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Sample records for adaptive variation regulates

  1. Adaptive force produced by stress-induced regulation of random variation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, Yury P

    2010-08-01

    The Darwinian theory of life evolution is capable of explaining the majority of related phenomena. At the same time, the mechanisms of optimizing traits beneficial to a population as a whole but not directly to an individual remain largely unclear. There are also significant problems with explaining the phenomenon of punctuated equilibrium. From another perspective, multiple mechanisms for the regulation of the rate of genetic mutations according to the environmental stress have been discovered, but their precise functional role is not well understood yet. Here a novel mathematical paradigm called a Kinetic-Force Principle (KFP), which can serve as a general basis for biologically plausible optimization methods, is introduced and its rigorous derivation is provided. Based on this principle, it is shown that, if the rate of random changes in a biological system is proportional, even only roughly, to the amount of environmental stress, a virtual force is created, acting in the direction of stress relief. It is demonstrated that KFP can provide important insights into solving the above problems. Evidence is presented in support of a hypothesis that the nature employs KFP for accelerating adaptation in biological systems. A detailed comparison between KFP and the principle of variation and natural selection is presented and their complementarity is revealed. It is concluded that KFP is not a competing alternative, but a powerful addition to the principle of variation and natural selection. It is also shown KFP can be used in multiple ways for adaptation of individual biological organisms.

  2. Power variation and frequency regulation. Adaptation of PWR plant possibilities to the network needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baboulin, J.P.; Burger, M.

    1980-01-01

    When the PWR are an important part of the power installed on a network, and that will be the case of the EDF network in the coming years, the participation of those plants to the power regulating becomes a necessity for the operating staff. This load regulating includes: daily variations of high amplitude; a permanent frequency - power regulating. The first part of the communication shows the network exploitation principles, and the resulting power variations concerning the existing nuclear power plants. Such transients are leading to stresses on fuel. The second part of the communication reports about the test program engaged by EDF in collaboration with the CEA and FRAMATOME, in order to study the fuel behaviour in real power conditions and power cycles, and that, just to the operational burn up of this fuel. (author)

  3. Genetic variation in adaptability and pleiotropy in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerison, Elizabeth R; Kryazhimskiy, Sergey; Mitchell, James Kameron; Bloom, Joshua S; Kruglyak, Leonid; Desai, Michael M

    2017-08-17

    Evolution can favor organisms that are more adaptable, provided that genetic variation in adaptability exists. Here, we quantify this variation among 230 offspring of a cross between diverged yeast strains. We measure the adaptability of each offspring genotype, defined as its average rate of adaptation in a specific environmental condition, and analyze the heritability, predictability, and genetic basis of this trait. We find that initial genotype strongly affects adaptability and can alter the genetic basis of future evolution. Initial genotype also affects the pleiotropic consequences of adaptation for fitness in a different environment. This genetic variation in adaptability and pleiotropy is largely determined by initial fitness, according to a rule of declining adaptability with increasing initial fitness, but several individual QTLs also have a significant idiosyncratic role. Our results demonstrate that both adaptability and pleiotropy are complex traits, with extensive heritable differences arising from naturally occurring variation.

  4. Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzell, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive automation has been proposed as a solution to current problems of human-automation interaction. Past research has shown the potential of this advanced form of automation to enhance pilot engagement and lower cognitive workload. However, there have been concerns voiced regarding issues, such as automation surprises, associated with the use of adaptive automation. This study examined the use of psychophysiological self-regulation training with adaptive automation that may help pilots deal with these problems through the enhancement of cognitive resource management skills. Eighteen participants were assigned to 3 groups (self-regulation training, false feedback, and control) and performed resource management, monitoring, and tracking tasks from the Multiple Attribute Task Battery. The tracking task was cycled between 3 levels of task difficulty (automatic, adaptive aiding, manual) on the basis of the electroencephalogram-derived engagement index. The other two tasks remained in automatic mode that had a single automation failure. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  5. Fundamentals of Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    ARL-SR-0318 ● MAR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Fundamentals of Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Self-Regulated...Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Self-Regulated Learning by Robert A Sottilare Human Research and Engineering Directorate, ARL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fundamentals of Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Self-Regulated Learning 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  6. In vitro adaptation of Plasmodium falciparum reveal variations in cultivability

    OpenAIRE

    White, John; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Pereira, Ligia; Dash, Rashmi; Walke, Jayashri T.; Gawas, Pooja; Sharma, Ambika; Manoharan, Suresh Kumar; Guler, Jennifer L.; Maki, Jennifer N.; Kumar, Ashwani; Mahanta, Jagadish; Valecha, Neena; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Vaz, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background Culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum parasites can offer deeper understanding of geographic variations in drug resistance, pathogenesis and immune evasion. To help ground population-based calculations and inferences from culture-adapted parasites, the complete range of parasites from a study area must be well represented in any collection. To this end, standardized adaptation methods and determinants of successful in vitro adaption were sought. Methods Venous blood was collected f...

  7. Adaptive Proximal Point Algorithms for Total Variation Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Image restoration is a fundamental problem in various areas of imaging sciences. This paper presents a class of adaptive proximal point algorithms (APPA with contraction strategy for total variational image restoration. In each iteration, the proposed methods choose an adaptive proximal parameter matrix which is not necessary symmetric. In fact, there is an inner extrapolation in the prediction step, which is followed by a correction step for contraction. And the inner extrapolation is implemented by an adaptive scheme. By using the framework of contraction method, global convergence result and a convergence rate of O(1/N could be established for the proposed methods. Numerical results are reported to illustrate the efficiency of the APPA methods for solving total variation image restoration problems. Comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate that the proposed methods are comparable and promising.

  8. Capacities for population-genetic variation and ecological adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Dragoslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary science of population genetics it is equally complex and important to visualize how adaptive limits of individual variation are determined, as well as to describe the amount and sort of this variation. Almost all century the scientists devoted their efforts to explain the principles and structure of biological variation (genetic, developmental, environmental, interactive, etc., basing its maintenance within existing limits mostly on equilibria proclaimed by Hardy-Weinberg rules. Among numerous model-organisms that have been used to prove these rules and demonstrate new variants within mentioned concepts, Drosophila melanogaster is a kind of queen that is used in thousands of experiments for almost exactly 100 years (CARPENTER 1905, with which numerous discoveries and principles were determined that later turned out to be applicable to all other organisms. It is both, in nature and in laboratory, that Drosophilids were used to demonstrate the basic principles of population-genetic variation that was later applied to other species of animals. In ecological-genetic variation their richness in different environments could be used as an exact indicator of the status of a determined habitat, and its population-genetic structure may definitely point out to a possibility that specific resources of the environment start to be in danger to deteriorate, or to disappear in the near future. This paper shows clear-cut differences among environmental habitats, when populations of Drosophilidae are quantitatively observed in different wild, semi-domestic and domestic environments, demonstrating a highly expressed mutual dependence of these two parameters. A crucial approach is how to estimate the causes that determine the limits of biological, i.e. of individual and population-genetic variation. The realized, i.e. adaptive variation, is much lesser than a total possible variation of a polygenic trait, and in this study, using a moderately

  9. Solving Quasi-Variational Inequalities for Image Restoration with Adaptive Constraint Sets

    KAUST Repository

    Lenzen, F.; Lellmann, J.; Becker, F.; Schnö rr, C.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We consider a class of quasi-variational inequalities (QVIs) for adaptive image restoration, where the adaptivity is described via solution-dependent constraint sets. In previous work we studied

  10. On Self-Adaptive Method for General Mixed Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Bnouhachem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest and analyze a new self-adaptive method for solving general mixed variational inequalities, which can be viewed as an improvement of the method of (Noor 2003. Global convergence of the new method is proved under the same assumptions as Noor's method. Some preliminary computational results are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Since the general mixed variational inequalities include general variational inequalities, quasivariational inequalities, and nonlinear (implicit complementarity problems as special cases, results proved in this paper continue to hold for these problems.

  11. Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation: A Balancing Act in Two Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    An equilibrium involves a balancing of forces. Just as one maintains upright posture in standing or walking, many self-regulatory and interpersonal behaviors can be framed as a balancing act between an ever changing environment and within-person processes. The emerging balance between person and environment, the equilibria, are dynamic and adaptive in response to development and learning. A distinction is made between equilibrium achieved solely due to a short timescale balancing of forces and a longer timescale preferred equilibrium which we define as a state towards which the system slowly adapts. Together, these are developed into a framework that this article calls Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation (ÆR), which separates a regulatory process into two timescales: a faster regulation that automatically balances forces and a slower timescale adaptation process that reconfigures the fast regulation so as to move the system towards its preferred equilibrium when an environmental force persists over the longer timescale. This way of thinking leads to novel models for the interplay between multiple timescales of behavior, learning, and development. PMID:27066197

  12. In vitro adaptation of Plasmodium falciparum reveal variations in cultivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Pereira, Ligia; Dash, Rashmi; Walke, Jayashri T; Gawas, Pooja; Sharma, Ambika; Manoharan, Suresh Kumar; Guler, Jennifer L; Maki, Jennifer N; Kumar, Ashwani; Mahanta, Jagadish; Valecha, Neena; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Vaz, Marina; Gomes, Edwin; Chery, Laura; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2016-01-22

    Culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum parasites can offer deeper understanding of geographic variations in drug resistance, pathogenesis and immune evasion. To help ground population-based calculations and inferences from culture-adapted parasites, the complete range of parasites from a study area must be well represented in any collection. To this end, standardized adaptation methods and determinants of successful in vitro adaption were sought. Venous blood was collected from 33 P. falciparum-infected individuals at Goa Medical College and Hospital (Bambolim, Goa, India). Culture variables such as whole blood versus washed blood, heat-inactivated plasma versus Albumax, and different starting haematocrit levels were tested on fresh blood samples from patients. In vitro adaptation was considered successful when two four-fold or greater increases in parasitaemia were observed within, at most, 33 days of attempted culture. Subsequently, parasites from the same patients, which were originally cryopreserved following blood draw, were retested for adaptability for 45 days using identical host red blood cells (RBCs) and culture media. At a new endemic area research site, ~65% of tested patient samples, with varied patient history and clinical presentation, were successfully culture-adapted immediately after blood collection. Cultures set up at 1% haematocrit and 0.5% Albumax adapted most rapidly, but no single test condition was uniformly fatal to culture adaptation. Success was not limited by low patient parasitaemia nor by patient age. Some parasites emerged even after significant delays in sample processing and even after initiation of treatment with anti-malarials. When 'day 0' cryopreserved samples were retested in parallel many months later using identical host RBCs and media, speed to adaptation appeared to be an intrinsic property of the parasites collected from individual patients. Culture adaptation of P. falciparum in a field setting is formally shown to be

  13. When do national administrations adapt to EU policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    This article joins the Europeanization studies and examines the administrative adaptation to Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), a highly institutionalized and regulated policy, in two small older member states, Denmark and Greece. The findings demonstrate variation in administrative adaptation....... In Denmark, both formal and informal administrative structures adapt to CAP, while in Greece administrative adaptation is limited to formal structures. This variation is attributed to two dimensions of the domestic institutional and organizational settings, namely “centralization” and “professionalism...

  14. Adaptive compliant structures for flow regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmeyer, Alex; Theunissen, Raf; M. Weaver, Paul; Pirrera, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces conceptual design principles for a novel class of adaptive structures that provide both flow regulation and control. While of general applicability, these design principles, which revolve around the idea of using the instabilities and elastically nonlinear behaviour of post-buckled panels, are exemplified through a case study: the design of a shape-adaptive air inlet. The inlet comprises a deformable post-buckled member that changes shape depending on the pressure field applied by the surrounding fluid, thereby regulating the inlet aperture. By tailoring the stress field in the post-buckled state and the geometry of the initial, stress-free configuration, the deformable section can snap through to close or open the inlet completely. Owing to its inherent ability to change shape in response to external stimuli—i.e. the aerodynamic loads imposed by different operating conditions—the inlet does not have to rely on linkages and mechanisms for actuation, unlike conventional flow-controlling devices. PMID:28878567

  15. Fuzzy adaptive speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Han Ho; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Rae-Young

    2012-05-01

    A fuzzy adaptive speed controller is proposed for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The proposed fuzzy adaptive speed regulator is insensitive to model parameter and load torque variations because it does not need any accurate knowledge about the motor parameter and load torque values. The stability of the proposed control system is also proven. The proposed adaptive speed regulator system is implemented by using a TMS320F28335 floating point DSP. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy adaptive speed controller under uncertainties such as motor parameter and load torque variations using a prototype PMSM drive system.

  16. Age-related variations of visuo-motor adaptation beyond explicit knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert eHeuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation suffers at older working age. The age-related decline of behavioural adjustments is accompanied by reduced explicit knowledge of the visuo-motor transformation. It disappears when explicit knowledge is kept constant across the age range, except for particularly high levels of explicit knowledge. According to these findings, at older adult age both the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its application for strategic corrections become poorer. Recently it has been posited that visuo-motor adaptation can involve model-free reinforcement mechanisms of learning in addition to model-based mechanisms. We tested whether age-related declines of reinforcement learning can also contribute to the age-related changes of visuo-motor adaptation. Therefore we enhanced the contribution of reinforcement learning to visuo-motor adaptation by way of introducing salient markers of success and failure during practice. With such modified practice conditions, there were residual age-related variations of behavioural adjustments at all levels of explicit knowledge, even when explicit knowledge was absent. The residual age-related variations were observed for practiced target directions only, but not for new target directions. These findings are consistent with an age-related decline of model-free reinforcement learning as a third factor in the age-related decline of visuo-motor adaptation. Under practice conditions, which spur model-free reward-based learning, this factor adds to the decrements of the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its use for strategic corrections.

  17. Phylogenomics Reveals Three Sources of Adaptive Variation during a Rapid Radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Pease

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Speciation events often occur in rapid bursts of diversification, but the ecological and genetic factors that promote these radiations are still much debated. Using whole transcriptomes from all 13 species in the ecologically and reproductively diverse wild tomato clade (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon, we infer the species phylogeny and patterns of genetic diversity in this group. Despite widespread phylogenetic discordance due to the sorting of ancestral variation, we date the origin of this radiation to approximately 2.5 million years ago and find evidence for at least three sources of adaptive genetic variation that fuel diversification. First, we detect introgression both historically between early-branching lineages and recently between individual populations, at specific loci whose functions indicate likely adaptive benefits. Second, we find evidence of lineage-specific de novo evolution for many genes, including loci involved in the production of red fruit color. Finally, using a "PhyloGWAS" approach, we detect environment-specific sorting of ancestral variation among populations that come from different species but share common environmental conditions. Estimated across the whole clade, small but substantial and approximately equal fractions of the euchromatic portion of the genome are inferred to contribute to each of these three sources of adaptive genetic variation. These results indicate that multiple genetic sources can promote rapid diversification and speciation in response to new ecological opportunity, in agreement with our emerging phylogenomic understanding of the complexity of both ancient and recent species radiations.

  18. Adaptive Second-Order Total Variation: An Approach Aware of Slope Discontinuities

    KAUST Repository

    Lenzen, Frank; Becker, Florian; Lellmann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Total variation (TV) regularization, originally introduced by Rudin, Osher and Fatemi in the context of image denoising, has become widely used in the field of inverse problems. Two major directions of modifications of the original approach were proposed later on. The first concerns adaptive variants of TV regularization, the second focuses on higher-order TV models. In the present paper, we combine the ideas of both directions by proposing adaptive second-order TV models, including one anisotropic model. Experiments demonstrate that introducing adaptivity results in an improvement of the reconstruction error. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Population genomics of Pacific lamprey: adaptive variation in a highly dispersive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jon E; Campbell, Nathan R; Close, David A; Docker, Margaret F; Narum, Shawn R

    2013-06-01

    Unlike most anadromous fishes that have evolved strict homing behaviour, Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) seem to lack philopatry as evidenced by minimal population structure across the species range. Yet unexplained findings of within-region population genetic heterogeneity coupled with the morphological and behavioural diversity described for the species suggest that adaptive genetic variation underlying fitness traits may be responsible. We employed restriction site-associated DNA sequencing to genotype 4439 quality filtered single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for 518 individuals collected across a broad geographical area including British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and California. A subset of putatively neutral markers (N = 4068) identified a significant amount of variation among three broad populations: northern British Columbia, Columbia River/southern coast and 'dwarf' adults (F(CT) = 0.02, P ≪ 0.001). Additionally, 162 SNPs were identified as adaptive through outlier tests, and inclusion of these markers revealed a signal of adaptive variation related to geography and life history. The majority of the 162 adaptive SNPs were not independent and formed four groups of linked loci. Analyses with matsam software found that 42 of these outlier SNPs were significantly associated with geography, run timing and dwarf life history, and 27 of these 42 SNPs aligned with known genes or highly conserved genomic regions using the genome browser available for sea lamprey. This study provides both neutral and adaptive context for observed genetic divergence among collections and thus reconciles previous findings of population genetic heterogeneity within a species that displays extensive gene flow. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Adaptive variational mode decomposition method for signal processing based on mode characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jijian; Liu, Zhuo; Wang, Haijun; Dong, Xiaofeng

    2018-07-01

    Variational mode decomposition is a completely non-recursive decomposition model, where all the modes are extracted concurrently. However, the model requires a preset mode number, which limits the adaptability of the method since a large deviation in the number of mode set will cause the discard or mixing of the mode. Hence, a method called Adaptive Variational Mode Decomposition (AVMD) was proposed to automatically determine the mode number based on the characteristic of intrinsic mode function. The method was used to analyze the simulation signals and the measured signals in the hydropower plant. Comparisons have also been conducted to evaluate the performance by using VMD, EMD and EWT. It is indicated that the proposed method has strong adaptability and is robust to noise. It can determine the mode number appropriately without modulation even when the signal frequencies are relatively close.

  1. Paradoxical cardiovascular effects of implementing adaptive emotion regulation strategies in generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Mennin, Douglas S

    2012-02-01

    Recent models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have expanded on Borkovec's avoidance theory by delineating emotion regulation deficits associated with the excessive worry characteristic of this disorder (see Behar, DiMarco, Hekler, Mohlman, & Staples, 2009). However, it has been difficult to determine whether emotion regulation is simply a useful heuristic for the avoidant properties of worry or an important extension to conceptualizations of GAD. Some of this difficulty may arise from a focus on purported maladaptive regulation strategies, which may be confounded with symptomatic distress components of the disorder (such as worry). We examined the implementation of adaptive regulation strategies by participants with and without a diagnosis of GAD while watching emotion-eliciting film clips. In a between-subjects design, participants were randomly assigned to accept, reappraise, or were not given specific regulation instructions. Implementation of adaptive regulation strategies produced differential effects in the physiological (but not subjective) domain across diagnostic groups. Whereas participants with GAD demonstrated lower cardiac flexibility when implementing adaptive regulation strategies than when not given specific instructions on how to regulate, healthy controls showed the opposite pattern, suggesting they benefited from the use of adaptive regulation strategies. We discuss the implications of these findings for the delineation of emotion regulation deficits in psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attachment, emotion regulation, and adaptation to breast cancer: assessment of a mediational hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Marisa; Brandão, Tânia; Teixeira, Joana; Coimbra, Joaquim Luis; Matos, Paula Mena

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the links between attachment, adaptation to breast cancer, and the mediating role played by emotional regulation processes. Participants were 127 women with breast cancer recruited in two public hospitals of Porto and at the Portuguese Cancer League. Women completed measures of attachment, quality of life, and emotion regulation. Path models were used to examine the associations between the constructs and to test the mediational hypotheses. Significant associations were found between attachment and adaptation. Dimensions of emotion regulation totally or partially mediated the associations between attachment and adaptation outcomes. Attachment security effects on interpersonal relations were totally mediated by communicating emotions. Also, attachment anxiety effect on physical well-being was totally mediated by rumination. Attachment avoidance effects on psychological outcomes were totally mediated by emotional control and partially mediated by communicating emotions for the case of interpersonal relations. This study highlights the importance of addressing emotional regulation jointly with attachment to deepen the comprehension of the relational processes implicated in adaptation to breast cancer. Results supported a mediational hypothesis, presenting emotional regulation processes as relevant dimensions for the understanding of attachment associations with adaptation to breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Regulation of Emotions in Socially Challenging Learning Situations: An Instrument to Measure the Adaptive and Social Nature of the Regulation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvenoja, Hanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvela, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) research has conventionally relied on measures, which treat SRL as an aptitude. To study self-regulation and motivation in learning contexts as an ongoing adaptive process, situation-specific methods are needed in addition to static measures. This article presents an "Adaptive Instrument for Regulation of Emotions"…

  4. 78 FR 21045 - Adaptation of Regulations to Incorporate Swaps-Records of Transactions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 1 RIN 3038-AD53 Adaptation of Regulations to Incorporate Swaps--Records of Transactions; Correction AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION...), regarding Adaptation of Regulations to Incorporate Swaps--Records of Transactions. DATES: This correction to...

  5. Adaptation and innovation: a grounded theory study of procedural variation in the academic surgical workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apramian, Tavis; Watling, Christopher; Lingard, Lorelei; Cristancho, Sayra

    2015-10-01

    Surgical research struggles to describe the relationship between procedural variations in daily practice and traditional conceptualizations of evidence. The problem has resisted simple solutions, in part, because we lack a solid understanding of how surgeons conceptualize and interact around variation, adaptation, innovation, and evidence in daily practice. This grounded theory study aims to describe the social processes that influence how procedural variation is conceptualized in the surgical workplace. Using the constructivist grounded theory methodology, semi-structured interviews with surgeons (n = 19) from four North American academic centres were collected and analysed. Purposive sampling targeted surgeons with experiential knowledge of the role of variations in the workplace. Theoretical sampling was conducted until a theoretical framework representing key processes was conceptually saturated. Surgical procedural variation was influenced by three key processes. Seeking improvement was shaped by having unsolved procedural problems, adapting in the moment, and pursuing personal opportunities. Orienting self and others to variations consisted of sharing stories of variations with others, taking stock of how a variation promoted personal interests, and placing trust in peers. Acting under cultural and material conditions was characterized by being wary, positioning personal image, showing the logic of a variation, and making use of academic resources to do so. Our findings include social processes that influence how adaptations are incubated in surgical practice and mature into innovations. This study offers a language for conceptualizing the sociocultural influences on procedural variations in surgery. Interventions to change how surgeons interact with variations on a day-to-day basis should consider these social processes in their design. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. An Adaptive Approach to Variational Nodal Diffusion Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Lewis, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    An adaptive grid method is presented for the solution of neutron diffusion problems in two dimensions. The primal hybrid finite elements employed in the variational nodal method are used to reduce the diffusion equation to a coupled set of elemental response matrices. An a posteriori error estimator is developed to indicate the magnitude of local errors stemming from the low-order elemental interface approximations. An iterative procedure is implemented in which p refinement is applied locally by increasing the polynomial order of the interface approximations. The automated algorithm utilizes the a posteriori estimator to achieve local error reductions until an acceptable level of accuracy is reached throughout the problem domain. Application to a series of X-Y benchmark problems indicates the reduction of computational effort achievable by replacing uniform with adaptive refinement of the spatial approximations

  7. Homeoviscous adaptation and the regulation of membrane lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Robert; Ejsing, Christer S; Antonny, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Biological membranes are complex and dynamic assemblies of lipids and proteins. Poikilothermic organisms including bacteria, fungi, reptiles, and fish do not control their body temperature and must adapt their membrane lipid composition in order to maintain membrane fluidity in the cold. This ada......Biological membranes are complex and dynamic assemblies of lipids and proteins. Poikilothermic organisms including bacteria, fungi, reptiles, and fish do not control their body temperature and must adapt their membrane lipid composition in order to maintain membrane fluidity in the cold....... This adaptive response was termed homeoviscous adaptation and has been frequently studied with a specific focus on the acyl chain composition of membrane lipids. Massspectrometry-based lipidomics can nowadays provide more comprehensive insights into the complexity of lipid remodeling during adaptive responses...... such as neurons maintain unique lipid compositions with specific physicochemical properties. To date little is known about the sensory mechanisms regulating the acyl chain profile in such specialized cells or during adaptive responses. Here we summarize our current understanding of lipid metabolic networks...

  8. In silico detection of sequence variations modifying transcriptional regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin C Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of functional genetic variation associated with increased susceptibility to complex diseases can elucidate genes and underlying biochemical mechanisms linked to disease onset and progression. For genes linked to genetic diseases, most identified causal mutations alter an encoded protein sequence. Technological advances for measuring RNA abundance suggest that a significant number of undiscovered causal mutations may alter the regulation of gene transcription. However, it remains a challenge to separate causal genetic variations from linked neutral variations. Here we present an in silico driven approach to identify possible genetic variation in regulatory sequences. The approach combines phylogenetic footprinting and transcription factor binding site prediction to identify variation in candidate cis-regulatory elements. The bioinformatics approach has been tested on a set of SNPs that are reported to have a regulatory function, as well as background SNPs. In the absence of additional information about an analyzed gene, the poor specificity of binding site prediction is prohibitive to its application. However, when additional data is available that can give guidance on which transcription factor is involved in the regulation of the gene, the in silico binding site prediction improves the selection of candidate regulatory polymorphisms for further analyses. The bioinformatics software generated for the analysis has been implemented as a Web-based application system entitled RAVEN (regulatory analysis of variation in enhancers. The RAVEN system is available at http://www.cisreg.ca for all researchers interested in the detection and characterization of regulatory sequence variation.

  9. In Silico Detection of Sequence Variations Modifying Transcriptional Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Malin C; Engström, Pär G; Lithwick, Stuart; Arenillas, David; Eriksson, Per; Lenhard, Boris; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Odeberg, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Identification of functional genetic variation associated with increased susceptibility to complex diseases can elucidate genes and underlying biochemical mechanisms linked to disease onset and progression. For genes linked to genetic diseases, most identified causal mutations alter an encoded protein sequence. Technological advances for measuring RNA abundance suggest that a significant number of undiscovered causal mutations may alter the regulation of gene transcription. However, it remains a challenge to separate causal genetic variations from linked neutral variations. Here we present an in silico driven approach to identify possible genetic variation in regulatory sequences. The approach combines phylogenetic footprinting and transcription factor binding site prediction to identify variation in candidate cis-regulatory elements. The bioinformatics approach has been tested on a set of SNPs that are reported to have a regulatory function, as well as background SNPs. In the absence of additional information about an analyzed gene, the poor specificity of binding site prediction is prohibitive to its application. However, when additional data is available that can give guidance on which transcription factor is involved in the regulation of the gene, the in silico binding site prediction improves the selection of candidate regulatory polymorphisms for further analyses. The bioinformatics software generated for the analysis has been implemented as a Web-based application system entitled RAVEN (regulatory analysis of variation in enhancers). The RAVEN system is available at http://www.cisreg.ca for all researchers interested in the detection and characterization of regulatory sequence variation. PMID:18208319

  10. Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: The importance of replication in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Kovach, Ryan; Whited, Diane C.; Narum, Shawn R.; Matala, Andrew P.; Ackerman, Michael W.; Garner, B. A.; Kimball, John S; Stanford, Jack A.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modelling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population-specific and pairwise FST) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively neutral and 29 candidate adaptive SNP loci, we found that climate-related variables (winter precipitation, summer maximum temperature, winter highest 5% flow events and summer mean flow) best explained neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation within metapopulations, suggesting that climatic variation likely influences both demography (neutral variation) and local adaptation (adaptive variation). However, we did not observe consistent relationships between climate variables and FST across all metapopulations, underscoring the need for replication when extrapolating results from one scale to another (e.g. basin-wide to the metapopulation scale). Sensitivity analysis (leave-one-population-out) revealed consistent relationships between climate variables and FST within three metapopulations; however, these patterns were not consistent in two metapopulations likely due to small sample sizes (N = 10). These results provide correlative evidence that climatic variation has shaped the genetic structure of steelhead populations and highlight the need for replication and sensitivity analyses in land and riverscape genetics.

  11. Host-selected mutations converging on a global regulator drive an adaptive leap towards symbiosis in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina Pankey, M; Foxall, Randi L; Ster, Ian M; Perry, Lauren A; Schuster, Brian M; Donner, Rachel A; Coyle, Matthew; Cooper, Vaughn S; Whistler, Cheryl A

    2017-01-01

    Host immune and physical barriers protect against pathogens but also impede the establishment of essential symbiotic partnerships. To reveal mechanisms by which beneficial organisms adapt to circumvent host defenses, we experimentally evolved ecologically distinct bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri by colonization and growth within the light organs of the squid Euprymna scolopes. Serial squid passaging of bacteria produced eight distinct mutations in the binK sensor kinase gene, which conferred an exceptional selective advantage that could be demonstrated through both empirical and theoretical analysis. Squid-adaptive binK alleles promoted colonization and immune evasion that were mediated by cell-associated matrices including symbiotic polysaccharide (Syp) and cellulose. binK variation also altered quorum sensing, raising the threshold for luminescence induction. Preexisting coordinated regulation of symbiosis traits by BinK presented an efficient solution where altered BinK function was the key to unlock multiple colonization barriers. These results identify a genetic basis for microbial adaptability and underscore the importance of hosts as selective agents that shape emergent symbiont populations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24414.001 PMID:28447935

  12. The Role of Adaptation in Body Load-Regulating Mechanisms During Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara; Holt, Christopher; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Body loading is a fundamental parameter that modulates motor output during locomotion, and is especially important for controlling the generation of stepping patterns, dynamic balance, and termination of locomotion. Load receptors that regulate and control posture and stance in locomotion include the Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindles at the hip, knee, and ankle joints, and the Ruffini endings and the Pacinian corpuscles in the soles of the feet. Increased body weight support (BWS) during locomotion results in an immediate reorganization of locomotor control, such as a reduction in stance and double support duration and decreased hip, ankle, and knee angles during the gait cycle. Previous studies on the effect during exposure to increased BWS while walking showed a reduction in lower limb joint angles and gait cycle timing that represents a reorganization of locomotor control. Until now, no studies have investigated how locomotor control responds after a period of exposure to adaptive modification in the body load sensing system. The goal of this research was to determine the adaptive properties of body load-regulating mechanisms in locomotor control during locomotion. We hypothesized that body load-regulating mechanisms contribute to locomotor control, and adaptive changes in these load-regulating mechanisms require reorganization to maintain forward locomotion. Head-torso coordination, lower limb movement patterns, and gait cycle timing were evaluated before and after a 30-minute adaptation session during which subjects walked on a treadmill at 5.4 km/hr with 40% body weight support (BWS). Before and after the adaptation period, head-torso and lower limb 3D kinematic data were obtained while performing a goal directed task during locomotion with 0% BWS using a video-based motion analysis system, and gait cycle timing parameters were collected by foot switches positioned under the heel and toe of the subjects shoes. Subjects showed adaptive modification in

  13. Dynamic Nature of Noncoding RNA Regulation of Adaptive Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Citarella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Immune response plays a fundamental role in protecting the organism from infections; however, dysregulation often occurs and can be detrimental for the organism, leading to a variety of immune-mediated diseases. Recently our understanding of the molecular and cellular networks regulating the immune response, and, in particular, adaptive immunity, has improved dramatically. For many years, much of the focus has been on the study of protein regulators; nevertheless, recent evidence points to a fundamental role for specific classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs in regulating development, activation and homeostasis of the immune system. Although microRNAs (miRNAs are the most comprehensive and well-studied, a number of reports suggest the exciting possibility that long ncRNAs (lncRNAs could mediate host response and immune function. Finally, evidence is also accumulating that suggests a role for miRNAs and other small ncRNAs in autocrine, paracrine and exocrine signaling events, thus highlighting an elaborate network of regulatory interactions mediated by different classes of ncRNAs during immune response. This review will explore the multifaceted roles of ncRNAs in the adaptive immune response. In particular, we will focus on the well-established role of miRNAs and on the emerging role of lncRNAs and circulating ncRNAs, which all make indispensable contributions to the understanding of the multilayered modulation of the adaptive immune response.

  14. Regulatory Architecture of Gene Expression Variation in the Threespine Stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Pritchard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Much adaptive evolutionary change is underlain by mutational variation in regions of the genome that regulate gene expression rather than in the coding regions of the genes themselves. An understanding of the role of gene expression variation in facilitating local adaptation will be aided by an understanding of underlying regulatory networks. Here, we characterize the genetic architecture of gene expression variation in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus, an important model in the study of adaptive evolution. We collected transcriptomic and genomic data from 60 half-sib families using an expression microarray and genotyping-by-sequencing, and located expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL underlying the variation in gene expression in liver tissue using an interval mapping approach. We identified eQTL for several thousand expression traits. Expression was influenced by polymorphism in both cis- and trans-regulatory regions. Trans-eQTL clustered into hotspots. We did not identify master transcriptional regulators in hotspot locations: rather, the presence of hotspots may be driven by complex interactions between multiple transcription factors. One observed hotspot colocated with a QTL recently found to underlie salinity tolerance in the threespine stickleback. However, most other observed hotspots did not colocate with regions of the genome known to be involved in adaptive divergence between marine and freshwater habitats.

  15. Individual and age-related variation in chromatic contrast adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah L.; Werner, John S.; Webster, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Precortical color channels are tuned primarily to the LvsM (stimulation of L and M cones varied, but S cone stimulation held constant) or SvsLM (stimulation of S cones varied, but L and M cone stimulation held constant) cone-opponent (cardinal) axes, but appear elaborated in the cortex to form higher-order mechanisms tuned to both cardinal and intermediate directions. One source of evidence for these higher-order mechanisms has been the selectivity of color contrast adaptation for noncardinal directions, yet the degree of this selectivity has varied widely across the small sample of observers tested in previous studies. This study explored the possible bases for this variation, and in particular tested whether it reflected age-related changes in the distribution or tuning of color mechanisms. Observers included 15 younger (18–22 years of age) and 15 older individuals (66–82), who adapted to temporal modulations along one of four chromatic axes (two cardinal and two intermediate axes) and then matched the hue and contrast of test stimuli lying along eight different directions in the equiluminant plane. All observers exhibited aftereffects that were selective for both the cardinal and intermediate directions, although selectivity was weaker for the intermediate axes. The degree of selectivity increased with the magnitude of adaptation for all axes, and thus adaptation strength alone may account for much of the variance in selectivity among observers. Older observers showed a stronger magnitude of adaptation thus, surprisingly, more conspicuous evidence for higher-order mechanisms. For both age groups the aftereffects were well predicted by response changes in chromatic channels with linear spectral sensitivities, and there was no evidence for weakened channel tuning with aging. The results suggest that higher-order mechanisms may become more exposed in observers or conditions in which the strength of adaptation is greater, and that both chromatic contrast

  16. Pan-Genome Analysis Links the Hereditary Variation of Leptospirillum ferriphilum With Its Evolutionary Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Niche adaptation has long been recognized to drive intra-species differentiation and speciation, yet knowledge about its relatedness with hereditary variation of microbial genomes is relatively limited. Using Leptospirillum ferriphilum species as a case study, we present a detailed analysis of genomic features of five recognized strains. Genome-to-genome distance calculation preliminarily determined the roles of spatial distance and environmental heterogeneity that potentially contribute to intra-species variation within L. ferriphilum species at the genome level. Mathematical models were further constructed to extrapolate the expansion of L. ferriphilum genomes (an ‘open’ pan-genome, indicating the emergence of novel genes with new sequenced genomes. The identification of diverse mobile genetic elements (MGEs (such as transposases, integrases, and phage-associated genes revealed the prevalence of horizontal gene transfer events, which is an important evolutionary mechanism that provides avenues for the recruitment of novel functionalities and further for the genetic divergence of microbial genomes. Comprehensive analysis also demonstrated that the genome reduction by gene loss in a broad sense might contribute to the observed diversification. We thus inferred a plausible explanation to address this observation: the community-dependent adaptation that potentially economizes the limiting resources of the entire community. Now that the introduction of new genes is accompanied by a parallel abandonment of some other ones, our results provide snapshots on the biological fitness cost of environmental adaptation within the L. ferriphilum genomes. In short, our genome-wide analyses bridge the relation between genetic variation of L. ferriphilum with its evolutionary adaptation.

  17. Borrelia host adaptation Regulator (BadR) regulates rpoS to modulate host adaptation and virulence factors in Borrelia burgdorferi

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Christine L.; Rajasekhar Karna, S. L.; Seshu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The RpoS transcription factor of Borrelia burgdorferi is a “gatekeeper” because it activates genes required for spirochetes to transition from tick to vertebrate hosts. However, it remains unknown how RpoS becomes repressed to allow the spirochetes to transition back from the vertebrate host to the tick vector. Here we show that a putative carbohydrate-responsive regulatory protein, designated BadR (Borrelia host adaptation Regulator), is a transcriptional repressor of rpoS. BadR levels are e...

  18. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-06-11

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  19. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  20. Sox17 regulates liver lipid metabolism and adaptation to fasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rommelaere

    Full Text Available Liver is a major regulator of lipid metabolism and adaptation to fasting, a process involving PPARalpha activation. We recently showed that the Vnn1 gene is a PPARalpha target gene in liver and that release of the Vanin-1 pantetheinase in serum is a biomarker of PPARalpha activation. Here we set up a screen to identify new regulators of adaptation to fasting using the serum Vanin-1 as a marker of PPARalpha activation. Mutagenized mice were screened for low serum Vanin-1 expression. Functional interactions with PPARalpha were investigated by combining transcriptomic, biochemical and metabolic approaches. We characterized a new mutant mouse in which hepatic and serum expression of Vanin-1 is depressed. This mouse carries a mutation in the HMG domain of the Sox17 transcription factor. Mutant mice display a metabolic phenotype featuring lipid abnormalities and inefficient adaptation to fasting. Upon fasting, a fraction of the PPARα-driven transcriptional program is no longer induced and associated with impaired fatty acid oxidation. The transcriptional phenotype is partially observed in heterozygous Sox17+/- mice. In mutant mice, the fasting phenotype but not all transcriptomic signature is rescued by the administration of the PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate. These results identify a novel role for Sox17 in adult liver as a modulator of the metabolic adaptation to fasting.

  1. Investigation of microbial adaptation to salinity variation for treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate by membrane bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jang, Duksoo; Moon, Chungman; Ahn, Kyuhong

    2014-01-01

    quantitative study on a microbial adaptation strategy for variations on salt concentration (0–20 g/L), lab-scale membrane bioreactors (7L working volume) with polypropylene hollow fiber membrane module (pore size 0.4 μm) were used with different adaptation strategies: instant and stepwise mode. The performance...

