of the composition of floral attractive scents in the differential attraction of pollinators and in the competition between hybrids and their parental species, and the potential of hybridisation to give rise to new independent lineages.

  19. The genetic architecture of UV floral patterning in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Brook T; Owens, Gregory L; Baute, Gregory J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2017-07-01

    The patterning of floral ultraviolet (UV) pigmentation varies both intra- and interspecifically in sunflowers and many other plant species, impacts pollinator attraction, and can be critical to reproductive success and crop yields. However, the genetic basis for variation in UV patterning is largely unknown. This study examines the genetic architecture for proportional and absolute size of the UV bullseye in Helianthus argophyllus , a close relative of the domesticated sunflower. A camera modified to capture UV light (320-380 nm) was used to phenotype floral UV patterning in an F 2 mapping population, then quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using genotyping-by-sequencing and linkage mapping. The ability of these QTL to predict the UV patterning of natural population individuals was also assessed. Proportional UV pigmentation is additively controlled by six moderate effect QTL that are predictive of this phenotype in natural populations. In contrast, UV bullseye size is controlled by a single large effect QTL that also controls flowerhead size and co-localizes with a major flowering time QTL in Helianthus . The co-localization of the UV bullseye size QTL, flowerhead size QTL and a previously known flowering time QTL may indicate a single highly pleiotropic locus or several closely linked loci, which could inhibit UV bullseye size from responding to selection without change in correlated characters. The genetic architecture of proportional UV pigmentation is relatively simple and different from that of UV bullseye size, and so should be able to respond to natural or artificial selection independently.

  20. Adaptor protein complex 2-mediated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and related gene activities, are a prominent feature during maturation stage amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Brookes, Steven J; Wen, Xin; Jimenez, Jaime M; Vikman, Susanna; Hu, Ping; White, Shane N; Lyngstadaas, S Petter; Okamoto, Curtis T; Smith, Charles E; Paine, Michael L

    2013-03-01

    Molecular events defining enamel matrix removal during amelogenesis are poorly understood. Early reports have suggested that adaptor proteins (AP) participate in ameloblast-mediated endocytosis. Enamel formation involves the secretory and maturation stages, with an increase in resorptive function during the latter. Here, using real-time PCR, we show that the expression of clathrin and adaptor protein subunits are upregulated in maturation stage rodent enamel organ cells. AP complex 2 (AP-2) is the most upregulated of the four distinct adaptor protein complexes. Immunolocalization confirms the presence of AP-2 and clathrin in ameloblasts, with strongest reactivity at the apical pole. These data suggest that the resorptive functions of enamel cells involve AP-2 mediated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis, thus implying the likelihood of specific membrane-bound receptor(s) of enamel matrix protein debris. The mRNA expression of other endocytosis-related gene products is also upregulated during maturation including: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (Lamp1); cluster of differentiation 63 and 68 (Cd63 and Cd68); ATPase, H(+) transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit D2 (Atp6v0d2); ATPase, H(+) transporting, lysosomal V1 subunit B2 (Atp6v1b2); chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 7 (Clcn7); and cathepsin K (Ctsk). Immunohistologic data confirms the expression of a number of these proteins in maturation stage ameloblasts. The enamel of Cd63-null mice was also examined. Despite increased mRNA and protein expression in the enamel organ during maturation, the enamel of Cd63-null mice appeared normal. This may suggest inherent functional redundancies between Cd63 and related gene products, such as Lamp1 and Cd68. Ameloblast-like LS8 cells treated with the enamel matrix protein complex Emdogain showed upregulation of AP-2 and clathrin subunits, further supporting the existence of a membrane-bound receptor-regulated pathway for the endocytosis of enamel matrix proteins. These data

  1. Repair of damaged connectors of tunneled cuffed catheters with a two-piece adaptor for peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letachowicz, Krzysztof; Letachowicz, Waldemar; Weyde, Waclaw; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Kusztal, Mariusz; Wątorek, Ewa; Klinger, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Although catheter use exposes the patient to several complications, tunneled cuffed catheters are widely applied for temporary or long-term vascular access. The aim of the study was to establish the rate of tunneled dialysis catheter damage and report our experience with breakage repair. All 363 cuffed tunneled hemodialysis catheters inserted into 309 patients from May 2000 to December 2008 were followed up. When connector damage was encountered, repair with a two-piece adaptor for peritoneal dialysis was attempted. Mechanical breakage occurred in 33 (9.1%) of catheters with an incidence of 0.36/1000 catheter-days. The most frequent was connector damage, found in 25 cases (67.6%). Catheter repair using a peritoneal dialysis Luer adaptor was performed with good early and long-term outcome. Tunneled catheter breakage is a relatively rare complication. Catheter repair using the adaptor for peritoneal dialysis is easy to perform, safe, and cost-effective.

  2. A highly versatile adaptor protein for the tethering of growth factors to gelatin-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addi, Cyril; Murschel, Frédéric; Liberelle, Benoît; Riahi, Nesrine; De Crescenzo, Gregory

    2017-03-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, the tethering of growth factors to tissue scaffolds in an oriented manner can enhance their activity and increase their half-life. We chose to investigate the capture of the basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) and the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) on a gelatin layer, as a model for the functionalization of collagen-based biomaterials. Our strategy relies on the use of two high affinity interactions, that is, the one between two distinct coil peptides as well as the one occurring between a collagen-binding domain (CBD) and gelatin. We expressed a chimeric protein to be used as an adaptor that comprises one of the coil peptides and a CBD derived from the human fibronectin. We proved that it has the ability to bind simultaneously to a gelatin substrate and to form a heterodimeric coiled-coil domain with recombinant growth factors being tagged with the complementary coil peptide. The tethering of the growth factors was characterized by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance-based biosensing. The bioactivity of the immobilized bFGF and EGF was evaluated by a human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation assay and a vascular smooth muscle cell survival assay. We found that the tethering of EGF preserved its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic activity. In the case of bFGF, when captured via our adaptor protein, changes in its natural mode of interaction with gelatin were observed.

  3. Synthetic protein scaffolds based on peptide motifs and cognate adaptor domains for improving metabolic productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm H.C. Horn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of many cellular processes relies on the defined interaction among different proteins within the same metabolic or signaling pathway. Consequently, a spatial colocalization of functionally interacting proteins has frequently emerged during evolution. This concept has been adapted within the synthetic biology community for the purpose of creating artificial scaffolds. A recent advancement of this concept is the use of peptide motifs and their cognate adaptor domains. SH2, SH3, GBD, and PDZ domains have been used most often in research studies to date. The approach has been successfully applied to the synthesis of a variety of target molecules including catechin, D-glucaric acid, H2, hydrochinone, resveratrol, butyrate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and mevalonate. Increased production levels of up to 77-fold have been observed compared to non-scaffolded systems. A recent extension of this concept is the creation of a covalent linkage between peptide motifs and adaptor domains, which leads to a more stable association of the scaffolded systems and thus bears the potential to further enhance metabolic productivity.

  4. Chimeric adaptor proteins translocate diverse type VI secretion system effectors in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterweger, Daniel; Kostiuk, Benjamin; Ötjengerdes, Rina; Wilton, Ashley; Diaz-Satizabal, Laura; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2015-08-13

    Vibrio cholerae is a diverse species of Gram-negative bacteria, commonly found in the aquatic environment and the causative agent of the potentially deadly disease cholera. These bacteria employ a type VI secretion system (T6SS) when they encounter prokaryotic and eukaryotic competitors. This contractile puncturing device translocates a set of effector proteins into neighboring cells. Translocated effectors are toxic unless the targeted cell produces immunity proteins that bind and deactivate incoming effectors. Comparison of multiple V. cholerae strains indicates that effectors are encoded in T6SS effector modules on mobile genetic elements. We identified a diverse group of chimeric T6SS adaptor proteins required for the translocation of diverse effectors encoded in modules. An example for a T6SS effector that requires T6SS adaptor protein 1 (Tap-1) is TseL found in pandemic V. cholerae O1 serogroup strains and other clinical isolates. We propose a model in which Tap-1 is required for loading TseL onto the secretion apparatus. After T6SS-mediated TseL export is completed, Tap-1 is retained in the bacterial cell to load other T6SS machines.

  5. De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Floral Buds of Pineapple and Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Response to Ethephon Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-He; Fan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    expression profiling results. Ethephon-mediated induction likely mimics the process of vernalization in the floral transition in pineapple by increasing LTI, FT, and VRN1 expression and promoting the up-regulation of floral meristem identity genes involved in flower development. The candidate genes screened can be used in investigations of the molecular mechanisms of the flowering pathway and of various other biological mechanisms in pineapple. PMID:26955375

  6. The membrane-associated adaptor protein DOK5 is upregulated in systemic sclerosis and associated with IGFBP-5-induced fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekata Yasuoka

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is characterized by excessive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs due to fibroblast proliferation and excessive production of extracellular matrix (ECM. We have shown that insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-5 plays an important role in the development of fibrosis in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. We identified a membrane-associated adaptor protein, downstream of tyrosine kinase/docking protein (DOK5, as an IGFBP-5-regulated target gene using gene expression profiling of primary fibroblasts expressing IGFBP-5. DOK5 is a tyrosine kinase substrate associated with intracellular signaling. Our objective was to determine the role of DOK5 in the pathogenesis of SSc and specifically in IGFBP-5-induced fibrosis. DOK5 mRNA and protein levels were increased in vitro by endogenous and exogenous IGFBP-5 in primary human fibroblasts. DOK5 upregulation required activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling cascade. Further, IGFBP-5 triggered nuclear translocation of DOK5. DOK5 protein levels were also increased in vivo in mouse skin and lung by IGFBP-5. To determine the effect of DOK5 on fibrosis, DOK5 was expressed ex vivo in human skin in organ culture. Expression of DOK5 in human skin resulted in a significant increase in dermal thickness. Lastly, levels of DOK5 were compared in primary fibroblasts and lung tissues of patients with SSc and healthy donors. Both DOK5 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in fibroblasts and skin tissues of patients with SSc compared with those of healthy controls, as well as in lung tissues of SSc patients. Our findings suggest that IGFBP-5 induces its pro-fibrotic effects, at least in part, via DOK5. Furthermore, IGFBP-5 and DOK5 are both increased in SSc fibroblasts and tissues and may thus be acting in concert to promote fibrosis.

  7. The CRKL gene encoding an adaptor protein is amplified, overexpressed, and a possible therapeutic target in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsume Hiroko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic DNA amplification is a genetic factor involved in cancer, and some oncogenes, such as ERBB2, are highly amplified in gastric cancer. We searched for the possible amplification of other genes in gastric cancer. Methods and Results A genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism microarray analysis was performed using three cell lines of differentiated gastric cancers, and 22 genes (including ERBB2 in five highly amplified chromosome regions (with a copy number of more than 6 were identified. Particular attention was paid to the CRKL gene, the product of which is an adaptor protein containing Src homology 2 and 3 (SH2/SH3 domains. An extremely high CRKL copy number was confirmed in the MKN74 gastric cancer cell line using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, and a high level of CRKL expression was also observed in the cells. The RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of CRKL in MKN74 disclosed the ability of CRKL to upregulate gastric cell proliferation. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CRKL protein was overexpressed in 24.4% (88/360 of the primary gastric cancers that were analyzed. The CRKL copy number was also examined in 360 primary gastric cancers using a FISH analysis, and CRKL amplification was found to be associated with CRKL overexpression. Finally, we showed that MKN74 cells with CRKL amplification were responsive to the dual Src/BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor BMS354825, likely via the inhibition of CRKL phosphorylation, and that the proliferation of MKN74 cells was suppressed by treatment with a CRKL-targeting peptide. Conclusion These results suggested that CRKL protein is overexpressed in a subset of gastric cancers and is associated with CRKL amplification in gastric cancer. Furthermore, our results suggested that CRKL protein has the ability to regulate gastric cell proliferation and has the potential to serve as a molecular therapy target for gastric cancer.

  8. CRM1 and its ribosome export adaptor NMD3 localize to the nucleolus and affect rRNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Baoyan; Moore, Henna M; Laiho, Marikki

    2013-01-01

    CRM1 is an export factor that together with its adaptor NMD3 transports numerous cargo molecules from the nucleus to cytoplasm through the nuclear pore. Previous studies have suggested that CRM1 and NMD3 are detected in the nucleolus. However, their localization with subnucleolar domains or participation in the activities of the nucleolus are unclear. We demonstrate here biochemically and using imaging analyses that CRM1 and NMD3 co-localize with nucleolar marker proteins in the nucleolus. In particular, their nucleolar localization is markedly increased by inhibition of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription by actinomycin D or by silencing Pol I catalytic subunit, RPA194. We show that CRM1 nucleolar localization is dependent on its activity and the expression of NMD3, whereas NMD3 nucleolar localization is independent of CRM1. This suggests that NMD3 provides nucleolar tethering of CRM1. While inhibition of CRM1 by leptomycin B inhibited processing of 28S ribosomal (r) RNA, depletion of NMD3 did not, suggesting that their effects on 28S rRNA processing are distinct. Markedly, depletion of NMD3 and inhibition of CRM1 reduced the rate of pre-47S rRNA synthesis. However, their inactivation did not lead to nucleolar disintegration, a hallmark of Pol I transcription stress, suggesting that they do not directly regulate transcription. These results indicate that CRM1 and NMD3 have complex functions in pathways that couple rRNA synthetic and processing engines and that the rRNA synthesis rate may be adjusted according to proficiency in rRNA processing and export.

  9. Association of genetic variation in adaptor protein APPL1/APPL2 loci with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelangela Barbieri

    Full Text Available The importance of genetics and epigenetic changes in the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been increasingly recognized. Adiponectin has a central role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism and controlling inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues and low adiponectin levels have been linked to NAFLD. APPL1 and APPL2 are adaptor proteins that interact with the intracellular region of adiponectin receptors and mediate adiponectin signaling and its effects on metabolism. The aim of our study was the evaluation of a potential association between variants at APPL1 and APPL2 loci and NAFLD occurrence. The impact on liver damage and hepatic steatosis severity has been also evaluated. To this aim allele frequency and genotype distribution of APPL1- rs3806622 and -rs4640525 and APPL2-rs 11112412 variants were evaluated in 223 subjects with clinical diagnosis of NAFLD and compared with 231 healthy subjects. The impact of APPL1 and APPL2 SNPs on liver damage and hepatic steatosis severity has been also evaluated. The minor-allele combination APPL1-C/APPL2-A was associated with an increased risk of NAFLD (OR = 2.50 95% CI 1.45-4.32; p<0.001 even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, triglycerides and adiponectin levels. This allele combination carrier had higher plasma alanine aminotransferase levels (Diff = 15.08 [7.60-22.57] p = 0.001 and an increased frequency of severe steatosis compared to the reference allele combination (OR = 3.88; 95% CI 1.582-9.531; p<0.001. In conclusion, C-APPL1/A-APPL2 allele combination is associated with NAFLD occurrence, with a more severe hepatic steatosis grade and with a reduced adiponectin cytoprotective effect on liver.

  10. Herbivory by a Phloem-feeding insect inhibits floral volatile production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pareja

    Full Text Available There is extensive knowledge on the effects of insect herbivory on volatile emission from vegetative tissue, but little is known about its impact on floral volatiles. We show that herbivory by phloem-feeding aphids inhibits floral volatile emission in white mustard Sinapis alba measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace volatiles. The effect of the Brassica specialist aphid Lipaphis erysimi was stronger than the generalist aphid Myzus persicae and feeding by chewing larvae of the moth Plutella xylostella caused no reduction in floral volatile emission. Field observations showed no effect of L. erysimi-mediated floral volatile emission on the total number of flower visits by pollinators. Olfactory bioassays suggested that although two aphid natural enemies could detect aphid inhibition of floral volatiles, their olfactory orientation to infested plants was not disrupted. This is the first demonstration that phloem-feeding herbivory can affect floral volatile emission, and that the outcome of interaction between herbivory and floral chemistry may differ depending on the herbivore's feeding mode and degree of specialisation. The findings provide new insights into interactions between insect herbivores and plant chemistry.

  11. Volatile organic compounds of Thai honeys produced from several floral sources by different honey bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamayutanon, Praetinee; Angeli, Sergio; Thakeow, Prodpran; Abraham, John; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of Thai honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. Honey originating from longan had more VOCs than all other floral sources. Sunflower honey had the least numbers of VOCs. cis-Linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, ho-trienol, and furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde were present in all the honeys studied, independent of their floral origin. Interestingly, 2-phenylacetaldehyde was detected in all honey sample except longan honey produced by A. cerana. Thirty-two VOCs were identified as possible floral markers. After validating differences in honey volatiles from different floral sources and honeybee species, the results suggest that differences in quality and quantity of honey volatiles are influenced by both floral source and honeybee species. The group of honey volatiles detected from A. cerana was completely different from those of A. mellifera and A. dorsata. VOCs could therefore be applied as chemical markers of honeys and may reflect preferences of shared floral sources amongst different honeybee species.

  12. Herbivory by a Phloem-feeding insect inhibits floral volatile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Martin; Qvarfordt, Erika; Webster, Ben; Mayon, Patrick; Pickett, John; Birkett, Michael; Glinwood, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is extensive knowledge on the effects of insect herbivory on volatile emission from vegetative tissue, but little is known about its impact on floral volatiles. We show that herbivory by phloem-feeding aphids inhibits floral volatile emission in white mustard Sinapis alba measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace volatiles. The effect of the Brassica specialist aphid Lipaphis erysimi was stronger than the generalist aphid Myzus persicae and feeding by chewing larvae of the moth Plutella xylostella caused no reduction in floral volatile emission. Field observations showed no effect of L. erysimi-mediated floral volatile emission on the total number of flower visits by pollinators. Olfactory bioassays suggested that although two aphid natural enemies could detect aphid inhibition of floral volatiles, their olfactory orientation to infested plants was not disrupted. This is the first demonstration that phloem-feeding herbivory can affect floral volatile emission, and that the outcome of interaction between herbivory and floral chemistry may differ depending on the herbivore's feeding mode and degree of specialisation. The findings provide new insights into interactions between insect herbivores and plant chemistry.

  13. Convergent evolution of floral signals underlies the success of Neotropical orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopulos, Alexander S. T.; Powell, Martyn P.; Pupulin, Franco; Warner, Jorge; Hawkins, Julie A.; Salamin, Nicolas; Chittka, Lars; Williams, Norris H.; Whitten, W. Mark; Loader, Deniz; Valente, Luis M.; Chase, Mark W.; Savolainen, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The great majority of plant species in the tropics require animals to achieve pollination, but the exact role of floral signals in attraction of animal pollinators is often debated. Many plants provide a floral reward to attract a guild of pollinators, and it has been proposed that floral signals of non-rewarding species may converge on those of rewarding species to exploit the relationship of the latter with their pollinators. In the orchid family (Orchidaceae), pollination is almost universally animal-mediated, but a third of species provide no floral reward, which suggests that deceptive pollination mechanisms are prevalent. Here, we examine floral colour and shape convergence in Neotropical plant communities, focusing on certain food-deceptive Oncidiinae orchids (e.g. Trichocentrum ascendens and Oncidium nebulosum) and rewarding species of Malpighiaceae. We show that the species from these two distantly related families are often more similar in floral colour and shape than expected by chance and propose that a system of multifarious floral mimicry—a form of Batesian mimicry that involves multiple models and is more complex than a simple one model–one mimic system—operates in these orchids. The same mimetic pollination system has evolved at least 14 times within the species-rich Oncidiinae throughout the Neotropics. These results help explain the extraordinary diversification of Neotropical orchids and highlight the complexity of plant–animal interactions. PMID:23804617

  14. Floral trait variation and integration as a function of sexual deception in Gorteria diffusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Allan G; Brockington, Samuel F; de Jager, Marinus L; Mellers, Gregory; Walker, Rachel H; Glover, Beverley J

    2014-08-19

    Phenotypic integration, the coordinated covariance of suites of morphological traits, is critical for proper functioning of organisms. Angiosperm flowers are complex structures comprising suites of traits that function together to achieve effective pollen transfer. Floral integration could reflect shared genetic and developmental control of these traits, or could arise through pollinator-imposed stabilizing correlational selection on traits. We sought to expose mechanisms underlying floral trait integration in the sexually deceptive daisy, Gorteria diffusa, by testing the hypothesis that stabilizing selection imposed by male pollinators on floral traits involved in mimicry has resulted in tighter integration. To do this, we quantified patterns of floral trait variance and covariance in morphologically divergent G. diffusa floral forms representing a continuum in the levels of sexual deception. We show that integration of traits functioning in visual attraction of male pollinators increases with pollinator deception, and is stronger than integration of non-mimicry trait modules. Consistent patterns of within-population trait variance and covariance across floral forms suggest that integration has not been built by stabilizing correlational selection on genetically independent traits. Instead pollinator specialization has selected for tightened integration within modules of linked traits. Despite potentially strong constraint on morphological evolution imposed by developmental genetic linkages between traits, we demonstrate substantial divergence in traits across G. diffusa floral forms and show that divergence has often occurred without altering within-population patterns of trait correlations.

