WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptor protein regulates

  1. DMPD: Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17667936 Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins... (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. ...PubmedID 17667936 Title Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins

  2. Clathrin Assembly Regulated by Adaptor Proteins in Coarse-Grained Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giani, M.; den Otter, Wouter K.; Briels, Willem J.

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of clathrin triskelia into polyhedral cages during endocytosis is regulated by adaptor proteins (APs). We explore how APs achieve this by developing coarse-grained models for clathrin and AP2, employing a Monte Carlo click interaction, to simulate their collective aggregation behavior.

  3. Nervous wreck, an SH3 adaptor protein that interacts with Wsp, regulates synaptic growth in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Ian P; Koh, Young-Ho; Lee, Wyan-Ching Mimi; Slind, Jessica; Fergestad, Tim; Littleton, J Troy; Ganetzky, Barry

    2004-02-19

    We describe the isolation and characterization of nwk (nervous wreck), a temperature-sensitive paralytic mutant that causes excessive growth of larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), resulting in increased synaptic bouton number and branch formation. Ultrastructurally, mutant boutons have reduced size and fewer active zones, associated with a reduction in synaptic transmission. nwk encodes an FCH and SH3 domain-containing adaptor protein that localizes to the periactive zone of presynaptic terminals and binds to the Drosophila ortholog of Wasp (Wsp), a key regulator of actin polymerization. wsp null mutants display synaptic overgrowth similar to nwk and enhance the nwk morphological phenotype in a dose-dependent manner. Evolutionarily, Nwk belongs to a previously undescribed family of adaptor proteins that includes the human srGAPs, which regulate Rho activity downstream of Robo receptors. We propose that Nwk controls synapse morphology by regulating actin dynamics downstream of growth signals in presynaptic terminals.

  4. Histone locus regulation by the Drosophila dosage compensation adaptor protein CLAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Leila E; Koreski, Kaitlin P; Boltz, Kara A; Kuzu, Guray; Urban, Jennifer A; Bowman, Sarah K; Zeidman, Anna; Jordan, William T; Tolstorukov, Michael Y; Marzluff, William F; Duronio, Robert J; Larschan, Erica N

    2017-07-15

    The conserved histone locus body (HLB) assembles prior to zygotic gene activation early during development and concentrates factors into a nuclear domain of coordinated histone gene regulation. Although HLBs form specifically at replication-dependent histone loci, the cis and trans factors that target HLB components to histone genes remained unknown. Here we report that conserved GA repeat cis elements within the bidirectional histone3-histone4 promoter direct HLB formation in Drosophila In addition, the CLAMP (chromatin-linked adaptor for male-specific lethal [MSL] proteins) zinc finger protein binds these GA repeat motifs, increases chromatin accessibility, enhances histone gene transcription, and promotes HLB formation. We demonstrated previously that CLAMP also promotes the formation of another domain of coordinated gene regulation: the dosage-compensated male X chromosome. Therefore, CLAMP binding to GA repeat motifs promotes the formation of two distinct domains of coordinated gene activation located at different places in the genome. © 2017 Rieder et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. The fifth adaptor protein complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hirst

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Adaptor protein (AP complexes sort cargo into vesicles for transport from one membrane compartment of the cell to another. Four distinct AP complexes have been identified, which are present in most eukaryotes. We report the existence of a fifth AP complex, AP-5. Tagged AP-5 localises to a late endosomal compartment in HeLa cells. AP-5 does not associate with clathrin and is insensitive to brefeldin A. Knocking down AP-5 subunits interferes with the trafficking of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and causes the cell to form swollen endosomal structures with emanating tubules. AP-5 subunits can be found in all five eukaryotic supergroups, but they have been co-ordinately lost in many organisms. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis provides robust resolution, for the first time, into the evolutionary order of emergence of the adaptor subunit families, showing AP-3 as the basal complex, followed by AP-5, AP-4, and AP-1 and AP-2. Thus, AP-5 is an evolutionarily ancient complex, which is involved in endosomal sorting, and which has links with hereditary spastic paraplegia.

  6. The adaptor protein alpha-syntrophin regulates adipocyte lipid droplet growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisinger, Kristina; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Pohl, Rebekka; Meier, Elisabeth M.; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa, E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2016-07-01

    The scaffold protein alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) regulates lipolysis indicating a role in lipid homeostasis. Adipocytes are the main lipid storage cells in the body, and here, the function of SNTA has been analyzed in 3T3-L1 cells. SNTA is expressed in preadipocytes and is induced early during adipogenesis. Knock-down of SNTA in preadipocytes increases their proliferation. Proteins which are induced during adipogenesis like adiponectin and caveolin-1, and the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 are at normal levels in the mature cells differentiated from preadipocytes with low SNTA. This suggests that SNTA does neither affect differentiation nor inflammation. Expression of proteins with a role in cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis is unchanged. Consequently, basal and epinephrine induced lipolysis as well as insulin stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 are normal. Importantly, adipocytes with low SNTA form smaller lipid droplets and store less triglycerides. Stearoyl-CoA reductase and MnSOD are reduced upon SNTA knock-down but do not contribute to lower lipid levels. Oleate uptake is even increased in cells with SNTA knock-down. In summary, current data show that SNTA is involved in the expansion of lipid droplets independent of adipogenesis. Enhanced preadipocyte proliferation and capacity to store surplus fatty acids may protect adipocytes with low SNTA from lipotoxicity in obesity. - Highlights: • Alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) is expressed in 3T3-L1adipocytes. • SNTA knock-down in preadipocytes has no effect on adipogenesis. • Mature 3T3-L1 differentiated from cells with low SNTA form small lipid droplets. • SCD1 and MnSOD are reduced in adipocytes with low SNTA. • SCD1 knock-down does not alter triglyceride levels.

  7. Regulation and function of the CD3¿ DxxxLL motif: a binding site for adaptor protein-1 and adaptor protein-2 in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Kastrup, J; Nielsen, B L

    1997-01-01

    Several receptors are downregulated by internalization after ligand binding. Regulation of T cell receptor (TCR) expression is an important step in T cell activation, desensitization, and tolerance induction. One way T cells regulate TCR expression is by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the T...

  8. Palmitoylated transmembrane adaptor proteins in leukocyte signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanek, Ondrej; Draber, Peter; Horejsi, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAPs) are structurally related proteins that have no enzymatic function, but enable inducible recruitment of effector molecules to the plasma membrane, usually in a phosphorylation dependent manner. Numerous surface receptors employ TRAPs for either propagation or negative regulation of the signal transduction. Several TRAPs (LAT, NTAL, PAG, LIME, PRR7, SCIMP, LST1/A, and putatively GAPT) are known to be palmitoylated that could facilitate their localization in lipid rafts or tetraspanin enriched microdomains. This review summarizes expression patterns, binding partners, signaling pathways, and biological functions of particular palmitoylated TRAPs with an emphasis on the three most recently discovered members, PRR7, SCIMP, and LST1/A. Moreover, we discuss in silico methodology used for discovery of new family members, nature of their binding partners, and microdomain localization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The adaptor protein SH2B3 (Lnk negatively regulates neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells and cortical neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Cheng Wang

    Full Text Available SH2B adaptor protein family members (SH2B1-3 regulate various physiological responses through affecting signaling, gene expression, and cell adhesion. SH2B1 and SH2B2 were reported to enhance nerve growth factor (NGF-induced neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells, a well-established neuronal model system. In contrast, SH2B3 was reported to inhibit cell proliferation during the development of immune system. No study so far addresses the role of SH2B3 in the nervous system. In this study, we provide evidence suggesting that SH2B3 is expressed in the cortex of embryonic rat brain. Overexpression of SH2B3 not only inhibits NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells but also reduces neurite outgrowth of primary cortical neurons. SH2B3 does so by repressing NGF-induced activation of PLCγ, MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT pathways and the expression of Egr-1. SH2B3 is capable of binding to phosphorylated NGF receptor, TrkA, as well as SH2B1β. Our data further demonstrate that overexpression of SH2B3 reduces the interaction between SH2B1β and TrkA. Consistent with this finding, overexpressing the SH2 domain of SH2B3 is sufficient to inhibit NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Together, our data demonstrate that SH2B3, unlike the other two family members, inhibits neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons. Its inhibitory mechanism is likely through the competition of TrkA binding with the positive-acting SH2B1 and SH2B2.

  10. Exploring structure and interactions of the bacterial adaptor protein YjbH by crosslinking mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Eryani, Yusra; Ib Rasmussen, Morten; Kjellström, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Adaptor proteins assist proteases in degrading specific proteins under appropriate conditions. The adaptor protein YjbH promotes the degradation of an important global transcriptional regulator Spx, which controls the expression of hundreds of genes and operons in response to thiol-specific oxida...

  11. The Adaptor Protein SAP Directly Associates with CD3ζ Chain and Regulates T Cell Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Richard; Bertoglio, Jacques; Gesbert, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Mutations altering the gene encoding the SLAM associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease or XLP1. Its absence is correlated with a defective NKT cells development, a decrease in B cell functions and a reduced T cells and NK cells cytotoxic activities, thus leading to an immunodeficiency syndrome. SAP is a small 128 amino-acid long protein that is almost exclusively composed of an SH2 domain. It has been shown to interact with the CD150/SLAM family of receptors, and in a non-canonical manner with SH3 containing proteins such as Fyn, βPIX, PKCθ and Nck1. It would thus play the role of a minimal adaptor protein. It has been shown that SAP plays an important function in the activation of T cells through its interaction with the SLAM family of receptors. Therefore SAP defective T cells display a reduced activation of signaling events downstream of the TCR-CD3 complex triggering. In the present work, we evidence that SAP is a direct interactor of the CD3ζ chain. This direct interaction occurs through the first ITAM of CD3ζ, proximal to the membrane. Additionally, we show that, in the context of the TCR-CD3 signaling, an Sh-RNA mediated silencing of SAP is responsible for a decrease of several canonical T cell signaling pathways including Erk, Akt and PLCγ1 and to a reduced induction of IL-2 and IL-4 mRNA. Altogether, we show that SAP plays a central function in the T cell activation processes through a direct association with the CD3 complex. PMID:22912825

  12. The AP2 clathrin adaptor protein complex regulates the abundance of GLR-1 glutamate receptors in the ventral nerve cord of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garafalo, Steven D; Luth, Eric S; Moss, Benjamin J; Monteiro, Michael I; Malkin, Emily; Juo, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Regulation of glutamate receptor (GluR) abundance at synapses by clathrin-mediated endocytosis can control synaptic strength and plasticity. We take advantage of viable, null mutations in subunits of the clathrin adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complex in Caenorhabditis elegans to characterize the in vivo role of AP2 in GluR trafficking. In contrast to our predictions for an endocytic adaptor, we found that levels of the GluR GLR-1 are decreased at synapses in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of animals with mutations in the AP2 subunits APM-2/μ2, APA-2/α, or APS-2/σ2. Rescue experiments indicate that APM-2/μ2 functions in glr-1-expressing interneurons and the mature nervous system to promote GLR-1 levels in the VNC. Genetic analyses suggest that APM-2/μ2 acts upstream of GLR-1 endocytosis in the VNC. Consistent with this, GLR-1 accumulates in cell bodies of apm-2 mutants. However, GLR-1 does not appear to accumulate at the plasma membrane of the cell body as expected, but instead accumulates in intracellular compartments including Syntaxin-13- and RAB-14-labeled endosomes. This study reveals a novel role for the AP2 clathrin adaptor in promoting the abundance of GluRs at synapses in vivo, and implicates AP2 in the regulation of GluR trafficking at an early step in the secretory pathway. © 2015 Garafalo et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. The Shc family protein adaptor, Rai, negatively regulates T cell antigen receptor signaling by inhibiting ZAP-70 recruitment and activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol Ferro

    Full Text Available Rai/ShcC is a member of the Shc family of protein adaptors expressed with the highest abundance in the central nervous system, where it exerts a protective function by coupling neurotrophic receptors to the PI3K/Akt survival pathway. Rai is also expressed, albeit at lower levels, in other cell types, including T and B lymphocytes. We have previously reported that in these cells Rai attenuates antigen receptor signaling, thereby impairing not only cell proliferation but also, opposite to neurons, cell survival. Here we have addressed the mechanism underlying the inhibitory activity of Rai on TCR signaling. We show that Rai interferes with the TCR signaling cascade one of the earliest steps--recruitment of the initiating kinase ZAP-70 to the phosphorylated subunit of the TCR/CD3 complex, which results in a generalized dampening of the downstream signaling events. The inhibitory activity of Rai is associated to its inducible recruitment to phosphorylated CD3, which occurs in the physiological signaling context of the immune synapse. Rai is moreover found as a pre-assembled complex with ZAP-70 and also constitutively interacts with the regulatory p85 subunit of PI3K, similar to neuronal cells, notwithstanding the opposite biological outcome, i.e. impairment of PI-3K/Akt activation. The data highlight the ability of Rai to establish interactions with the TCR and key signaling mediators which, either directly (e.g. by inhibiting ZAP-70 recruitment to the TCR or sequestering ZAP-70/PI3K in the cytosol or indirectly (e.g. by promoting the recruitment of effectors responsible for signal extinction prevent full triggering of the TCR signaling cascade.

  14. Evolution of Gab family adaptor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbeyquaye, Tetteh; Riesgo-Escovar, Juan; Raabe, Thomas; Thackeray, Justin R

    2003-06-05

    The Gab/dos/Soc-1 proteins form a family of multi-adaptor/scaffolding proteins involved in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. To further understanding of the Gab family and the Drosophila Dos protein in particular, we isolated a dos homolog from both Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila virilis and compared their gene structures and protein sequences with the rest of the Gab family. The presence of two conserved introns confirmed that the dos and gab genes are orthologous, but the Caenorhabditis elegans soc-1 gene had no unambiguously conserved introns with either dos or gab. However, phylogenetic analysis suggests that soc-1 probably represents a divergent member of the Gab family. Apart from the PH domain, which is well conserved in all Gab family members, the proteins show a low level of sequence conservation. Two tyrosines that probably bind to the Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains of a tyrosine phosphatase in all Gab family members are conserved at the C-terminal end; two other potential SH2-binding sites in Dos were also identified, as well as several proline rich sequences that might bind to SH3 or EVH1 domains in other proteins. A major partner for mammalian Gab is phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma); genetic and biochemical tests for a PLC-gamma-SH3::Dos interaction were negative, indicating that if Drosophila PLC-gamma binds to Dos, it must do so indirectly or through an SH2-phosphotyrosine interaction.

  15. The adaptor protein SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L; Stein, Paul L; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-12-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT-cell TCR transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells, but not thymic epithelial cells, meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Furthermore, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development by controlling early growth response 2 protein and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Adaptor Protein SAP Regulates Type II NKT Cell Development, Cytokine Production and Cytotoxicity Against Lymphoma1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L.; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT cell TCR transgenic mouse model (24αβTg), we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells but not thymic epithelial cells meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Further, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT cell development by controlling Egr2 and PLZF expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IRF4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. PMID:25236978

  17. Adaptor protein 3BP2 and cherubism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatani, Tomoko; Sada, Kiyonao

    2008-01-01

    The adaptor protein 3BP2 (c-Abl Src homology 3 domain-binding protein-2, also referred to SH3BP2) is known to play a regulatory role in signaling from immunoreceptors. In mast cells, 3BP2 is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated by the aggregation of the high affinity IgE receptor and the overexpression of its SH2 domain results in the dramatic suppression of IgE-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-alpha, Ca2+ mobilization and degranulation. 3BP2 is a substrate of the protein-tyrosine kinase Syk, which phosphorylates it on Tyr174, Tyr183, and Tyr446 (in the mouse protein). Phosphorylation of Tyr183 promotes the activation of Rac1 through the interaction with the SH2 domain of Vav1. Phosphorylation of Tyr446 induces the binding to the SH2 domain of the upstream protein-tyrosine kinase Lyn and enhances its kinase activity. Thus, 3BP2 has a positive regulatory role in IgE-mediated mast cell activation. In lymphocytes, engagement of T cell or B cell receptors triggers tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2. Suppression of the 3BP2 expression by siRNA results in the inhibition of T cell or B cell receptor-mediated activation of NFAT. Genetic analyses reveal that 3BP2 is required for the proliferation of B cells and B cell receptor signaling. Point mutations of the 3BP2 gene cause the rare human inherited disorder cherubism, characterized by excessive bone resorption in the jaw bones. These mutations include substitution and deletion mutations of 3BP2. "Cherubism" mice exhibit increased myeloid cell responses to M-CSF and RANKL leading to the activation of osteoclasts. Further analysis could demonstrate that inhibition of 3BP2 might have therapeutic potential.

  18. The adaptor protein SAP directly associates with PECAM-1 and regulates PECAM-1-mediated-cell adhesion in T-like cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Richard; Crouin, Catherine; Gandji, Leslie Yewakon; Bertoglio, Jacques; Gesbert, Franck

    2014-04-01

    SAP is a small cytosolic adaptor protein expressed in hematopoietic lineages whose main function is to regulate intracellular signaling pathways induced by the triggering of members of the SLAM receptor family. In this paper, we have identified the adhesion molecule PECAM-1 as a new partner for SAP in a conditional yeast two-hybrid screen. PECAM-1 is an immunoglobulin-like molecule expressed by endothelial cells and leukocytes, which possesses both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about PECAM-1 functions in T cells. We show that SAP directly and specifically interacts with the cytosolic tyrosine 686 of PECAM-1. We generated different T-like cell lines in which SAP or PECAM-1 are expressed or down modulated and we demonstrate that a diminished SAP expression correlates with a diminished PECAM-1-mediated adhesion. Although SAP has mainly been shown to associate with SLAM receptors, we evidence here that SAP is a new actor downstream of PECAM-1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Endocytic Adaptor Protein Tollip Inhibits Canonical Wnt Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Toruń

    Full Text Available Many adaptor proteins involved in endocytic cargo transport exhibit additional functions in other cellular processes which may be either related to or independent from their trafficking roles. The endosomal adaptor protein Tollip is an example of such a multitasking regulator, as it participates in trafficking and endosomal sorting of receptors, but also in interleukin/Toll/NF-κB signaling, bacterial entry, autophagic clearance of protein aggregates and regulation of sumoylation. Here we describe another role of Tollip in intracellular signaling. By performing a targeted RNAi screen of soluble endocytic proteins for their additional functions in canonical Wnt signaling, we identified Tollip as a potential negative regulator of this pathway in human cells. Depletion of Tollip potentiates the activity of β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcriptional reporter, while its overproduction inhibits the reporter activity and expression of Wnt target genes. These effects are independent of dynamin-mediated endocytosis, but require the ubiquitin-binding CUE domain of Tollip. In Wnt-stimulated cells, Tollip counteracts the activation of β-catenin and its nuclear accumulation, without affecting its total levels. Additionally, under conditions of ligand-independent signaling, Tollip inhibits the pathway after the stage of β-catenin stabilization, as observed in human cancer cell lines, characterized by constitutive β-catenin activity. Finally, the regulation of Wnt signaling by Tollip occurs also during early embryonic development of zebrafish. In summary, our data identify a novel function of Tollip in regulating the canonical Wnt pathway which is evolutionarily conserved between fish and humans. Tollip-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling may contribute not only to embryonic development, but also to carcinogenesis. Mechanistically, Tollip can potentially coordinate multiple cellular pathways of trafficking and signaling, possibly by exploiting its ability to

  20. SmShb, the SH2-Containing Adaptor Protein B of Schistosoma mansoni Regulates Venus Kinase Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Morel

    Full Text Available Venus kinase receptors (VKRs are invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs formed by an extracellular Venus Fly Trap (VFT ligand binding domain associated via a transmembrane domain with an intracellular tyrosine kinase (TK domain. Schistosoma mansoni VKRs, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2, are both implicated in reproductive activities of the parasite. In this work, we show that the SH2 domain-containing protein SmShb is a partner of the phosphorylated form of SmVKR1. Expression of these proteins in Xenopus oocytes allowed us to demonstrate that the SH2 domain of SmShb interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue (pY979 located in the juxtamembrane region of SmVKR1. This interaction leads to phosphorylation of SmShb on tyrosines and promotes SmVKR1 signaling towards the JNK pathway. SmShb transcripts are expressed in all parasite stages and they were found in ovary and testes of adult worms, suggesting a possible colocalization of SmShb and SmVKR1 proteins. Silencing of SmShb in adult S. mansoni resulted in an accumulation of mature sperm in testes, indicating a possible role of SmShb in gametogenesis.

  1. Investigation of the adaptor protein PLIC-2 in multiple pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khiem Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available PLIC, Protein Linking IAP (CD47 to Cytoskeleton, have long since been implicated in connecting the extracellular membrane to the intracellular cell cytoskeleton. This phenomenon is supposedly achieved by bridging a receptor protein CD47 to vimentin, an intermediate filament, which in turn regulates integrin dependent cell spreading. Since the discovery of these proteins, the molecular details of the above-mentioned interactions and the underlying complexes are yet to be characterized. Several independent studies have together emphasized PLIC/Ubiquilin’s role in the proteasomal degradation pathway. This seems to be in contrast to the purported initial discovery of PLIC as a cytoskeletal adaptor protein. In an effort to reconcile the different roles associated with the ubiquitous PLIC proteins, we tested the involvement of PLIC-2 both in the proteasomal degradation pathway and as a protein linking the cell cytoskeleton to the cytoplasmic tail of CD47. This was achieved thorough an in vitro investigation of their binding interface using a combination of biophysical techniques. Our results show that the two terminal domains of PLIC-2 interact weakly with each other, while the C-terminal UBA domain interacts strongly with ubiquitin. Interestingly, no perceptible interaction was observed for PLIC-2 with the cytoplasmic tail of CD47 questioning its role as a “PLIC” protein linking the cell membrane to the cytoskeleton.

  2. Klonierung der cDNA des Protein A Kinase-Adaptor-Proteins-2 und Untersuchungen zur Regulation seiner mRNA in humanen fötalen Osteoblasten

    OpenAIRE

    Reichel, Sonja

    2002-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde erstmalig die vollständige cDNA-Sequenz des Proteinkinase A-Ankerproteins-2 (AKAP-2, 7,5kB) ermittelt. Zu diesem neuen humanen Gen sind bis dato außer einem unvollständigem Datenbankeintrag noch keine experimentellen Daten zur cDNA, mRNA oder zum Protein veröffentlicht. Mittels Northernblot wurde die Regulation der Expression der mRNA von AKAP-2 in humanem osteoblastären hFOB-Zellen sowie ihre Expression in unterschiedlichen Geweben untersucht: In hFOB-Zellen ...

  3. Glucose regulates clathrin adaptors at the trans-Golgi network and endosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoh, Quyen L.; Graves, Lee M.; Duncan, Mara C.

    2011-01-01

    Glucose is a rich source of energy and the raw material for biomass increase. Many eukaryotic cells remodel their physiology in the presence and absence of glucose. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes changes in transcription, translation, metabolism, and cell polarity in response to glucose availability. Upon glucose starvation, translation initiation and cell polarity are immediately inhibited, and then gradually recover. In this paper, we provide evidence that, as in cell polarity and translation, traffic at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes is regulated by glucose via an unknown mechanism that depends on protein kinase A (PKA). Upon glucose withdrawal, clathrin adaptors exhibit a biphasic change in localization: they initially delocalize from the membrane within minutes and later partially recover onto membranes. Additionally, the removal of glucose induces changes in posttranslational modifications of adaptors. Ras and Gpr1 signaling pathways, which converge on PKA, are required for changes in adaptor localization and changes in posttranslational modifications. Acute inhibition of PKA demonstrates that inhibition of PKA prior to glucose withdrawal prevents several adaptor responses to starvation. This study demonstrates that PKA activity prior to glucose starvation primes membrane traffic at the TGN and endosomes in response to glucose starvation. PMID:21832155

  4. Exploring structure and interactions of the bacterial adaptor protein YjbH by crosslinking mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Yusra; Ib Rasmussen, Morten; Kjellström, Sven; Højrup, Peter; Emanuelsson, Cecilia; von Wachenfeldt, Claes

    2016-09-01

    Adaptor proteins assist proteases in degrading specific proteins under appropriate conditions. The adaptor protein YjbH promotes the degradation of an important global transcriptional regulator Spx, which controls the expression of hundreds of genes and operons in response to thiol-specific oxidative stress in Bacillus subtilis. Under normal growth conditions, the transcription factor is bound to the adaptor protein and therefore degraded by the AAA+ protease ClpXP. If this binding is alleviated during stress, the transcription factor accumulates and turns on genes encoding stress-alleviating proteins. The adaptor protein YjbH is thus a key player involved in these interactions but its structure is unknown. To gain insight into its structure and interactions we have used chemical crosslinking mass spectrometry. Distance constraints obtained from the crosslinked monomer were used to select and validate a structure model of YjbH and then to probe its interactions with other proteins. The core structure of YjbH is reminiscent of DsbA family proteins. One lysine residue in YjbH (K177), located in one of the α-helices outside the thioredoxin fold, crosslinked to both Spx K99 and Spx K117, thereby suggesting one side of the YjbH for the interaction with Spx. Another lysine residue that crosslinked to Spx was YjbH K5, located in the long and presumably very flexible N-terminal arm of YjbH. Our crosslinking data lend support to a model proposed based on site-directed mutagenesis where the YjbH interaction with Spx can stabilize and present the C-terminal region of Spx for protease recognition and proteolysis. Proteins 2016; 84:1234-1245. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Role of Crk Adaptor Proteins in Cellular Migration and Invasion in Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fathers, Kelly E

    2007-01-01

    The Crk adaptor proteins (CrkI, CrkII and CrkL) play an important role during cellular signalling by mediating the formation of protein-protein complexes and are involved in cellular migration, invasion, and adhesion...

  6. Role of Crk Adaptor Proteins in Cellular Migration and Invasion in Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fathers, Kelly E

    2008-01-01

    The Crk adaptor proteins (CrkI, CrkII and CrkL) play an important role during cellular signalling by mediating the formation of protein-protein complexes and are involved in cellular migration, invasion, and adhesion...

  7. Characterization of Toll-like receptors in primary lung epithelial cells: strong impact of the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C on the regulation of Toll-like receptors, adaptor proteins and inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weith Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial and viral exacerbations play a crucial role in a variety of lung diseases including COPD or asthma. Since the lung epithelium is a major source of various inflammatory mediators that affect the immune response, we analyzed the inflammatory reaction of primary lung epithelial cells to different microbial molecules that are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR. Methods The effects of TLR ligands on primary small airway epithelial cells were analyzed in detail with respect to cytokine, chemokine and matrix metalloproteinase secretion. In addition, the regulation of the expression of TLRs and their adaptor proteins in small airway epithelial cells was investigated. Results Our data demonstrate that poly(I:C, a synthetic analog of viral dsRNA, mediated the strongest proinflammatory effects among the tested ligands, including an increased secretion of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, GM-CSF, GRO-α, TARC, MCP-1, MIP-3α, RANTES, IFN-β, IP-10 and ITAC as well as an increased release of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-13. Furthermore, our data show that poly(I:C as well as type-1 and type-2 cytokines have a pronounced effect on the expression of TLRs and molecules involved in TLR signaling in small airway epithelial cells. Poly(I:C induced an elevated expression of TLR1, TLR2 and TLR3 and increased the gene expression of the general TLR adaptor MyD88 and IRAK-2. Simultaneously, poly(I:C decreased the expression of TLR5, TLR6 and TOLLIP. Conclusion Poly(I:C, an analog of viral dsRNA and a TLR3 ligand, triggers a strong inflammatory response in small airway epithelial cells that is likely to contribute to viral exacerbations of pulmonary diseases like asthma or COPD. The pronounced effects of poly(I:C on the expression of Toll-like receptors and molecules involved in TLR signaling is assumed to influence the immune response of the lung epithelium to viral and bacterial infections. Likewise, the regulation of TLR expression by type

  8. Identification of actin binding protein, ABP-280, as a binding partner of human Lnk adaptor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X; Li, Y; Schembri-King, J; Jakes, S; Hayashi, J

    2000-08-01

    Human Lnk (hLnk) is an adaptor protein with multiple functional domains that regulates T cell activation signaling. In order to identify cellular Lnk binding partners, a yeast two-hybrid screening of human spleen cDNA library was carried out using human hLnk as bait. A polypeptide sequence identical to the C-terminal segment of the actin binding protein (ABP-280) was identified as a hLnk binding protein. The expressed hLnk and the FLAG tagged C-terminal 673 amino acid residues of ABP-280 or the endogenous ABP-280 in COS-7 cells could be co-immunoprecipitated using antibodies either to hLnk, FLAG or ABP-280, respectively. Furthermore, immunofluorescence confocal microscope showed that hLnk and ABP-280 co-localized at the plasma membrane and at juxtanuclear region of COS-7 cells. In Jurkat cells, the endogenous hLnk also associates with the endogenous ABP-280 indicating that the association of these two proteins is physiological. The interacting domains of both proteins were mapped using yeast two-hybrid assays. Our results indicate that hLnk binds to the residues 2006-2454 (repeats 19-23C) of ABP-280. The domain in hLnk that associates with ABP-280 was mapped to an interdomain region of 56 amino acids between pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 domains. These results suggest that hLnk may exert its regulatory role through its association with ABP-280.

  9. Structure of the periplasmic adaptor protein from a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) multidrug efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Philip; Greene, Nicholas P; Paterson, Neil G; Crow, Allister; Hughes, Colin; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2014-08-25

    Periplasmic adaptor proteins are key components of bacterial tripartite efflux pumps. The 2.85 Å resolution structure of an MFS (major facilitator superfamily) pump adaptor, Aquifex aeolicus EmrA, shows linearly arranged α-helical coiled-coil, lipoyl, and β-barrel domains, but lacks the fourth membrane-proximal domain shown in other pumps to interact with the inner membrane transporter. The adaptor α-hairpin, which binds outer membrane TolC, is exceptionally long at 127 Å, and the β-barrel contains a conserved disordered loop. The structure extends the view of adaptors as flexible, modular components that mediate diverse pump assembly, and suggests that in MFS tripartite pumps a hexamer of adaptors could provide a periplasmic seal. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The adaptor protein CIN85 assembles intracellular signaling clusters for B cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Julius; Wong, Leo E; Pirkuliyeva, Sona; Schulz, Kathrin; Schwiegk, Claudia; Fünfgeld, Kevser Gencalp; Keppler, Selina; Batista, Facundo D; Urlaub, Henning; Habeck, Michael; Becker, Stefan; Griesinger, Christian; Wienands, Jürgen

    2016-06-28

    The adaptor molecule Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kD (CIN85) regulates signaling from a number of cell surface receptors, such as growth factor receptors and antigen receptors on lymphocytes. Because of its multidomain structure, CIN85 is thought to act as a classical adaptor protein that connects functionally distinct components of a given signaling pathway through diverse protein domains. However, we found that in B lymphocytes, CIN85 functions to oligomerize SLP-65, which is the central effector protein of the B cell receptor (BCR). Therefore, CIN85 trimerizes through a carboxyl-terminal, coiled-coil domain. The multiple Src homology 3 (SH3) domains of trimeric CIN85 molecules associated with multiple SLP-65 molecules, which recruited further CIN85 trimers, thereby perpetuating the oligomerization process. Formation of this oligomeric signaling complex in resting B cells rendered the cells poised for the efficient initiation of intracellular signaling upon BCR stimulation. Our data suggest that the functionality of signaling cascades does not rely solely on the qualitative linkage of their various components but requires a critical number of effectors to become concentrated in signaling complexes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Targeting 14-3-3 adaptor protein-protein interactions to stimulate central nervous system repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kaplan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of developing treatments for central nervous system (CNS injuries is becoming more attainable with the recent identification of various drugs that can repair damaged axons. These discoveries have stemmed from screening efforts, large expression datasets and an improved understanding of the cellular and molecular biology underlying axon growth. It will be important to continue searching for new compounds that can induce axon repair. Here we describe how a family of adaptor proteins called 14-3-3s can be targeted using small molecule drugs to enhance axon outgrowth and regeneration. 14-3-3s bind to many functionally diverse client proteins to regulate their functions. We highlight the recent discovery of the axon-growth promoting activity of fusicoccin-A, a fungus-derived small molecule that stabilizes 14-3-3 interactions with their client proteins. Here we discuss how fusicoccin-A could serve as a starting point for the development of drugs to induce CNS repair.

  12. ATP binding to p97/VCP D1 domain regulates selective recruitment of adaptors to its proximal N-domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sheng Chia

    Full Text Available p97/Valosin-containing protein (VCP is a member of the AAA-ATPase family involved in many cellular processes including cell division, intracellular trafficking and extraction of misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD. It is a homohexamer with each subunit containing two tandem D1 and D2 ATPase domains and N- and C-terminal regions that function as adaptor protein binding domains. p97/VCP is directed to its many different functional pathways by associating with various adaptor proteins. The regulation of the recruitment of the adaptor proteins remains unclear. Two adaptor proteins, Ufd1/Npl4 and p47, which bind exclusively to the p97/VCP N-domain and direct p97/VCP to either ERAD-related processes or homotypic fusion of Golgi fragments, were studied here. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based assays allowed the study of binding kinetics in real time. In competition experiments, it was observed that in the presence of ATP, Ufd1/Npl4 was able to compete more effectively with p47 for binding to p97/VCP. By using non-hydrolysable ATP analogues and the hexameric truncated p97/N-D1 fragment, it was shown that binding rather than hydrolysis of ATP to the proximal D1 domain strengthened the Ufd1/Npl4 association with the N-domain, thus regulating the recruitment of either Ufd1/Npl4 or p47. This novel role of ATP and an assigned function to the D1 AAA-ATPase domain link the multiple functions of p97/VCP to the metabolic status of the cell.

  13. Involvement of the conserved adaptor protein Alix in actin cytoskeleton assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shujuan; Wang, Ruoning; Zhou, Xi; He, Guangan; Koomen, John; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Sun, Le; Corvera, Joe; Gallick, Gary E; Kuang, Jian

    2006-11-10

    The conserved adaptor protein Alix, also called AIP1 or Hp95, promotes flattening and alignment of cultured mammalian fibroblasts; however, the mechanism by which Alix regulates fibroblast morphology is not understood. Here we demonstrate that Alix in WI38 cells, which require Alix expression for maintaining typical fibroblast morphology, associates with filamentous actin (F-actin) and F-actin-based structures lamellipodia and stress fibers. Reducing Alix expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases F-actin content and inhibits stress fiber assembly. In cell-free systems, Alix directly interacts with F-actin at both the N-terminal Bro1 domain and the C-terminal proline-rich domain. In Alix immunoprecipitates from WI38 cell lysates, actin is the most abundant partner protein of Alix. In addition, the N-terminal half of the middle region of Alix binds cortactin, an activator of the ARP2/3 complex-mediated initiation of actin polymerization. Alix is required for lamellipodial localization of cortactin. The C-terminal half of the middle region of Alix interacts with alpha-actinin, a key factor that bundles F-actin in stress fibers. Alix knockdown decreases the amount of alpha-actinin that associates with F-actin. These findings establish crucial involvement of Alix in actin cytoskeleton assembly.

  14. Several adaptor proteins promote intracellular localisation of the transporter MRP4/ABCC4 in platelets and haematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaletzki, Yvonne; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Bröderdorf, Susanne; Hammer, Elke; Grube, Markus; Hagen, Paul; Sucic, Sonja; Freissmuth, Michael; Völker, Uwe; Greinacher, Andreas; Rauch, Bernhard H; Kroemer, Heyo K; Jedlitschky, Gabriele

    2017-01-05

    The multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) has been identified as an important transporter for signalling molecules including cyclic nucleotides and several lipid mediators in platelets and may thus represent a novel target to interfere with platelet function. Besides its localisation in the plasma membrane, MRP4 has been also detected in the membrane of dense granules in resting platelets. In polarised cells it is localised at the basolateral or apical plasma membrane. To date, the mechanism of MRP4 trafficking has not been elucidated; protein interactions may regulate both the localisation and function of this transporter. We approached this issue by searching for interacting proteins by in vitro binding assays, followed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, and by visualising their co-localisation in platelets and haematopoietic cells. We identified the PDZ domain containing scaffold proteins ezrin-binding protein 50 (EBP50/NHERF1), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), and sorting nexin 27 (SNX27), but also the adaptor protein complex 3 subunit β3A (AP3B1) and the heat shock protein HSP90 as putative interaction partners of MRP4. The knock-down of SNX27, PSD95, and AP3B1 by siRNA in megakaryoblastic leukaemia cells led to a redistribution of MRP4 from intracellular structures to the plasma membrane. Inhibition of HSP90 led to a diminished expression and retention of MRP4 in the endoplasmic reticulum. These results indicate that MRP4 localisation and function are regulated by multiple protein interactions. Changes in the adaptor proteins can hence lead to altered localisation and function of the transporter.

  15. Structural basis for concerted recruitment and activation of IRF-3 by innate immune adaptor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baoyu; Shu, Chang; Gao, Xinsheng; Sankaran, Banumathi; Du, Fenglei; Shelton, Catherine L; Herr, Andrew B; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Li, Pingwei

    2016-06-14

    Type I IFNs are key cytokines mediating innate antiviral immunity. cGMP-AMP synthase, ritinoic acid-inducible protein 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors, and Toll-like receptors recognize microbial double-stranded (ds)DNA, dsRNA, and LPS to induce the expression of type I IFNs. These signaling pathways converge at the recruitment and activation of the transcription factor IRF-3 (IFN regulatory factor 3). The adaptor proteins STING (stimulator of IFN genes), MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), and TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β) mediate the recruitment of IRF-3 through a conserved pLxIS motif. Here we show that the pLxIS motif of phosphorylated STING, MAVS, and TRIF binds to IRF-3 in a similar manner, whereas residues upstream of the motif confer specificity. The structure of the IRF-3 phosphomimetic mutant S386/396E bound to the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein reveals that the pLxIS motif also mediates IRF-3 dimerization and activation. Moreover, rotavirus NSP1 (nonstructural protein 1) employs a pLxIS motif to target IRF-3 for degradation, but phosphorylation of NSP1 is not required for its activity. These results suggest a concerted mechanism for the recruitment and activation of IRF-3 that can be subverted by viral proteins to evade innate immune responses.

  16. The Cytoplasmic Adaptor Protein Dok7 Activates the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MuSK via Dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamin, E.; Hallock, P; Burden, S; Hubbard, S

    2010-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction requires, among others proteins, Agrin, a neuronally derived ligand, and the following muscle proteins: LRP4, the receptor for Agrin; MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK); and Dok7 (or Dok-7), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein. Dok7 comprises a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. Unique among adaptor proteins recruited to RTKs, Dok7 is not only a substrate of MuSK, but also an activator of MuSK's kinase activity. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Dok7 PH-PTB domains in complex with a phosphopeptide representing the Dok7-binding site on MuSK. The structure and biochemical data reveal a dimeric arrangement of Dok7 PH-PTB that facilitates trans-autophosphorylation of the kinase activation loop. The structure provides the molecular basis for MuSK activation by Dok7 and for rationalizing several Dok7 loss-of-function mutations found in patients with congenital myasthenic syndromes.

  17. The interaction between the adaptor protein APS and Enigma is involved in actin organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Gonzalez, Teresa; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick

    2005-01-01

    APS (adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains) is an adaptor protein phosphorylated by several tyrosine kinase receptors including the insulin receptor. To identify novel binding partners of APS, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening. We identified Enigma, a PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein...... that was previously shown to be associated with the actin cytoskeleton. In HEK 293 cells, Enigma interacted specifically with APS, but not with the APS-related protein SH2-B. This interaction required the NPTY motif of APS and the LIM domains of Enigma. In NIH-3T3 cells that express the insulin receptor, Enigma...... and APS were partially co-localised with F-actin in small ruffling structures. Insulin increased the complex formation between APS and Enigma and their co-localisation in large F-actin containing ruffles. While in NIH-3T3 and HeLa cells the co-expression of both Enigma and APS did not modify the actin...

  18. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signaling driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology. PMID:26788993

  19. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signalingr driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-03-08

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology.

  20. TIRAP, an Adaptor Protein for TLR2/4, Transduces a Signal from RAGE Phosphorylated upon Ligand Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Murata, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Ono, Tomoyuki; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Motoyama, Akira; Hibino, Toshihiko; Kataoka, Ken; Huh, Nam-ho

    2011-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of a broad range of inflammatory, degenerative and hyperproliferative diseases. It binds to diverse ligands and activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Despite these pivotal functions, molecular events just downstream of ligand-activated RAGE have been surprisingly unknown. Here we show that the cytoplasmic domain of RAGE is phosphorylated at Ser391 by PKCζ upon binding of ligands. TIRAP and MyD88, which are known to be adaptor proteins for Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 (TLR2/4), bound to the phosphorylated RAGE and transduced a signal to downstream molecules. Blocking of the function of TIRAP and MyD88 largely abrogated intracellular signaling from ligand-activated RAGE. Our findings indicate that functional interaction between RAGE and TLRs coordinately regulates inflammation, immune response and other cellular functions. PMID:21829704

  1. Synthetic protein scaffolds based on peptide motifs and cognate adaptor domains for improving metabolic productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm H.C. Horn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of many cellular processes relies on the defined interaction among different proteins within the same metabolic or signaling pathway. Consequently, a spatial colocalization of functionally interacting proteins has frequently emerged during evolution. This concept has been adapted within the synthetic biology community for the purpose of creating artificial scaffolds. A recent advancement of this concept is the use of peptide motifs and their cognate adaptor domains. SH2, SH3, GBD, and PDZ domains have been used most often in research studies to date. The approach has been successfully applied to the synthesis of a variety of target molecules including catechin, D-glucaric acid, H2, hydrochinone, resveratrol, butyrate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and mevalonate. Increased production levels of up to 77-fold have been observed compared to non-scaffolded systems. A recent extension of this concept is the creation of a covalent linkage between peptide motifs and adaptor domains, which leads to a more stable association of the scaffolded systems and thus bears the potential to further enhance metabolic productivity.

  2. Immune adaptor ADAP in T cells regulates HIV-1 transcription and cell-cell viral spread via different co-receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bin; Han, Lei; Abbink, Truus E M; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Lim, Daina; Thaker, Youg Raj; Gao, Wei; Zhai, Rongrong; Wang, Jianhua; Lever, Andrew; Jolly, Clare; Wang, Hongyan; Rudd, Christopher E

    2013-09-18

    Immune cell adaptor protein ADAP (adhesion and degranulation-promoting adaptor protein) mediates aspects of T-cell adhesion and proliferation. Despite this, a connection between ADAP and infection by the HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus-1) has not been explored. In this paper, we show for the first time that ADAP and its binding to SLP-76 (SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa) regulate HIV-1 infection via two distinct mechanisms and co-receptors. siRNA down-regulation of ADAP, or expression of a mutant that is defective in associating to its binding partner SLP-76 (termed M12), inhibited the propagation of HIV-1 in T-cell lines and primary human T-cells. In one step, ADAP and its binding to SLP-76 were needed for the activation of NF-κB and its transcription of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) in cooperation with ligation of co-receptor CD28, but not LFA-1. In a second step, the ADAP-SLP-76 module cooperated with LFA-1 to regulate conjugate formation between T-cells and dendritic cells or other T-cells as well as the development of the virological synapse (VS) and viral spread between immune cells. These findings indicate that ADAP regulates two steps of HIV-1 infection cooperatively with two distinct receptors, and as such, serves as a new potential target in the blockade of HIV-1 infection.

  3. The Kinesin Adaptor Calsyntenin-1 Organizes Microtubule Polarity and Regulates Dynamics during Sensory Axon Arbor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Halloran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Axon growth and branching, and development of neuronal polarity are critically dependent on proper organization and dynamics of the microtubule (MT cytoskeleton. MTs must organize with correct polarity for delivery of diverse cargos to appropriate subcellular locations, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating MT polarity remain poorly understood. Moreover, how an actively branching axon reorganizes MTs to direct their plus ends distally at branch points is unknown. We used high-speed, in vivo imaging of polymerizing MT plus ends to characterize MT dynamics in developing sensory axon arbors in zebrafish embryos. We find that axonal MTs are highly dynamic throughout development, and that the peripheral and central axons of sensory neurons show differences in MT behaviors. Furthermore, we show that Calsyntenin-1 (Clstn-1, a kinesin adaptor required for sensory axon branching, also regulates MT polarity in developing axon arbors. In wild type neurons the vast majority of MTs are directed in the correct plus-end-distal orientation from early stages of development. Loss of Clstn-1 causes an increase in MTs polymerizing in the retrograde direction. These misoriented MTs most often are found near growth cones and branch points, suggesting Clstn-1 is particularly important for organizing MT polarity at these locations. Together, our results suggest that Clstn-1, in addition to regulating kinesin-mediated cargo transport, also organizes the underlying MT highway during axon arbor development.

  4. Insight into Phosphatidylinositol-Dependent Membrane Localization of the Innate Immune Adaptor Protein Toll/Interleukin 1 Receptor Domain-Containing Adaptor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chandra Patra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP plays an important role in the toll-like receptor (TLR 2, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling pathways. TIRAP anchors to phosphatidylinositol (PI 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 on the plasma membrane and PI (3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3 on the endosomal membrane and assists in recruitment of the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 protein to activated TLRs. To date, the structure and mechanism of TIRAP’s membrane association are only partially understood. Here, we modeled an all-residue TIRAP dimer using homology modeling, threading, and protein–protein docking strategies. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that PIP2 creates a stable microdomain in a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer, providing TIRAP with its physiologically relevant orientation. Computed binding free energy values suggest that the affinity of PI-binding domain (PBD for PIP2 is stronger than that of TIRAP as a whole for PIP2 and that the short PI-binding motif (PBM contributes to the affinity between PBD and PIP2. Four PIP2 molecules can be accommodated by distinct lysine-rich surfaces on the dimeric PBM. Along with the known PI-binding residues (K15, K16, K31, and K32, additional positively charged residues (K34, K35, and R36 showed strong affinity toward PIP2. Lysine-to-alanine mutations at the PI-binding residues abolished TIRAP’s affinity for PIP2; however, K34, K35, and R36 consistently interacted with PIP2 headgroups through hydrogen bond (H-bond and electrostatic interactions. TIRAP exhibited a PIP2-analogous intermolecular contact and binding affinity toward PIP3, aided by an H-bond network involving K34, K35, and R36. The present study extends our understanding of TIRAP’s membrane association, which could be helpful in designing peptide decoys to block TLR2-, TLR4-, TLR7-, and TLR9-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  5. Role of the AP-5 adaptor protein complex in late endosome-to-Golgi retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hirst

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The AP-5 adaptor protein complex is presumed to function in membrane traffic, but so far nothing is known about its pathway or its cargo. We have used CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out the AP-5 ζ subunit gene, AP5Z1, in HeLa cells, and then analysed the phenotype by subcellular fractionation profiling and quantitative mass spectrometry. The retromer complex had an altered steady-state distribution in the knockout cells, and several Golgi proteins, including GOLIM4 and GOLM1, were depleted from vesicle-enriched fractions. Immunolocalisation showed that loss of AP-5 led to impaired retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR, GOLIM4, and GOLM1 from endosomes back to the Golgi region. Knocking down the retromer complex exacerbated this phenotype. Both the CIMPR and sortilin interacted with the AP-5-associated protein SPG15 in pull-down assays, and we propose that sortilin may act as a link between Golgi proteins and the AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 complex. Together, our findings suggest that AP-5 functions in a novel sorting step out of late endosomes, acting as a backup pathway for retromer. This provides a mechanistic explanation for why mutations in AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 cause cells to accumulate aberrant endolysosomes, and highlights the role of endosome/lysosome dysfunction in the pathology of hereditary spastic paraplegia and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Dengue virus targets the adaptor protein MITA to subvert host innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yi Yu

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most important arboviral diseases caused by infection of four serotypes of dengue virus (DEN. We found that activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 triggered by viral infection and by foreign DNA and RNA stimulation was blocked by DEN-encoded NS2B3 through a protease-dependent mechanism. The key adaptor protein in type I interferon pathway, human mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA but not the murine homologue MPYS, was cleaved in cells infected with DEN-1 or DEN-2 and with expression of the enzymatically active protease NS2B3. The cleavage site of MITA was mapped to LRR↓(96G and the function of MITA was suppressed by dengue protease. DEN replication was reduced with overexpression of MPYS but not with MITA, while DEN replication was enhanced by MPYS knockdown, indicating an antiviral role of MITA/MPYS against DEN infection. The involvement of MITA in DEN-triggered innate immune response was evidenced by reduction of IRF3 activation and IFN induction in cells with MITA knockdown upon DEN-2 infection. NS2B3 physically interacted with MITA, and the interaction and cleavage of MITA could be further enhanced by poly(dA:dT stimulation. Thus, we identified MITA as a novel host target of DEN protease and provide the molecular mechanism of how DEN subverts the host innate immunity.

  7. Canine hepacivirus NS3 serine protease can cleave the human adaptor proteins MAVS and TRIF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Parera

    Full Text Available Canine hepacivirus (CHV was recently identified in domestic dogs and horses. The finding that CHV is genetically the virus most closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV has raised the question of whether HCV might have evolved as the result of close contact between dogs and/or horses and humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the NS3/4A serine protease of CHV specifically cleaves human mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS and Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-beta (TRIF. The proteolytic activity of CHV NS3/4A was evaluated using a bacteriophage lambda genetic screen. Human MAVS- and TRIF-specific cleavage sites were engineered into the lambda cI repressor. Upon infection of Escherichia coli cells coexpressing these repressors and a CHV NS3/4A construct, lambda phage replicated up to 2000-fold more efficiently than in cells expressing a CHV protease variant carrying the inactivating substitution S139A. Comparable results were obtained when several HCV NS3/4A constructs of genotype 1b were assayed. This indicates that CHV can disrupt the human innate antiviral defense signaling pathway and suggests a possible evolutionary relationship between CHV and HCV.

  8. DMPD: The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available min Immunol. 2004 Dec;16(6):409-19. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The SAP family of adaptors in immune ...g) SVG File (.svg) HTML File (.html) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with C

  9. Adaptor protein2 (AP2) orchestrates CXCR2-mediated cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Sai, Jiqing; Hawkins, Oriana; Richmond, Ann

    2014-04-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR2 is vital for inflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, cancer progression and metastasis. Adaptor protein 2 (AP2), a clathrin binding heterotetrameric protein comprised of α, β2, μ2 and σ2 subunits, facilitates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Mutation of the LLKIL motif in the CXCR2 carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) results in loss of AP2 binding to the receptor and loss of ligand-mediated receptor internalization and chemotaxis. AP2 knockdown also results in diminished ligand-mediated CXCR2 internalization, polarization and chemotaxis. Using knockdown/rescue approaches with AP2-μ2 mutants, the binding domains were characterized in reference to CXCR2 internalization and chemotaxis. When in an open conformation, μ2 Patch 1 and Patch 2 domains bind tightly to membrane PIP2 phospholipids. When AP2-μ2, is replaced with μ2 mutated in Patch 1 and/or Patch 2 domains, ligand-mediated receptor binding and internalization are not lost. However, chemotaxis requires AP2-μ2 Patch 1, but not Patch 2. AP2-σ2 has been demonstrated to bind dileucine motifs to facilitate internalization. Expression of AP2-σ2 V88D and V98S dominant negative mutants resulted in loss of CXCR2 mediated chemotaxis. Thus, AP2 binding to both membrane phosphatidylinositol phospholipids and dileucine motifs is crucial for directional migration or chemotaxis. Moreover, AP2-mediated receptor internalization can be dissociated from AP2-mediated chemotaxis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Protein kinase A-induced internalization of Slack channels from the neuronal membrane occurs by adaptor protein-2/clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaj, Sushmitha; Evely, Katherine M; Pryce, Kerri D; Li, Jun; Qu, Jun; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2017-11-24

    The sodium-activated potassium (K Na ) channel Kcnt1 (Slack) is abundantly expressed in nociceptor (pain-sensing) neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), where they transmit the large outward conductance I KNa and arbitrate membrane excitability. Slack channel expression at the DRG membrane is necessary for their characteristic firing accommodation during maintained stimulation, and reduced membrane channel density causes hyperexcitability. We have previously shown that in a pro-inflammatory state, a decrease in membrane channel expression leading to reduced Slack-mediated I KNa expression underlies DRG neuronal sensitization. An important component of the inflammatory milieu, PKA internalizes Slack channels from the DRG membrane, reduces I KNa , and produces DRG neuronal hyperexcitability when activated in cultured primary DRG neurons. Here, we show that this PKA-induced retrograde trafficking of Slack channels also occurs in intact spinal cord slices and that it is carried out by adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We provide mass spectrometric and biochemical evidence of an association of native neuronal AP-2 adaptor proteins with Slack channels, facilitated by a dileucine motif housed in the cytoplasmic Slack C terminus that binds AP-2. By creating a competitive peptide blocker of AP-2-Slack binding, we demonstrated that this interaction is essential for clathrin recruitment to the DRG membrane, Slack channel endocytosis, and DRG neuronal hyperexcitability after PKA activation. Together, these findings uncover AP-2 and clathrin as players in Slack channel regulation. Given the significant role of Slack in nociceptive neuronal excitability, the AP-2 clathrin-mediated endocytosis trafficking mechanism may enable targeting of peripheral and possibly, central neuronal sensitization. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Shc adaptor proteins are key transducers of mitogenic signaling mediated by the G protein-coupled thrombin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Grall, D; Salcini, A E

    1996-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin activates G protein signaling systems that lead to Ras activation and, in certain cells, proliferation. Whereas the steps leading to Ras activation by G protein-coupled receptors are not well defined, the mechanisms of Ras activation by receptor tyrosine kinases have ...... kinase activation, gene induction and cell growth. From these data, we conclude that Shc represents a crucial point of convergence between signaling pathways activated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors.......The serine protease thrombin activates G protein signaling systems that lead to Ras activation and, in certain cells, proliferation. Whereas the steps leading to Ras activation by G protein-coupled receptors are not well defined, the mechanisms of Ras activation by receptor tyrosine kinases have...... recently been elucidated biochemically and genetically. The present study was undertaken to determine whether common signaling components are used by these two distinct classes of receptors. Here we report that the adaptor protein Shc, is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues following stimulation...

  12. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase R-PTP-alpha is tyrosine-phosphorylated and associated with the adaptor protein Grb2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, J; Batzer, A; Sap, J

    1994-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine phosphatases (R-PTPases) have generated interest because of their suspected involvement in cellular signal transduction. The adaptor protein Grb2 has been implicated in coupling receptor tyrosine kinases to Ras. We report that a ubiquitous R-PTPase, R-PTP-alpha, is tyrosine......-phosphorylated and associated in vivo with the Grb2 protein. This association can be reproduced in stably and transiently transfected cells, as well as in vitro using recombinant Grb2 protein. Association requires the presence of an intact SH2 domain in Grb2, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of R-PTP-alpha. This observation...

  13. A Dictyostelium SH2 adaptor protein required for correct DIF-1 signaling and pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Christopher; Ross, Susan; Annesley, Sarah J; Cole, Christian; Bloomfield, Gareth; Ivens, Alasdair; Skelton, Jason; Fisher, Paul R; Barton, Geoffrey; Williams, Jeffrey G

    2011-05-15

    phototaxis defect, implying that the early and late functions of LrrB are affected in different ways. These observations, coupled with its domain structure, suggest that LrrB is an SH2 adaptor protein active in diverse developmental signaling pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pertussis toxin targets the innate immunity through DAP12, FcRγ, and MyD88 adaptor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsisay, Vongsavanh; Iizasa, Ei'ichi; Hara, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Hiroki

    2017-04-01

    Activation of the innate immunity by adjuvants, such as pertussis toxin (PTX), in the presence of autoreactive lymphocytes and antigen mimicry is sufficient to trigger autoimmunity. Toll-like, C-type lectin, and immunglobulin-like receptors play an important role in the innate immunity by sensing a variety of microbial products through several adaptor proteins, including MyD88, DAP12, and FcRγ. This study investigated the interaction between PTX and innate immune components. The direct interactions between coated PTX and receptor-fusion proteins were examined using ELISA-based binding assays. Functionally, PTX-binding receptors could be classified into two groups: inhibition (DAP12-coupled TREM2, ITIM-bearing SIRPα, SIGNR1/SIGNR3/DCSIGN) and activation (MyD88-associated TLR4, DAP12-coupled LMIR5/CD300b, FcRγ-coupled LMIR8/CD300c, CLEC9A, MGL-1). DAP12, MyD88, and FcRγ were selected for further investigation. A comprehensive analysis of gene transcription showed that PTX up-regulated the expression of various inflammatory mediators. DAP12 deficiency resulted in reduction or enhancement of inflammatory responses in a cytokine-specific manner. PTX was able to activate the TREM2-DAP12 signalling pathway. PTX induced lower expression of inflammatory mediators in the absence of FcRγ alone and substantially lost its inflammatory capacity in the absence of both FcRγ and MyD88. PTX was able to activate the MyD88-NF-κB signalling pathway in the presence of TLR2 or TLR4. The inflammatory activity of PTX was completely lost by heating. These results demonstrate that PTX targets the innate immunity through DAP12, FcRγ, and MyD88 providing new insights into the immunobiology of PTX. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 positive macrophages and HO-1 up-regulation in intestinal muscularis resident macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Hanne B; Huizinga, Jan D; Larsen, Jytte O

    2017-01-01

    the reaction of resident macrophages of the musculature to a pro-inflammatory stimulator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were injected with LPS or saline and sacrificed after 6 hours. Whole mounts were stained with antibodies toward CD169, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1) (microglial...... macrophages in serosa and at AP, suggesting a M2 phenotype. LPS-treatment results in an up-regulation of HO-1(pos) /CD169(neg) cells in serosa and at AP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  16. High Fat Diet Enhances β-Site Cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP via Promoting β-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1/Adaptor Protein 2/Clathrin Complex Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Maesako

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes are risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD. We reported that a high fat diet (HFD promotes amyloid precursor protein (APP cleavage by β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 without increasing BACE1 levels in APP transgenic mice. However, the detailed mechanism had remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that HFD promotes BACE1/Adaptor protein-2 (AP-2/clathrin complex formation by increasing AP-2 levels in APP transgenic mice. In Swedish APP overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells as well as in SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of AP-2 promoted the formation of BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, increasing the level of the soluble form of APP β (sAPPβ. On the other hand, mutant D495R BACE1, which inhibits formation of this trimeric complex, was shown to decrease the level of sAPPβ. Overexpression of AP-2 promoted the internalization of BACE1 from the cell surface, thus reducing the cell surface BACE1 level. As such, we concluded that HFD may induce the formation of the BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, which is followed by its transport of BACE1 from the cell surface to the intracellular compartments. These events might be associated with the enhancement of β-site cleavage of APP in APP transgenic mice. Here we present evidence that HFD, by regulation of subcellular trafficking of BACE1, promotes APP cleavage.

  17. High Fat Diet Enhances β-Site Cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) via Promoting β-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1/Adaptor Protein 2/Clathrin Complex Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Maiko; Tashiro, Yoshitaka; Sasaki, Kazuki; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Noda, Yasuha; Ueda, Karin; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Kubota, Masakazu; Okawa, Katsuya; Ihara, Masafumi; Shimohama, Shun; Uemura, Kengo; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported that a high fat diet (HFD) promotes amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage by β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) without increasing BACE1 levels in APP transgenic mice. However, the detailed mechanism had remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that HFD promotes BACE1/Adaptor protein-2 (AP-2)/clathrin complex formation by increasing AP-2 levels in APP transgenic mice. In Swedish APP overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as well as in SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of AP-2 promoted the formation of BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, increasing the level of the soluble form of APP β (sAPPβ). On the other hand, mutant D495R BACE1, which inhibits formation of this trimeric complex, was shown to decrease the level of sAPPβ. Overexpression of AP-2 promoted the internalization of BACE1 from the cell surface, thus reducing the cell surface BACE1 level. As such, we concluded that HFD may induce the formation of the BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, which is followed by its transport of BACE1 from the cell surface to the intracellular compartments. These events might be associated with the enhancement of β-site cleavage of APP in APP transgenic mice. Here we present evidence that HFD, by regulation of subcellular trafficking of BACE1, promotes APP cleavage.

  18. [Drosophila melanogaster gene Merlin interacts with the clathrin adaptor protein gene lap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopyl, S A; Dorogova, N V; Akhmamet'eva, E M; Omel'ianchuk, L V; Chang, L -S

    2010-03-01

    The protein Merlin is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation in the eyes and wings of Drosophila and is a homolog of the human protein encoded by the Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene whose mutations cause auricular nerve tumors. Recent studies show that Merlin and Expanded cooperatively regulate the recycling of membrane receptors, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). By performing a search for potential genetic interactions between Merlin (Mer) and the genes important for vesicular trafficking, we found that ectopic expression in the wing pouch of the clathrin adapter protein Lap involved in clathrin-mediated receptor endocytosis resulted in the formation of extra vein materials. On the one hand, coexpression of wild-type Merlin and lap in the wing pouch restored normal venation, while overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant Mer(DBB) together with lap enhanced ectopic vein formation. Using various constructs with Merlin truncated copies, we showed the C-terminal portion of the Merlin protein to be responsible for the Merlin-lap genetic interaction. Furthermore, we showed that the Merlin and Lap proteins colocalized at the cortex of the wing imaginal disc cells.

  19. LST1/A is a myeloid leukocyte-specific transmembrane adaptor protein recruiting protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 to the plasma membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Peter; Štěpánek, Ondřej; Hrdinka, Matouš; Drobek, Aleš; Chmátal, Lukáš; Malá, Linda; Ormsby, Tereza; Angelisová, Pavla; Hořejší, Václav; Brdička, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 27 (2012), s. 22812-228221 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEMEM/09/E011; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : adaptor proteins * myeloid cell * signal transduction * tetraspanins * LST1/A Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.651, year: 2012

  20. Multiple upstream signals converge on the adaptor protein Mst50 in Magnaporthe grisea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, G.; Xue, C.; Zhao, X.; Kim, Y.; Orbach, M.; Xu, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Rice blast fungus ( Magnaporthe grisea) forms a highly specialized infection structure for plant penetration, the appressorium, the formation and growth of which are regulated by the Mst11- Mst7- Pmk1 mitogen- activated protein kinase cascade. We characterized the MST50 gene that directly interacts with both MST11 and MST7. Similar to the mst11 mutant, the mst50 mutant was defective in appressorium formation, sens...

  1. A conserved serine residue regulates the stability of Drosophila Salvador and human WW domain-containing adaptor 45 through proteasomal degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di, E-mail: DiWu@mail.nankai.edu.cn; Wu, Shian

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Ser-17 is key for the stability of Drosophila Sav. •Ala mutation of Ser-17 promotes the proteasomal degradation of Sav. •Ser-17 residue is not the main target of Hpo-induced Sav stabilization. •Hpo-dependent and -independent mechanisms regulate Sav stability. •This mechanism is conserved in the homologue of Sav, human WW45. -- Abstract: The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls organ size through the coordinated regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Drosophila Salvador (Sav), which limits organ size, is a core component of the Hpo pathway. In this study, Ser-17 was shown to be important for the stability of Sav. Alanine mutation of Ser-17 promoted the proteasomal degradation of Sav. Destabilization and stabilization of the Sav protein mediated by alanine mutation of Ser-17 and by Hpo, respectively, were independent of each other. This implies that the stability of Sav is controlled by two mechanisms, one that is Ser-17-dependent and Hpo-independent, and another that is Ser-17-independent and Hpo-dependent. These dual mechanisms also regulated the human counterpart of Drosophila Sav, WW domain-containing adaptor 45 (WW45). The conservation of this regulation adds to its significance in normal physiology and tumorigenesis.