  2. Walking-adaptability assessments with the Interactive Walkway: Between-systems agreement and sensitivity to task and subject variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerse, Daphne J; Coolen, Bert H; Roerdink, Melvyn

    2017-05-01

    The ability to adapt walking to environmental circumstances is an important aspect of walking, yet difficult to assess. The Interactive Walkway was developed to assess walking adaptability by augmenting a multi-Kinect-v2 10-m walkway with gait-dependent visual context (stepping targets, obstacles) using real-time processed markerless full-body kinematics. In this study we determined Interactive Walkway's usability for walking-adaptability assessments in terms of between-systems agreement and sensitivity to task and subject variations. Under varying task constraints, 21 healthy subjects performed obstacle-avoidance, sudden-stops-and-starts and goal-directed-stepping tasks. Various continuous walking-adaptability outcome measures were concurrently determined with the Interactive Walkway and a gold-standard motion-registration system: available response time, obstacle-avoidance and sudden-stop margins, step length, stepping accuracy and walking speed. The same holds for dichotomous classifications of success and failure for obstacle-avoidance and sudden-stops tasks and performed short-stride versus long-stride obstacle-avoidance strategies. Continuous walking-adaptability outcome measures generally agreed well between systems (high intraclass correlation coefficients for absolute agreement, low biases and narrow limits of agreement) and were highly sensitive to task and subject variations. Success and failure ratings varied with available response times and obstacle types and agreed between systems for 85-96% of the trials while obstacle-avoidance strategies were always classified correctly. We conclude that Interactive Walkway walking-adaptability outcome measures are reliable and sensitive to task and subject variations, even in high-functioning subjects. We therefore deem Interactive Walkway walking-adaptability assessments usable for obtaining an objective and more task-specific examination of one's ability to walk, which may be feasible for both high

  3. Hygienic significance of radiostability as measures of adaptive feasibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudritskij, Yu.K.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt is made to substantiate hygienic significance of radiostability analysis as measures of adaptive feasibilities variation under the low dose ionizing radiation effect (IR). Examples of this substantiation are presented. Not only biological radiation effects but social adaptivity problems may be analysed. With more information adaptive feasibilities of human body to radiation factor are extended, its radiostability increases. Analysis of the state of adaptive feasibilities and their development estimation are vital problems of radiation hygiene, the basis for regulation and normalization of radiation factor

  4. Regulatory Architecture of Gene Expression Variation in the Threespine Stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Victoria L; Viitaniemi, Heidi M; McCairns, R J Scott; Merilä, Juha; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Primmer, Craig R; Leder, Erica H

    2017-01-05

    Much adaptive evolutionary change is underlain by mutational variation in regions of the genome that regulate gene expression rather than in the coding regions of the genes themselves. An understanding of the role of gene expression variation in facilitating local adaptation will be aided by an understanding of underlying regulatory networks. Here, we characterize the genetic architecture of gene expression variation in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), an important model in the study of adaptive evolution. We collected transcriptomic and genomic data from 60 half-sib families using an expression microarray and genotyping-by-sequencing, and located expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) underlying the variation in gene expression in liver tissue using an interval mapping approach. We identified eQTL for several thousand expression traits. Expression was influenced by polymorphism in both cis- and trans-regulatory regions. Trans-eQTL clustered into hotspots. We did not identify master transcriptional regulators in hotspot locations: rather, the presence of hotspots may be driven by complex interactions between multiple transcription factors. One observed hotspot colocated with a QTL recently found to underlie salinity tolerance in the threespine stickleback. However, most other observed hotspots did not colocate with regions of the genome known to be involved in adaptive divergence between marine and freshwater habitats. Copyright © 2017 Pritchard et al.

  5. Hedgehog signaling mediates adaptive variation in a dynamic functional system in the cichlid feeding apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinan; Albertson, R Craig

    2014-06-10

    Adaptive variation in the craniofacial skeleton is a key component of resource specialization and habitat divergence in vertebrates, but the proximate genetic mechanisms that underlie complex patterns of craniofacial variation are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway mediates widespread variation across a complex functional system that affects the kinematics of lower jaw depression--the opercular four-bar linkage apparatus--among Lake Malawi cichlids. By using a combined quantitative trait locus mapping and population genetics approach, we show that allelic variation in the Hh receptor, ptch1, affects the development of distinct bony elements in the head that represent two of three movable links in this functional system. The evolutionarily derived allele is found in species that feed from the water column, and is associated with shifts in anatomy that translate to a four-bar system capable of faster jaw rotation. Alternatively, the ancestral allele is found in species that feed on attached algae, and is associated with the development of a four-bar system that predicts slower jaw movement. Experimental manipulation of the Hh pathway during cichlid development recapitulates functionally salient natural variation in craniofacial geometry. In all, these results significantly extend our understanding of the mechanisms that fine-tune the craniofacial skeletal complex during adaptation to new foraging niches.

  6. Role of AMPK in skeletal muscle metabolic regulation and adaptation in relation to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism and gene expression. AMPK is activated both in response to in vivo exercise and ex vivo contraction. AMPK is therefore believed to be an important signalling molecule in regulating muscle metabolism...... during exercise as well as in adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training. The first part of this review is focused on different mechanisms regulating AMPK activity during muscle work such as alterations in nucleotide concentrations, availability of energy substrates and upstream AMPK kinases. We...... in relation to adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training....

  7. A review of visual perception mechanisms that regulate rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2015-09-01

    We review recent research on the visual mechanisms of rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish. These neurophysiologically complex marine invertebrates can camouflage themselves against almost any background, yet their ability to quickly (0.5-2 s) alter their body patterns on different visual backgrounds poses a vexing challenge: how to pick the correct body pattern amongst their repertoire. The ability of cuttlefish to change appropriately requires a visual system that can rapidly assess complex visual scenes and produce the motor responses-the neurally controlled body patterns-that achieve camouflage. Using specifically designed visual backgrounds and assessing the corresponding body patterns quantitatively, we and others have uncovered several aspects of scene variation that are important in regulating cuttlefish patterning responses. These include spatial scale of background pattern, background intensity, background contrast, object edge properties, object contrast polarity, object depth, and the presence of 3D objects. Moreover, arm postures and skin papillae are also regulated visually for additional aspects of concealment. By integrating these visual cues, cuttlefish are able to rapidly select appropriate body patterns for concealment throughout diverse natural environments. This sensorimotor approach of studying cuttlefish camouflage thus provides unique insights into the mechanisms of visual perception in an invertebrate image-forming eye.

  8. Solving Quasi-Variational Inequalities for Image Restoration with Adaptive Constraint Sets

    KAUST Repository

    Lenzen, F.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We consider a class of quasi-variational inequalities (QVIs) for adaptive image restoration, where the adaptivity is described via solution-dependent constraint sets. In previous work we studied both theoretical and numerical issues. While we were able to show the existence of solutions for a relatively broad class of problems, we encountered difficulties concerning uniqueness of the solution as well as convergence of existing algorithms for solving QVIs. In particular, it seemed that with increasing image size the growing condition number of the involved differential operator posed severe problems. In the present paper we prove uniqueness for a larger class of problems, particularly independent of the image size. Moreover, we provide a numerical algorithm with proved convergence. Experimental results support our theoretical findings.

  9. Types of adaptation of the system of enterprise economic security to the impact of subjects of tax regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pohorelov Yurii S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers the authors’ approach to identification of types of adaptation of the system of enterprise economic security to negative influence of subjects of tax regulation. It determines composition of these subjects and, separately, regulation subjects that form fundamental grounds of the tax sphere and subjects of effective influence, which directly interact with entrepreneurial structures and realise tax regulation of their activity in practice. As regards direct adaptation of the system of enterprise economic security, the article offers to mark out its individual types with respect to the set goal, essence of changes in the system of economic security, degree of its manageability and nature of accumulated changes. Moreover, the article offers a list of catalysts and inhibitors of adaptation of the system of enterprise economic security to impact of subjects of tax regulation. It also marks out adaptation parameters of the system of enterprise economic security to the impact of subjects of tax regulation and provides their gradations.

  10. Total variation regularization for seismic waveform inversion using an adaptive primal dual hybrid gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Peng; Liao, Wenyuan; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchuan

    2018-04-01

    Full waveform inversion is an effective tool for recovering the properties of the Earth from seismograms. However, it suffers from local minima caused mainly by the limited accuracy of the starting model and the lack of a low-frequency component in the seismic data. Because of the high velocity contrast between salt and sediment, the relation between the waveform and velocity perturbation is strongly nonlinear. Therefore, salt inversion can easily get trapped in the local minima. Since the velocity of salt is nearly constant, we can make the most of this characteristic with total variation regularization to mitigate the local minima. In this paper, we develop an adaptive primal dual hybrid gradient method to implement total variation regularization by projecting the solution onto a total variation norm constrained convex set, through which the total variation norm constraint is satisfied at every model iteration. The smooth background velocities are first inverted and the perturbations are gradually obtained by successively relaxing the total variation norm constraints. Numerical experiment of the projection of the BP model onto the intersection of the total variation norm and box constraints has demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of our adaptive primal dual hybrid gradient method. A workflow is designed to recover complex salt structures in the BP 2004 model and the 2D SEG/EAGE salt model, starting from a linear gradient model without using low-frequency data below 3 Hz. The salt inversion processes demonstrate that wavefield reconstruction inversion with a total variation norm and box constraints is able to overcome local minima and inverts the complex salt velocity layer by layer.

  11. Chromatin remodeling regulates catalase expression during cancer cells adaptation to chronic oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Christophe; Sandoval, Juan Marcelo; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Dejeans, Nicolas; Garbe, James C; Dieu, Marc; Verrax, Julien; Renard, Patricia; Huang, Peng; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of ROS metabolism plays a major role in cellular adaptation to oxidative stress in cancer cells, but the molecular mechanism that regulates catalase, a key antioxidant enzyme responsible for conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the transcriptional regulatory mechanism controlling catalase expression in three human mammary cell lines: the normal mammary epithelial 250MK primary cells, the breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and an experimental model of MCF-7 cells resistant against oxidative stress resulting from chronic exposure to H 2 O 2 (Resox), in which catalase was overexpressed. Here we identify a novel promoter region responsible for the regulation of catalase expression at -1518/-1226 locus and the key molecules that interact with this promoter and affect catalase transcription. We show that the AP-1 family member JunB and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) mediate catalase transcriptional activation and repression, respectively, by controlling chromatin remodeling through a histone deacetylases-dependent mechanism. This regulatory mechanism plays an important role in redox adaptation to chronic exposure to H 2 O 2 in breast cancer cells. Our study suggests that cancer adaptation to oxidative stress may be regulated by transcriptional factors through chromatin remodeling, and reveals a potential new mechanism to target cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Standing genetic variation as a major contributor to adaptation in the Virginia chicken lines selection experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zheya; Pettersson, Mats E; Honaker, Christa F; Siegel, Paul B; Carlborg, Örjan

    2015-10-01

    Artificial selection provides a powerful approach to study the genetics of adaptation. Using selective-sweep mapping, it is possible to identify genomic regions where allele-frequencies have diverged during selection. To avoid false positive signatures of selection, it is necessary to show that a sweep affects a selected trait before it can be considered adaptive. Here, we confirm candidate, genome-wide distributed selective sweeps originating from the standing genetic variation in a long-term selection experiment on high and low body weight of chickens. Using an intercross between the two divergent chicken lines, 16 adaptive selective sweeps were confirmed based on their association with the body weight at 56 days of age. Although individual additive effects were small, the fixation for alternative alleles across the loci contributed at least 40 % of the phenotypic difference for the selected trait between these lines. The sweeps contributed about half of the additive genetic variance present within and between the lines after 40 generations of selection, corresponding to a considerable portion of the additive genetic variance of the base population. Long-term, single-trait, bi-directional selection in the Virginia chicken lines has resulted in a gradual response to selection for extreme phenotypes without a drastic reduction in the genetic variation. We find that fixation of several standing genetic variants across a highly polygenic genetic architecture made a considerable contribution to long-term selection response. This provides new fundamental insights into the dynamics of standing genetic variation during long-term selection and adaptation.

  13. Leaf nitrogen from first principles: field evidence for adaptive variation with climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ning; Prentice, Iain Colin; Evans, Bradley J.; Caddy-Retalic, Stefan; Lowe, Andrew J.; Wright, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    , as predicted from local growing conditions. This finding is consistent with a plant-centred approach to modelling, emphasizing the adaptive regulation of traits. Models that account for biodiversity will also need to partition community-level trait variation into components due to phenotypic plasticity and/or genotypic differentiation within species vs. progressive species replacement, along environmental gradients. Our analysis suggests that variation in Narea is about evenly split between these two modes.

  14. Study of inter-fractional variations and adaptive radiotherapy in pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chengliang; Wang Jianhua; Li Dingjie; Mao Ronghu; Li, X. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively characterize the inter-fractional anatomy variations and advantages of dosimetry for the adaptive radiotherapy in pancreatic cancer. Methods: A total of 226 daily CT images acquired from 10 patients with pancreatic cancer treated with image-guided radiotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. Targets and organs at risk (OARs) were delineated by the atlas-based automatic segmentation and modified by the skilled physician. Various parameters,including the center of mass (COM) distance, the maximal overlap ratio (MOR) and the Dice coefficient (DC), were used to quantify the inter-fractional organ displacement and deformation. The adaptive radiation therapy (ART) was applied to handle the daily GT images. The dose distributions parameters from the ART plan were compared with those from the repositioning plan. Results: The inter-fractional anatomy variations of pancreas head were obvious in the pancreatic cancer irradiation. The mean COM distance, MOR and DC of pancreas head after the bony or soft tissue alignment and registration was (7.8 ± 1.3)mm, (87.2 ± 8.4)% and (77.2 ±7.9)% respectively. Compared with the repositioning plan, the ART plan had better target coverage and OARs sparing. For example, the mean V 100 of PTV was improved from (93.32 ± 2.89) % for repositioning plan to (96.03 ± 1.42)% for ART plan with t =2.79, P =0.008 and the mean V 50.4 for duodenum was reduced from (43.4 ± 12.71)% for the repositioning plan to (15.6 ± 6.25)% for the ART plan with t =3.52, P=0.000. Conclusions: The ART can effectively account for the obvious inter-fractional anatomy variations in pancreatic cancer irradiation and be used to escalate the radiotherapy dose for the pancreatic cancer, which will lead to a promising higher local control rate. (authors)

  15. Functional genomics of physiological plasticity and local adaptation in killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew; Galvez, Fernando; Zhang, Shujun; Williams, Larissa M; Oleksiak, Marjorie F

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary solutions to the physiological challenges of life in highly variable habitats can span the continuum from evolution of a cosmopolitan plastic phenotype to the evolution of locally adapted phenotypes. Killifish (Fundulus sp.) have evolved both highly plastic and locally adapted phenotypes within different selective contexts, providing a comparative system in which to explore the genomic underpinnings of physiological plasticity and adaptive variation. Importantly, extensive variation exists among populations and species for tolerance to a variety of stressors, and we exploit this variation in comparative studies to yield insights into the genomic basis of evolved phenotypic variation. Notably, species of Fundulus occupy the continuum of osmotic habitats from freshwater to marine and populations within Fundulus heteroclitus span far greater variation in pollution tolerance than across all species of fish. Here, we explore how transcriptome regulation underpins extreme physiological plasticity on osmotic shock and how genomic and transcriptomic variation is associated with locally evolved pollution tolerance. We show that F. heteroclitus quickly acclimate to extreme osmotic shock by mounting a dramatic rapid transcriptomic response including an early crisis control phase followed by a tissue remodeling phase involving many regulatory pathways. We also show that convergent evolution of locally adapted pollution tolerance involves complex patterns of gene expression and genome sequence variation, which is confounded with body-weight dependence for some genes. Similarly, exploiting the natural phenotypic variation associated with other established and emerging model organisms is likely to greatly accelerate the pace of discovery of the genomic basis of phenotypic variation.

  16. Functional adaptation to loading of a single bone is neuronally regulated and involves multiple bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Susannah J; Behan, Mary; Smith, Lesley; Oldenhoff, William E; Markel, Mark D; Kalscheur, Vicki L; Hao, Zhengling; Miletic, Vjekoslav; Muir, Peter

    2008-09-01

    Regulation of load-induced bone formation is considered a local phenomenon controlled by osteocytes, although it has also been hypothesized that functional adaptation may be neuronally regulated. The aim of this study was to examine bone formation in multiple bones, in response to loading of a single bone, and to determine whether adaptation may be neuronally regulated. Load-induced responses in the left and right ulnas and humeri were determined after loading of the right ulna in male Sprague-Dawley rats (69 +/- 16 days of age). After a single period of loading at -760-, -2000-, or -3750-microepsilon initial peak strain, rats were given calcein to label new bone formation. Bone formation and bone neuropeptide concentrations were determined at 10 days. In one group, temporary neuronal blocking was achieved by perineural anesthesia of the brachial plexus with bupivicaine during loading. We found right ulna loading induces adaptive responses in other bones in both thoracic limbs compared with Sham controls and that neuronal blocking during loading abrogated bone formation in the loaded ulna and other thoracic limb bones. Skeletal adaptation was more evident in distal long bones compared with proximal long bones. We also found that the single period of loading modulated bone neuropeptide concentrations persistently for 10 days. We conclude that functional adaptation to loading of a single bone in young rapidly growing rats is neuronally regulated and involves multiple bones. Persistent changes in bone neuropeptide concentrations after a single loading period suggest that plasticity exists in the innervation of bone.

  17. ADHD and Adaptability: The Roles of Cognitive, Behavioural, and Emotional Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Emma; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptability has been recently proposed as cognitive, behavioural, and emotional regulation assisting individuals to effectively respond to change, uncertainty and novelty. Given students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have known impairments with regulatory functions, they may be at particular disadvantage as they seek to…

  18. Promoting adaptive emotion regulation and coping in adolescence: a school-based programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Andrea B; Pössel, Patrick; Hautzinger, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Particularly in adolescence, fostering adaptive emotion regulation is an important aim in health promotion. Expressive writing in combination with psycho-education on emotion regulation seems especially appropriate to serve this aim. In this study, school classes were randomly assigned either to a prevention (N = 208) or to a non-treatment control group (N = 151). The prevention group showed significant improvements regarding negative affect, grades, and days absent compared to the control-group. A combination of expressive writing with elements of psycho-education of emotion regulation might be an effective preventive tool, as it seems to improve psychosocial adjustment by establishing functional emotion regulation strategies.

  19. RNA-Mediated cis Regulation in Acinetobacter baumannii Modulates Stress-Induced Phenotypic Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Carly; Gozzi, Kevin; Heinemann, Björn; Chai, Yunrong; Godoy, Veronica G

    2017-06-01

    In the nosocomial opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii , RecA-dependent mutagenesis, which causes antibiotic resistance acquisition, is linked to the DNA damage response (DDR). Notably, unlike the Escherichia coli paradigm, recA and DDR gene expression in A. baumannii is bimodal. Namely, there is phenotypic variation upon DNA damage, which may provide a bet-hedging strategy for survival. Thus, understanding recA gene regulation is key to elucidate the yet unknown DDR regulation in A. baumannii Here, we identify a structured 5' untranslated region (UTR) in the recA transcript which serves as a cis -regulatory element. We show that a predicted stem-loop structure in this 5' UTR affects mRNA half-life and underlies bimodal gene expression and thus phenotypic variation in response to ciprofloxacin treatment. We furthermore show that the stem-loop structure of the recA 5' UTR influences intracellular RecA protein levels and, in vivo , impairing the formation of the stem-loop structure of the recA 5' UTR lowers cell survival of UV treatment and decreases rifampin resistance acquisition from DNA damage-induced mutagenesis. We hypothesize that the 5' UTR allows for stable recA transcripts during stress, including antibiotic treatment, enabling cells to maintain suitable RecA levels for survival. This innovative strategy to regulate the DDR in A. baumannii may contribute to its success as a pathogen. IMPORTANCE Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen quickly gaining antibiotic resistances. Mutagenesis and antibiotic resistance acquisition are linked to the DNA damage response (DDR). However, how the DDR is regulated in A. baumannii remains unknown, since unlike most bacteria, A. baumannii does not follow the regulation of the Escherichia coli paradigm. In this study, we have started to uncover the mechanisms regulating the novel A. baumannii DDR. We have found that a cis -acting 5' UTR regulates recA transcript stability, RecA protein levels, and DNA

  20. The sources of adaptive variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Deborah; Barton, Nicholas H; Charlesworth, Brian

    2017-05-31

    The role of natural selection in the evolution of adaptive phenotypes has undergone constant probing by evolutionary biologists, employing both theoretical and empirical approaches. As Darwin noted, natural selection can act together with other processes, including random changes in the frequencies of phenotypic differences that are not under strong selection, and changes in the environment, which may reflect evolutionary changes in the organisms themselves. As understanding of genetics developed after 1900, the new genetic discoveries were incorporated into evolutionary biology. The resulting general principles were summarized by Julian Huxley in his 1942 book Evolution: the modern synthesis Here, we examine how recent advances in genetics, developmental biology and molecular biology, including epigenetics, relate to today's understanding of the evolution of adaptations. We illustrate how careful genetic studies have repeatedly shown that apparently puzzling results in a wide diversity of organisms involve processes that are consistent with neo-Darwinism. They do not support important roles in adaptation for processes such as directed mutation or the inheritance of acquired characters, and therefore no radical revision of our understanding of the mechanism of adaptive evolution is needed. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Comparative study of adaptive controller using MIT rules and Lyapunov method for MPPT standalone PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariba, N.; Bouknadel, A.; Haddou, A.; Ikken, N.; Omari, Hafsa El; Omari, Hamid El

    2017-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Generator have a nonlinear characteristic function relating the intensity at the voltage I = f (U) and depend on the variation of solar irradiation and temperature, In addition, its point of operation depends directly on the load that it supplies. To fix this drawback, and to extract the maximum power available to the terminal of the generator, an adaptation stage is introduced between the generator and the load to couple the two elements as perfectly as possible. The adaptation stage is associated with a command called MPPT MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) whose is used to force the PVG to operate at the MPP (Maximum Power Point) under variation of climatic conditions and load variation. This paper presents a comparative study between the adaptive controller for PV Systems using MIT rules and Lyapunov method to regulate the PV voltage. The Incremental Conductance (IC) algorithm is used to extract the maximum power from the PVG by calculating the voltage Vref, and the adaptive controller is used to regulate and track quickly the PV voltage. The two methods of the adaptive controller will be compared to prove their performance by using the PSIM tools and experimental test, and the mathematical model of step-up with PVG model will be presented.

  2. Pleiotropic opioid regulation of spinal endomorphin 2 release and its adaptations to opioid withdrawal are sexually dimorphic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sumita; Liu, Nai-Jiang; Zadina, James E; Sharma, Tarak; Gintzler, Alan R

    2012-01-01

    We studied adaptations to acute precipitated opioid withdrawal of spinal μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-coupled regulation of the release of endomorphin 2 (EM2). The release of this highly MOR-selective endogenous opioid from opioid-naive spinal tissue of male rats is subjected to MOR-coupled positive as well as negative modulation via cholera toxin-sensitive G(s) and pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i)/G(o), respectively. The net effect of this concomitant bidirectional modulation is inhibitory. MOR-coupled pleiotropic regulation of EM2 release is retained in opioid-withdrawn spinal tissue of male rats, but the balance of MOR-coupled inhibitory and facilitatory regulation shifted such that facilitatory regulation predominates. Augmented coupling of MOR to G(s) is causally associated with this change. Strikingly, pleiotropic characteristics of MOR-coupled regulation of spinal EM2 release and adaptations thereof to opioid withdrawal are male-specific. In females, MOR-coupled regulation of EM2 release from opioid-naive and -withdrawn spinal tissue does not have a significant G(s)-coupled facilitatory component, and MOR-coupled inhibition of EM2 release persists unabated in withdrawn preparations. The male-specific adaptations to chronic morphine that shift the relative predominance of opposing dual G protein-coupled MOR pathways provides a mechanism for mitigating inhibitory MOR signaling without losing MOR-coupled feedback regulation. These adaptations enable using endogenous EM2 as a substitute for morphine that had been precipitously removed. The sexually dimorphic functionality and regulation of spinal EM2/MOR-coupled signaling suggest the clinical utility of using sex-specific treatments for addiction that harness the activity of endogenous opioids.

  3. Standing genetic variation in contingency loci drives the rapid adaptation of Campylobacter jejuni to a novel host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genome of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains multiple highly mutable sites, or contingency loci. It has been suggested that standing variation at these loci is a mechanism for rapid adaptation to a novel environment, but this phenomenon has not been shown experimentally. In previous work we showed that the virulence of C. jejuni NCTC11168 increased after serial passage through a C57BL/6 IL-10(-/- mouse model of campylobacteriosis. Here we sought to determine the genetic basis of this adaptation during passage. Re-sequencing of the 1.64 Mb genome to 200-500 X coverage allowed us to define variation in 23 contingency loci to an unprecedented depth both before and after in vivo adaptation. Mutations in the mouse-adapted C. jejuni were largely restricted to the homopolymeric tracts of thirteen contingency loci. These changes cause significant alterations in open reading frames of genes in surface structure biosynthesis loci and in genes with only putative functions. Several loci with open reading frame changes also had altered transcript abundance. The increase in specific phases of contingency loci during in vivo passage of C. jejuni, coupled with the observed virulence increase and the lack of other types of genetic changes, is the first experimental evidence that these variable regions play a significant role in C. jejuni adaptation and virulence in a novel host.

  4. Intraspecific shape variation in horseshoe crabs: the importance of sexual and natural selection for local adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurby, Søren; Nielsen, Kasper Sauer Kollerup; Bussarawit, Somchai

    2011-01-01

    . Differences in shape variation between sexes were tested with F-tests, which showed lower intrapopulation morphometric variation in males than females. These results indicate a lower degree of local adaptation on body shape in C. rotundicauda and T. gigas than in L. polyphemus and a lower degree of local......A morphometric analysis of the body shape of three species of horseshoe crabs was undertaken in order to infer the importance of natural and sexual selection. It was expected that natural selection would be most intense, leading to highest regional differentiation, in the American species Limulus...... polyphemus, which has the largest climatic differences between different populations. Local adaptation driven by sexual selection was expected in males but not females because horseshoe crab mating behaviour leads to competition between males, but not between females. Three hundred fifty-nine horseshoe crabs...

  5. Situational variations in ethnic identity across immigration generations: Implications for acculturative change and cross-cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noels, Kimberly A; Clément, Richard

    2015-12-01

    This study examined whether the acculturation of ethnic identity is first evident in more public situations with greater opportunity for intercultural interaction and eventually penetrates more intimate situations. It also investigated whether situational variations in identity are associated with cross-cultural adaptation. First-generation (G1), second-generation (G2) and mixed-parentage second-generation (G2.5) young adult Canadians (n = 137, n = 169, and n = 91, respectively) completed a questionnaire assessing their heritage and Canadian identities across four situational domains (family, friends, university and community), global heritage identity and cross-cultural adaptation. Consistent with the acculturation penetration hypothesis, the results showed Canadian identity was stronger than heritage identity in public domains, but the converse was true in the family domain; moreover, the difference between the identities in the family domain was attenuated in later generations. Situational variability indicated better adaptation for the G1 cohort, but poorer adaptation for the G2.5 cohort. For the G2 cohort, facets of global identity moderated the relation, such that those with a weaker global identity experienced greater difficulties and hassles with greater identity variability but those with a stronger identity did not. These results are interpreted in light of potential interpersonal issues implied by situational variation for each generation cohort. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl

    2015-11-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a synthesis these classical processes and cast them as successive hierarchical contextualisations of sensorimotor constructs, using the generative models that underpin Active Inference. This dissolves any apparent mechanistic distinction between the optimization processes that mediate classical control or learning. Furthermore, we generalize the scope of Active Inference by emphasizing interoceptive inference and homeostatic regulation. The ensuing homeostatic (or allostatic) perspective provides an intuitive explanation for how priors act as drives or goals to enslave action, and emphasises the embodied nature of inference. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptive Fuzzy Integral Sliding-Mode Regulator for Induction Motor Using Nonlinear Sliding Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Kun Lu

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive fuzzy integral sliding-mode controller using nonlinear sliding surface is designed for the speed regulator of a field-oriented induction motor drive in this paper. Combining the conventional integral sliding surface with fractional-order integral, a nonlinear sliding surface is proposed for the integral sliding-mode speed control, which can overcome the windup problem and the convergence speed problem. An adaptive fuzzy control term is utilized to approximate the uncertainty. The ...

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis In Vivo to In Vitro Transition Reveals Mechanisms of Phase Variation and Down-Regulation of Virulence Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Borges

    Full Text Available Research on the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis demands culture in cell-lines, but the adaptive process behind the in vivo to in vitro transition is not understood. We assessed the genomic and transcriptomic dynamics underlying C. trachomatis in vitro adaptation of strains representing the three disease groups (ocular, epithelial-genital and lymphogranuloma venereum propagated in epithelial cells over multiple passages. We found genetic features potentially underlying phase variation mechanisms mediating the regulation of a lipid A biosynthesis enzyme (CT533/LpxC, and the functionality of the cytotoxin (CT166 through an ON/OFF mechanism. We detected inactivating mutations in CT713/porB, a scenario suggesting metabolic adaptation to the available carbon source. CT135 was inactivated in a tropism-specific manner, with CT135-negative clones emerging for all epithelial-genital populations (but not for LGV and ocular populations and rapidly increasing in frequency (~23% mutants per 10 passages. RNA-sequencing analyses revealed that a deletion event involving CT135 impacted the expression of multiple virulence factors, namely effectors known to play a role in the C. trachomatis host-cell invasion or subversion (e.g., CT456/Tarp, CT694, CT875/TepP and CT868/ChlaDub1. This reflects a scenario of attenuation of C. trachomatis virulence in vitro, which may take place independently or in a cumulative fashion with the also observed down-regulation of plasmid-related virulence factors. This issue may be relevant on behalf of the recent advances in Chlamydia mutagenesis and transformation where culture propagation for selecting mutants/transformants is mandatory. Finally, there was an increase in the growth rate for all strains, reflecting gradual fitness enhancement over time. In general, these data shed light on the adaptive process underlying the C. trachomatis in vivo to in vitro transition, and indicates that it would be prudent to

  9. High natural gene expression variation in the reef-building coral Acropora millepora: potential for acclimative and adaptive plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Bellantuono, Anthony J; Ridgway, Tyrone; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2013-04-08

    Ecosystems worldwide are suffering the consequences of anthropogenic impact. The diverse ecosystem of coral reefs, for example, are globally threatened by increases in sea surface temperatures due to global warming. Studies to date have focused on determining genetic diversity, the sequence variability of genes in a species, as a proxy to estimate and predict the potential adaptive response of coral populations to environmental changes linked to climate changes. However, the examination of natural gene expression variation has received less attention. This variation has been implicated as an important factor in evolutionary processes, upon which natural selection can act. We acclimatized coral nubbins from six colonies of the reef-building coral Acropora millepora to a common garden in Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, GBR) for a period of four weeks to remove any site-specific environmental effects on the physiology of the coral nubbins. By using a cDNA microarray platform, we detected a high level of gene expression variation, with 17% (488) of the unigenes differentially expressed across coral nubbins of the six colonies (jsFDR-corrected, p natural variation between reef corals when assessing experimental gene expression differences. The high transcriptional variation detected in this study is interpreted and discussed within the context of adaptive potential and phenotypic plasticity of reef corals. Whether this variation will allow coral reefs to survive to current challenges remains unknown.

  10. Iterative CT reconstruction via minimizing adaptively reweighted total variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Niu, Tianye; Petrongolo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction via total variation (TV) minimization has demonstrated great successes in accurate CT imaging from under-sampled projections. When projections are further reduced, over-smoothing artifacts appear in the current reconstruction especially around the structure boundaries. We propose a practical algorithm to improve TV-minimization based CT reconstruction on very few projection data. Based on the theory of compressed sensing, the L-0 norm approach is more desirable to further reduce the projection views. To overcome the computational difficulty of the non-convex optimization of the L-0 norm, we implement an adaptive weighting scheme to approximate the solution via a series of TV minimizations for practical use in CT reconstruction. The weight on TV is initialized as uniform ones, and is automatically changed based on the gradient of the reconstructed image from the previous iteration. The iteration stops when a small difference between the weighted TV values is observed on two consecutive reconstructed images. We evaluate the proposed algorithm on both a digital phantom and a physical phantom. Using 20 equiangular projections, our method reduces reconstruction errors in the conventional TV minimization by a factor of more than 5, with improved spatial resolution. By adaptively reweighting TV in iterative CT reconstruction, we successfully further reduce the projection number for the same or better image quality.

  11. Adaptive filtration of speech signals in the presence of correlated noise with random variation of probabilistic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    M. O. Partala; S. Ya. Zhuk

    2007-01-01

    On the base of mixed Markoff process in discrete time optimal and quasioptimal algorithms is designed for adaptive filtration of speech signals in the presence of correlated noise with random variation of probabilistic characteristics.

  12. Innate scavenger receptor-A regulates adaptive T helper cell responses to pathogen infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Li, Wei; Jin, Xin; Song, Xian; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhu, Jifeng; Zhou, Sha; Li, Yong; Zhang, Weiwei; Dong, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xiaowei; Liu, Feng; Bai, Hui; Chen, Qi; Su, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    The pattern recognition receptor (PRR) scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) has an important function in the pathogenesis of non-infectious diseases and in innate immune responses to pathogen infections. However, little is known about the role of SR-A in the host adaptive immune responses to pathogen infection. Here we show with mouse models of helminth Schistosoma japonicum infection and heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation that SR-A is regulated by pathogens and suppresses IRF5 nuclear translocation by direct interaction. Reduced abundance of nuclear IRF5 shifts macrophage polarization from M1 towards M2, which subsequently switches T-helper responses from type 1 to type 2. Our study identifies a role for SR-A as an innate PRR in regulating adaptive immune responses. PMID:28695899

  13. Homeostatic regulation of memory systems and adaptive decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumori, Sheri J Y; Jo, Yong Sang

    2013-11-01

    While it is clear that many brain areas process mnemonic information, understanding how their interactions result in continuously adaptive behaviors has been a challenge. A homeostatic-regulated prediction model of memory is presented that considers the existence of a single memory system that is based on a multilevel coordinated and integrated network (from cells to neural systems) that determines the extent to which events and outcomes occur as predicted. The "multiple memory systems of the brain" have in common output that signals errors in the prediction of events and/or their outcomes, although these signals differ in terms of what the error signal represents (e.g., hippocampus: context prediction errors vs. midbrain/striatum: reward prediction errors). The prefrontal cortex likely plays a pivotal role in the coordination of prediction analysis within and across prediction brain areas. By virtue of its widespread control and influence, and intrinsic working memory mechanisms. Thus, the prefrontal cortex supports the flexible processing needed to generate adaptive behaviors and predict future outcomes. It is proposed that prefrontal cortex continually and automatically produces adaptive responses according to homeostatic regulatory principles: prefrontal cortex may serve as a controller that is intrinsically driven to maintain in prediction areas an experience-dependent firing rate set point that ensures adaptive temporally and spatially resolved neural responses to future prediction errors. This same drive by prefrontal cortex may also restore set point firing rates after deviations (i.e. prediction errors) are detected. In this way, prefrontal cortex contributes to reducing uncertainty in prediction systems. An emergent outcome of this homeostatic view may be the flexible and adaptive control that prefrontal cortex is known to implement (i.e. working memory) in the most challenging of situations. Compromise to any of the prediction circuits should result in

  14. Stabilization and regulation of nonlinear systems a robust and adaptive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    The core of this textbook is a systematic and self-contained treatment of the nonlinear stabilization and output regulation problems. Its coverage embraces both fundamental concepts and advanced research outcomes and includes many numerical and practical examples. Several classes of important uncertain nonlinear systems are discussed. The state-of-the art solution presented uses robust and adaptive control design ideas in an integrated approach which demonstrates connections between global stabilization and global output regulation allowing both to be treated as stabilization problems. Stabilization and Regulation of Nonlinear Systems takes advantage of rich new results to give students up-to-date instruction in the central design problems of nonlinear control, problems which are a driving force behind the furtherance of modern control theory and its application. The diversity of systems in which stabilization and output regulation become significant concerns in the mathematical formulation of practical contr...

  15. Adaptive Hybrid Visual Servo Regulation of Mobile Robots Based on Fast Homography Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfu Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the monocular camera-based mobile robot system, an adaptive hybrid visual servo regulation algorithm which is based on a fast homography decomposition method is proposed to drive the mobile robot to its desired position and orientation, even when object’s imaging depth and camera’s position extrinsic parameters are unknown. Firstly, the homography’s particular properties caused by mobile robot’s 2-DOF motion are taken into account to induce a fast homography decomposition method. Secondly, the homography matrix and the extracted orientation error, incorporated with the desired view’s single feature point, are utilized to form an error vector and its open-loop error function. Finally, Lyapunov-based techniques are exploited to construct an adaptive regulation control law, followed by the experimental verification. The experimental results show that the proposed fast homography decomposition method is not only simple and efficient, but also highly precise. Meanwhile, the designed control law can well enable mobile robot position and orientation regulation despite the lack of depth information and camera’s position extrinsic parameters.

  16. Variation in soil aluminium tolerance genes is associated with local adaptation to soils at the Park Grass Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Billie; McCouch, Susan; Geber, Monica

    2014-12-01

    Studies of the wild grass Anthoxanthum odoratum at the long-term Park Grass Experiment (PGE, Harpenden, UK) document a well-known example of rapid plant evolution in response to environmental change. Repeated fertilizer applications have acidified the soil in some experimental plots over the past 150+ years, and Anthoxanthum subpopulations have quickly become locally adapted. Early reciprocal transplants showed subpopulation differentiation specifically in response to soil aluminium (Al) toxicity across the experiment, even at small (30 m) spatial scales. Almost 40 years after its original measurement, we reassessed the degree of local adaptation to soil Al at the PGE using updated phenotyping methods and identified genes with variation linked to the tolerance trait. Root growth assays show that plants are locally adapted to soil Al at both the seedling and adult growth stages, but to a smaller extent than previously inferred. Among a large suite of candidate loci that were previously shown to have Al-sensitive expression differences between sensitive and tolerant plants, three loci contained SNPs that are associated with both Al tolerance and soil acidity: an Al-sensitive malate transporter (ALMT), a tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) and the putative homolog of the rice cell-wall modification gene STAR1. Natural genetic variation at these loci is likely to have contributed to the recent rapid evolution at PGE. Continued study of Al tolerance variants in Anthoxanthum will allow us to test hypotheses about the nature and source of genetic variation that enables some species to adapt to soil acidification and other types of rapid environmental change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Regulation of pH in human skeletal muscle: adaptations to physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C

    2008-01-01

    -transport) and describes the contribution of each transport system in pH regulation at rest and during muscle activity. It is reported that the mechanisms involved in pH regulation can undergo adaptational changes in association with physical activity and that these changes are of functional importance....... resonance technique to exercise experiments including blood sampling and muscle biopsies. The present review characterizes the cellular buffering system as well as the most important membrane transport systems involved (Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na-bicarbonate co-transport and lactate/H(+) co...