  15. Convergent evolution of floral signals underlies the success of Neotropical orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Powell, Martyn P; Pupulin, Franco; Warner, Jorge; Hawkins, Julie A; Salamin, Nicolas; Chittka, Lars; Williams, Norris H; Whitten, W Mark; Loader, Deniz; Valente, Luis M; Chase, Mark W; Savolainen, Vincent

    2013-08-22

    The great majority of plant species in the tropics require animals to achieve pollination, but the exact role of floral signals in attraction of animal pollinators is often debated. Many plants provide a floral reward to attract a guild of pollinators, and it has been proposed that floral signals of non-rewarding species may converge on those of rewarding species to exploit the relationship of the latter with their pollinators. In the orchid family (Orchidaceae), pollination is almost universally animal-mediated, but a third of species provide no floral reward, which suggests that deceptive pollination mechanisms are prevalent. Here, we examine floral colour and shape convergence in Neotropical plant communities, focusing on certain food-deceptive Oncidiinae orchids (e.g. Trichocentrum ascendens and Oncidium nebulosum) and rewarding species of Malpighiaceae. We show that the species from these two distantly related families are often more similar in floral colour and shape than expected by chance and propose that a system of multifarious floral mimicry--a form of Batesian mimicry that involves multiple models and is more complex than a simple one model-one mimic system--operates in these orchids. The same mimetic pollination system has evolved at least 14 times within the species-rich Oncidiinae throughout the Neotropics. These results help explain the extraordinary diversification of Neotropical orchids and highlight the complexity of plant-animal interactions.

  16. Volatile organic compounds of Thai honeys produced from several floral sources by different honey bee species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamayutanon, Praetinee; Angeli, Sergio; Thakeow, Prodpran; Abraham, John; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of Thai honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. Honey originating from longan had more VOCs than all other floral sources. Sunflower honey had the least numbers of VOCs. cis-Linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, ho-trienol, and furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde were present in all the honeys studied, independent of their floral origin. Interestingly, 2-phenylacetaldehyde was detected in all honey sample except longan honey produced by A. cerana. Thirty-two VOCs were identified as possible floral markers. After validating differences in honey volatiles from different floral sources and honeybee species, the results suggest that differences in quality and quantity of honey volatiles are influenced by both floral source and honeybee species. The group of honey volatiles detected from A. cerana was completely different from those of A. mellifera and A. dorsata. VOCs could therefore be applied as chemical markers of honeys and may reflect preferences of shared floral sources amongst different honeybee species. PMID:28192487

  17. First evidence of putrescine involvement in mitigating the floral malformation in mangoes: a scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Archana; Ansari, Mohammad W; Rani, Varsha; Singh, C P; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh C; Tuteja, Narendra; Bains, Gurdeep

    2014-09-01

    Floral malformation is the most destructive disease in mangoes. To date, the etiology of this disease has not been resolved. There are indications that stress-stimulated ethylene production might be responsible for the disease. Putrescine mediates various physiological processes for normal functioning and cellular metabolism. Here, the effect of putrescine in concentration ranging from 10(-1) to 10(-3) M was evaluated on disease incidence during mango flowering seasons of 2012 and 2013. In a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study, putrescine (10(-2) M)-treated malformed floral buds bloomed into opened flowers with separated sepals and/or petals like healthy, whereas the untreated (control) malformed buds remained deformed. Further, malformed flowers recovered upon putrescine treatment, displaying clearly bilobed anthers, enclosing a large number of normal pollen grains and functional ovary with broad stigmatic surface as compared to control. The present findings provide the first report to demonstrate the role of putrescine in reducing various adverse effects of stress ethylene via decelerating the higher pace of its biosynthesis. It stabilizes the normal morphology, development, and functions of malformed reproductive organs to facilitate successful pollination, fertilization, and, thereby, fruit set in mango flowers. However, putrescine-ethylene-mediated cell signaling network, involving various genes to trigger the response, which regulates a wide range of developmental and physiological processes leading to normal cell physiology, needs to be investigated further.

  18. Functional analysis of B and C class floral organ genes in spinach demonstrates their role in sexual dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic Maja

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of unisexual flowers entails one of the most extreme changes in plant development. Cultivated spinach, Spinacia oleracea L., is uniquely suited for the study of unisexual flower development as it is dioecious and it achieves unisexually by the absence of organ development, rather than by organ abortion or suppression. Male staminate flowers lack fourth whorl primordia and female pistillate flowers lack third whorl primordia. Based on theoretical considerations, early inflorescence or floral organ identity genes would likely be directly involved in sex-determination in those species in which organ initiation rather than organ maturation is regulated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sexual dimorphism occurs through the regulation of B class floral organ gene expression by experimentally knocking down gene expression by viral induced gene silencing. Results Suppression of B class genes in spinach resulted in the expected homeotic transformation of stamens into carpels but also affected the number of perianth parts and the presence of fourth whorl. Phenotypically normal female flowers developed on SpPI-silenced male plants. Suppression of the spinach C class floral organ identity gene, SpAG, resulted in loss of reproductive organ identity, and indeterminate flowers, but did not result in additional sex-specific characteristics or structures. Analysis of the genomic sequences of both SpAP3 and SpPI did not reveal any allelic differences between males and females. Conclusion Sexual dimorphism in spinach is not the result of homeotic transformation of established organs, but rather is the result of differential initiation and development of the third and fourth whorl primordia. SpAG is inferred to have organ identity and meristem termination functions similar to other angiosperm C class genes. In contrast, while SpPI and SpAP3 resemble other angiosperms in their essential functions in establishing stamen

  19. Taxonomic significance of inflorescences, floral morphology and anatomy in Passerina (Thymelaeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Bredenkamp

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies were undertaken on the inflorescence, bracts and floral morphology of all taxa of the genus Passerina L. in southern Africa. Information is given in tabular form and a key based on bract morphology is presented.Floral morphology supported the status of the intrageneric taxa and also proved to be of taxonomic significance in the genus. Controversy surrounding the interpretation of a number of floral morphological structures in  Passerina has been resolved. Morphological and anatomical evidence allowed a re-interpretation of the structure of the receptacle, hypanthium and sepals, ovary type and position, structure of the seed coat, ovule type and position, obturator, fruit and seed. On this basis an authentic generic description of the floral morphology was compiled.  Passerina is distinguished by the following set of characters, a very short floral receptacle, tubular hypanthium, petaloid calyx, absence of petals and petaloid scales, diplostemonous dimorphic androecium, extrorse anthers, superior ovary, anatropous, ventrally epitropous ovule, an obturator of elongated cells, a I-seeded berry or an achene and tegmic seed with nuclear endosperm becoming cellular throughout.On this basis the flower in Passerina is considered a phylogenetically advanced structure, supporting the view that the genus is advanced within the Thymelaeoideae. The proposed taxonomic relationship between Thymelaeaceae and Malvales is confirmed by floral morphological evidence. Comparative studies were undertaken on the inflorescence, bracts and floral morphology of all taxa of the genus Passerina L. in southern Africa. Information is given in tabular form and a key based on bract morphology is presented.Floral morphology supported the status of the intrageneric taxa and also proved to be of taxonomic significance in the genus. Controversy surrounding the interpretation of a number of floral morphological structures in  Passerina has been resolved

  20. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of HAG1 in the floral organs of Hyacinthus orientalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宪省; 李全梓; 李兴国; 白书农; 陆文樑

    2000-01-01

    HAG1 gene was isolated from the floral organs of Hyacinthus orientalis L. by using RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that this gene was homologous to AGAMOUS. Northern hybridization indicated that HAG1 was specifically expressed in floral organs using 3’ end of HAG1 as a probe. Further, transcript of this gene was not detected in differentiating tepals induced by lower concentration of hormones, however, it was detected in differentiating stemans by higher concentration of hormones in vitro. It is possible that there is a close relationship between the concentration of hormones, homeotic genes and identities of floral organs.

  1. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of HAG1 in the floral organs of Hyacinthus orientalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    HAG1 gene was isolated from the floral organs of Hyacinthus orientalis L. by using RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that this gene was homologous to AGAMOUS. Northern hybridization indicated that HAG1 was specifically expressed in floral organs using 3′ end of HAG1 as a probe. Further, transcript of this gene was not detected in differentiating tepals induced by lower concentration of hormones, however, it was detected in differentiating stemans by higher concentration of hormones in vitro. It is possible that there is a close relationship between the concentration of hormones, homeotic genes and identities of floral organs.

  2. Biologia floral do açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Martius).

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    O presente estudo avalia a biologia floral em uma população natural de açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) no estuário amazônico, localizado na Ilha do Combu, Município de Acará, Pará (48º25´W; 1º25´S). O período de estudo foi de um ano (janeiro a dezembro de 1991). Os resultados mostraram que Euterpe oleracea é uma espécie monóica, dicógama e protândrica; as brácteas abrem-se cinco dias após maturação; as flores masculinas permanecem de 10 a 12 dias nas inflorescências e as flores femininas ...

  3. Floral advertisement and the competition for pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A; Hadany, Lilach

    2015-06-01

    Flowering plants are a major component of terrestrial ecosystems, and most of them depend on animal pollinators for reproduction. Thus, the mutualism between flowering plants and their pollinators is a keystone ecological relationship in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Though plant-pollinator interactions have received considerable amount of attention, there are still many unanswered questions. In this paper, we use methods of evolutionary game theory to investigate the co-evolution of floral advertisement and pollinator preferences Our results indicate that competition for pollination services among plant species can in some cases lead to specialization of the pollinator population to a single plant species (oligolecty). However, collecting pollen from multiple plants - at least at the population level - is evolutionarily stable under a wider parameter range. Finally, we show that, in the presence of pollinators, plants that optimize their investment in attracting vs. rewarding visiting pollinators outcompete plants that do not.

  4. Floral diversity and pollination strategies of three rheophytic Schismatoglottideae (Araceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, S L; Wong, S Y; Ooi, I H; Hesse, M; Städler, Y; Schönenberger, J; Boyce, P C

    2016-01-01

    Homoplastic evolution of 'unique' morphological characteristics in the Schismatoglottideae - many previously used to define genera - prompted this study to compare morphology and function in connection with pollination biology for Aridarum nicolsonii, Phymatarum borneense and Schottarum sarikeense. Aridarum nicolsonii and P. borneense extrude pollen through a pair of horned thecae while S. sarikeense sheds pollen through a pair of pores on the thecae. Floral traits of spathe constriction, presence and movement of sterile structures on the spadix, the comparable role of horned thecae and thecae pores, the presence of stamen-associated calcium oxalate packages, and the timing of odour emission are discussed in the context of their roles in pollinator management. Pollinators for all investigated species were determined to be species of Colocasiomyia (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

  5. Aseptic multiplication of banana from excised floral apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1985-08-01

    Most economically important bananas and plantains are large triploid seedless herbs that must be propagated vegetatively by removing small side shoots or "suckers" from the parent plant or by planting seed pieces of larger corms. Consequently, multiplication of stock material is time consuming, Recently, the rapid production of young banana plantlets suitable for use as "seed" material has been described. Vegetative shoot apices were isolated and multiplied using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Although these multiplication systems, once established, can produce thousands of plants in a relatively short period of time, their establishment necessitates the initial sacrifice of an individual specimen, which may not always be desirable or prudent should a limited parent stock be available. We describe here the production and multiplication of rooted banana plantlets from the isolation and culture of terminal floral apices.

  6. Respiratory Response of Dormant Nectarine Floral Buds on Chilling Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yue; GAO Dong-sheng; LI Ling; CHEN Xiu-de; XU Ai-hong

    2010-01-01

    Changes in main biochemical respiratory pathways in dormant nectarine floral buds were studied with nectarine trees (Prunus persica.var,nectariana cv.Shuguang) in order to determine the function of respiration in dormancy release.Oxygen-electrode system and respiratory inhibitors were used to measure total respiratory rates and rates of respiratory pathways.Results showed that chilling deficiency blocked the transition of respiratory mode,and made buds stay in a state of high level pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and low level tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA).The decline of PPP and activation of TCA occurred synchronously with the release of dormancy.In addition,the inhibition of PPP stimulated a respiration increase related with TCA.It could be concluded that the function of PPP activation in dormancy release might be limited and PPP declination inducing TCA activation might be part of respiration mode transition mechanism during bud sprouting.

  7. De novo sequencing and comparative transcriptome analysis of white petals and red labella in Phalaenopsis for discovery of genes related to flower color and floral differentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxia Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis is one of the world’s most popular and important epiphytic monopodial orchids. The extraordinary floral diversity of Phalaenopsis is a reflection of its evolutionary success. As a consequence of this diversity, and of the complexity of flower color development in Phalaenopsis, this species is a valuable research material for developmental biology studies. Nevertheless, research on the molecular mechanisms underlying flower color and floral organ formation in Phalaenopsis is still in the early phases. In this study, we generated large amounts of data from Phalaenopsis flowers by combining Illumina sequencing with differentially expressed gene (DEG analysis. We obtained 37 723 and 34 020 unigenes from petals and labella, respectively. A total of 2736 DEGs were identified, and the functions of many DEGs were annotated by BLAST-searching against several public databases. We mapped 837 up-regulated DEGs (432 from petals and 405 from labella to 102 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Almost all pathways were represented in both petals (102 pathways and labella (99 pathways. DEGs involved in energy metabolism were significantly differentially distributed between labella and petals, and various DEGs related to flower color and floral differentiation were found in the two organs. Interestingly, we also identified genes encoding several key enzymes involved in carotenoid synthesis. These genes were differentially expressed between petals and labella, suggesting that carotenoids may influence Phalaenopsis flower color. We thus conclude that a combination of anthocyanins and/or carotenoids determine flower color formation in Phalaenopsis. These results broaden our understanding of the mechanisms controlling flower color and floral organ differentiation in Phalaenopsis and other orchids.

  8. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase R-PTP-alpha is tyrosine-phosphorylated and associated with the adaptor protein Grb2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, J; Batzer, A; Sap, J

    1994-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine phosphatases (R-PTPases) have generated interest because of their suspected involvement in cellular signal transduction. The adaptor protein Grb2 has been implicated in coupling receptor tyrosine kinases to Ras. We report that a ubiquitous R-PTPase, R-PTP-alpha, is tyrosine-phos...

  9. A sensor-adaptor mechanism for enterovirus uncoating from structures of EV71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangxi; Peng, Wei; Ren, Jingshan; Hu, Zhongyu; Xu, Jiwei; Lou, Zhiyong; Li, Xumei; Yin, Weidong; Shen, Xinliang; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin; Rowlands, David J.; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Rao, Zihe

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children, can cause severe central nervous system disease and mortality. At present no vaccine or antiviral therapy is available. We have determined high-resolution structures for the mature virus and natural empty particles. The structure of the mature virus is similar to that of other enteroviruses, whilst the empty particles are dramatically expanded, with notable fissures, resembling elusive enterovirus uncoating intermediates not previously characterized in atomic detail. Hydrophobic capsid pockets within the EV71 capsid are collapsed in this expanded particle, providing a detailed explanation of the mechanism for receptor-binding triggered virus uncoating. The results provide a paradigm for enterovirus uncoating, in which the VP1 GH loop acts as an adaptor-sensor for the attachment of cellular receptors, converting heterologous inputs to a generic uncoating mechanism, spotlighting novel points for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22388738

  10. Alternatively spliced short and long isoforms of adaptor protein intersectin 1 form complexes in mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynditch A. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intersectin 1 (ITSN1 is an adaptor protein involved in membrane trafficking and cell signaling. Long and short isoforms of ITSN1 (ITSN1-L and ITSN1-S are produced by alternative splicing. The aim of our study was to investigate whether ITSN1-L and ITSN1-S could interact in mammalian cells. Methods. During this study we employed immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy. Results. We have shown that endogenous ITSN1-S co-precipitates with overexpressed ITSN1-L in PC12, 293 and 293T cells. Long and short isoforms of ITSN1 also co-localize in 293T cells. Conclusions. ITSN1-L and ITSN1-S form complexes in mammalian cells.

  11. The late endosomal adaptor p14 is a macrophage host-defense factor against Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Nicole; Nairz, Manfred; Hilber, Diana; Hess, Michael W; Weiss, Günter; Huber, Lukas A

    2012-06-01

    The outcome of an infection depends on the balance between host resistance and bacterial virulence. Here, we show that the late endosomal adaptor p14 (also known as LAMTOR2) is one of the components for cellular host defense against the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. During Salmonella infection, the complex of p14 and MP1 is required for the accurately timed transport of Salmonella through the endolysosomal system. Loss of p14 opens a time window that allows Salmonella to populate a replication niche, in which early and late antimicrobial effector systems, comprising NADPH phagocytic oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, respectively, are inappropriately activated. Thus, p14 supports the accurate transport of Salmonella through the endolysosomal system, thereby limiting bacterial replication in both, professional phagocytes and in non-phagocytic cells in vitro, and helps mice to successfully battle Salmonella infection in vivo.

  12. Impact of Simulated Warming on Growthand Floral Characteristics of Two Varieties of Medicinal Epimedium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xuemei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An open top chamber (OTC warming system was established in natural field conditions to study the impact of simulated warming on growth and floral characteristics of E. wushanense and E. acuminatum. Results: plant height and leaf growth were affected significantly.In +2°C warming condition, increment of plant height, leaf length and width and daily mean incrementof the two varieties were significantly greater than those of the control group; however, in warming +5°C condition, the increments were significantly lower than those of the control group. Floral differentiation was presented when different treatment was adopted. Floral quantitative character of E. acuminatum increased markedly after +2°C warming, but declined markedly after +5°C warming; however, floral quantitative characters of E. wushanense declined after +2°C and +5°C warming. The results can be used as a reference for cultivation and introduction of the two varieties.