  2. Fission yeast arrestin-related trafficking adaptor, Arn1/Any1, is ubiquitinated by Pub1 E3 ligase and regulates endocytosis of Cat1 amino acid transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Nakashima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tsc1–Tsc2 complex homologous to human tuberous sclerosis complex proteins governs amino acid uptake by regulating the expression and intracellular distribution of amino acid transporters in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we performed a genetic screening for molecules that are involved in amino acid uptake and found Arn1 (also known as Any1. Arn1 is homologous to ART1, an arrestin-related trafficking adaptor (ART in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and contains a conserved arrestin motif, a ubiquitination site, and two PY motifs. Overexpression of arn1+ confers canavanine resistance on cells, whereas its disruption causes hypersensitivity to canavanine. We also show that Arn1 regulates endocytosis of the Cat1 amino acid transporter. Furthermore, deletion of arn1+ suppresses a defect of amino acid uptake and the aberrant Cat1 localization in tsc2Δ. Arn1 interacts with and is ubiquitinated by the Pub1 ubiquitin ligase, which is necessary to regulate Cat1 endocytosis. Cat1 undergoes ubiquitinations on lysine residues within the N-terminus, which are mediated, in part, by Arn1 to determine Cat1 localization. Correctively, Arn1 is an ART in S. pombe and contributes to amino acid uptake through regulating Cat1 endocytosis in which Tsc2 is involved.

  3. Probing the Energetics of Dynactin Filament Assembly and the Binding of Cargo Adaptor Proteins Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Electrostatics-Based Structural Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjun

    2017-01-10

    Dynactin, a large multiprotein complex, binds with the cytoplasmic dynein-1 motor and various adaptor proteins to allow recruitment and transportation of cellular cargoes toward the minus end of microtubules. The structure of the dynactin complex is built around an actin-like minifilament with a defined length, which has been visualized in a high-resolution structure of the dynactin filament determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). To understand the energetic basis of dynactin filament assembly, we used molecular dynamics simulation to probe the intersubunit interactions among the actin-like proteins, various capping proteins, and four extended regions of the dynactin shoulder. Our simulations revealed stronger intersubunit interactions at the barbed and pointed ends of the filament and involving the extended regions (compared with the interactions within the filament), which may energetically drive filament termination by the capping proteins and recruitment of the actin-like proteins by the extended regions, two key features of the dynactin filament assembly process. Next, we modeled the unknown binding configuration among dynactin, dynein tails, and a number of coiled-coil adaptor proteins (including several Bicaudal-D and related proteins and three HOOK proteins), and predicted a key set of charged residues involved in their electrostatic interactions. Our modeling is consistent with previous findings of conserved regions, functional sites, and disease mutations in the adaptor proteins and will provide a structural framework for future functional and mutational studies of these adaptor proteins. In sum, this study yielded rich structural and energetic information about dynactin and associated adaptor proteins that cannot be directly obtained from the cryo-EM structures with limited resolutions.

  4. Brucella TIR-like protein TcpB/Btp1 specifically targets the host adaptor protein MAL/TIRAP to promote infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenna; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Yang, Mingjuan; Gao, Junguang; Zhan, Shaoxia; Xinying, Du; Huang, Liuyu; Li, Wenfeng; Chen, Zeliang; Li, Juan

    2016-08-26

    Brucella spp. are known to avoid host immune recognition and weaken the immune response to infection. Brucella like accomplish this by employing two clever strategies, called the stealth strategy and hijacking strategy. The TIR domain-containing protein (TcpB/Btp1) of Brucella melitensis is thought to be involved in inhibiting host NF-κB activation by binding to adaptors downstream of Toll-like receptors. However, of the five TIR domain-containing adaptors conserved in mammals, whether MyD88 or MAL, even other three adaptors, are specifically targeted by TcpB has not been identified. Here, we confirmed the effect of TcpB on B.melitensis virulence in mice and found that TcpB selectively targets MAL. By using siRNA against MAL, we found that TcpB from B.melitensis is involved in intracellular survival and that MAL affects intracellular replication of B.melitensis. Our results confirm that TcpB specifically targets MAL/TIRAP to disrupt downstream signaling pathways and promote intra-host survival of Brucella spp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A dimer of the Toll-like receptor 4 cytoplasmic domain provides a specific scaffold for the recruitment of signalling adaptor proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Núñez Miguel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is a class I transmembrane receptor expressed on the surface of immune system cells. TLR4 is activated by exposure to lipopolysaccharides derived from the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria and forms part of the innate immune response in mammals. Like other class 1 receptors, TLR4 is activated by ligand induced dimerization, and recent studies suggest that this causes concerted conformational changes in the receptor leading to self association of the cytoplasmic Toll/Interleukin 1 receptor (TIR signalling domain. This homodimerization event is proposed to provide a new scaffold that is able to bind downstream signalling adaptor proteins. TLR4 uses two different sets of adaptors; TRAM and TRIF, and Mal and MyD88. These adaptor pairs couple two distinct signalling pathways leading to the activation of interferon response factor 3 (IRF-3 and nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB respectively. In this paper we have generated a structural model of the TLR4 TIR dimer and used molecular docking to probe for potential sites of interaction between the receptor homodimer and the adaptor molecules. Remarkably, both the Mal and TRAM adaptors are strongly predicted to bind at two symmetry-related sites at the homodimer interface. This model of TLR4 activation is supported by extensive functional studies involving site directed mutagenesis, inhibition by cell permeable peptides and stable protein phosphorylation of receptor and adaptor TIR domains. Our results also suggest a molecular mechanism for two recent findings, the caspase 1 dependence of Mal signalling and the protective effects conferred by the Mal polymorphism Ser180Leu.

  6. Ectopic expression of the immune adaptor protein CD3zeta in neural stem/progenitor cells disrupts cell-fate specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angibaud, Julie; Baudouin, Stéphane J; Louveau, Antoine; Nerrière-Daguin, Véronique; Bonnamain, Virginie; Csaba, Zsolt; Dournaud, Pascal; Naveilhan, Philippe; Noraz, Nelly; Pellier-Monnin, Véronique; Boudin, Hélène

    2012-02-01

    Immune signaling and neuroinflammatory mediators have recently emerged as influential variables that regulate neural precursor/stem cell (NPC) behavior and function. In this study, we investigated whether the signaling adaptor protein CD3ζ, a transmembrane protein involved in T cell differentiation and function and recently shown to regulate neuronal development in the central nervous system (CNS), may have a role in NPC differentiation. We analyzed the expression profile of CD3ζ in embryonic rat brain during neurogenic periods and in neurosphere-derived neural cells, and we investigated the action of CD3ζ on cell differentiation. We found that CD3ζ expression coincided with neuronal commitment, but its forced expression in NPCs prevented the production of neurons and oligodendrocytes, but not astroglial cells. This blockade of neuronal differentiation was operated through an ITAM-independent mechanism, but required the Asp36 of the CD3ζ transmembrane domain involved in membrane receptor interaction. Together, our findings show that ectopic CD3ζ expression in NPCs impaired their normal cell-fate specification and suggest that variations of CD3ζ expression in the developing CNS might result in neurodevelopmental anomalies.

  7. The membrane-associated proteins FCHo and SGIP are allosteric activators of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollopeter, Gunther; Lange, Jeffrey J; Zhang, Ying; Vu, Thien N; Gu, Mingyu; Ailion, Michael; Lambie, Eric J; Slaughter, Brian D; Unruh, Jay R; Florens, Laurence; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2014-10-10

    The AP2 clathrin adaptor complex links protein cargo to the endocytic machinery but it is unclear how AP2 is activated on the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate that the membrane-associated proteins FCHo and SGIP1 convert AP2 into an open, active conformation. We screened for Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that phenocopy the loss of AP2 subunits and found that AP2 remains inactive in fcho-1 mutants. A subsequent screen for bypass suppressors of fcho-1 nulls identified 71 compensatory mutations in all four AP2 subunits. Using a protease-sensitivity assay we show that these mutations restore the open conformation in vivo. The domain of FCHo that induces this rearrangement is not the F-BAR domain or the µ-homology domain, but rather is an uncharacterized 90 amino acid motif, found in both FCHo and SGIP proteins, that directly binds AP2. Thus, these proteins stabilize nascent endocytic pits by exposing membrane and cargo binding sites on AP2.

  8. The adaptor protein alpha-syntrophin is reduced in human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis but is unchanged in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Pohl, Rebekka; Haberl, Elisabeth M; Weiss, Thomas S; Buechler, Christa

    2017-10-01

    The adaptor protein alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) is differentially expressed in varying types of cancer and affects triglyceride levels, inflammatory response and cell proliferation. However, little is known about the expression of SNTA in liver diseases. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation and eventually fibrosis, and may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, SNTA mRNA was analyzed in liver tissues from 71 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients and 32 controls to assess associations with disease characteristics. SNTA mRNA expression was reduced in NASH liver and negatively correlated with steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and NASH scores. In the NASH patients, those with type 2 diabetes had a higher fibrosis score, reduced inflammation and increased hepatic SNTA mRNA levels demonstrating a strong association of SNTA mRNA levels with inflammation. Recently, we have shown diminished expression of the high-density lipoprotein scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) in the liver of syntrophin-deficient mice. Indeed, hepatic SNTA and SR-BI mRNA were positively correlated. SNTA protein was further determined in tumor and non-tumorous tissues of 21 HCC patients. Protein expression was unchanged in the tumor and not related to staging and grading. Present study identified associations of hepatic SNTA mRNA levels with SR-BI and features of NASH assuming a function of this protein in chronic liver disease and cholesterol metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Matrilin-2, an extracellular adaptor protein, is needed for the regeneration of muscle, nerve and other tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Korpos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM performs essential functions in the differentiation, maintenance and remodeling of tissues during development and regeneration, and it undergoes dynamic changes during remodeling concomitant to alterations in the cell-ECM interactions. Here we discuss recent data addressing the critical role of the widely expressed ECM protein, matrilin-2 (Matn2 in the timely onset of differentiation and regeneration processes in myogenic, neural and other tissues and in tumorigenesis. As a multiadhesion adaptor protein, it interacts with other ECM proteins and integrins. Matn2 promotes neurite outgrowth, Schwann cell migration, neuromuscular junction formation, skeletal muscle and liver regeneration and skin wound healing. Matn2 deposition by myoblasts is crucial for the timely induction of the global switch toward terminal myogenic differentiation during muscle regeneration by affecting transforming growth factor beta/bone morphogenetic protein 7/Smad and other signal transduction pathways. Depending on the type of tissue and the pathomechanism, Matn2 can also promote or suppress tumor growth.

  10. The adaptor molecule Act1 regulates BAFF responsiveness and self-reactive B cell selection during transitional B cell maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltiay, Natalia V.; Lu, Yi; Allman, David; Jørgensen, Trine N.; Li, Xiaoxia

    2011-01-01

    The transitional stage is a key check-point for elimination of autoreactive B cells in the periphery. This selection process requires fine regulation of signals received through B-cell receptor (BCR) and B cell activating factor receptor (BAFFR). We previously identified the adaptor molecule Act1 as a negative regulator of BAFF-mediated signaling. Deficiency of Act1 in mice results in peripheral B cell hyperplasia and development of autoimmunity. In this study we demonstrate that Act1 plays a critical role in the regulation of transitional B cell survival and maturation. We found that the ratio of late-transitional (T2) to early-transitional (T1) cells was increased in spleens from Act1-deficient mice. Moreover, BAFF stimulation induced better T1 cell survival and promoted more efficient maturation of T1 cells into T2 cells ex vivo in the absence of Act1. BAFF stimulation induced higher levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl2-member Mc1-l in Act1-deficient T1 than that in wild-type control cells, suggesting that Mcl1 might be one of the key effector molecules for BAFF-mediated survival in the Act1-deficient transitional B cells. Importantly, co-stimulation with BAFF was able to rescue Act1-deficient T1 cells from BCR-induced apoptosis more effectively than Act1-suffienct T1 B cells. Finally, by using double transgenic HEL mice, we demonstrated that Act1 deficiency can promote the maturation of HEL-specific autoreactive B cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the transitional stage is a critical point of action for Act1 in the elimination of autoreactive B cells and in the regulation of peripheral B cell homeostasis. PMID:20543113

  11. Dual role of the Toxoplasma gondii clathrin adaptor AP1 in the sorting of rhoptry and microneme proteins and in parasite division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Saliou, Jean-Michel; Huot, Ludovic; Sindikubwabo, Fabien; Hakimi, Mohamed Ali; Langsley, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL). Disruption of the μ1 subunit resulted in the mis-sorting of microneme proteins at the level of the Trans-Golgi-Network (TGN). Furthermore, we demonstrated that TgAP1 regulates rhoptry biogenesis by activating rhoptry protein exit from the TGN, but also participates in the post-Golgi maturation process of preROP compartments into apically anchored club-shaped mature organelles. For this latter activity, our data indicate a specific functional relationship between TgAP1 and the Rab5A-positive endosome-like compartment. In addition, we unraveled an original role for TgAP1 in the regulation of parasite division. APμ1-depleted parasites undergo normal daughter cell budding and basal complex assembly but fail to segregate at the end of cytokinesis. PMID:28430827

  12. Enhancement of B-cell receptor signaling by a point mutation of adaptor protein 3BP2 identified in human inherited disease cherubism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kenji; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Takeuchi, Kenji; Horiguchi, Tomoko; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Sada, Kiyonao

    2011-09-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of adaptor protein c-Abl-Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-binding protein-2 (3BP2, also referred to SH3BP2) positively regulates the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated signal transduction, leading to the activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Here we showed the effect of the proline to arginine substitution of 3BP2 in which is the most common mutation in patients with cherubism (P418R) on B-cell receptor signaling. Comparing to the wild type, overexpression of the mutant form of 3BP2 (3BP2-P416R, corresponding to P418R in human protein) enhanced BCR-mediated activation of NFAT. 3BP2-P416R increased the signaling complex formation with Syk, phospholipase C-γ2 (PLC-γ2), and Vav1. In contrast, 3BP2-P416R could not change the association with the negative regulator 14-3-3. Loss of the association mutant that was incapable to associate with 14-3-3 could not mimic BCR-mediated NFAT activation in Syk-deficient cells. Moreover, BCR-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was not affected by P416R mutation. These results showed that P416R mutation of 3BP2 causes the gain of function in B cells by increasing the interaction with specific signaling molecules. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Penta-EF-hand protein ALG-2 functions as a Ca2+-dependent adaptor that bridges Alix and TSG101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Mayumi; Ichioka, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Ryota; Suzuki, Hironori; Yoshida, Haruna; Shibata, Hideki; Maki, Masatoshi

    2009-08-14

    Alix and TSG101, known to physically interact with each other, have Pro-rich regions that are bound by ALG-2 Ca2+-dependently. We investigated the role of ALG-2 in the Alix-TSG101 association by pulldown assays using Strep-tagged Alix and its various mutants. The ALG-2-binding site was required for the Ca2+-dependent pulldown of TSG101 using HEK293T cells, whereas the PSAP sequence, a binding motif for the UEV domain of TSG101, was dispensable. Alix-TSG101 association was not observed using ALG-2-knockdown cells but became detectable by addition of the purified recombinant ALG-2 protein in the assay mixtures. Exogenous expression of mGFP-fused ALG-2 also restored the pulldown capability of Strep-Alix, but an alternatively spliced shorter ALG-2 isoform and a dimerization-defective mutant were incompetent. Based on the X-ray crystal structure model showing the presence of one ligand-binding site in each molecule of an ALG-2 dimer, we propose that Ca2+-loaded ALG-2 bridges Alix and TSG101 as an adaptor protein.

  14. The Role of Crk Adaptor Proteins in Breast Tumorigenesis and Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    proteins affected proliferation , an Alamar Blue assay was performed. No significant differences in cell proliferation were observed (Figure 2b). In...migration and invasion, cell morphology and adhesion. Western blot of Crk proteins from whole cell lysates with actin as loading control (A). Alamar blue ...We have established a relationship between Crk protein expression and cell proliferation in basal breast cancer. Stable knockdown of Crk protein

  15. Bivalent Motif-Ear Interactions Mediate the Association of the Accessory Protein Tepsin with the AP-4 Adaptor Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, Rafael; Guardia, Carlos M; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2015-12-25

    The heterotetrameric (ϵ-β4-μ4-σ4) complex adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is a component of a non-clathrin coat involved in protein sorting at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Considerable interest in this complex has arisen from the recent discovery that mutations in each of its four subunits are the cause of a congenital intellectual disability and movement disorder in humans. Despite its physiological importance, the structure and function of this coat remain poorly understood. To investigate the assembly of the AP-4 coat, we dissected the determinants of interaction of AP-4 with its only known accessory protein, the ENTH/VHS-domain-containing protein tepsin. Using a variety of protein interaction assays, we found that tepsin comprises two phylogenetically conserved peptide motifs, [GS]LFXG[ML]X[LV] and S[AV]F[SA]FLN, within its C-terminal unstructured region, which interact with the C-terminal ear (or appendage) domains of the β4 and ϵ subunits of AP-4, respectively. Structure-based mutational analyses mapped the binding site for the [GS]LFXG[ML]X[LV] motif to a conserved, hydrophobic surface on the β4-ear platform fold. Both peptide-ear interactions are required for efficient association of tepsin with AP-4, and for recruitment of tepsin to the TGN. The bivalency of the interactions increases the avidity of tepsin for AP-4 and may enable cross-linking of multiple AP-4 heterotetramers, thus contributing to the assembly of the AP-4 coat. In addition to revealing critical aspects of this coat, our findings extend the paradigm of peptide-ear interactions, previously established for clathrin-AP-1/AP-2 coats, to a non-clathrin coat. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Allelic Variation in the Toll-Like Receptor Adaptor Protein Ticam2 Contributes to SARS-Coronavirus Pathogenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralinski, Lisa E; Menachery, Vineet D; Morgan, Andrew P; Totura, Allison L; Beall, Anne; Kocher, Jacob; Plante, Jessica; Harrison-Shostak, D Corinne; Schäfer, Alexandra; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Ferris, Martin T; Baric, Ralph S

    2017-06-07

    Host genetic variation is known to contribute to differential pathogenesis following infection. Mouse models allow direct assessment of host genetic factors responsible for susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Based on an assessment of early stage lines from the Collaborative Cross mouse multi-parent population, we identified two lines showing highly divergent susceptibilities to SARS-CoV: the resistant CC003/Unc and the susceptible CC053/Unc. We generated 264 F2 mice between these strains, and infected them with SARS-CoV. Weight loss, pulmonary hemorrhage, and viral load were all highly correlated disease phenotypes. We identified a quantitative trait locus of major effect on chromosome 18 (27.1-58.6 Mb) which affected weight loss, viral titer and hemorrhage. Additionally, each of these three phenotypes had distinct quantitative trait loci [Chr 9 (weight loss), Chrs 7 and 12 (virus titer), and Chr 15 (hemorrhage)]. We identified Ticam2, an adaptor protein in the TLR signaling pathways, as a candidate driving differential disease at the Chr 18 locus. Ticam2-/- mice were highly susceptible to SARS-CoV infection, exhibiting increased weight loss and more pulmonary hemorrhage than control mice. These results indicate a critical role for Ticam2 in SARS-CoV disease, and highlight the importance of host genetic variation in disease responses. Copyright © 2017 Gralinski et al.

  17. Structure of a putative ClpS N-end rule adaptor protein from the malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AhYoung, Andrew P; Koehl, Antoine; Vizcarra, Christina L; Cascio, Duilio; Egea, Pascal F

    2016-03-01

    The N-end rule pathway uses an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in bacteria and eukaryotes that marks proteins for degradation by ATP-dependent chaperones and proteases such as the Clp chaperones and proteases. Specific N-terminal amino acids (N-degrons) are sufficient to target substrates for degradation. In bacteria, the ClpS adaptor binds and delivers N-end rule substrates for their degradation upon association with the ClpA/P chaperone/protease. Here, we report the first crystal structure, solved at 2.7 Å resolution, of a eukaryotic homolog of bacterial ClpS from the malaria apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pfal). Despite limited sequence identity, Plasmodium ClpS is very similar to bacterial ClpS. Akin to its bacterial orthologs, plasmodial ClpS harbors a preformed hydrophobic pocket whose geometry and chemical properties are compatible with the binding of N-degrons. However, while the N-degron binding pocket in bacterial ClpS structures is open and accessible, the corresponding pocket in Plasmodium ClpS is occluded by a conserved surface loop that acts as a latch. Despite the closed conformation observed in the crystal, we show that, in solution, Pfal-ClpS binds and discriminates peptides mimicking bona fide N-end rule substrates. The presence of an apicoplast targeting peptide suggests that Pfal-ClpS localizes to this plastid-like organelle characteristic of all Apicomplexa and hosting most of its Clp machinery. By analogy with the related ClpS1 from plant chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, Plasmodium ClpS likely functions in association with ClpC in the apicoplast. Our findings open new venues for the design of novel anti-malarial drugs aimed at disrupting parasite-specific protein quality control pathways. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  18. Association between receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase RPTPalpha and the Grb2 adaptor. Dual Src homology (SH) 2/SH3 domain requirement and functional consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, J; Yang, L T; Sap, J

    1996-01-01

    Receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase RPTPalpha is found associated in vivo with the adaptor protein Grb2. Formation of this complex, which contains no detectable levels of Sos, is known to depend on a C-terminal phosphorylated tyrosine residue (Tyr798) in RPTPalpha and on the Src homology (SH) 2...... in vivo. These observations constitute a novel mode of Grb2 association and suggest a model in which association with a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein restricts the repertoire of SH3 binding proteins with which Grb2 can simultaneously interact. The function of the Tyr798 tyrosine phosphorylation/Grb2...

  19. CD2v Interacts with Adaptor Protein AP-1 during African Swine Fever Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; García-Urdiales, Eduardo; Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Nogal, María L; Barroso, Susana; Revilla, Yolanda; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) CD2v protein is believed to be involved in virulence enhancement, viral hemadsorption, and pathogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms of the function of this viral protein are still not fully understood. Here we describe that CD2v localized around viral factories during ASFV infection, suggesting a role in the generation and/or dynamics of these viral structures and hence in disturbing cellular traffic. We show that CD2v targeted the regulatory trans-Golgi network (TGN) protein complex AP-1, a key element in cellular traffic. This interaction was disrupted by brefeldin A even though the location of CD2v around the viral factory remained unchanged. CD2v-AP-1 binding was independent of CD2v glycosylation and occurred on the carboxy-terminal part of CD2v, where a canonical di-Leu motif previously reported to mediate AP-1 binding in eukaryotic cells, was identified. This motif was shown to be functionally interchangeable with the di-Leu motif present in HIV-Nef protein in an AP-1 binding assay. However, we demonstrated that it was not involved either in CD2v cellular distribution or in CD2v-AP-1 binding. Taken together, these findings shed light on CD2v function during ASFV infection by identifying AP-1 as a cellular factor targeted by CD2v and hence elucidate the cellular pathways used by the virus to enhance infectivity.

  20. CD2v Interacts with Adaptor Protein AP-1 during African Swine Fever Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pérez-Núñez

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV CD2v protein is believed to be involved in virulence enhancement, viral hemadsorption, and pathogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms of the function of this viral protein are still not fully understood. Here we describe that CD2v localized around viral factories during ASFV infection, suggesting a role in the generation and/or dynamics of these viral structures and hence in disturbing cellular traffic. We show that CD2v targeted the regulatory trans-Golgi network (TGN protein complex AP-1, a key element in cellular traffic. This interaction was disrupted by brefeldin A even though the location of CD2v around the viral factory remained unchanged. CD2v-AP-1 binding was independent of CD2v glycosylation and occurred on the carboxy-terminal part of CD2v, where a canonical di-Leu motif previously reported to mediate AP-1 binding in eukaryotic cells, was identified. This motif was shown to be functionally interchangeable with the di-Leu motif present in HIV-Nef protein in an AP-1 binding assay. However, we demonstrated that it was not involved either in CD2v cellular distribution or in CD2v-AP-1 binding. Taken together, these findings shed light on CD2v function during ASFV infection by identifying AP-1 as a cellular factor targeted by CD2v and hence elucidate the cellular pathways used by the virus to enhance infectivity.

  1. Genetic deletion of the p66Shc adaptor protein protects from angiotensin II-induced myocardial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiani, Gallia; Lagrasta, Costanza; Migliaccio, Enrica; Spillmann, Frank; Meloni, Marco; Madeddu, Paolo; Quaini, Federico; Padura, Ines Martin; Lanfrancone, Luisa; Pelicci, PierGiuseppe; Emanueli, Costanza

    2005-08-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), acting through its G protein-coupled AT1 receptor (AT1), contributes to the precocious heart senescence typical of patients with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. AT1 was suggested to transactivate an intracellular signaling controlled by growth factors and their tyrosin-kinase receptors. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, this downstream mechanism comprises the p66Shc adaptor protein, previously recognized to play a role in vascular cell senescence and death. The aim of the present study was 2-fold: (1) to characterize the cardiovascular phenotype of p66Shc knockout mice (p66Shc(-/-)), and (2) to test the novel hypothesis that disrupting the p66Shc might protect the heart from the damaging action of elevated Ang II levels. Compared with wild-type littermates (p66Shc(+/+)), p66Shc(-/-) showed similar blood pressure, heart rate, and left ventricular wall thickness. However, cardiomyocyte number was increased in mutant animals, indicating a condition of myocardial hyperplasia. In p66Shc(+/+), infusion of a sub-pressor dose of Ang II (300 nmol/kg body weight [BW] daily for 28 days) caused left ventricular hypertrophy and apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. In contrast, p66Shc(-/-) were resistant to the proapoptotic/hypertrophic action of Ang II. Consistently, in vitro experiments showed that Ang II causes apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes isolated from p66Shc(+/+) hearts to a greater extent as compared with p66Shc(-/-) cardiomyocytes. Our results indicate a fundamental role of p66Shc in Ang II-mediated myocardial remodeling. In perspective, p66Shc inhibition may be envisioned as a novel way to prevent the deleterious effects of Ang II on the heart.

  2. Adaptor Protein-1 Complex Affects the Endocytic Trafficking and Function of Peptidylglycine α-Amidating Monooxygenase, a Luminal Cuproenzyme*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemaison, Mathilde L.; Bäck, Nils; Duffy, Megan E.; Ralle, Martina; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A.

    2015-01-01

    The adaptor protein-1 complex (AP-1), which transports cargo between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes, plays a role in the trafficking of Atp7a, a copper-transporting P-type ATPase, and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a copper-dependent membrane enzyme. Lack of any of the four AP-1 subunits impairs function, and patients with MEDNIK syndrome, a rare genetic disorder caused by lack of expression of the σ1A subunit, exhibit clinical and biochemical signs of impaired copper homeostasis. To explore the role of AP-1 in copper homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells, we used corticotrope tumor cells in which AP-1 function was diminished by reducing expression of its μ1A subunit. Copper levels were unchanged when AP-1 function was impaired, but cellular levels of Atp7a declined slightly. The ability of PAM to function was assessed by monitoring 18-kDa fragment-NH2 production from proopiomelanocortin. Reduced AP-1 function made 18-kDa fragment amidation more sensitive to inhibition by bathocuproine disulfonate, a cell-impermeant Cu(I) chelator. The endocytic trafficking of PAM was altered, and PAM-1 accumulated on the cell surface when AP-1 levels were reduced. Reduced AP-1 function increased the Atp7a presence in early/recycling endosomes but did not alter the ability of copper to stimulate its appearance on the plasma membrane. Co-immunoprecipitation of a small fraction of PAM and Atp7a supports the suggestion that copper can be transferred directly from Atp7a to PAM, a process that can occur only when both proteins are present in the same subcellular compartment. Altered luminal cuproenzyme function may contribute to deficits observed when the AP-1 function is compromised. PMID:26170456

  3. The mouse CD1d cytoplasmic tail mediates CD1d trafficking and antigen presentation by adaptor protein 3-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Anna P; Prigozy, Theodore I; Brossay, Laurent; Pei, Bo; Khurana, Archana; Martin, Donald; Zhu, Tiancheng; Späte, Kira; Ozga, Megda; Höning, Stefan; Bakke, Oddmund; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2005-03-15

    The short cytoplasmic tail of mouse CD1d (mCD1d) is required for its endosomal localization, for the presentation of some glycolipid Ags, and for the development of Valpha14i NKT cells. This tail has a four-amino acid Tyr-containing motif, Tyr-Gln-Asp-Ile (YQDI), similar to those sequences known to be important for the interaction with adaptor protein complexes (AP) that mediate the endosomal localization of many different proteins. In fact, mCD1d has been shown previously to interact with the AP-3 adaptor complex. In the present study, we mutated each amino acid in the YQDI motif to determine the importance of the entire motif sequence in influencing mCD1d trafficking, its interaction with adaptors, and its intracellular localization. The results indicate that the Y, D, and I amino acids are significant functionally because mutations at each of these positions altered the intracellular distribution of mCD1d and reduced its ability to present glycosphingolipids to NKT cells. However, the three amino acids are not all acting in the same way because they differ with regard to how they influence the intracellular distribution of CD1d, its rate of internalization, and its ability to interact with the mu subunit of AP-3. Our results emphasize that multiple steps, including interactions with the adaptors AP-2 and AP-3, are required for normal trafficking of mCD1d and that these different steps are mediated by only a few cytoplasmic amino acids.

  4. Invertebrate and vertebrate class III myosins interact with MORN repeat-containing adaptor proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk L Mecklenburg

    Full Text Available In Drosophila photoreceptors, the NINAC-encoded myosin III is found in a complex with a small, MORN-repeat containing, protein Retinophilin (RTP. Expression of these two proteins in other cell types showed NINAC myosin III behavior is altered by RTP. NINAC deletion constructs were used to map the RTP binding site within the proximal tail domain of NINAC. In vertebrates, the RTP ortholog is MORN4. Co-precipitation experiments demonstrated that human MORN4 binds to human myosin IIIA (MYO3A. In COS7 cells, MORN4 and MYO3A, but not MORN4 and MYO3B, co-localize to actin rich filopodia extensions. Deletion analysis mapped the MORN4 binding to the proximal region of the MYO3A tail domain. MYO3A dependent MORN4 tip localization suggests that MYO3A functions as a motor that transports MORN4 to the filopodia tips and MORN4 may enhance MYO3A tip localization by tethering it to the plasma membrane at the protrusion tips. These results establish conserved features of the RTP/MORN4 family: they bind within the tail domain of myosin IIIs to control their behavior.

  5. Both TRIF and IPS-1 adaptor proteins contribute to the cerebral innate immune response against herpes simplex virus 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menasria, Rafik; Boivin, Nicolas; Lebel, Manon; Piret, Jocelyne; Gosselin, Jean; Boivin, Guy

    2013-07-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and RNA helicases (RLHs) are important cell sensors involved in the immunological control of viral infections through production of type I interferon (IFN). The impact of a deficiency in the TRIF and IPS-1 adaptor proteins, respectively, implicated in TLR3 and RLH signaling pathways, was investigated during herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis. TRIF(-/-), IPS-1(-/-), and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice were infected intranasally with 7.5 × 10(5) PFU of HSV-1. Mice were monitored for neurological signs and survival over 20 days. Groups of mice were sacrificed on days 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 postinfection for determination of brain viral replication by quantitative PCR (qPCR), plaque assay, and immunohistochemistry and for alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) levels and phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF-3 and -7) in brain homogenates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting, respectively. TRIF(-/-) and IPS-1(-/-) mice had higher mortality rates than WT mice (P = 0.02 and P = 0.09, respectively). Viral antigens were more disseminated throughout the brain, correlating with a significant increase in brain viral load for TRIF(-/-) (days 5 to 9) and IPS-1(-/-) (days 7 and 9) mice compared to results for the WT. IFN-β production was reduced in brain homogenates of TRIF(-/-) and IPS-1(-/-) mice on day 5 compared to results for the WT, whereas IFN-α levels were increased on day 7 in TRIF(-/-) mice. Phosphorylation levels of IRF-3 and IRF-7 were decreased in TRIF(-/-) and IPS-1(-/-) mice, respectively. These data suggest that both the TRIF and IPS-1 signaling pathways are important for the control of HSV replication in the brain and survival through IFN-β production.

  6. Downregulation of adaptor protein MyD88 compromises the angiogenic potential of B16 murine melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Paula; Nuñez, Nicolás Gonzalo; Mena, Hebe Agustina; Bocco, José Luis; Negrotto, Soledad; Maccioni, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms that link inflammatory responses to cancer development remain a subject of intense investigation, emphasizing the need to better understand the cellular and molecular pathways that create a tumor promoting microenvironment. The myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 acts as a main adaptor molecule for the signaling cascades initiated from Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R). MyD88 has been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis in many inflammation-associated cancer models. In this study, we sought to better define the role of MyD88 in neoplastic cells using a murine melanoma model. Herein, we have demonstrated that MyD88 expression is required to maintain the angiogenic switch that supports B16 melanoma growth. By knocking down MyD88 we reduced TLR-mediated NF-κB activation with no evident effects over cell proliferation and survival. In addition, MyD88 downregulation was associated with a decrease of HIF1α levels and its target gene VEGF, in correlation with an impaired capability to induce capillary sprouting and tube formation of endothelial cells. Melanomas developed from cells lacking MyD88 showed an enhanced secretion of chemoattractant ligands such as CCL2, CXCL10 and CXCL1 and have an improved infiltration of macrophages to the tumor site. Our results imply that cell-autonomous signaling through MyD88 is required to sustain tumor growth and underscore its function as an important positive modulator of tumor angiogenesis. PMID:28662055

  7. Adaptor proteins intersectin 1 and 2 bind similar proline-rich ligands but are differentially recognized by SH2 domain-containing proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Novokhatska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scaffolding proteins of the intersectin (ITSN family, ITSN1 and ITSN2, are crucial for the initiation stage of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. These proteins are closely related but have implications in distinct pathologies. To determine how these proteins could be separated in certain cell pathways we performed a comparative study of ITSNs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have shown that endogenous ITSN1 and ITSN2 colocalize and form a complex in cells. A structural comparison of five SH3 domains, which mediated most ITSNs protein-protein interactions, demonstrated a similarity of their ligand-binding sites. We showed that the SH3 domains of ITSN2 bound well-established interactors of ITSN1 as well as newly identified ITSNs protein partners. A search for a novel interacting interface revealed multiple tyrosines that could be phosphorylated in ITSN2. Phosphorylation of ITSN2 isoforms but not ITSN1 short isoform was observed in various cell lines. EGF stimulation of HeLa cells enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of ITSN2 isoforms and enabled their recognition by the SH2 domains of the Fyn, Fgr and Abl1 kinases, the regulatory subunit of PI3K, the adaptor proteins Grb2 and Crk, and phospholipase C gamma. The SH2 domains mentioned were unable to bind ITSN1 short isoform. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that during evolution of vertebrates ITSN2 acquired a novel protein-interaction interface that allows its specific recognition by the SH2 domains of signaling proteins. We propose that these data could be important to understand the functional diversity of paralogous ITSN proteins.

  8. Studying multisite binary and ternary protein interactions by global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data in SEDPHAT: application to adaptor protein complexes in cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Jon C D; Brown, Patrick H; Bowden, Brent; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Appella, Ettore; Samelson, Lawrence E; Schuck, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Multisite interactions and the formation of ternary or higher-order protein complexes are ubiquitous features of protein interactions. Cooperativity between different ligands is a hallmark for information transfer, and is frequently critical for the biological function. We describe a new computational platform for the global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data for the study of binary and ternary multisite interactions, implemented as part of the public domain multimethod analysis software SEDPHAT. The global analysis of titrations performed in different orientations was explored, and the potential for unraveling cooperativity parameters in multisite interactions was assessed in theory and experiment. To demonstrate the practical potential and limitations of global analyses of ITC titrations for the study of cooperative multiprotein interactions, we have examined the interactions of three proteins that are critical for signal transduction after T-cell activation, LAT, Grb2, and Sos1. We have shown previously that multivalent interactions between these three molecules promote the assembly of large multiprotein complexes important for T-cell receptor activation. By global analysis of the heats of binding observed in sets of ITC injections in different orientations, which allowed us to follow the formation of binary and ternary complexes, we observed negative and positive cooperativity that may be important to control the pathway of assembly and disassembly of adaptor protein particles.

  9. The Adaptor Protein Myd88 Is a Key Signaling Molecule in the Pathogenesis of Irinotecan-Induced Intestinal Mucositis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysi V T Wong

    Full Text Available Intestinal mucositis is a common side effect of irinotecan-based anticancer regimens. Mucositis causes cell damage, bacterial/endotoxin translocation and production of cytokines including IL-1 and IL-18. These molecules and toll-like receptors (TLRs activate a common signaling pathway that involves the Myeloid Differentiation adaptor protein, MyD88, whose role in intestinal mucositis is unknown. Then, we evaluated the involvement of TLRs and MyD88 in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. MyD88-, TLR2- or TLR9-knockout mice and C57BL/6 (WT mice were given either saline or irinotecan (75 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days. On day 7, animal survival, diarrhea and bacteremia were assessed, and following euthanasia, samples of the ileum were obtained for morphometric analysis, myeloperoxidase (MPO assay and measurement of pro-inflammatory markers. Irinotecan reduced the animal survival (50% and induced a pronounced diarrhea, increased bacteremia, neutrophil accumulation in the intestinal tissue, intestinal damage and more than twofold increased expression of MyD88 (200%, TLR9 (400%, TRAF6 (236%, IL-1β (405%, IL-18 (365%, COX-2 (2,777% and NF-κB (245% in the WT animals when compared with saline-injected group (P<0.05. Genetic deletion of MyD88, TLR2 or TLR9 effectively controlled the signs of intestinal injury when compared with irinotecan-administered WT controls (P<0.05. In contrast to the MyD88-/- and TLR2-/- mice, the irinotecan-injected TLR9-/- mice showed a reduced survival, a marked diarrhea and an enhanced expression of IL-18 versus irinotecan-injected WT controls. Additionally, the expression of MyD88 was reduced in the TLR2-/- or TLR9-/- mice. This study shows a critical role of the MyD88-mediated TLR2 and TLR9 signaling in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis.

  10. Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3 Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imilce A Rodriguez-Fernandez

    Full Text Available The Adaptor Protein (AP-3 complex is an evolutionary conserved, molecular sorting device that mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins to lysosomes and related organelles. Genetic defects in AP-3 subunits lead to impaired biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. In this work, we have performed a forward screening for genetic modifiers of AP-3 function in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we have tested collections of large multi-gene deletions--which together covered most of the autosomal chromosomes-to identify chromosomal regions that, when deleted in single copy, enhanced or ameliorated the eye pigmentation phenotype of two independent AP-3 subunit mutants. Fine-mapping led us to define two non-overlapping, relatively small critical regions within fly chromosome 3. The first critical region included the Atg2 gene, which encodes a conserved protein involved in autophagy. Loss of one functional copy of Atg2 ameliorated the pigmentation defects of mutants in AP-3 subunits as well as in two other genes previously implicated in LRO biogenesis, namely Blos1 and lightoid, and even increased the eye pigment content of wild-type flies. The second critical region included the ArfGAP1 gene, which encodes a conserved GTPase-activating protein with specificity towards GTPases of the Arf family. Loss of a single functional copy of the ArfGAP1 gene ameliorated the pigmentation phenotype of AP-3 mutants but did not to modify the eye pigmentation of wild-type flies or mutants in Blos1 or lightoid. Strikingly, loss of the second functional copy of the gene did not modify the phenotype of AP-3 mutants any further but elicited early lethality in males and abnormal eye morphology when combined with mutations in Blos1 and lightoid, respectively. These results provide genetic evidence for new functional links connecting the machinery for biogenesis of LROs with

  11. Leishmania Adaptor Protein-1 Subunits Are Required for Normal Lysosome Traffic, Flagellum Biogenesis, Lipid Homeostasis, and Adaptation to Temperatures Encountered in the Mammalian Host▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Vince, James E.; Tull, Dedreia L.; Spurck, Timothy; Derby, Merran C.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Gleeson, Paul A.; Gokool, Suzanne; McConville, Malcolm J.

    2008-01-01

    The adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) complex is involved in membrane transport between the Golgi apparatus and endosomes. In the protozoan parasite Leishmania mexicana mexicana, the AP-1 μ1 and σ1 subunits are not required for growth at 27°C but are essential for infectivity in the mammalian host. In this study, we have investigated the function of these AP-1 subunits in order to understand the molecular basis for this loss of virulence. The μ1 and σ1 subunits were localized to late Golgi and endosom...

  12. Novel binding partners and differentially regulated phosphorylation sites clarify Eps8 as a multi-functional adaptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie L Cunningham

    Full Text Available Eps8 is involved in both cell signalling and receptor trafficking. It is a known phosphorylation substrate for two proteins involved in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR signalling pathway: the receptor itself and Src. Here we report a differential proteomic analysis of Eps8 aimed to identify specific FGFR and Src family kinase dependent phosphosites and co-associated phosphodependent binding partners. This study reveals a total of 22 Eps8 pTyr and pSer/Thr phosphorylation sites, including those that are dependent on Src family and FGFR kinase activity. Peptide affinity purification of proteins that bind to a selection of the pTyr phosphosites has identified a range of novel Eps8 binding partners including members of the intracellular vesicle trafficking machinery (clathrin and AP-2, proteins which have been shown to regulate activated receptor trafficking (NBR1 and Vav2, and proteins involved in receptor signalling (IRS4 and Shp2. Collectively this study significantly extends the understanding of Eps8 post-translational modification by regulated phosphorylation, identifies novel Eps8 binding partners implicated in receptor trafficking and signalling, and confirms the functions of Eps8 at the nexus of receptor signalling and vesicular trafficking.

  13. Cul3 and the BTB adaptor insomniac are key regulators of sleep homeostasis and a dopamine arousal pathway in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Pfeiffenberger

    Full Text Available Sleep is homeostatically regulated, such that sleep drive reflects the duration of prior wakefulness. However, despite the discovery of genes important for sleep, a coherent molecular model for sleep homeostasis has yet to emerge. To better understand the function and regulation of sleep, we employed a reverse-genetics approach in Drosophila. An insertion in the BTB domain protein CG32810/insomniac (inc exhibited one of the strongest baseline sleep phenotypes thus far observed, a ~10 h sleep reduction. Importantly, this is coupled to a reduced homeostatic response to sleep deprivation, consistent with a disrupted sleep homeostat. Knockdown of the INC-interacting protein, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cul3, results in reduced sleep duration, consolidation, and homeostasis, suggesting an important role for protein turnover in mediating INC effects. Interestingly, inc and Cul3 expression in post-mitotic neurons during development contributes to their adult sleep functions. Similar to flies with increased dopaminergic signaling, loss of inc and Cul3 result in hyper-arousability to a mechanical stimulus in adult flies. Furthermore, the inc sleep duration phenotype can be rescued by pharmacological inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis. Taken together, these results establish inc and Cul3 as important new players in setting the sleep homeostat and a dopaminergic arousal pathway in Drosophila.

  14. MEX3C interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 2 and involves in miR-451a exosomal sorting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Lu

    Full Text Available Some RNA species, especially microRNAs, are non-randomly sorted into exosomes, but how selectivity of RNA exosomal sorting is achieved is unknown. We found that all three variants of RNA-binding ubiquitin E3 ligase (MEX3C-MEX3C-1, MEX3C-2, and MEX3C-3 -interact with adaptor-related protein complex 2 (AP-2, a cargo adaptor in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. MEX3C's C-terminal RING finger domain and the hnRNP K homology (KH domain shared by the three MEX3C variants are both necessary for MEX3C/AP-2 interaction. MEX3C associates with the endolysosomal compartment through an endocytosis-like process. siRNA-mediated inhibition of the MEX3C or AP-2 complex substantially decreased exosomal but not cellular microRNA miR-451a expression. Exosomal sorting is ceramide-dependent but not ESCRT-dependent in microRNA miR-451a. That RNA-binding protein associates with membrane trafficking machinery, and that its involvement in exosomal microRNA expression, suggest the existence of a mechanism for specific recruiting of RNA molecules to endosomes for subsequent exosomal sorting.

  15. Expression of the neuronal adaptor protein X11alpha protects against memory dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Jacqueline C

    2010-01-01

    X11alpha is a neuronal-specific adaptor protein that binds to the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP). Overexpression of X11alpha reduces Abeta production but whether X11alpha also protects against Abeta-related memory dysfunction is not known. To test this possibility, we crossed X11alpha transgenic mice with AbetaPP-Tg2576 mice. AbetaPP-Tg2576 mice produce high levels of brain Abeta and develop age-related defects in memory function that correlate with increasing Abeta load. Overexpression of X11alpha alone had no detectable adverse effect upon behavior. However, X11alpha reduced brain Abeta levels and corrected spatial reference memory defects in aged X11alpha\\/AbetaPP double transgenics. Thus, X11alpha may be a therapeutic target for Alzheimer\\'s disease.

  16. Enigma interacts with adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains to control insulin-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling and glucose transporter 4 translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Grémeaux, Thierry; Gual, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    APS (adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains) initiates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway involved in insulin-stimulated glucose transport. We recently identified Enigma, a PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein, as a partner of APS and showed that APS-Enigma complex plays...... a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organization in fibroblastic cells. Because actin rearrangement is important for insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (Glut 4) translocation, we studied the potential involvement of Enigma in insulin-induced glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Enigma m......RNA was expressed in differentiated adipocytes and APS and Enigma were colocalized with cortical actin. Expression of an APS mutant unable to bind Enigma increased the insulin-induced Glut 4 translocation to the plasma membrane. By contrast, overexpression of Enigma inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport...

  17. RECOMBINANT FLUORESCENT SENSOR OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE HyPer FUSED WITH ADAPTOR PROTEIN Ruk/CIN85: DESIGNING OF EXPRESSION VECTOR AND ITS FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Bazalii

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design the expression vector encoding fluorescent sensor of hydrogen peroxide HyPer fused with adaptor protein Ruk/CIN85 as well as to check its subcellular distribution and ability to sense hydrogen peroxide. It was demonstrated that in transiently transfected HEK293 and MCF-7 cells Ruk/CIN85-HyPer is concentrated in dot-like vesicular structures of different size while HyPer is diffusely distributed throughout the cell. Using live cell fluorescence microscopy we observed gradual increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration in representative vesicular structures during the time of experiment. Thus, the developed genetic construction encoding the chimeric Ruk/CIN85-HyPer fluorescent protein represents a new tool to study localized H2O2 production in living cells.

  18. Allosteric Regulation of Proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 1. Allosteric Regulation of Proteins: A Historical Perspective on the Development of Concepts and Techniques. General Article Volume 22 Issue 1 January 2017 pp 37-50 ...

  19. The interaction between HIV-1 Nef and adaptor protein-2 reduces Nef-mediated CD4+ T cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Rajesh Abraham; Johnson, Aaron L; Pawlak, Emily N; Dirk, Brennan S; Van Nynatten, Logan R; Haeryfar, S M Mansour; Dikeakos, Jimmy D

    2017-09-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is characterized by a decline in CD4+ T cells. Here, we elucidated the mechanism underlying apoptosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection by examining host apoptotic pathways hijacked by the HIV-1 Nef protein in the CD4+ T-cell line Sup-T1. Using a panel of Nef mutants unable to bind specific host proteins we uncovered that Nef generates pro- and anti-apoptotic signals. Apoptosis increased upon mutating the motifs involved in the interaction of Nef:AP-1 (NefM20A or NefEEEE62-65AAAA) or Nef:AP-2 (NefLL164/165AA), implying these interactions limit Nef-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, disrupting the Nef:PAK2 interaction motifs (NefH89A or NefF191A) reduced apoptosis. To validate further, apoptosis was measured after short-hairpin RNA knock-down of AP-1, AP-2 and PAK2. AP-2α depletion enhanced apoptosis, demonstrating that disrupting the Nef:AP-2α interaction limits Nef-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, we describe a mechanism by which HIV-1 regulates cell survival and demonstrate the consequence of interfering with Nef:host protein interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A conserved inter-domain communication mechanism regulates the ATPase activity of the AAA-protein Drg1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prattes, M.; Loibl, M.; Zisser, G.; Luschnig, D.; Kappel, L.; Rossler, I.; Grassegger, M.; Hromic, A.; Krieger, E.; Gruber, K.; Pertschy, B.; Bergler, H.

    2017-01-01

    AAA-ATPases fulfil essential roles in different cellular pathways and often act in form of hexameric complexes. Interaction with pathway-specific substrate and adaptor proteins recruits them to their targets and modulates their catalytic activity. This substrate dependent regulation of ATP

  1. Sumoylation Promotes the Stability of the DNA Sensor cGAS and the Adaptor STING to Regulate the Kinetics of Response to DNA Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Ming; Yang, Qing; Xie, Xue-Qin; Liao, Chen-Yang; Lin, Heng; Liu, Tian-Tian; Yin, Lei; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2016-09-20

    During viral infection, sensing of cytosolic DNA by the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) activates the adaptor protein STING and triggers an antiviral response. Little is known about the mechanisms that determine the kinetics of activation and deactivation of the cGAS-STING pathway, ensuring effective but controlled innate antiviral responses. Here we found that the ubiquitin ligase Trim38 targets cGas for sumoylation in uninfected cells and during the early phase of viral infection. Sumoylation of cGas prevented its polyubiquitination and degradation. Trim38 also sumoylated Sting during the early phase of viral infection, promoting both Sting activation and protein stability. In the late phase of infection, cGas and Sting were desumoylated by Senp2 and subsequently degraded via proteasomal and chaperone-mediated autophagy pathways, respectively. Our findings reveal an essential role for Trim38 in the innate immune response to DNA virus and provide insight into the mechanisms that ensure optimal activation and deactivation of the cGAS-STING pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Immunology and Graduate Program in Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn [Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University at Salaya Campus, Nakorn Pathom 73170 (Thailand); Noisakran, Sansanee [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{sup -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1

  3. Role of adaptor proteins and clathrin in the trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Duangtum, Natapol; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2014-07-01

    Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) plays an important role in acid-base homeostasis by mediating chloride/bicarbornate (Cl-/HCO3-) exchange at the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells in the distal nephron. Impaired intracellular trafficking of kAE1 caused by mutations of SLC4A1 encoding kAE1 results in kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). However, it is not known how the intracellular sorting and trafficking of kAE1 from trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the basolateral membrane occurs. Here, we studied the role of basolateral-related sorting proteins, including the mu1 subunit of adaptor protein (AP) complexes, clathrin and protein kinase D, on kAE1 trafficking in polarized and non-polarized kidney cells. By using RNA interference, co-immunoprecipitation, yellow fluorescent protein-based protein fragment complementation assays and immunofluorescence staining, we demonstrated that AP-1 mu1A, AP-3 mu1, AP-4 mu1 and clathrin (but not AP-1 mu1B, PKD1 or PKD2) play crucial roles in intracellular sorting and trafficking of kAE1. We also demonstrated colocalization of kAE1 and basolateral-related sorting proteins in human kidney tissues by double immunofluorescence staining. These findings indicate that AP-1 mu1A, AP-3 mu1, AP-4 mu1 and clathrin are required for kAE1 sorting and trafficking from TGN to the basolateral membrane of acid-secreting α-intercalated cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Adaptor Protein p62 Mediates Nuclear Factor κB Activation in Response to Inflammation and Facilitates the Formation of Prolabor Mediators in Human Myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Martha

    2017-05-01

    Preventing spontaneous preterm birth is one of the most important issues facing perinatal medicine today. The pathophysiology of preterm labor, the single biggest cause of preterm birth, is poorly understood. Inflammation, however, plays a significant role in the terminal processes of human labor, which include myometrial contractions. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) drives the transcription of proinflammatory mediators involved in the terminal effector pathways of human labor and delivery. Recent studies in nongestational tissues have shown that the adaptor protein p62 interacts with NF-κB to induce inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of p62 in the genesis of NF-κB-induced proinflammatory and prolabur mediators. Human spontaneous term labor was associated with increased p62 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in myometrium. Myometrial cells treated with proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) also significantly increased p62 mRNA and protein expression. Functional studies using p62 small interfering RNA (siRNA) demonstrated a significant attenuation of TNF-α- and IL-1β-induced proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1]) mRNA expression and secretion, expression of cyclooxygenase 2, release of prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ), and expression of the prostaglandin F receptor (FP). In addition, siRNA knockdown of p62 significantly suppressed IL-1β- and TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation. Collectively, these studies suggest that p62 is involved in the genesis of NF-κB-induced proinflammatory and prolabor mediators.

  5. Apocynin attenuates motility and induces transition from sustained to transient EGF-dependent Akt activation in MCF-7 cells that overexpress adaptor protein Ruk/CIN85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazalii A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study a possible involvement of NADPH oxidases in the control of cell motility and Akt signaling in the human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells that stably overexpress the full-length form of adaptor protein Ruk/CIN85. Methods. Cell motility was studied by a transwell migration assay. The dynamics of EGF-induced Akt activation was investigated by Western blot analysis. Results. It has been shown that apocynin, an inhibitor of the assembly of plasma membrane NADPH oxidases, substantially attenuates the motility of Ruk/CIN85 overexpressing MCF-7 cells (subclone G10 in comparison with control cells. In addition, apocynin induced the transition from sustained to transient EGF-dependent Akt activation in G10 cells and did not influence transient Akt activation in control cells. Conclusions. The data obtained can suggest that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases are signaling components, upstream to Akt kinase, that mediate the increased migratory potential of Ruk/CIN85 overexpressing MCF-7 cells.

  6. Leishmania adaptor protein-1 subunits are required for normal lysosome traffic, flagellum biogenesis, lipid homeostasis, and adaptation to temperatures encountered in the mammalian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince, James E; Tull, Dedreia L; Spurck, Timothy; Derby, Merran C; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Gleeson, Paul A; Gokool, Suzanne; McConville, Malcolm J

    2008-08-01

    The adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) complex is involved in membrane transport between the Golgi apparatus and endosomes. In the protozoan parasite Leishmania mexicana mexicana, the AP-1 mu1 and sigma1 subunits are not required for growth at 27 degrees C but are essential for infectivity in the mammalian host. In this study, we have investigated the function of these AP-1 subunits in order to understand the molecular basis for this loss of virulence. The mu1 and sigma1 subunits were localized to late Golgi and endosome membranes of the major parasite stages. Parasite mutants lacking either AP-1 subunit lacked obvious defects in Golgi structure, endocytosis, or exocytic transport. However, these mutants displayed reduced rates of endosome-to-lysosome transport and accumulated fragmented, sterol-rich lysosomes. Defects in flagellum biogenesis were also evident in nondividing promastigote stages, and this phenotype was exacerbated by inhibitors of sterol and sphingolipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, both AP-1 mutants were hypersensitive to elevated temperature and perturbations in membrane lipid composition. The pleiotropic requirements for AP-1 in membrane trafficking and temperature stress responses explain the loss of virulence of these mutants in the mammalian host.

  7. Interplays between Sumoylation, SUMO-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases, and the Ubiquitin-Adaptor Protein Ufd1 in Fission Yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler, Julie Bonne

    their conformation or interactions with other macromolecules. Though, whereas the downstream consequence of ubiquitin conjugation is often protein degradation, the functional outcomes of sumoylation are less unifiable. A class of ubiquitin E3 ligases able to target sumoylated proteins for degradation by the 26S...... proteasome mediates direct cross-talk between the two modification systems. By contributing to the dynamic turnover of SUMO conjugated species these SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) fulfills essential roles in both yeast and man. However, the specific sumoylated proteins affected by STUbL activity...... and the specific molecular interactions and sequence of events linking sumoylation, ubiquitylation and substrate degradation, has been largely uncovered. Using the fission yeast model organism I here present evidence for a role of the Ufd1 (ubiquitinfusion degradation 1) protein, and by extension of the Cdc48-Ufd1...

  8. Differential regulation of protein tyrosine kinase signalling by Dock and the PTP61F variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Lee F; Manent, Jan; Allan, Kirsten; Lee, Han; Portela, Marta; Wiede, Florian; Warr, Coral; Meng, Tzu-Ching; Tiganis, Tony; Richardson, Helena E

    2017-07-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signalling is coordinated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). There is a growing list of adaptor proteins that interact with PTPs and facilitate the dephosphorylation of substrates. The extent to which any given adaptor confers selectivity for any given substrate in vivo remains unclear. Here we have taken advantage of Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to explore the influence of the SH3/SH2 adaptor protein Dock on the abilities of the membrane (PTP61Fm)- and nuclear (PTP61Fn)-targeted variants of PTP61F (the Drosophila othologue of the mammalian enzymes PTP1B and TCPTP respectively) to repress PTK signalling pathways in vivo. PTP61Fn effectively repressed the eye overgrowth associated with activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), PTK, or the expression of the platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (PVR) or insulin receptor (InR) PTKs. PTP61Fn repressed EGFR and PVR-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling and attenuated PVR-induced STAT92E signalling. By contrast, PTP61Fm effectively repressed EGFR- and PVR-, but not InR-induced tissue overgrowth. Importantly, coexpression of Dock with PTP61F allowed for the efficient repression of the InR-induced eye overgrowth, but did not enhance the PTP61Fm-mediated inhibition of EGFR and PVR-induced signalling. Instead, Dock expression increased, and PTP61Fm coexpression further exacerbated the PVR-induced eye overgrowth. These results demonstrate that Dock selectively enhances the PTP61Fm-mediated attenuation of InR signalling and underscores the specificity of PTPs and the importance of adaptor proteins in regulating PTP function in vivo. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. Baculovirus vectors expressing F proteins in combination with virus-induced signaling adaptor (VISA) molecules confer protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Qiao, Lei; Hu, Xiao; Zhao, Kang; Zhang, Yanwen; Chai, Feng; Pan, Zishu

    2016-01-04

    Baculovirus has been exploited for use as a novel vaccine vector. To investigate the feasibility and efficacy of recombinant baculoviruses (rBVs) expressing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) proteins, four constructs (Bac-tF/64, Bac-CF, Bac-CF/tF64 and Bac-CF/tF64-VISA) were generated. Bac-tF64 displays the F ectodomain (tF) on the envelope of rBVs, whereas Bac-CF expresses full-length F protein in transduced mammalian cells. Bac-CF/tF64 not only displays tF on the envelope but also expresses F in cells. Bac-CF/tF64-VISA comprises Bac-CF/tF64 harboring the virus-induced signaling adaptor (VISA) gene. After administration to BALB/c mice, all four vectors elicited RSV neutralizing antibody (Ab), systemic Ab (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a), and cytokine responses. Compared with Bac-tF64, mice inoculated with Bac-CF and Bac-CF/tF64 exhibited an increased mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine response, increased ratios of IgG2a/IgG1 antibody responses, and reduced immunopathology upon RSV challenge. Intriguingly, co-expression of VISA reduced Th2 cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) production induced by Bac-CF/tF64, thus relieving lung pathology upon a subsequent RSV challenge. Our results indicated that the Bac-CF/tF64 vector incorporated with the VISA molecule may provide an effective vaccine strategy for protection against RSV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Absence of the Adaptor Protein PEA-15 Is Associated with Altered Pattern of Th Cytokines Production by Activated CD4+ T Lymphocytes In Vitro, and Defective Red Blood Cell Alloimmune Response In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Kerbrat

    Full Text Available TCR-dependent and costimulation signaling, cell division, and cytokine environment are major factors driving cytokines expression induced by CD4(+ T cell activation. PEA-15 15 (Protein Enriched in Astrocyte / 15 kDa is an adaptor protein that regulates death receptor-induced apoptosis and proliferation signaling by binding to FADD and relocating ERK1/2 to the cytosol, respectively. By using PEA-15-deficient mice, we examined the role of PEA-15 in TCR-dependent cytokine production in CD4(+ T cells. TCR-stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4(+ T cells exhibited defective progression through the cell cycle associated with impaired expression of cyclin E and phosphoRb, two ERK1/2-dependent proteins of the cell cycle. Accordingly, expression of the division cycle-dependent cytokines IL-2 and IFNγ, a Th1 cytokine, was reduced in stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4(+ T cells. This was associated with abnormal subcellular compartmentalization of activated ERK1/2 in PEA-15-deficient T cells. Furthermore, in vitro TCR-dependent differentiation of naive CD4(+ CD62L(+ PEA-15-deficient T cells was associated with a lower production of the Th2 cytokine, IL-4, whereas expression of the Th17-associated molecule IL4I1 was enhanced. Finally, a defective humoral response was shown in PEA-15-deficient mice in a model of red blood cell alloimmunization performed with Poly IC, a classical adjuvant of Th1 response in vivo. Collectively, our data suggest that PEA-15 contributes to the specification of the cytokine pattern of activated Th cells, thus highlighting a potential new target to interfere with T cell functional polarization and subsequent immune response.

  11. Cigarette smoke induces mucin hypersecretion and inflammatory response through the p66shc adaptor protein-mediated mechanism in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Yu, H M; Zhou, X D; Huang, H P; Han, Zh; Kolosov, V P; Perelman, J M

    2016-01-01

    The p66Shc adaptor protein is a newly recognized mediator of mitochondrial dysfunction and might play a role in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway epithelial cell injury. CS can induce an excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which can cause mitochondrial depolarization and injury through the oxidative stress-mediated Serine36 phosphorylation of p66Shc. The excessive production of ROS can trigger an inflammatory response and mucin hypersecretion by enhancing the transcriptional activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mucin genes. Therefore, we speculate that p66Shc plays an essential role in airway epithelial cell injury and the process of mucin generation in CS-induced chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Our present study focuses on the role of p66Shc in ROS generation, and on the resulting mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory response and mucus hypersecretion in CS-stimulated human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE). We found that CS disturbed the mitochondrial function by increasing the level of phosphorylated p66Shc in these cells and that the effects were significantly reduced by silencing p66Shc. Conversely, the ectopic overexpression of wild-type p66Shc enhanced these effects. We also found that high levels of ROS inhibited FOXO3a transcriptional activity, which led to NF-κB activation. Subsequently, activated NF-κB promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production and mucin hypersecretion. Thus, manipulating p66Shc might offer a new therapeutic modality with which to treat chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. DNAX-activating Protein 10 (DAP10) Membrane Adaptor Associates with Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and Modulates the RAGE-triggered Signaling Pathway in Human Keratinocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Murata, Hitoshi; Aoyama, Yumi; Hibino, Toshihiko; Putranto, Endy Widya; Ruma, I. Made Winarsa; Inoue, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Kinoshita, Rie; Futami, Junichiro; Kataoka, Ken; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Huh, Nam-ho

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory, degenerative, and hyperproliferative diseases, including cancer. Previously, we revealed mechanisms of downstream signaling from ligand-activated RAGE, which recruits TIRAP/MyD88. Here, we showed that DNAX-activating protein 10 (DAP10), a transmembrane adaptor protein, also binds to RAGE. By artificial oligomerization of RAGE alone or RAGE-DAP10, we found that RAGE-DAP10 heterodimer formation resulted in a marked enhancement of Akt activation, whereas homomultimeric interaction of RAGE led to activation of caspase 8. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes exposed to S100A8/A9, a ligand for RAGE, at a nanomolar concentration mimicked the pro-survival response of RAGE-DAP10 interaction, although at a micromolar concentration, the cells mimicked the pro-apoptotic response of RAGE-RAGE. In transformed epithelial cell lines, A431 and HaCaT, in which endogenous DAP10 was overexpressed, and S100A8/A9, even at a micromolar concentration, led to cell growth and survival due to RAGE-DAP10 interaction. Functional blocking of DAP10 in the cell lines abrogated the Akt phosphorylation from S100A8/A9-activated RAGE, eventually leading to an increase in apoptosis. Finally, S100A8/A9, RAGE, and DAP10 were overexpressed in the psoriatic epidermis. Our findings indicate that the functional interaction between RAGE and DAP10 coordinately regulates S100A8/A9-mediated survival and/or apoptotic response of keratinocytes. PMID:25002577

  13. Steroids up-regulate p66Shc longevity protein in growth regulation by inhibiting its ubiquitination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available p66Shc, an isoform of Shc adaptor proteins, mediates diverse signals, including cellular stress and mouse longevity. p66Shc protein level is elevated in several carcinomas and steroid-treated human cancer cells. Several lines of evidence indicate that p66Shc plays a critical role in steroid-related carcinogenesis, and steroids play a role in its elevated levels in those cells without known mechanism.In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which steroid hormones up-regulate p66Shc protein level. In steroid-treated human prostate and ovarian cancer cells, p66Shc protein levels were elevated, correlating with increased cell proliferation. These steroid effects on p66Shc protein and cell growth were competed out by the respective antagonist. Further, actinomycin D and cyclohexamide could only partially block the elevated p66Shc protein level by steroids. Treatment with proteasomal inhibitors, but not lysosomal protease inhibitor, resulted in elevated p66Shc protein levels, even higher than that by steroids. Using prostate cancer cells as a model, immunoprecipitation revealed that androgens and proteasomal inhibitors reduce the ubiquitinated p66Shc proteins.The data collectively indicate that functional steroid receptors are required in steroid up-regulation of p66Shc protein levels in prostate and ovarian cancer cells, correlating with cell proliferation. In these steroid-treated cells, elevated p66Shc protein level is apparently in part due to inhibiting its ubiquitination. The results may lead to an impact on advanced cancer therapy via the regulation of p66Shc protein by up-regulating its ubiquitination pathway.