  18. Using a "time machine" to test for local adaptation of aquatic microbes to temporal and spatial environmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy W; Harder, Lawrence D

    2015-01-01

    Local adaptation occurs when different environments are dominated by different specialist genotypes, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions and relatively unfit under other conditions. Analogously, ecological species sorting occurs when different environments are dominated by different competing species, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions. The simplest theory predicts that spatial, but not temporal, environmental variation selects for local adaptation (or generates species sorting), but this prediction is difficult to test. Although organisms can be reciprocally transplanted among sites, doing so among times seems implausible. Here, we describe a reciprocal transplant experiment testing for local adaptation or species sorting of lake bacteria in response to both temporal and spatial variation in water chemistry. The experiment used a -80°C freezer as a "time machine." Bacterial isolates and water samples were frozen for later use, allowing transplantation of older isolates "forward in time" and newer isolates "backward in time." Surprisingly, local maladaptation predominated over local adaptation in both space and time. Such local maladaptation may indicate that adaptation, or the analogous species sorting process, fails to keep pace with temporal fluctuations in water chemistry. This hypothesis could be tested with more finely resolved temporal data. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Genetic Variation and Adaptation in Africa: Implications for Human Evolution and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Felicia; Hirbo, Jibril; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Because modern humans originated in Africa and have adapted to diverse environments, African populations have high levels of genetic and phenotypic diversity. Thus, genomic studies of diverse African ethnic groups are essential for understanding human evolutionary history and how this leads to differential disease risk in all humans. Comparative studies of genetic diversity within and between African ethnic groups creates an opportunity to reconstruct some of the earliest events in human population history and are useful for identifying patterns of genetic variation that have been influenced by recent natural selection. Here we describe what is currently known about genetic variation and evolutionary history of diverse African ethnic groups. We also describe examples of recent natural selection in African genomes and how these data are informative for understanding the frequency of many genetic traits, including those that cause disease susceptibility in African populations and populations of recent African descent. PMID:24984772

  20. Modelling the regulation of thermal adaptation in Candida albicans, a major fungal pathogen of humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D Leach

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells have evolved mechanisms to sense and adapt to dynamic environmental changes. Adaptation to thermal insults, in particular, is essential for their survival. The major fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, is obligately associated with warm-blooded animals and hence occupies thermally buffered niches. Yet during its evolution in the host it has retained a bona fide heat shock response whilst other stress responses have diverged significantly. Furthermore the heat shock response is essential for the virulence of C. albicans. With a view to understanding the relevance of this response to infection we have explored the dynamic regulation of thermal adaptation using an integrative systems biology approach. Our mathematical model of thermal regulation, which has been validated experimentally in C. albicans, describes the dynamic autoregulation of the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 and the essential chaperone protein Hsp90. We have used this model to show that the thermal adaptation system displays perfect adaptation, that it retains a transient molecular memory, and that Hsf1 is activated during thermal transitions that mimic fever. In addition to providing explanations for the evolutionary conservation of the heat shock response in this pathogen and the relevant of this response to infection, our model provides a platform for the analysis of thermal adaptation in other eukaryotic cells.

  1. Chinese adaptation of Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ERQ-CCA): A psychometric evaluation in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Liang; Tu, Xintian

    2017-10-01

    This study validated a Chinese adaptation of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ERQ-CCA), a self-report instrument that evaluates two emotion regulation (ER) strategies, based on the process model of ER. The ERQ-CCA was evaluated using a sample of 1381 Chinese children aged between 7 and 12 years. The internal consistencies of the two factors indicated adequate reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed good support as the structure proved to be identical with that of the original instrument. Multigroup CFA supported an invariant factor solution of the ERQ-CCA across several demographic variations (gender, age, registered permanent residence and migrant status) in different groups. Test-retest correlations over a 2-month period were calculated using a subsample of children (N = 70). Convergent validity was evaluated in relation to the model dimensions of the ERQ-CCA, Chinese version of the Children's Depression Inventory, and Chinese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents. Results indicated that the ERQ-CCA has generally satisfactory reliability and validity in investigating the use of two ER strategies during the middle childhood developmental period. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. A principle of organization which facilitates broad Lamarckian-like adaptations by improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soen, Yoav; Knafo, Maor; Elgart, Michael

    2015-12-02

    During the lifetime of an organism, every individual encounters many combinations of diverse changes in the somatic genome, epigenome and microbiome. This gives rise to many novel combinations of internal failures which are unique to each individual. How any individual can tolerate this high load of new, individual-specific scenarios of failure is not clear. While stress-induced plasticity and hidden variation have been proposed as potential mechanisms of tolerance, the main conceptual problem remains unaddressed, namely: how largely non-beneficial random variation can be rapidly and safely organized into net benefits to every individual. We propose an organizational principle which explains how every individual can alleviate a high load of novel stressful scenarios using many random variations in flexible and inherently less harmful traits. Random changes which happen to reduce stress, benefit the organism and decrease the drive for additional changes. This adaptation (termed 'Adaptive Improvisation') can be further enhanced, propagated, stabilized and memorized when beneficial changes reinforce themselves by auto-regulatory mechanisms. This principle implicates stress not only in driving diverse variations in cells tissues and organs, but also in organizing these variations into adaptive outcomes. Specific (but not exclusive) examples include stress reduction by rapid exchange of mobile genetic elements (or exosomes) in unicellular, and rapid changes in the symbiotic microorganisms of animals. In all cases, adaptive changes can be transmitted across generations, allowing rapid improvement and assimilation in a few generations. We provide testable predictions derived from the hypothesis. The hypothesis raises a critical, but thus far overlooked adaptation problem and explains how random variation can self-organize to confer a wide range of individual-specific adaptations beyond the existing outcomes of natural selection. It portrays gene regulation as an

  3. Brief report: Poor self-regulation as a predictor of individual differences in adaptive functioning in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljarević, Mirko; Hedley, Darren; Nevill, Rose; Evans, David W; Cai, Ru Ying; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A

    2018-04-06

    The present study examined the link between poor self-regulation (measured by the child behavior checklist dysregulated profile [DP]) and core autism symptoms, as well as with developmental level, in a sample of 107 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 19-46 months. We further examined the utility of DP in predicting individual differences in adaptive functioning, relative to the influence of ASD severity, chronological age (CA), and developmental level. Poor self-regulation was unrelated to CA, developmental level, and severity of ADOS-2 restricted and repetitive behaviors, but was associated with lower ADOS-2 social affect severity. Hierarchical regression identified poor self-regulation as a unique independent predictor of adaptive behavior, with more severe dysregulation predicting poorer adaptive functioning. Results highlight the importance of early identification of deficits in self-regulation, and more specifically, of the utility of DP, when designing individually tailored treatments for young children with ASD. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This study explored the relationship between poor self-regulation and age, verbal and non-verbal developmental level, severity of autism symptoms and adaptive functioning in 107 children with autism under 4 years of age. Poor self-regulation was unrelated to age, developmental level, and severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors but was associated with lower social affect severity. Importantly, more severe self-regulation deficits predicted poorer adaptive functioning. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Variations on Much Ado About Nothing: Beatrice and Benedick in Target-Language Adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Marta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drama texts are characterized by the transient nature of their stage reception and their malleability. This implies a close relationship with the context of performance while it also explains why they are frequently subject to varying degrees of adaptation. This article will study variations on Shakespeare’s comedy Much Ado About Nothing, first revising different approaches to its performance in the original language, and then analysing two adaptations which involve translation: a Spanish play, Jacinto Benavente’s Los favoritos, and a French opera, Hector Berlioz’s Béatrice et Bénédict, both inspired by the two most attractive and witty characters in the bard’s text, Beatrice and Benedick, who have been the object of a number of versions and adaptations and therefore encourage exploration in different contexts. Slightly different ways of dealing with the main elements in the play will be observed in these two target texts, for instance regarding the general tone, or issues such as the concepts of marriage and love; ultimately, these aspects also highlight the suppleness of drama texts, particularly of classic works, which tend to move easily between languages and cultures, historic periods or artistic genres.

  5. "They Have to Adapt to Learn": Surgeons' Perspectives on the Role of Procedural Variation in Surgical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apramian, Tavis; Cristancho, Sayra; Watling, Chris; Ott, Michael; Lingard, Lorelei

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research increasingly acknowledges the existence of significant procedural variation in surgical practice. This study explored surgeons' perspectives regarding the influence of intersurgeon procedural variation on the teaching and learning of surgical residents. This qualitative study used a grounded theory-based analysis of observational and interview data. Observational data were collected in 3 tertiary care teaching hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Semistructured interviews explored potential procedural variations arising during the observations and prompts from an iteratively refined guide. Ongoing data analysis refined the theoretical framework and informed data collection strategies, as prescribed by the iterative nature of grounded theory research. Our sample included 99 hours of observation across 45 cases with 14 surgeons. Semistructured, audio-recorded interviews (n = 14) occurred immediately following observational periods. Surgeons endorsed the use of intersurgeon procedural variations to teach residents about adapting to the complexity of surgical practice and the norms of surgical culture. Surgeons suggested that residents' efforts to identify thresholds of principle and preference are crucial to professional development. Principles that emerged from the study included the following: (1) knowing what comes next, (2) choosing the right plane, (3) handling tissue appropriately, (4) recognizing the abnormal, and (5) making safe progress. Surgeons suggested that learning to follow these principles while maintaining key aspects of surgical culture, like autonomy and individuality, are important social processes in surgical education. Acknowledging intersurgeon variation has important implications for curriculum development and workplace-based assessment in surgical education. Adapting to intersurgeon procedural variations may foster versatility in surgical residents. However, the existence of procedural variations and their active use in surgeons

  6. The rgg0182 gene encodes a transcriptional regulator required for the full Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311 thermal adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Romain; Bruneau, Emmanuelle; Gardan, Rozenn; Bertin, Stéphane; Fleuchot, Betty; Decaris, Bernard; Leblond-Bourget, Nathalie

    2011-10-07

    Streptococcus thermophilus is an important starter strain for the production of yogurt and cheeses. The analysis of sequenced genomes of four strains of S. thermophilus indicates that they contain several genes of the rgg familly potentially encoding transcriptional regulators. Some of the Rgg proteins are known to be involved in bacterial stress adaptation. In this study, we demonstrated that Streptococcus thermophilus thermal stress adaptation required the rgg0182 gene which transcription depends on the culture medium and the growth temperature. This gene encoded a protein showing similarity with members of the Rgg family transcriptional regulator. Our data confirmed that Rgg0182 is a transcriptional regulator controlling the expression of its neighboring genes as well as chaperones and proteases encoding genes. Therefore, analysis of a Δrgg0182 mutant revealed that this protein played a role in the heat shock adaptation of Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311. These data showed the importance of the Rgg0182 transcriptional regulator on the survival of S. thermophilus during dairy processes and more specifically during changes in temperature.

  7. The rgg0182 gene encodes a transcriptional regulator required for the full Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311 thermal adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertin Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus thermophilus is an important starter strain for the production of yogurt and cheeses. The analysis of sequenced genomes of four strains of S. thermophilus indicates that they contain several genes of the rgg familly potentially encoding transcriptional regulators. Some of the Rgg proteins are known to be involved in bacterial stress adaptation. Results In this study, we demonstrated that Streptococcus thermophilus thermal stress adaptation required the rgg0182 gene which transcription depends on the culture medium and the growth temperature. This gene encoded a protein showing similarity with members of the Rgg family transcriptional regulator. Our data confirmed that Rgg0182 is a transcriptional regulator controlling the expression of its neighboring genes as well as chaperones and proteases encoding genes. Therefore, analysis of a Δrgg0182 mutant revealed that this protein played a role in the heat shock adaptation of Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311. Conclusions These data showed the importance of the Rgg0182 transcriptional regulator on the survival of S. thermophilus during dairy processes and more specifically during changes in temperature.

  8. Adaptive DSPI phase denoising using mutual information and 2D variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiyang; Li, Jian; Wu, Sijin; Li, Weixian; Yang, Lianxiang; Dong, Mingli; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2018-04-01

    In digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI), noise interference leads to a low peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and measurement errors in the phase map. This paper proposes an adaptive DSPI phase denoising method based on two-dimensional variational mode decomposition (2D-VMD) and mutual information. Firstly, the DSPI phase map is subjected to 2D-VMD in order to obtain a series of band-limited intrinsic mode functions (BLIMFs). Then, on the basis of characteristics of the BLIMFs and in combination with mutual information, a self-adaptive denoising method is proposed to obtain noise-free components containing the primary phase information. The noise-free components are reconstructed to obtain the denoising DSPI phase map. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce noise interference, giving a PSNR that is higher than that of two-dimensional empirical mode decomposition methods.

  9. Efficient computation of the elastography inverse problem by combining variational mesh adaption and a clustering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Alexander; Bruhns, Otto T; Reichling, Stefan; Mosler, Joern

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an efficient implementation suitable for the elastography inverse problem. More precisely, the novel algorithm allows us to compute the unknown stiffness distribution in soft tissue by means of the measured displacement field by considerably reducing the numerical cost compared to previous approaches. This is realized by combining and further elaborating variational mesh adaption with a clustering technique similar to those known from digital image compression. Within the variational mesh adaption, the underlying finite element discretization is only locally refined if this leads to a considerable improvement of the numerical solution. Additionally, the numerical complexity is reduced by the aforementioned clustering technique, in which the parameters describing the stiffness of the respective soft tissue are sorted according to a predefined number of intervals. By doing so, the number of unknowns associated with the elastography inverse problem can be chosen explicitly. A positive side effect of this method is the reduction of artificial noise in the data (smoothing of the solution). The performance and the rate of convergence of the resulting numerical formulation are critically analyzed by numerical examples.

  10. Lack of adaptation from standing genetic variation despite the presence of putatively adaptive alleles in introduced sweet vernal grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, B; Geber, M

    2016-01-01

    Population genetic theory predicts that the availability of appropriate standing genetic variation should facilitate rapid evolution when species are introduced to new environments. However, few tests of rapid evolution have been paired with empirical surveys for the presence of previously identified adaptive genetic variants in natural populations. In this study, we examined local adaptation to soil Al toxicity in the introduced range of sweet vernal grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), and we genotyped populations for the presence of Al tolerance alleles previously identified at the long-term ecological Park Grass Experiment (PGE, Harpenden, UK) in the species native range. We found that markers associated with Al tolerance at the PGE were present at appreciable frequency in introduced populations. Despite this, there was no strong evidence of local adaptation to soil Al toxicity among populations. Populations demonstrated significantly different intrinsic root growth rates in the absence of Al. This suggests that selection on correlated root growth traits may constrain the ability of populations to evolve significantly different root growth responses to Al. Our results demonstrate that genotype-phenotype associations may differ substantially between the native and introduced parts of a species range and that adaptive alleles from a native species range may not necessarily promote phenotypic differentiation in the introduced range. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Characteristics of Social-Psychological Adaptation and Self-Regulation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsv?tkova, Nadezhda A.; Aleksandrova, Marina I.; Rybakova, Anna Igorevna; Starovoitova, Larisa I.; Kononova, Tatiana B.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of searching for answers to the following questions: Which are the characteristics of socio-psychological adaptation and self-regulation behavior in patients with diabetes mellitus type II? What is the nature of the relationship between these personal characteristics? In particular, it contains results of…

  12. Multiple Signaling Pathways Coordinately Regulate Forgetting of Olfactory Adaptation through Control of Sensory Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazono, Tomohiro; Hara-Kuge, Sayuri; Matsuda, Osamu; Inoue, Akitoshi; Fujiwara, Manabi; Ishihara, Takeshi

    2017-10-18

    Forgetting memories is important for animals to properly respond to continuously changing environments. To elucidate the mechanisms of forgetting, we used one of the behavioral plasticities of Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite, olfactory adaptation to an attractive odorant, diacetyl, as a simple model of learning. In C. elegans, the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway accelerates forgetting of olfactory adaptation by facilitating neural secretion from AWC sensory neurons. In this study, to identify the downstream effectors of the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the gain-of-function mutant of tir-1 ( ok1052 ), which shows excessive forgetting. Our screening showed that three proteins-a membrane protein, MACO-1; a receptor tyrosine kinase, SCD-2; and its putative ligand, HEN-1-regulated forgetting downstream of the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway. We further demonstrated that MACO-1 and SCD-2/HEN-1 functioned in parallel genetic pathways, and only MACO-1 regulated forgetting of olfactory adaptation to isoamyl alcohol, which is an attractive odorant sensed by different types of sensory neurons. In olfactory adaptation, odor-evoked Ca 2+ responses in olfactory neurons are attenuated by conditioning and recovered thereafter. A Ca 2+ imaging study revealed that this attenuation is sustained longer in maco-1 and scd-2 mutant animals than in wild-type animals like the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway mutants. Furthermore, temporal silencing by histamine-gated chloride channels revealed that the neuronal activity of AWC neurons after conditioning is important for proper forgetting. We propose that distinct signaling pathways, each of which has a specific function, may coordinately and temporally regulate forgetting by controlling sensory responses. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Active forgetting is an important process to understand the whole mechanisms of memories. Recent papers have reported that the noncell autonomous regulations are required for proper forgetting in

  13. Model Reference Adaptive Control of the Air Flow Rate of Centrifugal Compressor Using State Space Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jaeyoung; Jung, Mooncheong; Yu, Sangseok; Yi, Sun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a model reference adaptive controller is developed to regulate the outlet air flow rate of centrifugal compressor for automotive supercharger. The centrifugal compressor is developed using the analytical based method to predict the transient behavior of operating and the designed model is validated with experimental data to confirm the system accuracy. The model reference adaptive control structure consists of a compressor model and a MRAC(model reference adaptive control) mechanism. The feedback control do not robust with variation of system parameter but the applied adaptive control is robust even if the system parameter is changed. As a result, the MRAC was regulated to reference air flow rate. Also MRAC was found to be more robust control compared with the feedback control even if the system parameter is changed.

  14. Model Reference Adaptive Control of the Air Flow Rate of Centrifugal Compressor Using State Space Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jaeyoung; Jung, Mooncheong; Yu, Sangseok [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Sun [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Raleigh (United States)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, a model reference adaptive controller is developed to regulate the outlet air flow rate of centrifugal compressor for automotive supercharger. The centrifugal compressor is developed using the analytical based method to predict the transient behavior of operating and the designed model is validated with experimental data to confirm the system accuracy. The model reference adaptive control structure consists of a compressor model and a MRAC(model reference adaptive control) mechanism. The feedback control do not robust with variation of system parameter but the applied adaptive control is robust even if the system parameter is changed. As a result, the MRAC was regulated to reference air flow rate. Also MRAC was found to be more robust control compared with the feedback control even if the system parameter is changed.

  15. Finland's water resources and climate change. Effects and adaptation. Final report of the WaterAdapt-project; Suomen vesivarat ja ilmastonmuutos; vaikutukset ja muutoksiin sopeutuminen. WaterAdapt-projektin loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veijalainen, N.; Jakkila, J.; Nurmi, T.; Vehvilaeinen, B.; Marttunen, M.; Aaltonen, J.

    2012-05-15

    In this research climate change impacts on hydrology, water resources and lake regulation were estimated in Finland. Changes in discharges and water levels from the reference period 1971-2000 to periods 2010-39 and 2040-69 were estimated for 15 watersheds based on different climate scenarios and simulations with a hydrological model, the Watershed Simulation and Forecasting System (WSFS). On ten lakes the impacts of hydrological changes caused by climate change for the different uses and state of the lakes were evaluated. In addition climate change impacts on ground water and floods were estimated. The research was carried out in the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) as part of WaterAdapt (Finland's water resources and climate change - Effects and adaptation) -project financed by the Ministry of agriculture and forestry. Based on the results of the WaterAdapt-project, climate change will significantly change the seasonal variation of river discharges and lake water levels. Spring snowmelt floods will decrease due to warmer winters especially in Southern and Central Finland. An earlier spring will caused decreases in summer water levels in many lakes and low water levels in late summer will become increasingly problematic in some lakes. Water levels and discharges during winter will increase significantly especially in Southern and Central Finland, since a larger proportion of precipitation will fall as rain and snow will melt more during winter. Different climate scenarios produce significantly different results, but the direction of change is similar in all the scenarios. Floods decrease in some parts of Finland due to decreases in snow storage, but according to most climate scenarios increases in precipitation will cause floods to increase in large central lakes and their outflow rivers in large watersheds. The results demonstrate that current regulation permits will become impractical in many lakes when the climate changes. Adaptation to climate changes

  16. Placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment: implications for fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandovici, Ionel; Hoelle, Katharina; Angiolini, Emily; Constância, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    The placenta is a transient organ found in eutherian mammals that evolved primarily to provide nutrients for the developing fetus. The placenta exchanges a wide array of nutrients, endocrine signals, cytokines and growth factors with the mother and the fetus, thereby regulating intrauterine development. Recent studies show that the placenta is not just a passive organ mediating maternal-fetal exchange. It can adapt its capacity to supply nutrients in response to intrinsic and extrinsic variations in the maternal-fetal environment. These dynamic adaptations are thought to occur to maximize fetal growth and viability at birth in the prevailing conditions in utero. However, some of these adaptations may also affect the development of individual fetal tissues, with patho-physiological consequences long after birth. Here, this review summarizes current knowledge on the causes, possible mechanisms and consequences of placental adaptive responses, with a focus on the regulation of transporter-mediated processes for nutrients. This review also highlights the emerging roles that imprinted genes and epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation may play in placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptive regulation of taurine and beta-alanine uptake in a human kidney cell line from the proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, H; Jacobsen, Christian

    1997-01-01

    1. The underlying mechanisms involved in the adaptive regulation of beta-amino acid uptake in the human proximal tubule were examined by use of an immortalized human embryonic kidney epithelial cell line (IHKE). 2. The results indicated that the adaptive response to maintain whole-body taurine...

  18. Application of Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Task Allocation Techniques for Controlling Operator Hazardous States of Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2001-01-01

    Prinzel, Hadley, Freeman, and Mikulka found that adaptive task allocation significantly enhanced performance only when used at the endpoints of the task workload continuum (i.e., very low or high workload), but that the technique degraded performance if invoked during other levels of task demand. These researchers suggested that other techniques should be used in conjunction with adaptive automation to help minimize the onset of hazardous states of awareness (HSA) and keep the operator 'in-the-loop.' The paper reports on such a technique that uses psychophysiological self-regulation to modulate the level of task engagement. Eighteen participants were assigned to three groups (self-regulation, false feedback, and control) and performed a compensatory tracking task that was cycled between three levels of task difficulty on the basis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) record. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower NASA-TLX scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. Furthermore, the false feedback and control groups had significantly more task allocations resulting in return-to-manual performance decrements and higher EEG difference scores. Theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  19. Extensive copy number variations in admixed Indian population of African ancestry: potential involvement in adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ankita; Jha, Pankaj; Kumar, Dhirendra; Kutum, Rintu; Mondal, Anupam Kumar; Dash, Debasis; Mukerji, Mitali

    2014-11-13

    Admixture mapping has been enormously resourceful in identifying genetic variations linked to phenotypes, adaptation, and diseases. In this study through analysis of copy number variable regions (CNVRs), we report extensive restructuring in the genomes of the recently admixed African-Indian population (OG-W-IP) that inhabits a highly saline environment in Western India. The study included subjects from OG-W-IP (OG), five different Indian and three HapMap populations that were genotyped using Affymetrix version 6.0 arrays. Copy number variations (CNVs) detected using Birdsuite were used to define CNVRs. Population structure with respect to CNVRs was delineated using random forest approach. OG genomes have a surprising excess of CNVs in comparison to other studied populations. Individual ancestry proportions computed using STRUCTURE also reveals a unique genetic component in OGs. Population structure analysis with CNV genotypes indicates OG to be distant from both the African and Indian ancestral populations. Interestingly, it shows genetic proximity with respect to CNVs to only one Indian population IE-W-LP4, which also happens to reside in the same geographical region. We also observe a significant enrichment of molecular processes related to ion binding and receptor activity in genes encompassing OG-specific CNVRs. Our results suggest that retention of CNVRs from ancestral natives and de novo acquisition of CNVRs could accelerate the process of adaptation especially in an extreme environment. Additionally, this population would be enormously useful for dissecting genes and delineating the involvement of CNVs in salt adaptation. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. 75 FR 57859 - Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Home Adaptation AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of... specially adapted housing and special home adaptation grants. This final rule incorporates certain... regulations pertaining to eligibility for specially adapted housing (SAH) grants and special home adaptation...

  1. Closed-loop adaptation of neurofeedback based on mental effort facilitates reinforcement learning of brain self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert; Fels, Meike; Royter, Vladislav; Raco, Valerio; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Considering self-rated mental effort during neurofeedback may improve training of brain self-regulation. Twenty-one healthy, right-handed subjects performed kinesthetic motor imagery of opening their left hand, while threshold-based classification of beta-band desynchronization resulted in proprioceptive robotic feedback. The experiment consisted of two blocks in a cross-over design. The participants rated their perceived mental effort nine times per block. In the adaptive block, the threshold was adjusted on the basis of these ratings whereas adjustments were carried out at random in the other block. Electroencephalography was used to examine the cortical activation patterns during the training sessions. The perceived mental effort was correlated with the difficulty threshold of neurofeedback training. Adaptive threshold-setting reduced mental effort and increased the classification accuracy and positive predictive value. This was paralleled by an inter-hemispheric cortical activation pattern in low frequency bands connecting the right frontal and left parietal areas. Optimal balance of mental effort was achieved at thresholds significantly higher than maximum classification accuracy. Rating of mental effort is a feasible approach for effective threshold-adaptation during neurofeedback training. Closed-loop adaptation of the neurofeedback difficulty level facilitates reinforcement learning of brain self-regulation. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Symmetry-Adapted Ro-vibrational Basis Functions for Variational Nuclear Motion Calculations: TROVE Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Sergei N; Yachmenev, Andrey; Ovsyannikov, Roman I

    2017-09-12

    We present a general, numerically motivated approach to the construction of symmetry-adapted basis functions for solving ro-vibrational Schrödinger equations. The approach is based on the property of the Hamiltonian operator to commute with the complete set of symmetry operators and, hence, to reflect the symmetry of the system. The symmetry-adapted ro-vibrational basis set is constructed numerically by solving a set of reduced vibrational eigenvalue problems. In order to assign the irreducible representations associated with these eigenfunctions, their symmetry properties are probed on a grid of molecular geometries with the corresponding symmetry operations. The transformation matrices are reconstructed by solving overdetermined systems of linear equations related to the transformation properties of the corresponding wave functions on the grid. Our method is implemented in the variational approach TROVE and has been successfully applied to many problems covering the most important molecular symmetry groups. Several examples are used to illustrate the procedure, which can be easily applied to different types of coordinates, basis sets, and molecular systems.

  3. A plant microRNA regulates the adaptation of roots to drought stress

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2012-06-01

    Plants tend to restrict their horizontal root proliferation in response to drought stress, an adaptive response mediated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in antagonism with auxin through unknown mechanisms. Here, we found that stress-regulated miR393-guided cleavage of the transcripts encoding two auxin receptors, TIR1 and AFB2, was required for inhibition of lateral root growth by ABA or osmotic stress. Unlike in the control plants, the lateral root growth of seedlings expressing miR393-resistant TIR1 or AFB2 was no longer inhibited by ABA or osmotic stress. Our results indicate that miR393-mediated attenuation of auxin signaling modulates root adaptation to drought stress. © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An Innovative Adaptive Control System to Regulate Microclimatic Conditions in a Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Nicolosi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past home automation has been expanding its objectives towards new solutions both inside the smart home and in its outdoor spaces, where several new technologies are available. This work has developed an approach to integrate intelligent microclimatic greenhouse control into integrated home automation. Microclimatic control of greenhouses is a critical issue in agricultural practices, due to often common sudden daily variation of climatic conditions, and to its potentially detrimental effect on plant growth. A greenhouse is a complex thermodynamic system where indoor temperature and relative humidity have to be closely monitored to facilitate plant growth and production. This work shows an adaptive control system tailored to regulate microclimatic conditions in a greenhouse, by using an innovative combination of soft computing applications. In particular, a neural network solution has been proposed in order to forecast the climatic behavior of greenhouse, while a parallel fuzzy scheme approach is carried out in order to adjust the air speed of fan-coil and its temperature. The proposed combined approach provides a better control of greenhouse climatic conditions due to the system’s capability to base instantaneous solutions both on real measured variables and on forecasted climatic change. Several simulation campaigns were carried out to perform accurate neural network and fuzzy schemes, aimed at obtaining respectively a minimum forecasted error value and a more appropriate fuzzification and de-fuzzification process. A Matlab/Simulink solution implemented with a combined approach and its relevant obtained performance is also shown in present study, demonstrating that through controlled parameters it will be possible to maintain a better level of indoor climatic conditions. In the present work we prove how with a forecast of outside temperature at the next time-instant and rule-based controller monitoring of cooling or heating air

  5. Variational Multiscale error estimator for anisotropic adaptive fluid mechanic simulations: application to convection-diffusion problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bazile , Alban; Hachem , Elie; Larroya-Huguet , Juan-Carlos; Mesri , Youssef

    2018-01-01

    International audience; In this work, we present a new a posteriori error estimator based on the Variational Multiscale method for anisotropic adaptive fluid mechanics problems. The general idea is to combine the large scale error based on the solved part of the solution with the sub-mesh scale error based on the unresolved part of the solution. We compute the latter with two different methods: one using the stabilizing parameters and the other using bubble functions. We propose two different...

  6. An Adaptive Regulator for Space Teleoperation System in Task Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the gravity information which can not be obtained in advance for bilateral teleoperation is studied. In outer space exploration, the gravity term changes with the position changing of the slave manipulator. So it is necessary to design an adaptive regulator controller to compensate for the unknown gravity signal. Moreover, to get a more accurate position tracking performance, the controller is designed in the task space instead of the joint space. Additionally, the time delay considered in this paper is not only time varying but also unsymmetrical. Finally, simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. PAQR-2 regulates fatty acid desaturation during cold adaptation in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensk, Emma; Ståhlman, Marcus; Andersson, Carl-Henrik; Johansson, Maja; Borén, Jan; Pilon, Marc

    2013-01-01

    C. elegans PAQR-2 is homologous to the insulin-sensitizing adiponectin receptors in mammals, and essential for adaptation to growth at 15°C, a low but usually acceptable temperature for this organism. By screening for novel paqr-2 suppressors, we identified mutations in genes involved in phosphatidylcholine synthesis (cept-1, pcyt-1 and sams-1) and fatty acid metabolism (ech-7, hacd-1, mdt-15, nhr-49 and sbp-1). We then show genetic evidence that paqr-2, phosphatidylcholines, sbp-1 and Δ9-desaturases form a cold adaptation pathway that regulates the increase in unsaturated fatty acids necessary to retain membrane fluidity at low temperatures. This model is supported by the observations that the paqr-2 suppressors normalize the levels of saturated fatty acids, and that low concentrations of detergents that increase membrane fluidity can rescue the paqr-2 mutant.

  8. Sex Differences in Drosophila Somatic Gene Expression: Variation and Regulation by doublesex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N. Arbeitman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in gene expression have been widely studied in Drosophila melanogaster. Sex differences vary across strains, but many molecular studies focus on only a single strain, or on genes that show sexually dimorphic expression in many strains. How extensive variability is and whether this variability occurs among genes regulated by sex determination hierarchy terminal transcription factors is unknown. To address these questions, we examine differences in sexually dimorphic gene expression between two strains in Drosophila adult head tissues. We also examine gene expression in doublesex (dsx mutant strains to determine which sex-differentially expressed genes are regulated by DSX, and the mode by which DSX regulates expression. We find substantial variation in sex-differential expression. The sets of genes with sexually dimorphic expression in each strain show little overlap. The prevalence of different DSX regulatory modes also varies between the two strains. Neither the patterns of DSX DNA occupancy, nor mode of DSX regulation explain why some genes show consistent sex-differential expression across strains. We find that the genes identified as regulated by DSX in this study are enriched with known sites of DSX DNA occupancy. Finally, we find that sex-differentially expressed genes and genes regulated by DSX are highly enriched on the fourth chromosome. These results provide insights into a more complete pool of potential DSX targets, as well as revealing the molecular flexibility of DSX regulation.

  9. Genetic variation in adaptive traits and seed transfer zones for Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass) in the northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Bradley St. Clair; Francis F. Kilkenny; Richard C. Johnson; Nancy L. Shaw; George Weaver

    2013-01-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation in adaptive traits in Pseudoroegneria spicata, a key restoration grass, in the intermountain western United States. Common garden experiments were established at three contrasting sites with seedlings from two maternal parents from each of 114 populations along with five commercial...

  10. An adaptive state of charge estimation approach for lithium-ion series-connected battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Simin; Zhu, Xuelai; Xing, Yinjiao; Shi, Hongbing; Cai, Xu; Pecht, Michael

    2018-07-01

    Due to the incorrect or unknown noise statistics of a battery system and its cell-to-cell variations, state of charge (SOC) estimation of a lithium-ion series-connected battery system is usually inaccurate or even divergent using model-based methods, such as extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). To resolve this problem, an adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF) based on a noise statistics estimator and a model parameter regulator is developed to accurately estimate the SOC of a series-connected battery system. An equivalent circuit model is first built based on the model parameter regulator that illustrates the influence of cell-to-cell variation on the battery system. A noise statistics estimator is then used to attain adaptively the estimated noise statistics for the AUKF when its prior noise statistics are not accurate or exactly Gaussian. The accuracy and effectiveness of the SOC estimation method is validated by comparing the developed AUKF and UKF when model and measurement statistics noises are inaccurate, respectively. Compared with the UKF and EKF, the developed method shows the highest SOC estimation accuracy.

  11. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Voordeckers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts.

  12. Population variation in drought resistance and its relationship with adaptive and physiological seedling traits in Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.)

    OpenAIRE

    KANDEMİR, GAYE; ÖNDE, SERTAÇ; TEMEL, FATİH; KAYA, ZEKİ

    2017-01-01

    Variation in drought resistance and its relationship with adaptive and physiological traits in forest trees are important in choosing suitable seed sources for reforestation and afforestation programs. A common garden experiment using 240 half-sib families originating from coastal and inland populations of Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia) in Turkey was set up with three replicates. The aims were to determine variation of drought damage, height growth, and phenology among populations and to ...

  13. Evolutionary adaptations of plant AGC kinases: from light signaling to cell polarity regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Hendrik Rademacher

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Signaling and trafficking over membranes involves a plethora of transmembrane proteins that control the flow of compounds or relay specific signaling events. Next to external cues internal stimuli can modify the activity or abundance of these proteins at the plasma membrane. One such regulatory mechanism is protein phosphorylation by membrane-associated kinases and phosphatases. The AGC kinase family is one of seven kinase families that are conserved in all eukaryotic genomes. In plants evolutionary adaptations introduced specific structural changes within the plant AGC kinases that most likely allow for sensing of external stimuli (i.e. light through controlled modification of kinase activity.Starting from the well-defined structural basis common to all AGC kinases we review the current knowledge on the structure-function relationship in plant AGC kinases. Nine of the 39 Arabidopsis AGC kinases have now been shown to be involved in the regulation of auxin transport. In particular, AGC kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the auxin transporters ABCB1 and ABCB19 has been shown to regulate their activity, while auxin transporters of the PIN family are located to different positions at the plasma membrane depending on their phosphorylation status, which is a result of counteracting AGC kinase and PP2A phosphatase activities. We therefore focus on regulation of AGC kinase activity in this context. Identified structural adaptations of the involved AGC kinases may provide new insight into AGC kinase functionality and demonstrate their position as central hubs in the cellular network controlling plant development and growth.

  14. Regulation of antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum: censoring freedom of expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Reeder, John C; Brown, Graham V

    2003-03-01

    Plasmodium falciparum employs a strategy of clonal antigenic variation to evade the host immune response during the intraerythrocytic stage of its life cycle. The major variant parasite molecule is the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein (PfEMP)1, which is encoded by the var multigene family. The parasite switches between different PfEMP1 molecules through regulation of var transcription. Recent studies have shed considerable light on this process, but much remains unknown. However, striking parallels between transcriptional control of var and genes in other organisms provide direction for future studies.

  15. PAQR-2 regulates fatty acid desaturation during cold adaptation in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Svensk

    Full Text Available C. elegans PAQR-2 is homologous to the insulin-sensitizing adiponectin receptors in mammals, and essential for adaptation to growth at 15°C, a low but usually acceptable temperature for this organism. By screening for novel paqr-2 suppressors, we identified mutations in genes involved in phosphatidylcholine synthesis (cept-1, pcyt-1 and sams-1 and fatty acid metabolism (ech-7, hacd-1, mdt-15, nhr-49 and sbp-1. We then show genetic evidence that paqr-2, phosphatidylcholines, sbp-1 and Δ9-desaturases form a cold adaptation pathway that regulates the increase in unsaturated fatty acids necessary to retain membrane fluidity at low temperatures. This model is supported by the observations that the paqr-2 suppressors normalize the levels of saturated fatty acids, and that low concentrations of detergents that increase membrane fluidity can rescue the paqr-2 mutant.

  16. Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizer, S.M.; Amburn, E.P.; Austin, J.D.; Cromartie, R.; Geselowitz, A.; Greer, Trey; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Zimmerman, J.B.; Zuiderveld, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    Adaptive histogram equalization (ahe) is a contrast enhancement method designed to be broadly applicable and having demonstrated effectiveness. However, slow speed and the overenhancement of noise it produces in relatively homogeneous regions are two problems. We report algorithms designed to

  17. Constructive, Self-Regulated, Situated, and Collaborative Learning: An Approach for the Acquisition of Adaptive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Corte, Erik

    2012-01-01

    In today's learning society, education must focus on fostering adaptive competence (AC) defined as the ability to apply knowledge and skills flexibly in different contexts. In this article, four major types of learning are discussed--constructive, self-regulated, situated, and collaborative--in relation to what students must learn in order to…

  18. Design of an Adaptive Power Regulation Mechanism and a Nozzle for a Hydroelectric Power Plant Turbine Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Burak; Aytac, Zeynep; Tascioglu, Yigit; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    This study deals with the design of a power regulation mechanism for a Hydroelectric Power Plant (HEPP) model turbine test system which is designed to test Francis type hydroturbines up to 2 MW power with varying head and flow(discharge) values. Unlike the tailor made regulation mechanisms of full-sized, functional HEPPs; the design for the test system must be easily adapted to various turbines that are to be tested. In order to achieve this adaptability, a dynamic simulation model is constructed in MATLAB/Simulink SimMechanics. This model acquires geometric data and hydraulic loading data of the regulation system from Autodesk Inventor CAD models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis respectively. The dynamic model is explained and case studies of two different HEPPs are performed for validation. CFD aided design of the turbine guide vanes, which is used as input for the dynamic model, is also presented. This research is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  19. An adaptive-learning approach to affect regulation: strategic influences on evaluative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, Peter; Bluemke, Matthias; Fiedler, Klaus

    2011-04-01

    An adaptive cognition approach to evaluative priming is not compatible with the view that the entire process is automatically determined by prime stimulus valence alone. In addition to the evaluative congruity of individual prime-target pairs, an adaptive regulation function should be sensitive to the base rates of positive and negative stimuli as well as to the perceived contingency between prime and target valence. The present study was particularly concerned with pseudocontingent inferences that offer a proxy for the assessment of contingencies from degraded or incomplete stimulus input. As expected, response latencies were shorter for the more prevalent target valence and for evaluatively congruent trials. However, crucially, the congruity effect was eliminated and overridden by pseudocontingencies inferred from the stimulus environment. These strategic inferences were further enhanced when the task called for the evaluation of both prime stimuli and target stimuli. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  20. Linking Genetic Variation in Adaptive Plant Traits to Climate in Tetraploid and Octoploid Basin Wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love] in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R C; Vance-Borland, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed how ploidy type within a species affects genetic variation among populations in relation to source climates. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love) is a large bunchgrass common in the intermountain Western U.S. found in both octoploid and tetraploid types. In common gardens at two sites over two years differences in both ploidy type and genetic variation within ploidy were observed in phenology, morphology, and production traits on 57 octoploid and 52 tetraploid basin wildrye from the intermountain Western U.S. (Ptypes. Still, among populations octoploids often had greater genetic variation for traits and occupied more diverse climates than tetraploids. Genetic variation for both ploidy types was linked to source climates in canonical correlation analysis, with the first two variates explaining 70% of the variation. Regression of those canonical variates with seed source climate variables produced models that explained 64% and 38% of the variation, respectively, and were used to map 15 seed zones covering 673,258 km2. Utilization of these seed zones will help ensure restoration with adaptive seed sources for both ploidy types. The link between genetic traits and seed source climates suggests climate driven natural selection and adaptive evolution in basin wildrye. The more diverse climates occupied by octoploids and higher trait variation suggests a higher capacity for ecological differentiation than tetraploids in the intermountain Western U.S.