  13. Experimental floral and inflorescence trait manipulations affect pollinator preference and function in a hummingbird-pollinated plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudash, Michele R; Hassler, Cynthia; Stevens, Peter M; Fenster, Charles B

    2011-02-01

    Controversy is ongoing regarding the importance of pollinator-mediated selection as a source of observed patterns of floral diversity. Although increasing evidence exists of pollinator-mediated selection acting on female reproductive success, there is still limited understanding of pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits via male reproductive success. Here we quantify potential selection by the ruby-throated hummingbird, Archilochus colubris, on four floral traits of hermaphroditic Silene exerted through male floral function. In single trait manipulative experiments we quantified hummingbird visitation preference and/or fluorescent dye (a pollen analog) donation as a function of number of flowers displayed (inflorescence size), height of the floral display (inflorescence height), floral color, and corolla tube length. Hummingbirds preferred to visit larger floral displays and floral displays at greater height, likely representing a general pollinator preference for larger, more visible signals and/or greater rewards. In addition, hummingbirds preferred to visit red flowers, and male function was greater in flowers manipulated to have longer corolla tubes. Selection pressures exerted by hummingbirds on S. virginica floral and inflorescence design through male reproductive success are consistent with the contemporary expression of floral traits of S. virginica relative to related Silene species with different pollinators, and they are consistent with the hummingbird syndrome of traits expressed by S. virginica.

  14. Tailed pooled suppression subtractive hybridization (PSSH) adaptors do not alter efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Robert S; Gill, Steven R

    2010-11-01

    Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) and its derivative, Pooled Suppression Subtractive hybridization (PSSH), are powerful tools used to study variances larger than ~100 bp in prokaryotic genome structure. The initial steps involve ligating an oligonucleotide of known sequence (the "adaptor") to a fragmented genome to facilitate amplification, subtraction and downstream sequencing. SSH results in the creation of a library of unique DNA fragments which have been traditionally analyzed via Sanger sequencing. Numerous next generation sequencing technologies have entered the market yet SSH is incompatible with these platforms. This is due to the high level of sequence conservation of the oligonucleotide used for SSH. This rigid adherence is partly because it has yet to be determined if alteration of this oligonucleotide will have a deleterious impact on subtraction efficiency. The subtraction occurs when non-unique fragments are inhibited by a secondary self-pairing structure which requires exact nucleotide sequence. We determine if appending custom sequence to the 5' terminal ends of these oligonucleotides during the nested PCR stages of PSSH will reduce subtraction efficiency. We compare a pool of ten S. aureus clinical isolates with a standard PSSH and custom tailed-PSSH. We detected no statistically significant difference between their subtraction efficiencies. Our observations suggest that the adaptor's terminal ends may be labeled during the nested PCR step. This produces libraries labeled with custom sequence. This does not lead to loss of subtraction efficiency and would be invaluable for groups wishing to combine SSH or PSSH with their own downstream applications, such as a high throughput sequencing platform.

  15. The Influences of Connectors and Adaptors to Fiber-To-The-Home Network Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Ab-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The reliability of the entire communications network was dependent on the reliability of each single element. Connector was important devices that can affect the performance of the fiber communication. There were a large number of issues that affect the performance of fiber optic connectors in todays networks. These factors were increasingly as data rates, the number of wavelengths and transmission distances continue to escalate. Approach: Therefore this study was carried out to test on the influence of connectors and adapters to the performance of the optical network. Initially the actual attenuation of connector and adaptor were tested by using multifunction loss tester. The first two 1 m corning optical fibers with a connector at each end are measured. Then, both the 1 m corning optical fibers were joined together by an adaptor and connected to the Multifunction loss tester. Three types of wavelength are used as the source to test the attenuation of the fiber which is 1310, 1490-1550 nm. In order to measure the Bit Error Rate (BER and the power loss in optical fiber communication, a simple simulation was carried out by using software opti sys. Results: The attenuation on the connector was caused mainly by existence of impurities in the connector, less perfect connection, scattering of beam and others. These causes the parameter such as power received, Q-factor, minimum BER and also the eye-height to change. Changes in these parameters also affect the performance at the user end. It was very critical that causes of attenuation to be eliminated. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the result it can be concluded that, the greater the attenuation, the greater the decrease in power received. It also affects the Q-factor of the system where as the attenuation increase, the maximum Q-factor decreases. As for the minimum BER, minimum BER changes as the attenuation increase initially, after a maximum value it decreases as the

  16. Molecular basis of substrate selection by the N-end rule adaptor protein ClpS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Román-Hernández, Giselle; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A.; (HHMI)

    2009-06-19

    The N-end rule is a conserved degradation pathway that relates the stability of a protein to its N-terminal amino acid. Here, we present crystal structures of ClpS, the bacterial N-end rule adaptor, alone and engaged with peptides containing N-terminal phenylalanine, leucine, and tryptophan. These structures, together with a previous structure of ClpS bound to an N-terminal tyrosine, illustrate the molecular basis of recognition of the complete set of primary N-end rule amino acids. In each case, the alpha-amino group and side chain of the N-terminal residue are the major determinants of recognition. The binding pocket for the N-end residue is preformed in the free adaptor, and only small adjustments are needed to accommodate N-end rule residues having substantially different sizes and shapes. M53A ClpS is known to mediate degradation of an expanded repertoire of substrates, including those with N-terminal valine or isoleucine. A structure of Met53A ClpS engaged with an N-end rule tryptophan reveals an essentially wild-type mechanism of recognition, indicating that the Met(53) side chain directly enforces specificity by clashing with and excluding beta-branched side chains. Finally, experimental and structural data suggest mechanisms that make proteins with N-terminal methionine bind very poorly to ClpS, explaining why these high-abundance proteins are not degraded via the N-end rule pathway in the cell.

  17. Floral scent composition predicts bee pollination system in five butterfly bush (Buddleja, Scrophulariaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W-C; Chen, G; Vereecken, N J; Dunn, B L; Ma, Y-P; Sun, W-B

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, plant-pollinator interactions have been interpreted as pollination syndrome. However, the validity of pollination syndrome has been widely doubted in modern studies of pollination ecology. The pollination ecology of five Asian Buddleja species, B. asiatica, B. crispa, B. forrestii, B. macrostachya and B. myriantha, in the Sino-Himalayan region in Asia, flowering in different local seasons, with scented inflorescences were investigated during 2011 and 2012. These five species exhibited diverse floral traits, with narrow and long corolla tubes and concealed nectar. According to their floral morphology, larger bees and Lepidoptera were expected to be the major pollinators. However, field observations showed that only larger bees (honeybee/bumblebee) were the primary pollinators, ranging from 77.95% to 97.90% of total visits. In this study, floral scents of each species were also analysed using coupled gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although the five Buddleja species emitted differentiated floral scent compositions, our results showed that floral scents of the five species are dominated by substances that can serve as attractive signals to bees, including species-specific scent compounds and principal compounds with larger relative amounts. This suggests that floral scent compositions are closely associated with the principal pollinator assemblages in these five species. Therefore, we conclude that floral scent compositions rather than floral morphology traits should be used to interpret plant-pollinator interactions in these Asian Buddleja species. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. High embryogenic ability and regeneration from floral axis of Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Lin; Liu Erxi; Yang Chaozhu; Jin Surong; Diao Ying; Hu Zhongli

    2017-01-01

    Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae) a perennial herb, it has high medicinal and industrial value. In this study, a simple and efficient system for direct somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration of Amorphophallus konjac was developed. The floral axis was used as the experimental material. The primary callus, developed from the floral axis grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different hormone combination at different concentrations. The highest rate of embryogenic cal...

  19. The evolution of floral deception in Epipactis veratrifolia (Orchidaceae): from indirect defense to pollination

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that floral deception has evolved in at least 7500 species of angiosperms, of which two thirds are orchids. Epipactis veratrifolia (Orchidaceae) is a model system of aphid mimicry as aphidophagous hoverflies lay eggs on false brood sites on their flowers. To understand the evolutionary ecology of floral deception, we investigated the pollination biology of E. veratrifolia across 10 populations in the Eastern Himalayas. We reconstructed the phylogeny of Epipactis and...

  20. The Role of Abiotic Environmental Conditions and Herbivory in Shaping Bacterial Community Composition in Floral Nectar

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Samuni-Blank; Ido Izhaki; Sivan Laviad; Avi Bar-Massada; Yoram Gerchman; Malka Halpern

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the processes that drive community assembly has long been a central theme in ecology. For microorganisms, a traditional prevailing hypothesis states that "everything is everywhere, but the environment selects". Although the bacterial community in floral nectar may be affected by both atmosphere (air-borne bacteria) and animals as dispersal vectors, the environmental and geographic factors that shape microbial communities in floral nectar are unknown. We studied culturable bacteria...

  1. Floral evolution in the Annonaceae: hypotheses of homeotic mutations and functional convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Richard M K

    2010-08-01

    The recent publication of hypotheses explaining the homeotic control of floral organ identity together with the availability of increasingly comprehensive and well-resolved molecular phylogenies presents an ideal opportunity for reassessing current knowledge of floral diversity and evolution in the Annonaceae. This review summarizes currently available information on selected aspects of floral structure and function, including: changes in the number of perianth whorls and the number of perianth parts per whorl; the evolution of sympetaly; the diversity and evolution of pollination chambers (with a novel classification of seven main structural forms of floral chamber based on the different arrangement, size and shape of petals); the evolution of perianth glands; floral unisexuality and hypotheses explaining the unexpectedly high frequency of occurrence of androdioecy; the origin and possible function of inner and outer staminodes; the evolution of stamen connective diversity and theca septation; and the origin of 'true' syncarpy and functionally equivalent extragynoecial compita. In each case, current ideas on the origin, evolution and function are discussed. The information presented in this review enables two main conclusions to be drawn. The first is that changes in the homeotic control of floral organ identity may have had a profound impact on floral structure in several disparate lineages in the family. This is most obvious in Fenerivia, in which a centrifugal shift of floral organ identity has occurred, and in Dasymaschalon, in which a reverse (centripetal) shift has occurred. Other genera that have gained or lost entire perianth whorls are likely to have undergone similar homeotic changes. Attention is also drawn to the extensive functional convergence in Annonaceae flowers, with widespread homoplasy in many characters that have previously been emphasized in higher-level classifications.

  2. Sub-functionalization to ovule development following duplication of a floral organ identity gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimba, Kelsey D; Di Stilio, Verónica S

    2015-09-01

    Gene duplications result in paralogs that may be maintained due to the gain of novel functions (neo-functionalization) or the partitioning of ancestral function (sub-functionalization). Plant genomes are especially prone to duplication; paralogs are particularly widespread in the floral MADS box transcription factors that control organ identity through the ABC model of flower development. C class genes establish stamen and carpel identity and control floral meristem determinacy, and are largely conserved across the angiosperm phylogeny. Originally, an additional D class had been identified as controlling ovule identity; yet subsequent studies indicated that both C and D lineage genes more commonly control ovule development redundantly. The ranunculid Thalictrum thalictroides has two orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana C class gene AGAMOUS (AG), ThtAG1 and ThtAG2 (Thalictrum thalictroides AGAMOUS1/2). We previously showed that ThtAG1 exhibits typical C class function; here we examine the role of its paralog, ThtAG2. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that ThtAG2 falls within the C lineage, together with ThtAG1, and is consistent with previous findings of a Ranunculales-specific duplication in this clade. However, ThtAG2 is not expressed in stamens, but rather solely in carpels and ovules. This female-specific expression pattern is consistent with D lineage genes, and with other C lineage genes known to be involved in ovule identity. Given the divergent expression of ThtAG2, we tested the hypothesis that it has acquired ovule identity function. Molecular evolution analyses showed evidence of positive selection on ThtAG2-a pattern that supports divergence of function by sub-functionalization. Down-regulation of ThtAG2 by virus-induced gene silencing resulted in homeotic conversions of ovules into carpel-like structures. Taken together, our results suggest that, although ThtAG2 falls within the C lineage, it has diverged to acquire "D function" as an ovule identity gene

  3. Analysis of differential gene expression during floral bud abortion in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Sun, X L; Zhang, L G; Hui, M X; Zhang, M K

    2013-07-24

    Radish floral bud abortion (FBA) is an adverse biological phenomenon that occurs during reproduction. Although FBA occurs frequently, its mechanism remains unknown. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying FBA, we detected gene expression differences between aborted and normal buds of radish using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). A total of 221 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected by 256 cDNA-AFLP primer combinations, of which 114 were upregulated and 107 were downregulated in the aborted buds. A total of 54 TDFs were cloned and sequenced. A BLAST search revealed that all TDFs have homologous sequences and 29 of these corresponded to known genes, whose functions were mainly related to metabolism, stimulus response, transcriptional regulation, and transportation. Expressions of 6 TDFs with different functions were further analyzed by real-time PCR yielding expression profiling results consistent with the cDNA-AFLP analysis. Our results indicated that radish FBA is related to abnormalities in various physiological and biochemical plant processes.

  4. Photoperiodic control of the floral transition through a distinct polycomb repressive complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yizhong; Gu, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Wenya; Schmitz, Robert J; He, Yuehui

    2014-03-31

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes such as PRC1 mediate transcriptional repression. Here, we show that the plant-specific EMBRYONIC FLOWER1 (EMF1), LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1, and a histone H3 lysine-4 demethylase form a distinct PcG complex, termed EMF1c, that plays PRC1-like roles and is crucial for regulation of the florigen gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis. Long-day photoperiods promote FT expression activation in leaf veins specifically at dusk through the photoperiod pathway to induce Arabidopsis flowering. We found that before dusk and at night, a vascular EMF1c directly represses FT expression to prevent photoperiod-independent flowering, whereas at dusk EMF1 binding to FT chromatin is disrupted by the photoperiod pathway, leading to proper FT activation. Furthermore, a MADS-domain transcription factor and potent floral repressor binds EMF1 to repress FT expression. Our study reveals that the vascular EMF1c integrates inputs from several flowering-regulatory pathways to synchronize flowering time to environmental cues.

  5. Plant-pollinator interactions and floral convergence in two species of Heliconia from the Caribbean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martén-Rodríguez, Silvana; Kress, W John; Temeles, Ethan J; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

    2011-12-01

    Variation in interspecific interactions across geographic space is a potential driver of diversification and local adaptation. This study quantitatively examined variation in floral phenotypes and pollinator service of Heliconia bihai and H. caribaea across three Antillean islands. The prediction was that floral characters would correspond to the major pollinators of these species on each island. Analysis of floral phenotypes revealed convergence among species and populations of Heliconia from the Greater Antilles. All populations of H. caribaea were similar, characterized by long nectar chambers and short corolla tubes. In contrast, H. bihai populations were strongly divergent: on Dominica, H. bihai had flowers with short nectar chambers and long corollas, whereas on Hispaniola, H. bihai flowers resembled those of H. caribaea with longer nectar chambers and shorter corolla tubes. Morphological variation in floral traits corresponded with geographic differences or similarities in the major pollinators on each island. The Hispaniolan mango, Anthracothorax dominicus, is the principal pollinator of both H. bihai and H. caribaea on Hispaniola; thus, the similarity of floral phenotypes between Heliconia species suggests parallel selective regimes imposed by the principal pollinator. Likewise, divergence between H. bihai populations from Dominica and Hispaniola corresponded with differences in the pollinators visiting this species on the two islands. The study highlights the putative importance of pollinator-mediated selection as driving floral convergence and the evolution of locally-adapted plant variants across a geographic mosaic of pollinator species.

  6. Control of patterning, growth, and differentiation by floral organ identity genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablowski, Robert

    2015-02-01

    In spite of the different morphologies of sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels, all these floral organs are believed to be modified versions of a ground-state organ similar to the leaf. Modifications of the ground-state developmental programme are orchestrated by different combinations of MADS-domain transcription factors encoded by floral organ identity genes. In recent years, much has been revealed about the gene regulatory networks controlled by the floral organ identity genes and about the genetic pathways that control leaf development. This review examines how floral organ identity is connected with the control of morphogenesis and differentiation of shoot organs, focusing on the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Direct links have emerged between floral organ identity genes and genes involved in abaxial-adaxial patterning, organ boundary formation, tissue growth, and cell differentiation. In parallel, predictive models have been developed to explain how the activity of regulatory genes can be coordinated by intercellular signalling and constrained by tissue mechanics. When combined, these advances provide a unique opportunity for revealing exactly how leaf-like organs have been 'metamorphosed' into floral organs during evolution and showing crucial regulatory points in the generation of plant form. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Floral anatomy of Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae: comparing flower organization and vascular patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Novikoff

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the tribe Delphinieae have dorsoventralized flowers; their pentamerous calyx and reduced corolla are dorsally spurred and inner spurs are nectariferous. Based on this common floral scheme, Delphinieae species exhibit a wide diversity of floral structures and morphologies. We present here the first investigation of the floral anatomy in Delphinieae. The organization of the floral vascular system has been studied in species representative of the floral morphological diversity of Delphinieae: Aconitum lasiocarpum, Delphinium elatum, and Consolida regalis. The three species show a similar vascularization of the calyx and of the reproductive organs, but exhibit distinct anatomical features in the corolla where the nectaries are borne. The sepals and the stamens have a trilacunar three-traced and a unilacunar one-traced vascularization, respectively. Three free carpels in D. elatum and A. lasiocarpum are basically supplied by six vascular bundles – three independent dorsal bundles and three fused lateral bundles. In C. regalis the single carpel is supplied by three independent vascular bundles (one dorsal and two ventral. Staminodes are not vascularized. The basic type of petal vascularization is unilacunar one-traced, but in the case of C. regalis the derived bilacunar two-traced type has been observed. This latter state arose as a result of the fusion of the two dorsal petal primordia. The results of this first comparative study of the floral anatomy of Delphinieae are discussed with the recent phylogenetic, morphological, and evo-devo findings concerning the tribe.

  8. Quantitative studies of floral color and floral scent%花颜色和花气味的量化研究方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆良; 马晓开; 程瑾; 罗毅波

    2012-01-01

    花颜色和花气味是花部构成的重要内容.在已开展的传粉生态学研究中对二者的报道主要是描述性的,而其量化研究可以为揭示传粉机制提供有力的实验证据.本文主要介绍了花颜色的测量和标定方法,包括比色卡、分光色差仪和使携式光谱仪等;花气味的采集方法,包括动态顶空套袋-吸附采集法、吸附-溶剂洗脱法和同相微萃取法等;花气味的检测和分析方法,包括气相色谱-质谱联用仪分析和电子鼻型超速气相色谱仪分析等;以及昆虫行为学实验方法,包括气相色谱-昆虫触角电位联用技术、Y型嗅觉仪和飞行箱实验等.科研人员可以根据实验材料的特点和实验目的选择适合的量化研究方法.%Floral color and scent are two important components of floral design. Although previous studies on floral design have been mostly descriptive. The exploration on their quantitative studies can provide key evidence to learn pollination mechanisms. Our study focuses on recently developed methods for the quantitative measurement of floral color and floral scent. We introduce three floral color measurement and plotting methods, including color chart, colorimeter and spectrometer. Dynamic headspace collection-adsorption, adsorption-solvent desorption and solid phase micro-extraction are the three frequently-used floral scent collection methods and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and zNose are usually used in floral scent analysis. Lastly, gas chromatography with electroantennographic detector, Y-tube olfactometer and flight cage experiment can help us to evaluate insect behavior.