  14. Regulation of lifespan, metabolism, and stress responses by the Drosophila SH2B protein, Lnk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Slack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila Lnk is the single ancestral orthologue of a highly conserved family of structurally-related intracellular adaptor proteins, the SH2B proteins. As adaptors, they lack catalytic activity but contain several protein-protein interaction domains, thus playing a critical role in signal transduction from receptor tyrosine kinases to form protein networks. Physiological studies of SH2B function in mammals have produced conflicting data. However, a recent study in Drosophila has shown that Lnk is an important regulator of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 signaling (IIS pathway during growth, functioning in parallel to the insulin receptor substrate, Chico. As this pathway also has an evolutionary conserved role in the determination of organism lifespan, we investigated whether Lnk is required for normal lifespan in Drosophila. Phenotypic analysis of mutants for Lnk revealed that loss of Lnk function results in increased lifespan and improved survival under conditions of oxidative stress and starvation. Starvation resistance was found to be associated with increased metabolic stores of carbohydrates and lipids indicative of impaired metabolism. Biochemical and genetic data suggest that Lnk functions in both the IIS and Ras/Mitogen activated protein Kinase (MapK signaling pathways. Microarray studies support this model, showing transcriptional feedback onto genes in both pathways as well as indicating global changes in both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, our data also suggest that Lnk itself may be a direct target of the IIS responsive transcription factor, dFoxo, and that dFoxo may repress Lnk expression. We therefore describe novel functions for a member of the SH2B protein family and provide the first evidence for potential mechanisms of SH2B regulation. Our findings suggest that IIS signaling in Drosophila may require the activity of a second intracellular adaptor, thereby yielding fundamental new insights into the

  15. Structural Basis for Small G Protein Effector Interaction of Ras-related Protein 1 (Rap1) and Adaptor Protein Krev Interaction Trapped 1 (KRIT1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Rong; Draheim, Kyle M.; Liu, Weizhi; Calderwood, David A.; Boggon, Titus J. (Yale-MED)

    2012-09-17

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) affect 0.1-0.5% of the population resulting in leaky vasculature and severe neurological defects. KRIT1 (Krev interaction trapped-1) mutations associate with {approx}40% of familial CCMs. KRIT1 is an effector of Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1) GTPase. Rap1 relocalizes KRIT1 from microtubules to cell membranes to impact integrin activation, potentially important for CCM pathology. We report the 1.95 {angstrom} co-crystal structure of KRIT1 FERM domain in complex with Rap1. Rap1-KRIT1 interaction encompasses an extended surface, including Rap1 Switch I and II and KRIT1 FERM F1 and F2 lobes. Rap1 binds KRIT1-F1 lobe using a GTPase-ubiquitin-like fold interaction but binds KRIT1-F2 lobe by a novel interaction. Point mutagenesis confirms the interaction. High similarity between KRIT1-F2/F3 and talin is revealed. Additionally, the mechanism for FERM domains acting as GTPase effectors is suggested. Finally, structure-based alignment of each lobe suggests classification of FERM domains as ERM-like and TMFK-like (talin-myosin-FAK-KRIT-like) and that FERM lobes resemble domain 'modules.'

  16. Direct interactions of adaptor protein complexes 1 and 2 with the copper transporter ATP7A mediate its anterograde and retrograde trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ling; Kaler, Stephen G

    2015-05-01

    ATP7A is a P-type ATPase in which diverse mutations lead to X-linked recessive Menkes disease or occipital horn syndrome. Recently, two previously unknown ATP7A missense mutations, T994I and P1386S, were shown to cause an isolated distal motor neuropathy without clinical or biochemical features of other ATP7A disorders. These mutant alleles cause subtle defects in ATP7A intracellular trafficking, resulting in preferential plasma membrane localization compared with wild-type ATP7A. We reported previously that ATP7A(P1386S) causes unstable insertion of the eighth and final transmembrane segment, preventing proper position of the carboxyl-terminal tail in a proportion of mutant molecules. Here, we utilize this and other naturally occurring and engineered mutant ATP7A alleles to identify mechanisms of normal ATP7A trafficking. We show that adaptor protein (AP) complexes 1 and 2 physically interact with ATP7A and that binding is mediated in part by a carboxyl-terminal di-leucine motif. In contrast to other ATP7A missense mutations, ATP7A(P1386S) partially disturbs interactions with both APs, leading to abnormal axonal localization in transfected NSC-34 motor neurons and altered calcium-signaling following glutamate stimulation. Our results imply that AP-1 normally tethers ATP7A at the trans-Golgi network in the somatodendritic segments of motor neurons and that alterations affecting the ATP7A carboxyl-terminal tail induce release of the copper transporter to the axons or axonal membranes. The latter effects are intensified by diminished interaction with AP-2, impeding ATP7A retrograde trafficking. Taken together, these findings further illuminate the normal molecular mechanisms of ATP7A trafficking and suggest a pathophysiological basis for ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Arabidopsis BPM proteins function as substrate adaptors to a cullin3-based E3 ligase to affect fatty acid metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-06-01

    Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that cullin3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ethylene response factor (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by Math-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the wrinkled1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of Math-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members.

  18. Arabidopsis BPM Proteins Function as Substrate Adaptors to a CULLIN3-Based E3 Ligase to Affect Fatty Acid Metabolism in Plants[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that CULLIN3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by MATH-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the WRINKLED1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of MATH-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members. PMID:23792371

  19. CHIP Regulates Osteoclast Formation through Promoting TRAF6 Protein Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Shu, Bing; Zhang, Yanquan; Li, Jia; Guo, Junwei; Wang, Yinyin; Ren, Fangli; Xiao, Guozhi; Chang, Zhijie; Chen, Di

    2014-01-01

    Objective Carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP or STUB1) is an E3 ligase and regulates the stability of several proteins which are involved in tumor growth and metastasis. However, the role of CHIP in bone growth and bone remodeling in vivo has not been reported. The objective of this study is to investigate the role and mechanism of CHIP in regulation of bone mass and bone remodeling. Methods The bone phenotype of Chip−/− mice was examined by histology, histomorphometry and micro-CT analyses. The regulatory mechanism of CHIP on the degradation of TRAF6 and the inhibition of NF-κB signaling was examined by immunoprecipitation (IP), western blotting and luciferase reporter assays. Results In this study, we found that deletion of the Chip gene leads to osteopenic phenotype and increased osteoclast formation. We further found that TRAF6, as a novel substrate of CHIP, is up-regulated in Chip−/− osteoclasts. TRAF6 is critical for RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. TRAF6 is an adaptor protein which functions as an E3 ligase to regulate the activation of TAK1 and the I-κB kinase (IKK) and is a key regulator of NF-κB signaling. CHIP interacts with TRAF6 to promote TRAF6 ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. CHIP inhibits p65 nuclear translocation, leading to the repression of the TRAF6-mediated NF-κB transcription. Conclusion CHIP inhibits NF-κB signaling via promoting TRAF6 degradation and plays an important role in osteoclastogenesis and bone remodeling, suggesting that it may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of bone loss associated diseases. PMID:24578159

  20. Structural analysis of intermolecular interactions in the kinesin adaptor complex fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1/ short coiled-coil protein (FEZ1/SCOCO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigo Alborghetti

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton and protein trafficking processes, including vesicle transport to synapses, are key processes in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. The human protein FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 / UNC-76, in C. elegans, SCOCO (short coiled-coil protein / UNC-69 and kinesins (e.g. kinesin heavy chain / UNC116 are involved in these processes. Exploiting the feature of FEZ1 protein as a bivalent adapter of transport mediated by kinesins and FEZ1 protein interaction with SCOCO (proteins involved in the same path of axonal growth, we investigated the structural aspects of intermolecular interactions involved in this complex formation by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry (MS, SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering and molecular modelling. The topology of homodimerization was accessed through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance studies of the region involved in this process, corresponding to FEZ1 (92-194. Through studies involving the protein in its monomeric configuration (reduced and dimeric state, we propose that homodimerization occurs with FEZ1 chains oriented in an anti-parallel topology. We demonstrate that the interaction interface of FEZ1 and SCOCO defined by MS and computational modelling is in accordance with that previously demonstrated for UNC-76 and UNC-69. SAXS and literature data support a heterotetrameric complex model. These data provide details about the interaction interfaces probably involved in the transport machinery assembly and open perspectives to understand and interfere in this assembly and its involvement in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth.

  1. Vaccinia virus protein C6 is a virulence factor that binds TBK-1 adaptor proteins and inhibits activation of IRF3 and IRF7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Unterholzner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs causes interferon-β (IFN-β induction, a key event in the anti-viral innate immune response, and also a target of viral immune evasion. Here the vaccinia virus (VACV protein C6 is identified as an inhibitor of PRR-induced IFN-β expression by a functional screen of select VACV open reading frames expressed individually in mammalian cells. C6 is a member of a family of Bcl-2-like poxvirus proteins, many of which have been shown to inhibit innate immune signalling pathways. PRRs activate both NF-κB and IFN regulatory factors (IRFs to activate the IFN-β promoter induction. Data presented here show that C6 inhibits IRF3 activation and translocation into the nucleus, but does not inhibit NF-κB activation. C6 inhibits IRF3 and IRF7 activation downstream of the kinases TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1 and IκB kinase-ε (IKKε, which phosphorylate and activate these IRFs. However, C6 does not inhibit TBK1- and IKKε-independent IRF7 activation or the induction of promoters by constitutively active forms of IRF3 or IRF7, indicating that C6 acts at the level of the TBK1/IKKε complex. Consistent with this notion, C6 immunoprecipitated with the TBK1 complex scaffold proteins TANK, SINTBAD and NAP1. C6 is expressed early during infection and is present in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Mutant viruses in which the C6L gene is deleted, or mutated so that the C6 protein is not expressed, replicated normally in cell culture but were attenuated in two in vivo models of infection compared to wild type and revertant controls. Thus C6 contributes to VACV virulence and might do so via the inhibition of PRR-induced activation of IRF3 and IRF7.

  2. Challenges in using cultured primary rodent hepatocytes or cell lines to study hepatic HDL receptor SR-BI regulation by its cytoplasmic adaptor PDZK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Tsukamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PDZK1 is a four PDZ-domain containing cytoplasmic protein that binds to a variety of membrane proteins via their C-termini and can influence the abundance, localization and/or function of its target proteins. One of these targets in hepatocytes in vivo is the HDL receptor SR-BI. Normal hepatic expression of SR-BI protein requires PDZK1 - <5% of normal hepatic SR-BI is seen in the livers of PDZK1 knockout mice. Progress has been made in identifying features of PDZK1 required to control hepatic SR-BI in vivo using hepatic expression of wild-type and mutant forms of PDZK1 in wild-type and PDZK1 KO transgenic mice. Such in vivo studies are time consuming and expensive, and cannot readily be used to explore many features of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have explored the potential to use either primary rodent hepatocytes in culture using 2D collagen gels with newly developed optimized conditions or PDZK1/SR-BI co-transfected cultured cell lines (COS, HEK293 for such studies. SR-BI and PDZK1 protein and mRNA expression levels fell rapidly in primary hepatocyte cultures, indicating this system does not adequately mimic hepatocytes in vivo for analysis of the PDZK1 dependence of SR-BI. Although PDZK1 did alter SR-BI protein expression in the cell lines, its influence was independent of SR-BI's C-terminus, and thus is not likely to occur via the same mechanism as that which occurs in hepatocytes in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Caution must be exercised in using primary hepatocytes or cultured cell lines when studying the mechanism underlying the regulation of hepatic SR-BI by PDZK1. It may be possible to use SR-BI and PDZK1 expression as sensitive markers for the in vivo-like state of hepatocytes to further improve primary hepatocyte cell culture conditions.

  3. Differential splicing of the apoptosis-associated speck like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC regulates inflammasomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojanasakul Yon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The apoptotic speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC is the essential adaptor protein for caspase 1 mediated interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18 processing in inflammasomes. It bridges activated Nod like receptors (NLRs, which are a family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system, with caspase 1, resulting in caspase 1 activation and subsequent processing of caspase 1 substrates. Hence, macrophages from ASC deficient mice are impaired in their ability to produce bioactive IL-1β. Furthermore, we recently showed that ASC translocates from the nucleus to the cytosol in response to inflammatory stimulation in order to promote an inflammasome response, which triggers IL-1β processing and secretion. However, the precise regulation of inflammasomes at the level of ASC is still not completely understood. In this study we identified and characterized three novel ASC isoforms for their ability to function as an inflammasome adaptor. Methods To establish the ability of ASC and ASC isoforms as functional inflammasome adaptors, IL-1β processing and secretion was investigated by ELISA in inflammasome reconstitution assays, stable expression in THP-1 and J774A1 cells, and by restoring the lack of endogenous ASC in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, the localization of ASC and ASC isoforms was determined by immunofluorescence staining. Results The three novel ASC isoforms, ASC-b, ASC-c and ASC-d display unique and distinct capabilities to each other and to full length ASC in respect to their function as an inflammasome adaptor, with one of the isoforms even showing an inhibitory effect. Consistently, only the activating isoforms of ASC, ASC and ASC-b, co-localized with NLRP3 and caspase 1, while the inhibitory isoform ASC-c, co-localized only with caspase 1, but not with NLRP3. ASC-d did not co-localize with NLRP3 or with caspase 1 and consistently lacked the ability to function as an

  4. The adaptor protein ARA55 and the nuclear kinase HIPK1 assist c-Myb in recruiting p300 to chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsen, Mads; Sørensen, Linda; Aabel, Linn; Ledsaak, Marit; Matre, Vilborg; Gabrielsen, Odd Stokke

    2017-07-01

    LIM-domain proteins, containing multiple cysteine-rich zinc finger-like motifs, have been shown to play diverse roles in several cellular processes. A common theme is that they mediate important protein-protein interactions that are key to their function. Androgen receptor-associated protein 55 (ARA55) belongs to this family of bridging proteins containing four C-terminal LIM domains. It has a dual role with functions both at focal adhesions and in the nucleus, apparently shuttling between the two compartments. In the present work, we have expanded our understanding of its nuclear functions by showing that it interacts with three nuclear regulators not previously linked to ARA55. We first identified ARA55 as a novel interaction partner of the nuclear kinase HIPK1 and found that ARA55, like HIPK1, also interacts with the transcription factor c-Myb. In search of a function for these associations, we observed that the coactivator p300 not only binds to c-Myb, but to ARA55 as well. When combined, c-Myb, p300, HIPK1 and ARA55 caused strong synergistic activation of a chromatinized reporter gene. In parallel, all partners, including p300, were efficiently recruited to chromatin at the c-Myb-bound promoter. Consistent with this cooperation, we found that c-Myb and ARA55 share a common set of target genes in an osteosarcoma cellular context. We propose that ARA55 and HIPK1 assist c-Myb in recruiting the coactivator and acetyltransferase p300 to chromatin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. MicroRNAs regulate tight junction proteins and modulate epithelial/endothelial barrier functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichon, Christoph; Sabharwal, Harshana; Rüter, Christian; Schmidt, M Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Tightly controlled epithelial and endothelial barriers are a prerequisite for life as these barriers separate multicellular organisms from their environment and serve as first lines of defense. Barriers between neighboring epithelial cells are formed by multiple intercellular junctions including the 'apical junctional complex-AJC' with tight junctions (TJ), adherens junctions (AJ), and desmosomes. TJ consist of tetraspan transmembrane proteins like occludin, various claudins that directly control paracellular permeability, and the 'Junctional Adhesion Molecules' (JAMs). For establishing tight barriers TJ are essential but at the same time have to allow also selective permeability. For this, TJ need to be tightly regulated and controlled. This is organized by a variety of adaptor molecules, i.e., protein kinases, phosphatases and GTPases, which in turn are regulated and fine-tuned involving microRNAs (miRNAs). In this review we summarize available data on the role and targeting of miRNAs in the maintenance of epithelial and/or endothelial barriers.

  6. Protein synthesis regulation by leucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Vianna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that high protein diets affect both protein synthesis and regulation of several cellular processes. The role of amino acids as substrate for protein synthesis has been established in the literature. However, the mechanism by which these amino acids modulate transcription and regulate the mRNA translation via mTOR-dependent signaling pathway has yet to be fully determined. It has been verified that mTOR is a protein responsible for activating a cascade of biochemical intracellular events which result in the activation of the protein translation process. Of the aminoacids, leucine is the most effective in stimulating protein synthesis and reducing proteolysis. Therefore, it promotes a positive nitrogen balance, possibly by favoring the activation of this protein. This amino acid also directly and indirectly stimulates the synthesis and secretion of insulin, enhancing its anabolic cellular effects. Therefore, this review aimed to identify the role of leucine in protein synthesis modulation and to discuss the metabolic aspects related to this aminoacid.Estudos in vivo e in vitro verificaram que dietas hiperprotéicas influenciam a síntese protéica e regulam vários processos celulares. O papel dos aminoácidos como substrato para a síntese de proteínas já está bem evidenciado na literatura, porém as formas como esses aminoácidos modulam a etapa da transcrição e regulam a tradução do RNAm, pela via de sinalização dependente da mTOR, ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidas. Tem-se verificado que a mTOR é uma proteína responsável por ativar uma cascata de eventos bioquímicos intracelulares que culminam na ativação do processo de tradução protéica. Dentre todos os aminoácidos, a leucina é a mais eficaz em estimular a síntese protéica, reduzir a proteólise e, portanto, favorecer o balanço nitrogenado positivo, possivelmente por favorecer a ativação desta proteína. Al

  7. Teaching an old dogma new tricks: twenty years of Shc adaptor signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Melanie K B; Jones, Nina

    2012-10-01

    Shc (Src homology and collagen homology) proteins are considered prototypical signalling adaptors in mammalian cells. Consisting of four unique members, ShcA, B, C and D, and multiple splice isoforms, the family is represented in nearly every cell type in the body, where it engages in an array of fundamental processes to transduce environmental stimuli. Two decades of investigation have begun to illuminate the mechanisms of the flagship ShcA protein, whereas much remains to be learned about the newest discovery, ShcD. It is clear, however, that the distinctive modular architecture of Shc proteins, their promiscuous phosphotyrosine-based interactions with a multitude of membrane receptors, involvement in central cascades including MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and Akt, and unconventional contributions to oxidative stress and apoptosis all require intricate regulation, and underlie diverse physiological function. From early cardiovascular development and neuronal differentiation to lifespan determination and tumorigenesis, Shc adaptors have proven to be more ubiquitous, versatile and dynamic than their structures alone suggest.

  8. The endocytic adaptor Eps15 controls marginal zone B cell numbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Pozzi

    Full Text Available Eps15 is an endocytic adaptor protein involved in clathrin and non-clathrin mediated endocytosis. In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster lack of Eps15 leads to defects in synaptic vesicle recycling and synapse formation. We generated Eps15-KO mice to investigate its function in mammals. Eps15-KO mice are born at the expected Mendelian ratio and are fertile. Using a large-scale phenotype screen covering more than 300 parameters correlated to human disease, we found that Eps15-KO mice did not show any sign of disease or neural deficits. Instead, altered blood parameters pointed to an immunological defect. By competitive bone marrow transplantation we demonstrated that Eps15-KO hematopoietic precursor cells were more efficient than the WT counterparts in repopulating B220⁺ bone marrow cells, CD19⁻ thymocytes and splenic marginal zone (MZ B cells. Eps15-KO mice showed a 2-fold increase in MZ B cell numbers when compared with controls. Using reverse bone marrow transplantation, we found that Eps15 regulates MZ B cell numbers in a cell autonomous manner. FACS analysis showed that although MZ B cells were increased in Eps15-KO mice, transitional and pre-MZ B cell numbers were unaffected. The increase in MZ B cell numbers in Eps15 KO mice was not dependent on altered BCR signaling or Notch activity. In conclusion, in mammals, the endocytic adaptor protein Eps15 is a regulator of B-cell lymphopoiesis.

  9. Differential Recognition Preferences of the Three Src Homology 3 (SH3) Domains from the Adaptor CD2-associated Protein (CD2AP) and Direct Association with Ras and Rab Interactor 3 (RIN3)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouka, Evgenia; Simister, Philip C.; Janning, Melanie; Kumbrink, Joerg; Konstantinou, Tassos; Muniz, João R. C.; Joshi, Dhira; O'Reilly, Nicola; Volkmer, Rudolf; Ritter, Brigitte; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank; Kirsch, Kathrin H.; Feller, Stephan M.

    2015-01-01

    CD2AP is an adaptor protein involved in membrane trafficking, with essential roles in maintaining podocyte function within the kidney glomerulus. CD2AP contains three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains that mediate multiple protein-protein interactions. However, a detailed comparison of the molecular binding preferences of each SH3 remained unexplored, as well as the discovery of novel interactors. Thus, we studied the binding properties of each SH3 domain to the known interactor Casitas B-lineage lymphoma protein (c-CBL), conducted a peptide array screen based on the recognition motif PxPxPR and identified 40 known or novel candidate binding proteins, such as RIN3, a RAB5-activating guanine nucleotide exchange factor. CD2AP SH3 domains 1 and 2 generally bound with similar characteristics and specificities, whereas the SH3-3 domain bound more weakly to most peptide ligands tested yet recognized an unusually extended sequence in ALG-2-interacting protein X (ALIX). RIN3 peptide scanning arrays revealed two CD2AP binding sites, recognized by all three SH3 domains, but SH3-3 appeared non-functional in precipitation experiments. RIN3 recruited CD2AP to RAB5a-positive early endosomes via these interaction sites. Permutation arrays and isothermal titration calorimetry data showed that the preferred binding motif is Px(P/A)xPR. Two high-resolution crystal structures (1.65 and 1.11 Å) of CD2AP SH3-1 and SH3-2 solved in complex with RIN3 epitopes 1 and 2, respectively, indicated that another extended motif is relevant in epitope 2. In conclusion, we have discovered novel interaction candidates for CD2AP and characterized subtle yet significant differences in the recognition preferences of its three SH3 domains for c-CBL, ALIX, and RIN3. PMID:26296892

  10. Differential Recognition Preferences of the Three Src Homology 3 (SH3) Domains from the Adaptor CD2-associated Protein (CD2AP) and Direct Association with Ras and Rab Interactor 3 (RIN3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouka, Evgenia; Simister, Philip C; Janning, Melanie; Kumbrink, Joerg; Konstantinou, Tassos; Muniz, João R C; Joshi, Dhira; O'Reilly, Nicola; Volkmer, Rudolf; Ritter, Brigitte; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank; Kirsch, Kathrin H; Feller, Stephan M

    2015-10-16

    CD2AP is an adaptor protein involved in membrane trafficking, with essential roles in maintaining podocyte function within the kidney glomerulus. CD2AP contains three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains that mediate multiple protein-protein interactions. However, a detailed comparison of the molecular binding preferences of each SH3 remained unexplored, as well as the discovery of novel interactors. Thus, we studied the binding properties of each SH3 domain to the known interactor Casitas B-lineage lymphoma protein (c-CBL), conducted a peptide array screen based on the recognition motif PxPxPR and identified 40 known or novel candidate binding proteins, such as RIN3, a RAB5-activating guanine nucleotide exchange factor. CD2AP SH3 domains 1 and 2 generally bound with similar characteristics and specificities, whereas the SH3-3 domain bound more weakly to most peptide ligands tested yet recognized an unusually extended sequence in ALG-2-interacting protein X (ALIX). RIN3 peptide scanning arrays revealed two CD2AP binding sites, recognized by all three SH3 domains, but SH3-3 appeared non-functional in precipitation experiments. RIN3 recruited CD2AP to RAB5a-positive early endosomes via these interaction sites. Permutation arrays and isothermal titration calorimetry data showed that the preferred binding motif is Px(P/A)xPR. Two high-resolution crystal structures (1.65 and 1.11 Å) of CD2AP SH3-1 and SH3-2 solved in complex with RIN3 epitopes 1 and 2, respectively, indicated that another extended motif is relevant in epitope 2. In conclusion, we have discovered novel interaction candidates for CD2AP and characterized subtle yet significant differences in the recognition preferences of its three SH3 domains for c-CBL, ALIX, and RIN3. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Physicochemical mechanisms of protein regulation by phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Nishi, Hafumi; Shaytan, Alexey; Panchenko, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylation offers a dynamic way to regulate protein activity and subcellular localization, which is achieved through reversibility and fast kinetics of posttranslational modifications. Adding or removing a dianionic phosphate group somewhere on a protein often changes the protein’s structural properties, its stability and dynamics. Moreover, the majority of signaling pathways involve an extensive set of protein-protein interactions, and phosphorylation can be used to regulate and modulat...

  12. Minireview: protein arginine methylation of nonhistone proteins in transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Ho; Stallcup, Michael R

    2009-04-01

    Endocrine regulation frequently culminates in altered transcription of specific genes. The signal transduction pathways, which transmit the endocrine signal from cell surface to the transcription machinery, often involve posttranslational modifications of proteins. Although phosphorylation has been by far the most widely studied protein modification, recent studies have indicated important roles for other types of modification, including protein arginine methylation. Ten different protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family members have been identified in mammalian cells, and numerous substrates are being identified for these PRMTs. Whereas major attention has been focused on the methylation of histones and its role in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation, there are many nonhistone substrates methylated by PRMTs. This review primarily focuses on recent progress on the roles of the nonhistone protein methylation in transcription. Protein methylation of coactivators, transcription factors, and signal transducers, among other proteins, plays important roles in transcriptional regulation. Protein methylation may affect protein-protein interaction, protein-DNA or protein-RNA interaction, protein stability, subcellular localization, or enzymatic activity. Thus, protein arginine methylation is critical for regulation of transcription and potentially for various physiological/pathological processes.

  13. Functional Cloning of Src-like Adapter Protein-2 (SLAP-2), a Novel Inhibitor of Antigen Receptor Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Sacha J.; Liao, X.Charlene; Mendenhall, Marcy K.; Zhou, Xiulan; Pardo, Jorge; Chu, Peter; Spencer, Collin; Fu, Alan; Sheng, Ning; Yu, Peiwen; Pali, Erlina; Nagin, Anup; Shen, Mary; Yu, Simon; Chan, Eva

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to identify novel therapeutic targets for autoimmunity and transplant rejection, we developed and performed a large-scale retroviral-based functional screen to select for proteins that inhibit antigen receptor-mediated activation of lymphocytes. In addition to known regulators of antigen receptor signaling, we identified a novel adaptor protein, SLAP-2 which shares 36% sequence similarity with the known Src-like adaptor protein, SLAP. Similar to SLAP, SLAP-2 is predominantly expr...

  14. The microRNA mir-71 inhibits calcium signaling by targeting the TIR-1/Sarm1 adaptor protein to control stochastic L/R neuronal asymmetry in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Hsieh

    Full Text Available The Caenorhabditis elegans left and right AWC olfactory neurons communicate to establish stochastic asymmetric identities, AWC(ON and AWC(OFF, by inhibiting a calcium-mediated signaling pathway in the future AWC(ON cell. NSY-4/claudin-like protein and NSY-5/innexin gap junction protein are the two parallel signals that antagonize the calcium signaling pathway to induce the AWC(ON fate. However, it is not known how the calcium signaling pathway is downregulated by nsy-4 and nsy-5 in the AWC(ON cell. Here we identify a microRNA, mir-71, that represses the TIR-1/Sarm1 adaptor protein in the calcium signaling pathway to promote the AWC(ON identity. Similar to tir-1 loss-of-function mutants, overexpression of mir-71 generates two AWC(ON neurons. tir-1 expression is downregulated through its 3' UTR in AWC(ON, in which mir-71 is expressed at a higher level than in AWC(OFF. In addition, mir-71 is sufficient to inhibit tir-1 expression in AWC through the mir-71 complementary site in the tir-1 3' UTR. Our genetic studies suggest that mir-71 acts downstream of nsy-4 and nsy-5 to promote the AWC(ON identity in a cell autonomous manner. Furthermore, the stability of mature mir-71 is dependent on nsy-4 and nsy-5. Together, these results provide insight into the mechanism by which nsy-4 and nsy-5 inhibit calcium signaling to establish stochastic asymmetric AWC differentiation.

  15. Regulation of protein function by ‘microProteins'

    OpenAIRE

    Staudt, Annica-Carolin; Wenkel, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Elegant post-translational regulation is achieved by ‘microProteins', which form homotypic dimers with their targets and act through the dominant–negative suppression of protein complex function. The recent identification of new microProteins suggests their role is general and has evolved in both the plant and animal kingdoms.

  16. The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is essential in mechanisms involving the Fyn tyrosine kinase for induction and progression of collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André

    2013-11-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is an Src homology 2 domain-only adaptor involved in multiple immune cell functions. It has also been linked to immunodeficiencies and autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we examined the role and mechanism of action of SAP in autoimmunity using a mouse model of autoimmune arthritis, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We found that SAP was essential for development of CIA in response to collagen immunization. It was also required for production of collagen-specific antibodies, which play a key role in disease pathogenesis. These effects required SAP expression in T cells, not in B cells. In mice immunized with a high dose of collagen, the activity of SAP was nearly independent of its ability to bind the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn and correlated with the capacity of SAP to promote full differentiation of follicular T helper (TFH) cells. However, with a lower dose of collagen, the role of SAP was more dependent on Fyn binding, suggesting that additional mechanisms other than TFH cell differentiation were involved. Further studies suggested that this might be due to a role of the SAP-Fyn interaction in natural killer T cell development through the ability of SAP-Fyn to promote Vav-1 activation. We also found that removal of SAP expression during progression of CIA attenuated disease severity. However, it had no effect on disease when CIA was clinically established. Together, these results indicate that SAP plays an essential role in CIA because of Fyn-independent and Fyn-dependent effects on TFH cells and, possibly, other T cell types.

  17. TAK1 adaptor proteins, TAB2 and TAB3, link the signalosome to B-cell receptor-induced IKK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Hisaaki; Yasuda, Tomoharu; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2016-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase (TAK)1-binding proteins (TAB) activate nuclear factor-κB by linking TAK1 to signaling molecules. We investigated the mechanisms underlying B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in TAB2- and TAB3-deficient and TAB3 domain deletion mutant DT40 B cell lines. Loss of TAB2 and TAB3 abolished BCR-induced inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) activation and TAK1 binding to caspase recruitment domain membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein (CARMA)1. Deletion of TAB3, coupling of ubiquitin conjugation to ER degradation, coiled-coil, and zinc finger domains blocked IKK activation and association with CARMA1. Thus, TAB2 and TAB3 connect signaling molecules that activate IKK in BCR signaling. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Physicochemical mechanisms of protein regulation by phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafumi eNishi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation offers a dynamic way to regulate protein activity and subcellular localization, which is achieved through reversibility and fast kinetics of posttranslational modifications. Adding or removing a dianionic phosphate group somewhere on a protein often changes the protein’s structural properties, its stability and dynamics. Moreover, the majority of signaling pathways involve an extensive set of protein-protein interactions, and phosphorylation can be used to regulate and modulate protein-protein binding. Losses of phosphorylation sites, as a result of disease mutations, might disrupt protein binding and deregulate signal transduction. In this paper we focus on the effects of phosphorylation on protein stability, dynamics and binding. We describe several physico-chemical mechanisms of protein regulation through phosphorylation and pay particular attention to phosphorylation in protein complexes and phosphorylation in the context of disorder-order and order-disorder transitions. Finally we assess the role of multiple phosphorylation sites in a protein molecule, their possible cooperativity and function.

  19. Cyclic nucleotide dependent dephosphorylation of regulator of G-protein signaling 18 in human platelets.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gegenbauer, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (RGS18) is a GTPase-activating protein that turns off Gq signaling in platelets. RGS18 is regulated by binding to the adaptor protein 14-3-3 via phosphorylated serine residues S49 and S218 on RGS18. In this study we confirm that thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP stimulate the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by increasing the phosphorylation of S49. Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent kinases (PKA, PKG) inhibit the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by phosphorylating S216. To understand the effect of S216 phosphorylation we studied the phosphorylation kinetics of S49, S216, and S218 using Phos-tag gels and phosphorylation site-specific antibodies in transfected cells and in platelets. Cyclic nucleotide-induced detachment of 14-3-3 from RGS18 coincides initially with double phosphorylation of S216 and S218. This is followed by dephosphorylation of S49 and S218. Dephosphorylation of S49 and S218 might be mediated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) which is linked to RGS18 by the regulatory subunit PPP1R9B (spinophilin). We conclude that PKA and PKG induced S216 phosphorylation triggers the dephosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding sites of RGS18 in platelets.

  20. Transcriptional regulation by Polycomb group proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Croce, Luciano; Helin, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    ) and silence target genes. The dynamics of PRC1 and PRC2 components has been the focus of recent research. Here we discuss our current knowledge of the PRC complexes, how they are targeted to chromatin and how the high diversity of the PcG proteins allows these complexes to influence cell identity.......Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators of transcription that have key roles in stem-cell identity, differentiation and disease. Mechanistically, they function within multiprotein complexes, called Polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs), which modify histones (and other proteins...

  1. Brain-specific interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein in sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taishi, Ping; Davis, Christopher J; Bayomy, Omar; Zielinski, Mark R; Liao, Fan; Clinton, James M; Smith, Dirk E; Krueger, James M

    2012-03-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β is involved in several brain functions, including sleep regulation. It promotes non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep via the IL-1 type I receptor. IL-1β/IL-1 receptor complex signaling requires adaptor proteins, e.g., the IL-1 receptor brain-specific accessory protein (AcPb). We have cloned and characterized rat AcPb, which shares substantial homologies with mouse AcPb and, compared with AcP, is preferentially expressed in the brain. Furthermore, rat somatosensory cortex AcPb mRNA varied across the day with sleep propensity, increased after sleep deprivation, and was induced by somnogenic doses of IL-1β. Duration of NREM sleep was slightly shorter and duration of REM sleep was slightly longer in AcPb knockout than wild-type mice. In response to lipopolysaccharide, which is used to induce IL-1β, sleep responses were exaggerated in AcPb knockout mice, suggesting that, in normal mice, inflammation-mediated sleep responses are attenuated by AcPb. We conclude that AcPb has a role in sleep responses to inflammatory stimuli and, possibly, in physiological sleep regulation.

  2. Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors: Phosphorylation and Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen S. Browning

    2009-06-15

    The initiation of the synthesis of proteins is a fundamental process shared by all living organisms. Each organism has both shared and unique mechanisms for regulation of this vital process. Higher plants provide for a major amount of fixation of carbon from the environment and turn this carbon into food and fuel sources for our use. However, we have very little understanding of how plants regulate the synthesis of the proteins necessary for these metabolic processes. The research carried out during the grant period sought to address some of these unknowns in the regulation of protein synthesis initiation. Our first goal was to determine if phosphorylation plays a significant role in plant initiation of protein synthesis. The role of phosphorylation, although well documented in mammalian protein synthesis regulation, is not well studied in plants. We showed that several of the factors necessary for the initiation of protein synthesis were targets of plant casein kinase and showed differential phosphorylation by the plant specific isoforms of this kinase. In addition, we identified and confirmed the phosphorylation sites in five of the plant initiation factors. Further, we showed that phosphorylation of one of these factors, eIF5, affected the ability of the factor to participate in the initiation process. Our second goal was to develop a method to make initiation factor 3 (eIF3) using recombinant methods. To date, we successfully cloned and expressed 13/13 subunits of wheat eIF3 in E. coli using de novo gene construction methods. The final step in this process is to place the subunits into three different plasmid operons for co-expression. Successful completion of expression of eIF3 will be an invaluable tool to the plant translation community.

  3. The TWD40-2 protein and the AP2 complex cooperate in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of cellulose synthase to regulate cellulose biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Gu, Ying

    2015-10-13

    Cellulose biosynthesis is performed exclusively by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthases (CESAs). Therefore, the trafficking of CESAs to and from the plasma membrane is an important mechanism for regulating cellulose biosynthesis. CESAs were recently identified as cargo proteins of the classic adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complex of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) pathway. The AP2 complex of the CME pathway is conserved in yeast, animals, and plants, and has been well-characterized in many systems. In contrast, the recently discovered TPLATE complex (TPC), which is proposed to function as a CME adaptor complex, is only conserved in plants and a few other eukaryotes. In this study, we discovered that the TWD40-2 protein, a putative member of the TPC, is also important for the endocytosis of CESAs. Genetic analysis between TWD40-2 and AP2M of the AP2 complex revealed that the roles of TWD40-2 in CME are both distinct from and cooperative with the AP2 complex. Loss of efficient CME in twd40-2-3 resulted in the unregulated overaccumulation of CESAs at the plasma membrane. In seedlings of twd40-2-3 and other CME-deficient mutants, a direct correlation was revealed between endocytic deficiency and cellulose content deficiency, highlighting the importance of controlled CESA endocytosis in regulating cellulose biosynthesis.

  4. Styles of Creativity: Adaptors and Innovators in a Singapore Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Jessie; Seng, Tan Oon; Kwang, Ng Aik

    2007-01-01

    Kirton (1976) described two creative styles, namely adaptors and innovators. Adaptors prefer to "do things better" whilst, innovators prefer to "do things differently". This study explored the relationship between two creative styles (adaptor and innovator) and the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness,…

  5. Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signalling: focus on the cardiovascular system and regulator of G protein signalling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks-Balk, Mariëlle C; Peters, Stephan L M; Michel, Martin C; Alewijnse, Astrid E

    2008-05-13

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in many biological processes. Therefore, GPCR function is tightly controlled both at receptor level and at the level of signalling components. Well-known mechanisms by which GPCR function can be regulated comprise desensitization/resensitization processes and GPCR up- and downregulation. GPCR function can also be regulated by several proteins that directly interact with the receptor and thereby modulate receptor activity. An additional mechanism by which receptor signalling is regulated involves an emerging class of proteins, the so-called regulators of G protein signalling (RGS). In this review we will describe some of these control mechanisms in more detail with some specific examples in the cardiovascular system. In addition, we will provide an overview on RGS proteins and the involvement of RGS proteins in cardiovascular function.

  6. Protein phosphorylation in bcterial signaling and regulation

    KAUST Repository

    Mijakovic, Ivan

    2016-01-26

    In 2003, it was demonstrated for the first time that bacteria possess protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases), capable of phosphorylating other cellular proteins and regulating their activity. It soon became apparent that these kinases phosphorylate a number of protein substrates, involved in different cellular processes. More recently, we found out that BY-kinases can be activated by several distinct protein interactants, and are capable of engaging in cross-phosphorylation with other kinases. Evolutionary studies based on genome comparison indicate that BY-kinases exist only in bacteria. They are non-essential (present in about 40% bacterial genomes), and their knockouts lead to pleiotropic phenotypes, since they phosphorylate many substrates. Surprisingly, BY-kinase genes accumulate mutations at an increased rate (non-synonymous substitution rate significantly higher than other bacterial genes). One direct consequence of this phenomenon is no detectable co-evolution between kinases and their substrates. Their promiscuity towards substrates thus seems to be “hard-wired”, but why would bacteria maintain such promiscuous regulatory devices? One explanation is the maintenance of BY-kinases as rapidly evolving regulators, which can readily adopt new substrates when environmental changes impose selective pressure for quick evolution of new regulatory modules. Their role is clearly not to act as master regulators, dedicated to triggering a single response, but they might rather be employed to contribute to fine-tuning and improving robustness of various cellular responses. This unique feature makes BY-kinases a potentially useful tool in synthetic biology. While other bacterial kinases are very specific and their signaling pathways insulated, BY-kinase can relatively easily be engineered to adopt new substrates and control new biosynthetic processes. Since they are absent in humans, and regulate some key functions in pathogenic bacteria, they are also very promising

  7. Regulation of longevity by regulator of G-protein signaling protein, Loco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuh-Ru; Kim, Keetae; Yang, Yanfei; Ivessa, Andreas; Sadoshima, Junichi; Park, Yongkyu

    2011-06-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins contribute to G-protein signaling pathways as activators or repressors with GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. To characterize whether regulation of RGS proteins influences longevity in several species, we measured stress responses and lifespan of RGS-overexpressing and RGS-lacking mutants. Reduced expression of Loco, a RGS protein of Drosophila melanogaster, resulted in a longer lifespan for both male and female flies, also exhibiting stronger resistance to three different stressors (starvation, oxidation, and heat) and higher manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity. In addition, this reduction in Loco expression increased fat content and diminished cAMP levels. In contrast, overexpression of both genomic and cDNA loco gene significantly shortened the lifespan with weaker stress resistance and lower fat content. Deletion analysis of the Loco demonstrated that its RGS domain is required for the regulation of longevity. Consistently, when expression of RGS14, mammalian homologue of Loco, was reduced in rat fibroblast cells, the resistance to oxidative stress increased with higher MnSOD expression. The changes of yeast Rgs2 expression, which shares a conserved RGS domain with the fly Loco protein, also altered lifespan and stress resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we provide the first evidence that RGS proteins with GAP activity affect both stress resistance and longevity in several species. © 2011 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Expression analysis of the Toll-like receptor and TIR domain adaptor families of zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.H.; Krens, SF Gabby; Rodriguez, IA Medina; He, S; Bitter, W.; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa; Spaink, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The zebrafish genomic sequence database was analysed for the presence of genes encoding members of the Toll-like receptors (TLR) and interleukin receptors (IL-R) and associated adaptor proteins containing a TIR domain. The resulting predictions show the presence of one or more counterparts for the

  9. miR-181 interacts with signaling adaptor molecule DENN/MADD and enhances TNF-induced cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Ghorbani

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs, which regulate the expression of protein coding transcripts through mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. Numerous reports have highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating cell death pathways including the expression of genes involved in the induction of apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α is a proinflammatory cytokine which can send pro-death signals through its receptor TNFR1. Diverse adaptor molecules including DENN/MADD adaptor protein have been shown to modulate TNF-α pro-death signaling via recruitment of MAP kinases to TNFR1 and activation of pro-survival NFκB signaling. Herein, we investigated the role of microRNA-181 (miR-181 in regulating DENN/MADD expression levels and its subsequent effects on TNF-α-induced cell death. Using bioinformatics analyses followed by luciferase reporter assays we showed that miR-181 interacts with the 3' UTR of DENN/MADD transcripts. miR-181 overexpression also led to decreased endogenous DENN/MADD mRNA levels in L929 murine fibroblasts. Flow cytometric analysis of miR-181 transfected cells showed this miRNA accentuates mitochondrial membrane potential loss caused by TNF-α. These findings were associated with enhanced apoptosis of L929 cells following TNF-α treatment. Overall, these data point to the potential role of miR-181 in regulating TNF-α pro-death signaling, which could be of importance from pathogenesis and therapeutic perspectives in inflammatory disorders associated with tissue degeneration and cell death.

  10. The Role of the Clathrin Adaptor AP-1: Polarized Sorting and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fubito Nakatsu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The selective transport of proteins or lipids by vesicular transport is a fundamental process supporting cellular physiology. The budding process involves cargo sorting and vesicle formation at the donor membrane and constitutes an important process in vesicular transport. This process is particularly important for the polarized sorting in epithelial cells, in which the cargo molecules need to be selectively sorted and transported to two distinct destinations, the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Adaptor protein (AP-1, a member of the AP complex family, which includes the ubiquitously expressed AP-1A and the epithelium-specific AP-1B, regulates polarized sorting at the trans-Golgi network and/or at the recycling endosomes. A growing body of evidence, especially from studies using model organisms and animals, demonstrates that the AP-1-mediated polarized sorting supports the development and physiology of multi-cellular units as functional organs and tissues (e.g., cell fate determination, inflammation and gut immune homeostasis. Furthermore, a possible involvement of AP-1B in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and cancer, is now becoming evident. These data highlight the significant contribution of AP-1 complexes to the physiology of multicellular organisms, as master regulators of polarized sorting in epithelial cells.

  11. Karyopherin Alpha Proteins Regulate Oligodendrocyte Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Laitman

    Full Text Available Proper regulation of the coordinated transcriptional program that drives oligodendrocyte (OL differentiation is essential for central nervous system myelin formation and repair. Nuclear import, mediated in part by a group of karyopherin alpha (Kpna proteins, regulates transcription factor access to the genome. Understanding how canonical nuclear import functions to control genomic access in OL differentiation may aid in the creation of novel therapeutics to stimulate myelination and remyelination. Here, we show that members of the Kpna family regulate OL differentiation, and may play distinct roles downstream of different pro-myelinating stimuli. Multiple family members are expressed in OLs, and their pharmacologic inactivation dose-dependently decreases the rate of differentiation. Additionally, upon differentiation, the three major Kpna subtypes (P/α2, Q/α3, S/α1 display differential responses to the pro-myelinating cues T3 and CNTF. Most notably, the Q/α3 karyopherin Kpna4 is strongly upregulated by CNTF treatment both compared with T3 treatment and other Kpna responses. Kpna4 inactivation results in inhibition of CNTF-induced OL differentiation, in the absence of changes in proliferation or viability. Collectively, these findings suggest that canonical nuclear import is an integral component of OL differentiation, and that specific Kpnas may serve vital and distinct functions downstream of different pro-myelinating cues.

  12. IraL is an RssB anti-adaptor that stabilizes RpoS during logarithmic phase growth in Escherichia coli and Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryckowian, Andrew J; Battesti, Aurelia; Lemke, Justin J; Meyer, Zachary C; Welch, Rodney A

    2014-05-27

    RpoS (σ(S)), the general stress response sigma factor, directs the expression of genes under a variety of stressful conditions. Control of the cellular σ(S) concentration is critical for appropriately scaled σ(S)-dependent gene expression. One way to maintain appropriate levels of σ(S) is to regulate its stability. Indeed, σ(S) degradation is catalyzed by the ClpXP protease and the recognition of σ(S) by ClpXP depends on the adaptor protein RssB. Three anti-adaptors (IraD, IraM, and IraP) exist in Escherichia coli K-12; each interacts with RssB and inhibits RssB activity under different stress conditions, thereby stabilizing σ(S). Unlike K-12, some E. coli isolates, including uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073, show comparable cellular levels of σ(S) during the logarithmic and stationary growth phases, suggesting that there are differences in the regulation of σ(S) levels among E. coli strains. Here, we describe IraL, an RssB anti-adaptor that stabilizes σ(S) during logarithmic phase growth in CFT073 and other E. coli and Shigella strains. By immunoblot analyses, we show that IraL affects the levels and stability of σ(S) during logarithmic phase growth. By computational and PCR-based analyses, we reveal that iraL is found in many E. coli pathotypes but not in laboratory-adapted strains. Finally, by bacterial two-hybrid and copurification analyses, we demonstrate that IraL interacts with RssB by a mechanism distinct from that used by other characterized anti-adaptors. We introduce a fourth RssB anti-adaptor found in E. coli species and suggest that differences in the regulation of σ(S) levels may contribute to host and niche specificity in pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli strains. Bacteria must cope with a variety of environmental conditions in order to survive. RpoS (σ(S)), the general stress response sigma factor, directs the expression of many genes under stressful conditions in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic Escherichia coli strains

  13. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YBR135W, YBR160W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tes proteolysis of M-phase targets through interactions with the proteasome; role in transcriptional regulat... description Cyclin-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit and adaptor; modulates proteolysis of M-phase targets through interac...tions with the proteasome; role in transcriptional regulation, recruiting proteasom

  14. Distinct conformations of the protein complex p97-Ufd1-Npl4 revealed by electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebeacua, Cecilia; Förster, Andreas; McKeown, Ciarán; Meyer, Hemmo H; Zhang, Xiaodong; Freemont, Paul S

    2012-01-24

    p97 is a key regulator of numerous cellular pathways and associates with ubiquitin-binding adaptors to remodel ubiquitin-modified substrate proteins. How adaptor binding to p97 is coordinated and how adaptors contribute to substrate remodeling is unclear. Here we present the 3D electron cryomicroscopy reconstructions of the major Ufd1-Npl4 adaptor in complex with p97. Our reconstructions show that p97-Ufd1-Npl4 is highly dynamic and that Ufd1-Npl4 assumes distinct positions relative to the p97 ring upon addition of nucleotide. Our results suggest a model for substrate remodeling by p97 and also explains how p97-Ufd1-Npl4 could form other complexes in a hierarchical model of p97-cofactor assembly.

  15. The insulator protein CTCF regulates Drosophila steroidogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujué Fresán

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The steroid hormone ecdysone is a central regulator of insect development. In this report we show that CTCF expression in the prothoracic gland is required for full transcriptional activation of the Halloween genes spookier, shadow and noppera-bo, which encode ecdysone biosynthetic enzymes, and for proper timing of ecdysone-responsive gene expression. Loss of CTCF results in delayed and less synchronized larval development that can only be rescued by feeding larvae with both, the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone and cholesterol. Moreover, CTCF-knockdown in prothoracic gland cells leads to increased lipid accumulation. In conclusion, the insulator protein CTCF is required for Halloween gene expression and cholesterol homeostasis in ecdysone-producing cells controlling steroidogenesis.

  16. Transcription regulation by the human Ccr4-Not proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes, Catharina Geertruida Maria

    2004-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase II is a highly regulated process. Multiple protein complexes are involved in the regulation of mRNA synthesis. The Ccr4-Not complex regulates transcription at a global level and, most likely, requires other proteins to associate with promoters. The complex is

  17. The Epsin Family of Endocytic Adaptors Promotes Fibrosarcoma Migration and Invasion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Brian G.; Burgner, John; Camonis, Jacques H.; Aguilar, R. Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Abnormalities in the process of endocytosis are classically linked to malignant transformation through the deficient down-regulation of signaling receptors. The present study describes a non-classical mechanism that does not require internalization by which endocytic proteins affect cell migration and basement membrane invasion. Specifically, we found that the endocytic adaptor epsin binds and regulates the biological properties of the signaling molecule RalBP1 (Ral-binding protein 1). Epsin interacted with the N terminus of RalBP1 via its characteristic epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domain. A combination of siRNA-mediated knock-down and transfection of siRNA-resistant constructs in fibrosarcoma cells demonstrated that impairment of the epsin-RalBP1 interaction led to cell migration and basement membrane invasion defects. We found the ENTH domain was necessary and sufficient to sustain normal cell migration and invasion. Because all the epsin endocytic motifs reside in the C-terminal part of the molecule, these results suggest that this novel regulatory circuit does not require endocytosis. In addition, cells depleted of epsin-RalBP1 complex displayed deficient activation of Rac1 and Arf6 suggesting a signaling function for this novel interaction. Further, overexpression of either epsin or RalBP1 enhanced migration and invasion of fibrosarcoma cells. Collectively, our results indicate that epsin regulates RalBP1 function in Rac1- and Arf6-dependent pathways to ultimately affect cell migration and invasion. We propose that the observed up-regulation of both epsin and RalBP1 in certain cancers contributes to their invasive characteristics. PMID:20709745

  18. Ubiquitin-Mediated Regulation of Endocytosis by Proteins of the Arrestin Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Becuwe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In metazoans, proteins of the arrestin family are key players of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRS signaling and trafficking. Following stimulation, activated receptors are phosphorylated, thus allowing the binding of arrestins and hence an “arrest” of receptor signaling. Arrestins act by uncoupling receptors from G proteins and contribute to the recruitment of endocytic proteins, such as clathrin, to direct receptor trafficking into the endocytic pathway. Arrestins also serve as adaptor proteins by promoting the recruitment of ubiquitin ligases and participate in the agonist-induced ubiquitylation of receptors, known to have impact on their subcellular localization and stability. Recently, the arrestin family has expanded following the discovery of arrestin-related proteins in other eukaryotes such as yeasts or fungi. Surprisingly, most of these proteins are also involved in the ubiquitylation and endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins, thus suggesting that the role of arrestins as ubiquitin ligase adaptors is at the core of these proteins' functions. Importantly, arrestins are themselves ubiquitylated, and this modification is crucial for their function. In this paper, we discuss recent data on the intricate connections between arrestins and the ubiquitin pathway in the control of endocytosis.

  19. A General Method for Regulating Protein Stability with Light

    OpenAIRE

    Bonger, Kimberly M; Rakhit, Rishi; Payumo, Alexander Y.; Chen, James K; Wandless, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Posttranslational regulation of protein abundance in cells is a powerful tool for studying protein function. We here describe a novel genetically encoded protein domain that is degraded upon exposure to non-toxic blue light. We demonstrate that fusion proteins containing this domain are rapidly degraded in cultured cells and in zebrafish upon illumination.

  20. Adaptor complex AP2/PICALM, through interaction with LC3, targets Alzheimer's APP-CTF for terminal degradation via autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Chang, Jerry C; Fan, Emily Y; Flajolet, Marc; Greengard, Paul

    2013-10-15

    The hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and tau protein. Autophagy is a major cellular pathway leading to the removal of aggregated proteins. We have reported recently that autophagy was responsible for amyloid precursor protein cleaved C-terminal fragment (APP-CTF) degradation and amyloid β clearance in an Atg5-dependent manner. Here we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which autophagy mediates the degradation of APP-CTF and the clearance of amyloid β. Through affinity purification followed by mass spectrum analysis, we identified adaptor protein (AP) 2 together with phosphatidylinositol clathrin assembly lymphoid-myeloid leukemia (PICALM) as binding proteins of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). Further analysis showed that AP2 regulated the cellular levels of APP-CTF. Knockdown of AP2 reduced autophagy-mediated APP-CTF degradation. Immunoprecipitation and live imaging analysis demonstrated that AP2 and PICALM cross-link LC3 with APP-CTF. These data suggest that the AP-2/PICALM complex functions as an autophagic cargo receptor for the recognition and shipment of APP-CTF from the endocytic pathway to the LC3-marked autophagic degradation pathway. This molecular mechanism linking AP2/PICALM and AD is consistent with genetic evidence indicating a role for PICALM as a risk factor for AD.

  1. TRAM is involved in IL-18 signaling and functions as a sorting adaptor for MyD88.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Ohnishi

    Full Text Available MyD88, a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor homology (TIR domain-containing adaptor protein, mediates signals from the Toll-like receptors (TLR or IL-1/IL-18 receptors to downstream kinases. In MyD88-dependent TLR4 signaling, the function of MyD88 is enhanced by another TIR domain-containing adaptor, Mal/TIRAP, which brings MyD88 to the plasma membrane and promotes its interaction with the cytosolic region of TLR4. Hence, Mal is recognized as the "sorting adaptor" for MyD88. In this study, a direct interaction between MyD88-TIR and another membrane-sorting adaptor, TRAM/TICAM-2, was demonstrated in vitro. Cell-based assays including RNA interference experiments and TRAM deficient mice revealed that the interplay between MyD88 and TRAM in cells is important in mediating IL-18 signal transduction. Live cell imaging further demonstrated the co-localized accumulation of MyD88 and TRAM in the membrane regions in HEK293 cells. These findings suggest that TRAM serves as the sorting adaptor for MyD88 in IL-18 signaling, which then facilitates the signal transduction. The binding sites for TRAM are located in the TIR domain of MyD88 and actually overlap with the binding sites for Mal. MyD88, the multifunctional signaling adaptor that works together with most of the TLR members and with the IL-1/IL-18 receptors, can interact with two distinct sorting adaptors, TRAM and Mal, in a conserved manner in a distinct context.

  2. Transcriptional regulation of human FE65, a ligand of Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein, by Sp1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yu, Hoi-Tin

    2010-03-01

    FE65 is a neuronal-enriched adaptor protein that binds to the Alzheimer\\'s disease amyloid precursor protein (APP). FE65 forms a transcriptionally active complex with the APP intracellular domain (AICD). The precise gene targets for this complex are unclear but several Alzheimer\\'s disease-linked genes have been proposed. Additionally, evidence suggests that FE65 influences APP metabolism. The mechanism by which FE65 expression is regulated is as yet unknown. To gain insight into the regulatory mechanism, we cloned a 1.6 kb fragment upstream of the human FE65 gene and found that it possesses particularly strong promoter activity in neurones. To delineate essential regions in the human FE65 promoter, a series of deletion mutants were generated. The minimal FE65 promoter was located between -100 and +5, which contains a functional Sp1 site. Overexpression of the transcription factor Sp1 potentiates the FE65 promoter activity. Conversely, suppression of the FE65 promoter was observed in cells either treated with an Sp1 inhibitor or in which Sp1 was knocked down. Furthermore, reduced levels of Sp1 resulted in downregulation of endogenous FE65 mRNA and protein. These findings reveal that Sp1 plays a crucial role in transcriptional control of the human FE65 gene.

  3. S100 Proteins As an Important Regulator of Macrophage Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The S100 proteins, a family of calcium-binding cytosolic proteins, have a broad range of intracellular and extracellular functions through regulating calcium balance, cell apoptosis, migration, proliferation, differentiation, energy metabolism, and inflammation. The intracellular functions of S100 proteins involve interaction with intracellular receptors, membrane protein recruitment/transportation, transcriptional regulation and integrating with enzymes or nucleic acids, and DNA repair. The S100 proteins could also be released from the cytoplasm, induced by tissue/cell damage and cellular stress. The extracellular S100 proteins, serving as a danger signal, are crucial in regulating immune homeostasis, post-traumatic injury, and inflammation. Extracellular S100 proteins are also considered biomarkers for some specific diseases. In this review, we will discuss the multi-functional roles of S100 proteins, especially their potential roles associated with cell migration, differentiation, tissue repair, and inflammation.

  4. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  5. Genetic Deletion of the Clathrin Adaptor GGA3 Reduces Anxiety and Alters GABAergic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kendall R; Modgil, Amit; Albrecht, David; Lomoio, Selene; Haydon, Philip G; Moss, Stephen J; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF binding protein 3 (GGA3) is a monomeric clathrin adaptor that has been shown to regulate the trafficking of the Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1), which is required for production of the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated amyloid βpeptide. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that depletion of GGA3 results in increased BACE1 levels and activity owing to impaired lysosomal trafficking and degradation. We further demonstrated the role of GGA3 in the regulation of BACE1 in vivo by showing that BACE1 levels are increased in the brain of GGA3 null mice. We report here that GGA3 deletion results in novelty-induced hyperactivity and decreased anxiety-like behaviors. Given the pivotal role of GABAergic transmission in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors, we performed electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices and found increased phasic and decreased tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGC). Moreover, we found that the number of inhibitory synapses is increased in the dentate gyrus of GGA3 null mice in further support of the electrophysiological data. Thus, the increased GABAergic transmission is a leading candidate mechanism underlying the reduced anxiety-like behaviors observed in GGA3 null mice. All together these findings suggest that GGA3 plays a key role in GABAergic transmission. Since BACE1 levels are elevated in the brain of GGA3 null mice, it is possible that at least some of these phenotypes are a consequence of increased processing of BACE1 substrates.

  6. Genetic Deletion of the Clathrin Adaptor GGA3 Reduces Anxiety and Alters GABAergic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, David; Lomoio, Selene; Haydon, Philip G.; Moss, Stephen J.; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF binding protein 3 (GGA3) is a monomeric clathrin adaptor that has been shown to regulate the trafficking of the Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1), which is required for production of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated amyloid βpeptide. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that depletion of GGA3 results in increased BACE1 levels and activity owing to impaired lysosomal trafficking and degradation. We further demonstrated the role of GGA3 in the regulation of BACE1 in vivo by showing that BACE1 levels are increased in the brain of GGA3 null mice. We report here that GGA3 deletion results in novelty-induced hyperactivity and decreased anxiety-like behaviors. Given the pivotal role of GABAergic transmission in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors, we performed electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices and found increased phasic and decreased tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGC). Moreover, we found that the number of inhibitory synapses is increased in the dentate gyrus of GGA3 null mice in further support of the electrophysiological data. Thus, the increased GABAergic transmission is a leading candidate mechanism underlying the reduced anxiety-like behaviors observed in GGA3 null mice. All together these findings suggest that GGA3 plays a key role in GABAergic transmission. Since BACE1 levels are elevated in the brain of GGA3 null mice, it is possible that at least some of these phenotypes are a consequence of increased processing of BACE1 substrates. PMID:27192432

  7. Genetic Deletion of the Clathrin Adaptor GGA3 Reduces Anxiety and Alters GABAergic Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall R Walker

    Full Text Available Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF binding protein 3 (GGA3 is a monomeric clathrin adaptor that has been shown to regulate the trafficking of the Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1, which is required for production of the Alzheimer's disease (AD-associated amyloid βpeptide. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that depletion of GGA3 results in increased BACE1 levels and activity owing to impaired lysosomal trafficking and degradation. We further demonstrated the role of GGA3 in the regulation of BACE1 in vivo by showing that BACE1 levels are increased in the brain of GGA3 null mice. We report here that GGA3 deletion results in novelty-induced hyperactivity and decreased anxiety-like behaviors. Given the pivotal role of GABAergic transmission in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors, we performed electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices and found increased phasic and decreased tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGC. Moreover, we found that the number of inhibitory synapses is increased in the dentate gyrus of GGA3 null mice in further support of the electrophysiological data. Thus, the increased GABAergic transmission is a leading candidate mechanism underlying the reduced anxiety-like behaviors observed in GGA3 null mice. All together these findings suggest that GGA3 plays a key role in GABAergic transmission. Since BACE1 levels are elevated in the brain of GGA3 null mice, it is possible that at least some of these phenotypes are a consequence of increased processing of BACE1 substrates.

  8. Clathrin adaptors. AP2 controls clathrin polymerization with a membrane-activated switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard T; Graham, Stephen C; Liska, Nicole; Dannhauser, Philip N; Höning, Stefan; Ungewickell, Ernst J; Owen, David J

    2014-07-25

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is vital for the internalization of most cell-surface proteins. In CME, plasma membrane-binding clathrin adaptors recruit and polymerize clathrin to form clathrin-coated pits into which cargo is sorted. Assembly polypeptide 2 (AP2) is the most abundant adaptor and is pivotal to CME. Here, we determined a structure of AP2 that includes the clathrin-binding β2 hinge and developed an AP2-dependent budding assay. Our findings suggest that an autoinhibitory mechanism prevents clathrin recruitment by cytosolic AP2. A large-scale conformational change driven by the plasma membrane phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and cargo relieves this autoinhibition, triggering clathrin recruitment and hence clathrin-coated bud formation. This molecular switching mechanism can couple AP2's membrane recruitment to its key functions of cargo and clathrin binding. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. SOCS proteins in regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazi, Julhash U.; Kabir, Nuzhat N.; Flores Morales, Amilcar

    2014-01-01

    proteins, SOCS1-7, and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS). A key feature of this family of proteins is the presence of an SH2 domain and a SOCS box. Recent studies suggest that SOCS proteins also play a role in RTK signaling. Activation of RTK results in transcriptional activation of SOCS......-encoding genes. These proteins associate with RTKs through their SH2 domains and subsequently recruit the E3 ubiquitin machinery through the SOCS box, and thereby limit receptor stability by inducing ubiquitination. In a similar fashion, SOCS proteins negatively regulate mitogenic signaling by RTKs. It is also...

  10. The PAAD/PYRIN-Family Protein ASC Is a Dual Regulator of a Conserved Step in Nuclear Factor κB Activation Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlik, Christian; Fiorentino, Loredana; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Bruey, Jean-Marie; Ariza, Eugenia M.; Sagara, Junji; Reed, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a Caspase recruitment domain (ASC) belongs to a large family of proteins that contain a Pyrin, AIM, ASC, and death domain-like (PAAD) domain (also known as PYRIN, DAPIN, Pyk). Recent data have suggested that ASC functions as an adaptor protein linking various PAAD-family proteins to pathways involved in nuclear factor (NF)-κB and pro-Caspase-1 activation. We present evidence here that the role of ASC in modulating NF-κB activation pathways is much broader than previously suspected, as it can either inhibit or activate NF-κB, depending on cellular context. While coexpression of ASC with certain PAAD-family proteins such as Pyrin and Cryopyrin increases NF-κB activity, ASC has an inhibitory influence on NF-κB activation by various proinflammatory stimuli, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin 1β, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Elevations in ASC protein levels or of the PAAD domain of ASC suppressed activation of IκB kinases in cells exposed to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Conversely, reducing endogenous levels of ASC using siRNA enhanced TNF- and LPS-induced degradation of the IKK substrate, IκBα. Our findings suggest that ASC modulates diverse NF-κB induction pathways by acting upon the IKK complex, implying a broad role for this and similar proteins containing PAAD domains in regulation of inflammatory responses. PMID:12486103

  11. Regulation of Ebola virus VP40 matrix protein by SUMO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maite Baz-martínez; Ahmed El Motiam; Paula Ruibal; Gabriela N Condezo; Carlos F De La Cruz-herrera; Valerie Lang; Manuel Collado; Carmen San Martín; Manuel S Rodríguez; Cesar Muñoz-fontela; Carmen Rivas

    2016-01-01

    The matrix protein of Ebola virus (EBOV) VP40 regulates viral budding, nucleocapsid recruitment, virus structure and stability, viral genome replication and transcription, and has an intrinsic ability to form virus-like particles...