  1. MiR-155-regulated molecular network orchestrates cell fate in the innate and adaptive immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothchild, Alissa C; Sissons, James R; Shafiani, Shahin; Plaisier, Christopher; Min, Deborah; Mai, Dat; Gilchrist, Mark; Peschon, Jacques; Larson, Ryan P; Bergthaler, Andreas; Baliga, Nitin S; Urdahl, Kevin B; Aderem, Alan

    2016-10-11

    The regulation of host-pathogen interactions during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection remains unresolved. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of the immune system, and so we used a systems biology approach to construct an miRNA regulatory network activated in macrophages during Mtb infection. Our network comprises 77 putative miRNAs that are associated with temporal gene expression signatures in macrophages early after Mtb infection. In this study, we demonstrate a dual role for one of these regulators, miR-155. On the one hand, miR-155 maintains the survival of Mtb-infected macrophages, thereby providing a niche favoring bacterial replication; on the other hand, miR-155 promotes the survival and function of Mtb-specific T cells, enabling an effective adaptive immune response. MiR-155-induced cell survival is mediated through the SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. Thus, dual regulation of the same cell survival pathway in innate and adaptive immune cells leads to vastly different outcomes with respect to bacterial containment.

  2. Variations and voids: the regulation of human cloning around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattinson, Shaun D; Caulfield, Timothy

    2004-12-13

    No two countries have adopted identical regulatory measures on cloning. Understanding the complexity of these regulatory variations is essential. It highlights the challenges associated with the regulation of a controversial and rapidly evolving area of science and sheds light on a regulatory framework that can accommodate this reality. Using the most reliable information available, we have performed a survey of the regulatory position of thirty countries around the world regarding the creation and use of cloned embryos (see Table 1). We have relied on original and translated legislation, as well as published sources and personal communications. We have examined the regulation of both reproductive cloning (RC) and non-reproductive cloning (NRC). While most of the countries studied have enacted national legislation, the absence of legislation in seven of these countries should not be equated with the absence of regulation. Senator Morin was not correct in stating that the majority of recent legislation bans both RC and NRC. Recent regulatory moves are united only with regard to the banning of RC. While NRC is not permitted in seventeen of the countries examined, it could be permitted in up to thirteen countries. There is little consensus on the various approaches to cloning laws and policies, and the regulatory position in many countries remains uncertain.

  3. Neuroticism and responsiveness to error feedback: adaptive self-regulation versus affective reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Fetterman, Adam K

    2010-10-01

    Responsiveness to negative feedback has been seen as functional by those who emphasize the value of reflecting on such feedback in self-regulating problematic behaviors. On the other hand, the very same responsiveness has been viewed as dysfunctional by its link to punishment sensitivity and reactivity. The present 4 studies, involving 203 undergraduate participants, sought to reconcile such discrepant views in the context of the trait of neuroticism. In cognitive tasks, individuals were given error feedback when they made mistakes. It was found that greater tendencies to slow down following error feedback were associated with higher levels of accuracy at low levels of neuroticism but lower levels of accuracy at high levels of neuroticism. Individual differences in neuroticism thus appear crucial in understanding whether behavioral alterations following negative feedback reflect proactive versus reactive mechanisms and processes. Implications for understanding the processing basis of neuroticism and adaptive self-regulation are discussed.

  4. Adaptive responses to cefotaxime treatment in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and the possible use of significantly regulated pathways as novel secondary targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea S. B.; Rau, Martin Holm; Bonde, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine how ESBL-producing Escherichia coli change the expression of metabolic and biosynthesis genes when adapting to inhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime. Secondly, it was investigated whether significantly regulated pathways constitute putative secondary targets......-fold). Inhibition and/or mutations in other genes that were significantly regulated, belonging to energy synthesis, purine synthesis, proline uptake or potassium uptake, also rendered the resistant bacteria more susceptible to cefotaxime. The results show that ESBL-producing E. coli adapt to treatment...

  5. Mechanisms Underlying the Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity by Vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Christakos, Sylvia

    2015-09-24

    Non-classical actions of vitamin D were first suggested over 30 years ago when receptors for the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), were detected in various tissues and cells that are not associated with the regulation of calcium homeostasis, including activated human inflammatory cells. The question that remained was the biological significance of the presence of vitamin D receptors in the different tissues and cells and, with regard to the immune system, whether or not vitamin D plays a role in the normal immune response and in modifying immune mediated diseases. In this article findings indicating that vitamin D is a key factor regulating both innate and adaptive immunity are reviewed with a focus on the molecular mechanisms involved. In addition, the physiological significance of vitamin D action, as suggested by in vivo studies in mouse models is discussed. Together, the findings indicate the importance of 1,25(OH)2D3 as a regulator of key components of the immune system. An understanding of the mechanisms involved will lead to potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of immune mediated diseases.

  6. The adaptive evolution of the mammalian mitochondrial genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Stephen J

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondria produce up to 95% of a eukaryotic cell's energy through oxidative phosphorylation. The proteins involved in this vital process are under high functional constraints. However, metabolic requirements vary across species, potentially modifying selective pressures. We evaluate the adaptive evolution of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes in 41 placental mammalian species by assessing amino acid sequence variation and exploring the functional implications of observed variation in secondary and tertiary protein structures. Results Wide variation in the properties of amino acids were observed at functionally important regions of cytochrome b in species with more-specialized metabolic requirements (such as adaptation to low energy diet or large body size, such as in elephant, dugong, sloth, and pangolin, and adaptation to unusual oxygen requirements, for example diving in cetaceans, flying in bats, and living at high altitudes in alpacas. Signatures of adaptive variation in the NADH dehydrogenase complex were restricted to the loop regions of the transmembrane units which likely function as protons pumps. Evidence of adaptive variation in the cytochrome c oxidase complex was observed mostly at the interface between the mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits, perhaps evidence of co-evolution. The ATP8 subunit, which has an important role in the assembly of F0, exhibited the highest signal of adaptive variation. ATP6, which has an essential role in rotor performance, showed a high adaptive variation in predicted loop areas. Conclusion Our study provides insight into the adaptive evolution of the mtDNA genome in mammals and its implications for the molecular mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. We present a framework for future experimental characterization of the impact of specific mutations in the function, physiology, and interactions of the mtDNA encoded proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation.

  7. Protocol and Practice in the Adaptive Management of Waterfowl Harvests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Johnson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in

  8. Epigenetic regulation of serotype expression antagonizes transcriptome dynamics in Paramecium tetraurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaib, Miriam; Dehghani Amirabad, Azim; Nordström, Karl J V; Schulz, Marcel H; Simon, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Phenotypic variation of a single genotype is achieved by alterations in gene expression patterns. Regulation of such alterations depends on their time scale, where short-time adaptations differ from permanently established gene expression patterns maintained by epigenetic mechanisms. In the ciliate Paramecium, serotypes were described for an epigenetically controlled gene expression pattern of an individual multigene family. Paradoxically, individual serotypes can be triggered in Paramecium by alternating environments but are then stabilized by epigenetic mechanisms, thus raising the question to which extend their expression follows environmental stimuli. To characterize environmental adaptation in the context of epigenetically controlled serotype expression, we used RNA-seq to characterize transcriptomes of serotype pure cultures. The resulting vegetative transcriptome resource is first analysed for genes involved in the adaptive response to the altered environment. Secondly, we identified groups of genes that do not follow the adaptive response but show co-regulation with the epigenetically controlled serotype system, suggesting that their gene expression pattern becomes manifested by similar mechanisms. In our experimental set-up, serotype expression and the entire group of co-regulated genes were stable among environmental changes and only heat-shock genes altered expression of these gene groups. The data suggest that the maintenance of these gene expression patterns in a lineage represents epigenetically controlled robustness counteracting short-time adaptation processes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  9. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability. PMID:27977737

  10. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Lisa A; Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.

  11. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Keister

    Full Text Available Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.

  12. Genomic hotspots for adaptation: the population genetics of Müllerian mimicry in Heliconius erato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A Counterman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Wing pattern evolution in Heliconius butterflies provides some of the most striking examples of adaptation by natural selection. The genes controlling pattern variation are classic examples of Mendelian loci of large effect, where allelic variation causes large and discrete phenotypic changes and is responsible for both convergent and highly divergent wing pattern evolution across the genus. We characterize nucleotide variation, genotype-by-phenotype associations, linkage disequilibrium (LD, and candidate gene expression patterns across two unlinked genomic intervals that control yellow and red wing pattern variation among mimetic forms of Heliconius erato. Despite very strong natural selection on color pattern, we see neither a strong reduction in genetic diversity nor evidence for extended LD across either patterning interval. This observation highlights the extent that recombination can erase the signature of selection in natural populations and is consistent with the hypothesis that either the adaptive radiation or the alleles controlling it are quite old. However, across both patterning intervals we identified SNPs clustered in several coding regions that were strongly associated with color pattern phenotype. Interestingly, coding regions with associated SNPs were widely separated, suggesting that color pattern alleles may be composed of multiple functional sites, conforming to previous descriptions of these loci as "supergenes." Examination of gene expression levels of genes flanking these regions in both H. erato and its co-mimic, H. melpomene, implicate a gene with high sequence similarity to a kinesin as playing a key role in modulating pattern and provides convincing evidence for parallel changes in gene regulation across co-mimetic lineages. The complex genetic architecture at these color pattern loci stands in marked contrast to the single casual mutations often identified in genetic studies of adaptation, but may be more indicative

  13. The CWI Pathway: Regulation of the Transcriptional Adaptive Response to Cell Wall Stress in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Sanz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are surrounded by an essential structure, the cell wall, which not only confers cell shape but also protects cells from environmental stress. As a consequence, yeast cells growing under cell wall damage conditions elicit rescue mechanisms to provide maintenance of cellular integrity and fungal survival. Through transcriptional reprogramming, yeast modulate the expression of genes important for cell wall biogenesis and remodeling, metabolism and energy generation, morphogenesis, signal transduction and stress. The yeast cell wall integrity (CWI pathway, which is very well conserved in other fungi, is the key pathway for the regulation of this adaptive response. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the yeast transcriptional program elicited to counterbalance cell wall stress situations, the role of the CWI pathway in the regulation of this program and the importance of the transcriptional input received by other pathways. Modulation of this adaptive response through the CWI pathway by positive and negative transcriptional feedbacks is also discussed. Since all these regulatory mechanisms are well conserved in pathogenic fungi, improving our knowledge about them will have an impact in the developing of new antifungal therapies.

  14. Stepping strategies for regulating gait adaptability and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, Laura; Houdijk, Han; Steenbrink, Frans; Mert, Agali; van der Wurff, Peter; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2013-03-15

    Besides a stable gait pattern, gait in daily life requires the capability to adapt this pattern in response to environmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the anticipatory strategies used by able-bodied people to attain an adaptive gait pattern, and how these strategies interact with strategies used to maintain gait stability. Ten healthy subjects walked in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation ENvironment (CAREN). To provoke an adaptive gait pattern, subjects had to hit virtual targets, with markers guided by their knees, while walking on a self-paced treadmill. The effects of walking with and without this task on walking speed, step length, step frequency, step width and the margins of stability (MoS) were assessed. Furthermore, these trials were performed with and without additional continuous ML platform translations. When an adaptive gait pattern was required, subjects decreased step length (padaptations resulted in the preservation of equal MoS between trials, despite the disturbing influence of the gait adaptability task. When the gait adaptability task was combined with the balance perturbation subjects further decreased step length, as evidenced by a significant interaction between both manipulations (p=0.012). In conclusion, able-bodied people reduce step length and increase step width during walking conditions requiring a high level of both stability and adaptability. Although an increase in step frequency has previously been found to enhance stability, a faster movement, which would coincide with a higher step frequency, hampers accuracy and may consequently limit gait adaptability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Variations and voids: the regulation of human cloning around the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caulfield Timothy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No two countries have adopted identical regulatory measures on cloning. Understanding the complexity of these regulatory variations is essential. It highlights the challenges associated with the regulation of a controversial and rapidly evolving area of science and sheds light on a regulatory framework that can accommodate this reality. Methods Using the most reliable information available, we have performed a survey of the regulatory position of thirty countries around the world regarding the creation and use of cloned embryos (see Table 1. We have relied on original and translated legislation, as well as published sources and personal communications. We have examined the regulation of both reproductive cloning (RC and non-reproductive cloning (NRC. Results While most of the countries studied have enacted national legislation, the absence of legislation in seven of these countries should not be equated with the absence of regulation. Senator Morin was not correct in stating that the majority of recent legislation bans both RC and NRC. Recent regulatory moves are united only with regard to the banning of RC. While NRC is not permitted in seventeen of the countries examined, it could be permitted in up to thirteen countries. Conclusions There is little consensus on the various approaches to cloning laws and policies, and the regulatory position in many countries remains uncertain.

  16. MiR-155–regulated molecular network orchestrates cell fate in the innate and adaptive immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothchild, Alissa C.; Sissons, James R.; Shafiani, Shahin; Plaisier, Christopher; Min, Deborah; Mai, Dat; Gilchrist, Mark; Peschon, Jacques; Larson, Ryan P.; Bergthaler, Andreas; Baliga, Nitin S.; Urdahl, Kevin B.; Aderem, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of host–pathogen interactions during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection remains unresolved. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of the immune system, and so we used a systems biology approach to construct an miRNA regulatory network activated in macrophages during Mtb infection. Our network comprises 77 putative miRNAs that are associated with temporal gene expression signatures in macrophages early after Mtb infection. In this study, we demonstrate a dual role for one of these regulators, miR-155. On the one hand, miR-155 maintains the survival of Mtb-infected macrophages, thereby providing a niche favoring bacterial replication; on the other hand, miR-155 promotes the survival and function of Mtb-specific T cells, enabling an effective adaptive immune response. MiR-155–induced cell survival is mediated through the SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. Thus, dual regulation of the same cell survival pathway in innate and adaptive immune cells leads to vastly different outcomes with respect to bacterial containment. PMID:27681624

  17. Oxygen effect and intracellular oxygen content (adaptation hypothesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmonenko, S P; Ehpshtejn, I M [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Tsentr

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data indicating that a radiomodifying action of hypoxia is dependent on the ''prehistory'' of the irradiated object are considered. This dependence manifests itself in a decreased protective action of acute hypoxia on the hypoxia-adapted objects. To explain this a hypothesis is proposed connecting a degree of cell radiosensitivity modification, determined by the oxygen effect, with the intracellular oxygen content. The latter, in accord with current ideas, is regulated by variations in the diffusion resistance to oxygen shown by the cytoplasmic membranes depending on the energy level of the cell and the degree of its oxygenation.

  18. Oxygen effect and intracellular oxygen content (adaptation hypothesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmonenko, S.P.; Ehpshtejn, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data indicating that a radiomodifying action of hypoxia is dependent on the ''prehistory'' of the irradiated object are considered. This dependence manifests itself in a decreased protective action of acute hypoxia on the hypoxia-adapted objects. To explain this a hypothesis is proposed connecting a degree of cell radiosensitivity modification, determined by the oxygen effect, with the intracellular oxygen content. The latter, in accord with current ideas, is regulated by variations in the diffusion resistance to oxygen shown by the cytoplasmic membranes depending on the energy level of the cell and the degree of its oxygenation

  19. Linking Genetic Variation in Adaptive Plant Traits to Climate in Tetraploid and Octoploid Basin Wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr. A. Love] in the Western U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R C Johnson

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed how ploidy type within a species affects genetic variation among populations in relation to source climates. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr. A. Love is a large bunchgrass common in the intermountain Western U.S. found in both octoploid and tetraploid types. In common gardens at two sites over two years differences in both ploidy type and genetic variation within ploidy were observed in phenology, morphology, and production traits on 57 octoploid and 52 tetraploid basin wildrye from the intermountain Western U.S. (P<0.01. Octoploids had larger leaves, longer culms, and greater crown circumference than tetraploids but the numerical ranges of plant traits and their source climates overlapped between ploidy types. Still, among populations octoploids often had greater genetic variation for traits and occupied more diverse climates than tetraploids. Genetic variation for both ploidy types was linked to source climates in canonical correlation analysis, with the first two variates explaining 70% of the variation. Regression of those canonical variates with seed source climate variables produced models that explained 64% and 38% of the variation, respectively, and were used to map 15 seed zones covering 673,258 km2. Utilization of these seed zones will help ensure restoration with adaptive seed sources for both ploidy types. The link between genetic traits and seed source climates suggests climate driven natural selection and adaptive evolution in basin wildrye. The more diverse climates occupied by octoploids and higher trait variation suggests a higher capacity for ecological differentiation than tetraploids in the intermountain Western U.S.

  20. Identification of adaptive mutations in the influenza A virus non-structural 1 gene that increase cytoplasmic localization and differentially regulate host gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Forbes

    Full Text Available The NS1 protein of influenza A virus (IAV is a multifunctional virulence factor. We have previously characterized gain-of-function mutations in the NS1 protein arising from the experimental adaptation of the human isolate A/Hong Kong/1/1968(H3N2 (HK to the mouse. The majority of these mouse adapted NS1 mutations were demonstrated to increase virulence, viral fitness, and interferon antagonism, but differ in binding to the post-transcriptional processing factor cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30 (CPSF30. Because nuclear trafficking is a major genetic determinant of influenza virus host adaptation, we assessed subcellular localization and host gene expression of NS1 adaptive mutations. Recombinant HK viruses with adaptive mutations in the NS1 gene were assessed for NS1 protein subcellular localization in mouse and human cells using confocal microscopy and cellular fractionation. In human cells the HK wild-type (HK-wt virus NS1 protein partitioned equivalently between the cytoplasm and nucleus but was defective in cytoplasmic localization in mouse cells. Several adaptive mutations increased the proportion of NS1 in the cytoplasm of mouse cells with the greatest effects for mutations M106I and D125G. The host gene expression profile of the adaptive mutants was determined by microarray analysis of infected mouse cells to show either high or low extents of host-gene regulation (HGR or LGR phenotypes. While host genes were predominantly down regulated for the HGR group of mutants (D2N, V23A, F103L, M106I+L98S, L98S, M106V, and M106V+M124I, the LGR phenotype mutants (D125G, M106I, V180A, V226I, and R227K were characterized by a predominant up regulation of host genes. CPSF30 binding affinity of NS1 mutants did not predict effects on host gene expression. To our knowledge this is the first report of roles of adaptive NS1 mutations that impact intracellular localization and regulation of host gene expression.

  1. Modeling adaptive and non-adaptive responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulson, Tim; Kendall, Bruce E; Barthold, Julia A.

    2017-01-01

    , with plastic responses being either adaptive or non-adaptive. We develop an approach that links quantitative genetic theory with data-driven structured models to allow prediction of population responses to environmental change via plasticity and adaptive evolution. After introducing general new theory, we...... construct a number of example models to demonstrate that evolutionary responses to environmental change over the short-term will be considerably slower than plastic responses, and that the rate of adaptive evolution to a new environment depends upon whether plastic responses are adaptive or non-adaptive....... Parameterization of the models we develop requires information on genetic and phenotypic variation and demography that will not always be available, meaning that simpler models will often be required to predict responses to environmental change. We consequently develop a method to examine whether the full...

  2. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  3. Adjusting to global change through clonal growth and epigenetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Dodd

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The earth is experiencing major changes in global and regional climates and changes are predicted to accelerate in the future. Many species will be under considerable pressure to evolve, to migrate, or be faced with extinction. Clonal plants would appear to be at a particular disadvantage due to their limited mobility and limited capacity for adaptation. However, they have outlived previous environmental shifts and clonal species have persisted for millenia. Clonal spread offers unique ecological advantages, such as resource sharing, risk sharing, and economies of scale among ramets within genotypes. We suggest that ecological attributes of clonal plants, in tandem with variation in gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms that facilitate and optimize phenotype variation in response to environmental change may permit them to be well suited to projected conditions.

  4. Fish population responses to hydrological variation in a seasonal wetland in southeast México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Escalera-Vázquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hydrological variation differently affects fish species. In the present study, the response of local populations of 13 fish local species to hydrological variation in a tropical wetland was evaluated. The objectives were to analyze the abundance response of fish species with distinct life history strategies and to assess the role of hydrological variation on fish population patterns. We found that opportunistic strategists were favored by high hydrological variation in drought periods, the equilibrium strategists were related to stable habitats, and periodic strategists were regulated by floods and temperature. However, the life history strategies identified for some species in this study do not correspond to the classification reported in other studies. Our results highlight the importance to study the abundance responses of species at local and regional scales to identify variations in life-history strategies, which can reflect local adaptations of species to hydrological changes, this is useful in order to understand and predict the responses of fish populations to the local environment.

  5. An integrative review of ethnic and cultural variation in socialization and children's self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Zhang, Yi

    2015-04-01

    To examine the evidence for cross-cultural variation in socialization and children's normative self-regulation, based on a contextual-developmental perspective. Nurses and healthcare workers in multi-cultural societies must understand diversity in socializing influences (including parenting) and in children's behaviour. A contextual-developmental perspective implies that normative cultural and ethnic values will influence socializing processes and behaviour, which in turn will influence children's self-regulation. Integrative review. Studies were located using five major search engines from 1990-2011. Domains of a contextual-developmental perspective and a comprehensive definition of self-regulation assisted the generation of search terms. Selected studies compared at least two ethnic or cultural groups and addressed contextual-developmental domains: (1) culturally specific social values, beliefs, or attitudes; (2) socializing behaviours; and (3) children's normative self-regulation. Eleven studies about children's self-regulation were found to have data consistent with a contextual-developmental perspective. Studies used descriptive correlational or comparative designs with primarily convenience sampling; eight confirmed stated hypotheses, three were exploratory. Findings across studies evidenced coherent patterns of sociocultural influence on children's attention, compliance, delay of gratification, effortful control and executive function. A contextual-developmental perspective provided a useful perspective to examine normative differences in values, socializing behaviours and children's self-regulation. This perspective and these findings are expected to guide future research, to assist nurses and healthcare providers to understand diversity in parenting and children's behaviour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. DNA methylation mediates genetic variation for adaptive transgenerational plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jacob J; Sultan, Sonia E

    2016-09-14

    Environmental stresses experienced by individual parents can influence offspring phenotypes in ways that enhance survival under similar conditions. Although such adaptive transgenerational plasticity is well documented, its transmission mechanisms are generally unknown. One possible mechanism is environmentally induced DNA methylation changes. We tested this hypothesis in the annual plant Polygonum persicaria, a species known to express adaptive transgenerational plasticity in response to parental drought stress. Replicate plants of 12 genetic lines (sampled from natural populations) were grown in dry versus moist soil. Their offspring were exposed to the demethylating agent zebularine or to control conditions during germination and then grown in dry soil. Under control germination conditions, the offspring of drought-stressed parents grew longer root systems and attained greater biomass compared with offspring of well-watered parents of the same genetic lines. Demethylation removed these adaptive developmental effects of parental drought, but did not significantly alter phenotypic expression in offspring of well-watered parents. The effect of demethylation on the expression of the parental drought effect varied among genetic lines. Differential seed provisioning did not contribute to the effect of parental drought on offspring phenotypes. These results demonstrate that DNA methylation can mediate adaptive, genotype-specific effects of parental stress on offspring phenotypes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. The Orphan Gene dauerless Regulates Dauer Development and Intraspecific Competition in Nematodes by Copy Number Variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie G Mayer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many nematodes form dauer larvae when exposed to unfavorable conditions, representing an example of phenotypic plasticity and a major survival and dispersal strategy. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the regulation of dauer induction is a model for pheromone, insulin, and steroid-hormone signaling. Recent studies in Pristionchus pacificus revealed substantial natural variation in various aspects of dauer development, i.e. pheromone production and sensing and dauer longevity and fitness. One intriguing example is a strain from Ohio, having extremely long-lived dauers associated with very high fitness and often forming the most dauers in response to other strains' pheromones, including the reference strain from California. While such examples have been suggested to represent intraspecific competition among strains, the molecular mechanisms underlying these dauer-associated patterns are currently unknown. We generated recombinant-inbred-lines between the Californian and Ohioan strains and used quantitative-trait-loci analysis to investigate the molecular mechanism determining natural variation in dauer development. Surprisingly, we discovered that the orphan gene dauerless controls dauer formation by copy number variation. The Ohioan strain has one dauerless copy causing high dauer formation, whereas the Californian strain has two copies, resulting in strongly reduced dauer formation. Transgenic animals expressing multiple copies do not form dauers. dauerless is exclusively expressed in CAN neurons, and both CAN ablation and dauerless mutations increase dauer formation. Strikingly, dauerless underwent several duplications and acts in parallel or downstream of steroid-hormone signaling but upstream of the nuclear-hormone-receptor daf-12. We identified the novel or fast-evolving gene dauerless as inhibitor of dauer development. Our findings reveal the importance of gene duplications and copy number variations for orphan gene function and suggest daf-12 as

  8. Transcriptional Regulation and the Diversification of Metabolism in Wine Yeast Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, Debra; Jacobson, Dan; Bauer, Florian F.

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factors and their binding sites have been proposed as primary targets of evolutionary adaptation because changes to single transcription factors can lead to far-reaching changes in gene expression patterns. Nevertheless, there is very little concrete evidence for such evolutionary changes. Industrial wine yeast strains, of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are a geno- and phenotypically diverse group of organisms that have adapted to the ecological niches of industrial winemaking environments and have been selected to produce specific styles of wine. Variation in transcriptional regulation among wine yeast strains may be responsible for many of the observed differences and specific adaptations to different fermentative conditions in the context of commercial winemaking. We analyzed gene expression profiles of wine yeast strains to assess the impact of transcription factor expression on metabolic networks. The data provide new insights into the molecular basis of variations in gene expression in industrial strains and their consequent effects on metabolic networks important to wine fermentation. We show that the metabolic phenotype of a strain can be shifted in a relatively predictable manner by changing expression levels of individual transcription factors, opening opportunities to modify transcription networks to achieve desirable outcomes. PMID:22042577

  9. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno D Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  10. Adaptive emotion regulation mediates the relationship between self-compassion and depression in individuals with unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Alice; Burger, Julian; Kirchner, Mareike; Berking, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    To identify the mechanisms involved in the association between self-compassion and depression, we examined whether adaptive emotion regulation would mediate the relationship between self-compassion and depression in individuals with unipolar depression. Furthermore, we explored which specific emotion regulation skills would be most important in this relationship. Sixty-nine individuals with unipolar depression were assessed with the Self-Compassion Scale and the Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire at baseline and with the Beck Depression Inventory-II 1 week later. The results showed that successful application of emotion regulation skills mediates the association between self-compassion and depression. Among eight specific emotion regulation skills, only the ability to tolerate negative emotions was identified as a significant mediator in the self-compassion-depression relationship. These findings provide preliminary evidence that systematically fostering self-compassion might help depressed individuals cope with their symptoms by enhancing their abilities to tolerate undesired emotions. Systematically fostering self-compassion through specific compassion-focused interventions might facilitate a reduction in depressive symptoms by improving the person's emotion regulation abilities, especially by improving his or her ability to tolerate negative emotions. Hence, compassion-focused interventions might be particularly promising in depressed patients with a tendency to avoid negative emotions and deficits in tolerating them. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Predictable variation of range-sizes across an extreme environmental gradient in a lizard adaptive radiation: evolutionary and ecological inferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pincheira-Donoso

    Full Text Available Large-scale patterns of current species geographic range-size variation reflect historical dynamics of dispersal and provide insights into future consequences under changing environments. Evidence suggests that climate warming exerts major damage on high latitude and elevation organisms, where changes are more severe and available space to disperse tracking historical niches is more limited. Species with longer generations (slower adaptive responses, such as vertebrates, and with restricted distributions (lower genetic diversity, higher inbreeding in these environments are expected to be particularly threatened by warming crises. However, a well-known macroecological generalization (Rapoport's rule predicts that species range-sizes increase with increasing latitude-elevation, thus counterbalancing the impact of climate change. Here, I investigate geographic range-size variation across an extreme environmental gradient and as a function of body size, in the prominent Liolaemus lizard adaptive radiation. Conventional and phylogenetic analyses revealed that latitudinal (but not elevational ranges significantly decrease with increasing latitude-elevation, while body size was unrelated to range-size. Evolutionarily, these results are insightful as they suggest a link between spatial environmental gradients and range-size evolution. However, ecologically, these results suggest that Liolaemus might be increasingly threatened if, as predicted by theory, ranges retract and contract continuously under persisting climate warming, potentially increasing extinction risks at high latitudes and elevations.

  12. Cluster expansion of the wavefunction. Symmetry-adapted-cluster expansion, its variational determination, and extension of open-shell orbital theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuji, H.; Hirao, K.

    1978-01-01

    The symmetry-adapted-cluster (SAC) expansion of an exact wavefunction is given. It is constructed from the generators of the symmetry-adapted excited configurations having the symmetry under consideration, and includes their higher-order effect and self-consistency effect. It is different from the conventional cluster expansions in several important points, and is suitable for applications to open-shell systems as well as closed-shell systems. The variational equation for the SAC wavefunction has a form similar to the generalized Brillouin theorem in accordance with the inclusion of the higher-order effect and the self-consistency effect. We have expressed some existing open-shell orbital theories equivalently in the conventional cluster expansion formulas, and on this basis, we have given the pseudo-orbital theory which is an extension of open-shell orbital theory in the SAC expansion formula

  13. Population and patient-specific target margins for 4D adaptive radiotherapy to account for intra- and inter-fraction variation in lung tumour position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, Geoffrey D; Di Yan; Jian Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this work, five 4D image-guidance strategies (two population, an offline adaptive and two online strategies) were evaluated that compensated for both inter- and intra-fraction variability such as changes to the baseline tumour position and respiratory pattern. None of the strategies required active motion compensation such as gating or tracking; all strategies simulated a free-breathing-based treatment technique. Online kilovoltage fluoroscopy was acquired for eight patients with lung tumours, and used to construct inter- and intra-fraction tumour position variability models. Planning was performed on a mid-ventilation image acquired from a respiration-correlated CT scan. The blurring effect of tumour position variability was included in the dose calculation by convolution. CTV to PTV margins were calculated for variability in the cranio-caudal direction. A population margin of 9.0 ± 0.7 mm was required to account for setup error and respiration in the study population without the use of image-guidance. The greatest mean margin reduction was introduced by the offline adaptive strategy. A daily online correction strategy produced a small reduction (1.6 mm) in the mean margin from the offline strategy. Adaptively correcting for an inter-fraction change in the respiratory pattern had little effect on margin size due to most patients having only small daily changes in the respiratory pattern. A daily online correction strategy would be useful for patients who exhibit large variations in the daily mean tumour position, while an offline adaptive strategy is more applicable to patients with less variation

  14. A high-throughput FTIR spectroscopy approach to assess adaptive variation in the chemical composition of pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Boris; Bağcıoğlu, Murat; Tafinstseva, Valeria; Kohler, Achim; Ohlson, Mikael; Fjellheim, Siri

    2017-12-01

    The two factors defining male reproductive success in plants are pollen quantity and quality, but our knowledge about the importance of pollen quality is limited due to methodological constraints. Pollen quality in terms of chemical composition may be either genetically fixed for high performance independent of environmental conditions, or it may be plastic to maximize reproductive output under different environmental conditions. In this study, we validated a new approach for studying the role of chemical composition of pollen in adaptation to local climate. The approach is based on high-throughput Fourier infrared (FTIR) characterization and biochemical interpretation of pollen chemical composition in response to environmental conditions. The study covered three grass species, Poa alpina , Anthoxanthum odoratum , and Festuca ovina . For each species, plants were grown from seeds of three populations with wide geographic and climate variation. Each individual plant was divided into four genetically identical clones which were grown in different controlled environments (high and low levels of temperature and nutrients). In total, 389 samples were measured using a high-throughput FTIR spectrometer. The biochemical fingerprints of pollen were species and population specific, and plastic in response to different environmental conditions. The response was most pronounced for temperature, influencing the levels of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates in pollen of all species. Furthermore, there is considerable variation in plasticity of the chemical composition of pollen among species and populations. The use of high-throughput FTIR spectroscopy provides fast, cheap, and simple assessment of the chemical composition of pollen. In combination with controlled-condition growth experiments and multivariate analyses, FTIR spectroscopy opens up for studies of the adaptive role of pollen that until now has been difficult with available methodology. The approach can easily be

  15. Multi-allelic major effect genes interact with minor effect QTLs to control adaptive color pattern variation in Heliconius erato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Papa

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that relatively few genomic regions are repeatedly involved in the evolution of Heliconius butterfly wing patterns. Although this work demonstrates a number of cases where homologous loci underlie both convergent and divergent wing pattern change among different Heliconius species, it is still unclear exactly how many loci underlie pattern variation across the genus. To address this question for Heliconius erato, we created fifteen independent crosses utilizing the four most distinct color pattern races and analyzed color pattern segregation across a total of 1271 F2 and backcross offspring. Additionally, we used the most variable brood, an F2 cross between H. himera and the east Ecuadorian H. erato notabilis, to perform a quantitative genetic analysis of color pattern variation and produce a detailed map of the loci likely involved in the H. erato color pattern radiation. Using AFLP and gene based markers, we show that fewer major genes than previously envisioned control the color pattern variation in H. erato. We describe for the first time the genetic architecture of H. erato wing color pattern by assessing quantitative variation in addition to traditional linkage mapping. In particular, our data suggest three genomic intervals modulate the bulk of the observed variation in color. Furthermore, we also identify several modifier loci of moderate effect size that contribute to the quantitative wing pattern variation. Our results are consistent with the two-step model for the evolution of mimetic wing patterns in Heliconius and support a growing body of empirical data demonstrating the importance of major effect loci in adaptive change.

  16. Regulation mechanisms of the FLT3-ligand after irradiation; Mecanismes de regulation du FLT3-ligand apres irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat-Lepesant, M

    2005-06-15

    The hematopoietic compartment is one of the most severely damaged after chemotherapy, radiotherapy or accidental irradiations. Whatever its origin, the resulting damage to the bone marrow remains difficult to evaluate. Thus, it would be of great interest to get a biological indicator of residual hematopoiesis in order to adapt the treatment to each clinical situation. Recent results indicated that the plasma Flt3 ligand concentration was increased in patients suffering from either acquired or induced aplasia, suggesting that Flt3 ligand might be useful as a biological indicator of bone marrow status. We thus followed in a mouse model as well as in several clinical situations the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand concentration, after either homogeneous or heterogeneous irradiations. These variations were correlated to the number of hematopoietic progenitors and to other parameters such as duration and depth of pancytopenia. The results indicated that the concentration of Flt3 ligand in the blood reflects the bone marrow status, and that the follow-up of plasma Flt3 ligand concentration could give predictive information about the bone marrow function and the duration and severity of pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Nevertheless, the clinical use of Flt3 ligand as a biological indicator of bone marrow damage require the knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand concentration. We thus developed a study in the mouse model. The results indicated that the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand variations were not solely due to a balance between its production by lymphoid cells and its consumption by hematopoietic cells. Moreover, we showed that T lymphocytes are not the main regulator of plasma Flt3 ligand concentration as previously suggested, and that other cell types, possibly including bone marrow stromal cells, might be strongly implicated. These results also suggest that the Flt3 ligand is a main systemic regulator of hematopoiesis

  17. Real-time transient stabilization and voltage regulation of power generators with unknown mechanical power input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenne, Godpromesse; Goma, Raphael; Nkwawo, Homere; Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, Francoise; Arzande, Amir; Vannier, Jean Claude

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinear adaptive excitation controller is proposed to enhance the transient stability and voltage regulation of synchronous generators with unknown power angle and mechanical power input. The proposed method is based on a standard third-order model of a synchronous generator which requires only information about the physical available measurements of relative angular speed, active electric power, infinite bus and generator terminal voltages. The operating conditions are computed online using the above physical available measurements, the terminal voltage reference value and the estimate of the mechanical power input. The proposed design is therefore capable of providing satisfactory voltage in the presence of unknown variations of the power system operating conditions. Using the concept of sliding mode equivalent control techniques, a robust decentralized adaptive controller which insures the exponential convergence of the outputs to the desired ones, is obtained. Real-time experimental results are reported, comparing the performance of the proposed adaptive nonlinear control scheme to one of the conventional AVR/PSS controller. The high simplicity of the overall adaptive control scheme and its robustness with respect to line impedance variation including critical unbalanced operating condition and temporary turbine fault, constitute the main positive features of the proposed approach.

  18. Real-time transient stabilization and voltage regulation of power generators with unknown mechanical power input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenne, Godpromesse, E-mail: gokenne@yahoo.co [Laboratoire d' Automatique et d' Informatique Appliquee (LAIA), Departement de Genie Electrique, Universite de Dschang, B.P. 134 Bandjoun (Cameroon); Goma, Raphael, E-mail: raphael.goma@lss.supelec.f [Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes (L2S), CNRS-SUPELEC, Universite Paris XI, 3 Rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nkwawo, Homere, E-mail: homere.nkwawo@iutv.univ-paris13.f [Departement GEII, Universite Paris XIII, 99 Avenue Jean Baptiste Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, Francoise, E-mail: lamnabhi@lss.supelec.f [Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes (L2S), CNRS-SUPELEC, Universite Paris XI, 3 Rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Arzande, Amir, E-mail: Amir.arzande@supelec.f [Departement Energie, Ecole Superieure d' Electricite-SUPELEC, 3 Rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vannier, Jean Claude, E-mail: Jean-claude.vannier@supelec.f [Departement Energie, Ecole Superieure d' Electricite-SUPELEC, 3 Rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-01-15

    A nonlinear adaptive excitation controller is proposed to enhance the transient stability and voltage regulation of synchronous generators with unknown power angle and mechanical power input. The proposed method is based on a standard third-order model of a synchronous generator which requires only information about the physical available measurements of relative angular speed, active electric power, infinite bus and generator terminal voltages. The operating conditions are computed online using the above physical available measurements, the terminal voltage reference value and the estimate of the mechanical power input. The proposed design is therefore capable of providing satisfactory voltage in the presence of unknown variations of the power system operating conditions. Using the concept of sliding mode equivalent control techniques, a robust decentralized adaptive controller which insures the exponential convergence of the outputs to the desired ones, is obtained. Real-time experimental results are reported, comparing the performance of the proposed adaptive nonlinear control scheme to one of the conventional AVR/PSS controller. The high simplicity of the overall adaptive control scheme and its robustness with respect to line impedance variation including critical unbalanced operating condition and temporary turbine fault, constitute the main positive features of the proposed approach.

  19. How low can you go? An adaptive energetic framework for interpreting basal metabolic rate variation in endotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; McKechnie, Andrew E; Vézina, François

    2017-12-01

    Adaptive explanations for both high and low body mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR) in endotherms are pervasive in evolutionary physiology, but arguments implying a direct adaptive benefit of high BMR are troublesome from an energetic standpoint. Here, we argue that conclusions about the adaptive benefit of BMR need to be interpreted, first and foremost, in terms of energetics, with particular attention to physiological traits on which natural selection is directly acting. We further argue from an energetic perspective that selection should always act to reduce BMR (i.e., maintenance costs) to the lowest level possible under prevailing environmental or ecological demands, so that high BMR per se is not directly adaptive. We emphasize the argument that high BMR arises as a correlated response to direct selection on other physiological traits associated with high ecological or environmental costs, such as daily energy expenditure (DEE) or capacities for activity or thermogenesis. High BMR thus represents elevated maintenance costs required to support energetically demanding lifestyles, including living in harsh environments. BMR is generally low under conditions of relaxed selection on energy demands for high metabolic capacities (e.g., thermoregulation, activity) or conditions promoting energy conservation. Under these conditions, we argue that selection can act directly to reduce BMR. We contend that, as a general rule, BMR should always be as low as environmental or ecological conditions permit, allowing energy to be allocated for other functions. Studies addressing relative reaction norms and response times to fluctuating environmental or ecological demands for BMR, DEE, and metabolic capacities and the fitness consequences of variation in BMR and other metabolic traits are needed to better delineate organismal metabolic responses to environmental or ecological selective forces.