  9. Large scale interaction analysis predicts that the Gerbera hybrida floral E function is provided both by general and specialized proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elomaa Paula

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ornamental plant Gerbera hybrida bears complex inflorescences with morphologically distinct floral morphs that are specific to the sunflower family Asteraceae. We have previously characterized several MADS box genes that regulate floral development in Gerbera. To study further their behavior in higher order complex formation according to the quartet model, we performed yeast two- and three-hybrid analysis with fourteen Gerbera MADS domain proteins to analyze their protein-protein interaction potential. Results The exhaustive pairwise interaction analysis showed significant differences in the interaction capacity of different Gerbera MADS domain proteins compared to other model plants. Of particular interest in these assays was the behavior of SEP-like proteins, known as GRCDs in Gerbera. The previously described GRCD1 and GRCD2 proteins, which are specific regulators involved in stamen and carpel development, respectively, showed very limited pairwise interactions, whereas the related GRCD4 and GRCD5 factors displayed hub-like positions in the interaction map. We propose GRCD4 and GRCD5 to provide a redundant and general E function in Gerbera, comparable to the SEP proteins in Arabidopsis. Based on the pairwise interaction data, combinations of MADS domain proteins were further subjected to yeast three-hybrid assays. Gerbera B function proteins showed active behavior in ternary complexes. All Gerbera SEP-like proteins with the exception of GRCD1 were excellent partners for B function proteins, further implicating the unique role of GRCD1 as a whorl- and flower-type specific C function partner. Conclusions Gerbera MADS domain proteins exhibit both conserved and derived behavior in higher order protein complex formation. This protein-protein interaction data can be used to classify and compare Gerbera MADS domain proteins to those of Arabidopsis and Petunia. Combined with our reverse genetic studies of Gerbera, these

  10. [Floral structure of two species of Trachycarpea (Arecaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Lorena I; Jáuregui, Damelis J; Stauffer, Fred W

    2014-09-01

    Copernicia and Washingtonia are two genera of the Trachycarpeae for which no subtribal classification has been proposed, mainly because of the lack of resolution in phylogenetic studies. Morphology and anatomy of flowers whithin Coryphoideae have proven useful for taxa delimitation and supporting relationships among their members. A description of the morphological and anatomical structure of flowers of C. tectorum and W. filifera is presented in order to explore reproductive characters that may clarify their classification within the subfamily and to contribute with floral biology studies. Flowers of cultivated specimens of both taxa and developing fruits of C. tectorum were fixed in FAA, dissected for morphological analysis, and parafin-embedded flowers and fruits were serially sectioned for obtaining permanent slides, using conventional techniques and safranin-fast green staining. All procedures were carried out in the Laboratory of Morpho-Anatomy, Agronomy Faculty of the Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV). Both species have hermaphroditic flowers. C. tectorum flowers have a thick and pubescent perianth, six stamens with filaments forming a tube fused to the corolla, with rounded projections and an acute apex where the anthers are inserted. W. filifera flowers have an irregularly dentate calyx, and a shortly acuminate corolla, six stamens united by their filaments to the corolla which at the same time are briefly fused to the gynoecium. Cells with druse crystals in the staminal tube are reported for C. tectorum. Only one of the carpels of the gynoecium of C. tectorum develops at fruit stage, and a layer of abundant raphide cells forming a crustaceous endocarp in mature fruits, was found. W. filifera presents the perianth mesophyll with few layers of thick walled cells and schlerenchymatic tissue, gynoecium with apically fused carpels in the ventral region of ovary, free at the base and the apex of the style, where the ventral sutures are opened. C. tectorum

  11. Induction of Androgen Formation in the Male by a TAT-VDAC1 Fusion Peptide Blocking 14-3-3ɛ Protein Adaptor and Mitochondrial VDAC1 Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B; Fan, Jinjiang; Culty, Martine; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-01-01

    Low testosterone (T), a major cause of male hypogonadism and infertility, is linked to mood changes, fatigue, osteoporosis, reduced bone-mass index, and aging. The treatment of choice, T replacement therapy, has been linked with increased risk for prostate cancer and luteinizing hormone (LH) suppression, and shown to lead to infertility, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. Alternate methods to induce T with lower side effects are desirable. In search of the mechanisms regulating T synthesis in the testes, we identified the 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor as a negative regulator of steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis begins in mitochondria. 14-3-3ɛ interacts with the outer mitochondrial membrane voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein, forming a scaffold that limits the availability of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. We report the development of a tool able to induce endogenous T formation. Peptides able to penetrate testes conjugated to 14-3-3ɛ site of interaction with VDAC1 blocked 14-3-3ɛ-VDAC1 interactions while at the same time increased VDAC1-translocator protein (18 kDa) interactions that induced steroid formation in rat testes, leading to increased serum T levels. These peptides rescued intratesticular and serum T formation in adult male rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, which dampened LH and T production. PMID:24947306

  12. Involvement of β3A Subunit of Adaptor Protein-3 in Intracellular Trafficking of Receptor-like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PCP-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui DONG; Hong YUAN; Weirong JIN; Yan SHEN; Xiaojing XU; Hongyang WANG

    2007-01-01

    PCP-2 is a human receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase and a member of the MAM domain family cloned in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Previous studies showed that PCP-2 directly interacted with β-catenin through the juxtamembrane domain, dephosphorylated β-catenin and played an important role in the regulation of cell adhesion. Recent study showed that PCP-2 was also involved in the repression of β-catenin-induced transcriptional activity. Here we describe the interactions of PCP-2 with the β3A subunit of adaptor protein (AP)-3 and sorting nexin (SNX) 3. These protein complexes were detected using the yeast two-hybrid assay with the juxtamembrane and membrane-proximal catalytic domain of PCP-2 as "bait". Both AP-3 and SNX3 are molecules involved in intracellular trafficking of membrane receptors. The association between the β3A subunit of AP-3 and PCP-2 was further confirmed in mammalian cells. Our results suggested a possible mechanism of intracellular trafficking of PCP-2 mediated by AP-3 and SNX3 which might participate in the regulation of PCP-2 functions.

  13. Involvement of Grb2 adaptor protein in nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK)-mediated signaling and anaplastic large cell lymphoma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Ludovica; Lasorsa, Elena; Ambrogio, Chiara; Surrenti, Nadia; Voena, Claudia; Chiarle, Roberto

    2010-08-20

    Most anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) express oncogenic fusion proteins derived from chromosomal translocations or inversions of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. Frequently ALCL carry the t(2;5) translocation, which fuses the ALK gene to the nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene. The transforming activity mediated by NPM-ALK fusion induces different pathways that control proliferation and survival of lymphoma cells. Grb2 is an adaptor protein thought to play an important role in ALK-mediated transformation, but its interaction with NPM-ALK, as well as its function in regulating ALCL signaling pathways and cell growth, has never been elucidated. Here we show that active NPM-ALK, but not a kinase-dead mutant, bound and induced Grb2 phosphorylation in tyrosine 160. An intact SH3 domain at the C terminus of Grb2 was required for Tyr(160) phosphorylation. Furthermore, Grb2 did not bind to a single region but rather to different regions of NPM-ALK, mainly Tyr(152-156), Tyr(567), and a proline-rich region, Pro(415-417). Finally, shRNA knockdown experiments showed that Grb2 regulates primarily the NPM-ALK-mediated phosphorylation of SHP2 and plays a key role in ALCL cell growth.

  14. Src-Like adaptor protein (SLAP) binds to the receptor tyrosine kinase Flt3 and modulates receptor stability and downstream signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Julhash U; Rönnstrand, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) is an important growth factor receptor in hematopoiesis. Gain-of-function mutations of the receptor contribute to the transformation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP) is an interaction partner of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl that can regulate receptor tyrosine kinases-mediated signal transduction. In this study, we analyzed the role of SLAP in signal transduction downstream of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase Flt3. The results show that upon ligand stimulation SLAP stably associates with Flt3 through multiple phosphotyrosine residues in Flt3. SLAP constitutively interacts with oncogenic Flt3-ITD and co-localizes with Flt3 near the cell membrane. This association initiates Cbl-dependent receptor ubiquitination and degradation. Depletion of SLAP expression by shRNA in Flt3-transfected Ba/F3 cells resulted in a weaker activation of FL-induced PI3K-Akt and MAPK signaling. Meta-analysis of microarray data from patient samples suggests that SLAP mRNA is differentially expressed in different cancers and its expression was significantly increased in patients carrying the Flt3-ITD mutation. Thus, our data suggest a novel role of SLAP in different cancers and in modulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling apart from its conventional role in regulation of receptor stability.

  15. Src-Like adaptor protein (SLAP binds to the receptor tyrosine kinase Flt3 and modulates receptor stability and downstream signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julhash U Kazi

    Full Text Available Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3 is an important growth factor receptor in hematopoiesis. Gain-of-function mutations of the receptor contribute to the transformation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP is an interaction partner of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl that can regulate receptor tyrosine kinases-mediated signal transduction. In this study, we analyzed the role of SLAP in signal transduction downstream of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase Flt3. The results show that upon ligand stimulation SLAP stably associates with Flt3 through multiple phosphotyrosine residues in Flt3. SLAP constitutively interacts with oncogenic Flt3-ITD and co-localizes with Flt3 near the cell membrane. This association initiates Cbl-dependent receptor ubiquitination and degradation. Depletion of SLAP expression by shRNA in Flt3-transfected Ba/F3 cells resulted in a weaker activation of FL-induced PI3K-Akt and MAPK signaling. Meta-analysis of microarray data from patient samples suggests that SLAP mRNA is differentially expressed in different cancers and its expression was significantly increased in patients carrying the Flt3-ITD mutation. Thus, our data suggest a novel role of SLAP in different cancers and in modulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling apart from its conventional role in regulation of receptor stability.

  16. A ¤Terminal Flower-1¤-like gene from perennial ryegrass involved in floral transition and axillary meristem identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C.S.; Salchert, K.; Nielsen, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    . To investigate the regulation of meristem identity and the control of floral transition in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) we isolated a ryegrass TERMINAL FLOWER1-like gene, LpTFL1, and characterized it for its function in ryegrass flower development. Perennial ryegrass requires a cold treatment of at least...... spikelets. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing LpTFL1 were significantly delayed in flowering and exhibited dramatic changes in architecture such as extensive lateral branching, increased growth of all vegetative organs, and a highly increased trichome production. Furthermore, overexpression of LpTFL1...... and a controller of axillary meristem identity in ryegrass....

  17. Transcriptome-wide mining of the differentially expressed transcripts for natural variation of floral organ size in Physalis philadelphica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Zhichao; He, Chaoying

    2012-11-01

    Natural phenotypic variation, a result of genetic variation, developed during evolution in response to environmental selections. Physalis philadelphica, known as tomatillo in the Solanaceae, is rich in floral and post-floral organ size diversity. However, its genetic variation is unknown. Here P. philadelphica was classified into three groups with large, intermediate, and small reproductive organ size, and a positive correlation was observed between floral organ and berry sizes. Through cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses, 263 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were isolated from two accessions with different floral organ sizes. The genes encode various transcription factors, protein kinases, and enzymes, and they displayed multiple expression patterns during floral development, indicating a complexity in the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. Detailed expression analyses revealed that they were differentially expressed during floral and post-floral development, implying that they have roles in the development of flowers and fruits. Expression of three genes was further monitored in 26 accessions, and in particular the expression variation of Pp30, encoding an AP2-like transcription factor, correlates well with the observed phenotypic variations, which strongly supports an essential role for the gene in the natural variation of floral and post-floral organ size in Physalis. The results suggest that alteration in the expression pattern of a few key regulatory genes in the developmental process may be an important source of genetic variations that lead to natural variation in morphological traits.

  18. Morphology and Quantitative Monitoring of Gene Expression Patterns during Floral Induction and Early Flower Development in Dendrocalamus latiflorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of floral transition in bamboo remains unclear. Dendrocalamus latiflorus (Bambusease, Bambusoideae, Poaceae is an economically and ecologically important clumping bamboo in tropical and subtropical areas. We evaluated morphological characteristics and gene expression profiling to study floral induction and early flower development in D. latiflorus. The detailed morphological studies on vegetative buds and floral organography were completed using paraffin sectioning and scanning electron microscopy. The 3 mm floral buds commence the development of stamen primordia and pistil primordium. Furthermore, homologs of floral transition-related genes, including AP1, TFL1, RFL, PpMADS1, PpMADS2, SPL9, FT, ID1, FCA, and EMF2, were detected and quantified by reverse transcriptase PCR and real-time PCR in vegetative and floral buds, respectively. Distinct expression profiles of ten putative floral initiation homologues that corresponded to the developmental stages defined by bud length were obtained and genes were characterized. Six of the genes (including DlTFL1, DlRFL, DlMADS2, DlID1, DlFCA, DlEMF2 showed statistically significant changes in expression during floral transition. DlAP1 demonstrated a sustained downward trend and could serve as a good molecular marker during floral transition in D. latiflorus. The combined analysis provided key candidate markers to track the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase.

  19. Reduced transcription of a LEAFY-like gene in Alstroemeria sp. cultivar Green Coral that cannot develop floral meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Masayo; Yamagishi, Masumi; Kanno, Akira

    2012-04-01

    Alstroemeria sp. cv. Green Coral has numerous bracts instead of flowers, and its cyme structures are repeated eternally. Observations of the development and morphology of inflorescence in cv. Green Coral revealed that transition from inflorescence to floral meristem was restricted. We isolated and characterized floral meristem identity genes LEAFY-like (AlsLFY) and SQUAMOSA-like (AlsSQa and AlsSQb) genes from Alstroemeria ligtu. In situ hybridization results indicated that AlsSQa and AlsSQb were expressed in the dome-shaped floral meristems and all floral organ primordia in A. ligtu. Transcripts of AlsLFY accumulated early in the dome-shaped floral meristems; the signals were restricted later to the outer region of the floral meristem. These results indicate that AlsLFY, AlsSQa, and AlsSQb function as floral meristem identity genes. Expression profiles of AlsLFY, AlsSQa, AlsSQb, and other MADS-box genes were compared between A. ligtu and cv. Green Coral. AlsLFY, AlsDEFa, and AlsAGL6 transcripts were not detected at the shoot apices of cv. Green Coral but were detected in A. ligtu. The early induction and accumulation of AlsLFY transcripts in the inflorescence meristem of A. ligtu prior to development of the floral meristem suggest that downregulation of AlsLFY is likely to restrict the inflorescence-to-floral meristem transition in cv. Green Coral.

  20. Interspecific and Intersexual Differences in the Chemical Composition of Floral Scent in Glochidion Species (Phyllanthaceae in South China

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    Daihong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Glochidion (Phyllanthaceae genus are pollinated exclusively by host-specific Epicephala (Gracillariidae moths. Floral scent has been thought to play key role in the obligate pollination mutualism between Glochidion plants and Epicephala moths, but few studies have been reported about chemical variation in floral volatiles of Glochidion species in China. Floral volatiles of male and female flowers of five Glochidion species in south China were collected by dynamic headspace absorption technique and then were chemically analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 69 compounds were identified from floral scents of five investigated species. Glochidion hirsutum and G. zeylanicum showed no qualitative differences in floral scent, whereas there were clear variations of floral scent among other species (G. eriocarpum, G. daltonii, and G. sphaerogynum and also they distinctly differed from these two species. Male flowers emitted significantly more scent than female flowers. Glochidion plants exhibited qualitative and quantitative differences in floral scent between two sexes of flowers. The findings suggest that the volatile variation of floral scent among Glochidion species reflects adaptations to specific pollinators. Sexual dimorphism in floral scent has evolved to signal alternative rewards provided by each sex to Epicephala moths.

  1. Pollinators' mating rendezvous and the evolution of floral advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A; Hadany, Lilach

    2013-01-07

    Successful cross-fertilization in plant species that rely on animal pollinators depends not just on the number of pollinator visits, but also on these visits' duration. Furthermore, in non-deceptive pollination, a visit's duration depends on the magnitude of the reward provided to the pollinator. Accordingly, plants that rely on biotic pollination have to partition their investment in cross-fertilization assurance between attracting pollinator visits - advertisement, and rewarding visitors to assure that the visit is of productive duration. Here we analyze these processes by a combination of optimality methods and game theoretical modeling. Our results indicate that the optimality in such allocation of resources depends on the types of reward offered to the pollinators. More precisely, we show that plants that offer both food reward and mating rendezvous to pollinators will evolve to allocate a higher proportion of their cross-fertilization assurance budget to advertisement than plants that offer only food reward. That is, our results indicate that pollinators' mating habits may play a role in floral evolution.

  2. Pollination of Adenocalymma bracteatum (Bignoniaceae): floral biology and visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Soares, Stela; Polatto, Leandro P; Dutra, João C S; Torezan-Silingardi, Helena M

    2010-01-01

    Adenocalymma bracteatum is a shrub of dense foliage and yellow flowers, easily found on grasslands areas in Central Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive biology and the flower visitors of A. bracteatum in a pasture area nearby Ivinhema city, MS (Brazil). The flowering peak occurs in winter. The flower reflects ultraviolet light. Anthesis begins at 6:30h, and pollen and nectar are the resources to visitors. We captured 1,038 floral visitors. The bees Apis mellifera (L.), Trigona sp., Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and the ant Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were the main visitors. The reproductive tests indicate that A. bracteatum is self compatible, justifying its expansion in altered environments; however, the largest reproductive success was dependant on cross-pollination and self-pollination, evidencing the pollinators importance. Adenocalymma bracteatum presents melittophilous syndrome and bumblebees were the main pollinators in the area. The correlations observed between the climatic variables and the main pollinator species were low or medium.

  3. Floral ecology and insect visitation in riparian Tamarix sp. (saltcedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D.C.; Nelson, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change projections for semiarid and arid North America include reductions in stream discharge that could adversely affect riparian plant species dependent on stream-derived ground water. In order to better understand this potential impact, we used a space-for-time substitution to test the hypotheses that increasing depth-to-groundwater (DGW) is inversely related to Tamarix sp. (saltcedar) flower abundance (F) and nectar production per flower (N). We also assessed whether DGW affected the richness or abundance of insects visiting flowers. We examined Tamarix floral attributes and insect visitation patterns during 2010 and 2011 at three locations along a deep DWG gradient (3.2–4.1 m) on a floodplain terrace adjacent to Las Vegas Wash, an effluent-dominated Mojave Desert stream. Flower abundance and insect visitation patterns differed between years, but no effect from DGW on either F or N was detected. An eruption of a novel non-native herbivore, the splendid tamarisk weevil (Coniatus splendidulus), likely reduced flower production in 2011.

  4. Do honeybees shape the bacterial community composition in floral nectar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Aizenberg-Gershtein

    Full Text Available Floral nectar is considered the most important reward animal-pollinated plants offer to attract pollinators. Here we explore whether honeybees, which act as pollinators, affect the composition of bacterial communities in the nectar. Nectar and honeybees were sampled from two plant species: Amygdalus communis and Citrus paradisi. To prevent the contact of nectar with pollinators, C. paradisi flowers were covered with net bags before blooming (covered flowers. Comparative analysis of bacterial communities in the nectar and on the honeybees was performed by the 454-pyrosequencing technique. No significant differences were found among bacterial communities in honeybees captured on the two different plant species. This resemblance may be due to the presence of dominant bacterial OTUs, closely related to the Arsenophonus genus. The bacterial communities of the nectar from the covered and uncovered C. paradisi flowers differed significantly; the bacterial communities on the honeybees differed significantly from those in the covered flowers' nectar, but not from those in the uncovered flowers' nectar. We conclude that the honeybees may introduce bacteria into the nectar and/or may be contaminated by bacteria introduced into the nectar by other sources such as other pollinators and nectar thieves.

  5. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McArtney Steve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.

  6. Pollen limitation and variation in floral longevity in gynodioecious Potentilla tanacetifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong YAO; yi-Bo LUO

    2011-01-01

    Pollination limitation is common in flowering plants and is thought to be a factor driving the evolution of floral traits.The plasticity of floral longevity to pollination may be an adaptation of plants to pollen limitation.However,this adaptation is less critical in short-lived flowers.To evaluate pollen limitation and the plasticity of floral longevity to pollination in Potentilla tanacetifolia,a gynodioecious herb with short-lived flowers,we analyzed its breeding system,tested sex-differential pollen limitation,and compared variations in floral display size in natural populations in Duolun County,Inner Mongolia,China.Hand pollination experiments and pollinator exclusion treatments revealed that P tanacetifolia is self-compatible and non-autonomously apomictic and shows sex-differential pollen limitation.The plasticity of floral longevity to pollination was observed; the floral duration of female plants was prolonged by approximately 3-4 hours with pollination exclusion treatment.Moreover,the percentage of flowers displayed on female plants during pollination exclusion treatment was significantly higher than that during natural pollination.Under natural pollination conditions,the percentage of flowers displayed on female plants was significantly higher than on hermaphrodite plants.Furthermore,approximately 50% of the pollen grains spread out of the anthers of hermaphrodite flowers within 2 h of anthesis; the number of pollen grains adhering to the stigmas of hermaphrodite flowers was significantly higher than that adhering to female flowers when flowers shed their petals.These results indicate that variation in floral longevity may be an adaptive strategy to pollination conditions for gynodioecious P tanacetifolia.