  12. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S.; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial func...

  13. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S.; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-bjergaard, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial func...

  14. Monocyte Adhesion and Plaque Recruitment During Atherosclerosis Development Is Regulated by the Adapter Protein Chat-H/SHEP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbin, Olivier; Regelmann, Adam G; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Weinstein, Erica G; Moore, Kathryn J; Alexandropoulos, Konstantina

    2016-09-01

    The chronic inflammation associated with atherosclerosis is caused by lipid deposition followed by leukocyte recruitment to the arterial wall. We previously showed that the hematopoietic cell-specific adaptor protein Cas- and Hef1-associated signal transducer hematopoietic isoform (Chat-H)/SHEP1 regulated lymphocyte adhesion and migration. In this study, we analyzed the role of Chat-H in atherosclerosis development. Using Chat-H-deficient bone marrow transplantation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice, we found that Chat-H regulated atherosclerotic plaque formation. Chat-H deficiency in hematopoietic cells associated with lower plaque complexity and fewer leukocytes in the lesions, whereas myeloid-specific deletion of Chat-H was sufficient for conferring atheroprotection. Chat-H deficiency resulted in reduced recruitment of classical Ly6c(high) and nonclassical Ly6c(low) monocytes to the plaques, which was accompanied by increased numbers of both monocyte subsets in the blood. This associated with defective adhesion of Chat-H-deficient Ly6c(high) and Ly6c(low) monocytes to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in vitro and impaired infiltration of fluorescent bead-loaded monocytes to atherosclerotic plaques. In contrast, Chat-H was dispensable for CX3CL1 and CCR1/CCR5-dependent migration of monocytes. Our findings highlight Chat-H as a key protein that regulates atherosclerosis development by controlling monocyte adhesion and recruitment to the plaques and identify a novel target that may be exploited for treating atherosclerosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Claudins, dietary milk proteins, and intestinal barrier regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Belinda M; Kerstetter, Jane E; Insogna, Karl L

    2013-01-01

    The family of claudin proteins plays an important role in regulating the intestinal barrier by modulating the permeability of tight junctions. The impact of dietary protein on claudin biology has not been studied extensively. Whey proteins have been reported to improve intestinal barrier function, but their mechanism of action is not clear. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated increased intestinal claudin expression in response to milk protein components. Reviewed here are new findings suggesting that whey-protein-derived transforming growth factor β transcriptionally upregulates claudin-4 expression via a Smad-4-dependent pathway. These and other data, including limited clinical studies, are summarized below and, in the aggregate, suggest a therapeutic role for whey protein in diseases of intestinal barrier dysfunction, perhaps, in part, by regulating claudin expression. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  16. Regulation of PCNA-protein interactions for genome stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Niels; Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has a central role in promoting faithful DNA replication, providing a molecular platform that facilitates the myriad protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions that occur at the replication fork. Numerous PCNA-associated proteins compete for binding...... to a common surface on PCNA; hence these interactions need to be tightly regulated and coordinated to ensure proper chromosome replication and integrity. Control of PCNA-protein interactions is multilayered and involves post-translational modifications, in particular ubiquitylation, accessory factors...... and regulated degradation of PCNA-associated proteins. This regulatory framework allows cells to maintain a fine-tuned balance between replication fidelity and processivity in response to DNA damage....

  17. Protein feature based identification of cell cycle regulated proteins in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lichtenberg, Ulrik; Jensen, Thomas Skøt; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2003-01-01

    DNA microarrays have been used extensively to identify cell cycle regulated genes in yeast; however, the overlap in the genes identified is surprisingly small. We show that certain protein features can be used to distinguish cell cycle regulated genes from other genes with high confidence (features...... include protein phosphorylation, glycosylation, subcellular location and instability/degradation). We demonstrate that co-expressed, periodic genes encode proteins which share combinations of features, and provide an overview of the proteome dynamics during the cycle. A large set of novel putative cell...... cycle regulated proteins were identified, many of which have no known function....

  18. RNA-processing protein TDP-43 regulates FOXO-dependent protein quality control in stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43 is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuin, Tanmay [Cell and Developmental Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag 713104 (India); Roy, Jagat Kumar, E-mail: jkroy@bhu.ac.in [Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  20. The Role of Bromodomain Proteins in Regulating Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Duffy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifications are important in regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. Of the numerous histone modifications which have been identified, acetylation is one of the best characterised and is generally associated with active genes. Histone acetylation can directly affect chromatin structure by neutralising charges on the histone tail, and can also function as a binding site for proteins which can directly or indirectly regulate transcription. Bromodomains specifically bind to acetylated lysine residues on histone tails, and bromodomain proteins play an important role in anchoring the complexes of which they are a part to acetylated chromatin. Bromodomain proteins are involved in a diverse range of functions, such as acetylating histones, remodeling chromatin, and recruiting other factors necessary for transcription. These proteins thus play a critical role in the regulation of transcription.

  1. The Src homology 2 protein Shb promotes cell cycle progression in murine hematopoietic stem cells by regulation of focal adhesion kinase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Karin [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 23 (Sweden); Heffner, Garrett; Wenzel, Pamela L.; Curran, Matthew [HHMI, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, 02115 MA (United States); Grawé, Jan [Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185 (Sweden); McKinney-Freeman, Shannon L. [Department of Hematology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Daley, George Q. [HHMI, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, 02115 MA (United States); Welsh, Michael, E-mail: michael.welsh@mcb.uu.se [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 23 (Sweden)

    2013-07-15

    The widely expressed adaptor protein Shb has previously been reported to contribute to T cell function due to its association with the T cell receptor and furthermore, several of Shb's known interaction partners are established regulators of blood cell development and function. In addition, Shb deficient embryonic stem cells displayed reduced blood cell colony formation upon differentiation in vitro. The aim of the current study was therefore to explore hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function in the Shb knockout mouse. Shb deficient bone marrow contained reduced relative numbers of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) that exhibited lower proliferation rates. Despite this, Shb knockout LT-HSCs responded promptly by entering the cell cycle in response to genotoxic stress by 5-fluorouracil treatment. In competitive LT-HSC transplantations, Shb null cells initially engrafted as well as the wild-type cells but provided less myeloid expansion over time. Moreover, Shb knockout bone marrow cells exhibited elevated basal activities of focal adhesion kinase/Rac1/p21-activated kinase signaling and reduced responsiveness to Stem Cell Factor stimulation. Consequently, treatment with a focal adhesion kinase inhibitor increased Shb knockout LT-HSC proliferation. The altered signaling characteristics thus provide a plausible mechanistic explanation for the changes in LT-HSC proliferation since these signaling intermediates have all been shown to participate in LT-HSC cell cycle control. In summary, the loss of Shb dependent signaling in bone marrow cells, resulting in elevated focal adhesion kinase activity and reduced proliferative responses in LT-HSCs under steady state hematopoiesis, confers a disadvantage to the maintenance of LT-HSCs over time. -- Highlights: • Shb is an adaptor protein operating downstream of tyrosine kinase receptors. • Shb deficiency reduces hematopoietic stem cell proliferation. • The proliferative effect of Shb occurs via

  2. Effective identification of negative regulation patterns of protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfeng; Hu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Baoshan

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies point to the fact that protein kinases play an important role in the regulation of cellular pathways and show great potential in disease treatment. Thus, it is critical to discover characterized regulatory patterns of protein kinases in signaling pathway. There have been considerable efforts to explore the activities of protein kinases. However, the study of negative regulation patterns has been largely overlooked and undeveloped. This paper aims to identify inhibitory regulatory correlations of protein kinase according to negative association rule mining. Especially, mutual information is applied to sort out the items with strong dependency and the minimum support threshold is computed by support constraints to control rule generation. The obtained rules not only reveal the relationships between subunits of protein kinases and between subunits and stimuli, but also provide novel pharmacological insight into drug design for diseases.

  3. Antemortem stress regulates protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhenyu; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2016-07-01

    Although exhaustive research has established that preslaughter stress is a major factor contributing to pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat, questions remain regarding the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis. In this study, the influence of preslaughter stress on protein acetylation in relationship to glycolysis was studied. The data show that antemortem swimming significantly enhanced glycolysis and the total acetylated proteins in postmortem longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of mice. Inhibition of protein acetylation by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors eliminated stress induced increase in glycolysis. Inversely, antemortem injection of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and nicotinamide (NAM), further increased protein acetylation early postmortem and the glycolysis. These data provide new insight into the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis by showing that protein acetylation regulates glycolysis, which may participate in the regulation of preslaughter stress on glycolysis in postmortem muscle. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. New Insights into the Protein Turnover Regulation in Ethylene Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Gyeong Mee

    2015-07-01

    Biosynthesis of the phytohormone ethylene is under tight regulation to satisfy the need for appropriate levels of ethylene in plants in response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. The enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of ethylene biosynthesis, plays a central role to regulate ethylene production through changes in ACS gene expression levels and the activity of the enzyme. Together with molecular genetic studies suggesting the roles of post-translational modification of the ACS, newly emerging evidence strongly suggests that the regulation of ACS protein stability is an alternative mechanism that controls ethylene production, in addition to the transcriptional regulation of ACS genes. In this review, recent new insight into the regulation of ACS protein turnover is highlighted, with a special focus on the roles of phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and novel components that regulate the turnover of ACS proteins. The prospect of cross-talk between ethylene biosynthesis and other signaling pathways to control turnover of the ACS protein is also considered.

  5. Alternative splicing regulation of APP exon 7 by RBFox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shafiul; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Tsukahara, Toshifumi

    2014-12-01

    RBFox proteins are well-known alternative splicing regulators. We have shown previously that during neuronal differentiation of P19 cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid and cell aggregation, RBFox1 shows markedly increased temporal expression. To find its key splicing regulation, we examined the effect of RBFox1 on 33 previously reported and validated neuronal splicing events of P19 cells. We observed that alternative splicing of three genes, specifically, amyloid precursor protein (APP), disks large homolog 3 (DLG3), and G protein, alpha activating activity polypeptide O (GNAO1), was altered by transient RBFox1 expression in HEK293 and HeLa cells. Moreover, an RBFox1 mutant (RBFox1FA) that was unable to bind the target RNA sequence ((U)GCAUG) did not induce these splicing events. APP generates amyloid beta peptides that are involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, and therefore we examined APP alternative splicing regulation by RBFox1 and other splicing regulators. Our results indicated that RBFox proteins promote the skipping of APP exon 7, but not the inclusion of exon 8. We made APP6789 minigenes and observed that two (U)GCAUG sequences, located upstream of exon 7 and in exon 7, functioned to induce skipping of exon 7 by RBFox proteins. Overall, RBFox proteins may shift APP from exon 7 containing isoforms, APP770 and APP751, toward the exon 7 lacking isoform, APP695, which is predominant in neural tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using selenomethionyl derivatives to assign sequence in low-resolution structures of the AP2 clathrin adaptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard T; Graham, Stephen C; Owen, David J

    2016-03-01

    Selenomethionine incorporation is a powerful technique for assigning sequence to regions of electron density at low resolution. Genetic introduction of methionine point mutations and the subsequent preparation and crystallization of selenomethionyl derivatives permits unambiguous sequence assignment by enabling the placement of the anomalous scatterers (Se atoms) thus introduced. Here, the use of this approach in the assignment of sequence in a part of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex that is responsible for clathrin binding is described. AP2 plays a pivotal role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, a tightly regulated process in which cell-surface transmembrane proteins are internalized from the plasma membrane by incorporation into lipid-enclosed transport vesicles. AP2 binds cargo destined for internalization and recruits clathrin, a large trimeric protein that helps to deform the membrane to produce the transport vesicle. By selenomethionine labelling of point mutants, it was shown that the clathrin-binding site is buried within a deep cleft of the AP2 complex. A membrane-stimulated conformational change in AP2 releases the clathrin-binding site from autoinhibition, thereby linking clathrin recruitment to membrane localization.

  7. MAP Kinase Pathway–dependent Phosphorylation of the L1-CAM Ankyrin Binding Site Regulates Neuronal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Whittard, John D.; Sakurai, Takeshi; Cassella, Melanie R.; Gazdoiu, Mihaela; Felsenfeld, Dan P.

    2006-01-01

    The growth of neuronal processes depends critically on the function of adhesion proteins that link extracellular ligands to the cytoskeleton. The neuronal adhesion protein L1-CAM serves as a receptor for nerve growth–promoting proteins, a process that is inhibited by the interaction between L1-CAM and the cytoskeleton adaptor ankyrin. Using a novel reporter based on intramolecular bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, we have determined that the MAP kinase pathway regulates the phosphory...

  8. Elucidation of Novel Structural Scaffold in Rohu TLR2 and Its Binding Site Analysis with Peptidoglycan, Lipoteichoic Acid and Zymosan Ligands, and Downstream MyD88 Adaptor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Ranjan Sahoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs play key roles in sensing wide array of microbial signatures and induction of innate immunity. TLR2 in fish resembles higher eukaryotes by sensing peptidoglycan (PGN and lipoteichoic acid (LTA of bacterial cell wall and zymosan of yeasts. However, in fish TLR2, no study yet describes the ligand binding motifs in the leucine rich repeat regions (LRRs of the extracellular domain (ECD and important amino acids in TLR2-TIR (toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain that could be engaged in transmitting downstream signaling. We predicted these in a commercially important freshwater fish species rohu (Labeo rohita by constructing 3D models of TLR2-ECD, TLR2-TIR, and MyD88-TIR by comparative modeling followed by 40 ns (nanosecond molecular dynamics simulation (MDS for TLR2-ECD and 20 ns MDS for TLR2-TIR and MyD88-TIR. Protein (TLR2-ECD–ligands (PGN, LTA, and zymosan docking in rohu by AutoDock4.0, FlexX2.1, and GOLD4.1 anticipated LRR16–19, LRR12–14, and LRR20-CT as the most important ligand binding motifs. Protein (TLR2-TIR—protein (MyD88-TIR interaction by HADDOCK and ZDOCK predicted BB loop, αB-helix, αC-helix, and CD loop in TLR2-TIR and BB loop, αB-helix, and CD loop in MyD88-TIR as the critical binding domains. This study provides ligands recognition and downstream signaling.

  9. Network motifs in integrated cellular networks of transcription-regulation and protein-protein interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Sattath, Shmuel; Kashtan, Nadav; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Milo, Ron; Pinter, Ron Y.; Alon, Uri; Margalit, Hanah

    2004-04-01

    Genes and proteins generate molecular circuitry that enables the cell to process information and respond to stimuli. A major challenge is to identify characteristic patterns in this network of interactions that may shed light on basic cellular mechanisms. Previous studies have analyzed aspects of this network, concentrating on either transcription-regulation or protein-protein interactions. Here we search for composite network motifs: characteristic network patterns consisting of both transcription-regulation and protein-protein interactions that recur significantly more often than in random networks. To this end we developed algorithms for detecting motifs in networks with two or more types of interactions and applied them to an integrated data set of protein-protein interactions and transcription regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found a two-protein mixed-feedback loop motif, five types of three-protein motifs exhibiting coregulation and complex formation, and many motifs involving four proteins. Virtually all four-protein motifs consisted of combinations of smaller motifs. This study presents a basic framework for detecting the building blocks of networks with multiple types of interactions.

  10. Developmental regulation of RNA processing by Rbfox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, John G

    2017-03-01

    The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing. Complex Rbfox expression is encoded in large genes encompassing multiple promoters and alternative splicing options that govern spatiotemporal expression of structurally distinct and tissue-specific protein isoforms with different classes of RNA targets. Nuclear Rbfox1 is a candidate master regulator that binds intronic UGCAUG elements to impact splicing efficiency of target alternative exons, many in transcripts for other splicing regulators. Tissue-specificity of Rbfox-mediated alternative splicing is executed by combinatorial regulation through the integrated activity of Rbfox proteins and synergistic or antagonistic splicing factors. Studies in animal models show that Rbfox1-related genes are critical for diverse developmental processes including germ cell differentiation and memory in Drosophila, neuronal migration and function in mouse brain, myoblast fusion and skeletal muscle function, and normal heart function. Finally, genetic and biochemical evidence suggest that aberrations in Rbfox-regulated circuitry are risk factors for multiple human disorders, especially neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy and autism, and cardiac hypertrophy. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1398. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1398 For further resources related to this article, please

  11. Regulation of transferrin receptor 2 protein levels by transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Aeisha; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2004-12-15

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) plays a critical role in iron homeostasis because patients carrying disabling mutations in the TFR2 gene suffer from hemochromatosis. In this study, iron-responsive regulation of TfR2 at the protein level was examined in vitro and in vivo. HepG2 cell TfR2 protein levels were up-regulated after exposure to holotransferrin (holoTf) in a time- and dose-responsive manner. ApoTf or high-iron treatment with non-Tf-bound iron failed to elicit similar effects, suggesting that TfR2 regulation reflects interactions of the iron-bound ligand. Hepatic TfR2 protein levels also reflected an adaptive response to changing iron status in vivo. Liver TfR2 protein levels were down- and up-regulated in rats fed an iron-deficient and a high-iron diet, respectively. TfR2 was also up-regulated in Hfe(-/-) mice, an animal model that displays liver iron loading. In contrast, TfR2 levels were reduced in hypotransferrinemic mice despite liver iron overload, supporting the idea that regulation of the receptor is dependent on Tf. This idea is confirmed by up-regulation of TfR2 in beta-thalassemic mice, which, like hypotransferrinemic mice, are anemic and incur iron loading, but have functional Tf. Based on these combined results, we hypothesize that TfR2 acts as a sensor of iron status such that receptor levels reflect Tf saturation.

  12. Regulation of Insulin Receptor Trafficking by Bardet Biedl Syndrome Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel D Starks

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin and its receptor are critical for the regulation of metabolic functions, but the mechanisms underlying insulin receptor (IR trafficking to the plasma membrane are not well understood. Here, we show that Bardet Biedl Syndrome (BBS proteins are necessary for IR localization to the cell surface. We demonstrate that the IR interacts physically with BBS proteins, and reducing the expression of BBS proteins perturbs IR expression in the cell surface. We show the consequence of disrupting BBS proteins for whole body insulin action and glucose metabolism using mice lacking different BBS genes. These findings demonstrate the importance of BBS proteins in underlying IR cell surface expression. Our data identify defects in trafficking and localization of the IR as a novel mechanism accounting for the insulin resistance commonly associated with human BBS. This is supported by the reduced surface expression of the IR in fibroblasts derived from patients bearing the M390R mutation in the BBS1 gene.

  13. Mcl-1 Ubiquitination: Unique Regulation of an Essential Survival Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mojsa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family that is essential for the survival of multiple cell lineages and that is highly amplified in human cancer. Under physiological conditions, Mcl-1 expression is tightly regulated at multiple levels, involving transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes. Ubiquitination of Mcl-1, that targets it for proteasomal degradation, allows for rapid elimination of the protein and triggering of cell death, in response to various cellular events. In the last decade, a number of studies have elucidated different pathways controlling Mcl-1 ubiquitination and degradation. Four different E3 ubiquitin-ligases (e.g., Mule, SCFβ-TrCP, SCFFbw7 and Trim17 and one deubiquitinase (e.g., USP9X, that respectively mediate and oppose Mcl-1 ubiquitination, have been formerly identified. The interaction between Mule and Mcl-1 can be modulated by other Bcl-2 family proteins, while recognition of Mcl-1 by the other E3 ubiquitin-ligases and deubiquitinase is influenced by phosphorylation of specific residues in Mcl-1. The protein kinases and E3 ubiquitin-ligases that are involved in the regulation of Mcl-1 stability vary depending on the cellular context, highlighting the complexity and pivotal role of Mcl-1 regulation. In this review, we attempt to recapitulate progress in understanding Mcl-1 regulation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  14. Regulation of lipid metabolism by angiopoietin-like proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Wieneke; Kersten, Sander

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs) 3, 4 and 8 have emerged as key regulators of plasma lipid metabolism by serving as potent inhibitors of the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In this review, we provide an integrated picture of the role of ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL8 in

  15. Regulation of protein activity with small-molecule-controlled inteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skretas, Georgios; Wood, David W.

    2005-01-01

    Inteins are the protein analogs of self-splicing RNA introns, as they post-translationally excise themselves from a variety of protein hosts. Intein insertion abolishes, in general, the activity of its host protein, which is subsequently restored upon intein excision. These protein elements therefore have the potential to be used as general molecular “switches” for the control of arbitrary target proteins. Based on rational design, an intein-based protein switch has been constructed whose splicing activity is conditionally triggered in vivo by the presence of thyroid hormone or synthetic analogs. This modified intein was used in Escherichia coli to demonstrate that a number of different proteins can be inactivated by intein insertion and then reactivated by the addition of thyroid hormone via ligand-induced splicing. This conditional activation was also found to occur in a dose-dependent manner. Rational protein engineering was then combined with genetic selection to evolve an additional intein whose activity is controlled by the presence of synthetic estrogen ligands. The ability to regulate protein function post-translationally through the use of ligand-controlled intein splicing will most likely find applications in metabolic engineering, drug discovery and delivery, biosensing, molecular computation, as well as many additional areas of biotechnology. PMID:15632292

  16. Regulation of neuronal communication by G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunhong; Thathiah, Amantha

    2015-06-22

    Neuronal communication plays an essential role in the propagation of information in the brain and requires a precisely orchestrated connectivity between neurons. Synaptic transmission is the mechanism through which neurons communicate with each other. It is a strictly regulated process which involves membrane depolarization, the cellular exocytosis machinery, neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles into the synaptic cleft, and the interaction between ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and downstream effector molecules. The focus of this review is to explore the role of GPCRs and G protein-signaling in neurotransmission, to highlight the function of GPCRs, which are localized in both presynaptic and postsynaptic membrane terminals, in regulation of intrasynaptic and intersynaptic communication, and to discuss the involvement of astrocytic GPCRs in the regulation of neuronal communication. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulated eukaryotic DNA replication origin firing with purified proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeeles, Joseph T P; Deegan, Tom D; Janska, Agnieszka; Early, Anne; Diffley, John F X

    2015-03-26

    Eukaryotic cells initiate DNA replication from multiple origins, which must be tightly regulated to promote precise genome duplication in every cell cycle. To accomplish this, initiation is partitioned into two temporally discrete steps: a double hexameric minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex is first loaded at replication origins during G1 phase, and then converted to the active CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) helicase during S phase. Here we describe the reconstitution of budding yeast DNA replication initiation with 16 purified replication factors, made from 42 polypeptides. Origin-dependent initiation recapitulates regulation seen in vivo. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibits MCM loading by phosphorylating the origin recognition complex (ORC) and promotes CMG formation by phosphorylating Sld2 and Sld3. Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) promotes replication by phosphorylating MCM, and can act either before or after CDK. These experiments define the minimum complement of proteins, protein kinase substrates and co-factors required for regulated eukaryotic DNA replication.

  18. BCL-2 family proteins as regulators of mitochondria metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Atan

    2016-08-01

    The BCL-2 family proteins are major regulators of apoptosis, and one of their major sites of action are the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the cellular hubs for metabolism and indeed selected BCL-2 family proteins also possess roles related to mitochondria metabolism and dynamics. Here we discuss the link between mitochondrial metabolism/dynamics and the fate of stem cells, with an emphasis on the role of the BID-MTCH2 pair in regulating this link. We also discuss the possibility that BCL-2 family proteins act as metabolic sensors/messengers coming on and off of mitochondria to "sample" the cytosol and provide the mitochondria with up-to-date metabolic information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sox proteins: regulators of cell fate specification and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamachi, Yusuke; Kondoh, Hisato

    2013-10-01

    Sox transcription factors play widespread roles during development; however, their versatile funtions have a relatively simple basis: the binding of a Sox protein alone to DNA does not elicit transcriptional activation or repression, but requires binding of a partner transcription factor to an adjacent site on the DNA. Thus, the activity of a Sox protein is dependent upon the identity of its partner factor and the context of the DNA sequence to which it binds. In this Primer, we provide an mechanistic overview of how Sox family proteins function, as a paradigm for transcriptional regulation of development involving multi-transcription factor complexes, and we discuss how Sox factors can thus regulate diverse processes during development.

  20. Heat Shock Proteins in Tendinopathy: Novel Molecular Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal L. Millar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon disorders—tendinopathies—are the primary reason for musculoskeletal consultation in primary care and account for up to 30% of rheumatological consultations. Whilst the molecular pathophysiology of tendinopathy remains difficult to interpret the disease process involving repetitive stress, and cellular load provides important mechanistic insight into the area of heat shock proteins which spans many disease processes in the autoimmune community. Heat shock proteins, also called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, are rapidly released following nonprogrammed cell death, are key effectors of the innate immune system, and critically restore homeostasis by promoting the reconstruction of the effected tissue. Our investigations have highlighted a key role for HSPs in tendion disease which may ultimately affect tissue rescue mechanisms in tendon pathology. This paper aims to provide an overview of the biology of heat shock proteins in soft tissue and how these mediators may be important regulators of inflammatory mediators and matrix regulation in tendinopathy.

  1. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  2. Regulation of dopamine transporter function by protein-protein interactions: new discoveries and methodological challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jacob; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Gether, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    -synaptic neurons. This has led to the identification of a plethora of different kinases, receptors and scaffolding proteins that interact with DAT and hereby either modulate the catalytic activity of the transporter or regulate its trafficking and degradation. Several new tools for studying DAT regulation in live...... cells have also recently become available such as fluorescently tagged cocaine analogues and fluorescent substrates. Here we review the current knowledge about the role of protein-protein interactions in DAT regulation as well as we describe the most recent methodological developments that have been......The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a key role in regulating dopaminergic signalling in the brain by mediating rapid clearance of dopamine from the synaptic clefts. The psychostimulatory actions of cocaine and amphetamine are primarily the result of a direct interaction of these compounds with DAT...

  3. G protein-coupled receptors as regulators of energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ya-Xiong; Yuan, Zong-Hui; Xie, Jun

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are versatile regulators of physiological processes. They are also important drug targets. Many of the molecules controlling energy homeostasis act through GPCRs. This article summarizes the regulators of energy homeostasis in the central nervous system: those secreted by the gastrointestinal peptides and those secreted by the endocrine pancreas. Some examples of orphan GPCRs are also given. The regulation of energy homeostasis is conserved in other mammals, including those species relevant in veterinary medicine, and fish. Finally, the genetics of human obesity is briefly summarized. Genetic susceptibility in the current obesogenic environment is likely causing the obesity pandemic. A better understanding of the regulation of energy homeostasis will lead to novel pharmacotherapy for obesity treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 21 CFR 870.4290 - Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold... Devices § 870.4290 Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting is a device used in cardiovascular diagnostic...

  5. Acute myotube protein synthesis regulation by IL-6-related cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Durstine, J Larry; Koh, Ho-Jin; Carver, Wayne E; Frizzell, Norma; Carson, James A

    2017-11-01

    IL-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), members of the IL-6 family of cytokines, play recognized paradoxical roles in skeletal muscle mass regulation, being associated with both growth and atrophy. Overload or muscle contractions can induce a transient increase in muscle IL-6 and LIF expression, which has a regulatory role in muscle hypertrophy. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in this regulation have not been completely identified. The induction of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent myofiber protein synthesis is an established regulator of muscle hypertrophy, but the involvement of the IL-6 family of cytokines in this process is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of IL-6 and LIF administration on mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes. The role of glycoprotein 130 (gp130) receptor and downstream signaling pathways, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mTORC1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), was investigated by administration of specific siRNA or pharmaceutical inhibitors. Acute administration of IL-6 and LIF induced protein synthesis, which was accompanied by STAT3 activation, Akt-mTORC1 activation, and increased SOCS3 expression. This induction of protein synthesis was blocked by both gp130 siRNA knockdown and Akt inhibition. Interestingly, STAT3 inhibition or Akt downstream mTORC1 signaling inhibition did not fully block the IL-6 or LIF induction of protein synthesis. SOCS3 siRNA knockdown increased basal protein synthesis and extended the duration of the protein synthesis induction by IL-6 and LIF. These results demonstrate that either IL-6 or LIF can activate gp130-Akt signaling axis, which induces protein synthesis via mTORC1-independent mechanisms in cultured myotubes. However, IL-6- or LIF-induced SOCS3 negatively regulates the activation of myotube protein synthesis. Copyright © 2017 the

  6. Regulation of dynamin family proteins by post-translational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Usha P; Dey, Himani; Rahaman, Abdur

    2017-06-01

    Dynamin superfamily proteins comprising classical dynamins and related proteins are membrane remodelling agents involved in several biological processes such as endocytosis, maintenance of organelle morphology and viral resistance. These large GTPases couple GTP hydrolysis with membrane alterations such as fission, fusion or tubulation by undergoing repeated cycles of self-assembly/disassembly. The functions of these proteins are regulated by various post-translational modifications that affect their GTPase activity, multimerization or membrane association. Recently, several reports have demonstrated variety of such modifications providing a better understanding of the mechanisms by which dynamin proteins influence cellular responses to physiological and environmental cues. In this review, we discuss major post-translational modifications along with their roles in the mechanism of dynamin functions and implications in various cellular processes.

  7. Fluctuations within folded proteins: implications for thermodynamic and allosteric regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, Kateri H; Bowman, Gregory R; Geissler, Phillip L

    2015-04-21

    Folded protein structures are both stable and dynamic. Historically, our clearest window into these structures came from X-ray crystallography, which generally provided a static image of each protein's singular "folded state", highlighting its stability. Deviations away from that crystallographic structure were difficult to quantify, and as a result, their potential functional consequences were often neglected. However, several dynamical and statistical studies now highlight the structural variability that is present within the protein's folded state. Here we review mounting evidence of the importance of these structural rearrangements; both experiment and computation indicate that folded proteins undergo substantial fluctuations that can greatly influence their function. Crucially, recent studies have shown that structural elements of proteins, especially their side-chain degrees of freedom, fluctuate in ways that generate significant conformational heterogeneity. The entropy associated with these motions contributes to the folded structure's thermodynamic stability. In addition, since these fluctuations can shift in response to perturbations such as ligand binding, they may play an important role in the protein's capacity to respond to environmental cues. In one compelling example, the entropy associated with side-chain fluctuations contributes significantly to regulating the binding of calmodulin to a set of peptide ligands. The neglect of fluctuations within proteins' native states was often justified by the dense packing within folded proteins, which has inspired comparisons with crystalline solids. Many liquids, however, can achieve similarly dense packing yet fluidity is maintained through correlated molecular motions. Indeed, the studies we discuss favor comparison of folded proteins not with solids but instead with dense liquids, where the internal side chain fluidity is facilitated by collective motions that are correlated over long distances. These

  8. The serine/arginine-rich protein SF2/ASF regulates protein sumoylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelisch, Federico; Gerez, Juan; Druker, Jimena; Schor, Ignacio E; Muñoz, Manuel J; Risso, Guillermo; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Westman, Belinda J; Lamond, Angus I; Arzt, Eduardo; Srebrow, Anabella

    2010-09-14

    Protein modification by conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is involved in diverse biological functions, such as transcription regulation, subcellular partitioning, stress response, DNA damage repair, and chromatin remodeling. Here, we show that the serine/arginine-rich protein SF2/ASF, a factor involved in splicing regulation and other RNA metabolism-related processes, is a regulator of the sumoylation pathway. The overexpression of this protein stimulates, but its knockdown inhibits SUMO conjugation. SF2/ASF interacts with Ubc9 and enhances sumoylation of specific substrates, sharing characteristics with already described SUMO E3 ligases. In addition, SF2/ASF interacts with the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 (protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1), regulating PIAS1-induced overall protein sumoylation. The RNA recognition motif 2 of SF2/ASF is necessary and sufficient for sumoylation enhancement. Moreover, SF2/ASF has a role in heat shock-induced sumoylation and promotes SUMO conjugation to RNA processing factors. These results add a component to the sumoylation pathway and a previously unexplored role for the multifunctional SR protein SF2/ASF.

  9. Transcriptional regulation of the uncoupling protein-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, Francesc; Peyrou, Marion; Giralt, Marta

    2017-03-01

    Regulated transcription of the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) gene, and subsequent UCP1 protein synthesis, is a hallmark of the acquisition of the differentiated, thermogenically competent status of brown and beige/brite adipocytes, as well as of the responsiveness of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to adaptive regulation of thermogenic activity. The 5' non-coding region of the UCP1 gene contains regulatory elements that confer tissue specificity, differentiation dependence, and neuro-hormonal regulation to UCP1 gene transcription. Two main regions-a distal enhancer and a proximal promoter region-mediate transcriptional regulation through interactions with a plethora of transcription factors, including nuclear hormone receptors and cAMP-responsive transcription factors. Co-regulators, such as PGC-1α, play a pivotal role in the concerted regulation of UCP1 gene transcription. Multiple interactions of transcription factors and co-regulators at the promoter region of the UCP1 gene result in local chromatin remodeling, leading to activation and increased accessibility of RNA polymerase II and subsequent gene transcription. Moreover, a commonly occurring A-to-G polymorphism in close proximity to the UCP1 gene enhancer influences the extent of UCP1 gene transcription. Notably, it has been reported that specific aspects of obesity and associated metabolic diseases are associated with human population variability at this site. On another front, the unique properties of the UCP1 promoter region have been exploited to develop brown adipose tissue-specific gene delivery tools for experimental purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  10. Post-translational regulation and modifications of flavivirus structural proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Justin A; Setoh, Yin Xiang; Hall, Roy A; Khromykh, Alexander A

    2015-07-01

    Flaviviruses are a group of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that generally circulate between arthropod vectors and susceptible vertebrate hosts, producing significant human and veterinary disease burdens. Intensive research efforts have broadened our scientific understanding of the replication cycles of these viruses and have revealed several elegant and tightly co-ordinated post-translational modifications that regulate the activity of viral proteins. The three structural proteins in particular - capsid (C), pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) - are subjected to strict regulatory modifications as they progress from translation through virus particle assembly and egress. The timing of proteolytic cleavage events at the C-prM junction directly influences the degree of genomic RNA packaging into nascent virions. Proteolytic maturation of prM by host furin during Golgi transit facilitates rearrangement of the E proteins at the virion surface, exposing the fusion loop and thus increasing particle infectivity. Specific interactions between the prM and E proteins are also important for particle assembly, as prM acts as a chaperone, facilitating correct conformational folding of E. It is only once prM/E heterodimers form that these proteins can be secreted efficiently. The addition of branched glycans to the prM and E proteins during virion transit also plays a key role in modulating the rate of secretion, pH sensitivity and infectivity of flavivirus particles. The insights gained from research into post-translational regulation of structural proteins are beginning to be applied in the rational design of improved flavivirus vaccine candidates and make attractive targets for the development of novel therapeutics.

  11. The role of Cockayne Syndrome Protein B in transcription regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jieun

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the question if CSB (Cockayne Syndrome complementation B) protein actively regulates gene transcription and how mutations in CSB gene affect that regulatory role. Here we describe how we processed and interpreted ChIP-seq data (deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus with accession number GSE50171) obtained during an investigation of that question, and how this analysis assisted in the generation of hypothesis that were subsequently validated using other types of experiment.

  12. The role of Cockayne Syndrome Protein B in transcription regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jieun

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the question if CSB (Cockayne Syndrome complementation B) protein actively regulates gene transcription and how mutations in CSB gene affect that regulatory role. Here we describe how we processed and interpreted ChIP-seq data (deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus with accession number GSE50171) obtained during an investigation of that question, and how this analysis assisted in the generation of hypothesis that were subsequently validated using other types of experiment.

  13. Spiral biasing adaptor for use in Si drift detectors and Si drift detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-05

    A drift detector array, preferably a silicon drift detector (SDD) array, that uses a low current biasing adaptor is disclosed. The biasing adaptor is customizable for any desired geometry of the drift detector single cell with minimum drift time of carriers. The biasing adaptor has spiral shaped ion-implants that generate the desired voltage profile. The biasing adaptor can be processed on the same wafer as the drift detector array and only one biasing adaptor chip/side is needed for one drift detector array to generate the voltage profiles on the front side and back side of the detector array.

  14. Redox regulation by reversible protein S-thiolation in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Van Loi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight (LMW thiols function as thiol-redox buffers to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm. The best studied LMW thiol is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH present in all eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria. Firmicutes bacteria, including Bacillus and Staphylococcus species utilize the redox buffer bacillithiol (BSH while Actinomycetes produce the related redox buffer mycothiol (MSH. In eukaryotes, proteins are post-translationally modified to S-glutathionylated proteins under conditions of oxidative stress. S-glutathionylation has emerged as major redox-regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes and protects active site cysteine residues against overoxidation to sulfonic acids. First studies identified S-glutathionylated proteins also in Gram-negative bacteria. Advances in mass spectrometry have further facilitated the identification of protein S-bacillithiolations and S-mycothiolation as BSH- and MSH-mixed protein disulfides formed under oxidative stress in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes, respectively. In Bacillus subtilis, protein S-bacillithiolation controls the activities of the redox-sensing OhrR repressor and the methionine synthase MetE in vivo. In Corynebacterium glutamicum, protein S-mycothiolation was more widespread and affected the functions of the maltodextrin phosphorylase MalP and thiol peroxidase (Tpx. In addition, novel bacilliredoxins (Brx and mycoredoxins (Mrx1 were shown to function similar to glutaredoxins in the reduction of BSH- and MSH-mixed protein disulfides. Here we review the current knowledge about the functions of the bacterial thiol-redox buffers glutathione, bacillithiol and mycothiol and the role of protein S-thiolation in redox regulation and thiol protection in model and pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Heat Shock Protein 90 regulates encystation in Entamoeba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meetali eSingh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Enteric protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of debilitating diarrheal infection worldwide with high morbidity and mortality. Even though the clinical burden of this parasite is very high, this infection is categorized as a neglected disease. Parasite is transmitted through feco-oral route and exhibit two distinct stages namely – trophozoites and cysts. Mechanism and regulation of encystation is not clearly understood. Previous studies have established the role of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 in regulating stage transition in various protozoan parasites like Giardia, Plasmodium, Leishmania and Toxoplasma. Our study for the first time reports that Hsp90 plays a crucial role in life cycle of Entamoeba as well. We identify Hsp90 to be a negative regulator of encystation in Entamoeba. We also show that Hsp90 inhibition interferes with the process of phagocytosis in Entamoeba. Overall, we show that Hsp90 plays an important role in virulence and transmission of Entamoeba.

  16. Heat Shock Protein 90 regulates encystation in Entamoeba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meetali; Sharma, Shalini; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tatu, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Enteric protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of debilitating diarrheal infection worldwide with high morbidity and mortality. Even though the clinical burden of this parasite is very high, this infection is categorized as a neglected disease. Parasite is transmitted through feco-oral route and exhibit two distinct stages namely – trophozoites and cysts. Mechanism and regulation of encystation is not clearly understood. Previous studies have established the role of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in regulating stage transition in various protozoan parasites like Giardia, Plasmodium, Leishmania, and Toxoplasma. Our study for the first time reports that Hsp90 plays a crucial role in life cycle of Entamoeba as well. We identify Hsp90 to be a negative regulator of encystation in Entamoeba. We also show that Hsp90 inhibition interferes with the process of phagocytosis in Entamoeba. Overall, we show that Hsp90 plays an important role in virulence and transmission of Entamoeba. PMID:26528271

  17. DUB3 Deubiquitylating Enzymes Regulate Hippo Pathway Activity by Regulating the Stability of ITCH, LATS and AMOT Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Kugler, Jan-Michael; Cohen, Stephen Michael

    2017-01-01

    deubiquitylating enzymes as regulators of Hippo pathway activity. We provide evidence that DUB3 proteins regulate YAP/TAZ activity by controlling the stability of the E3 ligase ITCH, the LATS kinases and the AMOT family proteins. As a novel Hippo pathway regulator, DUB3 has the potential to act a tumor suppressor...

  18. Kit- and Fc epsilonRI-induced differential phosphorylation of the transmembrane adaptor molecule NTAL/LAB/LAT2 allows flexibility in its scaffolding function in mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaki, Shoko; Spicka, Jiri; Tkaczyk, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), NTAL, is phosphorylated in mast cells following FcvarepsilonRI aggregation whereby it cooperates with LAT to induce degranulation. The Kit ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), enhances antigen-induced degranulation and this also appears to be NTAL-dependent. H...

  19. FEM1 proteins are ancient regulators of SLBP degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankert, John F; Pagan, Julia K; Starostina, Natalia G; Kipreos, Edward T; Pagano, Michele

    2017-03-19

    FEM1A, FEM1B, and FEM1C are evolutionarily-conserved VHL-box proteins, the substrate recognition subunits of CUL2-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. Here, we report that FEM1 proteins are ancient regulators of Stem-Loop Binding Protein (SLBP), a conserved protein that interacts with the stem loop structure located in the 3' end of canonical histone mRNAs and functions in mRNA cleavage, translation and degradation. SLBP levels are highest during S-phase coinciding with histone synthesis. The ubiquitin ligase complex SCF(cyclin F) targets SLBP for degradation in G2 phase; however, the regulation of SLBP during other stages of the cell cycle is poorly understood. We provide evidence that FEM1A, FEM1B, and FEM1C interact with and mediate the degradation of SLBP. Cyclin F, FEM1A, FEM1B and FEM1C all interact with a region in SLBP's N-terminus using distinct degrons. An SLBP mutant that is unable to interact with all 4 ligases is expressed at higher levels than wild type SLBP and does not oscillate during the cell cycle. We demonstrate that orthologues of SLBP and FEM1 proteins interact in C. elegans and D. melanogaster, suggesting that the pathway is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, we show that FEM1 depletion in C. elegans results in the upregulation of SLBP ortholog CDL-1 in oocytes. Notably, cyclin F is absent in flies and worms, suggesting that FEM1 proteins play an important role in SLBP targeting in lower eukaryotes.

  20. Forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2 protein stability and activity are regulated by sumoylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimhaswamy S Belaguli

    Full Text Available The forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2 is an important regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism and organismal energy balance. Little is known about how FOXA2 protein expression and activity are regulated by post-translational modifications. We have identified that FOXA2 is post-translationally modified by covalent attachment of a small ubiquitin related modifier-1 (SUMO-1 and mapped the sumoylation site to the amino acid lysine 6 (K6. Preventing sumoylation by mutating the SUMO acceptor K6 to arginine resulted in downregulation of FOXA2 protein but not RNA expression in INS-1E insulinoma cells. K6R mutation also downregulated FOXA2 protein levels in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HCT116 colon cancer cells and LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells. Further, interfering with FOXA2 sumoylation through siRNA mediated knockdown of UBC9, an essential SUMO E2 conjugase, resulted in downregulation of FOXA2 protein levels. Stability of sumoylation deficient FOXA2K6R mutant protein was restored when SUMO-1 was fused in-frame. FOXA2 sumoylation and FOXA2 protein levels were increased by PIAS1 SUMO ligase but not a SUMO ligase activity deficient PIAS1 mutant. Although expressed at lower levels, sumoylation deficient FOXA2K6R mutant protein was detectable in the nucleus indicating that FOXA2 nuclear localization is independent of sumoylation. Sumoylation increased the transcriptional activity of FOXA2 on Pdx-1 area I enhancer. Together, our results show that sumoylation regulates FOXA2 protein expression and activity.

  1. Protein-protein interactions in the regulation of WRKY transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yingjun; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Jie; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2013-03-01

    It has been almost 20 years since the first report of a WRKY transcription factor, SPF1, from sweet potato. Great progress has been made since then in establishing the diverse biological roles of WRKY transcription factors in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Despite the functional diversity, almost all analyzed WRKY proteins recognize the TTGACC/T W-box sequences and, therefore, mechanisms other than mere recognition of the core W-box promoter elements are necessary to achieve the regulatory specificity of WRKY transcription factors. Research over the past several years has revealed that WRKY transcription factors physically interact with a wide range of proteins with roles in signaling, transcription, and chromatin remodeling. Studies of WRKY-interacting proteins have provided important insights into the regulation and mode of action of members of the important family of transcription factors. It has also emerged that the slightly varied WRKY domains and other protein motifs conserved within each of the seven WRKY subfamilies participate in protein-protein interactions and mediate complex functional interactions between WRKY proteins and between WRKY and other regulatory proteins in the modulation of important biological processes. In this review, we summarize studies of protein-protein interactions for WRKY transcription factors and discuss how the interacting partners contribute, at different levels, to the establishment of the complex regulatory and functional network of WRKY transcription factors.

  2. A dynamic response regulator protein modulates G-protein-dependent polarity in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    Full Text Available Migrating cells employ sophisticated signal transduction systems to respond to their environment and polarize towards attractant sources. Bacterial cells also regulate their polarity dynamically to reverse their direction of movement. In Myxococcus xanthus, a GTP-bound Ras-like G-protein, MglA, activates the motility machineries at the leading cell pole. Reversals are provoked by pole-to-pole switching of MglA, which is under the control of a chemosensory-like signal transduction cascade (Frz. It was previously known that the asymmetric localization of MglA at one cell pole is regulated by MglB, a GTPase Activating Protein (GAP. In this process, MglB specifically localizes at the opposite lagging cell pole and blocks MglA localization at that pole. However, how MglA is targeted to the leading pole and how Frz activity switches the localizations of MglA and MglB synchronously remained unknown. Here, we show that MglA requires RomR, a previously known response regulator protein, to localize to the leading cell pole efficiently. Specifically, RomR-MglA and RomR-MglB complexes are formed and act complementarily to establish the polarity axis, segregating MglA and MglB to opposite cell poles. Finally, we present evidence that Frz signaling may regulate MglA localization through RomR, suggesting that RomR constitutes a link between the Frz-signaling and MglAB polarity modules. Thus, in Myxococcus xanthus, a response regulator protein governs the localization of a small G-protein, adding further insight to the polarization mechanism and suggesting that motility regulation evolved by recruiting and combining existing signaling modules of diverse origins.

  3. Dual regulation of G proteins and the G-protein-activated K+ channels by lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhy Tselnicker, Isabella; Tsemakhovich, Vladimir; Rishal, Ida; Kahanovitch, Uri; Dessauer, Carmen W; Dascal, Nathan

    2014-04-01

    Lithium (Li(+)) is widely used to treat bipolar disorder (BPD). Cellular targets of Li(+), such as glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and G proteins, have long been implicated in BPD etiology; however, recent genetic studies link BPD to other proteins, particularly ion channels. Li(+) affects neuronal excitability, but the underlying mechanisms and the relevance to putative BPD targets are unknown. We discovered a dual regulation of G protein-gated K(+) (GIRK) channels by Li(+), and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. In hippocampal neurons, therapeutic doses of Li(+) (1-2 mM) increased GIRK basal current (Ibasal) but attenuated neurotransmitter-evoked GIRK currents (Ievoked) mediated by Gi/o-coupled G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Molecular mechanisms of these regulations were studied with heterologously expressed GIRK1/2. In excised membrane patches, Li(+) increased Ibasal but reduced GPCR-induced GIRK currents. Both regulations were membrane-delimited and G protein-dependent, requiring both Gα and Gβγ subunits. Li(+) did not impair direct activation of GIRK channels by Gβγ, suggesting that inhibition of Ievoked results from an action of Li(+) on Gα, probably through inhibition of GTP-GDP exchange. In direct binding studies, Li(+) promoted GPCR-independent dissociation of Gαi(GDP) from Gβγ by a Mg(2+)-independent mechanism. This previously unknown Li(+) action on G proteins explains the second effect of Li(+), the enhancement of GIRK's Ibasal. The dual effect of Li(+) on GIRK may profoundly regulate the inhibitory effects of neurotransmitters acting via GIRK channels. Our findings link between Li(+), neuronal excitability, and both cellular and genetic targets of BPD: GPCRs, G proteins, and ion channels.

  4. Regulation of protein synthesis during sea urchin early development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Fertilization of the sea urchin egg results in a 20-40 fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The masked message hypothesis proposes that mRNAs are masked or unavailable for translation in the egg. We devised an in vivo assay to test this hypothesis. Our results show that masked mRNAs limit protein synthesis in the unfertilized egg. In addition, we show that protein synthesis is also regulated at the level of translational machinery. Following fertilization is a period of rapid cell divisions. This period, known as the rapid cleavage stage, is characterized by the transient synthesis of a novel set of proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is programmed by maternal mRNAs stored in the unfertilized egg. To study the behavior of these mRNAs, we prepared a cDNA library from polysomal poly (A+) RNA from 2-hour embryos. ({sup 32}P) labeled probes, prepared from the cDNA library, were used to monitor the levels of individual mRNAs in polysomes at fertilization and during early development.

  5. Protein stability regulators screening assay (Pro-SRSA): protein degradation meets the CRISPR-Cas9 library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanzhong; Kang, Tiebang

    2016-06-29

    The regulation of protein stability is a fundamental issue for biophysical processes, but there has not previously been a convenient and unbiased method of identifying regulators of protein stability. However, as reported in the article entitled "A genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screening method for protein stability reveals novel regulators of Cdc25A," recently published in Cell Discovery, our team developed a protein stability regulators screening assay (Pro-SRSA) by combining the whole-genome clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) library with a dual-fluorescence-based protein stability reporter and high-throughput sequencing to screen for regulators of protein stability. Based on our findings, we are confident that this efficient and unbiased screening method at the genome scale will be used by researchers worldwide to identify regulators of protein stability.

  6. Matrix gla protein: An extracellular matrix protein regulates myostatin expression in the muscle developmental program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sarafraz; Jan, Arif Tasleem; Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Lee, Eun Ju; Choi, Inho

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal muscle development involves interactions between intracellular and extracellular factors that act in concert to regulate the myogenic process. Matrix gla protein (MGP), a well-known inhibitor of calcification in soft tissues, has been reported to be highly up-regulated during myogenesis. Our interest in the regulation of muscle satellite cells (MSCs) by extracellular matrix (ECM) led us to investigate the effects of MGP during the progression of myogenesis. Participation of MGP in the myogenic process was investigated in vitro using C2C12 cells, and knockdown of its gene was performed to determine its effects on the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and other ECM genes. In addition, interactions between MGP, Fibromodulin (FMOD), and Myostatin (MSTN) were investigated by conducting co-immunoprecipitation and in silico studies. Matrix gla protein knockdown (MGPkd) shows pronounced effects during myogenesis as evidenced by the down regulation of myogenic marker (MYOG and MYOD), and ECM (COL1α1 and FMOD) genes. Down-regulation of MSTN expression in MGPkd cells suggests its role in coordinating the regulation of MSTN expression. Having strong affinity for ACVRIIB receptor, in silico data confirms MGP interference in the interaction of MSTN with ACVRIIB. These findings show MGP inhibits MSTN functionally by disrupting its binding to receptor. The present study provides insights of an ECM protein that participates in the regulation of the myogenic program by inhibiting the activity of the myogenic negative regulator MSTN, which suggests that MGP might be used for designing novel inhibitors that can promote muscle regeneration or treat muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Solid-Phase Bioconjugation of Heterobifunctional Adaptors for Versatile Assembly of Bispecific Targeting Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput generation of bispecific molecules promises to expedite the discovery of new molecular therapeutics and guide engineering of novel multifunctional constructs. However, high synthesis complexity and cost have hampered the discovery of bispecific molecules in drug development and biomedical research. Herein we describe a simple solid-phase bioconjugation procedure for preparation of Protein A(G,L)-PEG-Streptavidin heterobifunctional adaptors (with 1:1:1 stoichiometry), which enable self-assembly of unmodified antibodies and biotinylated molecules into bispecific targeting ligands in a versatile mix-and-use manner. Utility of such adaptors is demonstrated by assembly of anti-CD3 and anti-Her2 antibodies into bispecific CD3xHer2 targeting ligands, which efficiently drive T-cell-mediated lysis of Her2-positive cancer cells. In comparison to bioconjugation in solution, the solid-phase procedure described here offers precise stoichiometry control, ease of purification, and high yield of functional conjugates. Simplicity and versatility should prove this methodology instrumental for preparation of bispecific ligands, as well as for high-throughput screening of bispecific combinations, before proceeding to synthesis of lead candidates via recombinant engineering or chemical cross-linking. PMID:25010411

  8. Studying allosteric regulation in metal sensor proteins using computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Dhruva K; Merz, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe advances made in understanding the mechanism of allosteric regulation of DNA operator binding in the ArsR/SmtB family of metal-sensing proteins using computational methods. The paradigm, zinc-sensing transcriptional repressor Staphylococcus aureus CzrA represents an excellent model system to understand how metal sensor proteins maintain cellular metal homeostasis. Here, we discuss studies that helped to characterize a metal ion-mediated hydrogen-bonding pathway (HBP) that plays a dominant role in the allosteric mechanism of DNA operator binding in these proteins. The chapter discusses computational methods used to provide a molecular basis for the large conformational motions and allosteric coupling free energy (~6kcal/mol) associated with Zn(II) binding in CzrA. We present an accurate and convenient means by which to include metal ions in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure determination process using molecular dynamics (MD) constrained by NMR-derived data. The method provides a realistic and physically viable description of the metal-binding site(s) and has potentially broad applicability in the structure determination of metal ion-bound proteins, protein folding, and metal template protein-design studies. Finally, our simulations provide strong support for a proposed HBP that physically connects the metal-binding residue, His97, to the DNA-binding interface through the αR helix that is present only in the Zn(II)-bound state. We find the interprotomer hydrogen bond interaction to be significantly stronger (~8kcal/mol) at functional allosteric metal-binding sites compared to the apo proteins. This interaction works to overcome the considerable disorder at these hydrogen-bonding sites in apo protein and functions as a "switch" to lock in a weak DNA-binding conformation once metal is bound. This interaction is found to be considerably weaker in nonresponsive metal-binding sites. These findings suggest a conserved functional

  9. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight junction proteins in prostate biospecimens from mouse models and a clinical study of chemical castration, using transcript profiling, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We determined that low serum testosterone is associated with reduced transcript and protein levels of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8, resulting in defective tight junction ultrastructure in benign prostate glands. Expression of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8 was negatively correlated with the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate caused by testosterone deprivation. Testosterone suppression also induced an auto-immune humoral response directed toward prostatic proteins. Testosterone supplementation in castrate mice resulted in re-expression of tight junction components in prostate epithelium and significantly reduced prostate inflammatory cell numbers. These data demonstrate that tight junction architecture in the prostate is related to changes in serum testosterone levels, and identify an androgen-regulated mechanism that potentially contributes to the development of prostate inflammation and consequent pathology. PMID:21761342

  10. Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 and Its Regulatory Protein Inhibitor 2 Negatively Regulate ABA Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xie, Shaojun; Batelli, Giorgia; Wang, Bangshing; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Xing, Lu; Lei, Mingguang; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The core ABA signaling pathway consists of three major components: ABA receptor (PYR1/PYLs), type 2C Protein Phosphatase (PP2C) and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2). Nevertheless, the complexity of ABA signaling remains to be explored. To uncover new components of ABA signal transduction pathways, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen for SnRK2-interacting proteins. We found that Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 (TOPP1) and its regulatory protein, At Inhibitor-2 (AtI-2), physically interact with SnRK2s and also with PYLs. TOPP1 inhibited the kinase activity of SnRK2.6, and this inhibition could be enhanced by AtI-2. Transactivation assays showed that TOPP1 and AtI-2 negatively regulated the SnRK2.2/3/6-mediated activation of the ABA responsive reporter gene RD29B, supporting a negative role of TOPP1 and AtI-2 in ABA signaling. Consistent with these findings, topp1 and ati-2 mutant plants displayed hypersensitivities to ABA and salt treatments, and transcriptome analysis of TOPP1 and AtI-2 knockout plants revealed an increased expression of multiple ABA-responsive genes in the mutants. Taken together, our results uncover TOPP1 and AtI-2 as negative regulators of ABA signaling. PMID:26943172

  11. Protein kinase D regulates cell death pathways in experimental pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhen eYuan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and acinar cell necrosis are two major pathological responses of acute pancreatitis, a serious disorder with no current therapies directed to its molecular pathogenesis. Serine/threonine protein kinase D family, which includes PKD/PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3, has been increasingly implicated in the regulation of multiple physiological and pathophysiological effects. We recently reported that PKD/PKD1, the predominant PKD isoform expressed in rat pancreatic acinar cells, mediates early events of pancreatitis including NF-kappaB activation and inappropriate intracellular digestive enzyme activation. In current studies, we investigated the role and mechanisms of PKD/PKD1 in the regulation of necrosis in pancreatic acinar cells by using two novel small molecule PKD inhibitors CID755673 and CRT0066101 and molecular approaches in in vitro and in vivo experimental models of acute pancreatitis. Our results demonstrated that both CID755673 and CRT0066101 are PKD-specific inhibitors and that PKD/PKD1 inhibition by either the chemical inhibitors or specific PKD/PKD1 siRNAs attenuated necrosis while promoting apoptosis induced by pathological doses of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK in pancreatic acinar cells. Conversely, upregulation of PKD expression in pancreatic acinar cells increased necrosis and decreased apoptosis. We further showed that PKD/PKD1 regulated several key cell death signals including inhibitors of apoptotic proteins (IAPs, caspases, receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1 to promote necrosis. PKD/PKD1 inhibition by CID755673 significantly ameliorated necrosis and severity of pancreatitis in an in vivo experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Thus, our studies indicate that PKD/PKD1 is a key mediator of necrosis in acute pancreatitis and that PKD/PKD1 may represent a potential therapeutic target in acute pancreatitis.

  12. Regulation of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism by Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Won; Wei, Jie; Cohen, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, a.k.a. StARD2) binds phosphatidylcholines and catalyzes their intermembrane transfer and exchange in vitro. The structure of PC-TP comprises a hydrophobic pocket and a well-defined head-group binding site, and its gene expression is regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α. Recent studies have revealed key regulatory roles for PC-TP in lipid and glucose metabolism. Notably, Pctp−/− mice are sensitized to insulin action and exhibit more efficient brown fat-mediated thermogenesis. PC-TP appears to limit access of fatty acids to mitochondria by stimulating the activity of thioesterase superfamily member 2, a newly characterized long-chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase. Because PC-TP discriminates among phosphatidylcholines within lipid bilayers, it may function as a sensor that links metabolic regulation to membrane composition. PMID:20338778

  13. Myocardin-related transcription factor regulates Nox4 protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam

    2016-01-01

    translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application......TGFβ-induced expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is essential for fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. Rho has been implicated in Nox4 regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a Rho/actin polymerization-controlled coactivator...... of serum response factor, drives myofibroblast transition from various precursors. We have shown that TGFβ is necessary but insufficient for epithelial-myofibroblast transition in intact epithelia; the other prerequisite is the uncoupling of intercellular contacts, which induces Rho-dependent nuclear...

  14. Cathepsins B and L differentially regulate amyloid precursor protein processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Donna M; Felsenstein, Kevin M; Brenneman, Douglas E

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that cathepsins control amyloid beta (Abeta) levels in chromaffin cells via a regulated secretory pathway. In the present study, this concept was extended to investigations in primary hippocampal neurons to test whether Abeta release was coregulated by cathepsins and electrical activity, proposed components of a regulated secretory pathway. Inhibition of cathepsin B (catB) activity with CA074Me or attenuation of catB expression through small interfering RNA produced decreases in Abeta release, similar to levels produced with suppression of beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression. To test whether the catB-dependent release of Abeta was linked to ongoing electrical activity, neurons were treated with tetrodotoxin (TTX) and CA074Me. These comparisons demonstrated no additivity between decreases in Abeta release produced by TTX and CA074Me. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin L (catL) selectively elevated Abeta42 levels but not Abeta40 or total Abeta. Mechanistic studies measuring C-terminal fragments of amyloid precursor protein (APP) suggested that catL elevated alpha-secretase activity, thereby suppressing Abeta42 levels. The mechanism of catB-mediated regulation of Abeta release remains unclear but may involve elevation of beta-secretase. In summary, these studies provide evidence for a significant alternative pathway for APP processing that involves catB and activity-dependent release of Abeta in a regulated secretory pathway for primary neurons.

  15. DMPD: Post-transcriptional regulation of proinflammatory proteins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15075353 Post-transcriptional regulation of proinflammatory proteins. Anderson P, P...l) (.csml) Show Post-transcriptional regulation of proinflammatory proteins. PubmedID 15075353 Title Post-tr...anscriptional regulation of proinflammatory proteins. Authors Anderson P, Phillip

  16. Function and regulation of plant major intrinsic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, Milan

    Arsenic is a metalloid that is toxic to living organisms. The use of arsenic-contaminated ground water for drinking and for irrigation in agriculture presents serious health problems for millions of people in many parts of the world. Arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)), the two most widespread...... detoxification. Plant Noduline 26-like Intrinsic Proteins (NIPs) can channel As(III) and consequently influence the detoxification process. The role of the Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIPs) in As(III) detoxification remains to be clarified, yet TIPs could have an impact on As(III) accumulation in plant cell...... vacuoles. In this study using Arabidopsis, the role of TIP subfamily in arsenic transport was examined together with the role of N-terminus in regulation of AtNIP5;1, which has previously been shown to transport As(III) in a yeast expression system. The results showed that AtTIP4;1 functions...

  17. FAD Regulates CRYPTOCHROME Protein Stability and Circadian Clock in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Arisa; Braas, Daniel; Fu, Ying-Hui; Ptáček, Louis J

    2017-04-11

    The circadian clock generates biological rhythms of metabolic and physiological processes, including the sleep-wake cycle. We previously identified a missense mutation in the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding pocket of CRYPTOCHROME2 (CRY2), a clock protein that causes human advanced sleep phase. This prompted us to examine the role of FAD as a mediator of the clock and metabolism. FAD stabilized CRY proteins, leading to increased protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of Riboflavin kinase (Rfk), an FAD biosynthetic enzyme, enhanced CRY degradation. RFK protein levels and FAD concentrations oscillate in the nucleus, suggesting that they are subject to circadian control. Knockdown of Rfk combined with a riboflavin-deficient diet altered the CRY levels in mouse liver and the expression profiles of clock and clock-controlled genes (especially those related to metabolism including glucose homeostasis). We conclude that light-independent mechanisms of FAD regulate CRY and contribute to proper circadian oscillation of metabolic genes in mammals. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. FAD Regulates CRYPTOCHROME Protein Stability and Circadian Clock in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arisa Hirano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock generates biological rhythms of metabolic and physiological processes, including the sleep-wake cycle. We previously identified a missense mutation in the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD binding pocket of CRYPTOCHROME2 (CRY2, a clock protein that causes human advanced sleep phase. This prompted us to examine the role of FAD as a mediator of the clock and metabolism. FAD stabilized CRY proteins, leading to increased protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of Riboflavin kinase (Rfk, an FAD biosynthetic enzyme, enhanced CRY degradation. RFK protein levels and FAD concentrations oscillate in the nucleus, suggesting that they are subject to circadian control. Knockdown of Rfk combined with a riboflavin-deficient diet altered the CRY levels in mouse liver and the expression profiles of clock and clock-controlled genes (especially those related to metabolism including glucose homeostasis. We conclude that light-independent mechanisms of FAD regulate CRY and contribute to proper circadian oscillation of metabolic genes in mammals.