  20. [Head and neck adaptive radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P; Huger, S; Kirby, N; Pouliot, J

    2013-10-01

    Onboard volumetric imaging systems can provide accurate data of the patient's anatomy during a course of head and neck radiotherapy making it possible to assess the actual delivered dose and to evaluate the dosimetric impact of complex daily positioning variations and gradual anatomic changes such as geometric variations of tumors and normal tissues or shrinkage of external contours. Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as the correction of a patient's treatment planning to adapt for individual variations observed during treatment. Strategies are developed to selectively identify patients that require replanning because of an intolerable dosimetric drift. Automated tools are designed to limit time consumption. Deformable image registration algorithms are the cornerstones of these strategies, but a better understanding of their limits of validity is required before adaptive radiotherapy can be safely introduced to daily practice. Moreover, strict evaluation of the clinical benefits is yet to be proven. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Design and implementation of a 3-A source and sink linear regulator for bus terminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanming; Wen Changbao; Wen Limin; Mao Xiangyu

    2012-01-01

    According to the requirements of the bus terminal regulator, a linear regulator with 3-A source-sink current ability is presented. The use of the NMOS pass transistor and load current feedback technique enhances the system current ability and response speed. The method of adaptive zero compensation realizes loop stability over the whole load range for either source or sink loop. Furthermore, the transconductance matching technique reduces the shoot-through current through the output stage to less than 3 μA. The regulator has been fabricated with a 0.6-μm 30 V BCD process successfully, and the area size is about 1 mm 2 . With a 20 μF output capacitor, the maximum transient output-voltage variation is within 3.5% of the output voltage with load step changes of ±2 A/1 μs. At the load range of ±3 A, the variation of output voltage is less than ±15 mV.

  2. A new adaptive control scheme based on the interacting multiple model (IMM) estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshari, Hamed H.; Al-Ani, Dhafar; Habibi, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an Interacting multiple model (IMM) adaptive estimation approach is incorporated to design an optimal adaptive control law for stabilizing an Unmanned vehicle. Due to variations of the forward velocity of the Unmanned vehicle, its aerodynamic derivatives are constantly changing. In order to stabilize the unmanned vehicle and achieve the control objectives for in-flight conditions, one seeks for an adaptive control strategy that can adjust itself to varying flight conditions. In this context, a bank of linear models is used to describe the vehicle dynamics in different operating modes. Each operating mode represents a particular dynamic with a different forward velocity. These models are then used within an IMM filter containing a bank of Kalman filters (KF) in a parallel operating mechanism. To regulate and stabilize the vehicle, a Linear quadratic regulator (LQR) law is designed and implemented for each mode. The IMM structure determines the particular mode based on the stored models and in-flight input-output measurements. The LQR controller also provides a set of controllers; each corresponds to a particular flight mode and minimizes the tracking error. Finally, the ultimate control law is obtained as a weighted summation of all individual controllers whereas weights are obtained using mode probabilities of each operating mode.

  3. Body Size Adaptations to Altitudinal Climatic Variation in Neotropical Grasshoppers of the Genus Sphenarium (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Altitudinal clines in body size can result from the effects of natural and sexual selection on growth rates and developing times in seasonal environments. Short growing and reproductive seasons constrain the body size that adults can attain and their reproductive success. Little is known about the effects of altitudinal climatic variation on the diversification of Neotropical insects. In central Mexico, in addition to altitude, highly heterogeneous topography generates diverse climates that can occur even at the same latitude. Altitudinal variation and heterogeneous topography open an opportunity to test the relative impact of climatic variation on body size adaptations. In this study, we investigated the relationship between altitudinal climatic variation and body size, and the divergence rates of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in Neotropical grasshoppers of the genus Sphenarium using a phylogenetic comparative approach. In order to distinguish the relative impact of natural and sexual selection on the diversification of the group, we also tracked the altitudinal distribution of the species and trends of both body size and SSD on the phylogeny of Sphenarium. The correlative evidence suggests no relationship between altitude and body size. However, larger species were associated with places having a warmer winter season in which the temporal window for development and reproduction can be longer. Nonetheless, the largest species were also associated with highly seasonal environments. Moreover, large body size and high levels of SSD have evolved independently several times throughout the history of the group and male body size has experienced a greater evolutionary divergence than females. These lines of evidence suggest that natural selection, associated with seasonality and sexual selection, on maturation time and body size could have enhanced the diversification of this insect group. PMID:26684616

  4. Intraspecific variation in social organization by genetic variation, developmental plasticity, social flexibility or entirely extrinsic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten

    2013-05-19

    Previously, it was widely believed that each species has a specific social organization, but we know now that many species show intraspecific variation in their social organization. Four different processes can lead to intraspecific variation in social organization: (i) genetic variation between individuals owing to local adaptation (between populations) or evolutionarily stable strategies within populations; (ii) developmental plasticity evolved in long-term (more than one generation) unpredictable and short-term (one generation) predictable environments, which is mediated by organizational physiological effects during early ontogeny; (iii) social flexibility evolved in highly unpredictable environments, which is mediated by activational physiological effects in adults; (iv) entirely extrinsic factors such as the death of a dominant breeder. Variation in social behaviour occurs between individuals in the case of genetic variation and developmental plasticity, but within individuals in the case of social flexibility. It is important to study intraspecific variation in social organization to understand the social systems of species because it reveals the mechanisms by which species can adapt to changing environments, offers a useful tool to study the ultimate and proximate causes of sociality, and is an interesting phenomenon by itself that needs scientific explanation.

  5. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  6. The adapter protein, Grb10, is a positive regulator of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetti-Peraldi, S; Murdaca, J; Mas, J C; Van Obberghen, E

    2001-07-05

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Activation of VEGF receptors leads to the recruitment of SH2 containing proteins which link the receptors to the activation of signaling pathways. Here we report that Grb10, an adapter protein of which the biological role remains unknown, is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to VEGF in endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in 293 cells expressing the VEGF receptor KDR. An intact SH2 domain is required for Grb10 tyrosine phosphorylation in response to VEGF, and this phosphorylation is mediated in part through the activation of Src. In HUVEC, VEGF increases Grb10 mRNA level. Expression of Grb10 in HUVEC or in KDR expressing 293 cells results in an increase in the amount and in the tyrosine phosphorylation of KDR. In 293 cells, this is correlated with the activation of signaling molecules, such as MAP kinase. By expressing mutants of Grb10, we found that the positive action of Grb10 is independent of its SH2 domain. Moreover, these Grb10 effects on KDR seem to be specific since Grb10 has no effect on the insulin receptor, and Grb2, another adapter protein, does not mimic the effect of Grb10 on KDR. In conclusion, we propose that VEGF up-regulates Grb10 level, which in turn increases KDR molecules, suggesting that Grb10 could be involved in a positive feedback loop in VEGF signaling.

  7. FPGA implementation of adaptive ANN controller for speed regulation of permanent magnet stepper motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanien, Hany M., E-mail: Hanyhasanien@ieee.or [Dept. of Elec. Power and Machines, Faculty of Eng., Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents a novel adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) controller, which applies on permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM) for regulating its speed. The dynamic response of the PMSM with the proposed controller is studied during the starting process under the full load torque and under load disturbance. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive ANN controller is then compared with that of the conventional PI controller. The proposed methodology solves the problem of nonlinearities and load changes of PMSM drives. The proposed controller ensures fast and accurate dynamic response with an excellent steady state performance. Matlab/Simulink tool is used for this dynamic simulation study. The main contribution of this work is the implementation of the proposed controller on field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware to drive the stepper motor. The driver is built on FPGA Spartan-3E Starter from Xilinx. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  8. FPGA implementation of adaptive ANN controller for speed regulation of permanent magnet stepper motor drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanien, Hany M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) controller, which applies on permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM) for regulating its speed. The dynamic response of the PMSM with the proposed controller is studied during the starting process under the full load torque and under load disturbance. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive ANN controller is then compared with that of the conventional PI controller. The proposed methodology solves the problem of nonlinearities and load changes of PMSM drives. The proposed controller ensures fast and accurate dynamic response with an excellent steady state performance. Matlab/Simulink tool is used for this dynamic simulation study. The main contribution of this work is the implementation of the proposed controller on field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware to drive the stepper motor. The driver is built on FPGA Spartan-3E Starter from Xilinx. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  9. Understanding gene sequence variation in the context of transcription regulation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Gat-Viks

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA sequence polymorphism in a regulatory protein can have a widespread transcriptional effect. Here we present a computational approach for analyzing modules of genes with a common regulation that are affected by specific DNA polymorphisms. We identify such regulatory-linkage modules by integrating genotypic and expression data for individuals in a segregating population with complementary expression data of strains mutated in a variety of regulatory proteins. Our procedure searches simultaneously for groups of co-expressed genes, for their common underlying linkage interval, and for their shared regulatory proteins. We applied the method to a cross between laboratory and wild strains of S. cerevisiae, demonstrating its ability to correctly suggest modules and to outperform extant approaches. Our results suggest that middle sporulation genes are under the control of polymorphism in the sporulation-specific tertiary complex Sum1p/Rfm1p/Hst1p. In another example, our analysis reveals novel inter-relations between Swi3 and two mitochondrial inner membrane proteins underlying variation in a module of aerobic cellular respiration genes. Overall, our findings demonstrate that this approach provides a useful framework for the systematic mapping of quantitative trait loci and their role in gene expression variation.

  10. A Postmarket Surveillance Study on Electro-Neuro-Adaptive-Regulator Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod P. Bonello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Electro-Neuro-Adaptive-Regulator (ENAR device is a hand-held electrotherapy which is applied using energetic medicine principles and aspects of acupuncture theory. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of a postmarket survey of persons who have used the ENAR device. The conditions for which the therapy was used and its perceived effectiveness are discussed. A web-based survey of Australian recipients of ENAR therapy was completed by 481 respondents. Most (76% used ENAR exclusively for pain relief for musculoskeletal disorders, especially back, shoulder, and neck pain; 8% used ENAR exclusively for nonmusculoskeletal disorders; while 16% used ENAR for both. Respondents reported a mean reduction in pain of 70% (t(423 = 38.73, P<.001 and functional improvement of 62% (t(423 = 10.45, P<.001 using 11-point numerical rating scales. Following ENAR treatment, medication reduction was reported by 91% of respondents. Most respondents reported high satisfaction following ENAR therapy, with between 15 and 20% achieving complete pain relief. The self-delivery of ENAR may, in part, account for the high level of satisfaction.

  11. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... to be static, and no longer acts as a kind of spatial constancy maintaining stability and order? Moreover, what new potentials open in lighting design? This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research project entitled LED Lighting; Interdisciplinary LED Lighting Research...

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes to Lagoon and Soil Matrices Associated with a Piggery Environment: Comparison of Expression Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivant, Anne-Laure; Desneux, Jeremy; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Piveteau, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how Listeria monocytogenes , the causative agent of listeriosis, adapts to the environment is crucial. Adaptation to new matrices requires regulation of gene expression. To determine how the pathogen adapts to lagoon effluent and soil, two matrices where L. monocytogenes has been isolated, we compared the transcriptomes of L. monocytogenes CIP 110868 20 min and 24 h after its transfer to effluent and soil extract. Results showed major variations in the transcriptome of L. monocytogenes in the lagoon effluent but only minor modifications in the soil. In both the lagoon effluent and in the soil, genes involved in mobility and chemotaxis and in the transport of carbohydrates were the most frequently represented in the set of genes with higher transcript levels, and genes with phage-related functions were the most represented in the set of genes with lower transcript levels. A modification of the cell envelop was only found in the lagoon environment. Finally, the differential analysis included a large proportion of regulators, regulons, and ncRNAs.

  13. Ca2+-Dependent Regulations and Signaling in Skeletal Muscle: From Electro-Mechanical Coupling to Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, Sebastian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in almost all cellular processes and ensures the functionality of an organism. In skeletal muscle fibers, Ca2+ is critically involved in the innervation of skeletal muscle fibers that results in the exertion of an action potential along the muscle fiber membrane, the prerequisite for skeletal muscle contraction. Furthermore and among others, Ca2+ regulates also intracellular processes, such as myosin-actin cross bridging, protein synthesis, protein degradation and fiber type shifting by the control of Ca2+-sensitive proteases and transcription factors, as well as mitochondrial adaptations, plasticity and respiration. These data highlight the overwhelming significance of Ca2+ ions for the integrity of skeletal muscle tissue. In this review, we address the major functions of Ca2+ ions in adult muscle but also highlight recent findings of critical Ca2+-dependent mechanisms essential for skeletal muscle-regulation and maintenance. PMID:25569087

  14. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  15. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control of MEMS AC Voltage Reference Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ranjbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of physical parameters of a tunable MEMS capacitor, as the major part of MEMS AC voltage reference, is of great importance to achieve an accurate output voltage free of the malfunctioning noise and disturbance. Even though strenuous endeavors are made to fabricate MEMS tunable capacitors with desiderated accurate physical characteristics and ameliorate exactness of physical parameters’ values, parametric uncertainties ineluctably emerge in fabrication process attributable to imperfections in micromachining process. First off, this paper considers applying an adaptive sliding mode controller design in the MEMS AC voltage reference source so that it is capable of giving off a well-regulated output voltage in defiance of jumbling parametric uncertainties in the plant dynamics and also aggravating external disturbance imposed on the system. Secondly, it puts an investigatory comparison with the designed model reference adaptive controller and the pole-placement state feedback one into one’s prospective. Not only does the tuned adaptive sliding mode controller show remarkable robustness against slow parameter variation and external disturbance being compared to the pole-placement state feedback one, but also it immensely gets robust against the external disturbance in comparison with the conventional adaptive controller. The simulation results are promising.

  16. Sex reduces genetic variation: a multidisciplinary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Root; Heng, Henry H Q

    2011-04-01

    For over a century, the paradigm has been that sex invariably increases genetic variation, despite many renowned biologists asserting that sex decreases most genetic variation. Sex is usually perceived as the source of additive genetic variance that drives eukaryotic evolution vis-à-vis adaptation and Fisher's fundamental theorem. However, evidence for sex decreasing genetic variation appears in ecology, paleontology, population genetics, and cancer biology. The common thread among many of these disciplines is that sex acts like a coarse filter, weeding out major changes, such as chromosomal rearrangements (that are almost always deleterious), but letting minor variation, such as changes at the nucleotide or gene level (that are often neutral), flow through the sexual sieve. Sex acts as a constraint on genomic and epigenetic variation, thereby limiting adaptive evolution. The diverse reasons for sex reducing genetic variation (especially at the genome level) and slowing down evolution may provide a sufficient benefit to offset the famed costs of sex. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Intraspecific variation in stomatal traits, leaf traits and physiology reflects adaptation along aridity gradients in a South African shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane E; Adams, Christopher A; Holsinger, Kent E

    2016-01-01

    Trait-environment relationships are commonly interpreted as evidence for local adaptation in plants. However, even when selection analyses support this interpretation, the mechanisms underlying differential benefits are often unknown. This study addresses this gap in knowledge using the broadly distributed South African shrub Protea repens. Specifically, the study examines whether broad-scale patterns of trait variation are consistent with spatial differences in selection and ecophysiology in the wild. In a common garden study of plants sourced from 19 populations, associations were measured between five morphological traits and three axes describing source climates. Trait-trait and trait-environment associations were analysed in a multi-response model. Within two focal populations in the wild, selection and path analyses were used to test associations between traits, fecundity and physiological performance. Across 19 populations in a common garden, stomatal density increased with the source population's mean annual temperature and decreased with its average amount of rainfall in midsummer. Concordantly, selection analysis in two natural populations revealed positive selection on stomatal density at the hotter, drier site, while failing to detect selection at the cooler, moister site. Dry-site plants with high stomatal density also had higher stomatal conductances, cooler leaf temperatures and higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates than those with low stomatal density, but no such relationships were present among wet-site plants. Leaf area, stomatal pore index and specific leaf area in the garden also co-varied with climate, but within-population differences were not associated with fitness in either wild population. The parallel patterns of broad-scale variation, differences in selection and differences in trait-ecophysiology relationships suggest a mechanism for adaptive differentiation in stomatal density. Densely packed stomata may improve performance by

  18. Regulation of the adaptation to zinc deficiency in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assuncao, A.G.L.; Schat, H.; Aarts, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which plants sense their micronutrient status, and adapt to their environment in order to ensure a sufficient micronutrient supply, are poorly understood. Zinc is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms. When facing a shortage in zinc supply, plants adapt by

  19. Variation in orbitofrontal cortex volume: relation to sex, emotion regulation and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welborn, B Locke; Papademetris, Xenophon; Reis, Deidre L; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Bloise, Suzanne M; Gray, Jeremy R

    2009-12-01

    Sex differences in brain structure have been examined extensively but are not completely understood, especially in relation to possible functional correlates. Our two aims in this study were to investigate sex differences in brain structure, and to investigate a possible relation between orbitofrontal cortex subregions and affective individual differences. We used tensor-based morphometry to estimate local brain volume from MPRAGE images in 117 healthy right-handed adults (58 female), age 18-40 years. We entered estimates of local brain volume as the dependent variable in a GLM, controlling for age, intelligence and whole-brain volume. Men had larger left planum temporale. Women had larger ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), right lateral orbitofrontal (rlOFC), cerebellum, and bilateral basal ganglia and nearby white matter. vmPFC but not rlOFC volume covaried with self-reported emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal, suppression), expressivity of positive emotions (but not of negative), strength of emotional impulses, and cognitive but not somatic anxiety. vmPFC volume statistically mediated sex differences in emotion suppression. The results confirm prior reports of sex differences in orbitofrontal cortex structure, and are the first to show that normal variation in vmPFC volume is systematically related to emotion regulation and affective individual differences.

  20. Climate change adaptation in regulated water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Harou, J. J.; Characklis, G. W.; Ricalde, I.

    2017-12-01

    Concern about climate change impacts on water supply systems has grown in recent years. However, there are still few examples of pro-active interventions (e.g. infrastructure investment or policy changes) meant to address plausible future changes. Deep uncertainty associated with climate impacts, future demands, and regulatory constraints might explain why utility planning in a range of contexts doesn't explicitly consider climate change scenarios and potential adaptive responses. Given the importance of water supplies for economic development and the cost and longevity of many water infrastructure investments, large urban water supply systems could suffer from lack of pro-active climate change adaptation. Water utilities need to balance the potential for high regret stranded assets on the one side, with insufficient supplies leading to potentially severe socio-economic, political and environmental failures on the other, and need to deal with a range of interests and constraints. This work presents initial findings from a project looking at how cities in Chile, the US and the UK are developing regulatory frameworks that incorporate utility planning under uncertainty. Considering for example the city of Santiago, Chile, recent studies have shown that although high scarcity cost scenarios are plausible, pre-emptive investment to guard from possible water supply failures is still remote and not accommodated by current planning practice. A first goal of the project is to compare and contrast regulatory approaches to utility risks considering climate change adaptation measures. Subsequently we plan to develop and propose a custom approach for the city of Santiago based on lessons learned from other contexts. The methodological approach combines institutional assessment of water supply regulatory frameworks with simulation-based decision-making under uncertainty approaches. Here we present initial work comparing the regulatory frameworks in Chile, UK and USA evaluating

  1. A new approach to adaptive control of manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    An approach in which the manipulator inverse is used as a feedforward controller is employed in the adaptive control of manipulators in order to achieve trajectory tracking by the joint angles. The desired trajectory is applied as an input to the feedforward controller, and the controller output is used as the driving torque for the manipulator. An adaptive algorithm obtained from MRAC theory is used to update the controller gains to cope with variations in the manipulator inverse due to changes of the operating point. An adaptive feedback controller and an auxiliary signal enhance closed-loop stability and achieve faster adaptation. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme for different reference trajectories, and despite large variations in the payload.

  2. Regulation of transport processes across the tonoplast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard; Trentmann, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    In plants, the vacuole builds up the cellular turgor and represents an important component in cellular responses to diverse stress stimuli. Rapid volume changes of cells, particularly of motor cells, like guard cells, are caused by variation of osmolytes and consequently of the water contents in the vacuole. Moreover, directed solute uptake into or release out of the large central vacuole allows adaptation of cytosolic metabolite levels according to the current physiological requirements and specific cellular demands. Therefore, solute passage across the vacuolar membrane, the tonoplast, has to be tightly regulated. Important principles in vacuolar transport regulation are changes of tonoplast transport protein abundances by differential expression of genes or changes of their activities, e.g., due to post-translational modification or by interacting proteins. Because vacuolar transport is in most cases driven by an electro-chemical gradient altered activities of tonoplast proton pumps significantly influence vacuolar transport capacities. Intense studies on individual tonoplast proteins but also unbiased system biological approaches have provided important insights into the regulation of vacuolar transport. This short review refers to selected examples of tonoplast proteins and their regulation, with special focus on protein phosphorylation. PMID:25309559

  3. Broiler adaptation to post-hatching period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorka Alex

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the latest years more attention has been given to mechanisms for bird adaptation at post-hatching period by management of environmental conditions and formulations of diets offered during this period when digestive, immune, and thermo-regulating systems suffer slight changes. In post-hatching period, digestive system is anatomically complete, but its functionality is still immature in relation to adult birds. The chick immunity depends on maternal antibodies transferred to egg just before laying. In addition, variations within thermal comfort zone might affect initial development of chick. For example, high temperatures may induce hyperthermia with dehydration, while low temperatures may lead to hypothermia responsible by pulmonary hypertension syndrome. In conclusion, productivity might be enhanced when good conditions are offered to chicks during the period from last embryo development to first days after hatching.

  4. Experimental Assessment between Building Regulations and Claustrophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Pop

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades there was a noticeable effervescence characterizing the space-psychology related studies. These studies established a connection between the characteristics of the environment and behavior. Therefore, this paper would like to join this field of research. Consequently, the issue raised would be the role played by architecture in the context of the space-perception discussion. In order to provide a practical answer, the paper debates the results obtained through an experiment which analyzed the interaction between certain characteristics of a 12 m2 room, according to architectural building regulations in Romania, and the variations of anxiety, comfort and safety. This experiment tested certain situations in which the natural adaptation process has been short-circuited, triggering phobic reactions. Thus, the paper focuses on questioning whether Romanian building regulations take into account aspects regarding the psychological comfort of the individuals.

  5. Quasi optimal and adaptive sparse grids with control variates for PDEs with random diffusion coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Tamellini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-05

    In this talk we discuss possible strategies to minimize the impact of the curse of dimensionality effect when building sparse-grid approximations of a multivariate function u = u(y1, ..., yN ). More precisely, we present a knapsack approach , in which we estimate the cost and the error reduction contribution of each possible component of the sparse grid, and then we choose the components with the highest error reduction /cost ratio. The estimates of the error reduction are obtained by either a mixed a-priori / a-posteriori approach, in which we first derive a theoretical bound and then tune it with some inexpensive auxiliary computations (resulting in the so-called quasi-optimal sparse grids ), or by a fully a-posteriori approach (obtaining the so-called adaptive sparse grids ). This framework is very general and can be used to build quasi-optimal/adaptive sparse grids on bounded and unbounded domains (e.g. u depending on uniform and normal random distributions for yn), using both nested and non-nested families of univariate collocation points. We present some theoretical convergence results as well as numerical results showing the efficiency of the proposed approach for the approximation of the solution of elliptic PDEs with random diffusion coefficients. In this context, to treat the case of rough permeability fields in which a sparse grid approach may not be suitable, we propose to use the sparse grids as a control variate in a Monte Carlo simulation.

  6. Climate-related genetic variation in a threatened tree species, Pinus albicaulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Ruth G. Shaw

    2017-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: With ongoing climate change, understanding of intraspecific adaptive variation is critical for conservation and restoration of plant species. Such information is especially scarce for threatened and endangered tree species, such as Pinus albicaulis Engelm. Therefore, our principal aims were to assess adaptive variation and characterize its...

  7. Accumulation of transposable elements in Hox gene clusters during adaptive radiation of Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Nathalie

    2016-10-12

    Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that can insert elsewhere in the genome and modify genome structure and gene regulation. The role of TEs in evolution is contentious. One hypothesis posits that TE activity generates genomic incompatibilities that can cause reproductive isolation between incipient species. This predicts that TEs will accumulate during speciation events. Here, I tested the prediction that extant lineages with a relatively high rate of speciation have a high number of TEs in their genomes. I sequenced and analysed the TE content of a marker genomic region (Hox clusters) in Anolis lizards, a classic case of an adaptive radiation. Unlike other vertebrates, including closely related lizards, Anolis lizards have high numbers of TEs in their Hox clusters, genomic regions that regulate development of the morphological adaptations that characterize habitat specialists in these lizards. Following a burst of TE activity in the lineage leading to extant Anolis, TEs have continued to accumulate during or after speciation events, resulting in a positive relationship between TE density and lineage speciation rate. These results are consistent with the prediction that TE activity contributes to adaptive radiation by promoting speciation. Although there was no evidence that TE density per se is associated with ecological morphology, the activity of TEs in Hox clusters could have been a rich source for phenotypic variation that may have facilitated the rapid parallel morphological adaptation to microhabitats seen in extant Anolis lizards. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Artificial neural network based gynaecological image-guided adaptive brachytherapy treatment planning correction of intra-fractional organs at risk dose variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberi, Ramin; Siavashpour, Zahra; Aghamiri, Mahmoud Reza; Kirisits, Christian; Ghaderi, Reza

    2017-12-01

    Intra-fractional organs at risk (OARs) deformations can lead to dose variation during image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). The aim of this study was to modify the final accepted brachytherapy treatment plan to dosimetrically compensate for these intra-fractional organs-applicators position variations and, at the same time, fulfilling the dosimetric criteria. Thirty patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of 45-50 Gy over five to six weeks with concomitant weekly chemotherapy, and qualified for intracavitary high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with tandem-ovoid applicators were selected for this study. Second computed tomography scan was done for each patient after finishing brachytherapy treatment with applicators in situ. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) based models were used to predict intra-fractional OARs dose-volume histogram parameters variations and propose a new final plan. A model was developed to estimate the intra-fractional organs dose variations during gynaecological intracavitary brachytherapy. Also, ANNs were used to modify the final brachytherapy treatment plan to compensate dosimetrically for changes in 'organs-applicators', while maintaining target dose at the original level. There are semi-automatic and fast responding models that can be used in the routine clinical workflow to reduce individually IGABT uncertainties. These models can be more validated by more patients' plans to be able to serve as a clinical tool.

  9. Artificial neural network based gynaecological image-guided adaptive brachytherapy treatment planning correction of intra-fractional organs at risk dose variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Jaberi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Intra-fractional organs at risk (OARs deformations can lead to dose variation during image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT. The aim of this study was to modify the final accepted brachytherapy treatment plan to dosimetrically compensate for these intra-fractional organs-applicators position variations and, at the same time, fulfilling the dosimetric criteria. Material and methods : Thirty patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT of 45-50 Gy over five to six weeks with concomitant weekly chemotherapy, and qualified for intracavitary high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy with tandem-ovoid applicators were selected for this study. Second computed tomography scan was done for each patient after finishing brachytherapy treatment with applicators in situ. Artificial neural networks (ANNs based models were used to predict intra-fractional OARs dose-volume histogram parameters variations and propose a new final plan. Results : A model was developed to estimate the intra-fractional organs dose variations during gynaecological intracavitary brachytherapy. Also, ANNs were used to modify the final brachytherapy treatment plan to compensate dosimetrically for changes in ‘organs-applicators’, while maintaining target dose at the original level. Conclusions : There are semi-automatic and fast responding models that can be used in the routine clinical workflow to reduce individually IGABT uncertainties. These models can be more validated by more patients’ plans to be able to serve as a clinical tool.

  10. Hsp90 orchestrates transcriptional regulation by Hsf1 and cell wall remodelling by MAPK signalling during thermal adaptation in a pathogenic yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D Leach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal adaptation is essential in all organisms. In yeasts, the heat shock response is commanded by the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1. Here we have integrated unbiased genetic screens with directed molecular dissection to demonstrate that multiple signalling cascades contribute to thermal adaptation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. We show that the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 interacts with and down-regulates Hsf1 thereby modulating short term thermal adaptation. In the longer term, thermal adaptation depends on key MAP kinase signalling pathways that are associated with cell wall remodelling: the Hog1, Mkc1 and Cek1 pathways. We demonstrate that these pathways are differentially activated and display cross talk during heat shock. As a result ambient temperature significantly affects the resistance of C. albicans cells to cell wall stresses (Calcofluor White and Congo Red, but not osmotic stress (NaCl. We also show that the inactivation of MAP kinase signalling disrupts this cross talk between thermal and cell wall adaptation. Critically, Hsp90 coordinates this cross talk. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 disrupts the Hsf1-Hsp90 regulatory circuit thereby disturbing HSP gene regulation and reducing the resistance of C. albicans to proteotoxic stresses. Hsp90 depletion also affects cell wall biogenesis by impairing the activation of its client proteins Mkc1 and Hog1, as well as Cek1, which we implicate as a new Hsp90 client in this study. Therefore Hsp90 modulates the short term Hsf1-mediated activation of the classic heat shock response, coordinating this response with long term thermal adaptation via Mkc1- Hog1- and Cek1-mediated cell wall remodelling.

  11. Facing the Music or Burying Our Heads in the Sand?: Adaptive Emotion Regulation in Midlife and Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Robert J.; Schulz, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Defenses that keep threatening information out of awareness are posited to reduce anxiety at the cost of longer-term dysfunction. By contrast, socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that preference for positively-valenced information is a late-life manifestation of adaptive emotion regulation. Using longitudinal data on 61 men, we examined links between emotion regulation indices informed by these distinct conceptualizations: defenses in earlier adulthood and selective memory for positively-valenced images in late-life. Use of avoidant defenses in midlife predicted poorer memory for positive, negative, and neutral images nearly 4 decades later. Late-life satisfaction was positively linked with midlife engaging defenses but negatively linked at the trend level with concurrent positive memory bias. PMID:21544264

  12. Adaptive Regulation of the Northern California Reservoir System for Water, Energy, and Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, A. P.; Kistenmacher, M.; Yao, H.; Georgakakos, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program emphasizes that water resources managers and planners in most US regions will have to cope with new risks, vulnerabilities, and opportunities, and recommends the development of adaptive capacity to effectively respond to the new water resources planning and management challenges. In the face of these challenges, adaptive reservoir regulation is becoming all the more ncessary. Water resources management in Northern California relies on the coordinated operation of several multi-objective reservoirs on the Trinity, Sacramento, American, Feather, and San Joaquin Rivers. To be effective, reservoir regulation must be able to (a) account for forecast uncertainty; (b) assess changing tradeoffs among water uses and regions; and (c) adjust management policies as conditions change; and (d) evaluate the socio-economic and environmental benefits and risks of forecasts and policies for each region and for the system as a whole. The Integrated Forecast and Reservoir Management (INFORM) prototype demonstration project operated in Northern California through the collaboration of several forecast and management agencies has shown that decision support systems (DSS) with these attributes add value to stakeholder decision processes compared to current, less flexible management practices. Key features of the INFORM DSS include: (a) dynamically downscaled operational forecasts and climate projections that maintain the spatio-temporal coherence of the downscaled land surface forcing fields within synoptic scales; (b) use of ensemble forecast methodologies for reservoir inflows; (c) assessment of relevant tradeoffs among water uses on regional and local scales; (d) development and evaluation of dynamic reservoir policies with explicit consideration of hydro-climatic forecast uncertainties; and (e) focus on stakeholder information needs.This article discusses the INFORM integrated design concept, underlying

  13. Adapting legume crops to climate change using genomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi-Derazmahalleh, Mahsa; Bayer, Philipp E; Hane, James K; Babu, Valliyodan; Nguyen, Henry T; Nelson, Matthew N; Erskine, William; Varshney, Rajeev K; Papa, Roberto; Edwards, David

    2018-03-30

    Our agricultural system and hence food security is threatened by combination of events, such as increasing population, the impacts of climate change and the need to a more sustainable development. Evolutionary adaptation may help some species to overcome environmental changes through new selection pressures driven by climate change. However, success of evolutionary adaptation is dependent on various factors, one of which is the extent of genetic variation available within species. Genomic approaches provide an exceptional opportunity to identify genetic variation that can be employed in crop improvement programs. In this review, we illustrate some of the routinely used genomics-based methods as well as recent breakthroughs, which facilitate assessment of genetic variation and discovery of adaptive genes in legumes. While additional information is needed, the current utility of selection tools indicate a robust ability to utilize existing variation among legumes to address the challenges of climate uncertainty. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. A Decentralized Multivariable Robust Adaptive Voltage and Speed Regulator for Large-Scale Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okou, Francis A.; Akhrif, Ouassima; Dessaint, Louis A.; Bouchard, Derrick

    2013-05-01

    This papter introduces a decentralized multivariable robust adaptive voltage and frequency regulator to ensure the stability of large-scale interconnnected generators. Interconnection parameters (i.e. load, line and transormer parameters) are assumed to be unknown. The proposed design approach requires the reformulation of conventiaonal power system models into a multivariable model with generator terminal voltages as state variables, and excitation and turbine valve inputs as control signals. This model, while suitable for the application of modern control methods, introduces problems with regards to current design techniques for large-scale systems. Interconnection terms, which are treated as perturbations, do not meet the common matching condition assumption. A new adaptive method for a certain class of large-scale systems is therefore introduces that does not require the matching condition. The proposed controller consists of nonlinear inputs that cancel some nonlinearities of the model. Auxiliary controls with linear and nonlinear components are used to stabilize the system. They compensate unknown parametes of the model by updating both the nonlinear component gains and excitation parameters. The adaptation algorithms involve the sigma-modification approach for auxiliary control gains, and the projection approach for excitation parameters to prevent estimation drift. The computation of the matrix-gain of the controller linear component requires the resolution of an algebraic Riccati equation and helps to solve the perturbation-mismatching problem. A realistic power system is used to assess the proposed controller performance. The results show that both stability and transient performance are considerably improved following a severe contingency.

  15. A new approach to feed frequency studies and protein intake regulation in juvenile pirarucu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Bruno O DE; Nascimento, Eduardo C T; Santos, Aline A; Barreto, Kayck A; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Fortes-Silva, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate pirarucu's (Arapaima gigas) ability to trigger a self-feeding system to regulate protein intake between two standard diets that contained 39% and 49% of crude protein. The same system allowed the evaluation of daily feeding and locomotor activity rhythms. Eighteen fish (654.44±26.85g) were distributed into six 250 L tanks (3 fish/tank). Fish had free access to both diets (39% vs. 49% protein) by feeders (2 per tank), adapted to be activated by fish themselves. This system was connected to a computer system. After an adaptation period, fish learned to activate feeders and the mean food intake recorded was 2.14% of their body weight on a daily basis. Fish showed feeding (72.48%) and locomotor (72.49%) activity predominantly during the daytime, and daily variations of choice between diets, but fixed a protein intake feeding target at 44.53%. These results should be considered when discussing feeding behavior, feeding schedules and diet intake regulations.

  16. Codon adaptation and synonymous substitution rate in diatom plastid genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian R; Sorhannus, Ulf; Fox, Martin

    2002-07-01

    Diatom plastid genes are examined with respect to codon adaptation and rates of silent substitution (Ks). It is shown that diatom genes follow the same pattern of codon usage as other plastid genes studied previously. Highly expressed diatom genes display codon adaptation, or a bias toward specific major codons, and these major codons are the same as those in red algae, green algae, and land plants. It is also found that there is a strong correlation between Ks and variation in codon adaptation across diatom genes, providing the first evidence for such a relationship in the algae. It is argued that this finding supports the notion that the correlation arises from selective constraints, not from variation in mutation rate among genes. Finally, the diatom genes are examined with respect to variation in Ks among different synonymous groups. Diatom genes with strong codon adaptation do not show the same variation in synonymous substitution rate among codon groups as the flowering plant psbA gene which, previous studies have shown, has strong codon adaptation but unusually high rates of silent change in certain synonymous groups. The lack of a similar finding in diatoms supports the suggestion that the feature is unique to the flowering plant psbA due to recent relaxations in selective pressure in that lineage.

  17. Regulation mechanisms of the FLT3-ligand after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat-Lepesant, M.

    2005-06-01

    The hematopoietic compartment is one of the most severely damaged after chemotherapy, radiotherapy or accidental irradiations. Whatever its origin, the resulting damage to the bone marrow remains difficult to evaluate. Thus, it would be of great interest to get a biological indicator of residual hematopoiesis in order to adapt the treatment to each clinical situation. Recent results indicated that the plasma Flt3 ligand concentration was increased in patients suffering from either acquired or induced aplasia, suggesting that Flt3 ligand might be useful as a biological indicator of bone marrow status. We thus followed in a mouse model as well as in several clinical situations the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand concentration, after either homogeneous or heterogeneous irradiations. These variations were correlated to the number of hematopoietic progenitors and to other parameters such as duration and depth of pancytopenia. The results indicated that the concentration of Flt3 ligand in the blood reflects the bone marrow status, and that the follow-up of plasma Flt3 ligand concentration could give predictive information about the bone marrow function and the duration and severity of pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Nevertheless, the clinical use of Flt3 ligand as a biological indicator of bone marrow damage require the knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand concentration. We thus developed a study in the mouse model. The results indicated that the variations in plasma Flt3 ligand variations were not solely due to a balance between its production by lymphoid cells and its consumption by hematopoietic cells. Moreover, we showed that T lymphocytes are not the main regulator of plasma Flt3 ligand concentration as previously suggested, and that other cell types, possibly including bone marrow stromal cells, might be strongly implicated. These results also suggest that the Flt3 ligand is a main systemic regulator of hematopoiesis

  18. Ready or Not: Microbial Adaptive Responses in Dynamic Symbiosis Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengyi; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2017-08-01

    In mutually beneficial and pathogenic symbiotic associations, microbes must adapt to the host environment for optimal fitness. Both within an individual host and during transmission between hosts, microbes are exposed to temporal and spatial variation in environmental conditions. The phenomenon of phenotypic variation, in which different subpopulations of cells express distinctive and potentially adaptive characteristics, can contribute to microbial adaptation to a lifestyle that includes rapidly changing environments. The environments experienced by a symbiotic microbe during its life history can be erratic or predictable, and each can impact the evolution of adaptive responses. In particular, the predictability of a rhythmic or cyclical series of environments may promote the evolution of signal transduction cascades that allow preadaptive responses to environments that are likely to be encountered in the future, a phenomenon known as adaptive prediction. In this review, we summarize environmental variations known to occur in some well-studied models of symbiosis and how these may contribute to the evolution of microbial population heterogeneity and anticipatory behavior. We provide details about the symbiosis between Xenorhabdus bacteria and Steinernema nematodes as a model to investigate the concept of environmental adaptation and adaptive prediction in a microbial symbiosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Listeria monocytogenes differential transcriptome analysis reveals temperature-dependent Agr regulation and suggests overlaps with other regulons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmyn, Dominique; Augagneur, Yoann; Gal, Laurent; Vivant, Anne-Laure; Piveteau, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogenic organism. Environmental adaptation requires constant regulation of gene expression. Among transcriptional regulators, AgrA is part of an auto-induction system. Temperature is an environmental cue critical for in vivo adaptation. In order to investigate how temperature may affect AgrA-dependent transcription, we compared the transcriptomes of the parental strain L. monocytogenes EGD-e and its ΔagrA mutant at the saprophytic temperature of 25°C and in vivo temperature of 37°C. Variations of transcriptome were higher at 37°C than at 25°C. Results suggested that AgrA may be involved in the regulation of nitrogen transport, amino acids, purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways and phage-related functions. Deregulations resulted in a growth advantage at 37°C, but affected salt tolerance. Finally, our results suggest overlaps with PrfA, σB, σH and CodY regulons. These overlaps may suggest that through AgrA, Listeria monocytogenes integrates information on its biotic environment.