  7. Divergence on floral traits and vertebrate pollinators of two endemic Encholirium bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianini, A V; Forzza, R C; Buzato, S

    2013-03-01

    Shifts in pollen vectors favour diversification of floral traits, and differences in pollination strategies between congeneric sympatric species can contribute to reproductive isolation. Divergence in flowering phenology and selfing could also reduce interspecific crossing between self-compatible species. We investigated floral traits and visitation rates of pollinators of two sympatric Encholirium species on rocky outcrops to evaluate whether prior knowledge of floral characters could indicate actual pollinators. Data on flowering phenology, visitation rates and breeding system were used to evaluate reproductive isolation. Flowering phenology overlapped between species, but there were differences in floral characters, nectar volume and concentration. Several hummingbird species visited flowers of both Encholirium spp., but the endemic bat Lonchophylla bokermanni and an unidentified sphingid only visited E. vogelii. Pollination treatments demonstrated that E. heloisae and E. vogelii were partially self-compatible, with weak pollen limitation to seed set. Herbivores feeding on inflorescences decreased reproductive output of both species, but for E. vogelii the damage was higher. Our results indicate that actual pollinators can be known beforehand through floral traits, in agreement with pollination syndromes stating that a set of floral traits can be associated with the attraction of specific groups of pollinators. Divergence on floral traits and pollinator assemblage indicate that shifts in pollination strategies contribute to reproductive isolation between these Encholirium species, not divergence on flowering phenology or selfing. We suggest that hummingbird pollination might be the ancestral condition in Encholirium and that evolution of bat pollination made a substantial contribution to the diversification of this clade. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Probing heterobivalent binding to the endocytic AP-2 adaptor complex by DNA-based spatial screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, F; von Kleist, L; Haucke, V; Seitz, O

    2015-08-01

    The double helical DNA scaffold offers a unique set of properties, which are particularly useful for studies of multivalency in biomolecular interactions: (i) multivalent ligand displays can be formed upon nucleic acid hybridization in a self-assembly process, which facilitates spatial screening (ii) valency and spatial arrangement of the ligand display can be precisely controlled and (iii) the flexibility of the ligand display can be adjusted by integrating nick sites and unpaired template regions. Herein we describe the use of DNA-based spatial screening for the characterization of the adaptor complex 2 (AP-2), a central interaction hub within the endocytic protein network in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. AP-2 is comprised of a core domain and two, so-called appendage domains, the α- and the β2-ear, which associate with cytoplasmatic proteins required for the formation or maturation of clathrin/AP-2 coated pits. Each appendage domain has two binding grooves which recognize distinct peptide motives with micromolar affinity. This provides opportunities for enhanced interactions with protein molecules that contain two (or more) different peptide motives. To determine whether a particular, spatial arrangement of binding motifs is required for high affinity binding we probed the distance-affinity relationships by means of DNA-programmed spatial screening with self-assembled peptide-DNA complexes. By using trimolecular and tetramolecular assemblies two different peptides were positioned in 2-22 nucleotide distance. The binding data obtained with both recombinant protein in well-defined buffer systems and native AP-2 in brain extract suggests that the two binding sites of the AP-2 α-appendage can cooperate to provide up to 40-fold enhancement of affinity compared to the monovalent interaction. The distance between the two recognized peptide motives was less important provided that the DNA duplex segments were connected by flexible, single strand segments. By

  9. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus nucleoprotein interacts with TREX complex adaptor protein Aly/REF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod R M T Balasubramaniam

    Full Text Available We constructed a novel chicken (Gallus gallus lung cDNA library fused inside yeast acting domain vector (pGADT7. Using yeast two-hybrid screening with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI nucleoprotein (NP from the strain (A/chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004(H5N1 as bait, and the Gallus gallus lung cDNA library as prey, a novel interaction between the Gallus gallus cellular RNA export adaptor protein Aly/REF and the viral NP was identified. This interaction was confirmed and validated with mammalian two hybrid studies and co-immunoprecipitation assay. Cellular localization studies using confocal microscopy showed that NP and Aly/REF co-localize primarily in the nucleus. Further investigations by mammalian two hybrid studies into the binding of NP of other subtypes of influenza virus such as the swine A/New Jersey/1976/H1N1 and pandemic A/Malaysia/854/2009(H1N1 to human Aly/REF, also showed that the NP of these viruses interacts with human Aly/REF. Our findings are also supported by docking studies which showed tight and favorable binding between H5N1 NP and human Aly/REF, using crystal structures from Protein Data Bank. siRNA knockdown of Aly/REF had little effect on the export of HPAI NP and other viral RNA as it showed no significant reduction in virus titer. However, UAP56, another component of the TREX complex, which recruits Aly/REF to mRNA was found to interact even better with H5N1 NP through molecular docking studies. Both these proteins also co-localizes in the nucleus at early infection similar to Aly/REF. Intriguingly, knockdown of UAP56 in A549 infected cells shows significant reduction in viral titer (close to 10 fold reduction. Conclusively, our study have opened new avenues for research of other cellular RNA export adaptors crucial in aiding viral RNA export such as the SRSF3, 9G8 and ASF/SF2 that may play role in influenza virus RNA nucleocytoplasmic transport.

  10. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus nucleoprotein interacts with TREX complex adaptor protein Aly/REF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Vinod R M T; Hong Wai, Tham; Ario Tejo, Bimo; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Syed Hassan, Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    We constructed a novel chicken (Gallus gallus) lung cDNA library fused inside yeast acting domain vector (pGADT7). Using yeast two-hybrid screening with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) nucleoprotein (NP) from the strain (A/chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004(H5N1)) as bait, and the Gallus gallus lung cDNA library as prey, a novel interaction between the Gallus gallus cellular RNA export adaptor protein Aly/REF and the viral NP was identified. This interaction was confirmed and validated with mammalian two hybrid studies and co-immunoprecipitation assay. Cellular localization studies using confocal microscopy showed that NP and Aly/REF co-localize primarily in the nucleus. Further investigations by mammalian two hybrid studies into the binding of NP of other subtypes of influenza virus such as the swine A/New Jersey/1976/H1N1 and pandemic A/Malaysia/854/2009(H1N1) to human Aly/REF, also showed that the NP of these viruses interacts with human Aly/REF. Our findings are also supported by docking studies which showed tight and favorable binding between H5N1 NP and human Aly/REF, using crystal structures from Protein Data Bank. siRNA knockdown of Aly/REF had little effect on the export of HPAI NP and other viral RNA as it showed no significant reduction in virus titer. However, UAP56, another component of the TREX complex, which recruits Aly/REF to mRNA was found to interact even better with H5N1 NP through molecular docking studies. Both these proteins also co-localizes in the nucleus at early infection similar to Aly/REF. Intriguingly, knockdown of UAP56 in A549 infected cells shows significant reduction in viral titer (close to 10 fold reduction). Conclusively, our study have opened new avenues for research of other cellular RNA export adaptors crucial in aiding viral RNA export such as the SRSF3, 9G8 and ASF/SF2 that may play role in influenza virus RNA nucleocytoplasmic transport.

  11. The modular structure of the floral phenotype in Mimulus luteus var. luteus (Phrymaceae Estructura modular del fenotipo floral en Mimulus luteus var. luteus (Phrymaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GASTÓN CARVALLO

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of multivariate evolution on the floral phenotype assume that traits evolve independently one from each other, ignoring the modular structure that results from genetic correlations or developmental constraints. In this paper we describe the interdependence of nine floral traits in the herb Mimulus luteus var. luteus (Phrymaceae, as an attempt to characterize functional modules on which natural selection can potentially act upon. Using edge exclusion deviance analysis, we detected four modules: (a an attractiveness module, (b a stigma behavior module, (c a stigma surface module, and (d a herkogamy module. Consequences of these findings for future studies of natural selection in this species are discussedLa mayor parte de los estudios de evolución multivariada sobre el fenotipo floral suponen que los rasgos evolucionan independientemente unos de otros, ignorando la estructura modular que resulta de correlaciones genéticas o restricciones impuestas por el desarrollo. En este trabajo describimos la interdependencia de nueve rasgos florales en Mimulus luteus var. luteus (Phrymaceae, en un intento por caracterizar los módulos funcionales sobre los cuales la selección natural pudiera eventualmente actuar. Mediante análisis de desviación límite-excluyente detectamos cuatro módulos: (a un módulo de atractividad floral, (b un módulo de comportamiento estigmático, (c un módulo de superficie estigmática, y (d un módulo de hercogamia. Se discuten las consecuencias de estos hallazgos para futuros estudios de selección natural en esta especie

  12. Trees as huge flowers and flowers as oversized floral guides: the role of floral color change and retention of old flowers in Tibouchina pulchra

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    Vinícius Lourenço Garcia Brito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Floral color changes and retention of old flowers are frequently combined phenomena restricted to the floral guide or single flowers in few-flowered inflorescences. They are thought to increase the attractiveness over long distances and to direct nearby pollinators towards the rewarding flowers. In Tibouchina pulchra, a massively flowering tree, the whole flower changes its color during anthesis. On the first day, the flowers are white and on the next three days, they change to pink. This creates a new large-scale color pattern in which the white pre-changed flowers contrast against the pink post-changed ones over the entire tree. We describe the spectral characteristics of floral colors of T. pulchra and test bumblebees´ response to this color pattern when viewed at different angles (simulating long and short distances. The results indicated the role of different color components in bumblebee attraction and the possible scenario in which this flower color pattern has evolved. We tested bumblebees´ preference for simulated trees with 75% pink and 25% white flowers resembling the color patterns of T. pulchra, and trees with green leaves and pink flowers (control in long-distance approach. We also compared an artificial setting with three pink flowers and one white flower (T. pulchra model against four pink flowers with white floral guides (control in short-distance approach. Bumblebees spontaneously preferred the simulated T. pulchra patterns in both approaches despite similar rewards. Moreover, in short distances, pollinator visits to peripheral, non-rewarding flowers occurred only half as frequently in the simulated T. pulchra when compared to the control. Thefore, this exceptional floral color change and the retention of old flowers in T. pulchra favors the attraction of pollinators over long distances in a deception process while it honestly directs them towards the rewarding flowers at short distances possibly exploring their innate color

  13. Effect of exogenous GA3 and its inhibitor paclobutrazol on floral formation, endogenous hormones, and flowering-associated genes in 'Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

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    Zhang, Songwen; Zhang, Dong; Fan, Sheng; Du, Lisha; Shen, Yawen; Xing, Libo; Li, Youmei; Ma, Juanjuan; Han, Mingyu

    2016-10-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) reduce apple (Malus domestica) flowering rates; however, the mechanism of their action is not fully understood. To gain a better insight into gibberellin-regulated flowering, here, 5 year-old 'Fuji' apple trees were used to explore the responses of hormones [GA1+3, GA4+7, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin-riboside (ZR), and abscisic acid (ABA)], and gibberellin- and flowering-associated genes, to applications of gibberellin acid (GA3) and paclobutrazol (PAC). Results showed that GA3 relatively stimulated vegetative growth and delayed floral induction. Moreover, GA3 spraying significantly affected contents of all endogenous hormones and all the genes tested in at least one time points: the content of endogenous GAs was increased instantly and that of ZR was reduced at 44 days after fullbloom (DAF), which might constitute an unfavorable factor for flower formation; MdKO (ent-kaurene oxidase gene) and MdGA20ox (GA20 oxidase gene) were significantly repressed by a high level of GAs through the negative feedback regulation of GA; additionally, the MdSPLs (SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE) in this study were all significantly repressed by GA3 but promoted by PAC; the expression of MdFT1/2 (FLOWERING LOCUS T), MdSOC1 (SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1) and MdAP1 (APETALA1) in GA3-treated buds changed in the same way, and they were repressed at 44 DAF. We suppose that GA3 spraying disrupts the balance between ZR and GAs, and inhibits floral induction, probably by suppressing MdSPLs and the floral integrators in flower induction, which ultimately contributed to inhibiting flower formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of next-generation sequencing libraries using Nextera™ technology: simultaneous DNA fragmentation and adaptor tagging by in vitro transposition.

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    Caruccio, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    DNA library preparation is a common entry point and bottleneck for next-generation sequencing. Current methods generally consist of distinct steps that often involve significant sample loss and hands-on time: DNA fragmentation, end-polishing, and adaptor-ligation. In vitro transposition with Nextera™ Transposomes simultaneously fragments and covalently tags the target DNA, thereby combining these three distinct steps into a single reaction. Platform-specific sequencing adaptors can be added, and the sample can be enriched and bar-coded using limited-cycle PCR to prepare di-tagged DNA fragment libraries. Nextera technology offers a streamlined, efficient, and high-throughput method for generating bar-coded libraries compatible with multiple next-generation sequencing platforms.

  15. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

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    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-04-13

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

  16. On the roles of colour and scent in a specialized floral mimicry system

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    Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Sexually deceptive orchids achieve cross-pollination by mimicking the mating signals of female insects, generally hymenopterans. This pollination mechanism is often highly specific as it is based primarily on the mimicry of mating signals, especially the female sex pheromones of the targeted pollinator. Like many deceptive orchids, the Mediterranean species Ophrys arachnitiformis shows high levels of floral trait variation, especially in the colour of the perianth, which is either green or white/pinkinsh within populations. The adaptive significance of perianth colour polymorphism and its influence on pollinator visitation rates in sexually deceptive orchids remain obscure. Methods The relative importance of floral scent versus perianth colour in pollinator attraction in this orchid pollinator mimicry system was evaluated by performing floral scent analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and behavioural bioassays with the pollinators under natural conditions were performed. Key Results The relative and absolute amounts of behaviourally active compounds are identical in the two colour morphs of O. arachnitiformis. Neither presence/absence nor the colour of the perianth (green versus white) influence attractiveness of the flowers to Colletes cunicularius males, the main pollinator of O. arachnitiformis. Conclusion Chemical signals alone can mediate the interactions in highly specialized mimicry systems. Floral colour polymorphism in O. arachnitiformis is not subjected to selection imposed by C. cunicularius males, and an interplay between different non-adaptive processes may be responsible for the maintenance of floral colour polymorphism both within and among populations. PMID:19692390

  17. The role of abiotic environmental conditions and herbivory in shaping bacterial community composition in floral nectar.

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    Samuni-Blank, Michal; Izhaki, Ido; Laviad, Sivan; Bar-Massada, Avi; Gerchman, Yoram; Halpern, Malka

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the processes that drive community assembly has long been a central theme in ecology. For microorganisms, a traditional prevailing hypothesis states that "everything is everywhere, but the environment selects". Although the bacterial community in floral nectar may be affected by both atmosphere (air-borne bacteria) and animals as dispersal vectors, the environmental and geographic factors that shape microbial communities in floral nectar are unknown. We studied culturable bacterial communities in Asphodelus aestivus floral nectar and in its typical herbivorous bug Capsodes infuscatus, along an aridity gradient. Bacteria were sampled from floral nectar and bugs at four sites, spanning a geographical range of 200 km from Mediterranean to semi-arid conditions, under open and bagged flower treatments. In agreement with the niche assembly hypothesis, the differences in bacterial community compositions were explained by differences in abiotic environmental conditions. These results suggest that microbial model systems are useful for addressing macro-ecological questions. In addition, similar bacterial communities were found in the nectar and on the surface of the bugs that were documented visiting the flowers. These similarities imply that floral nectar bacteria dispersal is shaped not only by air borne bacteria and nectar consumers as previously reported, but also by visiting vectors like the mirid bugs.

  18. The role of abiotic environmental conditions and herbivory in shaping bacterial community composition in floral nectar.

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    Michal Samuni-Blank

    Full Text Available Identifying the processes that drive community assembly has long been a central theme in ecology. For microorganisms, a traditional prevailing hypothesis states that "everything is everywhere, but the environment selects". Although the bacterial community in floral nectar may be affected by both atmosphere (air-borne bacteria and animals as dispersal vectors, the environmental and geographic factors that shape microbial communities in floral nectar are unknown. We studied culturable bacterial communities in Asphodelus aestivus floral nectar and in its typical herbivorous bug Capsodes infuscatus, along an aridity gradient. Bacteria were sampled from floral nectar and bugs at four sites, spanning a geographical range of 200 km from Mediterranean to semi-arid conditions, under open and bagged flower treatments. In agreement with the niche assembly hypothesis, the differences in bacterial community compositions were explained by differences in abiotic environmental conditions. These results suggest that microbial model systems are useful for addressing macro-ecological questions. In addition, similar bacterial communities were found in the nectar and on the surface of the bugs that were documented visiting the flowers. These similarities imply that floral nectar bacteria dispersal is shaped not only by air borne bacteria and nectar consumers as previously reported, but also by visiting vectors like the mirid bugs.

  19. Variability and heritability of floral development in apple full-sib off springs

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    Atay Ayşe Nilgun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The timing of blooming in spring is highly crucial for temperate zone tree fruit production. In this study, we aimed to investigate floral development using the all parents and full-sib offsprings of two different crossing combinations (‘Kaşel 37’ × ‘Delbarestivale’ and ‘Kaşel 41’ × ‘Williams’ Pride’. Assessments of variability in floral development have been done according to a numerical assessment scheme defined by ten stages (stage 0-9. The assessments were conducted three different dates, early (21 04, intermediate (28 04, and late (05 05. The results showed significant variations for floral development among the 273 genotypes. In particular, the genotypes 326, 340, 369, 88 and 146 were found as superiors for floral development. The broad sense heritability (h2 b for floral development was reliable on the first assessment date, with no reliability on the other assessment dates. Our results would be useful to geneticists and breeders. Key words: Amasya, breeding, F1, Malus slyvestris, new cultivar, progeny, spring frost.

  20. Separable roles of UFO during floral development revealed by conditional restoration of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufs, Patrick; Coen, Enrico; Kronenberger, Jocelyne; Traas, Jan; Doonan, John

    2003-02-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis including specification of organ identity in the second and third whorls and the proper pattern of primordium initiation in the inner three whorls. UFO is expressed in a dynamic pattern during the early phases of flower development. Here we dissect the role of UFO by ubiquitously expressing it in ufo loss-of-function flowers at different developmental stages and for various durations using an ethanol-inducible expression system. The previously known functions of UFO could be separated and related to its expression at specific stages of development. We show that a 24- to 48-hour period of UFO expression from floral stage 2, before any floral organs are visible, is sufficient to restore normal petal and stamen development. The earliest requirement for UFO is during stage 2, when the endogenous UFO gene is transiently expressed in the centre of the wild-type flower and is required to specify the initiation patterns of petal, stamen and carpel primordia. Petal and stamen identity is determined during stages 2 or 3, when UFO is normally expressed in the presumptive second and third whorl. Although endogenous UFO expression is absent from the stamen whorl from stage 4 onwards, stamen identity can be restored by UFO activation up to stage 6. We also observed floral phenotypes not observed in loss-of-function or constitutive gain-of-function backgrounds, revealing additional roles of UFO in outgrowth of petal primordia.