  19. Regulation of Sirtuin-Mediated Protein Deacetylation by Cardioprotective Phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niria Treviño-Saldaña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of posttranslational modifications (PTMs, such as protein acetylation, is considered a novel therapeutic strategy to combat the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Protein hyperacetylation is associated with the development of numerous cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. In addition, decreased expression and activity of the deacetylases Sirt1, Sirt3, and Sirt6 have been linked to the development and progression of cardiac dysfunction. Several phytochemicals exert cardioprotective effects by regulating protein acetylation levels. These effects are mainly exerted via activation of Sirt1 and Sirt3 and inhibition of acetyltransferases. Numerous studies support a cardioprotective role for sirtuin activators (e.g., resveratrol, as well as other emerging modulators of protein acetylation, including curcumin, honokiol, oroxilyn A, quercetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, bakuchiol, tyrosol, and berberine. Studies also point to a cardioprotective role for various nonaromatic molecules, such as docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-lipoic acid, sulforaphane, and caffeic acid ethanolamide. Here, we review the vast evidence from the bench to the clinical setting for the potential cardioprotective roles of various phytochemicals in the modulation of sirtuin-mediated deacetylation.

  20. Transcriptional regulation by protein kinase A in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanggan Hu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A defect in the PKA1 gene encoding the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA is known to reduce capsule size and attenuate virulence in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Conversely, loss of the PKA regulatory subunit encoded by pkr1 results in overproduction of capsule and hypervirulence. We compared the transcriptomes between the pka1 and pkr1 mutants and a wild-type strain, and found that PKA influences transcript levels for genes involved in cell wall synthesis, transport functions such as iron uptake, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and glycolysis. Among the myriad of transcriptional changes in the mutants, we also identified differential expression of ribosomal protein genes, genes encoding stress and chaperone functions, and genes for secretory pathway components and phospholipid synthesis. The transcriptional influence of PKA on these functions was reminiscent of the linkage between transcription, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and the unfolded protein response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Functional analyses confirmed that the PKA mutants have a differential response to temperature stress, caffeine, and lithium, and that secretion inhibitors block capsule production. Importantly, we also found that lithium treatment limits capsule size, thus reinforcing potential connections between this virulence trait and inositol and phospholipid metabolism. In addition, deletion of a PKA-regulated gene, OVA1, revealed an epistatic relationship with pka1 in the control of capsule size and melanin formation. OVA1 encodes a putative phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein that appears to negatively influence capsule production and melanin accumulation. Overall, these findings support a role for PKA in regulating the delivery of virulence factors such as the capsular polysaccharide to the cell surface and serve to highlight the importance of secretion and phospholipid metabolism as potential

  1. A Dictyostelium chalone uses G proteins to regulate proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakthavatsalam, Deenadayalan; Choe, Jonathan M; Hanson, Nana E; Gomer, Richard H

    2009-07-27

    Several studies have shown that organ size, and the proliferation of tumor metastases, may be regulated by negative feedback loops in which autocrine secreted factors called chalones inhibit proliferation. However, very little is known about chalones, and how cells sense them. We previously identified two secreted proteins, AprA and CfaD, which act as chalones in Dictyostelium. Cells lacking AprA or CfaD proliferate faster than wild-type cells, and adding recombinant AprA or CfaD to cells slows their proliferation. We show here that cells lacking the G protein components Galpha8, Galpha9, and Gbeta proliferate faster than wild-type cells despite secreting normal or high levels of AprA and CfaD. Compared with wild-type cells, the proliferation of galpha8-, galpha9- and gbeta- cells are only weakly inhibited by recombinant AprA (rAprA). Like AprA and CfaD, Galpha8 and Gbeta inhibit cell proliferation but not cell growth (the rate of increase in mass and protein per nucleus), whereas Galpha9 inhibits both proliferation and growth. galpha8- cells show normal cell-surface binding of rAprA, whereas galpha9- and gbeta- cells have fewer cell-surface rAprA binding sites, suggesting that Galpha9 and Gbeta regulate the synthesis or processing of the AprA receptor. Like other ligands that activate G proteins, rAprA induces the binding of [3H]GTP to membranes, and GTPgammaS inhibits the binding of rAprA to membranes. Both AprA-induced [3H]GTP binding and the GTPgammaS inhibition of rAprA binding require Galpha8 and Gbeta but not Galpha9. Like aprA- cells, galpha8- cells have reduced spore viability. This study shows that Galpha8 and Gbeta are part of the signal transduction pathway used by AprA to inhibit proliferation but not growth in Dictyostelium, whereas Galpha9 is part of a differealnt pathway that regulates both proliferation and growth, and that a chalone signal transduction pathway uses G proteins.

  2. A Dictyostelium chalone uses G proteins to regulate proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Nana E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that organ size, and the proliferation of tumor metastases, may be regulated by negative feedback loops in which autocrine secreted factors called chalones inhibit proliferation. However, very little is known about chalones, and how cells sense them. We previously identified two secreted proteins, AprA and CfaD, which act as chalones in Dictyostelium. Cells lacking AprA or CfaD proliferate faster than wild-type cells, and adding recombinant AprA or CfaD to cells slows their proliferation. Results We show here that cells lacking the G protein components Galpha8, Galpha9, and Gbeta proliferate faster than wild-type cells despite secreting normal or high levels of AprA and CfaD. Compared with wild-type cells, the proliferation of galpha8-, galpha9- and gbeta- cells are only weakly inhibited by recombinant AprA (rAprA. Like AprA and CfaD, Galpha8 and Gbeta inhibit cell proliferation but not cell growth (the rate of increase in mass and protein per nucleus, whereas Galpha9 inhibits both proliferation and growth. galpha8- cells show normal cell-surface binding of rAprA, whereas galpha9- and gbeta- cells have fewer cell-surface rAprA binding sites, suggesting that Galpha9 and Gbeta regulate the synthesis or processing of the AprA receptor. Like other ligands that activate G proteins, rAprA induces the binding of [3H]GTP to membranes, and GTPgammaS inhibits the binding of rAprA to membranes. Both AprA-induced [3H]GTP binding and the GTPgammaS inhibition of rAprA binding require Galpha8 and Gbeta but not Galpha9. Like aprA- cells, galpha8- cells have reduced spore viability. Conclusion This study shows that Galpha8 and Gbeta are part of the signal transduction pathway used by AprA to inhibit proliferation but not growth in Dictyostelium, whereas Galpha9 is part of a differealnt pathway that regulates both proliferation and growth, and that a chalone signal transduction pathway uses G proteins.

  3. PREFACE: Physics approaches to protein interactions and gene regulation Physics approaches to protein interactions and gene regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Panchenko, Anna R.; Przytycka, Teresa

    2011-06-01

    networks have been identified, including scale free distribution of the vertex degree, network motifs, and modularity, to name a few. These studies of network organization require the network to be as complete as possible, which given the limitations of experimental techniques is not currently the case. Therefore, experimental procedures for detecting biomolecular interactions should be complemented by computational approaches. The paper by Lees et al provides a review of computational methods, integrating multiple independent sources of data to infer physical and functional protein-protein interaction networks. One of the important aspects of protein interactions that should be accounted for in the prediction of protein interaction networks is that many proteins are composed of distinct domains. Protein domains may mediate protein interactions while proteins and their interaction networks may gain complexity through gene duplication and expansion of existing domain architectures via domain rearrangements. The latter mechanisms have been explored in detail in the paper by Cohen-Gihon et al. Protein-protein interactions are not the only component of the cell's interactome. Regulation of cell activity can be achieved at the level of transcription and involve a transcription factor—DNA binding which typically requires recognition of a specific DNA sequence motif. Chip-Chip and the more recent Chip-Seq technologies allow in vivo identification of DNA binding sites and, together with novel in vitro approaches, provide data necessary for deciphering the corresponding binding motifs. Such information, complemented by structures of protein-DNA complexes and knowledge of the differences in binding sites among homologs, opens the door to constructing predictive binding models. The paper by Persikov and Singh provides an example of such a model in the Cys2His2 zinc finger family. Recent studies have indicated that the presence of such binding motifs is, however, neither necessary

  4. Multifactorial Regulation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohan; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2017-01-01

    Endocytosis is a process by which cells absorb extracellular materials via the inward budding of vesicles formed from the plasma membrane. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a highly selective process where receptors with specific binding sites for extracellular molecules internalize via vesicles. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest single family of plasma-membrane receptors with more than 1000 family members. But the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of GPCRs are believed to be highly conserved. For example, receptor phosphorylation in collaboration with β-arrestins plays major roles in desensitization and endocytosis of most GPCRs. Nevertheless, a number of subsequent studies showed that GPCR regulation, such as that by endocytosis, occurs through various pathways with a multitude of cellular components and processes. This review focused on i) functional interactions between homologous and heterologous pathways, ii) methodologies applied for determining receptor endocytosis, iii) experimental tools to determine specific endocytic routes, iv) roles of small guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins in GPCR endocytosis, and v) role of post-translational modification of the receptors in endocytosis. PMID:28035080

  5. Regulation of the autophagy protein LC3 by phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherra, Salvatore J.; Kulich, Scott M.; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Mountzouris, John; Day, Billy W.

    2010-01-01

    Macroautophagy is a major catabolic pathway that impacts cell survival, differentiation, tumorigenesis, and neurodegeneration. Although bulk degradation sustains carbon sources during starvation, autophagy contributes to shrinkage of differentiated neuronal processes. Identification of autophagy-related genes has spurred rapid advances in understanding the recruitment of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in autophagy induction, although braking mechanisms remain less understood. Using mass spectrometry, we identified a direct protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site on LC3 that regulates its participation in autophagy. Both metabolic (rapamycin) and pathological (MPP+) inducers of autophagy caused dephosphorylation of endogenous LC3. The pseudophosphorylated LC3 mutant showed reduced recruitment to autophagosomes, whereas the nonphosphorylatable mutant exhibited enhanced puncta formation. Finally, autophagy-dependent neurite shortening induced by expression of a Parkinson disease–associated G2019S mutation in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 was inhibited by dibutyryl–cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cytoplasmic expression of the PKA catalytic subunit, or the LC3 phosphorylation mimic. These data demonstrate a role for phosphorylation in regulating LC3 activity. PMID:20713600

  6. Regulation of Exocytotic Fusion Pores by SNARE Protein Transmembrane Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyong Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-triggered exocytotic release of neurotransmitters and hormones from neurons and neuroendocrine cells underlies neuronal communication, motor activity and endocrine functions. The core of the neuronal exocytotic machinery is composed of soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs. Formation of complexes between vesicle-attached v- and plasma-membrane anchored t-SNAREs in a highly regulated fashion brings the membranes into close apposition. Small, soluble proteins called Complexins (Cpx and calcium-sensing Synaptotagmins cooperate to block fusion at low resting calcium concentrations, but trigger release upon calcium increase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the transmembrane domains (TMDs of SNARE proteins play important roles in regulating the processes of fusion and release, but the mechanisms involved are only starting to be uncovered. Here we review recent evidence that SNARE TMDs exert influence by regulating the dynamics of the fusion pore, the initial aqueous connection between the vesicular lumen and the extracellular space. Even after the fusion pore is established, hormone release by neuroendocrine cells is tightly controlled, and the same may be true of neurotransmitter release by neurons. The dynamics of the fusion pore can regulate the kinetics of cargo release and the net amount released, and can determine the mode of vesicle recycling. Manipulations of SNARE TMDs were found to affect fusion pore properties profoundly, both during exocytosis and in biochemical reconstitutions. To explain these effects, TMD flexibility, and interactions among TMDs or between TMDs and lipids have been invoked. Exocytosis has provided the best setting in which to unravel the underlying mechanisms, being unique among membrane fusion reactions in that single fusion pores can be probed using high-resolution methods. An important role will likely be played by methods that can probe single fusion pores

  7. Regulation of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling by NDPK/NME proteins and caveolins: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, Issam H; Heijman, Jordi; Feng, Yuxi; Vettel, Christiane; Dobrev, Dobromir; Wieland, Thomas

    2017-10-16

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are pivotal mediators of cellular signal transduction in eukaryotic cells and abnormal G-protein signaling plays an important role in numerous diseases. During the last two decades it has become evident that the activation status of heterotrimeric G proteins is both highly localized and strongly regulated by a number of factors, including a receptor-independent activation pathway of heterotrimeric G proteins that does not involve the classical GDP/GTP exchange and relies on nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs). NDPKs are NTP/NDP transphosphorylases encoded by the nme/nm23 genes that are involved in a variety of cellular events such as proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. They therefore contribute, for example, to tumor metastasis, angiogenesis, retinopathy, and heart failure. Interestingly, NDPKs are translocated and/or upregulated in human heart failure. Here we describe recent advances in the current understanding of NDPK functions and how they have an impact on local regulation of G-protein signaling.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 16 October 2017; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2017.103.

  8. The regulation of protein content and quality in national and international food standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Janine L

    2012-08-01

    Food regulation aims to protect public health through a safe and nutritious food supply produced by a compliant food industry. Food standards of developed countries generally do not regulate protein content or protein quality because the risk of dietary protein inadequacy in their national populations is very low. Protein is nevertheless regulated for reasons of product quality or protein labelling or to minimise assessed health risks associated with consumption of certain animal- and vegetable-protein foods; analogue products that extend or simulate commonly available animal-protein foods; and special purpose foods such as infant formula and foods, supplementary and medical foods, and foods for weight loss. The extent and approach to protein regulation varies greatly among jurisdictions but where it occurs, it is applied through minimum and sometimes maximum limits on protein content or quality measures or both using an inter-related approach. Protein quality measures range from amino acid profiles and digestibility corrected scores to protein rating, a rat bioassay and reference proteins not further described. Regulatory methods for protein quality determination are referenced to the published scientific literature or developed nationally. Internationally, the Codex Alimentarius regulates the protein content and quality of some foods. The Codex approach varies according to the food but is similar to the approaches used in national and regional food regulation. This paper provides a comparison of the regulation of protein in foods using examples from the food regulations of Australia New Zealand, Canada, the European Union, the United States of America and the Codex Alimentarius.

  9. Protein kinase C signaling and cell cycle regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Adrian R.; Black, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    A link between T cell proliferation and the protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases has been recognized for about 30 years. However, despite the wealth of information on PKC-mediated control of, T cell activation, understanding of the effects of PKCs on the cell cycle machinery in this cell type remains limited. Studies in other systems have revealed important cell cycle-specific effects of PKC signaling that can either positively or negatively impact proliferation. The outcome of PKC activation is highly context-dependent, with the precise cell cycle target(s) and overall effects determined by the specific isozyme involved, the timing of PKC activation, the cell type, and the signaling environment. Although PKCs can regulate all stages of the cell cycle, they appear to predominantly affect G0/G1 and G2. PKCs can modulate multiple cell cycle regulatory molecules, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks), cdk inhibitors and cdc25 phosphatases; however, evidence points to Cip/Kip cdk inhibitors and D-type cyclins as key mediators of PKC-regulated cell cycle-specific effects. Several PKC isozymes can target Cip/Kip proteins to control G0/G1 → S and/or G2 → M transit, while effects on D-type cyclins regulate entry into and progression through G1. Analysis of PKC signaling in T cells has largely focused on its roles in T cell activation; thus, observed cell cycle effects are mainly positive. A prominent role is emerging for PKCθ, with non-redundant functions of other isozymes also described. Additional evidence points to PKCδ as a negative regulator of the cell cycle in these cells. As in other cell types, context-dependent effects of individual isozymes have been noted in T cells, and Cip/Kip cdk inhibitors and D-type cyclins appear to be major PKC targets. Future studies are anticipated to take advantage of the similarities between these various systems to enhance understanding of PKC-mediated cell cycle regulation in T cells. PMID

  10. Regulation of G Protein-Coupled Receptors by Ubiquitination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Skieterska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs comprise the largest family of membrane receptors that control many cellular processes and consequently often serve as drug targets. These receptors undergo a strict regulation by mechanisms such as internalization and desensitization, which are strongly influenced by posttranslational modifications. Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification with a broad range of functions that is currently gaining increased appreciation as a regulator of GPCR activity. The role of ubiquitination in directing GPCRs for lysosomal degradation has already been well-established. Furthermore, this modification can also play a role in targeting membrane and endoplasmic reticulum-associated receptors to the proteasome. Most recently, ubiquitination was also shown to be involved in GPCR signaling. In this review, we present current knowledge on the molecular basis of GPCR regulation by ubiquitination, and highlight the importance of E3 ubiquitin ligases, deubiquitinating enzymes and β-arrestins. Finally, we discuss classical and newly-discovered functions of ubiquitination in controlling GPCR activity.

  11. Myeloid-related protein-14 regulates deep vein thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunmei; Gao, Huiyun; Kessinger, Chase W.; Schmaier, Alvin; Jaffer, Farouc A.; Simon, Daniel I.

    2017-01-01

    Using transcriptional profiling of platelets from patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction, we identified myeloid-related protein-14 (MRP-14, also known as S100A9) as an acute myocardial infarction gene and reported that platelet MRP-14 binding to platelet CD36 regulates arterial thrombosis. However, whether MRP-14 plays a role in venous thrombosis is unknown. We subjected WT and Mrp-14–deficient (Mrp-14-/-) mice to experimental models of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) by stasis ligation or partial flow restriction (stenosis) of the inferior vena cava. Thrombus weight in response to stasis ligation or stenosis was reduced significantly in Mrp-14-/- mice compared with WT mice. The adoptive transfer of WT neutrophils or platelets, or the infusion of recombinant MRP-8/14, into Mrp-14-/- mice rescued the venous thrombosis defect in Mrp-14-/- mice, indicating that neutrophil- and platelet-derived MRP-14 directly regulate venous thrombogenesis. Stimulation of neutrophils with MRP-14 induced neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and NETs were reduced in venous thrombi harvested from Mrp-14-/- mice and in Mrp-14-/- neutrophils stimulated with ionomycin. Given prior evidence that MRP-14 also regulates arterial thrombosis, but not hemostasis (i.e., reduced bleeding risk), MRP-14 appears to be a particularly attractive molecular target for treating thrombotic cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism. PMID:28570273

  12. Regulation of Nuclear Localization of Signaling Proteins by Cytokinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieber, J.J.

    2010-05-01

    Cytokinins are a class of mitogenic plant hormones that play an important role in most aspects of plant development, including shoot and root growth, vascular and photomorphogenic development and leaf senescence. A model for cytokinin perception and signaling has emerged that is similar to bacterial two-component phosphorelays. In this model, binding of cytokinin to the extracellular domain of the Arabidopsis histidine kinase (AHKs) receptors induces autophosphorylation within the intracellular histidine-kinase domain. The phosphoryl group is subsequently transferred to cytosolic Arabidopsis histidine phosphotransfer proteins (AHPs), which have been suggested to translocate to the nucleus in response to cytokinin treatment, where they then transfer the phosphoryl group to nuclear-localized response regulators (Type-A and Type-B ARRs). We examined the effects of cytokinin on AHP subcellular localization in Arabidopsis and, contrary to expectations, the AHPs maintained a constant nuclear/cytosolic distribution following cytokinin treatment. Furthermore, mutation of the conserved phosphoacceptor histidine residue of the AHP, as well as disruption of multiple cytokinin signaling elements, did not affect the subcellular localization of the AHP proteins. Finally, we present data indicating that AHPs maintain a nuclear/cytosolic distribution by balancing active transport into and out of the nucleus. Our findings suggest that the current models indicating relocalization of AHP protein into the nucleus in response to cytokinin are incorrect. Rather, AHPs actively maintain a consistent nuclear/cytosolic distribution regardless of the status of the cytokinin response pathway.

  13. leeHom: adaptor trimming and merging for Illumina sequencing reads

    OpenAIRE

    Renaud, G.; Stenzel, U.; Kelso, J.

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of libraries containing molecules shorter than the read length, such as in ancient or forensic applications, may result in the production of reads that include the adaptor, and in paired reads that overlap one another. Challenges for the processing of such reads are the accurate identification of the adaptor sequence and accurate reconstruction of the original sequence most likely to have given rise to the observed read(s). We introduce an algorithm that removes the adaptors an...

  14. Conservation of protein abundance patterns reveals the regulatory architecture of the EGFR-MAPK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, T.; Niepel, M.; McDermott, J. E.; Gao, Y.; Nicora, C. D.; Chrisler, W. B.; Markillie, L. M.; Petyuk, V. A.; Smith, R. D.; Rodland, K. D.; Sorger, P. K.; Qian, W. -J.; Wiley, H. S.

    2016-07-12

    It is not known whether cancer cells generally show quantitative differences in the expression of signaling pathway proteins that could dysregulate signal transduction. To explore this issue, we first defined the primary components of the EGF-MAPK pathway in normal human mammary epithelial cells, identifying 16 core proteins and 10 feedback regulators. We then quantified their absolute abundance across a panel of normal and cancer cell lines. We found that core pathway proteins were expressed at very similar levels across all cell types. In contrast, the EGFR and transcriptionally controlled feedback regulators were expressed at highly variable levels. The absolute abundance of most core pathway proteins was between 50,000- 70,000 copies per cell, but the adaptors SOS1, SOS2, and GAB1 were found at far lower levels (2,000-5,000 per cell). MAPK signaling showed saturation in all cells between 3,000-10,000 occupied EGFR, consistent with the idea that low adaptor levels limit signaling. Our results suggest that the core MAPK pathway is essentially invariant across different cell types, with cell- specific differences in signaling likely due to variable levels of feedback regulators. The low abundance of adaptors relative to the EGFR could be responsible for previous observation of saturable signaling, endocytosis, and high affinity EGFR.

  15. Protein Phosphatase 2A Catalytic Subunit α Plays a MyD88-Dependent, Central Role in the Gene-Specific Regulation of Endotoxin Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available MyD88, the intracellular adaptor of most TLRs, mediates either proinflammatory or immunosuppressive signaling that contributes to chronic inflammation-associated diseases. Although gene-specific chromatin modifications regulate inflammation, the role of MyD88 signaling in establishing such epigenetic landscapes under different inflammatory states remains elusive. Using quantitative proteomics to enumerate the inflammation-phenotypic constituents of the MyD88 interactome, we found that in endotoxin-tolerant macrophages, protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit α (PP2Ac enhances its association with MyD88 and is constitutively activated. Knockdown of PP2Ac prevents suppression of proinflammatory genes and resistance to apoptosis. Through site-specific dephosphorylation, constitutively active PP2Ac disrupts the signal-promoting TLR4-MyD88 complex and broadly suppresses the activities of multiple proinflammatory/proapoptotic pathways as well, shifting proinflammatory MyD88 signaling to a prosurvival mode. Constitutively active PP2Ac translocated with MyD88 into the nuclei of tolerant macrophages establishes the immunosuppressive pattern of chromatin modifications and represses chromatin remodeling to selectively silence proinflammatory genes, coordinating the MyD88-dependent inflammation control at both signaling and epigenetic levels under endotoxin-tolerant conditions.

  16. Leptin and Fasting Regulate Rat Gastric Glucose-Regulated Protein 58

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana B. Bravo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The stomach secretes a wide range of peptides with essential metabolic functions, and thereby plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Disulfide isomerase glucose-regulated protein 58 (GRp58 is a molecular chaperone member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling pathway, which is a marker for human gastric cancer. Since GRp58 seems to be regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pattern shift, we used the 2DE gel methodology and peptide mass fingerprinting-protein identification by means of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We show that gastric mucosa GRp58 is dephosphorylated by fasting, and this effect is blunted when fasted rats are treated with leptin. Furthermore, we assessed the gene expression of GRp58 under different physiological settings known to be associated with energy homeostasis (fasting, leptin treatment and leptin deficiency. We found that intraperitoneal administration of leptin increases whereas leptin deficiency decreases GRp58 mRNA levels. However, GRp58 expression remains unchanged after fasting, indicating that leptin actions on GRp58 are no direct sensitivity to fasting. Dissection of the molecular pathways mediating the interactions between ER stress-related factors and nutrient availability, as well as their target genes, may open a new avenue for the study of obesity and other metabolic disorders.

  17. Munc13 proteins control regulated exocytosis in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodarte, Elsa M; Ramos, Marco A; Davalos, Alfredo J; Moreira, Daniel C; Moreno, David S; Cardenas, Eduardo I; Rodarte, Alejandro I; Petrova, Youlia; Molina, Sofia; Rendon, Luis E; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Breaux, Keegan; Tortoriello, Alejandro; Manllo, John; Gonzalez, Erika A; Tuvim, Michael J; Dickey, Burton F; Burns, Alan R; Heidelberger, Ruth; Adachi, Roberto

    2017-11-15

    Mast cells (MCs) are involved in host defenses against pathogen and inflammation. Stimulated MCs release substances stored in their granules via regulated exocytosis. In other cell types, Munc13 (mammalian homolog of C. elegans uncoordinated gene 13) proteins play essential roles in regulated exocytosis. Here, we found that MCs express Munc13-2 and -4, and studied their roles using global and conditional knockout (KO) mice. In a model of systemic anaphylaxis, we found no difference between WT and Munc13-2 KO mice, but global and MC-specific Munc13-4 KO mice developed less hypothermia. This protection correlated with lower plasma histamine levels and with histological evidence of defective MC degranulation, and not with changes in MC development, distribution, numbers or morphology. In vitro assays revealed that the defective response in Munc13-4-deficient MCs was limited to regulated exocytosis, leaving other MC secretory effector responses intact. Single cell capacitance measurements in MCs from mouse mutants differing in Munc13-4 expression levels in their MCs revealed that as levels of Munc13-4 decrease, the rate of exocytosis declines first, and then the total amount of exocytosis decreases. A requirement for Munc13-2 in MC exocytosis was revealed only in the absence of Munc13-4. Electrophysiology and EM studies uncovered that the number of multigranular compound events (i.e., granule-to-granule homotypic fusion) was severely reduced in the absence of Munc13-4. We conclude that while Munc13-2 plays a minor role, Munc13-4 is essential for regulated exocytosis in MCs, and that this MC effector response is required for a full anaphylactic response. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Keap1-Independent Regulation of Nrf2 Activity by Protein Acetylation and a BET Bromodomain Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalya Chatterjee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian BET proteins comprise a family of bromodomain-containing epigenetic regulators with complex functions in chromatin organization and gene regulation. We identified the sole member of the BET protein family in Drosophila, Fs(1h, as an inhibitor of the stress responsive transcription factor CncC, the fly ortholog of Nrf2. Fs(1h physically interacts with CncC in a manner that requires the function of its bromodomains and the acetylation of CncC. Treatment of cultured Drosophila cells or adult flies with fs(1h RNAi or with the BET protein inhibitor JQ1 de-represses CncC transcriptional activity and engages protective gene expression programs. The mechanism by which Fs(1h inhibits CncC function is distinct from the canonical mechanism that stimulates Nrf2 function by abrogating Keap1-dependent proteasomal degradation. Consistent with the independent modes of CncC regulation by Keap1 and Fs(1h, combinations of drugs that can specifically target these pathways cause a strong synergistic and specific activation of protective CncC- dependent gene expression and boosts oxidative stress resistance. This synergism might be exploitable for the design of combinatorial therapies to target diseases associated with oxidative stress or inflammation.

  19. Arabidopsis protein phosphatase DBP1 nucleates a protein network with a role in regulating plant defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Carrasco

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana DBP1 belongs to the plant-specific family of DNA-binding protein phosphatases. Although recently identified as a novel host factor mediating susceptibility to potyvirus, little is known about DBP1 targets and partners and the molecular mechanisms underlying its function. Analyzing changes in the phosphoproteome of a loss-of-function dbp1 mutant enabled the identification of 14-3-3λ isoform (GRF6, a previously reported DBP1 interactor, and MAP kinase (MAPK MPK11 as components of a small protein network nucleated by DBP1, in which GRF6 stability is modulated by MPK11 through phosphorylation, while DBP1 in turn negatively regulates MPK11 activity. Interestingly, grf6 and mpk11 loss-of-function mutants showed altered response to infection by the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV, and the described molecular mechanism controlling GRF6 stability was recapitulated upon PPV infection. These results not only contribute to a better knowledge of the biology of DBP factors, but also of MAPK signalling in plants, with the identification of GRF6 as a likely MPK11 substrate and of DBP1 as a protein phosphatase regulating MPK11 activity, and unveils the implication of this protein module in the response to PPV infection in Arabidopsis.

  20. Shoc2/Sur8 protein regulates neurite outgrowth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Leon

    Full Text Available The Shoc2 protein has been implicated in the positive regulation of the Ras-ERK pathway by increasing the functional binding interaction between Ras and Raf, leading to increased ERK activity. Here we found that Shoc2 overexpression induced sustained ERK phosphorylation, notably in the case of EGF stimulation, and Shoc2 knockdown inhibited ERK activation. We demonstrate that ectopic overexpression of human Shoc2 in PC12 cells significantly promotes neurite extension in the presence of EGF, a stimulus that induces proliferation rather than differentiation in these cells. Finally, Shoc2 depletion reduces both NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and ERK activation in PC12 cells. Our data indicate that Shoc2 is essential to modulate the Ras-ERK signaling outcome in cell differentiation processes involved in neurite outgrowth.

  1. Prion protein expression regulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miranda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellular prion protein (PRNP is a glycoprotein involved in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. Although the physiological function of PRNP is largely unknown, its key role in prion infection has been extensively documented. This study examines the functionality of PRNP during the course of embryoid body (EB differentiation in mouse Prnp-null (KO and WT embryonic stem cell (ESC lines. The first feature observed was a new population of EBs that only appeared in the KO line after 5 days of differentiation. These EBs were characterized by their expression of several primordial germ cell (PGC markers until Day 13. In a comparative mRNA expression analysis of genes playing an important developmental role during ESC differentiation to EBs, Prnp was found to participate in the transcription of a key pluripotency marker such as Nanog. A clear switching off of this gene on Day 5 was observed in the KO line as opposed to the WT line, in which maximum Prnp and Nanog mRNA levels appeared at this time. Using a specific antibody against PRNP to block PRNP pathways, reduced Nanog expression was confirmed in the WT line. In addition, antibody-mediated inhibition of ITGB5 (integrin αvβ5 in the KO line rescued the low expression of Nanog on Day 5, suggesting the regulation of Nanog transcription by Prnp via this Itgb5. mRNA expression analysis of the PRNP-related proteins PRND (Doppel and SPRN (Shadoo, whose PRNP function is known to be redundant, revealed their incapacity to compensate for the absence of PRNP during early ESC differentiation. Our findings provide strong evidence for a relationship between Prnp and several key pluripotency genes and attribute Prnp a crucial role in regulating self-renewal/differentiation status of ESC, confirming the participation of PRNP during early embryogenesis.

  2. Differential regulation of dentin matrix protein 1 expression during odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongbo; Zhang, Shubin; Xie, Yixia; Pi, Yuli; Feng, Jian Q

    2005-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in mineralized tooth and bone. Both in vitro and in vivo data show that DMP1 is critical for mineralization and tooth morphogenesis (growth and development). In this study, we studied Dmp1 gene regulation. The in vitro transient transfection assay identified two important DNA fragments, the 2.4- and 9.6-kb promoter regions. We next generated and analyzed transgenic mice bearing the beta-galactosidase (lacZ) reporter gene driven by the 2.4- or 9.6-kb promoter with the complete 4-kb intron 1. The 9.6-kb Dmp1-lacZ mice conferred a DMP1 expression pattern in odontoblasts identical to that in the endogenous Dmp1 gene. This is reflected by lacZ expression in Dmp1-lacZ knock-in mice during all stages of odontogenesis. In contrast, the 2.4-kb Dmp1-lacZ mice display activity in odontoblast cells only at the early stage of odontogenesis. Thus, we propose that different transcription factors regulate early or later cis-regulatory domains of the Dmp1 promoter, which gives rise to the unique spatial and temporal expression pattern of Dmp1 gene at different stages of tooth development. 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Fat-specific protein 27 regulates storage of triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, P.; Petrie, J.T.; Rose, P. De

    2008-01-01

    FSP27 (fat-specific protein 27) is a member of the cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector (CIDE) family. Although Cidea and Cideb were initially characterized as activators of apoptosis, recent studies have demonstrated important metabolic roles for these proteins. In th...... decreases with total fat mass but is not associated with measures of insulin resistance (e.g. homeostasis model assessment). Together, these data indicate that FSP27 binds to lipid droplets and regulates their enlargement Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/23....... In this study, we investigated the function of another member of this family, FSP27 (Cidec), in apoptosis and adipocyte metabolism. Although overexpression of FSP27 is sufficient to increase apoptosis of 293T and 3T3-L1 cells, more physiological levels of expression stimulate spontaneous lipid accumulation...... in several cell types without induction of adipocyte genes. Increased triacylglycerol is likely due to decreased beta-oxidation of nonesterified fatty acids. Altered flux of fatty acids into triacylglycerol may be a direct effect of FSP27 function, which is localized to lipid droplets in 293T cells and 3T3-L...

  4. Leucocyte protein Trojan, a possible regulator of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Petar; Syrjänen, Riikka; Uchida, Tatsuya; Vainio, Olli

    2017-02-01

    Trojan is a leucocyte-specific protein, cloned from chicken embryonic thymocyte cDNA library. The molecule is a type I transmembrane protein with an extracellular CCP domain, followed by two FN3 domains. Its cytoplasmic tail is predicted to possess a MAPK docking and a PKA phosphorylation sites. Trojan has been proposed to have an anti-apoptotic role based on its differential expression on developing thymocyte subpopulations. Using a chicken cell line, our in vitro studies showed that upon apoptosis induction, Trojan expression rises dramatically on the surface of surviving cells and gradually decreases towards its normal levels as cells recover. When sorted based on their expression levels of Trojan, cells with high expression appeared less susceptible to apoptotic induction than those bearing no or low levels of Trojan on their surface. The mechanism by which the molecule exerts its function is yet to be discovered. We found that cells overexpressing Trojan from a cDNA plasmid show elevated steady-state levels of intracellular calcium, suggesting the molecule is able to transmit cytoplasmic signals. The mechanistic nature of Trojan-induced signalling is a target of future investigation. In this article, we conducted a series of experiments that suggest Trojan as an anti-apoptotic regulator. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. DELLA proteins regulate arbuscule formation in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, Daniela S; Levy, Julien G; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Pumplin, Nathan; Harrison, Maria J

    2013-12-17

    Most flowering plants are able to form endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this mutualistic association, the fungus colonizes the root cortex and establishes elaborately branched hyphae, called arbuscules, within the cortical cells. Arbuscule development requires the cellular reorganization of both symbionts, and the resulting symbiotic interface functions in nutrient exchange. A plant symbiosis signaling pathway controls the development of the symbiosis. Several components of the pathway have been identified, but transcriptional regulators that control downstream pathways for arbuscule formation are still unknown. Here we show that DELLA proteins, which are repressors of gibberellic acid (GA) signaling and function at the nexus of several signaling pathways, are required for arbuscule formation. Arbuscule formation is severely impaired in a Medicago truncatula Mtdella1/Mtdella2 double mutant; GA treatment of wild-type roots phenocopies the della double mutant, and a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) enables arbuscule formation in the presence of GA. Ectopic expression of della1-Δ18 suggests that DELLA activity in the vascular tissue and endodermis is sufficient to enable arbuscule formation in the inner cortical cells. In addition, expression of della1-Δ18 restores arbuscule formation in the symbiosis signaling pathway mutant cyclops/ipd3, indicating an intersection between DELLA and symbiosis signaling for arbuscule formation. GA signaling also influences arbuscule formation in monocots, and a Green Revolution wheat variety carrying dominant DELLA alleles shows enhanced colonization but a limited growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  6. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskoski, Robert, E-mail: rrj@brimr.org [Blue Ridge Institute for Medical Research, 3754 Brevard Road, Suite 116, Box 19, Horse Shoe, NC 28742 (United States)

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  7. Mammalian Hippo signalling: a kinase network regulated by protein-protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergovich, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The Hippo signal transduction cascade controls cell growth, proliferation, and death, all of which are frequently deregulated in tumour cells. Since initial studies in Drosophila melanogaster were instrumental in defining Hippo signalling, the machinery was named after the central Ste20-like kinase Hippo. Moreover, given that loss of Hippo signalling components Hippo, Warts, and Mats resulted in uncontrolled tissue overgrowth, Hippo signalling was defined as a tumour suppressor cascade. Significantly, all core factors of Hippo signalling have mammalian orthologues that functionally compensate for loss of their counterparts in flies. Furthermore, studies in flies and mammalian cell systems showed that Hippo signalling represents a kinase cascade that is tightly regulated by protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Several Hippo signalling molecules contain SARAH domains that mediate specific PPIs, thereby influencing the activities of MST1/2 kinases, the human Hippo orthologues. Moreover, WW domains are present in several Hippo factors, and these domains also serve as interaction surfaces for regulatory PPIs in Hippo signalling. Finally, the kinase activities of LATS1/2, the human counterparts of Warts, are controlled by binding to hMOB1, the human Mats. Therefore, Hippo signalling is regulated by PPIs on several levels. Here we review our current understanding of how these regulatory PPIs are regulated and contribute to the functionality of Hippo signalling. PMID:22260677

  8. An adaptor for C++ callbacks with C and Fortran libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhove, J.; Vanmechelen, K.

    2013-03-01

    Object-oriented programming using C++ is increasingly being adopted in the development of scientific codes. A recurrent issue in this regard is the interaction of newly developed codes with existing legacy libraries written in C or Fortran. Often, one needs to pass raw function pointers to such libraries' procedures for callback purposes. This is problematic as it conflicts with one of the cornerstones of object-oriented programming: the association of functions and data through objects. Currently ad hoc approaches are used to deal with this issue, but these are error-prone and lack reusability. We present a generic adaptor that is able to wrap any callable C++ entity and provide a raw function pointer that is compatible with C or Fortran library routines. This allows for an object-oriented style of programming, while interfacing with legacy libraries in a straightforward manner. Catalogue identifier: AENU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence /licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 76802 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 915389 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: All. Operating system: All. Classification: 6.5, 4.14. Nature of problem: Object-oriented programming using C++ is increasingly being adopted in the development of scientific codes. A recurrent issue in this regard is the interaction of newly developed codes with existing legacy libraries written in C or Fortran. Often, one needs to pass raw function pointers to such libraries' procedures for callback purposes. This is problematic as it conflicts with one of the cornerstones of object-oriented programming: the association of functions and data through objects. Currently ad hoc approaches are used to deal with this

  9. Quantitative proteomics reveals differential regulation of protein expression in recipient myocardium after trilineage cardiovascular cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying-Hua; Ye, Lei; Cai, Wenxuan; Lee, Yoonkyu; Guner, Huseyin; Lee, Youngsook; Kamp, Timothy J.; Zhang, Jianyi; Ge, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Intramyocardial transplantation of cardiomyocytes (CMs), endothelial cells (ECs), and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has beneficial effects on the post-infarction heart. However, the mechanisms underlying the functional improvements remain undefined. We employed large-scale label-free quantitative proteomics to identify proteins that were differentially regulated following cellular transplantation in a swine model of myocardial infarction (MI). We identified 22 proteins that were significantly up-regulated after trilineage cell transplantation compared to both MI and Sham groups. Among them, 12 proteins, including adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 and tropomodulin-1, are associated with positive regulation of muscular contraction whereas 11 proteins, such as desmoplakin and zyxin, are involved in embryonic and muscular development and regeneration. Moreover, we identified 21 proteins up-regulated and another 21 down-regulated in MI, but reversed after trilineage cell transplantation. Proteins up-regulated after MI but reversed by transplantation are related to fibrosis and apoptosis. Conversely, proteins down-regulated in MI but restored after cell therapy are regulators of protein nitrosylation. Our results show that the functionally beneficial effects of trilineage cell therapy are accompanied by differential regulation of protein expression in the recipient myocardium, which may contribute to the improved cardiac function. PMID:26033914

  10. New ATPase regulators-p97 goes to the PUB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise; Seeger, Michael; Semple, Colin A

    2009-01-01

    The conserved eukaryotic AAA-type ATPase complex, known as p97 or VCP in mammals and Cdc48 in yeast, is involved in a number of cellular pathways, including fusion of homotypic membranes, protein degradation, and activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. Most likely, p97 is directed....... Recently, a small, conserved family of proteins, containing PUB domains, was found to function as p97 adaptors. Intriguingly, their association with p97 is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that they act as a relay between signalling pathways and p97 functions. Here we give an overview...

  11. Proteins in growth regulation during early development. Progress report, 1976--1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, N.W.

    1977-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine mechanisms regulating the synthesis of serum proteins by the yolk-sac and to determine if serum proteins are developmental signals. Synthesis of serum proteins in the yolk-sac and liver was determined at various stages of development and effects of teratogenic agents and genetic mutations on protein synthesis were studied. The regulation of serum protein synthesis was studied in cell cultures and in cell-free protein synthesizing systems derived from the yolk-sac. Studies were also conducted on effects of serum proteins on rat embryos, chick embryos without yolk-sacs, and isolated brains. (HLW)

  12. Diferric transferrin regulates transferrin receptor 2 protein stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martha B; Enns, Caroline A

    2004-12-15

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is a type 2 transmembrane protein expressed in hepatocytes that binds iron-bound transferrin (Tf). Mutations in TfR2 cause one form of hereditary hemochromatosis, a disease in which excessive absorption of dietary iron can lead to liver cirrhosis, diabetes, arthritis, and heart failure. The function of TfR2 in iron homeostasis is unknown. We have studied the regulation of TfR2 in HepG2 cells. Western blot analysis shows that TfR2 increases in a time- and dose-dependent manner after diferric Tf is added to the culture medium. In cells exposed to diferric Tf, the amount of TfR2 returns to control levels within 8 hours after the removal of diferric Tf from the medium. However, TfR2 does not increase when non-Tf-bound iron (FeNTA) or apo Tf is added to the medium. The response to diferric Tf appears to be hepatocyte specific. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis shows that TfR2 mRNA levels do not change in cells exposed to diferric Tf. Rather, the increase in TfR2 is attributed to an increase in the half-life of TfR2 protein in cells exposed to diferric Tf. Our results support a role for TfR2 in monitoring iron levels by sensing changes in the concentration of diferric Tf.

  13. V-1 regulates capping protein activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Goeh; Alexander, Christopher J; Wu, Xufeng S; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Chen, Bi-Chang; Betzig, Eric; Hammer, John A

    2016-10-25

    Capping Protein (CP) plays a central role in the creation of the Arp2/3-generated branched actin networks comprising lamellipodia and pseudopodia by virtue of its ability to cap the actin filament barbed end, which promotes Arp2/3-dependent filament nucleation and optimal branching. The highly conserved protein V-1/Myotrophin binds CP tightly in vitro to render it incapable of binding the barbed end. Here we addressed the physiological significance of this CP antagonist in Dictyostelium, which expresses a V-1 homolog that we show is very similar biochemically to mouse V-1. Consistent with previous studies of CP knockdown, overexpression of V-1 in Dictyostelium reduced the size of pseudopodia and the cortical content of Arp2/3 and induced the formation of filopodia. Importantly, these effects scaled positively with the degree of V-1 overexpression and were not seen with a V-1 mutant that cannot bind CP. V-1 is present in molar excess over CP, suggesting that it suppresses CP activity in the cytoplasm at steady state. Consistently, cells devoid of V-1, like cells overexpressing CP described previously, exhibited a significant decrease in cellular F-actin content. Moreover, V-1-null cells exhibited pronounced defects in macropinocytosis and chemotactic aggregation that were rescued by V-1, but not by the V-1 mutant. Together, these observations demonstrate that V-1 exerts significant influence in vivo on major actin-based processes via its ability to sequester CP. Finally, we present evidence that V-1's ability to sequester CP is regulated by phosphorylation, suggesting that cells may manipulate the level of active CP to tune their "actin phenotype."

  14. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bigeard, Jean

    2014-07-10

    In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is located in the nucleus where it is organized with histone proteins in a higher order structure as chromatin. Chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins contribute to DNA-related processes such as replication and transcription as well as epigenetic regulation. Protein functions are often regulated by PTMs among which phosphorylation is one of the most abundant PTM. Phosphorylation of proteins affects important properties, such as enzyme activity, protein stability, or subcellular localization. We here describe the main specificities of protein phosphorylation in plants and review the current knowledge on phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins. We also outline some future challenges to further elucidate protein phosphorylation and chromatin regulation.

  15. SNARE motif-mediated sorting of synaptobrevin by the endocytic adaptors clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia (CALM) and AP180 at synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Seong Joo; Markovic, Stefan; Puchkov, Dmytro; Mahrenholz, Carsten C; Beceren-Braun, Figen; Maritzen, Tanja; Dernedde, Jens; Volkmer, Rudolf; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Haucke, Volker

    2011-08-16

    Neurotransmission depends on the exo-endocytosis of synaptic vesicles at active zones. Synaptobrevin 2 [also known as vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2)], the most abundant synaptic vesicle protein and a major soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) component, is required for fast calcium-triggered synaptic vesicle fusion. In contrast to the extensive knowledge about the mechanism of SNARE-mediated exocytosis, little is known about the endocytic sorting of synaptobrevin 2. Here we show that synaptobrevin 2 sorting involves determinants within its SNARE motif that are recognized by the ANTH domains of the endocytic adaptors AP180 and clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia (CALM). Depletion of CALM or AP180 causes selective surface accumulation of synaptobrevin 2 but not vGLUT1 at the neuronal surface. Endocytic sorting of synaptobrevin 2 is mediated by direct interaction of the ANTH domain of the related endocytic adaptors CALM and AP180 with the N-terminal half of the SNARE motif centered around M46, as evidenced by NMR spectroscopy analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. Our data unravel a unique mechanism of SNARE motif-dependent endocytic sorting and identify the ANTH domain proteins AP180 and CALM as cargo-specific adaptors for synaptobrevin endocytosis. Defective SNARE endocytosis may also underlie the association of CALM and AP180 with neurodevelopmental and cognitive defects or neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Complex regulation of CREB-binding protein by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2

    KAUST Repository

    Kovács, Krisztián A.

    2015-11-01

    CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional coactivators involved in numerous biological processes that affect cell growth, transformation, differentiation, and development. In this study, we provide evidence of the involvement of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) in the regulation of CBP activity. We show that HIPK2 interacts with and phosphorylates several regions of CBP. We demonstrate that serines 2361, 2363, 2371, 2376, and 2381 are responsible for the HIPK2-induced mobility shift of CBP C-terminal activation domain. Moreover, we show that HIPK2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional activity of CBP. However, our data suggest that HIPK2 activates CBP mainly by counteracting the repressive action of cell cycle regulatory domain 1 (CRD1), located between amino acids 977 and 1076, independently of CBP phosphorylation. Our findings thus highlight a complex regulation of CBP activity by HIPK2, which might be relevant for the control of specific sets of target genes involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  17. The effects of calcium regulation of endosperm reserve protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of steep liquor calcium ion on sorghum endosperm reserve protein mobilization were evaluated using two improved Nigeria sorghum cultivars (ICSV 400 and KSV 8). The key protein modification factors evaluated were free amino nitrogen (FAN), total non protein nitrogen (TNPN) and soluble protein of cold water ...

  18. Identification and Characterization of KCASH2 and KCASH3, 2 Novel Cullin3 Adaptors Suppressing Histone Deacetylase and Hedgehog Activity in Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico De Smaele

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric malignant brain tumor, arising from aberrant cerebellar precursors' development, a process mainly controlled by Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway. Histone deacetylase HDAC1 has been recently shown to modulate Hh signaling, deacetylating its effectors Gli1/2 and enhancing their transcriptional activity. Therefore, HDAC may represent a potential therapeutic target for Hh-dependent tumors, but still little information is available on the physiological mechanisms of HDAC regulation. The putative tumor suppressor RENKCTD11 acts through ubiquitination-dependent degradation of HDAC1, thereby affecting Hh activity and medulloblastoma growth. We identify and characterize here two RENKCTD11 homologues, defining a new family of proteins named KCASH, as “KCTD containing, Cullin3 adaptor, suppressor of Hedgehog.” Indeed, the novel genes (KCASH2KCTD21 and KCASH3KCTD6 share with RENKCTD11 a number of features, such as a BTB domain required for the formation of a Cullin3 ubiquitin ligase complex and HDAC1 ubiquitination and degradation capability, suppressing the acetylation-dependent Hh/Gli signaling. Expression of KCASH2 and -3 is observed in cerebellum, whereas epigenetic silencing and allelic deletion are observed in human medulloblastoma. Rescuing KCASHs expression reduces the Hedgehog-dependent medulloblastoma growth, suggesting that loss of members of this novel family of native HDAC inhibitors is crucial in sustaining Hh pathway-mediated tumorigenesis. Accordingly, they might represent a promising class of endogenous “agents” through which this pathway may be targeted.

  19. MicroRNA-Regulated Protein-Protein Interaction Networks and Their Functions in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Jen Oyang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs, which are small endogenous RNA regulators, have been associated with various types of cancer. Breast cancer is a major health threat for women worldwide. Many miRNAs were reported to be associated with the progression and carcinogenesis of breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to discover novel breast cancer-related miRNAs and to elucidate their functions. First, we identified confident miRNA-target pairs by combining data from miRNA target prediction databases and expression profiles of miRNA and mRNA. Then, miRNA-regulated protein interaction networks (PINs were constructed with confident pairs and known interaction data in the human protein reference database (HPRD. Finally, the functions of miRNA-regulated PINs were elucidated by functional enrichment analysis. From the results, we identified some previously reported breast cancer-related miRNAs and functions of the PINs, e.g., miR-125b, miR-125a, miR-21, and miR-497. Some novel miRNAs without known association to breast cancer were also found, and the putative functions of their PINs were also elucidated. These include miR-139 and miR-383. Furthermore, we validated our results by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis using our miRNA expression profile data, gene expression-based outcome for breast cancer online (GOBO survival analysis, and a literature search. Our results may provide new insights for research in breast cancer-associated miRNAs.

  20. Lentiviral Vpx accessory factor targets VprBP/DCAF1 substrate adaptor for cullin 4 E3 ubiquitin ligase to enable macrophage infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Srivastava

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Vpx is a small virion-associated adaptor protein encoded by viruses of the HIV-2/SIVsm lineage of primate lentiviruses that enables these viruses to transduce monocyte-derived cells. This probably reflects the ability of Vpx to overcome an as yet uncharacterized block to an early event in the virus life cycle in these cells, but the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Using biochemical and proteomic approaches, we have found that Vpx protein of the pathogenic SIVmac 239 strain associates with a ternary protein complex comprising DDB1 and VprBP subunits of Cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligase, and DDA1, which has been implicated in the regulation of E3 catalytic activity, and that Vpx participates in the Cullin 4 E3 complex comprising VprBP. We further demonstrate that the ability of SIVmac as well as HIV-2 Vpx to interact with VprBP and its associated Cullin 4 complex is required for efficient reverse transcription of SIVmac RNA genome in primary macrophages. Strikingly, macrophages in which VprBP levels are depleted by RNA interference resist SIVmac infection. Thus, our observations reveal that Vpx interacts with both catalytic and regulatory components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and demonstrate that these interactions are critical for Vpx ability to enable efficient SIVmac replication in primary macrophages. Furthermore, they identify VprBP/DCAF1 substrate receptor for Cullin 4 E3 ubiquitin ligase and its associated protein complex as immediate downstream effector of Vpx for this function. Together, our findings suggest a model in which Vpx usurps VprBP-associated Cullin 4 ubiquitin ligase to enable efficient reverse transcription and thereby overcome a block to lentivirus replication in monocyte-derived cells, and thus provide novel insights into the underlying molecular mechanism.

  1. The SRC-associated protein CUB Domain-Containing Protein-1 regulates adhesion and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, C H; Poulogiannis, G; Cantley, L C; Soltoff, S P

    2012-02-02

    Multiple SRC-family kinases (SFKs) are commonly activated in carcinoma and appear to have a role in metastasis through incompletely understood mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that CDCP1 (CUB (complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, Bmp1) Domain-Containing Protein-1) is a transmembrane protein and an SRC substrate potentially involved in metastasis. Here we show that increased SFK and CDCP1 tyrosine phosphorylation is, surprisingly, associated with a decrease in FAK phosphorylation. This appears to be true in human tumors as shown by our correlation analysis of a mass spectrometric data set of affinity-purified phosphotyrosine peptides obtained from normal and cancer lung tissue samples. Induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of CDCP1 in cell culture, including by a mAb that binds to its extracellular domain, promoted changes in SFK and FAK tyrosine phosphorylation, as well as in PKC(TM), a protein known to associate with CDCP1, and these changes are accompanied by increases in adhesion and motility. Thus, signaling events that accompany the CDCP1 tyrosine phosphorylation observed in cell lines and human lung tumors may explain how the CDCP1/SFK complex regulates motility and adhesion.

  2. BACE1 protein endocytosis and trafficking are differentially regulated by ubiquitination at lysine 501 and the Di-leucine motif in the carboxyl terminus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eugene L; Biscaro, Barbara; Piazza, Fabrizio; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2012-12-14

    β-Site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is a membrane-tethered member of the aspartyl proteases that has been identified as β-secretase. BACE1 is targeted through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane and then is internalized to endosomes. Sorting of membrane proteins to the endosomes and lysosomes is regulated by the interaction of signals present in their carboxyl-terminal fragment with specific trafficking molecules. The BACE1 carboxyl-terminal fragment contains a di-leucine sorting signal ((495)DDISLL(500)) and a ubiquitination site at Lys-501. Here, we report that lack of ubiquitination at Lys-501 (BACE1K501R) does not affect the rate of endocytosis but produces BACE1 stabilization and accumulation of BACE1 in early and late endosomes/lysosomes as well as at the cell membrane. In contrast, the disruption of the di-leucine motif (BACE1LLAA) greatly impairs BACE1 endocytosis and produces a delayed retrograde transport of BACE1 to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and a delayed delivery of BACE1 to the lysosomes, thus decreasing its degradation. Moreover, the combination of the lack of ubiquitination at Lys-501 and the disruption of the di-leucine motif (BACE1LLAA/KR) produces additive effects on BACE1 stabilization and defective internalization. Finally, BACE1LLAA/KR accumulates in the TGN, while its levels are decreased in EEA1-positive compartments indicating that both ubiquitination at Lys-501 and the di-leucine motif are necessary for the trafficking of BACE1 from the TGN to early endosomes. Our studies have elucidated a differential role for the di-leucine motif and ubiquitination at Lys-501 in BACE1 endocytosis, trafficking, and degradation and suggest the involvement of multiple adaptor molecules.

  3. BACE1 Protein Endocytosis and Trafficking Are Differentially Regulated by Ubiquitination at Lysine 501 and the Di-leucine Motif in the Carboxyl Terminus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eugene L.; Biscaro, Barbara; Piazza, Fabrizio; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2012-01-01

    β-Site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is a membrane-tethered member of the aspartyl proteases that has been identified as β-secretase. BACE1 is targeted through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane and then is internalized to endosomes. Sorting of membrane proteins to the endosomes and lysosomes is regulated by the interaction of signals present in their carboxyl-terminal fragment with specific trafficking molecules. The BACE1 carboxyl-terminal fragment contains a di-leucine sorting signal (495DDISLL500) and a ubiquitination site at Lys-501. Here, we report that lack of ubiquitination at Lys-501 (BACE1K501R) does not affect the rate of endocytosis but produces BACE1 stabilization and accumulation of BACE1 in early and late endosomes/lysosomes as well as at the cell membrane. In contrast, the disruption of the di-leucine motif (BACE1LLAA) greatly impairs BACE1 endocytosis and produces a delayed retrograde transport of BACE1 to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and a delayed delivery of BACE1 to the lysosomes, thus decreasing its degradation. Moreover, the combination of the lack of ubiquitination at Lys-501 and the disruption of the di-leucine motif (BACE1LLAA/KR) produces additive effects on BACE1 stabilization and defective internalization. Finally, BACE1LLAA/KR accumulates in the TGN, while its levels are decreased in EEA1-positive compartments indicating that both ubiquitination at Lys-501 and the di-leucine motif are necessary for the trafficking of BACE1 from the TGN to early endosomes. Our studies have elucidated a differential role for the di-leucine motif and ubiquitination at Lys-501 in BACE1 endocytosis, trafficking, and degradation and suggest the involvement of multiple adaptor molecules. PMID:23109336

  4. Regulated degradation of the HIV-1 Vpu protein through a betaTrCP-independent pathway limits the release of viral particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Estrabaud

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral protein U (Vpu of HIV-1 has two known functions in replication of the virus: degradation of its cellular receptor CD4 and enhancement of viral particle release. Vpu binds CD4 and simultaneously recruits the betaTrCP subunit of the SCF(betaTrCP ubiquitin ligase complex through its constitutively phosphorylated DS52GXXS56 motif. In this process, Vpu was found to escape degradation, while inhibiting the degradation of betaTrCP natural targets such as beta-catenin and IkappaBalpha. We further addressed this Vpu inhibitory function with respect to the degradation of Emi1 and Cdc25A, two betaTrCP substrates involved in cell-cycle progression. In the course of these experiments, we underscored the importance of a novel phosphorylation site in Vpu. We show that, especially in cells arrested in early mitosis, Vpu undergoes phosphorylation of the serine 61 residue, which lies adjacent to the betaTrCP-binding motif. This phosphorylation event triggers Vpu degradation by a betaTrCP-independent process. Mutation of Vpu S61 in the HIV-1 provirus extends the half-life of the protein and significantly increases the release of HIV-1 particles from HeLa cells. However, the S61 determinant of regulated Vpu turnover is highly conserved within HIV-1 isolates. Altogether, our results highlight a mechanism where differential phosphorylation of Vpu determines its fate as an adaptor or as a substrate of distinct ubiquitin ligases. Conservation of the Vpu degradation determinant, despite its negative effect on virion release, argues for a role in overall HIV-1 fitness.

  5. Minireview: Role of Intracellular Scaffolding Proteins in the Regulation of Endocrine G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hormones stimulates and mediates their signal transduction via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The signal is transmitted into the cell due to the association of the GPCRs with heterotrimeric G proteins, which in turn activates an extensive array of signaling pathways to regulate cell physiology. However, GPCRs also function as scaffolds for the recruitment of a variety of cytoplasmic protein-interacting proteins that bind to both the intracellular face and protein interaction motifs encoded by GPCRs. The structural scaffolding of these proteins allows GPCRs to recruit large functional complexes that serve to modulate both G protein-dependent and -independent cellular signaling pathways and modulate GPCR intracellular trafficking. This review focuses on GPCR interacting PSD95-disc large-zona occludens domain containing scaffolds in the regulation of endocrine receptor signaling as well as their potential role as therapeutic targets for the treatment of endocrinopathies. PMID:25942107

  6. ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of All Three Members of the MRN Complex: From Sensor to Adaptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Martin F; Kozlov, Sergei; Gatei, Magtouf; Kijas, Amanda W

    2015-10-23

    The recognition, signalling and repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) involves the participation of a multitude of proteins and post-translational events that ensure maintenance of genome integrity. Amongst the proteins involved are several which when mutated give rise to genetic disorders characterised by chromosomal abnormalities, cancer predisposition, neurodegeneration and other pathologies. ATM (mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and members of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN complex) play key roles in this process. The MRN complex rapidly recognises and locates to DNA DSB where it acts to recruit and assist in ATM activation. ATM, in the company of several other DNA damage response proteins, in turn phosphorylates all three members of the MRN complex to initiate downstream signalling. While ATM has hundreds of substrates, members of the MRN complex play a pivotal role in mediating the downstream signalling events that give rise to cell cycle control, DNA repair and ultimately cell survival or apoptosis. Here we focus on the interplay between ATM and the MRN complex in initiating signaling of breaks and more specifically on the adaptor role of the MRN complex in mediating ATM signalling to downstream substrates to control different cellular processes.

  7. Differential cellular protein expression in continuous porcine alveolar macrophages regulated by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagong, Mingeun; Lee, Changhee

    2010-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a leading cause of significant economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. PRRSV infects preferentially porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and subsequently utilizes the host cell biosynthetic machinery for its own replication. To date, a number of studies have been conducted to investigate compensatory changes of cellular gene expression of PAMs upon PRRSV infection. However, very little information exists about differential cellular protein expression of the natural target cells regulated by each viral protein. This study was therefore designed to examine the dynamics of host protein expression of continuous PAM cells by the PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein that is the most abundant and multifunctional viral component. We first established sublines of PAM cells to stably express the PRRSV N protein and assessed alterations in cellular protein productions of N-expressing PAM (PAM-pCD163-N) cells at different time courses by the use of proteomic analysis. A total of 23 protein spots were initially found to be differentially expressed in PAM-pCD163-N cells compared with normal PAM cells by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Of these spots, 15 protein spots with statistically significant alteration, including 4 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated protein spots, were picked out for subsequent protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting after matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). The altered cellular proteins identified in this study were classified into the functions involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell division, metabolism, inflammation response, stress response, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, protein folding and synthesis, and transportation. Notably, heat shock 27kDa protein (HSP27) was found to be up-regulated in PAM-pCD163-N cells. The proteomics data will provide insights into the specific

  8. Regulation of orange carotenoid protein activity in cyanobacterial photoprotection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurotte, A.; Lopez Igual, R.; Wilson, A.; Comolet, L.; Bourcier de Carbon, C.; Xiao, F.; Kirilovsky, D.

    2015-01-01

    Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria have developed mechanisms to decrease the energy arriving at reaction centers to protect themselves from high irradiance. In cyanobacteria, the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) and the Fluorescence Recovery Protein are essential elements in this mechanism.

  9. Regulation of dynamin family proteins by post-translational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dynamin superfamily proteins comprising classical dynamins and related proteins are membrane remodelling agentsinvolved in several biological processes such as endocytosis, maintenance of organelle morphology and viralresistance. These large GTPases couple GTP hydrolysis with membrane alterations such as ...

  10. Regulation of RCAN1 Protein Activity by Dyrk1A Protein-mediated Phosphorylation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Su; Park, Jung-Hwa; Ryu, Young Shin; Choi, Sun-Hee; Yoon, Song-Hee; Kwen, Mi-Yang; Oh, Ji Youn; Song, Woo-Joo; Chung, Sul-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Two genes on chromosome 21, namely dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) and regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), have been implicated in some of the phenotypic characteristics of Down syndrome, including the early onset of Alzheimer disease. Although a link between Dyrk1A and RCAN1 and the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway has been reported, it remains unclear whether Dyrk1A directly interacts with RCAN1. In the present study, Dyrk1A is shown to directly interact with and phosphorylate RCAN1 at Ser112 and Thr192 residues. Dyrk1A-mediated phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Ser112 primes the protein for the GSK3β-mediated phosphorylation of Ser108. Phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Thr192 by Dyrk1A enhances the ability of RCAN1 to inhibit the phosphatase activity of calcineurin (Caln), leading to reduced NFAT transcriptional activity and enhanced Tau phosphorylation. These effects are mediated by the enhanced binding of RCAN1 to Caln and its extended half-life caused by Dyrk1A-mediated phosphorylation. Furthermore, an increased expression of phospho-Thr192-RCAN1 was observed in the brains of transgenic mice overexpressing the Dyrk1A protein. These results suggest a direct link between Dyrk1A and RCAN1 in the Caln-NFAT signaling and Tau hyperphosphorylation pathways, supporting the notion that the synergistic interaction between the chromosome 21 genes RCAN1 and Dyrk1A is associated with a variety of pathological features associated with DS. PMID:21965663

  11. Regulation of RCAN1 protein activity by Dyrk1A protein-mediated phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Su; Park, Jung-Hwa; Ryu, Young Shin; Choi, Sun-Hee; Yoon, Song-Hee; Kwen, Mi-Yang; Oh, Ji Youn; Song, Woo-Joo; Chung, Sul-Hee

    2011-11-18

    Two genes on chromosome 21, namely dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) and regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), have been implicated in some of the phenotypic characteristics of Down syndrome, including the early onset of Alzheimer disease. Although a link between Dyrk1A and RCAN1 and the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway has been reported, it remains unclear whether Dyrk1A directly interacts with RCAN1. In the present study, Dyrk1A is shown to directly interact with and phosphorylate RCAN1 at Ser(112) and Thr(192) residues. Dyrk1A-mediated phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Ser(112) primes the protein for the GSK3β-mediated phosphorylation of Ser(108). Phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Thr(192) by Dyrk1A enhances the ability of RCAN1 to inhibit the phosphatase activity of calcineurin (Caln), leading to reduced NFAT transcriptional activity and enhanced Tau phosphorylation. These effects are mediated by the enhanced binding of RCAN1 to Caln and its extended half-life caused by Dyrk1A-mediated phosphorylation. Furthermore, an increased expression of phospho-Thr(192)-RCAN1 was observed in the brains of transgenic mice overexpressing the Dyrk1A protein. These results suggest a direct link between Dyrk1A and RCAN1 in the Caln-NFAT signaling and Tau hyperphosphorylation pathways, supporting the notion that the synergistic interaction between the chromosome 21 genes RCAN1 and Dyrk1A is associated with a variety of pathological features associated with DS.