  20. A survey of variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article survey of variational principles has been given. Variational principles play a significant role in mathematical theory with emphasis on the physical aspects. There are two principals used i.e. to represent the equation of the system in a succinct way and to enable a particular computation in the system to be carried out with greater accuracy. The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basic finite element methods on variational principles. (A.B.)

  1. Adaptation is...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    vital sector is under threat. While it is far from the only development challenge facing local farmers, extreme variations in the climate of West Africa in the past several decades have dealt the region a bad hand. Drought and flood now follow each other in succession. Adaptation is... “The floods spoiled our harvests and we.

  2. Pharmacological induction of skin pigmentation unveils the neuroendocrine circuit regulated by light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolesi, Gabriel E; Vazhappilly, Sherene T; Hehr, Carrie L; McFarlane, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    Light-regulated skin colour change is an important physiological process in invertebrates and lower vertebrates, and includes daily circadian variation and camouflage (i.e. background adaptation). The photoactivation of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) in the eye initiates an uncharacterized neuroendocrine circuit that regulates melanin dispersion/aggregation through the secretion of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). We developed experimental models of normal or enucleated Xenopus embryos, as well as in situ cultures of skin of isolated dorsal head and tails, to analyse pharmacological induction of skin pigmentation and α-MSH synthesis. Both processes are triggered by a melanopsin inhibitor, AA92593, as well as chloride channel modulators. The AA9253 effect is eye-dependent, while functional data in vivo point to GABAA receptors expressed on pituitary melanotrope cells as the chloride channel blocker target. Based on the pharmacological data, we suggest a neuroendocrine circuit linking mRGCs with α-MSH secretion, which is used normally during background adaptation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Environmental and geographic variables are effective surrogates for genetic variation in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jeffrey O; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Riginos, Cynthia; Fuller, Richard A

    2017-11-28

    Protected areas buffer species from anthropogenic threats and provide places for the processes that generate and maintain biodiversity to continue. However, genetic variation, the raw material for evolution, is difficult to capture in conservation planning, not least because genetic data require considerable resources to obtain and analyze. Here we show that freely available environmental and geographic distance variables can be highly effective surrogates in conservation planning for representing adaptive and neutral intraspecific genetic variation. We obtained occurrence and genetic data from the IntraBioDiv project for 27 plant species collected over the European Alps using a gridded sampling scheme. For each species, we identified loci that were potentially under selection using outlier loci methods, and mapped their main gradients of adaptive and neutral genetic variation across the grid cells. We then used the cells as planning units to prioritize protected area acquisitions. First, we verified that the spatial patterns of environmental and geographic variation were correlated, respectively, with adaptive and neutral genetic variation. Second, we showed that these surrogates can predict the proportion of genetic variation secured in randomly generated solutions. Finally, we discovered that solutions based only on surrogate information secured substantial amounts of adaptive and neutral genetic variation. Our work paves the way for widespread integration of surrogates for genetic variation into conservation planning.

  4. Regulation of transport processes across the tonoplast membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eTrentmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the vacuole builds up the cellular turgor and represents an important component in cellular responses to diverse stress stimuli. Rapid volume changes of cells, particularly of motor cells, like guard cells, are caused by variation of osmolytes and consequently of the water contents in the vacuole. Moreover, directed solute uptake into or release out of the large central vacuole allows adaptation of cytosolic metabolite levels according to the current physiological requirements and specific cellular demands. Therefore, solute passage across the vacuolar membrane, the tonoplast, has to be tightly regulated. Important principles in vacuolar transport regulation are changes of tonoplast transport protein abundances by differential expression of genes or changes of their activities, e.g. due to post-translational modification or by interacting proteins. Because vacuolar transport is in most cases driven by an electro-chemical gradient altered activities of tonoplast proton pumps significantly influence vacuolar transport capacities. Intense studies on individual tonoplast proteins but also unbiased system biological approaches have provided important insights into the regulation of vacuolar transport. This short review refers to selected examples of tonoplast proteins and their regulation, with special focus on protein phosphorylation.

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes to Lagoon and Soil Matrices Associated with a Piggery Environment: Comparison of Expression Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivant, Anne-Laure; Desneux, Jeremy; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Piveteau, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, adapts to the environment is crucial. Adaptation to new matrices requires regulation of gene expression. To determine how the pathogen adapts to lagoon effluent and soil, two matrices where L. monocytogenes has been isolated, we compared the transcriptomes of L. monocytogenes CIP 110868 20 min and 24 h after its transfer to effluent and soil extract. Results showed major variations in the transcriptome of L. monocytogenes in the lagoon effluent but only minor modifications in the soil. In both the lagoon effluent and in the soil, genes involved in mobility and chemotaxis and in the transport of carbohydrates were the most frequently represented in the set of genes with higher transcript levels, and genes with phage-related functions were the most represented in the set of genes with lower transcript levels. A modification of the cell envelop was only found in the lagoon environment. Finally, the differential analysis included a large proportion of regulators, regulons, and ncRNAs. PMID:29018416

  6. Online adaptation and verification of VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crijns, Wouter, E-mail: wouter.crijns@uzleuven.be [KU Leuven Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, Herestraat 49, Leuven 3000, Belgium and KU Leuven Medical Imaging Research Center, Herestraat 49, Leuven 3000 (Belgium); Defraene, Gilles; Depuydt, Tom; Haustermans, Karin [KU Leuven Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, Herestraat 49, Leuven 3000 (Belgium); Van Herck, Hans [KU Leuven Medical Imaging Research Center, Herestraat 49, Leuven 3000, Belgium and KU Leuven Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), PSI, Center for Processing Speech and Images, Leuven 3000 (Belgium); Maes, Frederik [KU Leuven Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), PSI, Center for Processing Speech and Images, Leuven 3000, Belgium and KU Leuven iMinds - Medical IT Department, Leuven 3000 (Belgium); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Department of Oncology, MRC-CR-UK Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: This work presents a method for fast volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) adaptation in response to interfraction anatomical variations. Additionally, plan parameters extracted from the adapted plans are used to verify the quality of these plans. The methods were tested as a prostate class solution and compared to replanning and to their current clinical practice. Methods: The proposed VMAT adaptation is an extension of their previous intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) adaptation. It follows a direct (forward) planning approach: the multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures are corrected in the beam’s eye view (BEV) and the monitor units (MUs) are corrected using point dose calculations. All MLC and MU corrections are driven by the positions of four fiducial points only, without need for a full contour set. Quality assurance (QA) of the adapted plans is performed using plan parameters that can be calculated online and that have a relation to the delivered dose or the plan quality. Five potential parameters are studied for this purpose: the number of MU, the equivalent field size (EqFS), the modulation complexity score (MCS), and the components of the MCS: the aperture area variability (AAV) and the leaf sequence variability (LSV). The full adaptation and its separate steps were evaluated in simulation experiments involving a prostate phantom subjected to various interfraction transformations. The efficacy of the current VMAT adaptation was scored by target mean dose (CTV{sub mean}), conformity (CI{sub 95%}), tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The impact of the adaptation on the plan parameters (QA) was assessed by comparison with prediction intervals (PI) derived from a statistical model of the typical variation of these parameters in a population of VMAT prostate plans (n = 63). These prediction intervals are the adaptation equivalent of the tolerance tables for couch shifts in the current clinical

  7. Online adaptation and verification of VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crijns, Wouter; Defraene, Gilles; Depuydt, Tom; Haustermans, Karin; Van Herck, Hans; Maes, Frederik; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This work presents a method for fast volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) adaptation in response to interfraction anatomical variations. Additionally, plan parameters extracted from the adapted plans are used to verify the quality of these plans. The methods were tested as a prostate class solution and compared to replanning and to their current clinical practice. Methods: The proposed VMAT adaptation is an extension of their previous intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) adaptation. It follows a direct (forward) planning approach: the multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures are corrected in the beam’s eye view (BEV) and the monitor units (MUs) are corrected using point dose calculations. All MLC and MU corrections are driven by the positions of four fiducial points only, without need for a full contour set. Quality assurance (QA) of the adapted plans is performed using plan parameters that can be calculated online and that have a relation to the delivered dose or the plan quality. Five potential parameters are studied for this purpose: the number of MU, the equivalent field size (EqFS), the modulation complexity score (MCS), and the components of the MCS: the aperture area variability (AAV) and the leaf sequence variability (LSV). The full adaptation and its separate steps were evaluated in simulation experiments involving a prostate phantom subjected to various interfraction transformations. The efficacy of the current VMAT adaptation was scored by target mean dose (CTV mean ), conformity (CI 95% ), tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The impact of the adaptation on the plan parameters (QA) was assessed by comparison with prediction intervals (PI) derived from a statistical model of the typical variation of these parameters in a population of VMAT prostate plans (n = 63). These prediction intervals are the adaptation equivalent of the tolerance tables for couch shifts in the current clinical practice

  8. Multiply to conquer: Copy number variations at Ppd-B1 and Vrn-A1 facilitate global adaptation in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würschum, Tobias; Boeven, Philipp H G; Langer, Simon M; Longin, C Friedrich H; Leiser, Willmar L

    2015-07-29

    Copy number variation was found to be a frequent type of DNA polymorphism in the human genome often associated with diseases but its importance in crops and the effects on agronomic traits are still largely unknown. Here, we employed a large worldwide panel of 1110 winter wheat varieties to assess the frequency and the geographic distribution of copy number variants at the Photoperiod-B1 (Ppd-B1) and the Vernalization-A1 (Vrn-A1) loci as well as their effects on flowering time under field conditions. We identified a novel four copy variant of Vrn-A1 and based on the phylogenetic relationships among the lines show that the higher copy variants at both loci are likely to have arisen independently multiple times. In addition, we found that the frequency of the different copy number variants at both loci reflects the environmental conditions in the varieties' region of origin and based on multi-location field trials show that Ppd-B1 copy number has a substantial effect on the fine-tuning of flowering time. In conclusion, our results show the importance of copy number variation at Ppd-B1 and Vrn-A1 for the global adaptation of wheat making it a key factor for wheat success in a broad range of environments and in a wider context substantiate the significant role of copy number variation in crops.

  9. Error estimation for variational nodal calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Lewis, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    Adaptive grid methods are widely employed in finite element solutions to both solid and fluid mechanics problems. Either the size of the element is reduced (h refinement) or the order of the trial function is increased (p refinement) locally to improve the accuracy of the solution without a commensurate increase in computational effort. Success of these methods requires effective local error estimates to determine those parts of the problem domain where the solution should be refined. Adaptive methods have recently been applied to the spatial variables of the discrete ordinates equations. As a first step in the development of adaptive methods that are compatible with the variational nodal method, the authors examine error estimates for use in conjunction with spatial variables. The variational nodal method lends itself well to p refinement because the space-angle trial functions are hierarchical. Here they examine an error estimator for use with spatial p refinement for the diffusion approximation. Eventually, angular refinement will also be considered using spherical harmonics approximations

  10. Designing adaptive integral sliding mode control for heart rate regulation during cycle-ergometer exercise using bio-feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argha, Ahmadreza; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung; Celler, Branko G

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers our developed control system which aims to regulate the exercising subjects' heart rate (HR) to a predefined profile. The controller would be an adaptive integral sliding mode controller. Here it is assumed that the controller commands are interpreted as biofeedback auditory commands. These commands can be heard and implemented by the exercising subject as a part of the control-loop. However, transmitting a feedback signal while the pedals are not in the appropriate position to efficiently exert force may lead to a cognitive disengagement of the user from the feedback controller. To address this problem this paper will employ a different form of control system regarding as "actuator-based event-driven control system". This paper will claim that the developed event-driven controller makes it possible to effectively regulate HR to a predetermined HR profile.

  11. Adaptable positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  12. Adaptive positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  13. Developmental origin of limb size variation in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Robin M; Skewes, Sable A

    2017-05-01

    In many respects, reptile hatchlings are fully functional, albeit miniature, adults. This means that the adult morphology must emerge during embryonic development. This insight emphasizes the connection between the mechanisms that generate phenotypic variation during embryonic development and the action of selection on post-hatching individuals. To determine when species-specific differences in limb and tail lengths emerge during embryonic development, we compared allometric patterns of early limb growth of four distantly related species of lizards. The major questions addressed were whether early embryonic limb and tail growth is characterized by the gradual (continuous allometry) or by the abrupt emergence (transpositional allometry) of size differences among species. Our observations supported transpositional allometry of both limbs and tails. Species-specific differences in limb and tail length were exhibited when limb and tail buds first protruded from the body wall. Genes known to be associated with early limb development of tetrapods are obvious targets for studies on the genetic mechanisms that determine interspecific differences in relative limb length. Broadly comparative studies of gene regulation would facilitate understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptive variation in limb size, including limb reduction and loss, of squamate reptiles. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Adaptive Wireless Multimedia Services

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Xiaokun

    2006-01-01

    Context-awareness is a hot topic in mobile computing currently. A lot of importance is being attached to facilitating the user of various mobile computing devices to provide services that are more “user-centric”. One aspect of context-awareness is to perceive variations in available resources, and to make decisions based on the feedback to enable applications to automatically adapt to the current environment. For Voice over IP (VoIP) software phones (softphones), variations in network perform...

  15. Natural variation in germination responses of Arabidopsis to seasonal cues and their associated physiological mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Deepak; Butler, Colleen; Tisdale, Tracy E.; Donohue, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the intense interest in phenological adaptation to environmental change, the fundamental character of natural variation in germination is almost entirely unknown. Specifically, it is not known whether different genotypes within a species are germination specialists to particular conditions, nor is it known what physiological mechanisms of germination regulation vary in natural populations and how they are associated with responses to particular environmental factors. Methods We used a set of recombinant inbred genotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, in which linkage disequilibrium has been disrupted over seven generations, to test for genetic variation and covariation in germination responses to distinct environmental factors. We then examined physiological mechanisms associated with those responses, including seed-coat permeability and sensitivity to the phytohormones gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Key Results Genetic variation for germination was environment-dependent, but no evidence for specialization of germination to different conditions was found. Hormonal sensitivities also exhibited significant genetic variation, but seed-coat properties did not. GA sensitivity was associated with germination responses to multiple environmental factors, but seed-coat permeability and ABA sensitivity were associated with specific germination responses, suggesting that an evolutionary change in GA sensitivity could affect germination in multiple environments, but that of ABA sensitivity may affect germination under more restricted conditions. Conclusions The physiological mechanisms of germination responses to specific environmental factors therefore can influence the ability to adapt to diverse seasonal environments encountered during colonization of new habitats or with future predicted climate change. PMID:22012958

  16. In Vivo Zonal Variation and Liver Cell-Type Specific NF-κB Localization after Chronic Adaptation to Ethanol and following Partial Hepatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshavardhan Nilakantan

    Full Text Available NF-κB is a major inflammatory response mediator in the liver, playing a key role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury. We investigated zonal as well as liver cell type-specific distribution of NF-κB activation across the liver acinus following adaptation to chronic ethanol intake and 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx. We employed immunofluorescence staining, digital image analysis and statistical distributional analysis to quantify subcellular localization of NF-κB in hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. We detected significant spatial heterogeneity of NF-κB expression and cellular localization between cytoplasm and nucleus across liver tissue. Our main aims involved investigating the zonal bias in NF-κB localization and determining to what extent chronic ethanol intake affects this zonal bias with in hepatocytes at baseline and post-PHx. Hepatocytes in the periportal area showed higher NF-κB expression than in the pericentral region in the carbohydrate-fed controls, but not in the ethanol group. However, the distribution of NF-κB nuclear localization in hepatocytes was shifted towards higher levels in pericentral region than in periportal area, across all treatment conditions. Chronic ethanol intake shifted the NF-κB distribution towards higher nuclear fraction in hepatocytes as compared to the pair-fed control group. Ethanol also stimulated higher NF-κB expression in a subpopulation of HSCs. In the control group, PHx elicited a shift towards higher NF-κB nuclear fraction in hepatocytes. However, this distribution remained unchanged in the ethanol group post-PHx. HSCs showed a lower NF-κB expression following PHx in both ethanol and control groups. We conclude that adaptation to chronic ethanol intake attenuates the liver zonal variation in NF-κB expression and limits the PHx-induced NF-κB activation in hepatocytes, but does not alter the NF-κB expression changes in HSCs in response to PHx. Our findings provide new

  17. A three-component system incorporating Ppd-D1, copy number variation at Ppd-B1, and numerous small-effect quantitative trait loci facilitates adaptation of heading time in winter wheat cultivars of worldwide origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würschum, Tobias; Langer, Simon M; Longin, C Friedrich H; Tucker, Matthew R; Leiser, Willmar L

    2018-06-01

    The broad adaptability of heading time has contributed to the global success of wheat in a diverse array of climatic conditions. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture underlying heading time in a large panel of 1,110 winter wheat cultivars of worldwide origin. Genome-wide association mapping, in combination with the analysis of major phenology loci, revealed a three-component system that facilitates the adaptation of heading time in winter wheat. The photoperiod sensitivity locus Ppd-D1 was found to account for almost half of the genotypic variance in this panel and can advance or delay heading by many days. In addition, copy number variation at Ppd-B1 was the second most important source of variation in heading, explaining 8.3% of the genotypic variance. Results from association mapping and genomic prediction indicated that the remaining variation is attributed to numerous small-effect quantitative trait loci that facilitate fine-tuning of heading to the local climatic conditions. Collectively, our results underpin the importance of the two Ppd-1 loci for the adaptation of heading time in winter wheat and illustrate how the three components have been exploited for wheat breeding globally. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Intraspecific variation in expression of candidate genes for osmoregulation, heme biosynthesis and stress resistance suggests local adaptation in European flounder ( Platichthys flesus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Williams, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the recent discovery of significant genetic structuring in a large number of marine organisms, the evolutionary significance of these often minute genetic differences are still poorly understood. To elucidate the adaptive relevance of low genetic differentiation among marine fish...... in osmoregulative processes (Na/K-ATPases-alpha and angiotensinogen) showed highly plastic but similar expression in the two populations dependent on environmental salinity. However, we observed a unique sixfold up-regulation of hsp70 in kidney tissue of flounder from the North Sea following long-term acclimation...... conditions. This identification of adaptive differences in high gene flow marine organisms adds a new dimension to our current understanding of evolutionary processes in the sea and is of paramount importance for identification, protection and sustainable management of marine biodiversity....

  19. An application of indirect model reference adaptive control to a low-power proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yee-Pien; Liu, Zhao-Wei; Wang, Fu-Cheng

    2008-05-01

    Nonlinearity and the time-varying dynamics of fuel cell systems make it complex to design a controller for improving output performance. This paper introduces an application of a model reference adaptive control to a low-power proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system, which consists of three main components: a fuel cell stack, an air pump to supply air, and a solenoid valve to adjust hydrogen flow. From the system perspective, the dynamic model of the PEM fuel cell stack can be expressed as a multivariable configuration of two inputs, hydrogen and air-flow rates, and two outputs, cell voltage and current. The corresponding transfer functions can be identified off-line to describe the linearized dynamics with a finite order at a certain operating point, and are written in a discrete-time auto-regressive moving-average model for on-line estimation of parameters. This provides a strategy of regulating the voltage and current of the fuel cell by adaptively adjusting the flow rates of air and hydrogen. Experiments show that the proposed adaptive controller is robust to the variation of fuel cell system dynamics and power request. Additionally, it helps decrease fuel consumption and relieves the DC/DC converter in regulating the fluctuating cell voltage.

  20. SNP discovery in candidate adaptive genes using exon capture in a free-ranging alpine ungulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Amish, Stephen J.; Smith, Seth; Cosart, Ted F.; Kardos, Marty; Schwartz, Michael K.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Identification of genes underlying genomic signatures of natural selection is key to understanding adaptation to local conditions. We used targeted resequencing to identify SNP markers in 5321 candidate adaptive genes associated with known immunological, metabolic and growth functions in ovids and other ungulates. We selectively targeted 8161 exons in protein-coding and nearby 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of chosen candidate genes. Targeted sequences were taken from bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) exon capture data and directly from the domestic sheep genome (Ovis aries v. 3; oviAri3). The bighorn sheep sequences used in the Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) exon capture aligned to 2350 genes on the oviAri3 genome with an average of 2 exons each. We developed a microfluidic qPCR-based SNP chip to genotype 476 Dall's sheep from locations across their range and test for patterns of selection. Using multiple corroborating approaches (lositan and bayescan), we detected 28 SNP loci potentially under selection. We additionally identified candidate loci significantly associated with latitude, longitude, precipitation and temperature, suggesting local environmental adaptation. The three methods demonstrated consistent support for natural selection on nine genes with immune and disease-regulating functions (e.g. Ovar-DRA, APC, BATF2, MAGEB18), cell regulation signalling pathways (e.g. KRIT1, PI3K, ORRC3), and respiratory health (CYSLTR1). Characterizing adaptive allele distributions from novel genetic techniques will facilitate investigation of the influence of environmental variation on local adaptation of a northern alpine ungulate throughout its range. This research demonstrated the utility of exon capture for gene-targeted SNP discovery and subsequent SNP chip genotyping using low-quality samples in a nonmodel species.

  1. Exploiting natural variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.A.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Sanchez-Serrano, J.J.; Salinas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana. This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of

  2. FEATURES OF LOGISTIC SYSTEM ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya VOZNENKO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study presents literature survey on enterprise logistic system adaptive management place and structure in the general enterprise management system. The theoretical basics of logistic system functioning, levels of its management and its effectiveness had been investigated. The role of adaptive management and its types had been scrutinized. The necessity of creating company’s adaptive regulator such as its economic mechanism had been proved.

  3. Exploring adaptive program behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions....... Both solutions come at a cost; adaptivity issues a runtime overhead and requires more design effort, while dynamic recompilation takes time to perform. In this project, we plan to investigate the possibilities, limitations, and benefits of these techniques. This abstract covers our thoughts on how...

  4. Human genetic variation in VAC14 regulates Salmonella invasion and typhoid fever through modulation of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Monica I; Glover, Luke C; Luo, Peter; Wang, Liuyang; Theusch, Elizabeth; Oehlers, Stefan H; Walton, Eric M; Tram, Trinh Thi Bich; Kuang, Yu-Lin; Rotter, Jerome I; McClean, Colleen M; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Medina, Marisa W; Tobin, David M; Dunstan, Sarah J; Ko, Dennis C

    2017-09-12

    Risk, severity, and outcome of infection depend on the interplay of pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. Systematic identification of genetic susceptibility to infection is being undertaken through genome-wide association studies, but how to expeditiously move from genetic differences to functional mechanisms is unclear. Here, we use genetic association of molecular, cellular, and human disease traits and experimental validation to demonstrate that genetic variation affects expression of VAC14, a phosphoinositide-regulating protein, to influence susceptibility to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ( S Typhi) infection. Decreased VAC14 expression increased plasma membrane cholesterol, facilitating Salmonella docking and invasion. This increased susceptibility at the cellular level manifests as increased susceptibility to typhoid fever in a Vietnamese population. Furthermore, treating zebrafish with a cholesterol-lowering agent, ezetimibe, reduced susceptibility to S Typhi. Thus, coupling multiple genetic association studies with mechanistic dissection revealed how VAC14 regulates Salmonella invasion and typhoid fever susceptibility and may open doors to new prophylactic/therapeutic approaches.

  5. Molecular evolution and thermal adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiqiu

    2011-12-01

    In this thesis, we address problems in molecular evolution, thermal adaptation, and the kinetics of adaptation of bacteria and viruses to elevated environmental temperatures. We use a nearly neutral fitness model where the replication speed of an organism is proportional to the copy number of folded proteins. Our model reproduces the distribution of stabilities of natural proteins in excellent agreement with experiment. We find that species with high mutation rates tend to have less stable proteins compared to species with low mutation rate. We found that a broad distribution of protein stabilities observed in the model and in experiment is the key determinant of thermal response for viruses and bacteria. Our results explain most of the earlier experimental observations: striking asymmetry of thermal response curves, the absence of evolutionary trade-off which was expected but not found in experiments, correlation between denaturation temperature for several protein families and the Optimal Growth Temperature (OGT) of their carrier organisms, and proximity of bacterial or viral OGTs to their evolutionary temperatures. Our theory quantitatively and with high accuracy described thermal response curves for 35 bacterial species. The model also addresses the key to adaptation is in weak-link genes (WLG), which encode least thermodynamically stable essential proteins in the proteome. We observe, as in experiment, a two-stage adaptation process. The first stage is a Luria-Delbruck type of selection, whereby rare WLG alleles, whose proteins are more stable than WLG proteins of the majority of the population (either due to standing genetic variation or due to an early acquired mutation), rapidly rise to fixation. The second stage constitutes subsequent slow accumulation of mutations in an adapted population. As adaptation progresses, selection regime changes from positive to neutral: Selection coefficient of beneficial mutations scales as a negative power of number of

  6. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  7. Chemotactic response and adaptation dynamics in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Clausznitzer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of the chemotaxis sensory pathway of the bacterium Escherichia coli is integral for detecting chemicals over a wide range of background concentrations, ultimately allowing cells to swim towards sources of attractant and away from repellents. Its biochemical mechanism based on methylation and demethylation of chemoreceptors has long been known. Despite the importance of adaptation for cell memory and behavior, the dynamics of adaptation are difficult to reconcile with current models of precise adaptation. Here, we follow time courses of signaling in response to concentration step changes of attractant using in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements. Specifically, we use a condensed representation of adaptation time courses for efficient evaluation of different adaptation models. To quantitatively explain the data, we finally develop a dynamic model for signaling and adaptation based on the attractant flow in the experiment, signaling by cooperative receptor complexes, and multiple layers of feedback regulation for adaptation. We experimentally confirm the predicted effects of changing the enzyme-expression level and bypassing the negative feedback for demethylation. Our data analysis suggests significant imprecision in adaptation for large additions. Furthermore, our model predicts highly regulated, ultrafast adaptation in response to removal of attractant, which may be useful for fast reorientation of the cell and noise reduction in adaptation.

  8. Transcriptional regulation and adaptation to a high-fiber environment in Bacillus subtilis HH2 isolated from feces of the giant panda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyao Zhou

    Full Text Available In the giant panda, adaptation to a high-fiber environment is a first step for the adequate functioning of intestinal bacteria, as the high cellulose content of the gut due to the panda's vegetarian appetite results in a harsh environment. As an excellent producer of several enzymes and vitamins, Bacillus subtilis imparts various advantages to animals. In our previous study, we determined that several strains of B. subtilis isolated from pandas exhibited good cellulose decomposition ability, and we hypothesized that this bacterial species can survive in and adapt well to a high-fiber environment. To evaluate this hypothesis, we employed RNA-Seq technology to analyze the differentially expressed genes of the selected strain B. subtilis HH2, which demonstrates significant cellulose hydrolysis of different carbon sources (cellulose and glucose. In addition, we used bioinformatics software and resources to analyze the functions and pathways of differentially expressed genes. Interestingly, comparison of the cellulose and glucose groups revealed that the up-regulated genes were involved in amino acid and lipid metabolism or transmembrane transport, both of which are involved in cellulose utilization. Conversely, the down-regulated genes were involved in non-essential functions for bacterial life, such as toxin and bacteriocin secretion, possibly to conserve energy for environmental adaptation. The results indicate that B. subtilis HH2 triggered a series of adaptive mechanisms at the transcriptional level, which suggests that this bacterium could act as a probiotic for pandas fed a high-fiber diet, despite the fact that cellulose is not a very suitable carbon source for this bacterial species. In this study, we present a model to understand the dynamic organization of and interactions between various functional and regulatory networks for unicellular organisms in a high-fiber environment.

  9. Variation in body mass dynamics among sites in Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans supports adaptivity of mass loss during moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Schamber, Jason L.; Nicolai, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Birds employ varying strategies to accommodate the energetic demands of moult, one important example being changes in body mass. To understand better their physiological and ecological significance, we tested three hypotheses concerning body mass dynamics during moult. We studied Black Brant in 2006 and 2007 moulting at three sites in Alaska which varied in food availability, breeding status and whether geese undertook a moult migration. First we predicted that if mass loss during moult were simply the result of inadequate food resources then mass loss would be highest where food was least available. Secondly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to reduce activity during moult, then birds would gain mass prior to moult where feeding conditions allowed and mass loss would be positively related to mass at moult initiation. Thirdly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to regain flight sooner, then across sites and groups, mass at the end of the flightless period would converge on a theoretical optimum, i.e. the mass that permits the earliest possible return to flight. Mass loss was greatest where food was most available and thus our results did not support the prediction that mass loss resulted from inadequate food availability. Mass at moult initiation was positively related to both food availability and mass loss. In addition, among sites and years, variation in mass was high at moult initiation but greatly reduced at the end of the flightless period, appearing to converge. Thus, our results supported multiple predictions that mass loss during moult was adaptive and that the optimal moulting strategy was to gain mass prior to the flightless period, then through behavioural modifications use these body reserves to reduce activity and in so doing also reduce wing loading. Geese that undertook a moult migration initiated moult at the highest mass, indicating that they were more than able to

  10. A new approach to feed frequency studies and protein intake regulation in juvenile pirarucu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO O. DE MATTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate pirarucu's (Arapaima gigas ability to trigger a self-feeding system to regulate protein intake between two standard diets that contained 39% and 49% of crude protein. The same system allowed the evaluation of daily feeding and locomotor activity rhythms. Eighteen fish (654.44±26.85g were distributed into six 250 L tanks (3 fish/tank. Fish had free access to both diets (39% vs. 49% protein by feeders (2 per tank, adapted to be activated by fish themselves. This system was connected to a computer system. After an adaptation period, fish learned to activate feeders and the mean food intake recorded was 2.14% of their body weight on a daily basis. Fish showed feeding (72.48% and locomotor (72.49% activity predominantly during the daytime, and daily variations of choice between diets, but fixed a protein intake feeding target at 44.53%. These results should be considered when discussing feeding behavior, feeding schedules and diet intake regulations.

  11. Genetic variation shapes protein networks mainly through non-transcriptional mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Foss

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Networks of co-regulated transcripts in genetically diverse populations have been studied extensively, but little is known about the degree to which these networks cause similar co-variation at the protein level. We quantified 354 proteins in a genetically diverse population of yeast segregants, which allowed for the first time construction of a coherent protein co-variation matrix. We identified tightly co-regulated groups of 36 and 93 proteins that were made up predominantly of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and amino acid metabolism, respectively. Even though the ribosomal genes were tightly co-regulated at both the protein and transcript levels, genetic regulation of proteins was entirely distinct from that of transcripts, and almost no genes in this network showed a significant correlation between protein and transcript levels. This result calls into question the widely held belief that in yeast, as opposed to higher eukaryotes, ribosomal protein levels are regulated primarily by regulating transcript levels. Furthermore, although genetic regulation of the amino acid network was more similar for proteins and transcripts, regression analysis demonstrated that even here, proteins vary predominantly as a result of non-transcriptional variation. We also found that cis regulation, which is common in the transcriptome, is rare at the level of the proteome. We conclude that most inter-individual variation in levels of these particular high abundance proteins in this genetically diverse population is not caused by variation of their underlying transcripts.

  12. Epigenetic variation contributes to environmental adaptation of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooke, R.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic variation is frequently observed in plants and direct relationships between differences in DNA methylation and phenotypic responses to changing environments have often been described. The identification of contributing genetic loci, however, was until recently hampered by the lack of

  13. Antibody-independent mechanisms regulate the establishment of chronic Plasmodium infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingwen; Cunningham, Deirdre; Tumwine, Irene; Kushinga, Garikai; McLaughlin, Sarah; Spence, Philip; Böhme, Ulrike; Sanders, Mandy; Conteh, Solomon; Bushell, Ellen; Metcalf, Tom; Billker, Oliver; Duffy, Patrick E.; Newbold, Chris; Berriman, Matthew; Langhorne, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium. All human-infecting Plasmodium species can establish long-lasting chronic infections1–5, creating an infectious reservoir to sustain transmission1,6. It is widely accepted that maintenance of chronic infection involves evasion of adaptive immunity by antigenic variation7. However, genes involved in this process have been identified in only two of five human-infecting species: P. falciparum and P. knowlesi. Furthermore, little is understood about the early events in establishment of chronic infection in these species. Using a rodent model we demonstrate that only a minority of parasites from among the infecting population, expressing one of several clusters of virulence-associated pir genes, establishes a chronic infection. This process occurs in different species of parasite and in different hosts. Establishment of chronicity is independent of adaptive immunity and therefore different from the mechanism proposed for maintainance of chronic P. falciparum infections7–9. Furthermore, we show that the proportions of parasites expressing different types of pir genes regulate the time taken to establish a chronic infection. Since pir genes are common to most, if not all, species of Plasmodium10, this process may be a common way of regulating the establishment of chronic infections. PMID:28165471

  14. [Adaptation of food ingestion to energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1987-01-01

    Body energy balance is regulated in adults. The accuracy of the phenomenon is particularly evident in laboratory animals under steady conditions. Moreover, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this balance is maintained in spite of fluctuations in food intake or energy expenditure. When animals such as rats, dogs or rabbits are presented with a diluted or concentrated version of familiar food, they compensate rapidly by increasing or decreasing their ponderal intake. This is achieved first by a change in meal frequency, then meal size adapts to the new caloric content and meal frequency returns to the original pattern. This adaptation is based on the learning of post-ingestive cues. Hypo or hyperphagia leads to reduced or increased energy expenditure, as the case may be; the basal metabolic rate is modulated by thyroid hormones and diet-induced thermogenesis by the sympathetic system. These variations are partly regulatory. In a cold environment, the increase in energy expenditure caused by increased thermogenesis is rapidly compensated by increased caloric intake. Physical activity activates the sympathetic system responsible for numerous hormonal changes, the most important of which is insulin hyposecretion. In animals or humans, moderate aerobic exercise induces a small weight loss; afterwards, weight gain is normalized and increased caloric intake compensates for energy expenditures such as exercise, increased basal metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Extreme changes in body weight and fat are produced by gestation and lactation; they are satisfactorily explained by concomitant hormonal changes. Especially during lactation, food intake is regulated so that it allows body weight to return to pregestation level. Studies on the mechanisms implicated in the regulation of body energy balance are still in progress. Friedman and Ramirez (1985) suggest that the way fatty acids are utilized is important. Kasser et al. (1985) show a striking difference in

  15. 76 FR 33065 - Adaptation of Regulations to Incorporate Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... regulation 1.3 as well. The Commission also proposes adding the term ``retail forex customer'' to regulation... appears in regulation 5.1(k).\\21\\ \\21\\ 17 CFR 5.1(k) currently defines ``retail forex customer'' as ``a...,'' ``retail forex exchange transactions,'' and ``commodity option transactions'' with the term ``commodity...

  16. Adaptive-weighted total variation minimization for sparse data toward low-dose x-ray computed tomography image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Ma, Jianhua; Fan, Yi; Liang, Zhengrong

    2012-12-07

    Previous studies have shown that by minimizing the total variation (TV) of the to-be-estimated image with some data and other constraints, piecewise-smooth x-ray computed tomography (CT) can be reconstructed from sparse-view projection data without introducing notable artifacts. However, due to the piecewise constant assumption for the image, a conventional TV minimization algorithm often suffers from over-smoothness on the edges of the resulting image. To mitigate this drawback, we present an adaptive-weighted TV (AwTV) minimization algorithm in this paper. The presented AwTV model is derived by considering the anisotropic edge property among neighboring image voxels, where the associated weights are expressed as an exponential function and can be adaptively adjusted by the local image-intensity gradient for the purpose of preserving the edge details. Inspired by the previously reported TV-POCS (projection onto convex sets) implementation, a similar AwTV-POCS implementation was developed to minimize the AwTV subject to data and other constraints for the purpose of sparse-view low-dose CT image reconstruction. To evaluate the presented AwTV-POCS algorithm, both qualitative and quantitative studies were performed by computer simulations and phantom experiments. The results show that the presented AwTV-POCS algorithm can yield images with several notable gains, in terms of noise-resolution tradeoff plots and full-width at half-maximum values, as compared to the corresponding conventional TV-POCS algorithm.

  17. Plant adaptation to temperature and photoperiod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. JUNTTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to environmental conditions both by adaptation and by acclimation. The ability of the plants to grow, reproduce and survive under changing climatic conditions depends on the efficiency of adaptation and acclimation. The adaptation of developmental processes in plants to temperature and photoperiod is briefly reviewed. In annual plants this adaptation is related to growth capacity and to the timing of reproduction. In perennial plants growing under northern conditions, adaptation of the annual growth cycle to the local climatic cycle is of primary importance. Examples of the role of photothermal conditions in regulation of these phenological processes are given and discussed. The genetic and physiological bases for climatic adaptation in plants are briefly examined.;

  18. mTOR regulates metabolic adaptation of APCs in the lung and controls the outcome of allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Charles; Bommakanti, Gayathri; Gardinassi, Luiz; Loebbermann, Jens; Johnson, Matthew Joseph; Hakimpour, Paul; Hagan, Thomas; Benitez, Lydia; Todor, Andrei; Machiah, Deepa; Oriss, Timothy; Ray, Anuradha; Bosinger, Steven; Ravindran, Rajesh; Li, Shuzhao; Pulendran, Bali

    2017-09-08

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) occupy diverse anatomical tissues, but their tissue-restricted homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, working with mouse models of inflammation, we found that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent metabolic adaptation was required at discrete locations. mTOR was dispensable for dendritic cell (DC) homeostasis in secondary lymphoid tissues but necessary to regulate cellular metabolism and accumulation of CD103 + DCs and alveolar macrophages in lung. Moreover, while numbers of mTOR-deficient lung CD11b + DCs were not changed, they were metabolically reprogrammed to skew allergic inflammation from eosinophilic T helper cell 2 (T H 2) to neutrophilic T H 17 polarity. The mechanism for this change was independent of translational control but dependent on inflammatory DCs, which produced interleukin-23 and increased fatty acid oxidation. mTOR therefore mediates metabolic adaptation of APCs in distinct tissues, influencing the immunological character of allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. 77 FR 66287 - Adaptation of Regulations To Incorporate Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... the term ``retail forex customer'' in regulation 1.3 because it appears in several regulations in part... receive any comments to the Proposal's addition of a definition of ``retail forex customer'' to regulation 1.3. \\26\\ 17 CFR 5.1(k) currently defines ``retail forex customer'' as ``a person, other than an...