  1. The Emission of the Floral Scent of Four Osmanthus fragrans Cultivars in Response to Different Temperatures.

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    Fu, Jianxin; Hou, Dan; Zhang, Chao; Bao, Zhiyi; Zhao, Hongbo; Hu, Shaoqing

    2017-03-08

    Floral scent is an important part of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants, and is influenced by many environmental and endogenous factors. To investigate the influence of temperature on the emission of the floral scent of Osmanthus fragrans, the number of chemical compounds and their relative release amounts from four cultivars of O. fragrans under different temperature treatments, were identified using the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in this study. Results revealed that the numbers and release amounts of floral scent components were significantly influenced by different temperatures, and depend on different cultivars and different types of compounds. Overall, most cultivars had the largest number of chemical compounds in 19 °C and the numbers of chemical compounds decreased with the increase or decrease in the temperature. Alcohols and ketones were the two main kinds of compounds responding to temperature change. The response of a specific chemical compound to temperature change was different in four cultivars. Generally, linalool, α-ionone, β-ionone, and γ-decalactone accounted for the highest proportion in the nine main compounds, and changes of these four chemical compounds to different temperatures had obvious contributions to the floral scent of O. fragrans. The results obtained provide evidence that temperatures can greatly influence the emission of floral scent.

  2. Parental frequencies and spatial configuration shape bumblebee behavior and floral isolation in hybridizing Rhinanthus.

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    Natalis, Laurent C; Wesselingh, Renate A

    2013-06-01

    To shed light on the role played by pollinators in the diversification of angiosperms, focus is needed on how floral isolation varies locally in the early stages of plant divergence. The few studies performed so far have often used species pairs with distinct pollination syndromes and contrasting floral displays. Here, we focus on a hybridizing pair (Rhinanthus minor and Rhinanthus angustifolius) with strong similarities in flower morphology and pollinators (bumblebees). We examined how ethological isolation changes locally in relation to relative Rhinanthus frequencies, spatial configurations, and pollinator assemblages. Interestingly, floral divergence based on adaptation to different pollinators is unlikely in Rhinanthus: no relationship was found between floral isolation and the local pollinator assemblage. In contrast, species frequency and spatial arrangement strongly influenced bumblebee behavior, ethological isolation, and thus potentially hybrid formation. When both Rhinanthus were present in equal proportions, bees generally preferred the more rewarding and conspicuous species. However, when the Rhinanthus frequencies were unbalanced, the more abundant species was preferred, although this was less pronounced when the less rewarding R. minor predominated. Ethological isolation is highly sensitive to site characteristics, and can be as high as in species with contrasting floral displays and pollinator suites, even though flowers are similar. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Changes in pollinator fauna affect altitudinal variation of floral size in a bumblebee-pollinated herb.

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    Nagano, Yusuke; Abe, Kota; Kitazawa, Tomoaki; Hattori, Mitsuru; Hirao, Akira S; Itino, Takao

    2014-09-01

    Geographic trait variations are often caused by locally different selection regimes. As a steep environmental cline along altitude strongly influences adaptive traits, mountain ecosystems are ideal for exploring adaptive differentiation over short distances. We investigated altitudinal floral size variation of Campanula punctata var. hondoensis in 12 populations in three mountain regions of central Japan to test whether the altitudinal floral size variation was correlated with the size of the local bumblebee pollinator and to assess whether floral size was selected for by pollinator size. We found apparent geographic variations in pollinator assemblages along altitude, which consequently produced a geographic change in pollinator size. Similarly, we found altitudinal changes in floral size, which proved to be correlated with the local pollinator size, but not with altitude itself. Furthermore, pollen removal from flower styles onto bees (plant's male fitness) was strongly influenced by the size match between flower style length and pollinator mouthpart length. These results strongly suggest that C. punctata floral size is under pollinator-mediated selection and that a geographic mosaic of locally adapted C. punctata exists at fine spatial scale.

  4. The relationships between floral traits and specificity of pollination systems in three Scandinavian plant communities.

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    Lázaro, Amparo; Hegland, Stein Joar; Totland, Orjan

    2008-08-01

    The pollination syndrome hypothesis has provided a major conceptual framework for how plants and pollinators interact. However, the assumption of specialization in pollination systems and the reliability of floral traits in predicting the main pollinators have been questioned recently. In addition, the relationship between ecological and evolutionary specialization in pollination interactions is still poorly understood. We used data of 62 plant species from three communities across southern Norway to test: (1) the relationships between floral traits and the identity of pollinators, (2) the association between floral traits (evolutionary specialization) and ecological generalization, and (3) the consistency of both relationships across communities. Floral traits significantly affected the identity of pollinators in the three communities in a way consistent with the predictions derived from the pollination syndrome concept. However, hover flies and butterflies visited flowers with different shapes in different communities, which we mainly attribute to among-community variation in pollinator assemblages. Interestingly, ecological generalization depended more on the community-context (i.e. the plant and pollinator assemblages in the communities) than on specific floral traits. While open yellow and white flowers were the most generalist in two communities, they were the most specialist in the alpine community. Our results warn against the use of single measures of ecological generalization to question the pollination syndrome concept, and highlight the importance of community comparisons to assess the pollination syndromes, and to understand the relationships between ecological and evolutionary specialization in plant-pollinator interactions.

  5. Pollen sensitivity to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) suggests floral structure evolution in alpine plants.

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    Zhang, Chan; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2014-03-31

    Various biotic and abiotic factors are known to exert selection pressures on floral traits, but the influence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light on the evolution of flower structure remains relatively unexplored. We have examined the effectiveness of flower structure in blocking radiation and the effects of UV-B on pollen viability in 42 species of alpine plants in the Hengduan Mountains, China. Floral forms were categorized as either protecting or exposing pollen grains to UV-B. The floral materials of plants with exposed and protected pollen grains were able to block UV-B at similar levels. Exposure to UV-B radiation in vitro resulted in a significantly greater loss of viability in pollen from plant species with protective floral structures. The pronounced sensitivity of protected pollen to UV-B radiation was associated with the type of flower structure. These findings demonstrate that UV-B plays an important role in the evolution of protective floral forms in alpine plants.

  6. Morpho-anatomical and morphometric studies of the floral structures of the distylous Oldenlandia salzmannii (Rubiaceae

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    Mariela Nuñez Florentin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The genus Oldenlandia (Rubiaceae has a conflicting generic delimitation, with representatives that show different floral syndromes. Oldenlandia salzmannii is a marshy herb that is widespread in South America. It is heterostylous, specifically distylous, and self-compatible. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies found that this species forms a clade that is isolated from the remaining described taxa of Oldenlandia. Information about the floral anatomy and reproductive biology of genera in the Spermacoceae tribe, particularly Oldenlandia, is insufficient, especially among the neotropical species. Accordingly, the present study aimed at contributing information on the reproductive biology of Oldenlandia salzmannii by analyzing its floral morpho-anatomy, morphometrics and phenology of both floral morphs. These analyses were conducted with natural, cultivated and fixed material using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Morphologically, the species is typically heterostylous with two floral morphs, long-styled and short-styled, the main difference being the indument of the corolla. The short-styled flowers have larger anthers and pollen grains. Morphometrics show a high degree of herkogamic reciprocity. The mature ovules have a hemitropous position, which is the first record of this position for the Spermacoceae tribe. This study represents the first comprehensive morphological study of Oldenlandia salzmannii.

  7. Artificial Neural Network for the Prediction of Tyrosine-Based Sorting Signal Recognition by Adaptor Complexes

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    Debarati Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorting of transmembrane proteins to various intracellular compartments depends on specific signals present within their cytosolic domains. Among these sorting signals, the tyrosine-based motif (YXXØ is one of the best characterized and is recognized by μ-subunits of the four clathrin-associated adaptor complexes (AP-1 to AP-4. Despite their overlap in specificity, each μ-subunit has a distinct sequence preference dependent on the nature of the X-residues. Moreover, combinations of these residues exert cooperative or inhibitory effects towards interaction with the various APs. This complexity makes it impossible to predict a priori, the specificity of a given tyrosine-signal for a particular μ-subunit. Here, we describe the results obtained with a computational approach based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN paradigm that addresses the issue of tyrosine-signal specificity, enabling the prediction of YXXØ-μ interactions with accuracies over 90%. Therefore, this approach constitutes a powerful tool to help predict mechanisms of intracellular protein sorting.

  8. The adaptor protein MITA links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 transcription factor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bo; Yang, Yan; Li, Shu; Wang, Yan-Yi; Li, Ying; Diao, Feici; Lei, Caoqi; He, Xiao; Zhang, Lu; Tien, Po; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2008-10-17

    Viral infection triggers activation of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB and IRF3, which collaborate to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and elicit innate antiviral response. Here, we identified MITA as a critical mediator of virus-triggered type I IFN signaling by expression cloning. Overexpression of MITA activated IRF3, whereas knockdown of MITA inhibited virus-triggered activation of IRF3, expression of type I IFNs, and cellular antiviral response. MITA was found to localize to the outer membrane of mitochondria and to be associated with VISA, a mitochondrial protein that acts as an adaptor in virus-triggered signaling. MITA also interacted with IRF3 and recruited the kinase TBK1 to the VISA-associated complex. MITA was phosphorylated by TBK1, which is required for MITA-mediated activation of IRF3. Our results suggest that MITA is a critical mediator of virus-triggered IRF3 activation and IFN expression and further demonstrate the importance of certain mitochondrial proteins in innate antiviral immunity.

  9. Dengue virus targets the adaptor protein MITA to subvert host innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Yi; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Liang, Jian-Jong; Chiang, Ruei-Lin; Lee, Yi-Ling; Liao, Ching-Len; Lin, Yi-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most important arboviral diseases caused by infection of four serotypes of dengue virus (DEN). We found that activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) triggered by viral infection and by foreign DNA and RNA stimulation was blocked by DEN-encoded NS2B3 through a protease-dependent mechanism. The key adaptor protein in type I interferon pathway, human mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA) but not the murine homologue MPYS, was cleaved in cells infected with DEN-1 or DEN-2 and with expression of the enzymatically active protease NS2B3. The cleavage site of MITA was mapped to LRR↓(96)G and the function of MITA was suppressed by dengue protease. DEN replication was reduced with overexpression of MPYS but not with MITA, while DEN replication was enhanced by MPYS knockdown, indicating an antiviral role of MITA/MPYS against DEN infection. The involvement of MITA in DEN-triggered innate immune response was evidenced by reduction of IRF3 activation and IFN induction in cells with MITA knockdown upon DEN-2 infection. NS2B3 physically interacted with MITA, and the interaction and cleavage of MITA could be further enhanced by poly(dA:dT) stimulation. Thus, we identified MITA as a novel host target of DEN protease and provide the molecular mechanism of how DEN subverts the host innate immunity.

  10. Development of STEP-NC Adaptor for Advanced Web Manufacturing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay Konapala, Mr.; Koona, Ramji, Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Information systems play a key role in the modern era of Information Technology. Rapid developments in IT & global competition calls for many changes in basic CAD/CAM/CAPP/CNC manufacturing chain of operations. ‘STEP-NC’ an enhancement to STEP for operating CNC machines, creating new opportunities for collaborative, concurrent, adaptive works across the manufacturing chain of operations. Schemas and data models defined by ISO14649 in liaison with ISO10303 standards made STEP-NC file rich with feature based, rather than mere point to point information of G/M Code format. But one needs to have a suitable information system to understand and modify these files. Various STEP-NC information systems are reviewed to understand the suitability of STEP-NC for web manufacturing. Present work also deals with the development of an adaptor which imports STEP-NC file, organizes its information, allowing modifications to entity values and finally generates a new STEP-NC file to export. The system is designed and developed to work on web to avail additional benefits through the web and also to be part of a proposed ‘Web based STEP-NC manufacturing platform’ which is under development and explained as future scope.

  11. Dengue virus targets the adaptor protein MITA to subvert host innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yi Yu

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most important arboviral diseases caused by infection of four serotypes of dengue virus (DEN. We found that activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 triggered by viral infection and by foreign DNA and RNA stimulation was blocked by DEN-encoded NS2B3 through a protease-dependent mechanism. The key adaptor protein in type I interferon pathway, human mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA but not the murine homologue MPYS, was cleaved in cells infected with DEN-1 or DEN-2 and with expression of the enzymatically active protease NS2B3. The cleavage site of MITA was mapped to LRR↓(96G and the function of MITA was suppressed by dengue protease. DEN replication was reduced with overexpression of MPYS but not with MITA, while DEN replication was enhanced by MPYS knockdown, indicating an antiviral role of MITA/MPYS against DEN infection. The involvement of MITA in DEN-triggered innate immune response was evidenced by reduction of IRF3 activation and IFN induction in cells with MITA knockdown upon DEN-2 infection. NS2B3 physically interacted with MITA, and the interaction and cleavage of MITA could be further enhanced by poly(dA:dT stimulation. Thus, we identified MITA as a novel host target of DEN protease and provide the molecular mechanism of how DEN subverts the host innate immunity.

  12. Novel isoform of adaptor protein ITSN1 forms homodimers via its C-terminus

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    Skrypkina I. Ya.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Previously we have identified a novel isoform of endocytic adaptor protein ITSN1 designated as ITSN122a. Western blot revealed two immunoreactive bands of 120 and 250 kDa that corresponded to ITSN1-22a. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of dimer formation by the novel isoform. Methods. Dimerization ability of ITSN1-22a was tested by immunoprecipitation and subsequent Western blot analysis. To specify the region responsible for dimerization, site-directed mutagenesis and truncation analysis were carried out. Inhibition of endocytosis by potassium depletion and EGF stimulation of HEK293 were performed. Results. We have found that ITSN1-22a forms dimers in HEK293 cells. The dimerization of ITSN1-22a was mediated by C-terminal domain. We showed that cysteines C1016 and C1019 were involved in homodimerization. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and mitogen stimulation did not affect ITSN1-22a dimer formation. Conclusions. ITSN1-22a is the only one known ITSN1 isoform, which is capable to form homodimers via disulphide bonds. This could be important for the formation of protein complexes containing ITSN1 molecules.

  13. ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of All Three Members of the MRN Complex: From Sensor to Adaptor.

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    Lavin, Martin F; Kozlov, Sergei; Gatei, Magtouf; Kijas, Amanda W

    2015-10-23

    The recognition, signalling and repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) involves the participation of a multitude of proteins and post-translational events that ensure maintenance of genome integrity. Amongst the proteins involved are several which when mutated give rise to genetic disorders characterised by chromosomal abnormalities, cancer predisposition, neurodegeneration and other pathologies. ATM (mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and members of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN complex) play key roles in this process. The MRN complex rapidly recognises and locates to DNA DSB where it acts to recruit and assist in ATM activation. ATM, in the company of several other DNA damage response proteins, in turn phosphorylates all three members of the MRN complex to initiate downstream signalling. While ATM has hundreds of substrates, members of the MRN complex play a pivotal role in mediating the downstream signalling events that give rise to cell cycle control, DNA repair and ultimately cell survival or apoptosis. Here we focus on the interplay between ATM and the MRN complex in initiating signaling of breaks and more specifically on the adaptor role of the MRN complex in mediating ATM signalling to downstream substrates to control different cellular processes.

  14. The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Bassiri, Hamid; Guan, Peng; Wiener, Susan; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André; Orange, Jordan S; Nichols, Kim E

    2013-04-25

    The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) plays critical roles during invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell ontogeny. As a result, SAP-deficient humans and mice lack iNKT cells. The strict developmental requirement for SAP has made it difficult to discern its possible involvement in mature iNKT cell functions. By using temporal Cre recombinase-mediated gene deletion to ablate SAP expression after completion of iNKT cell development, we demonstrate that SAP is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced iNKT cell cytotoxicity against T-cell and B-cell leukemia targets in vitro and iNKT-cell-mediated control of T-cell leukemia growth in vivo. These findings are not restricted to the murine system: silencing RNA-mediated suppression of SAP expression in human iNKT cells also significantly impairs TCR-induced cytolysis. Mechanistic studies reveal that iNKT cell killing requires the tyrosine kinase Fyn, a known SAP-binding protein. Furthermore, SAP expression is required within iNKT cells to facilitate their interaction with T-cell targets and induce reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center to the immunologic synapse (IS). Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role for SAP during iNKT cell cytotoxicity and formation of a functional IS.

  15. SARM: a novel Toll-like receptor adaptor, is functionally conserved from arthropod to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinda, Loh Wei-Ching; Wei, Wang Xiao; Hanh, Bui Thi Hong; Lei, Luan Xiao; Bow, Ho; Ling, Ding Jeak

    2008-03-01

    Sterile-alpha and Armadillo motif containing protein (SARM) was recently identified as the fifth member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor family. Whilst the Caenorhabditis elegans SARM homologue, TIR-1, is crucial for efficient immune responses against bacterial infections, human SARM was demonstrated to function as a specific inhibitor of TRIF-dependent TLR signaling. The opposing role of SARM in C. elegans and human is intriguing, prompting us to seek clarification on the enigmatic function of SARM in an ancient species which relies solely on innate immunity for survival. Here, we report the discovery of a primitive but functional SARM (CrSARM) in the immune defense of a "living fossil", the horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. CrSARM shares numerous signature motifs and displays significant homology with vertebrate and invertebrate SARM homologues. CrSARM downregulates TRIF-dependent TLR signaling suggesting the conservation of SARM function from horseshoe crab to human. During infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, CrSARM is rapidly upregulated within 3h and strongly repressed at 6h, coinciding with the timing of bacterial clearance, thus demonstrating its dynamic role in innate immunity. Furthermore, yeast-two-hybrid screening revealed several potential interaction partners of CrSARM implying the role of SARM in downregulating TLR signaling events. Altogether, our study shows that, although C. elegans SARM upregulates immune signaling, its disparate role as a suppressor of TLR signaling, specifically via TRIF and not MyD88, is well-conserved from horseshoe crab to human.

  16. Losses, Expansions, and Novel Subunit Discovery of Adaptor Protein Complexes in Haptophyte Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J Y; Klute, Mary J; Herman, Emily K; Read, Betsy; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-11-01

    The phylum Haptophyta (Diaphoratickes) contains marine algae that perform biomineralization, extruding large, distinctive calcium carbonate scales (coccoliths) that completely cover the cell. Coccolith production is an important part of global carbon cycling; however, the membrane trafficking pathway by which they are secreted has not yet been elucidated. In most eukaryotes, post-Golgi membrane trafficking involves five heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which impart cargo selection specificity. To better understand coccolith secretion, we performed comparative genomic, phylogenetic, and transcriptomic analyses of the AP complexes in Emiliania huxleyi strains 92A, Van556, EH2, and CCMP1516, and related haptophytes Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Isochrysis galbana; the latter has lost the ability to biomineralize. We show that haptophytes have a modified membrane trafficking system (MTS), as we found both AP subunit losses and duplications. Additionally, we identified a single conserved subunit of the AP-related TSET complex, whose expression suggests a functional role in membrane trafficking. Finally, we detected novel alpha adaptin ear and gamma adaptin ear proteins, the first of their kind to be described outside of opisthokonts. These novel ear proteins and the sculpting of the MTS may support the capacity for biomineralization in haptophytes, enhancing their ability to perform this highly specialized form of secretion.

  17. Nrf2 reduces levels of phosphorylated tau protein by inducing autophagy adaptor protein NDP52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Chulman; Gundemir, Soner; Pritchard, Susanne; Jin, Youngnam N.; Rahman, Irfan; Johnson, Gail V. W.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a pivotal transcription factor in the defence against oxidative stress. Here we provide evidence that activation of the Nrf2 pathway reduces the levels of phosphorylated tau by induction of an autophagy adaptor protein NDP52 (also known as CALCOCO2) in neurons. The expression of NDP52, which we show has three antioxidant response elements (AREs) in its promoter region, is strongly induced by Nrf2, and its overexpression facilitates clearance of phosphorylated tau in the presence of an autophagy stimulator. In Nrf2-knockout mice, phosphorylated and sarkosyl-insoluble tau accumulates in the brains concurrent with decreased levels of NDP52. Moreover, NDP52 associates with phosphorylated tau from brain cortical samples of Alzheimer disease cases, and the amount of phosphorylated tau in sarkosyl-insoluble fractions is inversely proportional to that of NDP52. These results suggest that NDP52 plays a key role in autophagy-mediated degradation of phosphorylated tau in vivo.