  12. Cellular prion protein expression is not regulated by the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lewis

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of molecular and cellular links between Alzheimer's disease (AD and prion diseases. The cellular prion protein, PrP(C, modulates the post-translational processing of the AD amyloid precursor protein (APP, through its inhibition of the β-secretase BACE1, and oligomers of amyloid-β bind to PrP(C which may mediate amyloid-β neurotoxicity. In addition, the APP intracellular domain (AICD, which acts as a transcriptional regulator, has been reported to control the expression of PrP(C. Through the use of transgenic mice, cell culture models and manipulation of APP expression and processing, this study aimed to clarify the role of AICD in regulating PrP(C. Over-expression of the three major isoforms of human APP (APP(695, APP(751 and APP(770 in cultured neuronal and non-neuronal cells had no effect on the level of endogenous PrP(C. Furthermore, analysis of brain tissue from transgenic mice over-expressing either wild type or familial AD associated mutant human APP revealed unaltered PrP(C levels. Knockdown of endogenous APP expression in cells by siRNA or inhibition of γ-secretase activity also had no effect on PrP(C levels. Overall, we did not detect any significant difference in the expression of PrP(C in any of the cell or animal-based paradigms considered, indicating that the control of cellular PrP(C levels by AICD is not as straightforward as previously suggested.

  13. Study on the isothermal forging process of MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenchen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal forging process is an effective method to manufacture complex-shaped components of hard-to-work materials, such as magnesium alloys. This study investigates the isothermal forging process of an MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor with three branches. The results show that two-step forging process is appropriate to form the adaptor forging, which not only improves the filling quality but also reduces the forging load compared with one-step forging process. Moreover, the flow line is distributed along the contour of the complex-shaped adaptor forging.

  14. DMPD: Signalling adaptors used by Toll-like receptors: an update. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ... ...18706831 Signalling adaptors used by Toll-like receptors: an update. Kenny EF, O'Ne...ill LA. Cytokine. 2008 Sep;43(3):342-9. Epub 2008 Aug 15. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signalling adaptors use...d by Toll-like receptors: an update. PubmedID 18706831 Title Signalling adaptors used by Toll-like r

  15. Retromer Binds the FANSHY Sorting Motif in SorLA to Regulate Amyloid Precursor Protein Sorting and Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjorback, Anja W; Seaman, Matthew; Gustafsen, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    of the retromer complex. Accordingly, we characterized the interaction between the retromer complex and sorLA and determined the role of retromer on sorLA-dependent sorting and processing of APP. Mutations in the VPS26 binding site resulted in receptor redistribution to the endosomal network, similar......sorLA is a sorting receptor for amyloid precursor protein (APP) genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Retromer, an adaptor complex in the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval pathway, has been implicated in APP transport because retromer deficiency leads to aberrant APP sorting and processing...... to the situation seen in cells with VPS26 knockdown. The sorLA mutant retained APP-binding activity but, as opposed to the wild-type receptor, misdirected APP into a distinct non-Golgi compartment, resulting in increased amyloid processing. In conclusion, our data provide a molecular link between reduced retromer...

  16. Orm1 and Orm2 are conserved endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins regulating lipid homeostasis and protein quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sumin; Lone, Museer A.; Schneiter, Roger; CHANG, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Yeast members of the ORMDL family of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins play a central role in lipid homeostasis and protein quality control. In the absence of yeast Orm1 and Orm2, accumulation of long chain base, a sphingolipid precursor, suggests dysregulation of sphingolipid synthesis. Physical interaction between Orm1 and Orm2 and serine palmitoyltransferase, responsible for the first committed step in sphingolipid synthesis, further supports a role for the Orm proteins in regul...

  17. Competitive and cooperative interactions mediate RNA transfer from herpesvirus saimiri ORF57 to the mammalian export adaptor ALYREF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Tunnicliffe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential herpesvirus adaptor protein HVS ORF57, which has homologs in all other herpesviruses, promotes viral mRNA export by utilizing the cellular mRNA export machinery. ORF57 protein specifically recognizes viral mRNA transcripts, and binds to proteins of the cellular transcription-export (TREX complex, in particular ALYREF. This interaction introduces viral mRNA to the NXF1 pathway, subsequently directing it to the nuclear pore for export to the cytoplasm. Here we have used a range of techniques to reveal the sites for direct contact between RNA and ORF57 in the absence and presence of ALYREF. A binding site within ORF57 was characterized which recognizes specific viral mRNA motifs. When ALYREF is present, part of this ORF57 RNA binding site, composed of an α-helix, binds preferentially to ALYREF. This competitively displaces viral RNA from the α-helix, but contact with RNA is still maintained by a flanking region. At the same time, the flexible N-terminal domain of ALYREF comes into contact with the viral RNA, which becomes engaged in an extensive network of synergistic interactions with both ALYREF and ORF57. Transfer of RNA to ALYREF in the ternary complex, and involvement of individual ORF57 residues in RNA recognition, were confirmed by UV cross-linking and mutagenesis. The atomic-resolution structure of the ORF57-ALYREF interface was determined, which noticeably differed from the homologous ICP27-ALYREF structure. Together, the data provides the first site-specific description of how viral mRNA is locked by a herpes viral adaptor protein in complex with cellular ALYREF, giving herpesvirus access to the cellular mRNA export machinery. The NMR strategy used may be more generally applicable to the study of fuzzy protein-protein-RNA complexes which involve flexible polypeptide regions.

  18. Protein implicated in nonsyndromic mental retardation regulates protein kinase A (PKA) activity

    KAUST Repository

    Altawashi, Azza

    2012-02-28

    Mutation of the coiled-coil and C2 domain-containing 1A (CC2D1A) gene, which encodes a C2 domain and DM14 domain-containing protein, has been linked to severe autosomal recessive nonsyndromic mental retardation. Using a mouse model that produces a truncated form of CC2D1A that lacks the C2 domain and three of the four DM14 domains, we show that CC2D1A is important for neuronal differentiation and brain development. CC2D1A mutant neurons are hypersensitive to stress and have a reduced capacitytoformdendritesandsynapsesinculture. Atthebiochemical level,CC2D1Atransduces signals to the cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway during neuronal cell differentiation. PKA activity is compromised, and the translocation of its catalytic subunit to the nucleus is also defective in CC2D1A mutant cells. Consistently, phosphorylation of the PKA target cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, at serine 133, is nearly abolished in CC2D1A mutant cells. The defects in cAMP/PKA signaling were observed in fibroblast, macrophage, and neuronal primary cells derived from the CC2D1A KO mice. CC2D1A associates with the cAMP-PKA complex following forskolin treatment and accumulates in vesicles or on the plasma membrane in wild-type cells, suggesting that CC2D1A may recruit the PKA complex to the membrane to facilitate signal transduction. Together, our data show that CC2D1A is an important regulator of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, which may be the underlying cause for impaired mental function in nonsyndromic mental retardation patients with CC2D1A mutation. 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Regulation of cell adhesion by protein-tyrosine phosphatases: II. Cell-cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Jennifer L; Wittchen, Erika S; Burridge, Keith

    2006-06-16

    Cell-cell adhesion is critical to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. The stability of many adhesions is regulated by protein tyrosine phosphorylation of cell adhesion molecules and their associated components, with high levels of phosphorylation promoting disassembly. The level of tyrosine phosphorylation reflects the balance between protein-tyrosine kinase and protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity. Many protein-tyrosine phosphatases associate with the cadherin-catenin complex, directly regulating the phosphorylation of these proteins, thereby affecting their interactions and the integrity of cell-cell junctions. Tyrosine phosphatases can also affect cell-cell adhesions indirectly by regulating the signaling pathways that control the activities of Rho family G proteins. In addition, receptor-type tyrosine phosphatases can mediate outside-in signaling through both ligand binding and dimerization of their extracellular domains. This review will discuss the role of protein-tyrosine phosphatases in cell-cell interactions, with an emphasis on cadherin-mediated adhesions.

  20. Thioredoxin binding protein (TBP)-2/Txnip and α-arrestin proteins in cancer and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutani, Hiroshi; Yoshihara, Eiji; Masaki, So; Chen, Zhe; Yodoi, Junji

    2012-01-01

    Thioredoxin binding protein −2/ thioredoxin interacting protein is an α-arrestin protein that has attracted much attention as a multifunctional regulator. Thioredoxin binding protein −2 expression is downregulated in tumor cells and the level of thioredoxin binding protein is correlated with clinical stage of cancer. Mice with mutations or knockout of the thioredoxin binding protein −2 gene are much more susceptible to carcinogenesis than wild-type mice, indicating a role for thioredoxin binding protein −2 in cancer suppression. Studies have also revealed roles for thioredoxin binding protein −2 in metabolic control. Enhancement of thioredoxin binding protein −2 expression causes impairment of insulin sensitivity and glucose-induced insulin secretion, and β-cell apoptosis. These changes are important characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thioredoxin binding protein −2 regulates transcription of metabolic regulating genes. Thioredoxin binding protein −2-like inducible membrane protein/ arrestin domain containing 3 regulates endocytosis of receptors such as the β2-adrenergic receptor. The α-arrestin family possesses PPXY motifs and may function as an adaptor/scaffold for NEDD family ubiquitin ligases. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of α-arrestin proteins would provide a new pharmacological basis for developing approaches against cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22247597

  1. Regulation of protein homeostasis in neurodegenerative diseases : the role of coding and non-coding genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarenga Fernandes Sin, Olga; Nollen, Ellen A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Protein homeostasis is fundamental for cell function and survival, because proteins are involved in all aspects of cellular function, ranging from cell metabolism and cell division to the cell's response to environmental challenges. Protein homeostasis is tightly regulated by the synthesis, folding,

  2. The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Bassiri, Hamid; Guan, Peng; Wiener, Susan; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André; Orange, Jordan S; Nichols, Kim E

    2013-04-25

    The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) plays critical roles during invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell ontogeny. As a result, SAP-deficient humans and mice lack iNKT cells. The strict developmental requirement for SAP has made it difficult to discern its possible involvement in mature iNKT cell functions. By using temporal Cre recombinase-mediated gene deletion to ablate SAP expression after completion of iNKT cell development, we demonstrate that SAP is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced iNKT cell cytotoxicity against T-cell and B-cell leukemia targets in vitro and iNKT-cell-mediated control of T-cell leukemia growth in vivo. These findings are not restricted to the murine system: silencing RNA-mediated suppression of SAP expression in human iNKT cells also significantly impairs TCR-induced cytolysis. Mechanistic studies reveal that iNKT cell killing requires the tyrosine kinase Fyn, a known SAP-binding protein. Furthermore, SAP expression is required within iNKT cells to facilitate their interaction with T-cell targets and induce reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center to the immunologic synapse (IS). Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role for SAP during iNKT cell cytotoxicity and formation of a functional IS.

  3. FAD regulates CRYPTOCHROME protein stability and circadian clock in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Arisa Hirano; Daniel Braas; Ying-Hui Fu; Ptáček, Louis J.

    2017-01-01

    The circadian clock generates biological rhythms of metabolic and physiological processes, including the sleep-wake cycle. We previously identified a missense mutation in the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding pocket of CRYPTOCHROME2 (CRY2), a clock protein that causes human advanced sleep phase. This prompted us to examine the role of FAD as a mediator of the clock and metabolism. FAD stabilized CRY proteins, leading to increased protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of Riboflavin ki...

  4. Rationally designed peptide regulators of protein kinase C

    OpenAIRE

    Churchill, Eric N.; Qvit, Nir; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2008-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions sequester enzymes close to their substrates. Protein kinase C (PKC) is one example of a ubiquitous signaling molecule with effects that are dependent upon localization. Short peptides derived from interaction sites between each PKC isozyme and its receptor for activated C kinase act as highly specific inhibitors and have become available as selective drugs in basic research and animal models of human diseases, such as myocardial infarction and hyperglycemia. Where...

  5. Gene regulation in response to protein disulphide isomerase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Per; Tachibana, Christine; Bruun, Anette W

    2003-01-01

    We have examined the activities of promoters of a number of yeast genes encoding resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins, and found increased expression in a strain with severe protein disulphide isomerase deficiency. Serial deletion in the promoter of the MPD1 gene, which encodes a PDI1-homologue...... element. The sequence (GACACG) does not resemble the unfolded protein response element. It is present in the upstream regions of the MPD1, MPD2, KAR2, PDI1 and ERO1 genes....

  6. Basolateral sorting of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor through interaction of a canonical YXXΦ motif with the clathrin adaptors AP-1A and AP-1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Gravotta, Diego; Mattera, Rafael; Diaz, Fernando; Perez Bay, Andres; Roman, Angel C.; Schreiner, Ryan P.; Thuenauer, Roland; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) plays key roles in epithelial barrier function at the tight junction, a localization guided in part by a tyrosine-based basolateral sorting signal, 318YNQV321. Sorting motifs of this type are known to route surface receptors into clathrin-mediated endocytosis through interaction with the medium subunit (μ2) of the clathrin adaptor AP-2, but how they guide new and recycling membrane proteins basolaterally is unknown. Here, we show that YNQV functions as a canonical YxxΦ motif, with both Y318 and V321 required for the correct basolateral localization and biosynthetic sorting of CAR, and for interaction with a highly conserved pocket in the medium subunits (μ1A and μ1B) of the clathrin adaptors AP-1A and AP-1B. Knock-down experiments demonstrate that AP-1A plays a role in the biosynthetic sorting of CAR, complementary to the role of AP-1B in basolateral recycling of this receptor. Our study illustrates how two clathrin adaptors direct basolateral trafficking of a plasma membrane protein through interaction with a canonical YxxΦ motif. PMID:22343291

  7. Regulation of Cellular and Molecular Functions by Protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modification of proteins by phosphorylation is the major general mechanism by which many cellular functions in eukaryotic cells such as cell division, malignant transfor- mation, differentiation, signal transduction etc. are controll- ed by external physiological stimuli. At the molecular level protein ...

  8. Lipid bilayer regulation of membrane protein function: gramicidin channels as molecular force probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbæk, Jens August; Collingwood, S.A.; Ingolfsson, H.I.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane protein function is regulated by the host lipid bilayer composition. This regulation may depend on specific chemical interactions between proteins and individual molecules in the bilayer, as well as on non-specific interactions between proteins and the bilayer behaving as a physical entity...... with collective physical properties (e.g. thickness, intrinsic monolayer curvature or elastic moduli). Studies in physico-chemical model systems have demonstrated that changes in bilayer physical properties can regulate membrane protein function by altering the energetic cost of the bilayer deformation associated...... with a protein conformational change. This type of regulation is well characterized, and its mechanistic elucidation is an interdisciplinary field bordering on physics, chemistry and biology. Changes in lipid composition that alter bilayer physical properties (including cholesterol, polyunsaturated fatty acids...

  9. Expression and Location of Glucose-regulated Protein 78 in Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the role of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/BiP/HSPA5 in spermatogenesis and its expression and location in the testis and epididymis. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect GRP78 location and expression in the testis and epididymis. Results: Glucose-regulated protein 78 was observed in spermatocytes, round spermatids and interstitial cells of the testis and in principal cells of the epididymis. Glucose-regulated protein 78 was first detected in the rat testis at postnatal day 14. Thereafter, the protein level increased gradually with age and was maintained at a high and stable state after postnatal day 28. In the rat, GRP78 was expressed in the principal cells but not in clear cells of the epididymis. Conclusion: Glucose-regulated protein 78 participates in the process of spermatogenesis.

  10. Gα and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein pairs maintain functional compatibility and conserved interaction interfaces throughout evolution despite frequent loss of RGS proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Dieter; McKain, Michael R; Lee, Soon Goo; Roy Choudhury, Swarup; McCann, Tyler; Schreier, Spencer; Harkess, Alex; Pires, J Chris; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Jez, Joseph M; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Pandey, Sona

    2017-10-01

    Signaling pathways regulated by heterotrimeric G-proteins exist in all eukaryotes. The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins are key interactors and critical modulators of the Gα protein of the heterotrimer. However, while G-proteins are widespread in plants, RGS proteins have been reported to be missing from the entire monocot lineage, with two exceptions. A single amino acid substitution-based adaptive coevolution of the Gα:RGS proteins was proposed to enable the loss of RGS in monocots. We used a combination of evolutionary and biochemical analyses and homology modeling of the Gα and RGS proteins to address their expansion and its potential effects on the G-protein cycle in plants. Our results show that RGS proteins are widely distributed in the monocot lineage, despite their frequent loss. There is no support for the adaptive coevolution of the Gα:RGS protein pair based on single amino acid substitutions. RGS proteins interact with, and affect the activity of, Gα proteins from species with or without endogenous RGS. This cross-functional compatibility expands between the metazoan and plant kingdoms, illustrating striking conservation of their interaction interface. We propose that additional proteins or alternative mechanisms may exist which compensate for the loss of RGS in certain plant species. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Composite functional module inference: detecting cooperation between transcriptional regulation and protein interaction by mantel test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Fei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional modules are basic units of cell function, and exploring them is important for understanding the organization, regulation and execution of cell processes. Functional modules in single biological networks (e.g., the protein-protein interaction network, have been the focus of recent studies. Functional modules in the integrated network are composite functional modules, which imply the complex relationships involving multiple biological interaction types, and detect them will help us understand the complexity of cell processes. Results We aimed to detect composite functional modules containing co-transcriptional regulation interaction, and protein-protein interaction, in our pre-constructed integrated network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We computationally extracted 15 composite functional modules, and found structural consistency between co-transcriptional regulation interaction sub-network and protein-protein interaction sub-network that was well correlated with their functional hierarchy. This type of composite functional modules was compact in structure, and was found to participate in essential cell processes such as oxidative phosphorylation and RNA splicing. Conclusions The structure of composite functional modules containing co-transcriptional regulation interaction, and protein-protein interaction reflected the cooperation of transcriptional regulation and protein function implementation, and was indicative of their important roles in essential cell functions. In addition, their structural and functional characteristics were closely related, and suggesting the complexity of the cell regulatory system.

  12. IQGAP scaffold proteins are the multifunctional regulators of cellular signaling and malignant transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Skovorodnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scaffold proteins coordinate the assembling of multicomponent protein complexes and participate in transduction of cellular signals via multiple signaling pathways therefore acting as important regulators of cell properties. IQ Motif Containing GTPase Activating Proteins (IQGAPs are promising targets for studying the role of scaffold proteins in intracellular signaling regulation and development of cancer and other diseases. IQGAP family includes 3 proteins (IQGAP1, IQGAP2 and IQGAP3 that differ considerably by their expression patterns and functions. Distinct genomic aberrations and expression changes in various tumors were reported for all three IQGAP family members. The present paper thoroughly reviews the structure of IQGAP proteins, their involvement in regulation of cell characteristics and interactions with components of intracellular signaling pathways. Special attention is given to the up-to-date data on deregulation of IQGAP genes functions in different tumor types, analysis of their possible role in tumor progression and their associations with clinicopathological tumor characteristics.

  13. Structural Elements Regulating AAA+ Protein Quality Control Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Wen Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities (AAA+ superfamily participate in essential and diverse cellular pathways in all kingdoms of life by harnessing the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to drive their biological functions. Although most AAA+ proteins share a ring-shaped architecture, AAA+ proteins have evolved distinct structural elements that are fine-tuned to their specific functions. A central question in the field is how ATP binding and hydrolysis are coupled to substrate translocation through the central channel of ring-forming AAA+ proteins. In this mini-review, we will discuss structural elements present in AAA+ proteins involved in protein quality control, drawing similarities to their known role in substrate interaction by AAA+ proteins involved in DNA translocation. Elements to be discussed include the pore loop-1, the Inter-Subunit Signaling (ISS motif, and the Pre-Sensor I insert (PS-I motif. Lastly, we will summarize our current understanding on the inter-relationship of those structural elements and propose a model how ATP binding and hydrolysis might be coupled to polypeptide translocation in protein quality control machines.

  14. The Zika virus envelope protein glycan loop regulates virion antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Leslie; DeMaso, Christina R; Pelc, Rebecca S; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Graham, Barney S; Kuhn, Richard J; Pierson, Theodore C

    2018-01-02

    Because antibodies are an important component of flavivirus immunity, understanding the antigenic structure of flaviviruses is critical. Compared to dengue virus (DENV), the loop containing the single N-linked glycosylation site on Zika virus (ZIKV) envelope (E) proteins extends further towards the DII fusion loop (DII-FL) on neighboring E proteins within E dimers on mature viruses. Although ZIKV is poorly neutralized by DII-FL antibodies, we demonstrated significantly increased neutralization sensitivity of ZIKV particles incorporating the DENV glycan loop. Increased neutralization sensitivity was independent of E protein glycosylation: ZIKV lacking E protein glycans remained poorly neutralized, whereas ZIKV loop chimeras with or without an E protein glycan were potently neutralized. ZIKV particles lacking the E protein glycan were capable of infecting Raji cells expressing the lectin DC-SIGNR, suggesting the prM glycan of partially mature particles can facilitate entry. Our study provides insight into the determinants of ZIKV E protein function and antigenicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. mTORC1 Dependent Regulation of REDD1 Protein Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Chia Yee Tan; Thilo Hagen

    2013-01-01

    REDD1 is known to be transcriptionally upregulated in hypoxia. During hypoxic stress, REDD1 plays an important role as a mediator of mTORC1 inhibition. REDD1 is also subject to highly dynamic transcriptional regulation in response to a variety of other stress signals. In addition, the REDD1 protein is highly unstable. However, it is currently not well understood how REDD1 protein stability is regulated. In this study, we discovered that mTORC1 regulates REDD1 protein stability in a 26S protea...

  16. Inactivation, stabilization and redox regulation of iron-containing proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Summary

    Microperoxidases: kinetics and stability.

    Microperoxidases are small enzymes prepared by proteolytic digestion of cytochromes c. The proteolytic removal of most of the protein environment allows these enzymes to use a

  17. Regulation of autophagy by protein post-translational modification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël; Dodson, Matthew; Chatham, John; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    ... status, and has an important role in quality control of macromolecules and organelles. As with other major cellular pathways, autophagy proteins are subjected to regulatory post-translational modification...

  18. Hormonal regulation of platypus Beta-lactoglobulin and monotreme lactation protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Nicholas, Kevin R; Sharp, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    Endocrine regulation of milk protein gene expression in marsupials and eutherians is well studied. However, the evolution of this complex regulation that began with monotremes is unknown. Monotremes represent the oldest lineage of extant mammals and the endocrine regulation of lactation in these mammals has not been investigated. Here we characterised the proximal promoter and hormonal regulation of two platypus milk protein genes, Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a whey protein and monotreme lactation protein (MLP), a monotreme specific milk protein, using in vitro reporter assays and a bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV1). Insulin and dexamethasone alone provided partial induction of MLP, while the combination of insulin, dexamethasone and prolactin was required for maximal induction. Partial induction of BLG was achieved by insulin, dexamethasone and prolactin alone, with maximal induction using all three hormones. Platypus MLP and BLG core promoter regions comprised transcription factor binding sites (e.g. STAT5, NF-1 and C/EBPα) that were conserved in marsupial and eutherian lineages that regulate caseins and whey protein gene expression. Our analysis suggests that insulin, dexamethasone and/or prolactin alone can regulate the platypus MLP and BLG gene expression, unlike those of therian lineage. The induction of platypus milk protein genes by lactogenic hormones suggests they originated before the divergence of marsupial and eutherians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Coincident light and clock regulation of pseudoresponse regulator protein 37 (PRR37) controls photoperiodic flowering in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation in flowering time was essential during widespread crop domestication and optimal timing of reproduction remains critical to modern agriculture. Ma1, the major repressor of flowering in sorghum in long days, was identified as the pseudo-response regulator protein PRR37. Three prr37 allele...

  20. Mimitin - a novel cytokine-regulated mitochondrial protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, Paulina; Yarwood, Stephen J; Fiegler, Nathalie; Bzowska, Monika; Koj, Aleksander; Mizgalska, Danuta; Malicki, Stanisław; Pajak, Magdalena; Kasza, Aneta; Kachamakova-Trojanowska, Neli; Bereta, Joanna; Jura, Jacek; Jura, Jolanta

    2009-03-31

    The product of a novel cytokine-responsive gene discovered by differential display analysis in our earlier studies on HepG2 cells was identified as mimitin - a small mitochondrial protein. Since proinflammatory cytokines are known to affect components of the respiratory chain in mitochondria, and mimitin was reported as a possible chaperone for assembly of mitochondrial complex I, we looked for the effects of modulation of mimitin expression and for mimitin-binding partners. By blocking mimitin expression in HepG2 cells by siRNA we found that mimitin has no direct influence on caspase 3/7 activities implicated in apoptosis. However, when apoptosis was induced by TNF and cycloheximide, and mimitin expression blocked, the activities of these caspases were significantly increased. This was accompanied by a slight decrease in proliferation of HepG2 cells. Our observations suggest that mimitin may be involved in the control of apoptosis indirectly, through another protein, or proteins. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and coimmunoprecipitation we found MAP1S among proteins interacting with mimitin. MAP1S is a recently identified member of the microtubule-associated protein family and has been shown to interact with NADH dehydrogenase I and cytochrome oxidase I. Moreover, it was implicated in the process of mitochondrial aggregation and nuclear genome destruction. The expression of mimitin is stimulated more than 1.6-fold by IL-1 and by IL-6, with the maximum level of mimitin observed after 18-24 h exposure to these cytokines. We also found that the cytokine-induced signal leading to stimulation of mimitin synthesis utilizes the MAP kinase pathway. Mimitin is a mitochondrial protein upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines at the transcriptional and protein levels, with MAP kinases involved in IL-1-dependent induction. Mimitin interacts with a microtubular protein (MAP1S), and some changes of mimitin gene expression modulate activity of apoptotic caspases 3

  1. Mimitin – a novel cytokine-regulated mitochondrial protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachamakova-Trojanowska Neli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The product of a novel cytokine-responsive gene discovered by differential display analysis in our earlier studies on HepG2 cells was identified as mimitin – a small mitochondrial protein. Since proinflammatory cytokines are known to affect components of the respiratory chain in mitochondria, and mimitin was reported as a possible chaperone for assembly of mitochondrial complex I, we looked for the effects of modulation of mimitin expression and for mimitin-binding partners. Results By blocking mimitin expression in HepG2 cells by siRNA we found that mimitin has no direct influence on caspase 3/7 activities implicated in apoptosis. However, when apoptosis was induced by TNF and cycloheximide, and mimitin expression blocked, the activities of these caspases were significantly increased. This was accompanied by a slight decrease in proliferation of HepG2 cells. Our observations suggest that mimitin may be involved in the control of apoptosis indirectly, through another protein, or proteins. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and coimmunoprecipitation we found MAP1S among proteins interacting with mimitin. MAP1S is a recently identified member of the microtubule-associated protein family and has been shown to interact with NADH dehydrogenase I and cytochrome oxidase I. Moreover, it was implicated in the process of mitochondrial aggregation and nuclear genome destruction. The expression of mimitin is stimulated more than 1.6-fold by IL-1 and by IL-6, with the maximum level of mimitin observed after 18–24 h exposure to these cytokines. We also found that the cytokine-induced signal leading to stimulation of mimitin synthesis utilizes the MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion Mimitin is a mitochondrial protein upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines at the transcriptional and protein levels, with MAP kinases involved in IL-1-dependent induction. Mimitin interacts with a microtubular protein (MAP1S, and some changes of mimitin gene

  2. Mimitin – a novel cytokine-regulated mitochondrial protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, Paulina; Yarwood, Stephen J; Fiegler, Nathalie; Bzowska, Monika; Koj, Aleksander; Mizgalska, Danuta; Malicki, Stanisław; Pajak, Magdalena; Kasza, Aneta; Kachamakova-Trojanowska, Neli; Bereta, Joanna; Jura, Jacek; Jura, Jolanta

    2009-01-01

    Background The product of a novel cytokine-responsive gene discovered by differential display analysis in our earlier studies on HepG2 cells was identified as mimitin – a small mitochondrial protein. Since proinflammatory cytokines are known to affect components of the respiratory chain in mitochondria, and mimitin was reported as a possible chaperone for assembly of mitochondrial complex I, we looked for the effects of modulation of mimitin expression and for mimitin-binding partners. Results By blocking mimitin expression in HepG2 cells by siRNA we found that mimitin has no direct influence on caspase 3/7 activities implicated in apoptosis. However, when apoptosis was induced by TNF and cycloheximide, and mimitin expression blocked, the activities of these caspases were significantly increased. This was accompanied by a slight decrease in proliferation of HepG2 cells. Our observations suggest that mimitin may be involved in the control of apoptosis indirectly, through another protein, or proteins. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and coimmunoprecipitation we found MAP1S among proteins interacting with mimitin. MAP1S is a recently identified member of the microtubule-associated protein family and has been shown to interact with NADH dehydrogenase I and cytochrome oxidase I. Moreover, it was implicated in the process of mitochondrial aggregation and nuclear genome destruction. The expression of mimitin is stimulated more than 1.6-fold by IL-1 and by IL-6, with the maximum level of mimitin observed after 18–24 h exposure to these cytokines. We also found that the cytokine-induced signal leading to stimulation of mimitin synthesis utilizes the MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion Mimitin is a mitochondrial protein upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines at the transcriptional and protein levels, with MAP kinases involved in IL-1-dependent induction. Mimitin interacts with a microtubular protein (MAP1S), and some changes of mimitin gene expression modulate activity of

  3. Cellular mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy in animals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitsunori Miyazaki; Karyn A. Esser

    2009-01-01

    .... In this review, we discuss the animal and cell culture models used and the signaling mechanisms identified in understanding regulation of protein synthesis in response to mechanical loading/resistance exercise...

  4. Orthogonal Cas9 proteins for RNA-guided gene regulation and editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M.; Esvelt, Kevin; Mali, Prashant

    2017-03-07

    Methods of modulating expression of a target nucleic acid in a cell are provided including use of multiple orthogonal Cas9 proteins to simultaneously and independently regulate corresponding genes or simultaneously and independently edit corresponding genes.

  5. Functional Characterization of the Canine Heme-Regulated eIF2α Kinase: Regulation of Protein Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimon C. Kanelakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI negatively regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylating eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α thereby inhibiting protein translation. The importance of HRI in regulating hemoglobin synthesis in erythroid cells makes it an attractive molecular target in need of further characterization. In this work, we have cloned and expressed the canine form of the HRI kinase. The canine nucleotide sequence has 86%, 82%, and 81% identity to the human, mouse, and rat HRI, respectively. It was noted that an isoleucine residue in the ATP binding site of human, rat, and mouse HRI is replaced by a valine in the canine kinase. The expression of canine HRI protein by in vitro translation using wheat germ lysate or in Sf9 cells using a baculovirus expression system was increased by the addition of hemin. Following purification, the canine protein was found to be 72 kD and showed kinase activity determined by its ability to phosphorylate a synthetic peptide substrate. Quercetin, a kinase inhibitor known to inhibit mouse and human HRI, inhibits canine HRI in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, quercetin is able to increase de novo protein synthesis in canine reticulocytes. We conclude that the canine is a suitable model species for studying the role of HRI in erythropoiesis.

  6. Roles of Transcriptional and Translational Control Mechanisms in Regulation of Ribosomal Protein Synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Hector L; O'Connor, Kevin; Sanchez-Vazquez, Patricia; Gourse, Richard L

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial ribosome biogenesis is tightly regulated to match nutritional conditions and to prevent formation of defective ribosomal particles. In Escherichia coli, most ribosomal protein (r-protein) synthesis is coordinated with rRNA synthesis by a translational feedback mechanism: when r-proteins exceed rRNAs, specific r-proteins bind to their own mRNAs and inhibit expression of the operon. It was recently discovered that the second messenger nucleotide guanosine tetra and pentaphosphate (ppGpp), which directly regulates rRNA promoters, is also capable of regulating many r-protein promoters. To examine the relative contributions of the translational and transcriptional control mechanisms to the regulation of r-protein synthesis, we devised a reporter system that enabled us to genetically separate the cis-acting sequences responsible for the two mechanisms and to quantify their relative contributions to regulation under the same conditions. We show that the synthesis of r-proteins from the S20 and S10 operons is regulated by ppGpp following shifts in nutritional conditions, but most of the effect of ppGpp required the 5' region of the r-protein mRNA containing the target site for translational feedback regulation and not the promoter. These results suggest that most regulation of the S20 and S10 operons by ppGpp following nutritional shifts is indirect and occurs in response to changes in rRNA synthesis. In contrast, we found that the promoters for the S20 operon were regulated during outgrowth, likely in response to increasing nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) levels. Thus, r-protein synthesis is dynamic, with different mechanisms acting at different times.IMPORTANCE Bacterial cells have evolved complex and seemingly redundant strategies to regulate many high-energy-consuming processes. In E. coli, synthesis of ribosomal components is tightly regulated with respect to nutritional conditions by mechanisms that act at both the transcription and translation steps. In this

  7. Regulation of flowering time by FVE, a retinoblastoma-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausín, Israel; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Jarillo, José A; Ruiz-García, Leonor; Martínez-Zapater, José M

    2004-02-01

    The initiation of flowering in plants is controlled by environmental and endogenous signals. Molecular analysis of this process in Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that environmental control is exerted through the photoperiod and vernalization pathways, whereas endogenous signals regulate the autonomous and gibberellin pathways. The vernalization and autonomous pathways converge on the negative regulation of FLC, a gene encoding a MADS-box protein that inhibits flowering. We cloned FVE, a component of the autonomous pathway that encodes AtMSI4, a putative retinoblastoma-associated protein. FVE interacted with retinoblastoma protein in immunoprecipitation assays, and FLC chromatin was enriched in acetylated histones in fve mutants. We conclude that FVE participates in a protein complex repressing FLC transcription through a histone deacetylation mechanism. Our data provide genetic evidence of a new developmental function of these conserved proteins and identify a new genetic mechanism in the regulation of flowering.

  8. Considering Protonation as a Post-translational Modification Regulating Protein Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönichen, André; Webb, Bradley A.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Barber, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for regulating activity, binding affinities and stability. Compared with established post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation or uniquitination, post-translational modification by protons within physiological pH ranges is a less recognized mechanism for regulating protein function. By changing the charge of amino acid side chains, post-translational modification by protons can drive dynamical changes in protein conformation and function. Addition and removal of a proton is rapid and reversible and in contrast to most other post-translational modifications does not require an enzyme. Signaling specificity is achieved by only a minority of sites in proteins titrating within the physiological pH range. Here, we examine the structural mechanisms and functional consequences of proton post-translational modification of pH-sensing proteins regulating different cellular processes. PMID:23451893

  9. Engineering FKBP-Based Destabilizing Domains to Build Sophisticated Protein Regulation Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlin An

    Full Text Available Targeting protein stability with small molecules has emerged as an effective tool to control protein abundance in a fast, scalable and reversible manner. The technique involves tagging a protein of interest (POI with a destabilizing domain (DD specifically controlled by a small molecule. The successful construction of such fusion proteins may, however, be limited by functional interference of the DD epitope with electrostatic interactions required for full biological function of proteins. Another drawback of this approach is the remaining endogenous protein. Here, we combined the Cre-LoxP system with an advanced DD and generated a protein regulation system in which the loss of an endogenous protein, in our case the tumor suppressor PTEN, can be coupled directly with a conditionally fine-tunable DD-PTEN. This new system will consolidate and extend the use of DD-technology to control protein function precisely in living cells and animal models.

  10. Proteins regulating cyclin dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorthamer, M.J.M.W.

    1999-01-01

    The exact passage through the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by the progressive activation and inactivation of a family Cdk-s. Cancer cells evolve from normal cells when some essential processes in a dividing cell malfunction. This causes inappropriate replication, segregation and

  11. Protein Kinase Pathways That Regulate Neuronal Survival and Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    intracellular T. gondii replication. International Congress on Toxoplasmosis . Freising, Germany, 2001. 13. Linseman, DA, T Laessig, MK Meintzer, M...University of Colo- role in the regulation of metabolic pathways as well as preven- rado Cancer Center core facility. tion of cell death by insulin and

  12. A Mur Regulator Protein in the Extremophilic Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunfei; Yan, Guoquan; Zhang, Qikun; Wang, Liangyan; Tian, Bing; Chen, Huan; Hua, Yuejin

    2014-01-01

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of genes involved in the uptake of iron and manganese, as well as vital nutrients, and is essential for intracellular redox cycling. We identified a unique Fur homolog (DR0865) from Deinococcus radiodurans, which is known for its extreme resistance to radiation and oxidants. A dr0865 mutant (Mt-0865) showed a higher sensitivity to manganese stress, hydrogen peroxide, gamma irradiation and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation than the wild-type R1 strain. Cellular manganese (Mn) ion (Mn2+) analysis showed that Mn2+, copper (Cu2+), and ferric (Fe3+) ions accumulated significantly in the mutant, which suggests that the dr0865 gene is not only involved in the regulation of Mn2+ homeostasis, but also affects the uptake of other ions. In addition, transcriptome profiles under MnCl2 stress showed that the expression of many genes involved in Mn metabolism was significantly different in the wild-type R1 and DR0865 mutant (Mt-0865). Furthermore, we found that the dr0865 gene serves as a positive regulator of the manganese efflux pump gene mntE (dr1236), and as a negative regulator of Mn ABC transporter genes, such as dr2283, dr2284 and dr2523. Therefore, it plays an important role in maintaining the homoeostasis of intracellular Mn (II), and also other Mn2+, zinc (Zn2+) and Cu2+ ions. Based on its role in manganese homeostasis, DR0865 likely belongs to the Mur sub-family of Fur homolog. PMID:25243898

  13. A Mur regulator protein in the extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Miraj Ul Hussain Shah

    Full Text Available Ferric uptake regulator (Fur is a transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of genes involved in the uptake of iron and manganese, as well as vital nutrients, and is essential for intracellular redox cycling. We identified a unique Fur homolog (DR0865 from Deinococcus radiodurans, which is known for its extreme resistance to radiation and oxidants. A dr0865 mutant (Mt-0865 showed a higher sensitivity to manganese stress, hydrogen peroxide, gamma irradiation and ultraviolet (UV irradiation than the wild-type R1 strain. Cellular manganese (Mn ion (Mn2+ analysis showed that Mn2+, copper (Cu2+, and ferric (Fe3+ ions accumulated significantly in the mutant, which suggests that the dr0865 gene is not only involved in the regulation of Mn2+ homeostasis, but also affects the uptake of other ions. In addition, transcriptome profiles under MnCl2 stress showed that the expression of many genes involved in Mn metabolism was significantly different in the wild-type R1 and DR0865 mutant (Mt-0865. Furthermore, we found that the dr0865 gene serves as a positive regulator of the manganese efflux pump gene mntE (dr1236, and as a negative regulator of Mn ABC transporter genes, such as dr2283, dr2284 and dr2523. Therefore, it plays an important role in maintaining the homoeostasis of intracellular Mn (II, and also other Mn2+, zinc (Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions. Based on its role in manganese homeostasis, DR0865 likely belongs to the Mur sub-family of Fur homolog.

  14. Genome-wide regulation of TATA-binding protein activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Werven, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Transcription, the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template, is a well-controlled process. TATA binding protein (TBP) recruitment to promoters is essential for transcription by all three RNA polymerases, and often is the rate-limiting step of transcription initiation. TBP is incorporated into different

  15. Function and Regulation of Heterotrimeric G Proteins during Chemotaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Marjon E; Liu, Youtao; Kortholt, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis, or directional movement towards an extracellular gradient of chemicals, is necessary for processes as diverse as finding nutrients, the immune response, metastasis and wound healing. Activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is at the very base of the chemotactic signaling

  16. Nuclear localization signal regulates porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein nuclear export through phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qiang; Hou, Shaohua; Chen, Qing; Jia, Hong; Xin, Ting; Jiang, Yitong; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Hongfei

    2018-02-15

    The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encodes the major Capsid (Cap) protein, which self-assembles into virus-like particle (VLP) of similar morphology to the PCV2 virion and accumulates in the nucleus through the N-terminal arginine-rich nuclear localization signal (NLS). In this study, PCV2 Cap protein and its derivates were expressed via the baculovirus expression system, and the cellular localization of the recombinant proteins were investigated using anti-Cap mAb by imaging flow cytometry. Analysis of subcellular localization of Cap protein and its variants demonstrated that NLS mediated Cap protein nuclear export as well as nuclear import, and a phosphorylation site (S17) was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the NLS domain to regulate Cap protein nuclear export. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating the PCV2 Cap protein nuclear export was also demonstrated in PK15 cells by fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the influence of Rep and Rep' protein on Cap protein subcellular localization was investigated in PK15 cells. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating Cap protein nuclear export provides more detailed knowledge of the PCV2 viral life cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulation of the Regulators: Post-Translational Modifications, Subcellular, and Spatiotemporal Distribution of Plant 14-3-3 Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rashaun S; Swatek, Kirby N; Thelen, Jay J

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins bind to and modulate the activity of phosphorylated proteins that regulate a variety of metabolic processes in eukaryotes. Multiple 14-3-3 isoforms are expressed in most organisms and display redundancy in both sequence and function. Plants contain the largest number of 14-3-3 isoforms. For example, Arabidopsis thaliana contains thirteen 14-3-3 genes, each of which is expressed. Interest in the plant 14-3-3 field has swelled over the past decade, largely due to the vast number of possibilities for 14-3-3 metabolic regulation. As the field progresses, it is essential to understand these proteins' activities at both the spatiotemporal and subcellular levels. This review summarizes current knowledge of 14-3-3 proteins in plants, including 14-3-3 interactions, regulatory functions, isoform specificity, and post-translational modifications. We begin with a historical overview and structural analysis of 14-3-3 proteins, which describes the basic principles of 14-3-3 function, and then discuss interactions and regulatory effects of plant 14-3-3 proteins in specific tissues and subcellular compartments. We conclude with a summary of 14-3-3 phosphorylation and current knowledge of the functional effects of this modification in plants.

  18. A 60-kilodalton protein component of the counting factor complex regulates group size in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, Debra A.; van Egmond, Wouter N.; Shamoo, Yousif; Hatton, R. Diane; Gomer, Richard H.

    Much remains to be understood about how a group of cells or a tissue senses and regulates its size. Dictyostelium discoideum cells sense and regulate the size of groups and fruiting bodies using a secreted 450-kDa complex of proteins called counting factor (CF). Low levels of CF result in large

  19. USP21 regulates Hippo pathway activity by mediating MARK protein turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Kugler, Jan-Michael; Loya, Anand Chainsukh

    2017-01-01

    observed in cancer and often correlates with worse survival. The activity and stability of Hippo pathway components, including YAP/TAZ, AMOT and LATS1/2, are regulated by ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Aberrant expression of ubiquitin ligase complexes that regulate the turnover of Hippo components...

  20. Enzymatic mechanisms regulating protein S-nitrosylation: implications in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Puneet; Stamler, Jonathan S

    2012-03-01

    Nitric oxide participates in cellular signal transduction largely through S-nitrosylation of allosteric and active-site cysteine thiols within proteins, forming S-nitroso-proteins (SNO-proteins). S-nitrosylation of proteins has been demonstrated to affect a broad range of functional parameters including enzymatic activity, subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions, and protein stability. Analogous to other ubiquitous posttranslational modifications that are regulated enzymatically, including phosphorylation and ubiquitinylation, accumulating evidence suggests the existence of enzymatic mechanisms for regulating protein S-nitrosylation. In particular, studies have led to the identification of multiple enzymes (nitrosylases and denitrosylases) that participate in targeted S-nitrosylation or denitrosylation of proteins in physiological settings. Nitrosylases are best characterized in the context of transnitrosylation in which a SNO-protein transfers an NO group to an acceptor protein (Cys-to-Cys transfer), but examples of transnitrosylation catalyzed by metalloproteins (Metal-to-Cys transfer) also exist. By contrast, denitrosylases remove the NO group from SNO-proteins, ultimately using reducing equivalents derived from NADH or NADPH. Here, we focus on the recent discoveries of nitrosylases and denitrosylases and the notion that their aberrant activities may play roles in health and disease.

  1. The nuclear IκB family of proteins controls gene regulation and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaruYama, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    The inhibitory IκB family of proteins is subdivided into two groups based on protein localization in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. These proteins interact with NF-κB, a major transcription factor regulating the expression of many inflammatory cytokines, by modulating its transcriptional activity. However, nuclear IκB family proteins not only interact with NF-κB to change its transcriptional activity, but they also bind to chromatin and control gene expression. This review provides an overview of nuclear IκB family proteins and their role in immune homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. RNA-binding proteins involved in post-transcriptional regulation in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke eVan Assche

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional regulation is a very important mechanism to control gene expression in changing environments. In the past decade, a lot of interest has been directed towards the role of small RNAs in bacterial post-transcriptional regulation. However, small RNAs are not the only molecules controlling gene expression at this level, RNA-binding proteins play an important role as well. CsrA and Hfq are the two best studied bacterial proteins of this type, but recently, additional proteins involved in post-transcriptional control have been identified. This review focuses on the general working mechanisms of post-transcriptionally active RNA-binding proteins, which include (i adaptation of the susceptibility of mRNAs and sRNAs to RNases, (ii modulating the accessibility of the ribosome binding site of mRNAs, (iii recruiting and assisting in the interaction of mRNAs with other molecules and (iv regulating transcription terminator / antiterminator formation, and gives an overview of both the well-studied and the newly identified proteins that are involved in post-transcriptional regulatory processes. Additionally, the post-transcriptional mechanisms by which the expression or the activity of these proteins is regulated, are described. For many of the newly identified proteins, however, mechanistic questions remain. Most likely, more post-transcriptionally active proteins will be identified in the future.

  3. A novel protein LZTFL1 regulates ciliary trafficking of the BBSome and Smoothened.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjin Seo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Many signaling proteins including G protein-coupled receptors localize to primary cilia, regulating cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, organogenesis, and tumorigenesis. Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS proteins are involved in maintaining ciliary function by mediating protein trafficking to the cilia. However, the mechanisms governing ciliary trafficking by BBS proteins are not well understood. Here, we show that a novel protein, Leucine-zipper transcription factor-like 1 (LZTFL1, interacts with a BBS protein complex known as the BBSome and regulates ciliary trafficking of this complex. We also show that all BBSome subunits and BBS3 (also known as ARL6 are required for BBSome ciliary entry and that reduction of LZTFL1 restores BBSome trafficking to cilia in BBS3 and BBS5 depleted cells. Finally, we found that BBS proteins and LZTFL1 regulate ciliary trafficking of hedgehog signal transducer, Smoothened. Our findings suggest that LZTFL1 is an important regulator of BBSome ciliary trafficking and hedgehog signaling.

  4. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight jun...

  5. The homeotic protein AGAMOUS controls microsporogenesis by regulation of SPOROCYTELESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshiro; Wellmer, Frank; Yu, Hao; Das, Pradeep; Ito, Natsuko; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Riechmann, José Luis; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2004-07-15

    The Arabidopsis homeotic gene AGAMOUS (AG) is necessary for the specification of reproductive organs (stamens and carpels) during the early steps of flower development. AG encodes a transcription factor of the MADS-box family that is expressed in stamen and carpel primordia. At later stages of development, AG is expressed in distinct regions of the reproductive organs. This suggests that AG might function during the maturation of stamens and carpels, as well as in their early development. However, the developmental processes that AG might control during organogenesis and the genes that are regulated by this factor are largely unknown. Here we show that microsporogenesis, the process leading to pollen formation, is induced by AG through activation of the SPOROCYTELESS gene (SPL, also known as NOZZLE,NZZ), a regulator of sporogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SPL can induce microsporogenesis in the absence of AG function, suggesting that AG controls a specific process during organogenesis by activating another regulator that performs a subset of its functions.

  6. Regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase eta transcript and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabla, Ritu; Rozario, Donald; Siede, Wolfram

    2008-02-01

    RAD30-encoded DNA polymerase eta functions as a translesion polymerase that can bypass the most frequent types of UV-induced pyrimidine photoproducts in an error-free manner. Although its transcript is UV-inducible in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rad30 (studied as a Rad30-Myc fusion) is a stable protein whose levels do not fluctuate following UV treatment or during cell cycle progression. Rad30 protein is subject to monoubiquitination whose level is upregulated in G1 and downregulated during S-phase reentry. This downregulation is accelerated in UV-treated cells. A missense mutation (L577Q) of the ubiquitin binding domain (UBZ) confers a reduced degree of ubiquitination outside of G1 and a complete failure to stably interact with ubiquitinated substrates. This mutation confers a phenotype resembling a complete RAD30 deletion, thus attesting to the significance of the UBZ motif for polymerase eta function in vivo.

  7. Function and regulation of plant major intrinsic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, Milan

    Arsenic is a metalloid that is toxic to living organisms. The use of arsenic-contaminated ground water for drinking and for irrigation in agriculture presents serious health problems for millions of people in many parts of the world. Arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)), the two most widespread...... inorganic forms of arsenic in the environment, can be taken up by plants and thus enter the food chain. Once inside the root cells, As(V) is reduced to As(III) which is then extruded to the soil solution or bound to phytochelatins (PCs) and transported to the vacuole in an effort to accomplish...... detoxification. Plant Noduline 26-like Intrinsic Proteins (NIPs) can channel As(III) and consequently influence the detoxification process. The role of the Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIPs) in As(III) detoxification remains to be clarified, yet TIPs could have an impact on As(III) accumulation in plant cell...

  8. Arabidopsis fructokinase-like protein associations are regulated by ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, John W; Callis, Judy

    2017-05-10

    The Arabidopsis thaliana fructokinase-like proteins FLN1 and FLN2 are required for the differentiation of plastids into photosynthetically competent chloroplasts. However, their specific roles are unknown. FLN1 and FLN2 localize in a multisubunit prokaryotic-type polymerase (plastid-encoded RNA polymerase) complex that transcribes genes encoding components of photosynthesis-related assemblies. Despite sequence identity with fructokinases, which are members of the pfkB (phosphofructokinase B) family of enzymes, kinase activity of FLN1 and FLN2 has not been demonstrated. Homology modeling using pfkB X-ray structures, sequence comparisons, and mutational analyses suggests that FLN proteins may bind their substrates differently from other pfkB proteins. We provide evidence that purified recombinant FLN1 undergoes an ATP-mediated change in binding affinity with both itself and recombinant FLN2. The ATP-mediated change in the affinity of FLN1 for FLN2 is not affected by mutations in conserved active-site residues known to affect catalysis in active pfkB enzymes. In contrast, recombinant FLN2 hetero-oligomerizes independently of ATP concentration. At ATP concentrations that promote FLN1 homomeric interactions, the FLN1-FLN2 hetero-oligomer is the dominant form in vitro We further present evidence that FLN1 associates with a large protein complex in chloroplasts independently of ATP. Given that ATP levels fluctuate between light-dark cycles in the 1-5 mM range, we propose that changes in FLN1 and FLN2 interactions are biologically meaningful. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. Protein Kinase C-Regulated Aβ Production and Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia among the elderly population. AD, which is characterized as a disease of cognitive deficits, is mainly associated with an increase of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ in the brain. A growing body of recent studies suggests that protein kinase C (PKC promotes the production of the secretory form of amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα via the activation of α-secretase activity, which reduces the accumulation of pathogenic Aβ levels in the brain. Moreover, activation of PKCα and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK is known to increase sAPPα. A novel type of PKC, PKCε, activates the Aβ degrading activity of endothelin converting enzyme type 1 (ECE-1, which might be mediated via the MAPK pathway as well. Furthermore, dysregulation of PKC-MAPK signaling is known to increase Aβ levels in the brain, which results in AD phenotypes. Here, we discuss roles of PKC in Aβ production and clearance and its implication in AD.

  10. Post-transcriptional regulation of ITGB6 protein levels in damaged skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Ducceschi, Melissa; Clifton, Lisa G.; Stimpson, Stephen A; Billin, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified integrin beta 6 (Itgb6) as a transcript highly enriched in skeletal muscle. This finding is unexpected because Itgb6 is typically associated with epithelial expression domains in normal tissue. Further we find that ITGB6 protein expression in muscle is post-transcriptionally regulated. Uninjured muscle expresses Itgb6 RNA but no ITGB6 protein is detectable. Muscle injury induces ITGB6 protein accumulation rapidly post-injury in myofibers adjacent to the site of injury. As r...

  11. Heterotrimeric G protein-mediated signaling and its non-canonical regulation in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Kofron, Celinda M; Mende, Ulrike

    2015-05-15

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) regulate a multitude of signaling pathways in mammalian cells by transducing signals from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to effectors, which in turn regulate cellular function. In the myocardium, G protein signaling occurs in all cardiac cell types and is centrally involved in the regulation of heart rate, pump function, and vascular tone and in the response to hemodynamic stress and injury. Perturbations in G protein-mediated signaling are well known to contribute to cardiac hypertrophy, failure, and arrhythmias. Most of the currently used drugs for cardiac and other diseases target GPCR signaling. In the canonical G protein signaling paradigm, G proteins that are located at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane become activated after an agonist-induced conformational change of GPCRs, which then allows GTP-bound Gα and free Gβγ subunits to activate or inhibit effector proteins. Research over the past two decades has markedly broadened the original paradigm with a GPCR-G protein-effector at the cell surface at its core by revealing novel binding partners and additional subcellular localizations for heterotrimeric G proteins that facilitate many previously unrecognized functional effects. In this review, we focus on non-canonical and epigenetic-related mechanisms that regulate heterotrimeric G protein expression, activation, and localization and discuss functional consequences using cardiac examples where possible. Mechanisms reviewed involve microRNAs, histone deacetylases, chaperones, alternative modes of G protein activation, and posttranslational modifications. Some of these newly characterized mechanisms may be further developed into novel strategies for the treatment of cardiac disease and beyond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-Timescale Dynamics and Regulation of Sec-Facilitated Protein Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a coarse-grained modeling approach that spans the nanosecond- to minute-timescale dynamics of cotranslational protein translocation. The method enables direct simulation of both integral membrane protein topogenesis and transmembrane domain (TM stop-transfer efficiency. Simulations reveal multiple kinetic pathways for protein integration, including a mechanism in which the nascent protein undergoes slow-timescale reorientation, or flipping, in the confined environment of the translocon channel. Competition among these pathways gives rise to the experimentally observed dependence of protein topology on ribosomal translation rate and protein length. We further demonstrate that sigmoidal dependence of stop-transfer efficiency on TM hydrophobicity arises from local equilibration of the TM across the translocon lateral gate, and it is predicted that slowing ribosomal translation yields decreased stop-transfer efficiency in long proteins. This work reveals the balance between equilibrium and nonequilibrium processes in protein targeting, and it provides insight into the molecular regulation of the Sec translocon.

  13. G-protein-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinases: crossroads in cell signaling and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavi, Shai; Shumay, Elena; Wang, Hsien-yu; Malbon, Craig C

    2006-03-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors and protein tyrosine kinases represent two prominent pathways for cellular signaling. As our knowledge of cell signaling pathways mediated by the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors and the smaller family of receptor tyrosine kinases expands, so does our appreciation of how these two major signaling platforms share information and modulate each other, otherwise termed "cross-talk". Cross-talk between G-protein-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinases can occur at several levels, including the receptor-to-receptor level, and at crucial downstream points (e.g. phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, Akt/protein kinase B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade). Regulation of G-protein-coupled receptors by non-receptor tyrosine kinases, such as Src family members, also operates in signaling. A broader understanding of how G-protein-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinases cross-talk reveals new insights into signaling modalities in both health and disease.

  14. Neuronal process structure and growth proteins are targets of heavy PTM regulation during brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Schwämmle, Veit; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2014-01-01

    to have wide-ranging and substantial effects on cellular function, both as part of signalling network modulation and more directly by modifying the function of key proteins. In this study, we show that PTM regulation is differentially targeted at different areas of the proteome, and that cytoskeletal...... proteins involved in neuronal process extension and maintenance are both more heavily modified and more frequently regulated at a PTM level. This suggests a clear role not only for PTMs in these processes, but possibly also for heavy protein modification in general. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study...

  15. Integrative Genome-wide Analysis Reveals Cooperative Regulation of Alternative Splicing by hnRNP Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C. Huelga

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how RNA binding proteins control the splicing code is fundamental to human biology and disease. Here, we present a comprehensive study to elucidate how heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle (hnRNP proteins, among the most abundant RNA binding proteins, coordinate to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS in human cells. Using splicing-sensitive microarrays, crosslinking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq, and cDNA sequencing, we find that more than half of all AS events are regulated by multiple hnRNP proteins and that some combinations of hnRNP proteins exhibit significant synergy, whereas others act antagonistically. Our analyses reveal position-dependent RNA splicing maps, in vivo consensus binding sites, a surprising level of cross- and autoregulation among hnRNP proteins, and the coordinated regulation by hnRNP proteins of dozens of other RNA binding proteins and genes associated with cancer. Our findings define an unprecedented degree of complexity and compensatory relationships among hnRNP proteins and their splicing targets that likely confer robustness to cells.

  16. Integrative genome-wide analysis reveals cooperative regulation of alternative splicing by hnRNP proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelga, Stephanie C; Vu, Anthony Q; Arnold, Justin D; Liang, Tiffany Y; Liu, Patrick P; Yan, Bernice Y; Donohue, John Paul; Shiue, Lily; Hoon, Shawn; Brenner, Sydney; Ares, Manuel; Yeo, Gene W

    2012-02-23

    Understanding how RNA binding proteins control the splicing code is fundamental to human biology and disease. Here, we present a comprehensive study to elucidate how heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle (hnRNP) proteins, among the most abundant RNA binding proteins, coordinate to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) in human cells. Using splicing-sensitive microarrays, crosslinking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq), and cDNA sequencing, we find that more than half of all AS events are regulated by multiple hnRNP proteins and that some combinations of hnRNP proteins exhibit significant synergy, whereas others act antagonistically. Our analyses reveal position-dependent RNA splicing maps, in vivo consensus binding sites, a surprising level of cross- and autoregulation among hnRNP proteins, and the coordinated regulation by hnRNP proteins of dozens of other RNA binding proteins and genes associated with cancer. Our findings define an unprecedented degree of complexity and compensatory relationships among hnRNP proteins and their splicing targets that likely confer robustness to cells.

  17. Hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity in oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pratik Rajeev; Charles, Silvania Emlit; D'Souza, Zinia Charlotte; Vaidya, Milind Murlidhar

    2017-11-15

    BPAG1e and Plectin are hemidesmosomal linker proteins which anchor intermediate filament proteins to the cell surface through β4 integrin. Recent reports indicate that these proteins play a role in various cellular processes apart from their known anchoring function. However, the available literature is inconsistent. Further, the previous study from our laboratory suggested that Keratin8/18 pair promotes cell motility and tumor progression by deregulating β4 integrin signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) derived cells. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that linker proteins may have a role in neoplastic progression of OSCC. Downregulation of hemidesmosomal linker proteins in OSCC derived cells resulted in reduced cell migration accompanied by alterations in actin organization. Further, decreased MMP9 activity led to reduced cell invasion in linker proteins knockdown cells. Moreover, loss of these proteins resulted in reduced tumorigenic potential. SWATH analysis demonstrated upregulation of N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in linker proteins downregulated cells as compared to vector control cells. Further, the defects in phenotype upon linker proteins ablation were rescued upon loss of NDRG1 in linker proteins knockdown background. These data together indicate that hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity possibly through NDRG1 in OSCC derived cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Conservation of protein abundance patterns reveals the regulatory architecture of the EGFR-MAPK pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tujin; Niepel, Mario; McDermott, Jason E.; Gao, Yuqian; Nicora, Carrie D.; Chrisler, William B.; Markillie, Lye M.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D.; Rodland, Karin D.; Sorger, Peter K.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Wiley, H. Steven

    2016-01-01

    Various genetic mutations associated with cancer are known to alter cell signaling, but it is not clear whether they dysregulate signaling pathways by altering the abundance of pathway proteins. Using a combination of RNA sequencing and ultrasensitive targeted proteomics, we defined the primary components—16 core proteins and 10 feedback regulators—of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in normal human mammary epithelial cells and then quantified their absolute abundance across a panel of normal and breast cancer cell lines as well as fibroblasts. We found that core pathway proteins were present at very similar concentrations across all cell types, with a variance similar to that of proteins previously shown to display conserved abundances across species. In contrast, EGFR and transcriptionally controlled feedback regulators were present at highly variable concentrations. The absolute abundance of most core proteins was between 50,000 and 70,000 copies per cell, but the adaptors SOS1, SOS2, and GAB1 were found at far lower amounts (2000 to 5000 copies per cell). MAPK signaling showed saturation in all cells between 3000 and 10,000 occupied EGFRs, consistent with the idea that adaptors limit signaling. Our results suggest that the relative stoichiometry of core MAPK pathway proteins is very similar across different cell types, with cell-specific differences mostly restricted to variable amounts of feedback regulators and receptors. The low abundance of adaptors relative to EGFR could be responsible for previous observations that only a fraction of total cell surface EGFR is capable of rapid endocytosis, high-affinity binding, and mitogenic signaling. PMID:27405981

  19. BET bromodomain proteins and epigenetic regulation of inflammation: implications for type 2 diabetes and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Dequina A; Andrieu, Guillaume; Strissel, Katherine J; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Denis, Gerald V

    2017-01-01

    Chronic inflammation drives pathologies associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and breast cancer. Obesity-driven inflammation may explain increased risk and mortality of breast cancer with T2D reported in the epidemiology literature. Therapeutic approaches to target inflammation in both T2D and cancer have so far fallen short of the expected improvements in disease pathogenesis or outcomes. The targeting of epigenetic regulators of cytokine transcription and cytokine signaling offers one promising, untapped approach to treating diseases driven by inflammation. Recent work has deeply implicated the Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain (BET) proteins, which are acetylated histone "readers", in epigenetic regulation of inflammation. This review focuses on inflammation associated with T2D and breast cancer, and the possibility of targeting BET proteins as an approach to regulating inflammation in the clinic. Understanding inflammation in the context of BET protein regulation may provide a basis for designing promising therapeutics for T2D and breast cancer.