  20. Regulation of intestinal homeostasis by innate and adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Hisako; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2012-11-01

    The intestine is a unique tissue where an elaborate balance is maintained between tolerance and immune responses against a variety of environmental factors such as food and the microflora. In a healthy individual, the microflora stimulates innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain gut homeostasis. However, the interaction of environmental factors with particular genetic backgrounds can lead to dramatic changes in the composition of the microflora (i.e. dysbiosis). Many of the specific commensal-bacterial products and the signaling pathways they trigger have been characterized. The role of T(h)1, T(h)2 and T(h)17 cells in inflammatory bowel disease has been widely investigated, as has the contribution of epithelial cells and subsets of dendritic cells and macrophages. To date, multiple regulatory cells in adaptive immunity, such as regulatory T cells and regulatory B cells, have been shown to maintain gut homeostasis by preventing inappropriate innate and adaptive immune responses to commensal bacteria. Additionally, regulatory myeloid cells have recently been identified that prevent intestinal inflammation by inhibiting T-cell proliferation. An increasing body of evidence has shown that multiple regulatory mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of gut homeostasis.

  1. Child Maltreatment, Inflammation, and Internalizing Symptoms: Investigating the Roles of C-Reactive Protein, Gene Variation and Neuroendocrine Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has found inconsistent evidence regarding the association among childhood adversity, inflammation, and internalizing symptoms, perhaps because previous studies have yet to adequately integrate important factors such as the timing of the adversity, genetic variation, and other relevant processes such as neuroendocrine regulation. The aims of the present study were threefold: 1) Determine whether the effect of the timing of child maltreatment on C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, varies by CRP gene variation; 2) Explore whether links between salivary CRP and childhood internalizing symptoms depend on the presence and timing of maltreatment experiences; 3) Investigate the role of CRP in the relations between child neuroendocrine regulation and internalizing symptoms and examine whether these associations are moderated by the presence and timing of child maltreatment. Participants included a sample of 267 maltreated and 222 nonmaltreated children (M age= 9.72, SD=0.99; 52.4% male; 66% African-American) who attended a summer day camp research program designed for school-aged low-income children. Department of Human Services records were examined to determine the onset and recency of maltreatment for children in the maltreated group. Results indicated that among children with recent onset maltreatment, those with at least one A allele from CRP SNP rs1417938 evidenced significantly higher CRP levels compared to recently maltreated children carrying the TT genotype. Moreover, higher levels of CRP were associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms only for recently maltreated children. Finally, we did not find support for salivary CRP as a mechanism in the relation between neuroendocrine regulation and childhood internalizing symptoms. Our findings highlight the importance of the timing of child maltreatment and have important implications for characterizing variability in inflammation and internalizing symptoms among youth. PMID

  2. Genetic variation of piperidine alkaloids in Pinus ponderosa: a common garden study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Elizabeth A; Kelsey, Rick G; St Clair, J Bradley

    2009-02-01

    Previous measurements of conifer alkaloids have revealed significant variation attributable to many sources, environmental and genetic. The present study takes a complementary and intensive, common garden approach to examine genetic variation in Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa alkaloid production. Additionally, this study investigates the potential trade-off between seedling growth and alkaloid production, and associations between topographic/climatic variables and alkaloid production. Piperidine alkaloids were quantified in foliage of 501 nursery seedlings grown from seed sources in west-central Washington, Oregon and California, roughly covering the western half of the native range of ponderosa pine. A nested mixed model was used to test differences among broad-scale regions and among families within regions. Alkaloid concentrations were regressed on seedling growth measurements to test metabolite allocation theory. Likewise, climate characteristics at the seed sources were also considered as explanatory variables. Quantitative variation from seedling to seedling was high, and regional variation exceeded variation among families. Regions along the western margin of the species range exhibited the highest alkaloid concentrations, while those further east had relatively low alkaloid levels. Qualitative variation in alkaloid profiles was low. All measures of seedling growth related negatively to alkaloid concentrations on a natural log scale; however, coefficients of determination were low. At best, annual height increment explained 19.4 % of the variation in ln(total alkaloids). Among the climate variables, temperature range showed a negative, linear association that explained 41.8 % of the variation. Given the wide geographic scope of the seed sources and the uniformity of resources in the seedlings' environment, observed differences in alkaloid concentrations are evidence for genetic regulation of alkaloid secondary metabolism in ponderosa pine. The theoretical

  3. An Adaptive Classification Strategy for Reliable Locomotion Mode Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms for locomotion mode recognition (LMR based on surface electromyography and mechanical sensors have recently been developed and could be used for the neural control of powered prosthetic legs. However, the variations in input signals, caused by physical changes at the sensor interface and human physiological changes, may threaten the reliability of these algorithms. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of applying adaptive pattern classifiers for LMR. Three adaptive classifiers, i.e., entropy-based adaptation (EBA, LearnIng From Testing data (LIFT, and Transductive Support Vector Machine (TSVM, were compared and offline evaluated using data collected from two able-bodied subjects and one transfemoral amputee. The offline analysis indicated that the adaptive classifier could effectively maintain or restore the performance of the LMR algorithm when gradual signal variations occurred. EBA and LIFT were recommended because of their better performance and higher computational efficiency. Finally, the EBA was implemented for real-time human-in-the-loop prosthesis control. The online evaluation showed that the applied EBA effectively adapted to changes in input signals across sessions and yielded more reliable prosthesis control over time, compared with the LMR without adaptation. The developed novel adaptive strategy may further enhance the reliability of neurally-controlled prosthetic legs.

  4. A fast, open source implementation of adaptive biasing potentials uncovers a ligand design strategy for the chromatin regulator BRD4

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, Bradley M.; de Waal, Parker W; Ramjan, Zachary H; Xu, H Eric; Rothbart, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    In this communication we introduce an efficient implementation of adaptive biasing that greatly improves the speed of free energy computation in molecular dynamics simulations. We investigated the use of accelerated simulations to inform on compound design using a recently reported and clinically relevant inhibitor of the chromatin regulator BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4). Benchmarking on our local compute cluster, our implementation achieves up to 2.5 times more force calls per day ...

  5. Genetic regulation of colony social organization in fire ants: an integrative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzek, Dietrich; Ross, Kenneth G

    2007-09-01

    Expression of colony social organization in fire ants appears to be under the control of a single Mendelian factor of large effect. Variation in colony queen number in Solenopsis invicta and its relatives is associated with allelic variation at the gene Gp-9, but not with variation at other unlinked genes; workers regulate queen identity and number on the basis of Gp-9 genotypic compatibility. Nongenetic factors, such as prior social experience, queen reproductive status, and local environment, have negligible effects on queen numbers which illustrates the nearly complete penetrance of Gp-9. As predicted, queen number can be manipulated experimentally by altering worker Gp-9 genotype frequencies. The Gp-9 allele lineage associated with polygyny in South American fire ants has been retained across multiple speciation events, which may signal the action of balancing selection to maintain social polymorphism in these species. Moreover, positive selection is implicated in driving the molecular evolution of Gp-9 in association with the origin of polygyny. The identity of the product of Gp-9 as an odorant-binding protein suggests plausible scenarios for its direct involvement in the regulation of queen number via a role in chemical communication. While these and other lines of evidence show that Gp-9 represents a legitimate candidate gene of major effect, studies aimed at determining (i) the biochemical pathways in which GP-9 functions; (ii) the phenotypic effects of molecular variation at Gp-9 and other pathway genes; and (iii) the potential involvement of genes in linkage disequilibrium with Gp-9 are needed to elucidate the genetic architecture underlying social organization in fire ants. Information that reveals the links between molecular variation, individual phenotype, and colony-level behaviors, combined with behavioral models that incorporate details of the chemical communication involved in regulating queen number, will yield a novel integrated view of the

  6. Risk assessment and adaptive runoff utilization in water resource system considering the complex relationship among water supply, electricity generation and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Zeng, X.; Mo, L.; Chen, L.; Jiang, Z.; Feng, Z.; Yuan, L.; He, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Generally, the adaptive utilization and regulation of runoff in the source region of China's southwest rivers is classified as a typical multi-objective collaborative optimization problem. There are grim competitions and incidence relation in the subsystems of water supply, electricity generation and environment, which leads to a series of complex problems represented by hydrological process variation, blocked electricity output and water environment risk. Mathematically, the difficulties of multi-objective collaborative optimization focus on the description of reciprocal relationships and the establishment of evolving model of adaptive systems. Thus, based on the theory of complex systems science, this project tries to carry out the research from the following aspects: the changing trend of coupled water resource, the covariant factor and driving mechanism, the dynamic evolution law of mutual feedback dynamic process in the supply-generation-environment coupled system, the environmental response and influence mechanism of coupled mutual feedback water resource system, the relationship between leading risk factor and multiple risk based on evolutionary stability and dynamic balance, the transfer mechanism of multiple risk response with the variation of the leading risk factor, the multidimensional coupled feedback system of multiple risk assessment index system and optimized decision theory. Based on the above-mentioned research results, the dynamic method balancing the efficiency of multiple objectives in the coupled feedback system and optimized regulation model of water resources is proposed, and the adaptive scheduling mode considering the internal characteristics and external response of coupled mutual feedback system of water resource is established. In this way, the project can make a contribution to the optimal scheduling theory and methodology of water resource management under uncertainty in the source region of Southwest River.

  7. Adaptation to climatic variability and change. Report of the task force on climate adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, B.

    1994-01-01

    A critique and interpretation is presented of what is known and available about adaptation to climate changes, not based on any particular climate scenario. It is assumed that variability is a fact of climate and that changes in climatic conditions are possible and are constantly occurring. Emphasis is on adaptation with regard to economic and social activities in Canada. A series of linked objectives are addressed, relating to demonstration of the significance of adaptation, consideration of case studies of adaptation (past and potential future) in Canada, clarification of the meaning of adaptation and the forms it takes, assessment of policy implications, and identification of research priorities. The basic facts on global climate change are reviewed, including long-term temperature variations, and adaptation is discussed as a public policy response. Examples of adaptation in Canada are given in the areas of Great Lakes property, power generation, and transportation; Atlantic Canada communities and fisheries; forestry; the construction industry; the energy industry; recreation and tourism; agriculture; urban areas; and national defense. Recommendations regarding adapation are made to governments, the private sector, and researchers. An inventory of adaptation strategies for agriculture, the Arctic, coastal areas, ecosystems and land use, energy supply, fisheries, forestry, urban infrastructure, and water resources is appended

  8. Neurodevelopment of Conflict Adaptation: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiuying; Liu, Tongran; Shangguan, Fangfang

    2018-01-01

    Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different a...... to better assimilate and accommodate potential environmental conflicts. The results may also indicate that the development of conflict adaption is affected by the specific characteristic of the different types of conflict.......Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different...... ages (5-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults) were subjected to a stimulus-stimulus (S-S) conflict control task (the flanker task) and a stimulus-response (S-R) conflict control task (the Simon task). The behavioral results revealed that all age groups had reliable conflict adaptation...

  9. Adaptive control of robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents a novel approach to adaptive control of manipulators to achieve trajectory tracking by the joint angles. The central concept in this approach is the utilization of the manipulator inverse as a feedforward controller. The desired trajectory is applied as an input to the feedforward controller which behaves as the inverse of the manipulator at any operating point; the controller output is used as the driving torque for the manipulator. The controller gains are then updated by an adaptation algorithm derived from MRAC (model reference adaptive control) theory to cope with variations in the manipulator inverse due to changes of the operating point. An adaptive feedback controller and an auxiliary signal are also used to enhance closed-loop stability and to achieve faster adaptation. The proposed control scheme is computationally fast and does not require a priori knowledge of the complex dynamic model or the parameter values of the manipulator or the payload.

  10. Adaptation Mechanism of the Aspartate Receptor: Electrostatics of the Adaptation Subdomain Play a Key Role in Modulating Kinase Activity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, Diane J.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The aspartate receptor of the Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium chemotaxis pathway generates a transmembrane signal that regulates the activity of the cytoplasmic kinase CheA. Previous studies have identified a region of the cytoplasmic domain that is critical to receptor adaptation and kinase regulation. This region, termed the adaptation subdomain, contains a high density of acidic residues, including specific glutamate residues that serve as receptor adaptation sites. However, the mechanism of signal propagation through this region remains poorly understood. This study uses site-directed mutagenesis to neutralize each acidic residue within the subdomain to probe the hypothesis that electrostatics in this region play a significant role in the mechanism of kinase activation and modulation. Each point mutant was tested for its ability to regulate chemotaxis in vivo and kinase activity in vitro. Four point mutants (D273N, E281Q, D288N, and E477Q) were found to superactivate the kinase relative to the wild-type receptor, and all four of these kinase-activating substitutions are located along the same intersubunit interface as the adaptation sites. These activating substitutions retained the wild-type ability of the attractant-occupied receptor to inhibit kinase activity. When combined in a quadruple mutant (D273N/E281Q/D288N/E477Q), the four charge-neutralizing substitutions locked the receptor in a kinase-superactivating state that could not be fully inactivated by the attractant. Similar lock-on character was observed for a charge reversal substitution, D273R. Together, these results implicate the electrostatic interactions at the intersubunit interface as a major player in signal transduction and kinase regulation. The negative charge in this region destabilizes the local structure in a way that enhances conformational dynamics, as detected by disulfide trapping, and this effect is reversed by charge neutralization of the adaptation sites. Finally, two

  11. Influence of ASIR (Adaptative Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) variation in the image noise of computerized tomography for high voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, L.M.M.; Pereira, W.B.R.; Vieira, J.G.; Lamounier, C.S.; Gonçalves, D.A.; Carvalho, G.N.P.; Santana, P.C.; Oliveira, P.M.C.; Reis, L.P.

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography had great advances in the equipment used in the diagnostic practice, directly influencing the levels of radiation for the patient. It is essential to optimize techniques that must be employed to comply with the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle of radioprotection. The relationship of ASIR (Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) with image noise was studied. Central images of a homogeneous water simulator were obtained in a 20 mm scan using a 64-channel Lightspeed VCT tomograph of General Electric in helical acquisitions with a rotation time of 0.5 seconds, Pitch 0.984: 1, and thickness of cut 0.625 mm. All these constant parameters varying the voltage in two distinct values: 120 and 140 kV with use of the automatic current by the CAE (Automatic Exposure Control), ranging from 50 to 675 mA (120 kV) and from 50 to 610 mA (140kV), minimum and maximum values, respectively allowed for each voltage. Image noise was determined through ImageJ free software. The analysis of the obtained data compared the percentage variation of the noise in the image based on the ASIR value of 10%, concluding that there is a variation of approximately 50% when compared to the values of ASIR (100%) in both tensions. Dose evaluation is required in future studies to better utilize the relationship between dose and image quality

  12. A survey of variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basing finite element methods on variational principles, especially if, as maximum and minimum principles, these can provide bounds and hence estimates of accuracy. The non-symmetric (and hence stationary rather than extremum principles) are seen however to play a significant role in optimisation theory. (Orig./A.B.)

  13. Adaptation in CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Samuel H; Richter, Hagen; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Qimron, Udi

    2016-03-17

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins constitute an adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. The system preserves memories of prior infections by integrating short segments of foreign DNA, termed spacers, into the CRISPR array in a process termed adaptation. During the past 3 years, significant progress has been made on the genetic requirements and molecular mechanisms of adaptation. Here we review these recent advances, with a focus on the experimental approaches that have been developed, the insights they generated, and a proposed mechanism for self- versus non-self-discrimination during the process of spacer selection. We further describe the regulation of adaptation and the protein players involved in this fascinating process that allows bacteria and archaea to harbor adaptive immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nasal variation in relation to high-altitude adaptations among Tibetans and Andeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaric, Lauren N; Klocke, Ross P

    2018-05-01

    High-altitude (>2500 m) populations face several pressures, including hypoxia and cold-dry air, resulting in greater respiratory demand to obtain more oxygen and condition inspired air. While cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptations to high-altitude hypoxia have been extensively studied, adaptations of upper-respiratory structures, e.g., nasal cavity, remain untested. This study investigates whether nasal morphology presents adaptations to hypoxic (larger noses) and/or cold-dry (tall/narrow noses) conditions among high-altitude samples. CT scans of two high- and four low-altitude samples from diverse climates were collected (n = 130): high-altitude Tibetans and Peruvians; low-altitude Peruvians, Southern Chinese (temperate), Mongolian-Buriats (cold-dry), and Southeast Asians (hot-wet). Facial and nasal distances were calculated from 3D landmarks placed on digitally-modeled crania. Temperature, precipitation, and barometric pressure data were also obtained. Principal components analysis and analyses of variance primarily indicate size-related differences among the cold-dry (Mongolian-Buriats) and hot-wet (Southeast Asians) adapted groups. Two-block partial least squares (PLS) analysis show weak relationships between size-standardized nasal dimensions and environmental variables. However, among PLS1 (85.90% of covariance), Tibetans display relatively larger nasal cavities related to lower temperatures and barometric pressure; regression analyses also indicate high-altitude Tibetans possess relatively larger internal nasal breadths and heights for their facial size. Overall, nasal differences relate to climate among the cold-dry and hot-wet groups. Specific nasal adaptations were not identified among either Peruvian group, perhaps due to their relatively recent migration history and population structure. However, high-altitude Tibetans seem to exhibit a compromise in nasal morphology, serving in increased oxygen uptake, and air-conditioning processes. © 2018

  15. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot-human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a "baby" robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a "caregiver" to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two "idealized" robot profiles-a "needy" and an "independent" robot-in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the "stress" (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness-"responsive" and "non-responsive"-to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the "needy" and "independent" axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot.

  16. Genotypic variation in growth and physiological response to drought stress and re-watering reveals the critical role of recovery in drought adaptation in maize seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoqian eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-irrigated crops in temperate climates and irrigated crops in arid climates are subjected to continuous cycles of water stress and re-watering. Thus, fast and efficient recovery from water stress may be among the key determinants of plant drought adaptation. The present study was designed to comparatively analyze the roles of drought resistance and drought recovery in drought adaptation and to investigate the physiological basis of genotypic variation in drought adaptation in maize (Zea mays seedlings. As the seedlings behavior in growth associate with yield under drought, it could partly reflect the potential of drought adaptability. Growth and physiological responses to progressive drought stress and recovery were observed in seedlings of ten maize lines. The results showed that drought adaptability is closely related to drought recovery (r = 0.714**, but not to drought resistance (r = 0.332. Drought induced decreases in leaf water content, water potential, osmotic potential, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm and nitrogen content, and increased H2O2 accumulation and lipid peroxidation. After recovery, most of these physiological parameters rapidly returned to normal levels. The physiological responses varied between lines. Further correlation analysis indicated that the physiological bases of drought resistance and drought recovery are definitely different, and that maintaining higher chlorophyll content (r = 0.874*** and Fv/Fm (r = 0.626* under drought stress contributes to drought recovery. Our results suggest that both drought resistance and recovery are key determinants of plant drought adaptation, and that drought recovery may play a more important role than previously thought. In addition, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm could be used as efficient reference indicators in the selection of drought-adaptive genotypes.

  17. The repertoire and dynamics of evolutionary adaptations to controlled nutrient-limited environments in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gresham

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental evolution of laboratory populations of microbes provides an opportunity to observe the evolutionary dynamics of adaptation in real time. Until very recently, however, such studies have been limited by our inability to systematically find mutations in evolved organisms. We overcome this limitation by using a variety of DNA microarray-based techniques to characterize genetic changes -- including point mutations, structural changes, and insertion variation -- that resulted from the experimental adaptation of 24 haploid and diploid cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to growth in either glucose, sulfate, or phosphate-limited chemostats for approximately 200 generations. We identified frequent genomic amplifications and rearrangements as well as novel retrotransposition events associated with adaptation. Global nucleotide variation detection in ten clonal isolates identified 32 point mutations. On the basis of mutation frequencies, we infer that these mutations and the subsequent dynamics of adaptation are determined by the batch phase of growth prior to initiation of the continuous phase in the chemostat. We relate these genotypic changes to phenotypic outcomes, namely global patterns of gene expression, and to increases in fitness by 5-50%. We found that the spectrum of available mutations in glucose- or phosphate-limited environments combined with the batch phase population dynamics early in our experiments allowed several distinct genotypic and phenotypic evolutionary pathways in response to these nutrient limitations. By contrast, sulfate-limited populations were much more constrained in both genotypic and phenotypic outcomes. Thus, the reproducibility of evolution varies with specific selective pressures, reflecting the constraints inherent in the system-level organization of metabolic processes in the cell. We were able to relate some of the observed adaptive mutations (e.g., transporter gene amplifications to known features

  18. Adaptive Inference on General Graphical Models

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Umut A.; Ihler, Alexander T.; Mettu, Ramgopal; Sumer, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Many algorithms and applications involve repeatedly solving variations of the same inference problem; for example we may want to introduce new evidence to the model or perform updates to conditional dependencies. The goal of adaptive inference is to take advantage of what is preserved in the model and perform inference more rapidly than from scratch. In this paper, we describe techniques for adaptive inference on general graphs that support marginal computation and updates to the conditional ...

  19. Adaptive fractionation therapy: I. Basic concept and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiguo; Chen Mingli; Chen Quan; Ruchala, Kenneth; Olivera, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy is fractionized to increase the therapeutic ratio. Fractionation in conventional treatment is determined as part of the prescription, and a fixed fraction size is used for the whole course of treatment. Due to patients' day-to-day variations on the relative distance between the tumor and the organs at risk (OAR), a better therapeutic ratio may be attained by using an adaptive fraction size. Intuitively, we want to use a larger fraction size when OAR and the tumor are far apart and a smaller fraction size when OAR and the tumor are close to each other. The concept and strategies of adaptive fractionation therapy (AFT) are introduced in this paper. AFT is an on-line adaptive technique that utilizes the variations of internal structures to get optimal OAR sparing. Changes of internal structures are classified as different configurations according to their feasibility to the radiation delivery. A priori knowledge is used to describe the probability distribution of these configurations. On-line processes include identifying the configuration via daily image guidance and optimizing the current fraction size. The optimization is modeled as a dynamic linear programming problem so that at the end of the treatment course, the tumor receives the same planned dose while OAR receives less dose than the regular fractionation delivery. Extensive simulations, which include thousands of treatment courses with each course consisting of 40 fractions, are used to test the efficiency and robustness of the presented technique. The gains of OAR sparing depend on the variations on configurations and the bounds of the fraction size. The larger the variations and the looser the bounds are, the larger the gains will be. Compared to the conventional fractionation technique with 2 Gy/fraction in 40 fractions, for a 20% variation on tumor-OAR configurations and [1 Gy, 3 Gy] fraction size bounds, the cumulative OAR dose with adaptive fractionation is 3-8 Gy, or 7-20% less than that

  20. Variation, structure and norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in linguistics: those that see linguistic norms as antithetical to a descriptive and variational linguistics. Once such a re-evaluation has taken place, however, the social recontextualization of cognition will enable linguistics (including sociolinguistics as an integral part), to eliminate the cracks...... that an evolutionary account can reintegrate the opposed fragments into a whole picture that puts each of them in their ‘ecological position’ with respect to each other. Empirical usage facts should be seen in the context of operational norms in relation to which actual linguistic choices represent adaptations....... Variational patterns should be seen in the context of structural categories without which there would be only ‘differences’ rather than variation. And emergence, individual choice, and flux should be seen in the context of the individual’s dependence on lineages of community practice sustained by collective...

  1. Adaptive quantization-parameter clip scheme for smooth quality in H.264/AVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sudeng; Wang, Hanli; Kwong, Sam

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the issues over the smooth quality and the smooth bit rate during rate control (RC) in H.264/AVC. An adaptive quantization-parameter (Q(p)) clip scheme is proposed to optimize the quality smoothness while keeping the bit-rate fluctuation at an acceptable level. First, the frame complexity variation is studied by defining a complexity ratio between two nearby frames. Second, the range of the generated bits is analyzed to prevent the encoder buffer from overflow and underflow. Third, based on the safe range of the generated bits, an optimal Q(p) clip range is developed to reduce the quality fluctuation. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed Q(p) clip scheme can achieve excellent performance in quality smoothness and buffer regulation.

  2. Evidence of Recent Intricate Adaptation in Human Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeyoung Park

    Full Text Available Recent human adaptations have shaped population differentiation in genomic regions containing putative functional variants, mostly located in predicted regulatory elements. However, their actual functionalities and the underlying mechanism of recent adaptation remain poorly understood. In the current study, regions of genes and repeats were investigated for functionality depending on the degree of population differentiation, FST or ΔDAF (a difference in derived allele frequency. The high FST in the 5´ or 3´ untranslated regions (UTRs, in particular, confirmed that population differences arose mainly from differences in regulation. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL analyses using lymphoblastoid cell lines indicated that the majority of the highly population-specific regions represented cis- and/or trans-eQTL. However, groups having the highest ΔDAFs did not necessarily have higher proportions of eQTL variants; in these groups, the patterns were complex, indicating recent intricate adaptations. The results indicated that East Asian (EAS and European populations (EUR experienced mutual selection pressures. The mean derived allele frequency of the high ΔDAF groups suggested that EAS and EUR underwent strong adaptation; however, the African population in Africa (AFR experienced slight, yet broad, adaptation. The DAF distributions of variants in the gene regions showed clear selective pressure in each population, which implies the existence of more recent regulatory adaptations in cells other than lymphoblastoid cell lines. In-depth analysis of population-differentiated regions indicated that the coding gene, RNF135, represented a trans-regulation hotspot via cis-regulation by the population-specific variants in the region of selective sweep. Together, the results provide strong evidence of actual intricate adaptation of human populations via regulatory manipulation.

  3. Experimental studies of adaptation in Clarkia xantiana. II. Fitness variation across a subspecies border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Monica A; Eckhart, Vincent M

    2005-03-01

    Because the range boundary is the locale beyond which a taxon fails to persist, it provides a unique opportunity for studying the limits on adaptive evolution. Adaptive constraints on range expansion are perplexing in view of widespread ecotypic differentiation by habitat and region within a species' range (regional adaptation) and rapid evolutionary response to novel environments. In this study of two parapatric subspecies, Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana and C. x. ssp. parviflora, we compared the fitness of population transplants within their native region, in a non-native region within the native range, and in the non-native range to assess whether range expansion might be limited by a greater intensity of selection on colonists of a new range versus a new region within the range. The combined range of the two subspecies spans a west-to-east gradient of declining precipitation in the Sierra Nevada of California, with ssp. xantiana in the west being replaced by ssp. parviflora in the east. Both subspecies had significantly higher fitness in the native range (range adaptation), whereas regional adaptation was weak and was found only in the predominantly outcrossing ssp. xantiana but was absent in the inbreeding ssp. parvifilora. Because selection intensity on transplants was much stronger in the non-native range relative to non-native regions, there is a larger adaptive barrier to range versus regional expansion. Three of five sequential fitness components accounted for regional and range adaptation, but only one of them, survivorship from germination to flowering, contributed to both. Flower number contributed to regional adaptation in ssp. xantiana and fruit set (number of fruits per flower) to range adaptation. Differential survivorship of the two taxa or regional populations of ssp. xantiana in non-native environments was attributable, in part, to biotic interactions, including competition, herbivory, and pollination. For example, low fruit set in ssp. xantiana

  4. Commande adaptive d'une machine asynchrone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama-Belkhodja, I.; de Fornel, B.

    1996-06-01

    The paper deals with an indirect self-tuning speed control for an induction motor supplied by a chopper-filter-inverter system. Input/Output models are identified with the recursive least squares algorithm and the controller adaptation is based on a pole assignement strategy. Emphasis is put on the evaluation of the parameter identification in order to avoid instabilities because of disturbances or insufficient excitations. This is especially of importance when the adaptive control is carried out in closed loop systems and without additional test signals. Simulation results show the improvement of the dynamic responses and the robustness against load variations or parameters variations (rotor resistance, inertia). Cat article décrit une stratégie de commande adaptive indirecte à Placement de Pôles (PP), appliquée à la commande en vitesse d'une machine asynchrone alimentée par un ensemble hacheur-filtre-onduleur de tension. L'algorithme des Moindres Carrés Récursifs (MCR) est utilisé pour l'identification des modèles de comportement type entrées/sorties. Un intérêt particulier est porté à la mise en oeuvre de cet algorithme et à la discussion de ses résultats, tenant compte des erreurs de modélisation et de la nature peu riche en excitations des entrées du processus. Différents régimes transitoires ont été simulés pour apprécier l'apport de cette association (MCR-PP) : démarrages et inversion des sens de rotation, à vide et en charges, applications d'échelons de couple résistant, variations paramétriques. Les résultats permettent d'illustrer, tant au niveau des performances que de la robustesse, l'apport d'une telle commande adaptive pour des entraînements électriques avec une machine asynchrone.

  5. Genomic regulation of natural variation in cortical and noncortical brain volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laughlin Rick E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relative growth of the neocortex parallels the emergence of complex cognitive functions across species. To determine the regions of the mammalian genome responsible for natural variations in cortical volume, we conducted a complex trait analysis using 34 strains of recombinant inbred (Rl strains of mice (BXD, as well as their two parental strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We measured both neocortical volume and total brain volume in 155 coronally sectioned mouse brains that were Nissl stained and embedded in celloidin. After correction for shrinkage, the measured cortical and noncortical brain volumes were entered into a multiple regression analysis, which removed the effects of body size and age from the measurements. Marker regression and interval mapping were computed using WebQTL. Results An ANOVA revealed that more than half of the variance of these regressed phenotypes is genetically determined. We then identified the regions of the genome regulating this heritability. We located genomic regions in which a linkage disequilibrium was present using WebQTL as both a mapping engine and genomic database. For neocortex, we found a genome-wide significant quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome 11 (marker D11Mit19, as well as a suggestive QTL on chromosome 16 (marker D16Mit100. In contrast, for noncortex the effect of chromosome 11 was markedly reduced, and a significant QTL appeared on chromosome 19 (D19Mit22. Conclusion This classic pattern of double dissociation argues strongly for different genetic factors regulating relative cortical size, as opposed to brain volume more generally. It is likely, however, that the effects of proximal chromosome 11 extend beyond the neocortex strictly defined. An analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in these regions indicated that ciliary neurotrophic factor (Cntf is quite possibly the gene underlying the noncortical QTL. Evidence for a candidate gene modulating neocortical

  6. Indirect adaptive fuzzy wavelet neural network with self- recurrent consequent part for AC servo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Runmin; Wang, Li; Gao, Qiang; Hou, Yuanglong; Wang, Chao

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel indirect adaptive fuzzy wavelet neural network (IAFWNN) to control the nonlinearity, wide variations in loads, time-variation and uncertain disturbance of the ac servo system. In the proposed approach, the self-recurrent wavelet neural network (SRWNN) is employed to construct an adaptive self-recurrent consequent part for each fuzzy rule of TSK fuzzy model. For the IAFWNN controller, the online learning algorithm is based on back propagation (BP) algorithm. Moreover, an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) is used to adapt the learning rate. The aid of an adaptive SRWNN identifier offers the real-time gradient information to the adaptive fuzzy wavelet neural controller to overcome the impact of parameter variations, load disturbances and other uncertainties effectively, and has a good dynamic. The asymptotical stability of the system is guaranteed by using the Lyapunov method. The result of the simulation and the prototype test prove that the proposed are effective and suitable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Plasticity and genetic adaptation mediate amphibian and reptile responses to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mark C; Richardson, Jonathan L; Freidenfelds, Nicole A

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation are predicted to mitigate some of the negative biotic consequences of climate change. Here, we evaluate evidence for plastic and evolutionary responses to climate variation in amphibians and reptiles via a literature review and meta-analysis. We included studies that either document phenotypic changes through time or space. Plasticity had a clear and ubiquitous role in promoting phenotypic changes in response to climate variation. For adaptive evolution, we found no direct evidence for evolution of amphibians or reptiles in response to climate change over time. However, we found many studies that documented adaptive responses to climate along spatial gradients. Plasticity provided a mixture of adaptive and maladaptive responses to climate change, highlighting that plasticity frequently, but not always, could ameliorate climate change. Based on our review, we advocate for more experiments that survey genetic changes through time in response to climate change. Overall, plastic and genetic variation in amphibians and reptiles could buffer some of the formidable threats from climate change, but large uncertainties remain owing to limited data. PMID:24454550

  8. Cultural variation is part of human nature : Literary universals, context-sensitivity, and "shakespeare in the bush".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Michelle Scalise

    2003-12-01

    In 1966, Laura Bohannan wrote her classic essay challenging the supposition that great literary works speak to universal human concerns and conditions and, by extension, that human nature is the same everywhere. Her evidence: the Tiv of West Africa interpret Hamlet differently from Westerners. While Bohannan's essay implies that cognitive universality and cultural variation are mutually exclusive phenomena, adaptationist theory suggests otherwise. Adaptive problems ("the human condition") and cognitive adaptations ("human nature") are constant across cultures. What differs between cultures is habitat: owing to environmental variation, the means and information relevant to solving adaptive problems differ from place to place. Thus, we find differences between cultures not because human minds differ in design but largely because human habitats differ in resources and history. On this view, we would expect world literature to express both human universals and cultural particularities. Specifically, we should expect to find literary universality at the macro level (e.g., adaptive problems, cognitive adaptations) and literary variation at the micro level (e.g., local solutions to adaptive problems).

  9. Speed regulating Effects of Incentive-based Intelligent Speed Adaptation in the short and medium term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels

    Speed regulating Effects of Incentive-based Intelligent Speed Adaptation in the short and medium term Despite massive improvements in vehicles’ safety equipment, more information and safer road network, inappropriate road safety is still causing that more than 250 people are killed and several...... thousands injured each year in Denmark. Until a few years ago the number of fatalities in most countries had decreased while the amount of traffic increased. However, this trend has been replaced by a more uncertain development towards a constant or even somewhat increasing risk. Inappropriate speeding...... is a central cause for the high number of fatalities on the roads. Despite speed limits, speed limit violating driving behaviour is still widespread in Denmark. Traditional solutions to prevent speed violation have been enforcement, information, and enhanced road design. It seems, however, hard to achieve...

  10. Monolithic quasi-sliding-mode controller for SIDO buck converter with a self-adaptive free-wheeling current level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaobo, Wu; Qing, Liu; Menglian, Zhao; Mingyang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    An analog implementation of a novel fixed-frequency quasi-sliding-mode controller for single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) buck converter in pseudo-continuous conduction mode (PCCM) with a self-adaptive freewheeling current level (SFCL) is presented. Both small and large signal variations around the operation point are considered to achieve better transient response so as to reduce the cross-regulation of this SIDO buck converter. Moreover, an internal integral loop is added to suppress the steady-state regulation error introduced by conventional PWM-based sliding mode controllers. Instead of keeping it as a constant value, the free-wheeling current level varies according to the load condition to maintain high power efficiency and less cross-regulation at the same time. To verify the feasibility of the proposed controller, an SIDO buck converter with two regulated output voltages, 1.8 V and 3.3 V, is designed and fabricated in HEJIAN 0.35 μm CMOS process. Simulation and experiment results show that the transient time of this SIDO buck converter drops to 10 μs while the cross-regulation is reduced to 0.057 mV/mA, when its first load changes from 50 to 100 mA.

  11. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP3-01: Towards Robust Adaptive Radiation Therapy Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, M; Eriksson, K; Hardemark, B; Forsgren, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To set up a framework combining robust treatment planning with adaptive reoptimization in order to maintain high treatment quality, to respond to interfractional variations and to identify those patients who will benefit the most from an adaptive fractionation schedule. Methods: We propose adaptive strategies based on stochastic minimax optimization for a series of simulated treatments on a one-dimensional patient phantom. The plan should be able to handle anticipated systematic and random errors and is applied during the first fractions. Information on the individual geometric variations is gathered at each fraction. At scheduled fractions, the impact of the measured errors on the delivered dose distribution is evaluated. For a patient that receives a dose that does not satisfy specified plan quality criteria, the plan is reoptimized based on these individual measurements using one of three different adaptive strategies. The reoptimized plan is then applied during future fractions until a new scheduled adaptation becomes necessary. In the first adaptive strategy the measured systematic and random error scenarios and their assigned probabilities are updated to guide the robust reoptimization. The focus of the second strategy lies on variation of the fraction of the worst scenarios taken into account during robust reoptimization. In the third strategy the uncertainty margins around the target are recalculated with the measured errors. Results: By studying the effect of the three adaptive strategies combined with various adaptation schedules on the same patient population, the group which benefits from adaptation is identified together with the most suitable strategy and schedule. Preliminary computational results indicate when and how best to adapt for the three different strategies. Conclusion: A workflow is presented that provides robust adaptation of the treatment plan throughout the course of treatment and useful measures to identify patients in need

  12. Beyond Emotion Regulation: Emotion Utilization and Adaptive Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Izard, Carroll; Stark, Kevin; Trentacosta, Christopher; Schultz, David

    2008-01-01

    Recent research indicates that emotionality, emotion information processing, emotion knowledge, and discrete emotion experiences may influence and interact with emotion utilization, that is, the effective use of the inherently adaptive and motivational functions of emotions. Strategies individuals learn for emotion modulation and emotion utilization become stabilized in emerging affective-cognitive structures, or emotion schemas. In these emotion schemas, the feeling/motivational component of...

  13. Hypothesis: Low frequency heart rate variability (LF-HRV) is an input for undisclosed yet biological adaptive control, governing the cardiovascular regulations to assure optimal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Uri; Bobrovsky, Ben Zion

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular regulation is considered today as having three levels: autoregulations, neural regulations and hormonal regulations. We hypothesize that the cardiovascular regulation has an additional (fourth) control level which is outer, hierarchical (adaptive) loop where LF-HRV amplitude serves as a reference input which the neural cardiovascular center detects and responses in order to maintain LF-HRV around some prescribed level. Supporting evidences: LF-HRV absence during artificial cardiac pacing may be associated with "pacemaker syndrome" which had not been sufficiently understood regardless of apparently unimpaired cardiovascular performance. The hypothesis may provide an essential basis for understanding several cardiovascular morbidities and insight toward diagnostic measures and treatments (including but not limited to adding variability to the pulse generator of artificial pacemakers to eliminate "pace maker syndrome"). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chinese Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Child Version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to validate a Chinese's adaption of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for children (CERQ-Ck. This self-report instrument evaluates nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies that can be used by children after experiencing a negative life event. The CERQ-Ck was evaluated in a sample of 1403 elementary students between the ages of 9 and 11 by using cluster sampling. All the item-correlation coefficients for CERQ-Ck were above 0.30. The internal consistencies of the nine factors suggested moderate reliability (0.66 to 0.73. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated that the current version had the same structure as the original instrument (Tucker-Lewis index = 0.912, comparative fit index = 0.922, root mean square error of approximation = 0.032, standardized root mean square residual = 0.044. A second-order factor and a third-order factor structure were also found. Test-retest correlations (0.53 to 0.70, ps < 0.01 over a period of 1 month, which ranged from acceptable to moderately strong were obtained from a random and stratified subsample of elementary students (N = 76. In addition, we analyzed convergent validity in relation to CERQ-Ck and the Chinese version of the Children's Depression Inventory model dimensions with a subsample of 1083 elementary students. Multiple-group CFA confirmed the measurement invariance for both the male and female groups (ΔCFI < 0.01, ΔRMSEA < 0.015. Overall, results indicate that CERQ-Ck has similar psychometric properties to the original instrument as well as with adequate reliability and validity to investigate the nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies during late childhood developmental periods.