  18. CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 10 (COP10 Contributes to Floral Repression under Non-Inductive Short Days in Arabidopsis

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    Min-Young Kang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC/DE-ETIOLATED/FUSCA (COP/DET/FUS genes act in repression of photomorphogenesis in darkness, and recent reports revealed that some of these genes, such as COP1 and DET1, also have important roles in controlling flowering time and circadian rhythm. The COP/DET/FUS protein COP10 interacts with DET1 and DNA DAMAGE-BINDING PROTEIN 1 (DDB1 to form a CDD complex and represses photomorphogenesis in darkness. The cop10-4 mutants flower normally in inductive long days (LD but early in non-inductive short days (SD compared with wild type (WT; however, the role of COP10 remains unknown. Here, we investigate the role of COP10 in SD-dependent floral repression. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed that in SD, expression of the LD-dependent floral inducers GI, FKF1, and FT significantly increased in cop10-4 mutants, compared with WT. This suggests that COP10 mainly regulates FT expression in a CO-independent manner. We also show that COP10 interacts with GI in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that COP10 could also affect GI function at the posttranslational level. Moreover, FLC expression was repressed drastically in cop10-4 mutants and COP10 interacts with MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 4 (MSI4/FVE (MSI4/FVE, which epigenetically inhibits FLC expression. These data suggest that COP10 contributes to delaying flowering in the photoperiod and autonomous pathways by downregulating FT expression under SD.

  19. Floral morphogenesis: stochastic explorations of a gene network epigenetic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena R Alvarez-Buylla

    Full Text Available In contrast to the classical view of development as a preprogrammed and deterministic process, recent studies have demonstrated that stochastic perturbations of highly non-linear systems may underlie the emergence and stability of biological patterns. Herein, we address the question of whether noise contributes to the generation of the stereotypical temporal pattern in gene expression during flower development. We modeled the regulatory network of organ identity genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana flower as a stochastic system. This network has previously been shown to converge to ten fixed-point attractors, each with gene expression arrays that characterize inflorescence cells and primordial cells of sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. The network used is binary, and the logical rules that govern its dynamics are grounded in experimental evidence. We introduced different levels of uncertainty in the updating rules of the network. Interestingly, for a level of noise of around 0.5-10%, the system exhibited a sequence of transitions among attractors that mimics the sequence of gene activation configurations observed in real flowers. We also implemented the gene regulatory network as a continuous system using the Glass model of differential equations, that can be considered as a first approximation of kinetic-reaction equations, but which are not necessarily equivalent to the Boolean model. Interestingly, the Glass dynamics recover a temporal sequence of attractors, that is qualitatively similar, although not identical, to that obtained using the Boolean model. Thus, time ordering in the emergence of cell-fate patterns is not an artifact of synchronous updating in the Boolean model. Therefore, our model provides a novel explanation for the emergence and robustness of the ubiquitous temporal pattern of floral organ specification. It also constitutes a new approach to understanding morphogenesis, providing predictions on the population dynamics of

  20. Pollinator adaptation and the evolution of floral nectar sugar composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamczyk, S; Kessler, M; Hanley, D; Karger, D N; Müller, M P J; Knauer, A C; Keller, F; Schwerdtfeger, M; Humphreys, A M

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing debate concerns whether nectar sugar composition evolves as an adaptation to pollinator dietary requirements or whether it is 'phylogenetically constrained'. Here, we use a modelling approach to evaluate the hypothesis that nectar sucrose proportion (NSP) is an adaptation to pollinators. We analyse ~ 2100 species of asterids, spanning several plant families and pollinator groups (PGs), and show that the hypothesis of adaptation cannot be rejected: NSP evolves towards two optimal values, high NSP for specialist-pollinated and low NSP for generalist-pollinated plants. However, the inferred adaptive process is weak, suggesting that adaptation to PG only provides a partial explanation for how nectar evolves. Additional factors are therefore needed to fully explain nectar evolution, and we suggest that future studies might incorporate floral shape and size and the abiotic environment into the analytical framework. Further, we show that NSP and PG evolution are correlated - in a manner dictated by pollinator behaviour. This contrasts with the view that a plant necessarily has to adapt its nectar composition to ensure pollination but rather suggests that pollinators adapt their foraging behaviour or dietary requirements to the nectar sugar composition presented by the plants. Finally, we document unexpectedly sucrose-poor nectar in some specialized nectarivorous bird-pollinated plants from the Old World, which might represent an overlooked form of pollinator deception. Thus, our broad study provides several new insights into how nectar evolves and we conclude by discussing why maintaining the conceptual dichotomy between adaptation and constraint might be unhelpful for advancing this field. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Yeast identification in floral nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyauk, C.; Belisle, M.; Fukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    Nectar is such a sugar-rich resource that serves as a natural habitat in which microbes thrive. As a result, yeasts arrive to nectar on the bodies of pollinators such as hummingbirds and bees. Yeasts use the sugar in nectar for their own needs when introduced. This research focuses on the identification of different types of yeast that are found in the nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (commonly known as sticky monkey-flower). Unopened Mimulus aurantiacus flower buds were tagged at Jasper Ridge and bagged three days later. Floral nectar was then extracted and plated on potato dextrose agar. Colonies on the plates were isolated and DNA was extracted from each sample using QIAGEN DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The DNA was amplified through PCR and ran through gel electrophoresis. The PCR product was used to clone the nectar samples into an E.coli vector. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was created by BLAST searching sequences in GenBank using the Internal Transcribed Space (ITS) locus. It was found that 18 of the 50 identified species were Candida magnifica, 14 was Candida rancensis, 6 were Crytococcus albidus and there were 3 or less of the following: Starmella bombicola, Candida floricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Pichia kluyvera, Metschnikowa cibodaserisis, Rhodotorua colostri, and Malassezia globosa. The low diversity of the yeast could have been due to several factors: time of collection, demographics of Jasper Ridge, low variety of pollinators, and sugar concentration of the nectar. The results of this study serve as a necessary first step for a recently started research project on ecological interactions between plants, pollinators, and nectar-living yeast. More generally, this research studies the use of the nectar-living yeast community as a natural microcosm for addressing basic questions about the role of dispersal and competitive and facilitative interactions in ecological succession.

  2. Floral biology and reproductive system of enantiostylous Senna corymbosa (Caesalpiniaceae

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    Cecilia Laporta

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Senna (K.Bahuin Miller (Cassieae is represented in Argentina by 35 species and several varieties distributed in temperate, tropical and subtropical regions, and presents a high degree of endemism. Some taxa are used for medicine, animal foraging and ornamental purposes. Floral morphology, phases, rewards, attractants, visitors, pollen, reproductive system, P/O ratio, OCI and ISI indexes of enantiostylous Senna corymbosa were analyzed for morphological androecial differentiation and possible related functional differences between stamens groups. The study was carried out over three consecutive flowering seasons in March of 1999, 2000 and 2001, in two populations near the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The species has a buzz-pollination syndrome. The pollinators are Bombus atratus that vibrate the stamens, leading to nothotribic or sternotribic deposition of pollen. P/O ratio and pollen production were high thanks to the precise pollinating mechanism that needs a large delivery of pollen to ensure effective pollen deposition. P/O ratio also indicates that the species is xenogamous, although geitonogamy and autogamy (only induced, not spontaneouswere also recorded. The species is self-compatible. There were differences in hand-pollination treatments between long and medium stamens in fruit set, as well as in vitro differential fertility between their pollen grains. Hence, there are morphological and functional androecium differences: the medium stamens play a nutritional role while the long ones play a reproductive one. These differences are reflected in the breeding system. Moreover, differential fertility and enantiostyly may diminish the effects of self-compatibility by partially reducing the contribution of geitonogamy to selfing. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2:49-61. Epub 2005 Jun 24Se analizaron la morfología y fases florales, recompensa, atractivos, visitantes, polen, sistema reproductivo, índices OCI e ISI y relación polen/óvulo de

  3. The receptor Ly108 functions as a SAP adaptor-dependent on-off switch for T cell help to B cells and NKT cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Robin; Cannons, Jennifer L; Zhao, Fang; Yusuf, Isharat; Lao, Christopher; Locci, Michela; Schwartzberg, Pamela L; Crotty, Shane

    2012-06-29

    Humans and mice deficient in the adaptor protein SAP (Sh2d1a) have a major defect in humoral immunity, resulting from a lack of T cell help for B cells. The role of SAP in this process is incompletely understood. We found that deletion of receptor Ly108 (Slamf6) in CD4(+) T cells reversed the Sh2d1a(-/-) phenotype, eliminating the SAP requirement for germinal centers. This potent negative signaling by Ly108 required immunotyrosine switch motifs (ITSMs) and SHP-1 recruitment, resulting in high amounts of SHP-1 at the T cell:B cell synapse, limiting T cell:B cell adhesion. Ly108-negative signaling was important not only in CD4(+) T cells; we found that NKT cell differentiation was substantially restored in Slamf6(-/-)Sh2d1a(-/-) mice. The ability of SAP to regulate both positive and negative signals in T cells can explain the severity of SAP deficiency and highlights the importance of SAP and SHP-1 competition for Ly108 ITSM binding as a rheostat for the magnitude of T cell help to B cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The receptor Ly108 functions as a SAP adaptor dependent on-off switch for T cell help to B cells and NKT cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Robin; Cannons, Jennifer L.; Zhao, Fang; Yusuf, Isharat; Lao, Christopher; Locci, Michela; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.; Crotty, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Humans and mice deficient in the adaptor protein SAP (Sh2d1a) have a major defect in humoral immunity, due to lack of T cell help for B cells. The role of SAP in this process is incompletely understood. We found that deletion of receptor Ly108 (Slamf6) in CD4+ T cells reversed the Sh2d1a−/− phenotype, eliminating the SAP requirement for germinal centers. This potent negative signaling by Ly108 required immunotyrosine switch motifs (ITSMs) and SHP-1 recruitment, resulting in high amounts of SHP-1 at the T:B synapse, limiting T:B adhesion. Ly108 negative signaling was not only important in CD4+ T cells, as we found that NKT cell differentiation was substantially restored in Slamf6−/−Sh2d1a−/− mice. The ability of SAP to regulate both positive and negative signals in T cells can explain the severity of SAP-deficiency and highlights the importance of SAP and SHP-1 competition for Ly108 ITSM binding as a rheostat for the magnitude of T cell help to B cells. PMID:22683125

  5. Activation of EphA receptors mediates the recruitment of the adaptor protein Slap, contributing to the downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerdjieva, Sophia; Abdul-Razak, Hayder H; Salim, Sharifah S; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael J; Chen, Philip E; Tarabykin, Victor; Alifragis, Pavlos

    2013-04-01

    Regulation of the activity of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at glutamatergic synapses is essential for certain forms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory and is also associated with neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative diseases. In this report, we investigate the role of Src-like adaptor protein (Slap) in NMDA receptor signaling. We present data showing that in dissociated neuronal cultures, activation of ephrin (Eph) receptors by chimeric preclustered eph-Fc ligands leads to recruitment of Slap and NMDA receptors at the sites of Eph receptor activation. Interestingly, our data suggest that prolonged activation of EphA receptors is as efficient in recruiting Slap and NMDA receptors as prolonged activation of EphB receptors. Using established heterologous systems, we examined whether Slap is an integral part of NMDA receptor signaling. Our results showed that Slap does not alter baseline activity of NMDA receptors and does not affect Src-dependent potentiation of NMDA receptor currents in Xenopus oocytes. We also demonstrate that Slap reduces excitotoxic cell death triggered by activation of NMDARs in HEK293 cells. Finally, we present evidence showing reduced levels of NMDA receptors in the presence of Slap occurring in an activity-dependent manner, suggesting that Slap is part of a mechanism that homeostatically modulates the levels of NMDA receptors.

  6. A quantitative review of pollination syndromes: do floral traits predict effective pollinators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Guerrero, Víctor; Aguilar, Ramiro; Martén-Rodríguez, Silvana; Ashworth, Lorena; Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Martha; Bastida, Jesús M; Quesada, Mauricio

    2014-03-01

    The idea of pollination syndromes has been largely discussed but no formal quantitative evaluation has yet been conducted across angiosperms. We present the first systematic review of pollination syndromes that quantitatively tests whether the most effective pollinators for a species can be inferred from suites of floral traits for 417 plant species. Our results support the syndrome concept, indicating that convergent floral evolution is driven by adaptation to the most effective pollinator group. The predictability of pollination syndromes is greater in pollinator-dependent species and in plants from tropical regions. Many plant species also have secondary pollinators that generally correspond to the ancestral pollinators documented in evolutionary studies. We discuss the utility and limitations of pollination syndromes and the role of secondary pollinators to understand floral ecology and evolution.

  7. Inheritance of Factors Affecting Floral Primordia Initiation in Cestrum; Hybrids of C. elegans and C. nocturnum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesel, W O

    1966-01-01

    Photoperiod patterns of hybrids of Cestrum elegans (Brongn.) Schlect., a day neutral plant, and C. nocturnum L., a long-short day and long day plant, were investigated. Plants of the F(1) generation, F(2) generation, and backcrosses to each parent were tested on short day, long day, continuous light, long-short day and short-long day for floral primordia initiation. The data recorded suggest 2 independent genes or gene groups controlling floral primordia initiation in C. nocturnum, a single dominant gene that is activated by long-short day treatment and a recessive gene or genes responding to long day treatment. Further, these data suggest that the day neutral condition in C. elegans is the result of the series of independent genes or gene groups that respond to various photoperiods, the combination of these genes resulting in floral primordia initiation on all photoperiods.

  8. Secondary compounds in floral rewards of toxic rangeland plants: impacts on pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rebecca E; Cook, Daniel; Richardson, Leif L; Manson, Jessamyn S; Gardner, Dale R

    2014-07-30

    The study of plant secondary chemistry has been essential in understanding plant consumption by herbivores. There is growing evidence that secondary compounds also occur in floral rewards, including nectar and pollen. Many pollinators are generalist nectar and pollen foragers and thus are exposed to an array of secondary compounds in their diet. This review documents secondary compounds in the nectar or pollen of poisonous rangeland plants of the western United States and the effects of these compounds on the behavior, performance, and survival of pollinators. Furthermore, the biochemical, physiological, and behavioral mechanisms by which pollinators cope with secondary compound consumption are discussed, drawing parallels between pollinators and herbivores. Finally, three avenues of future research on floral reward chemistry are proposed. Given that the majority of flowering plants require animals for pollination, understanding how floral reward chemistry affects pollinators has implications for plant reproduction in agricultural and rangeland habitats.

  9. Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by dynamic headspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Daniel A V; Marques, Marcia Ortiz M; Meletti, Laura M M; Kampen, Maria H VAN; Polozzi, Sandra C

    2016-09-01

    This study describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Brazilian Passiflora (Passiflora edulis Sim, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora cincinnata Mast., Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora quadrangularis L.). Five species were grown in greenhouse at the Agronomic Institute (IAC), São Paulo, Brazil. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace. Analyses of scent composition were performed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Identification of chemical constituents was conducted through of retention index followed by comparative analysis of mass spectra with specialized databases. The olfactive descriptions of floral scent from each species was evaluated for a professional perfumer. High interspecific diversity was found between chemical compositions of floral scent within Passiflora and different bouquets were observed amount the studied species. Mayor constituents were linalool (P. alata), geraniol (P. quadrangularis), 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (P. edulis), benzaldehyde (P. cincinnata) and 2-methyl-3-pentanone (P. coccinea).

  10. Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by dynamic headspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL A.V. MONTERO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Brazilian Passiflora (Passiflora edulis Sim, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora cincinnata Mast., Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora quadrangularis L.. Five species were grown in greenhouse at the Agronomic Institute (IAC, São Paulo, Brazil. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace. Analyses of scent composition were performed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Identification of chemical constituents was conducted through of retention index followed by comparative analysis of mass spectra with specialized databases. The olfactive descriptions of floral scent from each species was evaluated for a professional perfumer. High interspecific diversity was found between chemical compositions of floral scent within Passiflora and different bouquets were observed amount the studied species. Mayor constituents were linalool (P. alata, geraniol (P. quadrangularis, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (P. edulis, benzaldehyde (P. cincinnata and 2-methyl-3-pentanone (P. coccinea.

  11. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust Pollution on Floral Volatiles and the Consequences for Honey Bee Olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Girling, Robbie D; Farthing, Emily; Newman, Tracey A; Jackson, Chris W; Poppy, Guy M

    2015-10-01

    There is growing evidence of a substantial decline in pollinators within Europe and North America, most likely caused by multiple factors such as diseases, poor nutrition, habitat loss, insecticides, and environmental pollution. Diesel exhaust could be a contributing factor to this decline, since we found that diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral volatiles, which honey bees require for flower recognition. In this study, we exposed eight of the most common floral volatiles to diesel exhaust in order to investigate whether it can affect volatile mediated plant-pollinator interaction. Exposure to diesel exhaust altered the blend of common flower volatiles significantly: myrcene was considerably reduced, β-ocimene became undetectable, and β-caryophyllene was transformed into its cis-isomer isocaryophyllene. Proboscis extension response (PER) assays showed that the alterations of the blend reduced the ability of honey bees to recognize it. The chemically reactive nitrogen oxides fraction of diesel exhaust gas was identified as capable of causing degradation of floral volatiles.

  12. Transitory increase in chromosomal DNA (Fleulgen) during floral differentiation in Rhoeo discolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, E; Nagl, W

    1979-02-01

    Scanning cytophotometric measurements on 3200 telophase and 1700 interphase nuclei (Feulgen-stained) in vegetative and reproductive buds of Rhoeo discolor revealed a transitory increase in staining intensity in more than half of the cells in early differentiating floral buds. The differences between the vegetative and floral nuclei are significant at the 0.001 level of probability and highly reproducible, independent of the type of hydrolysis used. We suggest that the different Feulgen extinction values reflect different nuclear DNA amounts, because methodical errors can fairly be excluded. The occurrence of an extra DNA (control DNA) of the kind of the floral DNA' detected by Wardell and Skoog (1973) and Wardell (1976) in tobacco is discussed.

  13. Bee floral guilds of sagebrush-steppe wildflowers: evaluating bee community benefits among available species to seed after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy plant communities of the American sagebrush-steppe consist of mostly wind-pollinated shrubs and grasses interspersed with a diverse mix of mostly spring-blooming, herbaceous perennial wildflowers. Native, non-social bees are the common floral visitors, but their floral associations and abund...

  14. Covariance of floral and vegetative traits in four species of Ranunculaceae: a comparison between specialized and generalized pollination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jin-Liu; Zhou, Xian-Hui; Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Du, Guo-Zhen

    2008-09-01

    Theory predicts that tighter correlation between floral traits and weaker relationship between floral and vegetative traits more likely occur in specialized flowers than generalized flowers, favoring by precise fit with pollinators. However, traits and trait correlations frequently vary under different environments. Through detecting spatiotemporal variation in phenotypic traits (floral organ size and vegetative size) and trait correlations in four Ranunculaceae species, we examined four predictions. Overall, our results supported these predictions to a certain degree. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) of floral traits in two specialized species (Delphinium kamaonense and Aconitum gymnandrum) was marginally significantly lower than that of another two generalized species (Trollius ranunculoides and Anemone obtusiloba). The two specialized species also showed marginally significantly smaller CV in floral traits than vegetative size across the two species. The absolute mean correlation between floral and vegetative traits, or that between floral traits in species with specialized flowers was not significantly lower, or higher than that in generalized plants, weakly supporting the predictions. Furthermore, we documented a large variation in trait correlations of four species among different seasons and populations. Study of covariance of floral and vegetative traits will benefit from the contrast of results obtained from generalized and specialized pollination systems.