  20. Novel Regulation of Ski Protein Stability and Endosomal Sorting by Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics in Hepatocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; Caligaris, Cassandre; Del Valle-Espinosa, Eugenio; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; González-Arenas, Nelly R.; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Briones-Orta, Marco A.; Macías-Silva, Marina

    2015-01-01

    TGF-β-induced antimitotic signals are highly regulated during cell proliferation under normal and pathological conditions, such as liver regeneration and cancer. Up-regulation of the transcriptional cofactors Ski and SnoN during liver regeneration may favor hepatocyte proliferation by inhibiting TGF-β signals. In this study, we found a novel mechanism that regulates Ski protein stability through TGF-β and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Ski protein is distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm of normal hepatocytes, and the molecular mechanisms controlling Ski protein stability involve the participation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cytoplasmic Ski is partially associated with actin and localized in cholesterol-rich vesicles. Ski protein stability is decreased by TGF-β/Smads, GPCR/Rho signals, and actin polymerization, whereas GPCR/cAMP signals and actin depolymerization promote Ski protein stability. In conclusion, TGF-β and GPCR signals differentially regulate Ski protein stability and sorting in hepatocytes, and this cross-talk may occur during liver regeneration. PMID:25561741

  1. Novel regulation of Ski protein stability and endosomal sorting by actin cytoskeleton dynamics in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; Caligaris, Cassandre; Del Valle-Espinosa, Eugenio; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; González-Arenas, Nelly R; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Briones-Orta, Marco A; Macías-Silva, Marina

    2015-02-13

    TGF-β-induced antimitotic signals are highly regulated during cell proliferation under normal and pathological conditions, such as liver regeneration and cancer. Up-regulation of the transcriptional cofactors Ski and SnoN during liver regeneration may favor hepatocyte proliferation by inhibiting TGF-β signals. In this study, we found a novel mechanism that regulates Ski protein stability through TGF-β and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Ski protein is distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm of normal hepatocytes, and the molecular mechanisms controlling Ski protein stability involve the participation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cytoplasmic Ski is partially associated with actin and localized in cholesterol-rich vesicles. Ski protein stability is decreased by TGF-β/Smads, GPCR/Rho signals, and actin polymerization, whereas GPCR/cAMP signals and actin depolymerization promote Ski protein stability. In conclusion, TGF-β and GPCR signals differentially regulate Ski protein stability and sorting in hepatocytes, and this cross-talk may occur during liver regeneration. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. RNA binding proteins in the regulation of heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blech-Hermoni, Yotam; Ladd, Andrea N

    2013-11-01

    In vivo, RNA molecules are constantly accompanied by RNA binding proteins (RBPs), which are intimately involved in every step of RNA biology, including transcription, editing, splicing, transport and localization, stability, and translation. RBPs therefore have opportunities to shape gene expression at multiple levels. This capacity is particularly important during development, when dynamic chemical and physical changes give rise to complex organs and tissues. This review discusses RBPs in the context of heart development. Since the targets and functions of most RBPs--in the heart and at large--are not fully understood, this review focuses on the expression and roles of RBPs that have been implicated in specific stages of heart development or developmental pathology. RBPs are involved in nearly every stage of cardiogenesis, including the formation, morphogenesis, and maturation of the heart. A fuller understanding of the roles and substrates of these proteins could ultimately provide attractive targets for the design of therapies for congenital heart defects, cardiovascular disease, or cardiac tissue repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proteomics Reveals Global Regulation of Protein SUMOylation by ATM and ATR Kinases during Replication Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Munk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that protect eukaryotic DNA during the cumbersome task of replication depend on the precise coordination of several post-translational modification (PTM-based signaling networks. Phosphorylation is a well-known regulator of the replication stress response, and recently an essential role for SUMOs (small ubiquitin-like modifiers has also been established. Here, we investigate the global interplay between phosphorylation and SUMOylation in response to replication stress. Using SUMO and phosphoproteomic technologies, we identify thousands of regulated modification sites. We find co-regulation of central DNA damage and replication stress responders, of which the ATR-activating factor TOPBP1 is the most highly regulated. Using pharmacological inhibition of the DNA damage response kinases ATR and ATM, we find that these factors regulate global protein SUMOylation in the protein networks that protect DNA upon replication stress and fork breakage, pointing to integration between phosphorylation and SUMOylation in the cellular systems that protect DNA integrity.

  4. Orm1 and Orm2 are conserved endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins regulating lipid homeostasis and protein quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sumin; Lone, Museer A.; Schneiter, Roger; Chang, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Yeast members of the ORMDL family of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins play a central role in lipid homeostasis and protein quality control. In the absence of yeast Orm1 and Orm2, accumulation of long chain base, a sphingolipid precursor, suggests dysregulation of sphingolipid synthesis. Physical interaction between Orm1 and Orm2 and serine palmitoyltransferase, responsible for the first committed step in sphingolipid synthesis, further supports a role for the Orm proteins in regulating sphingolipid synthesis. Phospholipid homeostasis is also affected in orm1Δ orm2Δ cells: the cells are inositol auxotrophs with impaired transcriptional regulation of genes encoding phospholipid biosynthesis enzymes. Strikingly, impaired growth of orm1Δ orm2Δ cells is associated with constitutive unfolded protein response, sensitivity to stress, and slow ER-to-Golgi transport. Inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis suppresses orm1Δ orm2Δ phenotypes, including ER stress, suggesting that disrupted sphingolipid homeostasis accounts for pleiotropic phenotypes. Thus, the yeast Orm proteins control membrane biogenesis by coordinating lipid homeostasis with protein quality control. PMID:20212121

  5. AMP-activated protein kinase in contraction regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism: necessary and/or sufficient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Richter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    . These include glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, post-exercise insulin sensitivity, fatty acid (FA) uptake, intramuscular triacylglyceride hydrolysis, FA oxidation, suppression of protein synthesis, proteolysis, autophagy and transcriptional regulation of genes relevant to promoting an oxidative phenotype.......In skeletal muscle, the contraction-activated heterotrimeric 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein is proposed to regulate the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes by increasing substrate uptake and turnover in addition to regulating the transcription of proteins involved...

  6. Dexamethasone Regulates Cochlear Expression of Deafness-associated Proteins Myelin Protein Zero and Heat Shock Protein 70, as Revealed by iTRAQ Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yukihide; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Kariya, Shin; Orita, Yorihisa; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2015-08-01

    Using proteomics, we aimed to identify the proteins differentially regulated by dexamethasone in the mouse cochlea based on mass-spectrometry data. Glucocorticoid therapy is widely used for many forms of sensorineural hearing loss; however, the molecular mechanism of its action in the cochlea remains poorly understood. Dexamethasone or control saline was intratympanically applied to the cochleae of mice. Twelve hours after application, proteins differentially regulated by dexamethasone in the cochlea were analyzed by isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ)-mass spectrometry. Next, dexamethasone-dependent regulation of these proteins was verified in the cochleae of mice with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and systemic administration of dexamethasone by western blotting. Immunolocalizations of these proteins were examined in cochleae with NIHL. A total of 247 proteins with a greater than 95% confidence interval of protein identification were found, and 11 differentially expressed proteins by dexamethasone were identified by the iTRAQ-mass spectrometry. One protein, myelin protein zero (Mpz), was upregulated (1.870 ± 0.201-fold change, p < 0.01) at 6 hours post-systemic dexamethasone and noise exposure in a mouse model of NIHL. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was downregulated (0.511 ± 0.274-fold change, p < 0.05) at 12 hours post-systemic dexamethasone. Immunohistochemistry confirmed Mpz localization to the efferent and afferent processes of the spiral neurons, whereas Hsp70 showed a more ubiquitous expression pattern in the cochlea. Both Mpz and Hsp70 have been reported to be closely associated with sensorineural hearing loss in humans. Dexamethasone significantly modulated the expression levels of these proteins in the cochleae of mice.

  7. Chapter Three - Ubiquitination and Protein Turnover of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases in GPCR Signaling and Cellular Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penela, P

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for regulating a wide variety of physiological processes, and distinct mechanisms for GPCR inactivation exist to guarantee correct receptor functionality. One of the widely used mechanisms is receptor phosphorylation by specific G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), leading to uncoupling from G proteins (desensitization) and receptor internalization. GRKs and β-arrestins also participate in the assembly of receptor-associated multimolecular complexes, thus initiating alternative G-protein-independent signaling events. In addition, the abundant GRK2 kinase has diverse "effector" functions in cellular migration, proliferation, and metabolism homeostasis by means of the phosphorylation or interaction with non-GPCR partners. Altered expression of GRKs (particularly of GRK2 and GRK5) occurs during pathological conditions characterized by impaired GPCR signaling including inflammatory syndromes, cardiovascular disease, and tumor contexts. It is increasingly appreciated that different pathways governing GRK protein stability play a role in the modulation of kinase levels in normal and pathological conditions. Thus, enhanced GRK2 degradation by the proteasome pathway occurs upon GPCR stimulation, what allows cellular adaptation to chronic stimulation in a physiological setting. β-arrestins participate in this process by facilitating GRK2 phosphorylation by different kinases and by recruiting diverse E3 ubiquitin ligase to the receptor complex. Different proteolytic systems (ubiquitin-proteasome, calpains), chaperone activities and signaling pathways influence the stability of GRKs in different ways, thus endowing specificity to GPCR regulation as protein turnover of GRKs can be differentially affected. Therefore, modulation of protein stability of GRKs emerges as a versatile mechanism for feedback regulation of GPCR signaling and basic cellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation of apical fluid-regulating channel proteins with lung function in human COPD lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Runzhen; Liang, Xinrong; Zhao, Meimi; Liu, Shan-Lu; Huang, Yao; Idell, Steven; Li, Xiumin; Ji, Hong-Long

    2014-01-01

    Links between epithelial ion channels and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are emerging through animal model and in vitro studies. However, clinical correlations between fluid-regulating channel proteins and lung function in COPD remain to be elucidated. To quantitatively measure epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) proteins in human COPD lungs and to analyze the correlation with declining lung function, quantitative western blots were used. Spearman tests were performed to identify correlations between channel proteins and lung function. The expression of α and β ENaC subunits was augmented and inversely associated with lung function. In contrast, both total and alveolar type I (ATI) and II (ATII)-specific CFTR proteins were reduced. The expression level of CFTR proteins was associated with FEV1 positively. Abundance of AQP5 proteins and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) was decreased and correlated with spirometry test results and gas exchange positively. Furthermore, these channel proteins were significantly associated with severity of disease. Our study demonstrates that expression of ENaC, AQP5, and CFTR proteins in human COPD lungs is quantitatively associated with lung function and severity of COPD. These apically located fluid-regulating channels may thereby serve as biomarkers and potent druggable targets of COPD.

  9. Correlation of apical fluid-regulating channel proteins with lung function in human COPD lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzhen Zhao

    Full Text Available Links between epithelial ion channels and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD are emerging through animal model and in vitro studies. However, clinical correlations between fluid-regulating channel proteins and lung function in COPD remain to be elucidated. To quantitatively measure epithelial sodium channels (ENaC, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, and aquaporin 5 (AQP5 proteins in human COPD lungs and to analyze the correlation with declining lung function, quantitative western blots were used. Spearman tests were performed to identify correlations between channel proteins and lung function. The expression of α and β ENaC subunits was augmented and inversely associated with lung function. In contrast, both total and alveolar type I (ATI and II (ATII-specific CFTR proteins were reduced. The expression level of CFTR proteins was associated with FEV1 positively. Abundance of AQP5 proteins and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3 was decreased and correlated with spirometry test results and gas exchange positively. Furthermore, these channel proteins were significantly associated with severity of disease. Our study demonstrates that expression of ENaC, AQP5, and CFTR proteins in human COPD lungs is quantitatively associated with lung function and severity of COPD. These apically located fluid-regulating channels may thereby serve as biomarkers and potent druggable targets of COPD.

  10. Chemical methods for producing disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins to study folding regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Shimamoto, Shigeru; Hidaka, Yuji

    2014-04-01

    Disulfide bonds play a critical role in the folding of secretory and membrane proteins. Oxidative folding reactions of disulfide bond-containing proteins typically require several hours or days, and numerous misbridged disulfide isomers are often observed as intermediates. The rate-determining step in refolding is thought to be the disulfide-exchange reaction from nonnative to native disulfide bonds in folding intermediates, which often precipitate during the refolding process because of their hydrophobic properties. To overcome this, chemical additives or a disulfide catalyst, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), are generally used in refolding experiments to regulate disulfide-coupled peptide and protein folding. This unit describes such methods in the context of the thermodynamic and kinetic control of peptide and protein folding, including (1) regulation of disulfide-coupled peptides and protein folding assisted by chemical additives, (2) reductive unfolding of disulfide-containing peptides and proteins, and (3) regulation of disulfide-coupled peptide and protein folding using PDI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Protein Phosphatase-1 Regulates Expression of Neuregulin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ammosova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1, a cellular serine/threonine phosphatase, is targeted to cellular promoters by its major regulatory subunits, PP1 nuclear targeting subunit, nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1 and RepoMan. PP1 is also targeted to RNA polymerase II (RNAPII by NIPP1 where it can dephosphorylate RNAPII and cycle-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9. Here, we show that treatment of cells with a small molecule activator of PP1 increases the abundance of a neuregulin-1 (NRG-1-derived peptide. NRG-1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in the cells stably or transiently expressing mutant NIPP1 (mNIPP1 that does not bind PP1, but not in the cells expressing NIPP1. Expression of mNIPP1 also activated the NRG-1 promoter in an NF-κB-dependent manner. Analysis of extracts from mNIPP1 expressing cells by glycerol gradient centrifugation showed a redistribution of PP1 and CDK9 between large and small molecular weight complexes, and increased CDK9 Thr-186 phosphorylation. This correlated with the increased CDK9 activity. Further, RNAPII co-precipitated with mNIPP1, and phosphorylation of RNAPII C-terminal domain (CTD Ser-2 residues was greater in cells expressing mNIPP1. In mNIPP1 expressing cells, okadaic acid, a cell-permeable inhibitor of PP1, did not increase Ser-2 CTD phosphorylation inhibited by flavopiridol, in contrast to the NIPP1 expressing cells, suggesting that PP1 was no longer involved in RNAPII dephosphorylation. Finally, media conditioned with mNIPP1 cells induced the proliferation of wild type 84-31 cells, consistent with a role of neuregulin-1 as a growth promoting factor. Our study indicates that deregulation of PP1/NIPP1 holoenzyme activates NRG-1 expression through RNAPII and CDK9 phosphorylation in a NF-κB dependent manner.

  12. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YBR135W, YBR252W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tes proteolysis of M-phase targets through interactions with the proteasome; role in transcriptional regulat...yclin-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit and adaptor; modulates proteolysis of M-phase targets through interactions

  13. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YCL032W, YLR423C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YCL032W STE50 Protein involved in mating response, invasive/filamentous growth, and...lved in mating response, invasive/filamentous growth, and osmotolerance, acts as an adaptor that links G pro

  14. TIS11 Family Proteins and Their Roles in Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Baou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression of mRNAs containing adenine-uridine rich elements (AREs in their 3 untranslated regions is mediated by a number of different proteins that interact with these elements to either stabilise or destabilise them. The present review concerns the TPA-inducible sequence 11 (TIS11 protein family, a small family of proteins, that appears to interact with ARE-containing mRNAs and promote their degradation. This family of proteins has been extensively studied in the past decade. Studies have focussed on determining their biochemical functions, identifying their target mRNAs, and determining their roles in cell functions and diseases.

  15. Deciphering the protein-protein interaction network regulating hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guoxuan; Dang, Mengjiao; Gao, Huajun; Wang, Hao; Luo, Fengting; Chen, Ruibing

    2017-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of mortality related to cancer all over the world. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis, we analyzed the proteome of three HCC cell lines with different metastasis potentials by quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics analysis. As a result, we identified 378 cellular proteins potentially associated to HCC metastasis, and constructed a highly connected protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Functional annotation of the network uncovered prominent pathways and key roles of these proteins, suggesting that the metabolism and cytoskeleton biological processes are greatly involved with HCC metastasis. Furthermore, the integrative network analysis revealed a rich-club organization within the PPI network, indicating a hub center of connections. The rich-club nodes include several well-known cancer-related proteins, such as proto-oncogene non-receptor tyrosine kinase (SRC) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). Moreover, the differential expressions of two identified proteins, including PKM2 and actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 (ARPC4), were validated using Western blotting. These two proteins were revealed as potential prognostic markers for HCC as shown by survival rate analysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Regulation of the interaction between protein kinase C-related protein kinase 2 (PRK2) and its upstream kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dettori, Rosalia; Sonzogni, Silvina; Meyer, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    of numerous AGC kinases, including the protein kinase C-related protein kinases (PRKs). Here we studied the docking interaction between PDK1 and PRK2 and analyzed the mechanisms that regulate this interaction. In vivo labeling of recombinant PRK2 by (32)P(i) revealed phosphorylation at two sites......, the activation loop and the Z/TM in the C-terminal extension. We provide evidence that phosphorylation of the Z/TM site of PRK2 inhibits its interaction with PDK1. Our studies further provide a mechanistic model to explain different steps in the docking interaction and regulation. Interestingly, we found...... that the mechanism that negatively regulates the docking interaction of PRK2 to the upstream kinase PDK1 is directly linked to the activation mechanism of PRK2 itself. Finally, our results indicate that the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the interaction between PRK2 and PDK1 are specific for PRK2 and do...

  17. leeHom: adaptor trimming and merging for Illumina sequencing reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Gabriel; Stenzel, Udo; Kelso, Janet

    2014-10-01

    The sequencing of libraries containing molecules shorter than the read length, such as in ancient or forensic applications, may result in the production of reads that include the adaptor, and in paired reads that overlap one another. Challenges for the processing of such reads are the accurate identification of the adaptor sequence and accurate reconstruction of the original sequence most likely to have given rise to the observed read(s). We introduce an algorithm that removes the adaptors and reconstructs the original DNA sequences using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori probability approach. Our algorithm is faster, and provides a more accurate reconstruction of the original sequence for both simulated and ancient DNA data sets, than other approaches. leeHom is released under the GPLv3 and is freely available from: https://bioinf.eva.mpg.de/leehom/ © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 is a post-translational regulator of the mammalian circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Schmutz

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks coordinate the timing of important biological processes. Interconnected transcriptional and post-translational feedback loops based on a set of clock genes generate and maintain these rhythms with a period of about 24 hours. Many clock proteins undergo circadian cycles of post-translational modifications. Among these modifications, protein phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating activity, stability and intracellular localization of clock components. Several protein kinases were characterized as regulators of the circadian clock. However, the function of protein phosphatases, which balance phosphorylation events, in the mammalian clock mechanism is less well understood. Here, we identify protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 as regulator of period and light-induced resetting of the mammalian circadian clock. Down-regulation of PP1 activity in cells by RNA interference and in vivo by expression of a specific inhibitor in the brain of mice tended to lengthen circadian period. Moreover, reduction of PP1 activity in the brain altered light-mediated clock resetting behavior in mice, enhancing the phase shifts in either direction. At the molecular level, diminished PP1 activity increased nuclear accumulation of the clock component PER2 in neurons. Hence, PP1, may reduce PER2 phosphorylation thereby influencing nuclear localization of this protein. This may at least partially influence period and phase shifting properties of the mammalian circadian clock.

  19. Isolation of nuclear proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed coats for gene expression regulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renouard Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While seed biology is well characterized and numerous studies have focused on this subject over the past years, the regulation of seed coat development and metabolism is for the most part still non-elucidated. It is well known that the seed coat has an essential role in seed development and its features are associated with important agronomical traits. It also constitutes a rich source of valuable compounds such as pharmaceuticals. Most of the cell genetic material is contained in the nucleus; therefore nuclear proteins constitute a major actor for gene expression regulation. Isolation of nuclear proteins responsible for specific seed coat expression is an important prerequisite for understanding seed coat metabolism and development. The extraction of nuclear proteins may be problematic due to the presence of specific components that can interfere with the extraction process. The seed coat is a rich source of mucilage and phenolics, which are good examples of these hindering compounds. Findings In the present study, we propose an optimized nuclear protein extraction protocol able to provide nuclear proteins from flax seed coat without contaminants and sufficient yield and quality for their use in transcriptional gene expression regulation by gel shift experiments. Conclusions Routinely, around 250 μg of nuclear proteins per gram of fresh weight were extracted from immature flax seed coats. The isolation protocol described hereafter may serve as an effective tool for gene expression regulation and seed coat-focused proteomics studies.

  20. Huntingtin-associated protein-1 is a synapsin I-binding protein regulating synaptic vesicle exocytosis and synapsin I trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Kimberly D; Lumsden, Amanda L; Guo, Feng; Duffield, Michael D; Chataway, Timothy; Lim, Yoon; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Keating, Damien J

    2016-09-01

    Huntingtin-associated protein-1 (HAP1) is involved in intracellular trafficking, vesicle transport, and membrane receptor endocytosis. However, despite such diverse functions, the role of HAP1 in the synaptic vesicle (SV) cycle in nerve terminals remains unclear. Here, we report that HAP1 functions in SV exocytosis, controls total SV turnover and the speed of vesicle fusion in nerve terminals and regulates glutamate release in cortical brain slices. We found that HAP1 interacts with synapsin I, an abundant neuronal phosphoprotein that associates with SVs during neurotransmitter release and regulates synaptic plasticity and neuronal development. The interaction between HAP1 with synapsin I was confirmed by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation of the endogenous proteins. Furthermore, HAP1 co-localizes with synapsin I in cortical neurons as discrete puncta. Interestingly, we find that synapsin I localization is specifically altered in Hap1(-/-) cortical neurons without an effect on the localization of other SV proteins. This effect on synapsin I localization was not because of changes in the levels of synapsin I or its phosphorylation status in Hap1(-/-) brains. Furthermore, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in transfected neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein-synapsin Ia demonstrates that loss of HAP1 protein inhibits synapsin I transport. Thus, we demonstrate that HAP1 regulates SV exocytosis and may do so through binding to synapsin I. The Proposed mechanism of synapsin I transport mediated by HAP1 in neurons. HAP1 interacts with synapsin I, regulating the trafficking of synapsin I containing vesicles and/or transport packets, possibly through its engagement of microtubule motors. The absence of HAP1 reduces synapsin I transport and neuronal exocytosis. These findings provide insights into the processes of neuronal trafficking and synaptic signaling. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Wnt proteins regulate acetylcholine receptor clustering in muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liang, Chuan; Bates, Ryan; Yin, Yiming; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2012-02-06

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a cholinergic synapse that rapidly conveys signals from motoneurons to muscle cells and exhibits a high degree of subcellular specialization characteristic of chemical synapses. NMJ formation requires agrin and its coreceptors LRP4 and MuSK. Increasing evidence indicates that Wnt signaling regulates NMJ formation in Drosophila, C. elegans and zebrafish. In the study we systematically studied the effect of all 19 different Wnts in mammals on acetylcholine receptor (AChR) cluster formation. We identified five Wnts (Wnt9a, Wnt9b, Wnt10b, Wnt11, and Wnt16) that are able to stimulate AChR clustering, of which Wnt9a and Wnt11 are expressed abundantly in developing muscles. Using Wnt9a and Wnt11 as example, we demonstrated that Wnt induction of AChR clusters was dose-dependent and non-additive to that of agrin, suggesting that Wnts may act via similar pathways to induce AChR clusters. We provide evidence that Wnt9a and Wnt11 bind directly to the extracellular domain of MuSK, to induce MuSK dimerization and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of the kinase. In addition, Wnt-induced AChR clustering requires LRP4. These results identify Wnts as new players in AChR cluster formation, which act in a manner that requires both MuSK and LRP4, revealing a novel function of LRP4.

  2. Wnt proteins regulate acetylcholine receptor clustering in muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Bin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neuromuscular junction (NMJ is a cholinergic synapse that rapidly conveys signals from motoneurons to muscle cells and exhibits a high degree of subcellular specialization characteristic of chemical synapses. NMJ formation requires agrin and its coreceptors LRP4 and MuSK. Increasing evidence indicates that Wnt signaling regulates NMJ formation in Drosophila, C. elegans and zebrafish. Results In the study we systematically studied the effect of all 19 different Wnts in mammals on acetylcholine receptor (AChR cluster formation. We identified five Wnts (Wnt9a, Wnt9b, Wnt10b, Wnt11, and Wnt16 that are able to stimulate AChR clustering, of which Wnt9a and Wnt11 are expressed abundantly in developing muscles. Using Wnt9a and Wnt11 as example, we demonstrated that Wnt induction of AChR clusters was dose-dependent and non-additive to that of agrin, suggesting that Wnts may act via similar pathways to induce AChR clusters. We provide evidence that Wnt9a and Wnt11 bind directly to the extracellular domain of MuSK, to induce MuSK dimerization and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of the kinase. In addition, Wnt-induced AChR clustering requires LRP4. Conclusions These results identify Wnts as new players in AChR cluster formation, which act in a manner that requires both MuSK and LRP4, revealing a novel function of LRP4.

  3. Antiproliferative protein Tob directly regulates c-myc proto-oncogene expression through cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein CPEB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, K; Hosoda, N; Funakoshi, Y; Hoshino, S

    2014-01-02

    The regulation of mRNA deadenylation constitutes a pivotal mechanism of the post-transcriptional control of gene expression. Here we show that the antiproliferative protein Tob, a component of the Caf1-Ccr4 deadenylase complex, is involved in regulating the expression of the proto-oncogene c-myc. The c-myc mRNA contains cis elements (CPEs) in its 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), which are recognized by the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein (CPEB). CPEB recruits Caf1 deadenylase through interaction with Tob to form a ternary complex, CPEB-Tob-Caf1, and negatively regulates the expression of c-myc by accelerating the deadenylation and decay of its mRNA. In quiescent cells, c-myc mRNA is destabilized by the trans-acting complex (CPEB-Tob-Caf1), while in cells stimulated by the serum, both Tob and Caf1 are released from CPEB, and c-Myc expression is induced early after stimulation by the stabilization of its mRNA as an 'immediate-early gene'. Collectively, these results indicate that Tob is a key factor in the regulation of c-myc gene expression, which is essential for cell growth. Thus, Tob appears to function in the control of cell growth at least, in part, by regulating the expression of c-myc.

  4. Skeletal muscle as a regulator of the longevity protein, Klotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith G Avin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Klotho is a powerful longevity protein that has been linked to the prevention of muscle atrophy, osteopenia, and cardiovascular disease. Similar anti-aging effects have also been ascribed to exercise and physical activity. While an association between muscle function and klotho expression has been previously suggested from longitudinal cohort studies, a direct relationship between circulating klotho and skeletal muscle has not been investigated. In this paper, we present a review of the literature and preliminary evidence that, together, suggests klotho expression may be modulated by skeletal muscle activity. Our pilot clinical findings performed in young and aged individuals suggest that circulating klotho levels are upregulated in response to an acute exercise bout, but that the response may be dependent on fitness level. A similar upregulation of circulating klotho is also observed in response to an acute exercise in young and old mice, suggesting this may be a good model for mechanistically probing the role of physical activity on klotho expression. Finally, we highlight overlapping signaling pathways that are modulated by both klotho and skeletal muscle and propose potential mechanisms for cross-talk between the two. It is hoped that this review will stimulate further consideration of the relationship between skeletal muscle activity and klotho expression, potentially leading to important insights into the well-documented systemic anti-aging effects of exercise.

  5. Discovery of a Unique Clp Component, ClpF, in Chloroplasts: A Proposed Binary ClpF-ClpS1 Adaptor Complex Functions in Substrate Recognition and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kenji; Apitz, Janina; Friso, Giulia; Kim, Jitae; Ponnala, Lalit; Grimm, Bernhard; van Wijk, Klaas J

    2015-10-01

    Clp proteases are found in prokaryotes, mitochondria, and plastids where they play crucial roles in maintaining protein homeostasis (proteostasis). The plant plastid Clp machinery comprises a hetero-oligomeric ClpPRT proteolytic core, ATP-dependent chaperones ClpC and ClpD, and an adaptor protein, ClpS1. ClpS1 selects substrates to the ClpPR protease-ClpC chaperone complex for degradation, but the underlying substrate recognition and delivery mechanisms are currently unclear. Here, we characterize a ClpS1-interacting protein in Arabidopsis thaliana, ClpF, which can interact with the Clp substrate glutamyl-tRNA reductase. ClpF and ClpS1 mutually stimulate their association with ClpC. ClpF, which is only found in photosynthetic eukaryotes, contains bacterial uvrB/C and YccV protein domains and a unique N-terminal domain. We propose a testable model in which ClpS1 and ClpF form a binary adaptor for selective substrate recognition and delivery to ClpC, reflecting an evolutionary adaptation of the Clp system to the plastid proteome. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulating the ethylene response of a plant by modulation of F-box proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongwei [Beijing, CN; Ecker, Joseph R [Carlsbad, CA

    2014-01-07

    The relationship between F-box proteins and proteins invovled in the ethylene response in plants is described. In particular, F-box proteins may bind to proteins involved in the ethylene response and target them for degradation by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. The transcription factor EIN3 is a key transcription factor mediating ethylne-regulated gene expression and morphological responses. EIN3 is degraded through a ubiquitin/proteasome pathway mediated by F-box proteins EBF1 and EBF2. The link between F-box proteins and the ethylene response is a key step in modulating or regulating the response of a plant to ethylene. Described herein are transgenic plants having an altered sensitivity to ethylene, and methods for making transgenic plant haing an althered sensitivity to ethylene by modulating the level of activity of F-box proteins. Methods of altering the ethylene response in a plant by modulating the activity or expression of an F-box protein are described. Also described are methods of identifying compounds that modulate the ethylene response in plants by modulating the level of F-box protein expression or activity.

  7. Neuronal process structure and growth proteins are targets of heavy PTM regulation during brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Schwämmle, Veit; Larsen, Martin R

    2014-04-14

    Brain development is a process requiring precise control of many different cell types. One method to achieve this is through specific and temporally regulated modification of proteins in order to alter structure and function. Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is known to have wide-ranging and substantial effects on cellular function, both as part of signalling network modulation and more directly by modifying the function of key proteins. In this study, we show that PTM regulation is differentially targeted at different areas of the proteome, and that cytoskeletal proteins involved in neuronal process extension and maintenance are both more heavily modified and more frequently regulated at a PTM level. This suggests a clear role not only for PTMs in these processes, but possibly also for heavy protein modification in general. This study provides one of the most comprehensive sets of individual PTM site regulation data for mammalian brain tissue. This will provide a valuable resource for those wishing to perform comparisons or meta-analyses of large scale PTMomic data, as are becoming increasingly common. Furthermore, being focussed on protein-level events, this study also provides significant insight into detailed roles for individual modified proteins in the developing brain, helping to advance the understanding of the complex protein-driven processes that underlie development. Finally, the use of a novel bioinformatic analytical tool provides information regarding aspects of the PTMome which are not normally examined, and illuminates the role of PTMs on a more detailed, protein-centric and site-specific level in a biological context. The widespread yet uneven distributions observed will be relevant to those readers with an interest in the mechanisms of distribution of PTMS and their functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Roles of Intramolecular and Intermolecular Interactions in Functional Regulation of the Hsp70 J-protein Co-Chaperone Sis1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hyun Young; Ziegelhoffer, Thomas; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Ciesielski, Szymon J.; Baranowski, Maciej; Zhou, Min; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Craig, Elizabeth A.

    2015-04-01

    Unlike other Hsp70 molecular chaperones, those of the eukaryotic cytosol have four residues, EEVD, at heir C-termini. EEVD(Hsp70) binds adaptor proteins of the Hsp90 chaperone system and mitochondrial membrane preprotein receptors, thereby facilitating processing of Hsp70-bound clients through protein folding and translocation pathways. Among J-protein co-chaperones functioning in these pathways, Sis1 is unique, as it also binds the EEVD(Hsp70) motif. However, little is known about the role of the Sis1:EEVD(Hsp70) interaction. We found that deletion of EEVD(Hsp70) abolished the ability of Sis1, but not the ubiquitous J-protein Ydj1, to partner with Hsp70 in in vitro protein refolding. Sis1 co-chaperone activity with Hsp70ΔEEVD was restored upon substitution of a glutamic acid of the J-domain. Structural analysis revealed that this key glutamic acid, which is not present in Ydj1, forms a salt bridge with an arginine of the immediately adjacent glycine-rich region. Thus, restoration of Sis1 in vitro activity suggests that intramolecular interactions between the J-domain and glycine-rich region control co-chaperone activity, which is optimal only when Sis1 interacts with the EEVD(Hsp70) motif. However, we found that disruption of the Sis1:EEVD(Hsp70) interaction enhances the ability of Sis1 to substitute for Ydj1 in vivo. Our results are consistent with the idea that interaction of Sis1 with EEVD(Hsp70) minimizes transfer of Sis1-bound clients to Hsp70s that are primed for client transfer to folding and translocation pathways by their preassociation with EEVD binding adaptor proteins. These interactions may be one means by which cells triage Ydj1- and Sis1-bound clients to productive and quality control pathways, respectively.

  9. Seminal plasma proteins regulate the association of lipids and proteins within detergent-resistant membrane domains of bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girouard, Julie; Frenette, Gilles; Sullivan, Robert

    2008-05-01

    Maturing spermatozoa acquire full fertilization competence by undergoing major changes in membrane fluidity and protein composition and localization. In epididymal spermatozoa, several proteins are associated with cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) domains. These proteins dissociate from DRM in capacitated sperm cells, suggesting that DRM may play a role in the redistribution of integral and peripheral proteins in response to cholesterol removal. Since seminal plasma regulates sperm cell membrane fluidity, we hypothesized that seminal plasma factors could be involved in DRM disruption and redistribution of DRM-associated proteins. Our results indicate that: 1) the sperm-associated proteins, P25b and adenylate kinase 1, are linked to DRM of epididymal spermatozoa, but were exclusively associated with detergent-soluble material in ejaculated spermatozoa; 2) seminal plasma treatment of cauda epididymal spermatozoa significantly lowered the content of cholesterol and the ganglioside, GM1, in DRM; and 3), seminal plasma dissociates P25b from DRM in epididymal spermatozoa. We found that the seminal plasma protein, Niemann-Pick C2 protein, is involved in cholesterol and GM1 depletion within DRM, then leading to membrane redistribution of P25b that occurs in a very rapid and capacitation-independent manner. Together, these data suggest that DRM of ejaculated spermatozoa are reorganized by specific seminal plasma proteins, which induce lipid efflux as well as dissociation of DRM-anchored proteins. This process could be physiologically relevant in vivo to allow sperm survival and attachment within the female reproductive tract and to potentiate recognition, binding, and penetration of the oocyte.

  10. Solution conformation of the response regulator proteins from Deinococcus radiodurans studied by SAXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qin; Liu, Ying; Liu, Peng; Dong, Yu-Hui

    2011-10-01

    In this paper the solution conformation of the response regulator proteins from Deinococcus radiodurans was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The SAXS curves of Dr-rrA in solutions were obtained at Beamline 1W2A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Two possible conformations of the response regulator proteins, compact and incompact conformations, have been represented by the known crystallographic structures. And theoretical solution scattering curves of the two possible conformations were calculated and fitted to the experimental scattering curve of Dr-rrA, respectively. The result indicates that the solution conformation of the response regulator proteins is inclined to the compact one, which is in agreement with the result of biochemical experiments.

  11. The TIR-domain containing adaptor TRAM is required for TLR7 mediated RANTES production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enda Shevlin

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7 plays a vital role in the immune response to ssRNA viruses such as human rhinovirus (HRV and Influenza, against which there are currently no treatments or vaccines with long term efficacy available. Clearly, a more comprehensive understanding of the TLR7 signaling axis will contribute to its molecular targeting. TRIF related adaptor molecule (TRAM plays a vital role in TLR4 signaling by recruiting TRIF to TLR4, followed by endosomal trafficking of the complex and initiation of IRF3 dependent type I interferon production as well as NF-κB dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Towards understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate TLR7 functionality, we found that TRAM(-/- murine macrophages exhibited a transcriptional and translational impairment in TLR7 mediated RANTES, but not TNFα, production. Suppression of TRAM expression in human macrophages also resulted in an impairment in TLR7 mediated CCL5 and IFN-β, but not TNFα, gene induction. Furthermore, suppression of endogenous human TRAM expression in human macrophages significantly impaired RV16 induced CCL5 and IFNβ, but not TNFα gene induction. Additionally, TRAM-G2A dose-dependently inhibited TLR7 mediated activation of CCL5, IFNβ and IFNα reporter genes. TLR7-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 was impaired in TRAM(-/- cells. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies indicated that TRAM physically interacts with MyD88 upon TLR7 stimulation, but not under basal conditions. Our results clearly demonstrate that TRAM plays a, hitherto unappreciated, role in TLR7 signaling through a novel signaling axis containing, but not limited to, MyD88, TRAM and IRF3 towards the activation of anti-viral immunity.

  12. Protein Digestion-Derived Peptides and the Peripheral Regulation of Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Cudennec

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The gut plays a central role in energy homeostasis. Food intake regulation strongly relies on the gut–brain axis, and numerous studies have pointed out the significant role played by gut hormones released from enteroendocrine cells. It is well known that digestive products of dietary protein possess a high satiating effect compared to carbohydrates and fat. Nevertheless, the processes occurring in the gut during protein digestion involved in the short-term regulation of food intake are still not totally unraveled. This review provides a concise overview of the current data concerning the implication of food-derived peptides in the peripheral regulation of food intake with a focus on the gut hormones cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 regulation and the relationship with some aspects of glucose homeostasis.

  13. Identification of Autophagosome-associated Proteins and Regulators by Quantitative Proteomic Analysis and Genetic Screens*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Høyer-Hansen, Maria; Nielsen, Maria O.; Eisenberg, Tobias; Harder, Lea M.; Schandorff, Søren; Farkas, Thomas; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Becker, Andrea C.; Schroeder, Sabrina; Vanselow, Katja; Lundberg, Emma; Nielsen, Mogens M.; Kristensen, Anders R.; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Madeo, Frank; Jäättelä, Marja; Andersen, Jens S.

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is one of the major intracellular catabolic pathways, but little is known about the composition of autophagosomes. To study the associated proteins, we isolated autophagosomes from human breast cancer cells using two different biochemical methods and three stimulus types: amino acid deprivation or rapamycin or concanamycin A treatment. The autophagosome-associated proteins were dependent on stimulus, but a core set of proteins was stimulus-independent. Remarkably, proteasomal proteins were abundant among the stimulus-independent common autophagosome-associated proteins, and the activation of autophagy significantly decreased the cellular proteasome level and activity supporting interplay between the two degradation pathways. A screen of yeast strains defective in the orthologs of the human genes encoding for a common set of autophagosome-associated proteins revealed several regulators of autophagy, including subunits of the retromer complex. The combined spatiotemporal proteomic and genetic data sets presented here provide a basis for further characterization of autophagosome biogenesis and cargo selection. PMID:22311637

  14. Interaction of a plant pseudo-response regulator with a calmodulin-like protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perochon, Alexandre; Dieterle, Stefan; Pouzet, Cecile; Aldon, Didier; Galaud, Jean-Philippe [UMR 5546 CNRS/Universite Toulouse 3, Pole de Biotechnologie vegetale, BP 42617 Auzeville, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan cedex (France); Ranty, Benoit, E-mail: ranty@scsv.ups-tlse.fr [UMR 5546 CNRS/Universite Toulouse 3, Pole de Biotechnologie vegetale, BP 42617 Auzeville, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan cedex (France)

    2010-08-06

    Research highlights: {yields} The pseudo-response regulator PRR2 specifically binds CML9, a calmodulin-like protein {yields} The interaction is confirmed in plant cell nuclei {yields} The interaction requires an intact PRR2 protein. -- Abstract: Calmodulin (CaM) plays a crucial role in the regulation of diverse cellular processes by modulating the activities of numerous target proteins. Plants possess an extended CaM family including numerous CaM-like proteins (CMLs), most of which appear to be unique to plants. We previously demonstrated a role for CML9 in abiotic stress tolerance and seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. We report here the isolation of PRR2, a pseudo-response regulator as a CML9 interacting protein by screening an expression library prepared from Arabidopsis seedlings with CML9 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid system. PRR2 is similar to the response regulators of the two-component system, but lacks the invariant residue required for phosphorylation by which response regulators switch their output response, suggesting the existence of alternative regulatory mechanisms. PRR2 was found to bind CML9 and closely related CMLs but not a canonical CaM. Mapping analyses indicate that an almost complete form of PRR2 is required for interaction with CML9, suggesting a recognition mode different from the classical CaM-target peptide complex. PRR2 contains several features that are typical of transcription factors, including a GARP DNA recognition domain, a Pro-rich region and a Golden C-terminal box. PRR2 and CML9 as fusion proteins with fluorescent tags co-localized in the nucleus of plant cells, and their interaction in the nuclear compartment was validated in planta by using a fluorophore-tagged protein interaction assay. These findings suggest that binding of PRR2 to CML9 may be an important mechanism to modulate the physiological role of this transcription factor in plants.

  15. mTOR Signaling in Protein Translation Regulation: Implications in Cancer Genesis and Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehvish Showkat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available mTOR is a central nutrient sensor that signals a cell to grow and proliferate. Through distinct protein complexes it regulates different levels of available cellular energy substrates required for cell growth. One of the important functions of the complex is to maintain available amino acid pool by regulating protein translation. Dysregulation of mTOR pathway leads to aberrant protein translation which manifests into various pathological states. Our review focuses on the role mTOR signaling plays in protein translation and its physiological role. It also throws some light on available data that show translation dysregulation as a cause of pathological complexities like cancer and the available drugs that target the pathway for cancer treatment.

  16. Heme metabolism in stress regulation and protein production: From Cinderella to a key player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J L; Petranovic, D; Nielsen, J

    2016-04-02

    Heme biosynthesis is a highly conserved pathway which is present in all kingdoms, from Archaea to higher organisms such as plants and mammals. The heme molecule acts as a prosthetic group for different proteins and enzymes involved in energy metabolism and reactions involved in electron transfer. Based on our recent findings and other recent reports, we here illustrate that heme is more than a co-factor. We also discuss the necessity to gain more insight into the heme biosynthesis pathway regulation, as this interacts closely with overall stress control. Understanding heme biosynthesis and its regulation could impact our ability to develop more efficient yeast cell factories for heterologous protein production.

  17. Targeting pH regulating proteins for cancer therapy-Progress and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Scott K; Pouysségur, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Tumour acidity induced by metabolic alterations and incomplete vascularisation sets cancer cells apart from normal cellular physiology. This distinguishing tumour characteristic has been an area of intense study, as cellular pH (pH i ) disturbances disrupt protein function and therefore multiple cellular processes. Tumour cells effectively utilise pH i regulating machinery present in normal cells with enhancements provided by additional oncogenic or hypoxia induced protein modifications. This overall improvement of pH regulation enables maintenance of an alkaline pH i in the continued presence of external acidification (pH e ). Considerable experimentation has revealed targets that successfully disrupt tumour pH i regulation in efforts to develop novel means to weaken or kill tumour cells. However, redundancy in these pH-regulating proteins, which include Na + /H + exchangers (NHEs), carbonic anhydrases (CAs), Na + /HCO 3 - co-transporters (NBCs) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) has prevented effective disruption of tumour pH i when individual protein targeting is performed. Here we synthesise recent advances in understanding both normoxic and hypoxic pH regulating mechanisms in tumour cells with an ultimate focus on the disruption of tumour growth, survival and metastasis. Interactions between tumour acidity and other cell types are also proving to be important in understanding therapeutic applications such as immune therapy. Promising therapeutic developments regarding pH manipulation along with current limitations are highlighted to provide a framework for future research directives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Attenuation of Zinc Finger Nuclease Toxicity by Small-Molecule Regulation of Protein Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett-Miller, Shondra M.; Reading, David W.; Porter, Shaina N.; Porteus, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) have been used successfully to create genome-specific double-strand breaks and thereby stimulate gene targeting by several thousand fold. ZFNs are chimeric proteins composed of a specific DNA-binding domain linked to a non-specific DNA-cleavage domain. By changing key residues in the recognition helix of the specific DNA-binding domain, one can alter the ZFN binding specificity and thereby change the sequence to which a ZFN pair is being targeted. For these and other reasons, ZFNs are being pursued as reagents for genome modification, including use in gene therapy. In order for ZFNs to reach their full potential, it is important to attenuate the cytotoxic effects currently associated with many ZFNs. Here, we evaluate two potential strategies for reducing toxicity by regulating protein levels. Both strategies involve creating ZFNs with shortened half-lives and then regulating protein level with small molecules. First, we destabilize ZFNs by linking a ubiquitin moiety to the N-terminus and regulate ZFN levels using a proteasome inhibitor. Second, we destabilize ZFNs by linking a modified destabilizing FKBP12 domain to the N-terminus and regulate ZFN levels by using a small molecule that blocks the destabilization effect of the N-terminal domain. We show that by regulating protein levels, we can maintain high rates of ZFN-mediated gene targeting while reducing ZFN toxicity. PMID:19214211

  19. Overview of OVATE FAMILY PROTEINS, A Novel Class of Plant-Specific Growth Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shucai; Chang, Ying; Ellis, Brian

    2016-01-01

    OVATE FAMILY PROTEINS (OFPs) are a class of proteins with a conserved OVATE domain. OVATE protein was first identified in tomato as a key regulator of fruit shape. OFPs are plant-specific proteins that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom including mosses and lycophytes. Transcriptional activity analysis of Arabidopsis OFPs (AtOFPs) in protoplasts suggests that they act as transcription repressors. Functional characterization of OFPs from different plant species including Arabidopsis, rice, tomato, pepper, and banana suggests that OFPs regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development, which is likely achieved by interacting with different types of transcription factors including the KNOX and BELL classes, and/or directly regulating the expression of target genes such as Gibberellin 20 oxidase (GA20ox). Here, we examine how OVATE was originally identified, summarize recent progress in elucidation of the roles of OFPs in regulating plant growth and development, and describe possible mechanisms underpinning this regulation. Finally, we review potential new research directions that could shed additional light on the functional biology of OFPs in plants.

  20. Protein phosphatase 2A isotypes regulate cell surface expression of the T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Menné, C; Kastrup, J

    2001-01-01

    show that inhibition of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A family had a biphasic effect on TCR expression. Thus, low concentrations of PP2A inhibitors induced TCR down-regulation, whereas higher concentrations of PP2A inhibitors induced TCR up-regulation. The effect of PP2A inhibition...... regulatory role for PP2A in both exocytosis and endocytosis....

  1. Regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by LKB1 and CaMKK in adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormand, Amélie; Henriksson, Emma; Ström, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. In adipose tissue, activation of AMPK has been demonstrated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. However, the upstream kinase that activates AMPK in adipocytes...... of phenformin. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of a Ca(2+) /CaMKK signaling pathway that can also regulate the activity of AMPK in adipocytes....

  2. Expression and chromatin structures of cellulolytic enzyme gene regulated by heterochromatin protein 1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiujun; Qu, Yinbo; Qin, Yuqi

    2016-01-01

    Background Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1, homologue HepA in Penicillium oxalicum) binding is associated with a highly compact chromatin state accompanied by gene silencing or repression. HP1 loss leads to the derepression of gene expression. We investigated HepA roles in regulating cellulolytic enzyme gene expression, as an increasingly number of studies have suggested that cellulolytic enzyme gene expression is not only regulated by transcription factors, but is also affected by the chromat...

  3. Dock/Nck facilitates PTP61F/PTP1B regulation of insulin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Lun; Buszard, Bree; Teng, Chun-Hung; Chen, Wei-Lin; Warr, Coral G; Tiganis, Tony; Meng, Tzu-Ching

    2011-10-01

    PTP1B (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B) is a negative regulator of IR (insulin receptor) activation and glucose homoeostasis, but the precise molecular mechanisms governing PTP1B substrate selectivity and the regulation of insulin signalling remain unclear. In the present study we have taken advantage of Drosophila as a model organism to establish the role of the SH3 (Src homology 3)/SH2 adaptor protein Dock (Dreadlocks) and its mammalian counterpart Nck in IR regulation by PTPs. We demonstrate that the PTP1B orthologue PTP61F dephosphorylates the Drosophila IR in S2 cells in vitro and attenuates IR-induced eye overgrowth in vivo. Our studies indicate that Dock forms a stable complex with PTP61F and that Dock/PTP61F associate with the IR in response to insulin. We report that Dock is required for effective IR dephosphorylation and inactivation by PTP61F in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nck interacts with PTP1B and that the Nck/PTP1B complex inducibly associates with the IR for the attenuation of IR activation in mammalian cells. Our studies reveal for the first time that the adaptor protein Dock/Nck attenuates insulin signalling by recruiting PTP61F/PTP1B to its substrate, the IR.

  4. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Shaked

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP regulates critical biological processes including inflammation, stress and apoptosis. TXNIP is upregulated by glucose and is a critical mediator of hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell apoptosis in diabetes. In contrast, the saturated long-chain fatty acid palmitate, although toxic to the beta-cell, inhibits TXNIP expression. The mechanisms involved in the opposing effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression are unknown. We found that both palmitate and oleate inhibited TXNIP in a rat beta-cell line and islets. Palmitate inhibition of TXNIP was independent of fatty acid beta-oxidation or esterification. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has an important role in cellular energy sensing and control of metabolic homeostasis; therefore we investigated its involvement in nutrient regulation of TXNIP. As expected, glucose inhibited whereas palmitate stimulated AMPK. Pharmacologic activators of AMPK mimicked fatty acids by inhibiting TXNIP. AMPK knockdown increased TXNIP expression in presence of high glucose with and without palmitate, indicating that nutrient (glucose and fatty acids effects on TXNIP are mediated in part via modulation of AMPK activity. TXNIP is transcriptionally regulated by carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP. Palmitate inhibited glucose-stimulated ChREBP nuclear entry and recruitment to the Txnip promoter, thereby inhibiting Txnip transcription. We conclude that AMPK is an important regulator of Txnip transcription via modulation of ChREBP activity. The divergent effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression result in part from their opposing effects on AMPK activity. In light of the important role of TXNIP in beta-cell apoptosis, its inhibition by fatty acids can be regarded as an adaptive/protective response to glucolipotoxicity. The finding that AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of TXNIP may have important implications for the pathophysiology and treatment

  5. Roles of Piwi Proteins in Transcriptional Regulation Mediated by HP1s in Cultured Silkworm Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Zhu, Li; Li, Zhiqing; Mitsunobu, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Kaito; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Piwi proteins are part of a superfamily of Argonaute proteins, which are one of the core components of the RNA silencing pathway in many eukaryotes. Piwi proteins are thought to repress the transposon expression both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster Piwi was recently reported to associate with chromatin and to interact directly with the Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1a). However, similar interactions have not been reported in other higher eukaryotes. Here we show that silkworm Piwi proteins interact with HP1s in the nucleus. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has two Piwi proteins, Ago3 and Siwi, and two typical HP1 proteins, HP1a and HP1b. We found that HP1a plays an important role in the interaction between Ago3/Siwi and HP1b in the ovary-derived BmN4 cell line. We also found that Ago3/Siwi regulates the transcription in an HP1-dependent manner. These results suggest that silkworm Piwi proteins function as a chromatin regulator in collaboration with HP1a and HP1b. PMID:24637637

  6. Regulator of G-protein signaling - 5 (RGS5 is a novel repressor of hedgehog signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling plays fundamental roles in morphogenesis, tissue repair, and human disease. Initiation of Hh signaling is controlled by the interaction of two multipass membrane proteins, patched (Ptc and smoothened (Smo. Recent studies identify Smo as a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR-like protein that signals through large G-protein complexes which contain the Gαi subunit. We hypothesize Regulator of G-Protein Signaling (RGS proteins, and specifically RGS5, are endogenous repressors of Hh signaling via their ability to act as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs for GTP-bound Gαi, downstream of Smo. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate that RGS5 over-expression inhibits sonic hedgehog (Shh-mediated signaling and osteogenesis in C3H10T1/2 cells. Conversely, signaling is potentiated by siRNA-mediated knock-down of RGS5 expression, but not RGS4 expression. Furthermore, using immuohistochemical analysis and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP, we demonstrate that RGS5 is present with Smo in primary cilia. This organelle is required for canonical Hh signaling in mammalian cells, and RGS5 is found in a physical complex with Smo in these cells. We therefore conclude that RGS5 is an endogenous regulator of Hh-mediated signaling and that RGS proteins are potential targets for novel therapeutics in Hh-mediated diseases.

  7. Study of the Stn protein in Salmonella; a regulator of membrane composition and integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masayuki; Yamasaki, Eiki; Moss, Joel; Hirayama, Toshiya; Kurazono, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Our studies were undertaken to develop new insights into the function of the Salmonella Stn protein. An analysis of total cell membrane protein fraction suggested the possibility that Stn associates with OmpA. This possibility was confirmed by immunogold labeling using anti-OmpA antibody and far-western blotting. From these results, we conclude that Stn regulates membrane composition and integrity in Salmonella.

  8. Regulation of protein stability of DNA methyltransferase 1 by post-translational modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Anthony; Song, Jing; Ewing, Rob; Wang, Zhenghe

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that ensures correct gene expression and maintains genetic stability. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is the primary enzyme that maintains DNA methylation during replication. Dysregulation of DNMT1 is implicated in a variety of diseases. DNMT1 protein stability is regulated via various post-translational modifications, such as acetylation and ubiquitination, but also through protein–protein interactions. These mechanisms ensure DNMT1 is pro...

  9. The RNA-binding protein Rbfox1 regulates splicing required for skeletal muscle structure and function

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrotti, Simona; Giudice, Jimena; Dagnino-Acosta, Adan; Knoblauch, Mark; Singh, Ravi K.; Hanna, Amy; Mo, Qianxing; Hicks, John; Hamilton, Susan; Cooper, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The Rbfox family of RNA-binding proteins is highly conserved with established roles in alternative splicing (AS) regulation. High-throughput studies aimed at understanding transcriptome remodeling have revealed skeletal muscle as displaying one of the largest number of AS events. This finding is consistent with requirements for tissue-specific protein isoforms needed to sustain muscle-specific functions. Rbfox1 is abundant in vertebrate brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Genome-wide genetic ap...

  10. Angelman syndrome protein UBE3A interacts with primary microcephaly protein ASPM, localizes to centrosomes and regulates chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhmar, Pooja; Kumar, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Many proteins associated with the phenotype microcephaly have been localized to the centrosome or linked to it functionally. All the seven autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) proteins localize at the centrosome. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II protein PCNT and Seckel syndrome (also characterized by severe microcephaly) protein ATR are also centrosomal proteins. All of the above findings show the importance of centrosomal proteins as the key players in neurogenesis and brain development. However, the exact mechanism as to how the loss-of-function of these proteins leads to microcephaly remains to be elucidated. To gain insight into the function of the most commonly mutated MCPH gene ASPM, we used the yeast two-hybrid technique to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library with an ASPM bait. The analysis identified Angelman syndrome gene product UBE3A as an ASPM interactor. Like ASPM, UBE3A also localizes to the centrosome. The identification of UBE3A as an ASPM interactor is not surprising as more than 80% of Angelman syndrome patients have microcephaly. However, unlike in MCPH, microcephaly is postnatal in Angelman syndrome patients. Our results show that UBE3A is a cell cycle regulated protein and its level peaks in mitosis. The shRNA knockdown of UBE3A in HEK293 cells led to many mitotic abnormalities including chromosome missegregation, abnormal cytokinesis and apoptosis. Thus our study links Angelman syndrome protein UBE3A to ASPM, centrosome and mitosis for the first time. We suggest that a defective chromosome segregation mechanism is responsible for the development of microcephaly in Angelman syndrome.

  11. Angelman syndrome protein UBE3A interacts with primary microcephaly protein ASPM, localizes to centrosomes and regulates chromosome segregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Singhmar

    Full Text Available Many proteins associated with the phenotype microcephaly have been localized to the centrosome or linked to it functionally. All the seven autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH proteins localize at the centrosome. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II protein PCNT and Seckel syndrome (also characterized by severe microcephaly protein ATR are also centrosomal proteins. All of the above findings show the importance of centrosomal proteins as the key players in neurogenesis and brain development. However, the exact mechanism as to how the loss-of-function of these proteins leads to microcephaly remains to be elucidated. To gain insight into the function of the most commonly mutated MCPH gene ASPM, we used the yeast two-hybrid technique to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library with an ASPM bait. The analysis identified Angelman syndrome gene product UBE3A as an ASPM interactor. Like ASPM, UBE3A also localizes to the centrosome. The identification of UBE3A as an ASPM interactor is not surprising as more than 80% of Angelman syndrome patients have microcephaly. However, unlike in MCPH, microcephaly is postnatal in Angelman syndrome patients. Our results show that UBE3A is a cell cycle regulated protein and its level peaks in mitosis. The shRNA knockdown of UBE3A in HEK293 cells led to many mitotic abnormalities including chromosome missegregation, abnormal cytokinesis and apoptosis. Thus our study links Angelman syndrome protein UBE3A to ASPM, centrosome and mitosis for the first time. We suggest that a defective chromosome segregation mechanism is responsible for the development of microcephaly in Angelman syndrome.

  12. Recent Progress in Understanding Subtype Specific Regulation of NMDA Receptors by G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs are the largest family of receptors whose ligands constitute nearly a third of prescription drugs in the market. They are widely involved in diverse physiological functions including learning and memory. NMDA receptors (NMDARs, which belong to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, are likewise ubiquitously expressed in the central nervous system (CNS and play a pivotal role in learning and memory. Despite its critical contribution to physiological and pathophysiological processes, few pharmacological interventions aimed directly at regulating NMDAR function have been developed to date. However, it is well established that NMDAR function is precisely regulated by cellular signalling cascades recruited downstream of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR stimulation. Accordingly, the downstream regulation of NMDARs likely represents an important determinant of outcome following treatment with neuropsychiatric agents that target selected GPCRs. Importantly, the functional consequence of such regulation on NMDAR function varies, based not only on the identity of the GPCR, but also on the cell type in which relevant receptors are expressed. Indeed, the mechanisms responsible for regulating NMDARs by GPCRs involve numerous intracellular signalling molecules and regulatory proteins that vary from one cell type to another. In the present article, we highlight recent findings from studies that have uncovered novel mechanisms by which selected GPCRs regulate NMDAR function and consequently NMDAR-dependent plasticity.

  13. Regulation of the activity of the dual-function DnaA protein in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fernandez-Fernandez

    Full Text Available DnaA is a conserved essential bacterial protein that acts as the initiator of chromosomal replication as well as a master transcriptional regulator in Caulobacter crescentus. Thus, the intracellular levels of active DnaA need to be tightly regulated during the cell cycle. Our previous work suggested that DnaA may be regulated at the level of its activity by the replisome-associated protein HdaA. Here, we describe the construction of a mutant DnaA protein [DnaA(R357A]. The R357 residue in the AAA+ domain of the C. crescentus DnaA protein is equivalent to the R334 residue of the E. coli DnaA protein, which is required for the Regulatory Inactivation of DnaA (RIDA. We found that the expression of the DnaA(R357A mutant protein in C. crescentus, but not the expression of the wild-type DnaA protein at similar levels, causes a severe phenotype of over-initiation of chromosomal replication and that it blocks cell division. Thus, the mutant DnaA(R357A protein is hyper-active to promote the initiation of DNA replication, compared to the wild-type DnaA protein. DnaA(R357A could not replace DnaA in vivo, indicating that the switch in DnaA activity once chromosomal replication has started may be an essential process in C. crescentus. We propose that the inactivation of DnaA is the main mechanism ensuring that chromosomal replication starts only once per cell cycle. We further observed that the R357A substitution in DnaA does not promote the activity of DnaA as a direct transcriptional activator of four important genes, encoding HdaA, the GcrA master cell cycle regulator, the FtsZ cell division protein and the MipZ spatial regulator of cell division. Thus, the AAA+ domain of DnaA may play a role in temporally regulating the bifunctionality of DnaA by reallocating DnaA molecules from initiating DNA replication to transcribing genes within the unique DnaA regulon of C. crescentus.

  14. Flow-dependent regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: role of protein kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are directly and continuously exposed to fluid shear stress generated by blood flow. Shear stress regulates endothelial structure and function by controlling expression of mechanosensitive genes and production of vasoactive factors such as nitric oxide (NO). Though it is well known that shear stress stimulates NO production from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear and controversial. Shear-induced production of NO involves Ca2+/calmodulin-independent mechanisms, including phosphorylation of eNOS at several sites and its interaction with other proteins, including caveolin and heat shock protein-90. There have been conflicting results as to which protein kinases-protein kinase A, protein kinase B (Akt), other Ser/Thr protein kinases, or tyrosine kinases-are responsible for shear-dependent eNOS regulation. The functional significance of each phosphorylation site is still unclear. We have attempted to summarize the current status of understanding in shear-dependent eNOS regulation.

  15. Dicer-like Proteins Regulate the Growth, Conidiation, and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiannan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Hevea brasiliensis is the hemibiotrophic fungi which could cause anthracnose in rubber trees. Dicer like proteins (DCL were the core enzymes for generation of small RNAs. In the present study, the knocking-out mutants of two dicer like proteins encoding genes of C. gloeosporioides were constructed; and functions of two proteins were investigated. The results showed that DCL play important roles in regulating the growth, conidiation and pathogenicity of C. gloeosporioides; and there is a functional redundancy between DCL1 and DCL2. Microscopy analysis and DAB staining revealed that loss of penetration ability into the host cells, instead of the decreased growth rate, was the main cause for the impaired pathogenicity of the ΔDcl1ΔDcl2 double mutant. Proteomics analysis suggested that DCL proteins affected the expression of functional proteins to regulating multiple biological processes of C. gloeosporioides. These data lead to a better understanding of the functions of DCL proteins in regulating the development and pathogenesis of C. gloeosporioides.

  16. The nuclear import of ribosomal proteins is regulated by mTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazyken, Dubek; Kaz, Yelimbek; Kiyan, Vladimir; Zhylkibayev, Assylbek A.; Chen, Chien-Hung; Agarwal, Nitin K.; Sarbassov, Dos D.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central component of the essential signaling pathway that regulates cell growth and proliferation by controlling anabolic processes in cells. mTOR exists in two distinct mTOR complexes known as mTORC1 and mTORC2 that reside mostly in cytoplasm. In our study, the biochemical characterization of mTOR led to discovery of its novel localization on nuclear envelope where it associates with a critical regulator of nuclear import Ran Binding Protein 2 (RanBP2). We show that association of mTOR with RanBP2 is dependent on the mTOR kinase activity that regulates the nuclear import of ribosomal proteins. The mTOR kinase inhibitors within thirty minutes caused a substantial decrease of ribosomal proteins in the nuclear but not cytoplasmic fraction. Detection of a nuclear accumulation of the GFP-tagged ribosomal protein rpL7a also indicated its dependence on the mTOR kinase activity. The nuclear abundance of ribosomal proteins was not affected by inhibition of mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) by rapamycin or deficiency of mTORC2, suggesting a distinctive role of the nuclear envelope mTOR complex in the nuclear import. Thus, we identified that mTOR in association with RanBP2 mediates the active nuclear import of ribosomal proteins. PMID:25294810

  17. Trm9-Catalyzed tRNA Modifications Regulate Global Protein Expression by Codon-Biased Translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Deng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional modifications of transfer RNAs (tRNAs have long been recognized to play crucial roles in regulating the rate and fidelity of translation. However, the extent to which they determine global protein production remains poorly understood. Here we use quantitative proteomics to show a direct link between wobble uridine 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5 and 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thio (mcm5s2 modifications catalyzed by tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9 in tRNAArg(UCU and tRNAGlu(UUC and selective translation of proteins from genes enriched with their cognate codons. Controlling for bias in protein expression and alternations in mRNA expression, we find that loss of Trm9 selectively impairs expression of proteins from genes enriched with AGA and GAA codons under both normal and stress conditions. Moreover, we show that AGA and GAA codons occur with high frequency in clusters along the transcripts, which may play a role in modulating translation. Consistent with these results, proteins subject to enhanced ribosome pausing in yeast lacking mcm5U and mcm5s2U are more likely to be down-regulated and contain a larger number of AGA/GAA clusters. Together, these results suggest that Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications play a significant role in regulating protein expression within the cell.

  18. Regulation of RCAN1 Protein Activity by Dyrk1A Protein-mediated Phosphorylation*

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Min-Su; Park, Jung-Hwa; Ryu, Young Shin; Choi, Sun-Hee; Yoon, Song-Hee; Kwen, Mi-Yang; Oh, Ji Youn; Song, Woo-Joo; Chung, Sul-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Two genes on chromosome 21, namely dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) and regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), have been implicated in some of the phenotypic characteristics of Down syndrome, including the early onset of Alzheimer disease. Although a link between Dyrk1A and RCAN1 and the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway has been reported, it remains unclear whether Dyrk1A directly interacts with RCAN1. In the present study, Dyrk1A is shown ...