  15. Covariance of Floral and Vegetative Traits in Four Species of Ranunculaceae: A Comparison between Specialized and Generalized Pollination Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Liu Meng; Xian-Hui Zhou; Zhi-Gang Zhao; Guo-Zhen Du

    2008-01-01

    Theory predicts that tighter correlation between floral traits and weaker relationship between floral and vegetative traits more likely occur in specialized flowers than generalized flowers,favoring by precise fit with pollinators.However,traits and trait correlations frequently vary under different environments.Through detecting spatiotemporal variation in phenotypic traits (floral organ size and vegetative size) and trait correlations in four Ranunculaceae species,we examined four predictions.Overall,our results supported these predictions to a certain degree.The mean coefficient of variation (CV) of floral traits in two specialized species (Delphinium kamaonense and Aconitum gymnandrum) was marginally significantly lower than that of another two generalized species (Trollius ranunculoides and Anemone obtusiloba).The two specialized species also showed marginally significantly smaller CV in floral traits than vegetative size across the two species.The absolute mean correlation between floral and vegetative traits,or that between floral traits in species with specialized flowers was not significantly lower,or higher than that in generalized plants,weakly supporting the predictions.Furthermore,we documented a large variation in trait correlations of four species among different seasons and populations.Study of covariance of floral and vegetative traits will benefit from the contrast of results obtained from generalized and specialized pollination systems.

  16. Lessons from Red Data Books: Plant Vulnerability Increases with Floral Complexity.

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    Anastasia Stefanaki

    Full Text Available The architectural complexity of flower structures (hereafter referred to as floral complexity may be linked to pollination by specialized pollinators that can increase the probability of successful seed set. As plant-pollinator systems become fragile, a loss of such specialized pollinators could presumably result in an increased likelihood of pollination failure. This is an issue likely to be particularly evident in plants that are currently rare. Using a novel index describing floral complexity we explored whether this aspect of the structure of flowers could be used to predict vulnerability of plant species to extinction. To do this we defined plant vulnerability using the Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece, a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. We also tested whether other intrinsic (e.g. life form, asexual reproduction or extrinsic (e.g. habitat, altitude, range-restrictedness factors could affect plant vulnerability. We found that plants with high floral complexity scores were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to extinction. Among all the floral complexity components only floral symmetry was found to have a significant effect, with radial-flower plants appearing to be less vulnerable. Life form was also a predictor of vulnerability, with woody perennial plants having significantly lower risk of extinction. Among the extrinsic factors, both habitat and maximum range were significantly associated with plant vulnerability (coastal plants and narrow-ranged plants are more likely to face higher risk. Although extrinsic and in particular anthropogenic factors determine plant extinction risk, intrinsic traits can indicate a plant's proneness to vulnerability. This raises the potential threat of declining global pollinator diversity interacting with floral complexity to increase the vulnerability of individual plant species. There is potential scope for using plant-pollinator specializations to identify plant species

  17. Simulation of organ patterning on the floral meristem using a polar auxin transport model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Mourik

    Full Text Available An intriguing phenomenon in plant development is the timing and positioning of lateral organ initiation, which is a fundamental aspect of plant architecture. Although important progress has been made in elucidating the role of auxin transport in the vegetative shoot to explain the phyllotaxis of leaf formation in a spiral fashion, a model study of the role of auxin transport in whorled organ patterning in the expanding floral meristem is not available yet. We present an initial simulation approach to study the mechanisms that are expected to play an important role. Starting point is a confocal imaging study of Arabidopsis floral meristems at consecutive time points during flower development. These images reveal auxin accumulation patterns at the positions of the organs, which strongly suggests that the role of auxin in the floral meristem is similar to the role it plays in the shoot apical meristem. This is the basis for a simulation study of auxin transport through a growing floral meristem, which may answer the question whether auxin transport can in itself be responsible for the typical whorled floral pattern. We combined a cellular growth model for the meristem with a polar auxin transport model. The model predicts that sepals are initiated by auxin maxima arising early during meristem outgrowth. These form a pre-pattern relative to which a series of smaller auxin maxima are positioned, which partially overlap with the anlagen of petals, stamens, and carpels. We adjusted the model parameters corresponding to properties of floral mutants and found that the model predictions agree with the observed mutant patterns. The predicted timing of the primordia outgrowth and the timing and positioning of the sepal primordia show remarkable similarities with a developing flower in nature.

  18. Lessons from Red Data Books: Plant Vulnerability Increases with Floral Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanaki, Anastasia; Kantsa, Aphrodite; Tscheulin, Thomas; Charitonidou, Martha; Petanidou, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    The architectural complexity of flower structures (hereafter referred to as floral complexity) may be linked to pollination by specialized pollinators that can increase the probability of successful seed set. As plant-pollinator systems become fragile, a loss of such specialized pollinators could presumably result in an increased likelihood of pollination failure. This is an issue likely to be particularly evident in plants that are currently rare. Using a novel index describing floral complexity we explored whether this aspect of the structure of flowers could be used to predict vulnerability of plant species to extinction. To do this we defined plant vulnerability using the Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece, a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. We also tested whether other intrinsic (e.g. life form, asexual reproduction) or extrinsic (e.g. habitat, altitude, range-restrictedness) factors could affect plant vulnerability. We found that plants with high floral complexity scores were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to extinction. Among all the floral complexity components only floral symmetry was found to have a significant effect, with radial-flower plants appearing to be less vulnerable. Life form was also a predictor of vulnerability, with woody perennial plants having significantly lower risk of extinction. Among the extrinsic factors, both habitat and maximum range were significantly associated with plant vulnerability (coastal plants and narrow-ranged plants are more likely to face higher risk). Although extrinsic and in particular anthropogenic factors determine plant extinction risk, intrinsic traits can indicate a plant's proneness to vulnerability. This raises the potential threat of declining global pollinator diversity interacting with floral complexity to increase the vulnerability of individual plant species. There is potential scope for using plant-pollinator specializations to identify plant species particularly at

  19. Relative floral density of an invasive plant affects pollinator foraging behaviour on a native plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Marie Iler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between invasive and native plants for pollinators vary from competition to facilitation of pollination of native plants. Theory predicts that relative floral densities should account for some of this variation in outcomes, with facilitation at low floral densities and competition at high floral densities of the invader. We tested this prediction by quantifying pollination and female reproductive success of a native herb, Geranium maculatum, in three experimental arrays that varied in floral density of the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii: control (no L. maackii, low floral density of L. maackii, and high floral density of L. maackii. A low density of L. maackii flowers was associated with an increase in pollinator visitation rate to G. maculatum flowers and an increase in conspecific pollen deposition compared to controls and high density arrays. Increased visitation rates were not associated with an increase in the number of visitors to low density arrays, suggesting instead that a behavioural switch in visitation within the array accounted for increased pollen deposition. In contrast, the only evidence of competition in high density arrays was a shorter duration of visits to G. maculatum flowers relative to the other treatments. The number of seeds per flower did not vary among treatments, although trends in seeds per flower were consistent with patterns of pollinator foraging behaviour. Given increased pollinator visits and pollen deposition at a low density of the invader, our study indicates that complete eradication of invasives as a management or restoration technique may have unintended negative consequences for pollination of native plants.

  20. High floral bud abscission and lack of open flower abscission in Dendrobium cv. Miss Teen: rapid reduction of ethylene sensitivity in the abscission zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunya-atichart, K.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the abscission of floral buds and open flowers in cut Dendrobium inflorescences. Abscission of floral buds was high and sensitive to ethylene in all cultivars studied. Many open flowers abscised in most cultivars, but cv. Willie exhibited only small amount of floral fall and cv. Miss Teen

  1. The effects of flower, floral display, and reward sizes on bumblebee foraging behavior when pollen is the reward and plants are dichogamous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect-pollinated plants have developed showy flowers and floral displays that attract pollinators. Pollinators, in turn, show preferences for specific floral traits and their foraging behavior is influenced by floral traits. In this study, we examined the preference of bumble bees for flower size, ...

  2. Comparative GC analyses of ripe fruits, leaves and floral buds essential oils of Tunisian Myrtus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Snoussi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from Tunisian wild growing myrtle ripe fruits, leaves and floral buds was examined by GC and GC-MS. The yields of hydrodistilled oils obtained from different plant parts were: leaves 0.5%, floral buds 0.2% and ripe fruits 0.02%. Significant differences were found in the concentration of main constituents of the oils: α-pinene [48.9% (floral buds, 34.3% (fruits, 23.7% (leaves], 1,8-cineole [15.3% (floral buds, 26.6% (fruits, 61.0% (leaves]. The leaves oil contained less linalool than floral buds and ripe fruits oils. Tunisian myrtle is characterized by the absence of myrtenyl acetate.

  3. Hydrological Modeling Reproducibility Through Data Management and Adaptors for Model Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Because of a lack of centralized planning and no widely-adopted standards among hydrological modeling research groups, research communities, and the data management teams meant to support research, there is chaos when it comes to data formats, spatio-temporal resolutions, ontologies, and data availability. All this makes true scientific reproducibility and collaborative integrated modeling impossible without some glue to piece it all together. Our Virtual Watershed Integrated Modeling System provides the tools and modeling framework hydrologists need to accelerate and fortify new scientific investigations by tracking provenance and providing adaptors for integrated, collaborative hydrologic modeling and data management. Under global warming trends where water resources are under increasing stress, reproducible hydrological modeling will be increasingly important to improve transparency and understanding of the scientific facts revealed through modeling. The Virtual Watershed Data Engine is capable of ingesting a wide variety of heterogeneous model inputs, outputs, model configurations, and metadata. We will demonstrate one example, starting from real-time raw weather station data packaged with station metadata. Our integrated modeling system will then create gridded input data via geostatistical methods along with error and uncertainty estimates. These gridded data are then used as input to hydrological models, all of which are available as web services wherever feasible. Models may be integrated in a data-centric way where the outputs too are tracked and used as inputs to "downstream" models. This work is part of an ongoing collaborative Tri-state (New Mexico, Nevada, Idaho) NSF EPSCoR Project, WC-WAVE, comprised of researchers from multiple universities in each of the three states. The tools produced and presented here have been developed collaboratively alongside watershed scientists to address specific modeling problems with an eye on the bigger picture of

  4. Rap1-GTP-interacting Adaptor Molecule (RIAM) Protein Controls Invasion and Growth of Melanoma Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Varas, Pablo; Coló, Georgina P.; Bartolomé, Ruben A.; Paterson, Andrew; Medraño-Fernández, Iria; Arellano-Sánchez, Nohemí; Cabañas, Carlos; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Lafuente, Esther M.; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.; Strömblad, Staffan; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    The Mig-10/RIAM/lamellipodin (MRL) family member Rap1-GTP-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM) interacts with active Rap1, a small GTPase that is frequently activated in tumors such as melanoma and prostate cancer. We show here that RIAM is expressed in metastatic human melanoma cells and that both RIAM and Rap1 are required for BLM melanoma cell invasion. RIAM silencing in melanoma cells led to inhibition of tumor growth and to delayed metastasis in a severe combined immunodeficiency xenograft model. Defective invasion of RIAM-silenced melanoma cells arose from impairment in persistent cell migration directionality, which was associated with deficient activation of a Vav2-RhoA-ROCK-myosin light chain pathway. Expression of constitutively active Vav2 and RhoA in cells depleted for RIAM partially rescued their invasion, indicating that Vav2 and RhoA mediate RIAM function. These results suggest that inhibition of cell invasion in RIAM-silenced melanoma cells is likely based on altered cell contractility and cell polarization. Furthermore, we show that RIAM depletion reduces β1 integrin-dependent melanoma cell adhesion, which correlates with decreased activation of both Erk1/2 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, two central molecules controlling cell growth and cell survival. In addition to causing inhibition of cell proliferation, RIAM silencing led to higher susceptibility to cell apoptosis. Together, these data suggest that defective activation of these kinases in RIAM-silenced cells could account for inhibition of melanoma cell growth and that RIAM might contribute to the dissemination of melanoma cells. PMID:21454517

  5. Floral biology and breeding system of three Ipomoea weeds Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de três espécies daninhas de Ipomoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.S. Maimoni-Rodella

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The floral biology of three weeds, Ipomoea cairica, I. grandifolia and I. nil (Convolvulaceae, was studied in Botucatu and Jaboticabal, São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil. The three species are melittophilous, with a varied set of floral visitors, but with some overlapping. Cluster analysis using Jacquard similarity index indicated a greater similarity among different plant species in the same locality than among the populations at different places, in relation to floral visitor sets. The promiscuous and opportunistic features of the flowers were shown, with such type of adaptation to pollination being advantageous to weeds since pollinator availability is unpredictable at ruderal environments.A biologia floral de Ipomoea cairica, I. grandifolia e I. nil - plantas daninhas da família Convolvulaceae - foi estudada em Botucatu e Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As três espécies são melitófilas, apresentando conjuntos de visitantes florais bastante diversificados, embora haja alguma sobreposição entre eles. Com relação aos visitantes florais, a análise de agrupamento, empregando-se o índice de similaridade de Jaccard, indicou maior similaridade entre diferentes espécies de Ipomoea ocorrentes no mesmo local do que entre populações da mesma espécie em diferentes localidades. O caráter promíscuo e oportunista da adaptação à polinização, presente nessas espécies, foi demonstrado, sendo essa adaptação vantajosa para plantas daninhas, uma vez que em ambientes ruderais a disponibilidade de polinizadores é imprevisível.

  6. Self-pollination rate and floral-display size in Asclepias syriaca (Common Milkweed) with regard to floral-visitor taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Aaron F; Barrows, Edward M

    2014-06-23

    Animals fertilize thousands of angiosperm species whose floral-display sizes can significantly influence pollinator behavior and plant reproductive success. Many studies have measured the interactions among pollinator behavior, floral-display size, and plant reproductive success, but few studies have been able to separate the effects of pollinator behavior and post-pollination processes on angiosperm sexual reproduction. In this study, we utilized the highly self-incompatible pollinium-pollination system of Asclepias syriaca (Common Milkweed) to quantify how insect visitors influenced male reproductive success measured as pollen removal, female reproductive success measured as pollen deposition, and self-pollination rate. We also determined how floral-display size impacts both visitor behavior and self-pollination rate. Four insect taxonomic orders visited A. syriaca: Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera. We focused on three groups of visitor taxa within two orders (Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera) with sample sizes large enough for quantitative analysis: Apis mellifera (Western Honey Bee), Bombus spp. (bumble bees) and lepidopterans (butterflies and moths). Qualitatively, lepidopterans had the highest pollinator importance values, but the large variability in the lepidopteran data precluded meaningful interpretation of much of their behavior. The introduced A. mellifera was the most effective and most important diurnal pollinator with regard to both pollen removal and pollen deposition. However, when considering the self-incompatibility of A. syriaca, A. mellifera was not the most important pollinator because of its high self-pollination rate as compared to Bombus spp. Additionally, the rate of self-pollination increased more rapidly with the number of flowers per inflorescence in A. mellifera than in the native Bombus spp. Apis mellifera's high rate of self-pollination may have significant negative effects on both male and female reproductive successes

  7. 荔枝花芽分化研究进展%Progresses in Research of Litchi Floral Differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈厚彬; 苏钻贤; 张荣; 张红娜; 丁峰; 周碧燕

    2014-01-01

    conditions for a quite long period during the winter. Primordial inflorescence initiated upon the ascending temperatures and with release of water stresses during late winter or early spring, the inflorescence and flowers developed at mild conditions with warm days and cool nights. Any one unsatisfactory factor during the phase changes might cause failure of flower formation. The major factors influencing litchi floral development are state of terminal shoots, temperatures and water. Carbohydrate accumulation in shoots and the endogenous hormones affect flowering. In order to solve the instability problem in production of flowering and ensure good flowering under extreme and marginal conditions, the molecular mechanism about litchi floral differentiation and why young shoots and leaves could not be florally induced with chills, how the chill signals perceived and transduced, stimulate the floral transition of the terminal buds, when and how the flower sex is determined should be studied, and to explore nutrient, water management, growth regulators and other mechanical measures according to the phase changes of floral differentiation.

  8. [Floral biology and pollinators of Trichocereus pasacana (Cactaceae) in Parque Nacional Los Cardones, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viana, M L; Ortega Baes, P; Saravia, M; Badano, E I; Schlumpberger, B

    2001-03-01

    Many columnar cacti are bat pollinated. It has been suggested that this kind of pollination would be more important in tropical than in temperate regions where flowers are open only one night. Thrichocereus pasacana produces big and resistant white flowers. We analyzed flower characteristics, floral cycle, stigmatic receptivity, nectar production, pollen presence and floral visitors in a T. pasacana population at National Park Los Cardones (Salta, Argentina) in November 1997. Flower features were constant between individuals of the population. Flowers start opening at evening and anthesis time is from 18 to 40 hs. The estigma was receptive throughout the floral cycle. Anther dehiscence occurs with flower opening. Nectar production was highest between 18 to 24 hs. Although T. pasacana are open during the night, floral visitors are diurnal. The most frequent was Xylocopa sp. In the study area, nectarivorous bats were not detected. The morphological features of T. pasacana flowers were similar but bigger compared to other columnar cacti. Anthesis time was also longer while nectar production was lower. T. pasacana pollination at National Park Los Cardones is done by bees.

  9. What shapes amino acid and sugar composition in Mediterranean floral nectars?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petanidou, T.; Van Laere, A.; Ellis, W.; Smets, E.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the amino acid (AA) composition of the floral nectars of 73 plant species occurring in a phryganic (East Mediterranean garrigue) community and investigated whether AA and sugar composition is shaped by evolutionary (plant phylogeny), ecological (flowering time as a direct effect of summer

  10. Selection by pollinators on floral traits in generalized Trollius ranunculoides (Ranunculaceae along altitudinal gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Zhao

    Full Text Available Abundance and visitation of pollinator assemblages tend to decrease with altitude, leading to an increase in pollen limitation. Thus increased competition for pollinators may generate stronger selection on attractive traits of flowers at high elevations and cause floral adaptive evolution. Few studies have related geographically variable selection from pollinators and intraspecific floral differentiation. We investigated the variation of Trollius ranunculoides flowers and its pollinators along an altitudinal gradient on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and measured phenotypic selection by pollinators on floral traits across populations. The results showed significant decline of visitation rate of bees along altitudinal gradients, while flies was unchanged. When fitness is estimated by the visitation rate rather than the seed number per plant, phenotypic selection on the sepal length and width shows a significant correlation between the selection strength and the altitude, with stronger selection at higher altitudes. However, significant decreases in the sepal length and width of T. ranunculoides along the altitudinal gradient did not correspond to stronger selection of pollinators. In contrast to the pollinator visitation, mean annual precipitation negatively affected the sepal length and width, and contributed more to geographical variation in measured floral traits than the visitation rate of pollinators. Therefore, the sepal size may have been influenced by conflicting selection pressures from biotic and abiotic selective agents. This study supports the hypothesis that lower pollinator availability at high altitude can intensify selection on flower attractive traits, but abiotic selection is preventing a response to selection from pollinators.

  11. The smell of environmental change: Using floral scent to explain shifts in pollinator attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A. Burkle; Justin B. Runyon

    2017-01-01

    As diverse environmental changes continue to influence the structure and function of plant-pollinator interactions across spatial and temporal scales, we will need to enlist numerous approaches to understand these changes. Quantitative examination of floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one approach that is gaining popularity, and recent work suggests that...