  19. Nuclear Protein Sam68 Interacts with the Enterovirus 71 Internal Ribosome Entry Site and Positively Regulates Viral Protein Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Song, Lei; Cong, Haolong; Tien, Po

    2015-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) recruits various cellular factors to assist in the replication and translation of its genome. Identification of the host factors involved in the EV71 life cycle not only will enable a better understanding of the infection mechanism but also has the potential to be of use in the development of antiviral therapeutics. In this study, we demonstrated that the cellular factor 68-kDa Src-associated protein in mitosis (Sam68) acts as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor (ITAF) that binds specifically to the EV71 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). Interaction sites in both the viral IRES (stem-loops IV and V) and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K homology (KH) domain of Sam68 protein were further mapped using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and biotin RNA pulldown assay. More importantly, dual-luciferase (firefly) reporter analysis suggested that overexpression of Sam68 positively regulated IRES-dependent translation of virus proteins. In contrast, both IRES activity and viral protein translation significantly decreased in Sam68 knockdown cells compared with the negative-control cells treated with short hairpin RNA (shRNA). However, downregulation of Sam68 did not have a significant inhibitory effect on the accumulation of the EV71 genome. Moreover, Sam68 was redistributed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and interacts with cellular factors, such as poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), during EV71 infection. The cytoplasmic relocalization of Sam68 in EV71-infected cells may be involved in the enhancement of EV71 IRES-mediated translation. Since Sam68 is known to be a RNA-binding protein, these results provide direct evidence that Sam68 is a novel ITAF that interacts with EV71 IRES and positively regulates viral protein translation. The nuclear protein Sam68 is found as an additional new host factor that interacts with the EV71 IRES during infection and could potentially

  20. Regulation of ciliary retrograde protein trafficking by the Joubert syndrome proteins ARL13B and INPP5E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Shohei; Katoh, Yohei; Terada, Masaya; Michisaka, Saki; Funabashi, Teruki; Takahashi, Senye; Kontani, Kenji; Nakayama, Kazuhisa

    2017-02-01

    ARL13B (a small GTPase) and INPP5E (a phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase) are ciliary proteins encoded by causative genes of Joubert syndrome. We here showed, by taking advantage of a visible immunoprecipitation assay, that ARL13B interacts with the IFT46 -: IFT56 (IFT56 is also known as TTC26) dimer of the intraflagellar transport (IFT)-B complex, which mediates anterograde ciliary protein trafficking. However, the ciliary localization of ARL13B was found to be independent of its interaction with IFT-B, but dependent on the ciliary-targeting sequence RVEP in its C-terminal region. ARL13B-knockout cells had shorter cilia than control cells and exhibited aberrant localization of ciliary proteins, including INPP5E. In particular, in ARL13B-knockout cells, the IFT-A and IFT-B complexes accumulated at ciliary tips, and GPR161 (a negative regulator of Hedgehog signaling) could not exit cilia in response to stimulation with Smoothened agonist. This abnormal phenotype was rescued by the exogenous expression of wild-type ARL13B, as well as by its mutant defective in the interaction with IFT-B, but not by its mutants defective in INPP5E binding or in ciliary localization. Thus, ARL13B regulates IFT-A-mediated retrograde protein trafficking within cilia through its interaction with INPP5E. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Protein disulfide isomerase-like protein 1-1 controls endosperm development through regulation of the amount and composition of seed proteins in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI is a chaperone protein involved in oxidative protein folding by acting as a catalyst and assisting folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. A genome database search showed that rice contains 19 PDI-like genes. However, their functions are not clearly identified. This paper shows possible functions of rice PDI-like protein 1-1 (PDIL1-1 during seed development. Seeds of the T-DNA insertion PDIL1-1 mutant, PDIL1-1Δ, identified by genomic DNA PCR and western blot analysis, display a chalky phenotype and a thick aleurone layer. Protein content per seed was significantly lower and free sugar content higher in PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds than in the wild type. Proteomic analysis of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds showed that PDIL1-1 is post-translationally regulated, and its loss causes accumulation of many types of seed proteins including glucose/starch metabolism- and ROS (reactive oxygen species scavenging-related proteins. In addition, PDIL1-1 strongly interacts with the cysteine protease OsCP1. Our data indicate that the opaque phenotype of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds results from production of irregular starch granules and protein body through loss of regulatory activity for various proteins involved in the synthesis of seed components.

  2. Regulation of contractile protein gene expression in unloaded mouse skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. S.; Carson, J. A.; Booth, F. W.

    1996-01-01

    Hindlimb unloading was performed on mice in an effort to study the regulation of contractile protein genes. In particular, the regulation of myosin heavy chain IIb was examined. During unloading, muscle fibers undergo a type conversion. Preliminary data from this study does not support the hypothesis that the fiber type conversion is due to an increase in promoter activity of fast isoform genes, such as myosin heavy chain IIb. The consequences of this finding are examined, with particular focus on other factors controlling gene regulation.

  3. A Dynamic Response Regulator Protein Modulates G-Protein–Dependent Polarity in the Bacterium Myxococcus xanthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Guzzo, Mathilde; Ducret, Adrien; Li, Yue-Zhong; Mignot, Tâm

    2012-01-01

    Migrating cells employ sophisticated signal transduction systems to respond to their environment and polarize towards attractant sources. Bacterial cells also regulate their polarity dynamically to reverse their direction of movement. In Myxococcus xanthus, a GTP-bound Ras-like G-protein, MglA, activates the motility machineries at the leading cell pole. Reversals are provoked by pole-to-pole switching of MglA, which is under the control of a chemosensory-like signal transduction cascade (Frz). It was previously known that the asymmetric localization of MglA at one cell pole is regulated by MglB, a GTPase Activating Protein (GAP). In this process, MglB specifically localizes at the opposite lagging cell pole and blocks MglA localization at that pole. However, how MglA is targeted to the leading pole and how Frz activity switches the localizations of MglA and MglB synchronously remained unknown. Here, we show that MglA requires RomR, a previously known response regulator protein, to localize to the leading cell pole efficiently. Specifically, RomR-MglA and RomR-MglB complexes are formed and act complementarily to establish the polarity axis, segregating MglA and MglB to opposite cell poles. Finally, we present evidence that Frz signaling may regulate MglA localization through RomR, suggesting that RomR constitutes a link between the Frz-signaling and MglAB polarity modules. Thus, in Myxococcus xanthus, a response regulator protein governs the localization of a small G-protein, adding further insight to the polarization mechanism and suggesting that motility regulation evolved by recruiting and combining existing signaling modules of diverse origins. PMID:22916026

  4. Proteomic analysis identifies interleukin 11 regulated plasma membrane proteins in human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background During the peri-implantation period, the embryo adheres to an adequately prepared or receptive endometrial surface epithelium. Abnormal embryo adhesion to the endometrium results in embryo implantation failure and infertility. Endometrial epithelial cell plasma membrane proteins critical in regulating adhesion may potentially be infertility biomarkers or targets for treating infertility. Interleukin (IL) 11 regulates human endometrial epithelial cells (hEEC) adhesion. Its production is abnormal in women with infertility. The objective of the study was to identify IL11 regulated plasma membrane proteins in hEEC in vitro using a proteomic approach. Methods Using a 2D-differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) electrophoresis combined with LCMS/MS mass spectrometry approach, we identified 20 unique plasma membrane proteins differentially regulated by IL11 in ECC-1 cells, a hEEC derived cell line. Two IL11 regulated proteins with known roles in cell adhesion, annexin A2 (ANXA2) and flotillin-1 (FLOT1), were validated by Western blot and immunocytochemistry in hEEC lines (ECC-1 and an additional cell line, Ishikawa) and primary hEEC. Flotilin-1 was further validated by immunohistochemistry in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle (n = 6-8/cycle). Results 2D-DIGE analysis identified 4 spots that were significantly different between control and IL11 treated group. Of these 4 spots, there were 20 proteins that were identified with LCMS/MS. Two proteins; ANXA2 and FLOT1 were chosen for further analyses and have found to be significantly up-regulated following IL11 treatment. Western blot analysis showed a 2-fold and a 2.5-fold increase of ANXA2 in hEEC membrane fraction of ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells respectively. Similarly, a 1.8-fold and a 2.3/2.4-fold increase was also observed for FLOT1 in hEEC membrane fraction of ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells respectively. In vitro, IL11 induced stronger ANXA2 expression on cell surface of primary hEEC and ECC-1 whilst

  5. Proteomic analysis identifies interleukin 11 regulated plasma membrane proteins in human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton Peter G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the peri-implantation period, the embryo adheres to an adequately prepared or receptive endometrial surface epithelium. Abnormal embryo adhesion to the endometrium results in embryo implantation failure and infertility. Endometrial epithelial cell plasma membrane proteins critical in regulating adhesion may potentially be infertility biomarkers or targets for treating infertility. Interleukin (IL 11 regulates human endometrial epithelial cells (hEEC adhesion. Its production is abnormal in women with infertility. The objective of the study was to identify IL11 regulated plasma membrane proteins in hEEC in vitro using a proteomic approach. Methods Using a 2D-differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE electrophoresis combined with LCMS/MS mass spectrometry approach, we identified 20 unique plasma membrane proteins differentially regulated by IL11 in ECC-1 cells, a hEEC derived cell line. Two IL11 regulated proteins with known roles in cell adhesion, annexin A2 (ANXA2 and flotillin-1 (FLOT1, were validated by Western blot and immunocytochemistry in hEEC lines (ECC-1 and an additional cell line, Ishikawa and primary hEEC. Flotilin-1 was further validated by immunohistochemistry in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle (n = 6-8/cycle. Results 2D-DIGE analysis identified 4 spots that were significantly different between control and IL11 treated group. Of these 4 spots, there were 20 proteins that were identified with LCMS/MS. Two proteins; ANXA2 and FLOT1 were chosen for further analyses and have found to be significantly up-regulated following IL11 treatment. Western blot analysis showed a 2-fold and a 2.5-fold increase of ANXA2 in hEEC membrane fraction of ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells respectively. Similarly, a 1.8-fold and a 2.3/2.4-fold increase was also observed for FLOT1 in hEEC membrane fraction of ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells respectively. In vitro, IL11 induced stronger ANXA2 expression on cell surface of primary h

  6. Strong negative self regulation of Prokaryotic transcription factors increases the intrinsic noise of protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Dafyd J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many prokaryotic transcription factors repress their own transcription. It is often asserted that such regulation enables a cell to homeostatically maintain protein abundance. We explore the role of negative self regulation of transcription in regulating the variability of protein abundance using a variety of stochastic modeling techniques. Results We undertake a novel analysis of a classic model for negative self regulation. We demonstrate that, with standard approximations, protein variance relative to its mean should be independent of repressor strength in a physiological range. Consequently, in that range, the coefficient of variation would increase with repressor strength. However, stochastic computer simulations demonstrate that there is a greater increase in noise associated with strong repressors than predicted by theory. The discrepancies between the mathematical analysis and computer simulations arise because with strong repressors the approximation that leads to Michaelis-Menten-like hyperbolic repression terms ceases to be valid. Because we observe that strong negative feedback increases variability and so is unlikely to be a mechanism for noise control, we suggest instead that negative feedback is evolutionarily favoured because it allows the cell to minimize mRNA usage. To test this, we used in silico evolution to demonstrate that while negative feedback can achieve only a modest improvement in protein noise reduction compared with the unregulated system, it can achieve good improvement in protein response times and very substantial improvement in reducing mRNA levels. Conclusion Strong negative self regulation of transcription may not always be a mechanism for homeostatic control of protein abundance, but instead might be evolutionarily favoured as a mechanism to limit the use of mRNA. The use of hyperbolic terms derived from quasi-steady-state approximation should also be avoided in the analysis of stochastic

  7. Strigolactone-Regulated Proteins Revealed by iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhou [ORNL; Czarnecki, Olaf [ORNL; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Yang, Jun [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a new class of plant hormones. In addition to acting as a key inhibitor of shoot branching, SLs stimulate seed germination of root parasitic plants and promote hyphal branching and root colonization of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. They also regulate many other aspects of plant growth and development. At the transcription level, SL-regulated genes have been reported. However, nothing is known about the proteome regulated by this new class of plant hormones. Here, a quantitative proteomics approach using an isobaric chemical labeling reagent, iTRAQ, to identify the proteome regulated by SLs in Arabidopsis seedlings is presented. It was found SLs regulate the expression of about three dozens of proteins that have not been previously assigned to SL pathways. These findings provide a new tool to investigate the molecular mechanism of action of SLs.

  8. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase expression in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandauer, Josef; Vienberg, Sara Gry; Andersen, Marianne Agerholm

    2013-01-01

    -activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases sirtuin activity by elevating NAD levels. As NAM directly inhibits sirtuins, increased Nampt activation or expression could be a metabolic stress response. Evidence suggests that AMPK regulates Nampt mRNA content, but whether repeated AMPK activation is necessary...... for increasing Nampt protein levels is unknown. To this end, we assessed whether exercise training- or 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR)-mediated increases in skeletal muscle Nampt abundance are AMPK dependant. One-legged knee-extensor exercise training in humans increased Nampt protein...

  9. Regulation of SUMO2 Target Proteins by the Proteasome in Human Cells Exposed to Replication Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bursomanno, Sara; McGouran, Joanna F; Kessler, Benedikt M

    2015-01-01

    In human cells, SUMO2 is predominantly conjugated to target proteins in response to cellular stress. Previous studies suggested that proteins conjugated to SUMO2, but not to SUMO1, could be regulated by the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome system. Hence, we set out to understand the role...... of the proteasome in determining the fate of proteins conjugated to SUMO2 when cells are treated with DNA replication stress conditions. We conducted a quantitative proteomic analysis in a U2OS cell line stably expressing SUMO2(Q87R) tagged with StrepHA in the presence or absence of epoxomicin (EPOX), a proteasome...

  10. Nerve growth factor selectively regulates expression of transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Töröcsik Béata

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NGF exerts a variety of actions including promotion of neuronal differentiation and survival. The PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cell line has proved valuable for studying how NGF works and has revealed that the NGF mechanism includes regulation of gene expression. Accordingly, we used SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression to compare levels of specific transcripts in PC12 cells before and after long-term NGF exposure. Of the approximately 22,000 transcripts detected and quantified, 4% are NGF-regulated by 6-fold or more. Here, we used database information to identify transcripts in our SAGE libraries that encode ribosomal proteins and have compared the effect of NGF on their relative levels of expression. Results Among the transcripts detected in our SAGE analysis, 74 were identified as encoding ribosomal proteins. Ribosomal protein transcripts were among the most abundantly expressed and, for naive and NGF-treated PC12 cells, represented 5.2% and 3.5%, respectively, of total transcripts analyzed. Surprisingly, nearly half of ribosomal protein transcripts underwent statistically significant NGF-promoted alterations in relative abundance, with changes of up to 5-fold. Of the changes, approximately 2/3 represented decreases. A time course revealed that the relative abundance of transcripts encoding RPL9 increases within 1 hr of NGF treatment and is maximally elevated by 8 hr. Conclusions These data establish that NGF selectively changes expression of ribosomal protein transcripts. These findings raise potential roles for regulation of ribosomal protein transcripts in NGF-promoted withdrawal from the cell cycle and neuronal differentiation and indicate that regulation of individual ribosomal protein transcripts is cell- and stimulus-specific.

  11. The homeodomain protein ladybird late regulates synthesis of milk proteins during pregnancy in the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M Attardo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina, the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion. The ability to cause such a disruption could be utilized as a tsetse control strategy. Here we identify and delineate the regulatory sequence of a major milk protein gene (milk gland protein 1:mgp1 by utilizing a combination of molecular techniques in tsetse, Drosophila transgenics, transcriptomics and in silico sequence analyses. The function of this promoter is conserved between tsetse and Drosophila. In transgenic Drosophila the mgp1 promoter directs reporter gene expression in a tissue and stage specific manner orthologous to that of Glossina. Analysis of the minimal required regulatory region of mgp1, and the regulatory regions of other Glossina milk proteins identified putative homeodomain protein binding sites as the sole common feature. Annotation and expression analysis of Glossina homeodomain proteins identified ladybird late (lbl as being accessory gland/fat body specific and differentially expressed between lactating/non-lactating flies. Knockdown of lbl in tsetse resulted in a significant reduction in transcript abundance of multiple milk protein genes and in a significant loss of fecundity. The role of Lbl in adult reproductive physiology is previously unknown. These results suggest that Lbl is part of a conserved reproductive regulatory system that could have implications beyond tsetse to other vector insects such as mosquitoes. This

  12. DMPD: Adaptor usage and Toll-like receptor signaling specificity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ll LA. FEBS Lett. 2005 Jun 13;579(15):3330-5. Epub 2005 Apr 26. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Adaptor u...05 Jun 13;579(15):3330-5. Epub 2005 Apr 26. Pathway - PNG File (.png) SVG File (.svg) HTML File (.html) CSML

  13. Rbfox Proteins Regulate Splicing as Part of a Large Multiprotein Complex LASR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damianov, Andrey; Ying, Yi; Lin, Chia-Ho; Lee, Ji-Ann; Tran, Diana; Vashisht, Ajay A; Bahrami-Samani, Emad; Xing, Yi; Martin, Kelsey C; Wohlschlegel, James A; Black, Douglas L

    2016-04-21

    Rbfox proteins control alternative splicing and posttranscriptional regulation in mammalian brain and are implicated in neurological disease. These proteins recognize the RNA sequence (U)GCAUG, but their structures and diverse roles imply a variety of protein-protein interactions. We find that nuclear Rbfox proteins are bound within a large assembly of splicing regulators (LASR), a multimeric complex containing the proteins hnRNP M, hnRNP H, hnRNP C, Matrin3, NF110/NFAR-2, NF45, and DDX5, all approximately equimolar to Rbfox. We show that splicing repression mediated by hnRNP M is stimulated by Rbfox. Virtually all the intron-bound Rbfox is associated with LASR, and hnRNP M motifs are enriched adjacent to Rbfox crosslinking sites in vivo. These findings demonstrate that Rbfox proteins bind RNA with a defined set of cofactors and affect a broader set of exons than previously recognized. The function of this multimeric LASR complex has implications for deciphering the regulatory codes controlling splicing networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) protein regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Veronica; Chini, Claudia C S; Escande, Carlos; Capellini, Verena; Chini, Eduardo N

    2014-02-28

    Liver gluconeogenesis is essential to provide energy to glycolytic tissues during fasting periods. However, aberrant up-regulation of this metabolic pathway contributes to the progression of glucose intolerance in individuals with diabetes. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression plays a critical role in the modulation of gluconeogenesis. Several pathways contribute to the regulation of PEPCK, including the nuclear receptor Rev-erbα and the histone deacetylase SIRT1. Deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) is a nuclear protein that binds to and regulates both Rev-erbα and SIRT1 and, therefore, is a candidate to participate in the regulation of PEPCK. In this work, we provide evidence that DBC1 regulates glucose metabolism and the expression of PEPCK. We show that DBC1 levels decrease early in the fasting state. Also, DBC1 KO mice display higher gluconeogenesis in a normal and a high-fat diet. DBC1 absence leads to an increase in PEPCK mRNA and protein expression. Conversely, overexpression of DBC1 results in a decrease in PEPCK mRNA and protein levels. DBC1 regulates the levels of Rev-erbα, and manipulation of Rev-erbα activity or levels prevents the effect of DBC1 on PEPCK. In addition, Rev-erbα levels decrease in the first hours of fasting. Finally, knockdown of the deacetylase SIRT1 eliminates the effect of DBC1 knockdown on Rev-erbα levels and PEPCK expression, suggesting that the mechanism of PEPCK regulation is, at least in part, dependent on the activity of this enzyme. Our results point to DBC1 as a novel regulator of gluconeogenesis.

  15. Protein quantitative trait locus study in obesity during weight-loss identifies a leptin regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carayol, Jérôme; Chabert, Christian; Di Cara, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Thousands of genetic variants have been associated with complex traits through genomewide association studies. However, the functional variants or mechanistic consequences remain elusive. Intermediate traits such as gene expression or protein levels are good proxies of the metabolic state...... of an organism. Proteome analysis especially can provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of complex traits like obesity. The role of genetic variation in determining protein level variation has not been assessed in obesity. To address this, we design a large-scale protein quantitative trait locus (p......QTL) analysis based on a set of 1129 proteins from 494 obese subjects before and after a weight loss intervention. This reveals 55 BMI-associated cis-pQTLs and trans-pQTLs at baseline and 3 trans-pQTLs after the intervention. We provide evidence for distinct genetic mechanisms regulating BMI-associated proteins...

  16. Protein-Carbohydrate Interaction between Sperm and the Egg-Coating Envelope and Its Regulation by Dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis Zona Pellucida Protein-Associated Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Miwa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein-carbohydrate interaction regulates multiple important processes during fertilization, an essential biological event where individual gametes undergo intercellular recognition to fuse and generate a zygote. In the mammalian female reproductive tract, sperm temporarily adhere to the oviductal epithelium via the complementary interaction between carbohydrate-binding proteins on the sperm membrane and carbohydrates on the oviductal cells. After detachment from the oviductal epithelium at the appropriate time point following ovulation, sperm migrate and occasionally bind to the extracellular matrix, called the zona pellucida (ZP, which surrounds the egg, thereafter undergoing the exocytotic acrosomal reaction to penetrate the envelope and to reach the egg plasma membrane. This sperm-ZP interaction also involves the direct interaction between sperm carbohydrate-binding proteins and carbohydrates within the ZP, most of which have been conserved across divergent species from mammals to amphibians and echinoderms. This review focuses on the carbohydrate-mediated interaction of sperm with the female reproductive tract, mainly the interaction between sperm and the ZP, and introduces the fertilization-suppressive action of dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis ZP protein-associated protein. The action of dicalcin correlates significantly with a dicalcin-dependent change in the lectin-staining pattern within the ZP, suggesting a unique role of dicalcin as an inherent protein that is capable of regulating the affinity between the lectin and oligosaccharides attached on its target glycoprotein.

  17. The Plant TPX2 Protein Regulates Prospindle Assembly before Nuclear Envelope Breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.W.; Pieuchot, L.; Evrard, J.L.; Janski, N.; Bergdoll, M.; Ronde, de D.

    2008-01-01

    The Targeting Protein for Xklp2 (TPX2) is a central regulator of spindle assembly in vertebrate cells. The absence or excess of TPX2 inhibits spindle formation. We have defined a TPX2 signature motif that is present once in vertebrate sequences but twice in plants. Plant TPX2 is predominantly

  18. ZNF143 protein is an important regulator of the myeloid transcription factor C/EBP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gonzalez, D.; Luyten, A.; Bartholdy, B.; Zhou, Q.; Kardošová, Miroslava; Ebralidze, A.; Swanson, K.D.; Radomska, H.S.; Zhang, P.; Kobayashi, S.S.; Welner, R.S.; Levantini, E.; Steidl, U.; Chong, G.; Collombet, S.; Choi, M.H.; Friedman, A.D.; Scott, L.M.; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell; Tenen, D.G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 46 (2017), s. 18924-18936 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein * gene regulation * hematopoiesis * promoter * transcription factor * EBPalpha * ZNF143 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  19. Down-regulation of E protein activity augments an ILC2 differentiation program in the thymus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important regulators in various immune responses. Current paradigm states that all newly-made ILCs originate from common lymphoid progenitors (CLP) in the bone marrow. Id2, an inhibitor of E protein transcription factors, is indispensable for ILC differentiation. Une...

  20. SOCS Proteins as Regulators of Inflammatory Responses Induced by Bacterial Infections: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyla A. Duncan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe bacterial infections can lead to both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. Innate immunity is the first defense mechanism employed against invading bacterial pathogens through the recognition of conserved molecular patterns on bacteria by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, especially the toll-like receptors (TLRs. TLRs recognize distinct pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs that play a critical role in innate immune responses by inducing the expression of several inflammatory genes. Thus, activation of immune cells is regulated by cytokines that use the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT signaling pathway and microbial recognition by TLRs. This system is tightly controlled by various endogenous molecules to allow for an appropriately regulated and safe host immune response to infections. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS family of proteins is one of the central regulators of microbial pathogen-induced signaling of cytokines, principally through the inhibition of the activation of JAK/STAT signaling cascades. This review provides recent knowledge regarding the role of SOCS proteins during bacterial infections, with an emphasis on the mechanisms involved in their induction and regulation of antibacterial immune responses. Furthermore, the implication of SOCS proteins in diverse processes of bacteria to escape host defenses and in the outcome of bacterial infections are discussed, as well as the possibilities offered by these proteins for future targeted antimicrobial therapies.

  1. Pim serine/threonine kinases regulate the stability of Socs-1 protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, XP; Losman, JA; Cowan, S; Donahue, E; Fay, S; Vuong, BQ; Nawijn, MC; Capece, D; Cohan, VL; Rothman, P

    2002-01-01

    Studies of SOCS-1-deficient mice have implicated Socs-1 in the suppression of JAK-STAT (Janus tyrosine kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription) signaling and T cell development. It has been suggested that the levels of Socs-1 protein may be regulated through the proteasome pathway.

  2. The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 regulates skeletal muscle glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szekeres, Ferenc; Chadt, Alexandra; Tom, Robby Z

    2012-01-01

    The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has emerged as a novel candidate involved in metabolic regulation. Our aim was to determine whether TBC1D1 is involved in insulin as well as energy-sensing signals controlling skeletal muscle metabolism. TBC1D1-deficient congenic B6.SJL-Nob1.10 (Nob1.10(SJ...

  3. Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhary, Chuna Ram; Kumar, Chanchal; Gnad, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a reversible posttranslational modification of proteins and plays a key role in regulating gene expression. Technological limitations have so far prevented a global analysis of lysine acetylation's cellular roles. We used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify 3600 ly...

  4. PRDM14 directly interacts with heat shock proteins HSP90α and glucose-regulated protein 78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Chiharu; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Nagatoishi, Satoru; Igarashi, Hisayoshi; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Imai, Kohzoh

    2018-02-01

    PRDM14 is overexpressed in various cancers and can regulate cancer phenotype under certain conditions. Inhibiting PRDM14 expression in breast and pancreatic cancers has been reported to reduce cancer stem-like phenotypes, which are associated with aggressive tumor properties. Therefore, PRDM14 is considered a promising target for cancer therapy. To develop a pharmaceutical treatment, the mechanism and interacting partners of PRDM14 need to be clarified. Here, we identified the proteins interacting with PRDM14 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, which do not express the three most common types of receptor (estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and HER2). We obtained 13 candidates that were pulled down with PRDM14 in TNBC HCC1937 cells and identified them by mass spectrometry. Two candidates-glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and heat shock protein 90-α (HSP90α)-were confirmed in immunoprecipitation assay in two TNBC cell lines (HCC1937 and MDA-MB231). Surface plasmon resonance analysis using GST-PRDM14 showed that these two proteins directly interacted with PRDM14 and that the interactions required the C-terminal region of PRDM14, which includes zinc finger motifs. We also confirmed the interactions in living cells by NanoLuc luciferase-based bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (NanoBRET) assay. Moreover, HSP90 inhibitors (17DMAG and HSP990) significantly decreased breast cancer stem-like CD24-  CD44+ and side population (SP) cells in HCC1937 cells, but not in PRDM14 knockdown HCC1937 cells. The combination of the GRP78 inhibitor HA15 and PRDM14 knockdown significantly decreased cell proliferation and SP cell number in HCC1937 cells. These results suggest that HSP90α and GRP78 interact with PRDM14 and participate in cancer regulation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  5. Negative Regulation of STAT3 Protein-mediated Cellular Respiration by SIRT1 Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernier, Michel; Paul, Rajib K; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is regulated by the deacetylase SIRT1. However, whether the newly described nongenomic actions of STAT3 toward mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are dependent on SIRT1 is unclear. In this ......In mammals, the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is regulated by the deacetylase SIRT1. However, whether the newly described nongenomic actions of STAT3 toward mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are dependent on SIRT1 is unclear...... those of wild-type controls. Comparison of profiles of phospho-antibody array data indicated that the deletion of SirT1 was accompanied by constitutive activation of the pro-inflammatory NF-¿B pathway, which is key for STAT3 induction and increased cellular respiration in Sirt1-KO cells. Thus, SIRT1...

  6. Identification of nuclear protein targets for six leukemogenic tyrosine kinases governed by post-translational regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pierce

    Full Text Available Mutated tyrosine kinases are associated with a number of different haematological malignancies including myeloproliferative disorders, lymphoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. The potential commonalities in the action of six of these leukemogenic proteins on nuclear proteins were investigated using systematic proteomic analysis. The effects on over 3600 nuclear proteins and 1500 phosphopeptide sites were relatively quantified in seven isogenic cell lines. The effects of the kinases were diverse although some commonalities were found. Comparison of the nuclear proteomic data with transcriptome data and cytoplasmic proteomic data indicated that the major changes are due to post-translational mechanisms rather than changes in mRNA or protein distribution. Analysis of the promoter regions of genes whose protein levels changed in response to the kinases showed the most common binding site found was that for NFκB whilst other sites such as those for the glucocorticoid receptor were also found. Glucocorticoid receptor levels and phosphorylation were decreased by all 6 PTKs. Whilst Glucocorticoid receptor action can potentiate NFκB action those proteins where genes have NFκB binding sites were in often regulated post-translationally. However all 6 PTKs showed evidence of NFkB pathway modulation via activation via altered IkB and NFKB levels. Validation of a common change was also undertaken with PMS2, a DNA mismatch repair protein. PMS2 nuclear levels were decreased in response to the expression of all 6 kinases, with no concomitant change in mRNA level or cytosolic protein level. Response to thioguanine, that requires the mismatch repair pathway, was modulated by all 6 oncogenic kinases. In summary common targets for 6 oncogenic PTKs have been found that are regulated by post-translational mechanisms. They represent potential new avenues for therapies but also demonstrate the post-translational regulation is a key target of leukaemogenic kinases.

  7. Controlling parasympathetic regulation of heart rate: a gatekeeperrole for RGS proteins in the sinoatrial node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eMighiu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitters released from sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals in the SAN exert their effects via G-protein-coupled receptors. Integration of these different G-protein signals within pacemaker cells of the sinoatrial node (SAN is critical for proper regulation of heart rate and function. For example, excessive parasympathetic signaling can be associated with sinus node dysfunction and supraventricular arrhythmias. Our previous work has shown that one member of the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS protein family, RGS4, is highly and selectively expressed in pacemaker cells of the SAN. Consistent with its role as an inhibitor of parasympathetic signaling, RGS4-knockout mice have reduced basal heart rates and enhanced negative chronotropic responses to parasympathetic agonists. Moreover, RGS4 appears to be an important part of SA nodal myocyte signaling pathways that mediate G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel (GIRK channel activation/deactivation and desensitization. Since RGS4 acts immediately downstream of M2 muscarinic receptors, it is tempting to speculate that RGS4 functions as a master regulator of parasympathetic signaling upstream of GIRKs, HCNs and L-type Ca2+ channels in the SAN. Thus, loss of RGS4 function may lead to increased susceptibility to conditions associated with increased parasympathetic signaling, including bradyarrhythmia, sinus node dysfunction, and atrial fibrillation.

  8. Functional Analysis of Insect Molting Fluid Proteins on the Protection and Regulation of Ecdysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Anrui; Kong, Lulu; Zhang, Qiaoli; Ling, Erjun

    2014-01-01

    Molting fluid accumulates between the old and new cuticles during periodical ecdysis in Ecdysozoa. Natural defects in insect ecdysis are frequently associated with melanization (an immunity response) occurring primarily in molting fluids, suggesting that molting fluid may impact immunity as well as affect ecdysis. To address this hypothesis, proteomic analysis of molting fluids from Bombyx mori during three different types of ecdysis was performed. Many proteins were newly identified, including immunity-related proteins, in each molting fluid. Molting fluids inhibited the growth of bacteria in vitro. The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, which can escape immune responses in feeding larvae, is quickly recognized by larvae during ecdysis, followed by melanization in molting fluid and old cuticle. Fungal conidia germination was delayed, and no hyphae were detected in the hemocoels of pharate instar insects. Molting fluids protect the delicate pharate instar insects with extremely thin cuticles against microorganisms. To explore the function of molting fluids in ecdysis regulation, based on protein similarity, 32 genes were selected for analysis in ecdysis regulation through RNAi in Tribolium castaneum, a model commonly used to study integument development because RNAi is difficult to achieve in B. mori. We identified 24 molting proteins that affected ecdysis after knockdown, with different physiological functions, including old cuticle protein recycling, molting fluid pressure balance, detoxification, and signal detection and transfer of molting fluids. We report that insects secrete molting fluid for protection and regulation of ecdysis, which indicates a way to develop new pesticides through interrupting insect ecdysis in the future. PMID:25368323

  9. Evidence against Stable Protein S-Nitrosylation as a Widespread Mechanism of Post-translational Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, Kathryn; Whitwell, Harry J; Switzer, Christopher H; Burgoyne, Joseph R; Timms, John F; Eaton, Philip

    2018-02-01

    S-nitrosation, commonly referred to as S-nitrosylation, is widely regarded as a ubiquitous, stable post-translational modification that directly regulates many proteins. Such a widespread role would appear to be incompatible with the inherent lability of the S-nitroso bond, especially its propensity to rapidly react with thiols to generate disulfide bonds. As anticipated, we observed robust and widespread protein S-nitrosation after exposing cells to nitrosocysteine or lipopolysaccharide. Proteins detected using the ascorbate-dependent biotin switch method are typically interpreted to be directly regulated by S-nitrosation. However, these S-nitrosated proteins are shown to predominantly comprise transient intermediates leading to disulfide bond formation. These disulfides are likely to be the dominant end effectors resulting from elevations in nitrosating cellular nitric oxide species. We propose that S-nitrosation primarily serves as a transient intermediate leading to disulfide formation. Overall, we conclude that the current widely held perception that stable S-nitrosation directly regulates the function of many proteins is significantly incorrect. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiple structure-intrinsic disorder interactions regulate and coordinate Hox protein function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondos, Sarah

    During animal development, Hox transcription factors determine fate of developing tissues to generate diverse organs and appendages. Hox proteins are famous for their bizarre mutant phenotypes, such as replacing antennae with legs. Clearly, the functions of individual Hox proteins must be distinct and reliable in vivo, or the organism risks malformation or death. However, within the Hox protein family, the DNA-binding homeodomains are highly conserved and the amino acids that contact DNA are nearly invariant. These observations raise the question: How do different Hox proteins correctly identify their distinct target genes using a common DNA binding domain? One possible means to modulate DNA binding is through the influence of the non-homeodomain protein regions, which differ significantly among Hox proteins. However genetic approaches never detected intra-protein interactions, and early biochemical attempts were hindered because the special features of ``intrinsically disordered'' sequences were not appreciated. We propose the first-ever structural model of a Hox protein to explain how specific contacts between distant, intrinsically disordered regions of the protein and the homeodomain regulate DNA binding and coordinate this activity with other Hox molecular functions.

  11. Translational regulation of viral secretory proteins by the 5' coding regions and a viral RNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholm, Johan; Petitou, Jeanne; Östbye, Henrik; da Silva, Diogo V; Dou, Dan; Wang, Hao; Daniels, Robert

    2017-08-07

    A primary function of 5' regions in many secretory protein mRNAs is to encode an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting sequence. In this study, we show how the regions coding for the ER-targeting sequences of the influenza glycoproteins NA and HA also function as translational regulatory elements that are controlled by the viral RNA-binding protein (RBP) NS1. The translational increase depends on the nucleotide composition and 5' positioning of the ER-targeting sequence coding regions and is facilitated by the RNA-binding domain of NS1, which can associate with ER membranes. Inserting the ER-targeting sequence coding region of NA into different 5' UTRs confirmed that NS1 can promote the translation of secretory protein mRNAs based on the nucleotides within this region rather than the resulting amino acids. By analyzing human protein mRNA sequences, we found evidence that this mechanism of using 5' coding regions and particular RBPs to achieve gene-specific regulation may extend to human-secreted proteins. © 2017 Nordholm et al.

  12. Salinity Regulates Claudin mRNA and Protein Expression in the Teleost Gill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Baltzegar, David A; Ozden, Ozkan

    2008-01-01

    The teleost gill carries out NaCl uptake in fresh water (FW) and NaCl excretion in seawater (SW). This transformation with salinity requires close regulation of ion transporter capacity and epithelial permeability. This study investigates the regulation of tight junctional claudins during salinity...... was localized deep in the FW gill filament, whereas staining was found apically in SW gill. Claudin 4-like proteins are localized predominantly in the filament outer epithelial layer and staining appears more intense in gill of FW versus SW fish. Additionally, tilapia claudin 28a and 30 genes were characterized......, and mRNA expression was found to increase during FW acclimation. These studies are the first to detect putative claudin proteins in teleosts and show their localization and regulation with salinity in gill epithelium. The data indicate that claudins may be important in permeability changes associated...

  13. A library of 7TM receptor C-terminal tails. Interactions with the proposed post-endocytic sorting proteins ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), sorting nexin 1 (SNX1), and G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein (GASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Arne; Søndergaard, Birgitte P; Ersbøll, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    Adaptor and scaffolding proteins determine the cellular targeting, the spatial, and thereby the functional association of G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors with co-receptors, transducers, and downstream effectors and the adaptors determine post-signaling events such as receptor...... sequestration through interactions, mainly with the C-terminal intracellular tails of the receptors. A library of tails from 59 representative members of the super family of seven-transmembrane receptors was probed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins for interactions with four different adaptor...... that the tail library provides useful information on the general importance of certain adaptor proteins, for example, in this case, ruling out EBP50 as being a broad spectrum-recycling adaptor....

  14. Protein Kinase D Enzymes as Regulators of EMT and Cancer Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Durand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Protein Kinase D (PKD isoforms PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3 are effectors of the novel Protein Kinase Cs (nPKCs and diacylglycerol (DAG. PKDs impact diverse biological processes like protein transport, cell migration, proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT and apoptosis. PKDs however, have distinct effects on these functions. While PKD1 blocks EMT and cell migration, PKD2 and PKD3 tend to drive both processes. Given the importance of EMT and cell migration to the initiation and progression of various malignancies, abnormal expression of PKDs has been reported in multiple types of cancers, including breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss how EMT and cell migration are regulated by PKD isoforms and the significance of this regulation in the context of cancer development.

  15. Function and regulation of primary cilia and intraflagellar transport proteins in the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xue; Serra, Rosa A; Yang, Shuying

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that project from the cell surface to enable transduction of various developmental signaling pathways. The process of intraflagellar transport (IFT) is crucial for the building and maintenance of primary cilia. Ciliary dysfunction has been found in a range of disorders called ciliopathies, some of which display severe skeletal dysplasias. In recent years, interest has grown in uncovering the function of primary cilia/IFT proteins in bone development, mechanotransduction, and cellular regulation. We summarize recent advances in understanding the function of cilia and IFT proteins in the regulation of cell differentiation in osteoblasts, osteocytes, chondrocytes, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We also discuss the mechanosensory function of cilia and IFT proteins in bone cells, cilia orientation, and other functions of cilia in chondrocytes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Novel function of the retinoblastoma protein in fat: regulation of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; te Riele, Hein; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    The differentiation of white and brown fat cells is controlled by a similar set of transcription factors, including PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha. However, despite many similarities between the two types of fat cells, they carry out essentially opposite functions in vivo, with white adipocytes being...... the major energy store and brown adipocytes being potent energy-dissipaters through thermogenesis. Yet, little is known about factors differentially regulating the formation of white and brown fat cells. Members of the retinoblastoma protein family (pRB, p107, p130) have been implicated in the regulation...... of adipocyte differentiation, and expression and phosphorylation of the three retinoblastoma family proteins oscillate in a characteristic manner during differentiation of the white preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1. We have recently demonstrated a surprising function of the retinoblastoma protein...

  17. Identification of a Staphylococcus aureus Efflux Pump Regulator Using a DNA-Protein Affinity Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Bolduc, Que Chi; Hooper, David C

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the step-by-step identification of a putative regulator protein and demonstrate the function of this protein as a repressor of the expression of a specific efflux pump, causing resistance to quinolones in Staphylococcus aureus. We show that the knockout gene mutant has an increase in transcript levels of the target efflux pump when compared to that of the S. aureus parental strain RN6390. We provide a detailed protocol that includes the identification of the DNA-binding transcriptional regulatory protein from S. aureus cell extracts using DNA sequences linked to magnetic beads. In addition, we describe the real-time qRT-PCR assays and MIC testing to evaluate the effects of the regulator on S. aureus drug resistance phenotype.

  18. Dynamic regulation of mitochondrial fission through modification of the dynamin-related protein Drp1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuang-Rung; Blackstone, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria in cells comprise a tubulovesicular network shaped continuously by complementary fission and fusion events. The mammalian Drp1 protein plays a key role in fission, while Mfn1, Mfn2, and OPA1 are required for fusion. Shifts in the balance between these opposing processes can occur rapidly, indicating that modifications to these proteins may regulate mitochondrial membrane dynamics. We highlight posttranslational modifications of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, for which these regulatory mechanisms are best characterized. This dynamin-related GTPase undergoes a number of steps to mediate mitochondrial fission, including translocation from cytoplasm to the mitochondrial outer membrane, higher-order assembly into spirals, GTP hydrolysis associated with a conformational change and membrane deformation, and ultimately disassembly. Many of these steps may be influenced by covalent modification of Drp1. We discuss the dynamic nature of Drp1 modifications and how they contribute not only to the normal regulation of mitochondrial division, but also to neuropathologic processes. PMID:20649536

  19. The RNA-binding protein Rbfox1 regulates splicing required for skeletal muscle structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Simona; Giudice, Jimena; Dagnino-Acosta, Adan; Knoblauch, Mark; Singh, Ravi K; Hanna, Amy; Mo, Qianxing; Hicks, John; Hamilton, Susan; Cooper, Thomas A

    2015-04-15

    The Rbfox family of RNA-binding proteins is highly conserved with established roles in alternative splicing (AS) regulation. High-throughput studies aimed at understanding transcriptome remodeling have revealed skeletal muscle as displaying one of the largest number of AS events. This finding is consistent with requirements for tissue-specific protein isoforms needed to sustain muscle-specific functions. Rbfox1 is abundant in vertebrate brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Genome-wide genetic approaches have linked the Rbfox1 gene to autism, and a brain-specific knockout mouse revealed a critical role for this splicing regulator in neuronal function. Moreover, a Caenorhabditis elegans Rbfox1 homolog regulates muscle-specific splicing. To determine the role of Rbfox1 in muscle function, we developed a conditional knockout mouse model to specifically delete Rbfox1 in adult tissue. We show that Rbfox1 is required for muscle function but a >70% loss of Rbfox1 in satellite cells does not disrupt muscle regeneration. Deep sequencing identified aberrant splicing of multiple genes including those encoding myofibrillar and cytoskeletal proteins, and proteins that regulate calcium handling. Ultrastructure analysis of Rbfox1(-/-) muscle by electron microscopy revealed abundant tubular aggregates. Immunostaining showed mislocalization of the sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins Serca1 and Ryr1 in a pattern indicative of colocalization with the tubular aggregates. Consistent with mislocalization of Serca1 and Ryr1, calcium handling was drastically altered in Rbfox1(-/-) muscle. Moreover, muscle function was significantly impaired in Rbfox1(-/-) muscle as indicated by decreased force generation. These results demonstrate that Rbfox1 regulates a network of AS events required to maintain multiple aspects of muscle physiology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Regulation of class V myosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Yao, Lin-Lin; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Class V myosin (myosin-5) is a molecular motor that functions as an organelle transporter. The activation of myosin-5's motor function has long been known to be associated with a transition from the folded conformation in the off-state to the extended conformation in the on-state, but only recently have we begun to understand the underlying mechanism. The globular tail domain (GTD) of myosin-5 has been identified as the inhibitory domain and has recently been shown to function as a dimer in regulating the motor function. The folded off-state of myosin-5 is stabilized by multiple intramolecular interactions, including head-GTD interactions, GTD-GTD interactions, and interactions between the GTD and the C-terminus of the first coiled-coil segment. Any cellular factor that affects these intramolecular interactions and thus the stability of the folded conformation of myosin-5 would be expected to regulate myosin-5 motor function. Both the adaptor proteins of myosin-5 and Ca2+ are potential regulators of myosin-5 motor function, because they can destabilize its folded conformation. A combination of these regulators provides a versatile scheme in regulating myosin-5 motor function in the cell.

  1. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Orazi Gabriella

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2 plays an essential role in restraining tumor progression as it may regulate, by itself or within multiprotein complexes, many proteins (mainly transcription factors involved in cell growth and apoptosis. This study takes advantage of the recent finding that HIPK2 may repress the β-catenin transcription activity. Thus, we investigated whether HIPK2 overexpression may down-regulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF levels (a β-catenin target gene and the role of β-catenin in this regulation, in order to consider HIPK2 as a tool for novel anti-tumoral therapeutical approaches. Methods The regulation of VEGF expression by HIPK2 was evaluated by using luciferase assay with VEGF reporter construct, after overexpression of the β-catenin transcription factor. Relative quantification of VEGF and β-catenin mRNAs were assessed by reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR analyses, following HIPK2 overexpression, while β-catenin protein levels were evaluated by western immunoblotting. Results HIPK2 overexpression in tumor cells downregulated VEGF mRNA levels and VEGF promoter activity. The VEGF downregulation was partly depending on HIPK2-mediated β-catenin regulation. Thus, HIPK2 could induce β-catenin protein degradation that was prevented by cell treatment with proteasome inhibitor MG132. The β-catenin degradation was dependent on HIPK2 catalytic activity and independent of p53 and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β activities. Conclusion These results suggest that VEGF might be a target of HIPK2, at least in part, through regulation of β-catenin activity. These findings support the function of HIPK2 as tumor suppressor and hypothesise a role for HIPK2 as antiangiogenic tool in tumor therapy approaches.

  2. Influence of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur protein on pathogenicity in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Kipngetich Tanui

    Full Text Available Iron is an important nutrient for the survival and growth of many organisms. In order to survive, iron uptake from the environment must be strictly regulated and maintained to avoid iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur regulates genes involved in iron homeostasis in many bacteria, including phytopathogens. However, to date, the role played by Fur in the biology of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb1692, an important pathogen of potatoes, has not yet been studied. To this end, we used the lambda recombineering method to generate a fur mutant strain of Pcb1692 and assessed the virulence and fitness of the mutant strain. The results showed that production of siderophores in Pcb1692Δfur increased compared to the Pcb1692 wild-type and the complemented strain Pcb1692Δfur-pfur. However, production of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHLs, biofilm formation, exopolysaccharide (EPS production, virulence on potato tubers and swimming motility, were all significantly decreased in Pcb1692Δfur compared to the wild-type and complemented Pcb1692Δfur-pfur strains. The Pcb1692Δfur mutant also demonstrated significant sensitivity to oxidative stress when exposed to H2O2. Consistent with phenotypic results, qRT-PCR results demonstrated that Fur down-regulates genes which encode proteins associated with: iron uptake (HasA-extracellular heme-binding protein and Ferrodoxin-AED-0004132, stress response (SodC-superoxide dismutase, plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PrtA and CelV and motility (FlhC and MotA. We conclude that the ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur of Pcb1692 regulates traits that are important to host-pathogens interactions.

  3. Structural basis of the binding of Merlin FERM domain to the E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor DCAF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youjun; Wei, Zhiyi; Zhang, Junyi; Yang, Zhou; Zhang, Mingjie

    2014-05-23

    The tumor suppressor gene Nf2 product, Merlin, plays vital roles in controlling proper development of organ sizes by specifically binding to a large number of target proteins localized both in cytoplasm and nuclei. The FERM domain of Merlin is chiefly responsible for its binding to target proteins, although the molecular basis governing these interactions are poorly understood due to lack of structural information. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Merlin FERM domain in complex with its binding domain derived from the E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor DCAF1 (also known as VPRBP). Unlike target binding modes found in ERM proteins, the Merlin-FERM binding domain of DCAF1 folds as a β-hairpin and binds to the α1/β5-groove of the F3 lobe of Merlin-FERM via extensive hydrophobic interactions. In addition to providing the first structural glimpse of a Merlin-FERM·target complex, the structure of the Merlin·DCAF1 complex is likely to be valuable for understanding the interactions of Merlin with its binding partners other than DCAF1. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. The PHD-containing protein EARLY BOLTING IN SHORT DAYS regulates seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narro-Diego, Laura; López-González, Leticia; Jarillo, Jose A; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    The Arabidopsis protein EARLY BOLTING IN SHORT DAYS (EBS), a plant-specific transcriptional regulator, is involved in the control of flowering time by repressing the floral integrator FT. The EBS protein binds the H3K4me3 histone mark and interacts with histone deacetylases to modulate gene expression. Here, we show that EBS also participates in the regulation of seed dormancy. ebs mutations cause a reduction in seed dormancy, and the concurrent loss of function of the EBS homologue SHORT LIFE (SHL) enhances this dormancy alteration. Transcriptomic analyses in ebs mutant seeds uncovered the misregulation of several regulators of seed dormancy including the MADS box gene AGAMOUS-LIKE67 (AGL67). AGL67 interacts genetically with EBS in seed dormancy regulation, indicating that both loci act in the same pathway. Interestingly, EBS functions independently of the master regulator gene of dormancy DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) and other genes encoding chromatin remodelling factors involved in the control of seed dormancy. Altogether, these data show that EBS is a central repressor of germination during seed dormancy and that SHL acts redundantly with EBS in the control of this developmental process. Our observations suggest that a tightly regulated crosstalk among histone modifications is necessary for a proper control of seed dormancy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Protein S-Nitrosylation: Determinants of Specificity and Enzymatic Regulation of S-Nitrosothiol-Based Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomberski, Colin T; Hess, Douglas T; Stamler, Jonathan S

    2018-01-10

    Protein S-nitrosylation, the oxidative modification of cysteine by nitric oxide (NO) to form protein S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), mediates redox-based signaling that conveys, in large part, the ubiquitous influence of NO on cellular function. S-nitrosylation regulates protein activity, stability, localization, and protein-protein interactions across myriad physiological processes, and aberrant S-nitrosylation is associated with diverse pathophysiologies. Recent Advances: It is recently recognized that S-nitrosylation endows S-nitroso-protein (SNO-proteins) with S-nitrosylase activity, that is, the potential to trans-S-nitrosylate additional proteins, thereby propagating SNO-based signals, analogous to kinase-mediated signaling cascades. In addition, it is increasingly appreciated that cellular S-nitrosylation is governed by dynamically coupled equilibria between SNO-proteins and low-molecular-weight SNOs, which are controlled by a growing set of enzymatic denitrosylases comprising two main classes (high and low molecular weight). S-nitrosylases and denitrosylases, which together control steady-state SNO levels, may be identified with distinct physiology and pathophysiology ranging from cardiovascular and respiratory disorders to neurodegeneration and cancer. The target specificity of protein S-nitrosylation and the stability and reactivity of protein SNOs are determined substantially by enzymatic machinery comprising highly conserved transnitrosylases and denitrosylases. Understanding the differential functionality of SNO-regulatory enzymes is essential, and is amenable to genetic and pharmacological analyses, read out as perturbation of specific equilibria within the SNO circuitry. The emerging picture of NO biology entails equilibria among potentially thousands of different SNOs, governed by denitrosylases and nitrosylases. Thus, to elucidate the operation and consequences of S-nitrosylation in cellular contexts, studies should consider the roles of SNO-proteins as

  6. Conserved salt-bridge competition triggered by phosphorylation regulates the protein interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, John J.

    2017-12-05

    Phosphorylation is a major regulator of protein interactions; however, the mechanisms by which regulation occurs are not well understood. Here we identify a salt-bridge competition or “theft” mechanism that enables a phospho-triggered swap of protein partners by Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP). RKIP transitions from inhibiting Raf-1 to inhibiting G-protein–coupled receptor kinase 2 upon phosphorylation, thereby bridging MAP kinase and G-Protein–Coupled Receptor signaling. NMR and crystallography indicate that a phosphoserine, but not a phosphomimetic, competes for a lysine from a preexisting salt bridge, initiating a partial unfolding event and promoting new protein interactions. Structural elements underlying the theft occurred early in evolution and are found in 10% of homo-oligomers and 30% of hetero-oligomers including Bax, Troponin C, and Early Endosome Antigen 1. In contrast to a direct recognition of phosphorylated residues by binding partners, the salt-bridge theft mechanism represents a facile strategy for promoting or disrupting protein interactions using solvent-accessible residues, and it can provide additional specificity at protein interfaces through local unfolding or conformational change.

  7. RNA Binding Protein-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation in Medulloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Rebecca; Vogel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children, is a disease whose mechanisms are now beginning to be uncovered by high-throughput studies of somatic mutations, mRNA expression patterns, and epigenetic profiles of patient tumors. One emerging theme from studies that sequenced the tumor genomes of large cohorts of medulloblastoma patients is frequent mutation of RNA binding proteins. Proteins which bind multiple RNA targets can act as master regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level to co-ordinate cellular processes and alter the phenotype of the cell. Identification of the target genes of RNA binding proteins may highlight essential pathways of medulloblastomagenesis that cannot be detected by study of transcriptomics alone. Furthermore, a subset of RNA binding proteins are attractive drug targets. For example, compounds that are under development as anti-viral targets due to their ability to inhibit RNA helicases could also be tested in novel approaches to medulloblastoma therapy by targeting key RNA binding proteins. In this review, we discuss a number of RNA binding proteins, including Musashi1 (MSI1), DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 3 X-linked (DDX3X), DDX31, and cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1), which play potentially critical roles in the growth and/or maintenance of medulloblastoma. PMID:24608801

  8. Regulation of protein synthesis by amino acids in muscle of neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawan, Agus; Davis, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    The marked increase in skeletal muscle mass during the neonatal period is largely due to a high rate of postprandial protein synthesis that is modulated by an enhanced sensitivity to insulin and amino acids. The amino acid signaling pathway leading to the stimulation of protein synthesis has not been fully elucidated. Among the amino acids, leucine is considered to be a principal anabolic agent that regulates protein synthesis. mTORC1, which controls protein synthesis, has been implicated as a target for leucine. Until recently, there have been few studies exploring the role of amino acids in enhancing muscle protein synthesis in vivo. In this review, we discuss amino acid-induced protein synthesis in muscle in the neonate, focusing on current knowledge of the role of amino acids in the activation of mTORC1 leading to mRNA translation. The role of the amino acid transporters, SNAT2, LAT1, and PAT, in the modulation of mTORC1 activation and the role of amino acids in the activation of putative regulators of mTORC1, i.e., raptor, Rheb, MAP4K3, Vps34, and Rag GTPases, are discussed. PMID:21196241

  9. Cellular Cholesterol Regulates Ubiquitination and Degradation of the Cholesterol Export Proteins ABCA1 and ABCG1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Victar; Kim, Mi-Jurng; Gelissen, Ingrid C.; Brown, Andrew J.; Sandoval, Cecilia; Hallab, Jeannette C.; Kockx, Maaike; Traini, Mathew; Jessup, Wendy; Kritharides, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cholesterol in post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. Using CHO cell lines stably expressing human ABCA1 or ABCG1, we observed that the abundance of these proteins is increased by cell cholesterol loading. The response to increased cholesterol is rapid, is independent of transcription, and appears to be specific for these membrane proteins. The effect is mediated through cholesterol-dependent inhibition of transporter protein degradation. Cell cholesterol loading similarly regulates degradation of endogenously expressed ABCA1 and ABCG1 in human THP-1 macrophages. Turnover of ABCA1 and ABCG1 is strongly inhibited by proteasomal inhibitors and is unresponsive to inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis. Furthermore, cell cholesterol loading inhibits ubiquitination of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Our findings provide evidence for a rapid, cholesterol-dependent, post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein levels, mediated through a specific and sterol-sensitive mechanism for suppression of transporter protein ubiquitination, which in turn decreases proteasomal degradation. This provides a mechanism for acute fine-tuning of cholesterol transporter activity in response to fluctuations in cell cholesterol levels, in addition to the longer term cholesterol-dependent transcriptional regulation of these genes. PMID:24500716

  10. The cell cycle regulator protein P16 and the cellular senescence of dental follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsczeck, Christian; Hullmann, Markus; Reck, Anja; Reichert, Torsten E

    2017-08-02

    Cellular senescence is a restricting factor for regenerative therapies with somatic stem cells. We showed previously that the onset of cellular senescence inhibits the osteogenic differentiation in stem cells of the dental follicle (DFCs), although the mechanism remains elusive. Two different pathways are involved in the induction of the cellular senescence, which are driven either by the cell cycle protein P21 or by the cell cycle protein P16. In this study, we investigated the expression of cell cycle proteins in DFCs after the induction of cellular senescence. The induction of cellular senescence was proved by an increased expression of β-galactosidase and an increased population doubling time after a prolonged cell culture. Cellular senescence regulated the expression of cell cycle proteins. The expression of cell cycle protein P16 was up-regulated, which correlates with the induction of cellular senescence markers in DFCs. However, the expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK)2 and 4 and the expression of the cell cycle protein P21 were successively decreased in DFCs. In conclusion, our data suggest that a P16-dependent pathway drives the induction of cellular senescence in DFCs.

  11. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate S100β, sirtuins, and neuroactive proteins in rat C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bolin; Panickar, Kiran S; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cinnamon has many health benefits when used in herbal medicine and as a dietary ingredient. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an aqueous extract of cinnamon, high in type A polyphenols, on molecular targets in rat C6 glioma cells that underlie their protective effects. C6 rat glioma cells were seeded in 35-mm culture dishes or six-well plates, then were incubated with cinnamon polyphenols at doses of 10 and 20 μg/mL for 24 h. The targeting protein expression, secretion, and phosphorylation were evaluated by immunoprecitation/immunoblotting and immunofluorescence imaging. Cinnamon polyphenols significantly enhanced secretion of S100β, a Ca(2+)-binding protein, and increased intracellular S100β expression after 24 h of incubation, in rat C6 glioma cells. Cinnamon polyphenols also enhanced protein levels of sirtuin 1, 2, and 3, deacetylases important in cell survival, and the tumor suppressor protein, p53, and inhibited the inflammatory factors, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and phospho-p65, a subunit of nuclear factor-κβ. Cinnamon polyphenols also up-regulated levels of phospho-p38, extracellular signal-regulated protein and mitogen-activated protein and kinase-activated protein kinases that may be important for prosurvival functions. Our results indicate that the effects of cinnamon polyphenols on upregulating prosurvival proteins, activating mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, and decreasing proinflammatory cytokines may contribute to their neuroprotective effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. BRCA1 proteins regulate growth of ovarian cancer cells by tethering Ubc9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yunlong; Xu, Jingyao; Aysola, Kartik; Oprea, Gabriela; Reddy, Avinash; Matthews, Roland; Okoli, Joel; Cantor, Alan; Grizzle, William E; Partridge, Edward E; Reddy, E Shyam P; Landen, Charles; Rao, Veena N

    2012-01-01

    Mutation in the BRCA1 gene is associated with increased risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. In sporadic ovarian tumors, BRCA1 dysfunction is thought to be common. BRCA1 is a nuclear-cytoplasm shuttling protein. Our group has previously reported that BRCA1 proteins, unlike K109R and cancer-predisposing mutant C61G BRCA1 proteins, bind the sole SUMO E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. In this study, we examined the result of altered Ubc9 binding and knockdown on the sub-cellular localization and growth inhibitory function of BRCA1 proteins in ovarian cancer cells. Using live imaging of YFP, RFP-tagged BRCA1 and BRCA1a proteins, our results show enhanced cytoplasmic localization of K109R and C61G mutant BRCA1 proteins in ES-2, NIHOVCAR3 and UWB 1.289 ovarian cancer cells. Down-regulation of Ubc9 in ovarian cancer cells using Ubc9 siRNA resulted in cytoplasmic localization of BRCA1 and BRCA1a proteins. These mutant BRCA1a proteins were impaired in their capacity to inhibit growth of ES-2 ovarian cancer cells. Several ovarian cancer cells, including a BRCA1-null ovarian cancer cell line, showed higher levels of expression of Ubc9. This is the first study demonstrating the physiological link between loss of Ubc9 binding and loss of growth suppression of disease-associated mutant BRCA1a proteins in ovarian cancer cells. BRCA1, by turning off or on Ubc9 binding, regulates growth of ovarian cancers.

  13. Functions of the CCCH type zinc finger protein OsGZF1 in regulation of the seed storage protein GluB-1 from rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Sun, A.; Wang, M.; Zhu, Z.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.

    2014-01-01

    Glutelins are the most abundant storage proteins in rice grain and can make up to 80 % of total protein content. The promoter region of GluB-1, one of the glutelin genes in rice, has been intensively used as a model to understand regulation of seed-storage protein accumulation. In this study, we

  14. Versatile function of the circadian protein CIPC as a regulator of Erk activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Ryota; Nishino, Tasuku [Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Shobara, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan); Yokoyama, Atsushi [Department of Molecular Endocrinology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nakashima, Akio; Kikkawa, Ushio [Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Konishi, Hiroaki, E-mail: hkonishi@pu-hiroshima.ac.jp [Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Shobara, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    The CLOCK-interacting protein, Circadian (CIPC), has been identified as an additional negative-feedback regulator of the circadian clock. However, recent study on CIPC knockout mice has shown that CIPC is not critically required for basic circadian clock function, suggesting other unknown biological roles for CIPC. In this study, we focused on the cell cycle dependent nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling function of CIPC and on identifying its binding proteins. Lys186 and 187 were identified as the essential amino acid residues within the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of CIPC. We identified CIPC-binding proteins such as the multifunctional enzyme CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase), which is a key enzyme for de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Compared to control cells, HEK293 cells overexpressing wild-type CIPC showed suppressed cell proliferation and retardation of cell cycle. We also found that PMA-induced Erk activation was inhibited with expression of wild-type CIPC. In contrast, the NLS mutant of CIPC, which reduced the ability of CIPC to translocate into the nucleus, did not exhibit these biological effects. Since CAD and Erk have significant roles in cell proliferation and cell cycle, CIPC may work as a cell cycle regulator by interacting with these binding proteins. - Highlights: • CIPC is a cell cycle dependent nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling protein. • K186 and 187are the essential amino acid residues within the NLS of CIPC. • CAD was identified as a novel CIPC-binding protein. • CIPC might regulate the activity and translocation of CAD in the cells.

  15. Pat1 proteins: regulating mRNAs from birth to death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standart, Nancy; Marnef, Aline

    2012-08-01

    Abstract The Pat1 protein family has been the subject of several recent extensive investigations of diverse model systems ranging from yeast, flies and worms to man, using a variety of experimental approaches. Although some contradictions remain, the emerging consensus view is that these RNA-binding proteins act in mRNA decay by physically linking deadenylation with decapping and by regulating gene expression as translational repressors. These multiple functions are present in the single invertebrate Pat1 proteins, whereas, in vertebrates, one Pat1 variant represses translation in early development, while a somatic version synthesised in embrogenesis and in adults acts in mRNA decay. At steady state, Pat1 proteins are found enriched in cytoplasmic P(rocessing)-bodies, and related mRNP complexes and granules. Evidence recently obtained from mammalian tissue culture cells shows that Pat1 shuttles in and out of the nucleus, where it localises to nuclear speckles, PML bodies and nucleolar caps, which suggests RNA-related nuclear functions. Less well understood, Pat1 proteins may play additional roles in miRNA silencing and/or biogenesis, as well in the regulation of viral gene expression. Due to the relatively low level of sequence conservation between Pat1 proteins from different species and lacking any discernable motifs, determining their functional domains has proved difficult, as is obtaining a simple unified view of the location of the binding sites of their interacting proteins in all examined species. Questions that remain to be addressed include the following: 1) What are their roles in the nucleus? 2) What is the link, if one exists, between their cytoplasmic and nuclear roles? 3) Do they have specific mRNA targets? 4) Which signalling pathways regulate their P-body localisation in mammalian cells, which may affect quiescent cell survival?

  16. Two distinct mechanisms for actin capping protein regulation--steric and allosteric inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuichi; Minakata, Shiho; Koike, Ryotaro; Kawahata, Ichiro; Narita, Akihiro; Kitazawa, Masashi; Ota, Motonori; Yamakuni, Tohru; Maéda, Yuichiro; Nitanai, Yasushi

    2010-07-06

    The actin capping protein (CP) tightly binds to the barbed end of actin filaments, thus playing a key role in actin-based lamellipodial dynamics. V-1 and CARMIL proteins directly bind to CP and inhibit the filament capping activity of CP. V-1 completely inhibits CP from interacting with the barbed end, whereas CARMIL proteins act on the barbed end-bound CP and facilitate its dissociation from the filament (called uncapping activity). Previous studies have revealed the striking functional differences between the two regulators. However, the molecular mechanisms describing how these proteins inhibit CP remains poorly understood. Here we present the crystal structures of CP complexed with V-1 and with peptides derived from the CP-binding motif of CARMIL proteins (CARMIL, CD2AP, and CKIP-1). V-1 directly interacts with the primary actin binding surface of CP, the C-terminal region of the alpha-subunit. Unexpectedly, the structures clearly revealed the conformational flexibility of CP, which can be attributed to a twisting movement between the two domains. CARMIL peptides in an extended conformation interact simultaneously with the two CP domains. In contrast to V-1, the peptides do not directly compete with the barbed end for the binding surface on CP. Biochemical assays revealed that the peptides suppress the interac