  15. Chinese Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Child Version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Liang; Blue, Philip R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to validate a Chinese’s adaption of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for children (CERQ-Ck). This self-report instrument evaluates nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies that can be used by children after experiencing a negative life event. The CERQ-Ck was evaluated in a sample of 1403 elementary students between the ages of 9 and 11 by using cluster sampling. All the item-correlation coefficients for CERQ-Ck were above 0.30. The internal consistencies of the nine factors suggested moderate reliability (0.66 to 0.73). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that the current version had the same structure as the original instrument (Tucker–Lewis index = 0.912, comparative fit index = 0.922, root mean square error of approximation = 0.032, standardized root mean square residual = 0.044). A second-order factor and a third-order factor structure were also found. Test–retest correlations (0.53 to 0.70, ps < 0.01) over a period of 1 month, which ranged from acceptable to moderately strong were obtained from a random and stratified subsample of elementary students (N = 76). In addition, we analyzed convergent validity in relation to CERQ-Ck and the Chinese version of the Children’s Depression Inventory model dimensions with a subsample of 1083 elementary students. Multiple-group CFA confirmed the measurement invariance for both the male and female groups (ΔCFI < 0.01, ΔRMSEA < 0.015). Overall, results indicate that CERQ-Ck has similar psychometric properties to the original instrument as well as with adequate reliability and validity to investigate the nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies during late childhood developmental periods. PMID:26925586

  16. Trans gene regulation in adaptive evolution: a genetic algorithm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, N; Nanjundiah, V

    1997-09-21

    This is a continuation of earlier studies on the evolution of infinite populations of haploid genotypes within a genetic algorithm framework. We had previously explored the evolutionary consequences of the existence of indeterminate-"plastic"-loci, where a plastic locus had a finite probability in each generation of functioning (being switched "on") or not functioning (being switched "off"). The relative probabilities of the two outcomes were assigned on a stochastic basis. The present paper examines what happens when the transition probabilities are biased by the presence of regulatory genes. We find that under certain conditions regulatory genes can improve the adaptation of the population and speed up the rate of evolution (on occasion at the cost of lowering the degree of adaptation). Also, the existence of regulatory loci potentiates selection in favour of plasticity. There is a synergistic effect of regulatory genes on plastic alleles: the frequency of such alleles increases when regulatory loci are present. Thus, phenotypic selection alone can be a potentiating factor in a favour of better adaptation. Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited.

  17. A quantitative and dynamic model for plant stem cell regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Geier

    Full Text Available Plants maintain pools of totipotent stem cells throughout their entire life. These stem cells are embedded within specialized tissues called meristems, which form the growing points of the organism. The shoot apical meristem of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana is subdivided into several distinct domains, which execute diverse biological functions, such as tissue organization, cell-proliferation and differentiation. The number of cells required for growth and organ formation changes over the course of a plants life, while the structure of the meristem remains remarkably constant. Thus, regulatory systems must be in place, which allow for an adaptation of cell proliferation within the shoot apical meristem, while maintaining the organization at the tissue level. To advance our understanding of this dynamic tissue behavior, we measured domain sizes as well as cell division rates of the shoot apical meristem under various environmental conditions, which cause adaptations in meristem size. Based on our results we developed a mathematical model to explain the observed changes by a cell pool size dependent regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, which is able to correctly predict CLV3 and WUS over-expression phenotypes. While the model shows stem cell homeostasis under constant growth conditions, it predicts a variation in stem cell number under changing conditions. Consistent with our experimental data this behavior is correlated with variations in cell proliferation. Therefore, we investigate different signaling mechanisms, which could stabilize stem cell number despite variations in cell proliferation. Our results shed light onto the dynamic constraints of stem cell pool maintenance in the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis in different environmental conditions and developmental states.

  18. Adaptive phase k-means algorithm for waveform classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengyun; Liu, Zhining; Wang, Yaojun; Xu, Feng; Li, Xingming; Hu, Guangmin

    2018-01-01

    Waveform classification is a powerful technique for seismic facies analysis that describes the heterogeneity and compartments within a reservoir. Horizon interpretation is a critical step in waveform classification. However, the horizon often produces inconsistent waveform phase, and thus results in an unsatisfied classification. To alleviate this problem, an adaptive phase waveform classification method called the adaptive phase k-means is introduced in this paper. Our method improves the traditional k-means algorithm using an adaptive phase distance for waveform similarity measure. The proposed distance is a measure with variable phases as it moves from sample to sample along the traces. Model traces are also updated with the best phase interference in the iterative process. Therefore, our method is robust to phase variations caused by the interpretation horizon. We tested the effectiveness of our algorithm by applying it to synthetic and real data. The satisfactory results reveal that the proposed method tolerates certain waveform phase variation and is a good tool for seismic facies analysis.

  19. Adaptive evolution of plastron shape in emydine turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Feldman, Chris R; Miller, Gretchen R

    2011-02-01

    Morphology reflects ecological pressures, phylogeny, and genetic and biophysical constraints. Disentangling their influence is fundamental to understanding selection and trait evolution. Here, we assess the contributions of function, phylogeny, and habitat to patterns of plastron (ventral shell) shape variation in emydine turtles. We quantify shape variation using geometric morphometrics, and determine the influence of several variables on shape using path analysis. Factors influencing plastron shape variation are similar between emydine turtles and the more inclusive Testudinoidea. We evaluate the fit of various evolutionary models to the shape data to investigate the selective landscape responsible for the observed morphological patterns. The presence of a hinge on the plastron accounts for most morphological variance, but phylogeny and habitat also correlate with shape. The distribution of shape variance across emydine phylogeny is most consistent with an evolutionary model containing two adaptive zones--one for turtles with kinetic plastra, and one for turtles with rigid plastra. Models with more complex adaptive landscapes often fit the data only as well as the null model (purely stochastic evolution). The adaptive landscape of plastron shape in Emydinae may be relatively simple because plastral kinesis imposes overriding mechanical constraints on the evolution of form. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Patterns of cross-continental variation in tree seed mass in the Canadian Boreal Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jushan Liu

    Full Text Available Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships determining seed mass variation to better understand adaptability and/or plasticity of selected tree species to spatial/climatic variation. A total of 504, 481 and 454 seed collections of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb across the Canadian Boreal Forest, respectively, were selected. Correlation analyses were used to determine how seed mass vary with latitude, longitude, and altitude. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine how geographic and climatic variables influence seed mass. Climatic factors explained a large portion of the variation in seed mass (34, 14 and 29%, for black spruce, white spruce and jack pine, respectively, indicating species-specific adaptation to long term climate conditions. Higher annual mean temperature and winter precipitation caused greater seed mass in black spruce, but annual precipitation was the controlling factor for white spruce. The combination of factors such as growing season temperature and evapotranspiration, temperature seasonality and annual precipitation together determined seed mass of jack pine. Overall, sites with higher winter temperatures were correlated with larger seeds. Thus, long-term climatic conditions, at least in part, determined spatial variation in seed mass. Black spruce and Jack pine, species with relatively more specific habitat requirements and less plasticity, had more variation in seed mass explained by climate than did the more plastic species white spruce. As traits such as seed mass are related to seedling growth and survival, they

  1. Adaptive positioner; Posicionador adaptativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrador Pavon, I

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs.

  2. Ultra Deep Sequencing of a Baculovirus Population Reveals Widespread Genomic Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Chateigner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses rely on widespread genetic variation and large population size for adaptation. Large DNA virus populations are thought to harbor little variation though natural populations may be polymorphic. To measure the genetic variation present in a dsDNA virus population, we deep sequenced a natural strain of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. With 124,221X average genome coverage of our 133,926 bp long consensus, we could detect low frequency mutations (0.025%. K-means clustering was used to classify the mutations in four categories according to their frequency in the population. We found 60 high frequency non-synonymous mutations under balancing selection distributed in all functional classes. These mutants could alter viral adaptation dynamics, either through competitive or synergistic processes. Lastly, we developed a technique for the delimitation of large deletions in next generation sequencing data. We found that large deletions occur along the entire viral genome, with hotspots located in homologous repeat regions (hrs. Present in 25.4% of the genomes, these deletion mutants presumably require functional complementation to complete their infection cycle. They might thus have a large impact on the fitness of the baculovirus population. Altogether, we found a wide breadth of genomic variation in the baculovirus population, suggesting it has high adaptive potential.

  3. Yeast Cells Exposed to Exogenous Palmitoleic Acid Either Adapt to Stress and Survive or Commit to Regulated Liponecrosis and Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamat Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A disturbed homeostasis of cellular lipids and the resulting lipotoxicity are considered to be key contributors to many human pathologies, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been successfully used for uncovering molecular mechanisms through which impaired lipid metabolism causes lipotoxicity and elicits different forms of regulated cell death. Here, we discuss mechanisms of the “liponecrotic” mode of regulated cell death in S. cerevisiae. This mode of regulated cell death can be initiated in response to a brief treatment of yeast with exogenous palmitoleic acid. Such treatment prompts the incorporation of exogenously added palmitoleic acid into phospholipids and neutral lipids. This orchestrates a global remodeling of lipid metabolism and transfer in the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lipid droplets, and the plasma membrane. Certain features of such remodeling play essential roles either in committing yeast to liponecrosis or in executing this mode of regulated cell death. We also outline four processes through which yeast cells actively resist liponecrosis by adapting to the cellular stress imposed by palmitoleic acid and maintaining viability. These prosurvival cellular processes are confined in the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets, peroxisomes, autophagosomes, vacuoles, and the cytosol.

  4. Repertoires of emotion regulation: A person-centered approach to assessing emotion regulation strategies and links to psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Aldao, Amelia; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing research on emotion regulation (ER) strategies and psychopathology, research has primarily focused on identifying one-to-one associations between ER strategies and symptoms. Thus, little is known about how patterns in the repertoires of ER strategies are associated with different mental disorders. We utilised latent class analysis to identify distinct repertoires of ER strategies, and their links with various psychopathology domains (i.e., anxiety, depression, disordered eating, borderline personality). Participants (N = 531) reported on their use of seven ER strategies in six recalled stressful contexts, as well as on their symptoms of psychopathology. We identified five classes of ER strategies: Low Regulators (n = 168), High Regulators (n = 140), Adaptive Regulators (n = 99), Worriers/Ruminators (n = 96) and Avoiders (n = 28). Generally, High Regulators and Worriers/Ruminators endorsed greater levels of psychopathology, relative to Low and Adaptive Regulators. Our findings underscore the importance of characterising the dynamics of ER repertoires when seeking to understand links between ER strategies and psychopathology.

  5. Low pH, aluminum, and phosphorus coordinately regulate malate exudation through GmALMT1 to improve soybean adaptation to acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V; Liao, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function.

  6. Adaptive Gas Turbine Engine Control for Deterioration Compensation Due to Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Parker, Khary I.; Chatterjee, Santanu

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an ad hoc adaptive, multivariable controller tuning rule that compensates for a thrust response variation in an engine whose performance has been degraded though use and wear. The upset appears when a large throttle transient is performed such that the engine controller switches from low-speed to high-speed mode. A relationship was observed between the level of engine degradation and the overshoot in engine temperature ratio, which was determined to cause the thrust response variation. This relationship was used to adapt the controller. The method is shown to work very well up to the operability limits of the engine. Additionally, since the level of degradation can be estimated from sensor data, it would be feasible to implement the adaptive control algorithm on-line.

  7. Nrf2 and regulation of the antioxidant system in the Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarctica: Adaptation to environmental changes of pro-oxidant pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Maria Elisa; Benedetti, Maura; Nigro, Marco; Regoli, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Despite the key importance of Nrf2-Keap1 in regulating antioxidant system in vertebrates, this system is still poorly investigated in marine species. The present study focused on the Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarctica which, during the final phases of embryo development in platelet ice, is challenged by a sudden enhancement of environmental oxidative conditions associated to ice melting. Partial coding sequences were identified for Nrf2, its repressor Keap1 and for typical Nrf2-target antioxidant genes, like catalase, glutathione peroxidase isoform 1 and Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase. Compared to temperate homologues, the protein sequences showed an elevated conservation of amino acids essential for catalytic functions, while a few specific substitutions in non-essential regions may represent a molecular adaptation to improve flexibility and accessibility to active site at cold temperatures. The role of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in modulating the activation of antioxidant defences was demonstrated at both transcriptional and functional levels with a clear temporal increase of antioxidant protection in embryos before the hatching. Such findings confirm the importance of Nrf2 and highlight regulation of antioxidants as an adaptive strategy in P. antarctica to protect the early life stages toward the environmental changes of pro-oxidant pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Playing by the rules? Phenotypic adaptation to temperate environments in an American marsupial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Ryan J.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2018-01-01

    Phenotypic variation along environmental gradients can provide evidence suggesting local adaptation has shaped observed morphological disparities. These differences, in traits such as body and extremity size, as well as skin and coat pigmentation, may affect the overall fitness of individuals in their environments. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is a marsupial that shows phenotypic variation across its range, one that has recently expanded into temperate environments. It is unknown, however, whether the variation observed in the species fits adaptive ecogeographic patterns, or if phenotypic change is associated with any environmental factors. Using phenotypic measurements of over 300 museum specimens of Virginia opossum, collected throughout its distribution range, we applied regression analysis to determine if phenotypes change along a latitudinal gradient. Then, using predictors from remote-sensing databases and a random forest algorithm, we tested environmental models to find the most important variables driving the phenotypic variation. We found that despite the recent expansion into temperate environments, the phenotypic variation in the Virginia opossum follows a latitudinal gradient fitting three adaptive ecogeographic patterns codified under Bergmann’s, Allen’s and Gloger’s rules. Temperature seasonality was an important predictor of body size variation, with larger opossums occurring at high latitudes with more seasonal environments. Annual mean temperature predicted important variation in extremity size, with smaller extremities found in northern populations. Finally, we found that precipitation and temperature seasonality as well as low temperatures were strong environmental predictors of skin and coat pigmentation variation; darker opossums are distributed at low latitudes in warmer environments with higher precipitation seasonality. These results indicate that the adaptive mechanisms underlying the variation in body size, extremity

  9. Playing by the rules? Phenotypic adaptation to temperate environments in an American marsupial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio F. Nigenda-Morales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic variation along environmental gradients can provide evidence suggesting local adaptation has shaped observed morphological disparities. These differences, in traits such as body and extremity size, as well as skin and coat pigmentation, may affect the overall fitness of individuals in their environments. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana is a marsupial that shows phenotypic variation across its range, one that has recently expanded into temperate environments. It is unknown, however, whether the variation observed in the species fits adaptive ecogeographic patterns, or if phenotypic change is associated with any environmental factors. Using phenotypic measurements of over 300 museum specimens of Virginia opossum, collected throughout its distribution range, we applied regression analysis to determine if phenotypes change along a latitudinal gradient. Then, using predictors from remote-sensing databases and a random forest algorithm, we tested environmental models to find the most important variables driving the phenotypic variation. We found that despite the recent expansion into temperate environments, the phenotypic variation in the Virginia opossum follows a latitudinal gradient fitting three adaptive ecogeographic patterns codified under Bergmann’s, Allen’s and Gloger’s rules. Temperature seasonality was an important predictor of body size variation, with larger opossums occurring at high latitudes with more seasonal environments. Annual mean temperature predicted important variation in extremity size, with smaller extremities found in northern populations. Finally, we found that precipitation and temperature seasonality as well as low temperatures were strong environmental predictors of skin and coat pigmentation variation; darker opossums are distributed at low latitudes in warmer environments with higher precipitation seasonality. These results indicate that the adaptive mechanisms underlying the variation in

  10. Metabolic heat production and thermal conductance are mass-independent adaptations to thermal environment in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristoe, Trevor S; Burger, Joseph R; Balk, Meghan A; Khaliq, Imran; Hof, Christian; Brown, James H

    2015-12-29

    The extent to which different kinds of organisms have adapted to environmental temperature regimes is central to understanding how they respond to climate change. The Scholander-Irving (S-I) model of heat transfer lays the foundation for explaining how endothermic birds and mammals maintain their high, relatively constant body temperatures in the face of wide variation in environmental temperature. The S-I model shows how body temperature is regulated by balancing the rates of heat production and heat loss. Both rates scale with body size, suggesting that larger animals should be better adapted to cold environments than smaller animals, and vice versa. However, the global distributions of ∼9,000 species of terrestrial birds and mammals show that the entire range of body sizes occurs in nearly all climatic regimes. Using physiological and environmental temperature data for 211 bird and 178 mammal species, we test for mass-independent adaptive changes in two key parameters of the S-I model: basal metabolic rate (BMR) and thermal conductance. We derive an axis of thermal adaptation that is independent of body size, extends the S-I model, and highlights interactions among physiological and morphological traits that allow endotherms to persist in a wide range of temperatures. Our macrophysiological and macroecological analyses support our predictions that shifts in BMR and thermal conductance confer important adaptations to environmental temperature in both birds and mammals.

  11. A novel micromechanical flow regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Toor, M.W.; van Toor, M.W.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Monsma, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new concept for a micromechanical flow regulator is presented. Regulation of the flow is achieved using variation of channel length instead of channel diameter. Several design concepts together with their application in fluidic systems are presented. A regulator for biomedical use, as a part of a

  12. Transgenerational plasticity is adaptive in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Laura F; Etterson, Julie R

    2007-11-16

    Plants exhibit adaptive responses to light, but it is not known whether parental plants transmit environmental cues that elicit adaptive responses in offspring. We show that offspring life history (annual versus biennial) is influenced by the maternal light environment (understory versus light gap). This transgenerational plasticity is adaptive when offspring are grown in their maternal light environment, where seeds typically disperse. Projections of population growth show that plants that are appropriately cued for their light environment through maternal effects have 3.4 times greater fitness than otherwise. Transgenerational plasticity has evolved in response to natural variation in light and provides a flexible mechanism by which sedentary organisms cope with heterogeneous environments.

  13. Morphometric variation in the forest rodent Malacomys edwardsi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... determinants of this variation (local adaptation, phylogenetic history). This is important for ... The genus Malacomys (Milne-Edwards, 1877) is composed of small ..... Tervuren, Belgium, who allowed us to study the collections in ...

  14. Self-tuning control algorithm design for vehicle adaptive cruise control system through real-time estimation of vehicle parameters and road grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzbanrad, Javad; Tahbaz-zadeh Moghaddam, Iman

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to design a self-tuning control algorithm for an adaptive cruise control (ACC) system that can adapt its behaviour to variations of vehicle dynamics and uncertain road grade. To this aim, short-time linear quadratic form (STLQF) estimation technique is developed so as to track simultaneously the trend of the time-varying parameters of vehicle longitudinal dynamics with a small delay. These parameters are vehicle mass, road grade and aerodynamic drag-area coefficient. Next, the values of estimated parameters are used to tune the throttle and brake control inputs and to regulate the throttle/brake switching logic that governs the throttle and brake switching. The performance of the designed STLQF-based self-tuning control (STLQF-STC) algorithm for ACC system is compared with the conventional method based on fixed control structure regarding the speed/distance tracking control modes. Simulation results show that the proposed control algorithm improves the performance of throttle and brake controllers, providing more comfort while travelling, enhancing driving safety and giving a satisfactory performance in the presence of different payloads and road grade variations.

  15. DNA variation of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex reflects genomic diversity and population history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuhki, Naoya; O' Brien, S.J. (National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a multigene complex of tightly linked homologous genes that encode cell surface antigens that play a key role in immune regulation and response to foreign antigens. In most species, MHC gene products display extreme antigenic polymorphism, and their variability has been interpreted to reflect an adaptive strategy for accommodating rapidly evolving infectious agents that periodically afflict natural populations. Determination of the extent of MHC variation has been limited to populations in which skin grafting is feasible or for which serological reagents have been developed. The authors present here a quantitative analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of MHC class I genes in several mammalian species (cats, rodents, humans) known to have very different levels of genetic diversity based on functional MHC assays and on allozyme surveys. When homologous class I probes were employed, a notable concordance was observed between the extent of MHC restriction fragment variation and functional MHC variation detected by skin grafts or genome-wide diversity estimated by allozyme screens. These results confirm the genetically depauperate character of the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, and the Asiatic lion, Panthera leo persica; further, they support the use of class I MHC molecular reagents in estimating the extent and character of genetic diversity in natural populations.

  16. DNA variation of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex reflects genomic diversity and population history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhki, Naoya; O'Brien, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a multigene complex of tightly linked homologous genes that encode cell surface antigens that play a key role in immune regulation and response to foreign antigens. In most species, MHC gene products display extreme antigenic polymorphism, and their variability has been interpreted to reflect an adaptive strategy for accommodating rapidly evolving infectious agents that periodically afflict natural populations. Determination of the extent of MHC variation has been limited to populations in which skin grafting is feasible or for which serological reagents have been developed. The authors present here a quantitative analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of MHC class I genes in several mammalian species (cats, rodents, humans) known to have very different levels of genetic diversity based on functional MHC assays and on allozyme surveys. When homologous class I probes were employed, a notable concordance was observed between the extent of MHC restriction fragment variation and functional MHC variation detected by skin grafts or genome-wide diversity estimated by allozyme screens. These results confirm the genetically depauperate character of the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, and the Asiatic lion, Panthera leo persica; further, they support the use of class I MHC molecular reagents in estimating the extent and character of genetic diversity in natural populations

  17. Evolution of plasticity and adaptive responses to climate change along climate gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Buckley, Lauren B

    2017-08-16

    The relative contributions of phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution to the responses of species to recent and future climate change are poorly understood. We combine recent (1960-2010) climate and phenotypic data with microclimate, heat balance, demographic and evolutionary models to address this issue for a montane butterfly, Colias eriphyle , along an elevational gradient. Our focal phenotype, wing solar absorptivity, responds plastically to developmental (pupal) temperatures and plays a central role in thermoregulatory adaptation in adults. Here, we show that both the phenotypic and adaptive consequences of plasticity vary with elevation. Seasonal changes in weather generate seasonal variation in phenotypic selection on mean and plasticity of absorptivity, especially at lower elevations. In response to climate change in the past 60 years, our models predict evolutionary declines in mean absorptivity (but little change in plasticity) at high elevations, and evolutionary increases in plasticity (but little change in mean) at low elevation. The importance of plasticity depends on the magnitude of seasonal variation in climate relative to interannual variation. Our results suggest that selection and evolution of both trait means and plasticity can contribute to adaptive response to climate change in this system. They also illustrate how plasticity can facilitate rather than retard adaptive evolutionary responses to directional climate change in seasonal environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Haplotyping, linkage mapping and expression analysis of barley genes regulated by terminal drought stress influencing seed quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasingly narrow genetic background characteristic of modern crop germplasm presents a challenge for the breeding of cultivars that require adaptation to the anticipated change in climate. Thus, high priority research aims at the identification of relevant allelic variation present both in the crop itself as well as in its progenitors. This study is based on the characterization of genetic variation in barley, with a view to enhancing its response to terminal drought stress. Results The expression patterns of drought regulated genes were monitored during plant ontogeny, mapped and the location of these genes was incorporated into a comprehensive barley SNP linkage map. Haplotypes within a set of 17 starch biosynthesis/degradation genes were defined, and a particularly high level of haplotype variation was uncovered in the genes encoding sucrose synthase (types I and II and starch synthase. The ability of a panel of 50 barley accessions to maintain grain starch content under terminal drought conditions was explored. Conclusion The linkage/expression map is an informative resource in the context of characterizing the response of barley to drought stress. The high level of haplotype variation among starch biosynthesis/degradation genes in the progenitors of cultivated barley shows that domestication and breeding have greatly eroded their allelic diversity in current elite cultivars. Prospective association analysis based on core drought-regulated genes may simplify the process of identifying favourable alleles, and help to understand the genetic basis of the response to terminal drought.

  19. Adapting to foreign-accented speech: The role of delay in testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, M.J.; Bardhan, N.P.; Weber, A.C.; McQueen, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding speech usually seems easy, but it can become noticeably harder when the speaker has a foreign accent. This is because foreign accents add considerable variation to speech. Research on foreign-accented speech shows that participants are able to adapt quickly to this type of variation.

  20. Habitat Fragmentation Differentially Affects Genetic Variation, Phenotypic Plasticity and Survival in Populations of a Gypsum Endemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Matesanz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation, i.e., fragment size and isolation, can differentially alter patterns of neutral and quantitative genetic variation, fitness and phenotypic plasticity of plant populations, but their effects have rarely been tested simultaneously. We assessed the combined effects of size and connectivity on these aspects of genetic and phenotypic variation in populations of Centaurea hyssopifolia, a narrow endemic gypsophile that previously showed performance differences associated with fragmentation. We grew 111 maternal families sampled from 10 populations that differed in their fragment size and connectivity in a common garden, and characterized quantitative genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity to drought for key functional traits, and plant survival, as a measure of population fitness. We also assessed neutral genetic variation within and among populations using eight microsatellite markers. Although C. hyssopifolia is a narrow endemic gypsophile, we found substantial neutral genetic variation and quantitative variation for key functional traits. The partition of genetic variance indicated that a higher proportion of variation was found within populations, which is also consistent with low population differentiation in molecular markers, functional traits and their plasticity. This, combined with the generally small effect of habitat fragmentation suggests that gene flow among populations is not restricted, despite large differences in fragment size and isolation. Importantly, population’s similarities in genetic variation and plasticity did not reflect the lower survival observed in isolated populations. Overall, our results indicate that, although the species consists of genetically variable populations able to express functional plasticity, such aspects of adaptive potential may not always reflect populations’ survival. Given the differential effects of habitat connectivity on functional traits, genetic variation and fitness

  1. Anatomical robust optimization to account for nasal cavity filling variation during intensity-modulated proton therapy: a comparison with conventional and adaptive planning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Steven; Albertini, Francesca; Weber, Damien C.; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Lomax, Antony J.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an anatomical robust optimization method for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) that accounts for interfraction variations in nasal cavity filling, and to compare it with conventional single-field uniform dose (SFUD) optimization and online plan adaptation. We included CT data of five patients with tumors in the sinonasal region. Using the planning CT, we generated for each patient 25 ‘synthetic’ CTs with varying nasal cavity filling. The robust optimization method available in our treatment planning system ‘Erasmus-iCycle’ was extended to also account for anatomical uncertainties by including (synthetic) CTs with varying patient anatomy as error scenarios in the inverse optimization. For each patient, we generated treatment plans using anatomical robust optimization and, for benchmarking, using SFUD optimization and online plan adaptation. Clinical target volume (CTV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) doses were assessed by recalculating the treatment plans on the synthetic CTs, evaluating dose distributions individually and accumulated over an entire fractionated 50 GyRBE treatment, assuming each synthetic CT to correspond to a 2 GyRBE fraction. Treatment plans were also evaluated using actual repeat CTs. Anatomical robust optimization resulted in adequate CTV doses (V95%  ⩾  98% and V107%  ⩽  2%) if at least three synthetic CTs were included in addition to the planning CT. These CTV requirements were also fulfilled for online plan adaptation, but not for the SFUD approach, even when applying a margin of 5 mm. Compared with anatomical robust optimization, OAR dose parameters for the accumulated dose distributions were on average 5.9 GyRBE (20%) higher when using SFUD optimization and on average 3.6 GyRBE (18%) lower for online plan adaptation. In conclusion, anatomical robust optimization effectively accounted for changes in nasal cavity filling during IMPT, providing substantially improved CTV and

  2. From phenotypic to molecular polymorphisms involved in naturally occurring variation for plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Blanco, C.; Mendez-Vigo, B.; Koornneef, M.

    2005-01-01

    An enormous amount of naturally occurring genetic variation affecting development is found within wild and domesticated plant species. This diversity is presumably involved in plant adaptation to different natural environments or in human preferences. In addition, such intraspecific variation

  3. A candidate multimodal functional genetic network for thermal adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina C. Wollenberg Valero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate ectotherms such as reptiles provide ideal organisms for the study of adaptation to environmental thermal change. Comparative genomic and exomic studies can recover markers that diverge between warm and cold adapted lineages, but the genes that are functionally related to thermal adaptation may be difficult to identify. We here used a bioinformatics genome-mining approach to predict and identify functions for suitable candidate markers for thermal adaptation in the chicken. We first established a framework of candidate functions for such markers, and then compiled the literature on genes known to adapt to the thermal environment in different lineages of vertebrates. We then identified them in the genomes of human, chicken, and the lizard Anolis carolinensis, and established a functional genetic interaction network in the chicken. Surprisingly, markers initially identified from diverse lineages of vertebrates such as human and fish were all in close functional relationship with each other and more associated than expected by chance. This indicates that the general genetic functional network for thermoregulation and/or thermal adaptation to the environment might be regulated via similar evolutionarily conserved pathways in different vertebrate lineages. We were able to identify seven functions that were statistically overrepresented in this network, corresponding to four of our originally predicted functions plus three unpredicted functions. We describe this network as multimodal: central regulator genes with the function of relaying thermal signal (1, affect genes with different cellular functions, namely (2 lipoprotein metabolism, (3 membrane channels, (4 stress response, (5 response to oxidative stress, (6 muscle contraction and relaxation, and (7 vasodilation, vasoconstriction and regulation of blood pressure. This network constitutes a novel resource for the study of thermal adaptation in the closely related nonavian reptiles and

  4. Monolithic quasi-sliding-mode controller for SIDO buck converter with a self-adaptive free-wheeling current level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaobo; Liu Qing; Zhao Menglian; Chen Mingyang

    2013-01-01

    An analog implementation of a novel fixed-frequency quasi-sliding-mode controller for single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) buck converter in pseudo-continuous conduction mode (PCCM) with a self-adaptive freewheeling current level (SFCL) is presented. Both small and large signal variations around the operation point are considered to achieve better transient response so as to reduce the cross-regulation of this SIDO buck converter. Moreover, an internal integral loop is added to suppress the steady-state regulation error introduced by conventional PWM-based sliding mode controllers. Instead of keeping it as a constant value, the free-wheeling current level varies according to the load condition to maintain high power efficiency and less cross-regulation at the same time. To verify the feasibility of the proposed controller, an SIDO buck converter with two regulated output voltages, 1.8 V and 3.3 V, is designed and fabricated in HEJIAN 0.35 μm CMOS process. Simulation and experiment results show that the transient time of this SIDO buck converter drops to 10 μs while the cross-regulation is reduced to 0.057 mV/mA, when its first load changes from 50 to 100 mA. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Peculiarities of self-regulation of extreme profile specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanova T.N.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Individually-psychological characteristics were studied and profiles of the styles of self-regulation of the employees engaged in hazardous were determined. The mainly group consisted of 30 men aged 21 to 60 years, who are specialists of dangerous professions. The comparison group included 30 men from 22 to 60 years, whose professional activity was not associated with risk. The following methods were used: questionnaire "Style of self-regulation of behavior" by V. I. Morosanova; questionnaire of self-control (H. Grasmik, 1993, adaptation Bulygina V. G., Abdrazakova A. M., 2009; the questionnaire BIS/BAS, used to study the sensitivity to punishment and reward; the questionnaire formal-dynamic properties of individuality by V. M. Rusalov; the aggression questionnaire by A. Buss and M. Perry (adaptation Enikolopov S. N., Cybulski N. P., 2007; the scale of anxiety Charles D. Spielberger (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI; personal questionnaire of the G. and S. Eysenck – EPQ. It was found that specialists hazardous professions are distinguished by: a higher level of development of the regulatory flexibility and individual system of conscious self-regulation activity; higher levels of extroversion, communication activity, the total adaptability; a lower level of reactive anxiety, trait anxiety and general emotional. Moreover, impulsiveness, egocentrism, lack of restraint and physical activity in the structure of self-monitoring specialists of dangerous professions associated with high levels of affective component of aggression and incoherence of parts of the process of self-regulation. There were allocated a 3 profile of self-regulation in specialists of dangerous professions: a a high level of self-regulation – coupled with a high intellectual and physical development, the highest level of adaptability and general activity; b medium – rapid response to emerging changes in the situation, the successful production alternatives, greater

  6. An adaptive and generalizable closed-loop system for control of medically induced coma and other states of anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiao; Shanechi, Maryam M.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Design of closed-loop anesthetic delivery (CLAD) systems is an important topic, particularly for medically induced coma, which needs to be maintained for long periods. Current CLADs for medically induced coma require a separate offline experiment for model parameter estimation, which causes interruption in treatment and is difficult to perform. Also, CLADs may exhibit bias due to inherent time-variation and non-stationarity, and may have large infusion rate variations at steady state. Finally, current CLADs lack theoretical performance guarantees. We develop the first adaptive CLAD for medically induced coma, which addresses these limitations. Further, we extend our adaptive system to be generalizable to other states of anesthesia. Approach. We designed general parametric pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and neural observation models with associated guidelines, and derived a novel adaptive controller. We further penalized large steady-state drug infusion rate variations in the controller. We derived theoretical guarantees that the adaptive system has zero steady-state bias. Using simulations that resembled real time-varying and noisy environments, we tested the closed-loop system for control of two different anesthetic states, burst suppression in medically induced coma and unconsciousness in general anesthesia. Main results. In 1200 simulations, the adaptive system achieved precise control of both anesthetic states despite non-stationarity, time-variation, noise, and no initial parameter knowledge. In both cases, the adaptive system performed close to a baseline system that knew the parameters exactly. In contrast, a non-adaptive system resulted in large steady-state bias and error. The adaptive system also resulted in significantly smaller steady-state infusion rate variations compared to prior systems. Significance. These results have significant implications for clinically viable CLAD design for a wide range of anesthetic states, with potential cost

  7. Geographic variation in expenditures for Workers' Compensation hospitalized claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T R; Levy, D T

    1999-02-01

    Past literature finds considerable variation in the cost of physician care and in the utilization of medical procedures. Variation in the cost of hospitalized care has received little attention. We examine injury costs of hospitalized claims across states. Multivariate regression analysis is used to isolate state variations, while controlling for personal and injury characteristics, and state characteristics. Injuries to workers filing Workers' Compensation lost workday claims. About 35,000 randomly sampled Workers' Compensation claims from 17 states filed between 1979 and 1988. Medical payments per episode of three injury groups: upper and lower extremity fractures and dislocations, other upper extremity injuries, and back strains and sprains. Statistical analyses reveal considerable variation in expenditures for hospitalized injuries across states, even after controlling for case mix and state characteristics. A substantial portion of the variation is explained by state rate regulations; regulated states have lower costs. The large variation in costs suggests a potential to affect the costs of hospitalized care. Efforts should be directed at those areas that have higher costs without sufficient input price, quality, or case mix justification.

  8. Rapid and Parallel Adaptive Evolution of the Visual System of Neotropical Midas Cichlid Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Pierotti, Michele E R; Härer, Andreas; Karagic, Nidal; Woltering, Joost M; Henning, Frederico; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2017-10-01

    Midas cichlid fish are a Central American species flock containing 13 described species that has been dated to only a few thousand years old, a historical timescale infrequently associated with speciation. Their radiation involved the colonization of several clear water crater lakes from two turbid great lakes. Therefore, Midas cichlids have been subjected to widely varying photic conditions during their radiation. Being a primary signal relay for information from the environment to the organism, the visual system is under continuing selective pressure and a prime organ system for accumulating adaptive changes during speciation, particularly in the case of dramatic shifts in photic conditions. Here, we characterize the full visual system of Midas cichlids at organismal and genetic levels, to determine what types of adaptive changes evolved within the short time span of their radiation. We show that Midas cichlids have a diverse visual system with unexpectedly high intra- and interspecific variation in color vision sensitivity and lens transmittance. Midas cichlid populations in the clear crater lakes have convergently evolved visual sensitivities shifted toward shorter wavelengths compared with the ancestral populations from the turbid great lakes. This divergence in sensitivity is driven by changes in chromophore usage, differential opsin expression, opsin coexpression, and to a lesser degree by opsin coding sequence variation. The visual system of Midas cichlids has the evolutionary capacity to rapidly integrate multiple adaptations to changing light environments. Our data may indicate that, in early stages of divergence, changes in opsin regulation could precede changes in opsin coding sequence evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Adaptive deformable mirror : based on electromagnetic actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Refractive index variations in the earth's atmosphere cause wavefront aberrations and limit thereby the resolution in ground-based telescopes. With Adaptive Optics (AO) the temporally and spatially varying wavefront distortions can be corrected in real time. Most implementations in a ground based

  10. Phenological plasticity will not help all species adapt to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duputié, Anne; Rutschmann, Alexis; Ronce, Ophélie; Chuine, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Concerns are rising about the capacity of species to adapt quickly enough to climate change. In long-lived organisms such as trees, genetic adaptation is slow, and how much phenotypic plasticity can help them cope with climate change remains largely unknown. Here, we assess whether, where and when phenological plasticity is and will be adaptive in three major European tree species. We use a process-based species distribution model, parameterized with extensive ecological data, and manipulate plasticity to suppress phenological variations due to interannual, geographical and trend climate variability, under current and projected climatic conditions. We show that phenological plasticity is not always adaptive and mostly affects fitness at the margins of the species' distribution and climatic niche. Under current climatic conditions, phenological plasticity constrains the northern range limit of oak and beech and the southern range limit of pine. Under future climatic conditions, phenological plasticity becomes strongly adaptive towards the trailing edges of beech and oak, but severely constrains the range and niche of pine. Our results call for caution when interpreting geographical variation in trait means as adaptive, and strongly point towards species distribution models explicitly taking phenotypic plasticity into account when forecasting species distribution under climate change scenarios. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Genome-wide DNA methylation alterations of Alternanthera philoxeroides in natural and manipulated habitats: implications for epigenetic regulation of rapid responses to environmental fluctuation and phenotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lexuan; Geng, Yupeng; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Yang, Ji

    2010-11-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) is an invasive weed that can colonize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Individuals growing in different habitats exhibit extensive phenotypic variation but little genetic differentiation in its introduced range. The mechanisms underpinning the wide range of phenotypic variation and rapid adaptation to novel and changing environments remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the epigenetic variation and its correlation with phenotypic variation in plants exposed to natural and manipulated environmental variability. Genome-wide methylation profiling using methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) revealed considerable DNA methylation polymorphisms within and between natural populations. Plants of different source populations not only underwent significant morphological changes in common garden environments, but also underwent a genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in response to different treatments. Methylation alterations associated with response to different water availability were detected in 78.2% (169/216) of common garden induced polymorphic sites, demonstrating the environmental sensitivity and flexibility of the epigenetic regulatory system. These data provide evidence of the correlation between epigenetic reprogramming and the reversible phenotypic response of alligator weed to particular environmental factors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 activation by addictive drugs: a signal toward pathological adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoli, Vincent; Cahill, Emma; Bellivier, Frank; Caboche, Jocelyne; Vanhoutte, Peter

    2014-12-15

    Addiction is a chronic and relapsing psychiatric disorder that is thought to occur in vulnerable individuals. Synaptic plasticity evoked by drugs of abuse in the so-called neuronal circuits of reward has been proposed to underlie behavioral adaptations that characterize addiction. By increasing dopamine in the striatum, addictive drugs alter the balance of dopamine and glutamate signals converging onto striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and activate intracellular events involved in long-term behavioral alterations. Our laboratory contributed to the identification of salient molecular changes induced by administration of addictive drugs to rodents. We pioneered the observation that a common feature of addictive drugs is to activate, by a double tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the striatum, which control a plethora of substrates, some of them being critically involved in cocaine-mediated molecular and behavioral adaptations. Herein, we review how the interplay between dopamine and glutamate signaling controls cocaine-induced ERK1/2 activation in MSNs. We emphasize the key role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor potentiation by D1 receptor to trigger ERK1/2 activation and its subsequent nuclear translocation where it modulates both epigenetic and genetic processes engaged by cocaine. We discuss how cocaine-induced long-term synaptic and structural plasticity of MSNs, as well as behavioral adaptations, are influenced by ERK1/2-controlled targets. We conclude that a better knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying ERK1/2 activation by drugs of abuse and/or its role in long-term neuronal plasticity in the striatum may provide a new route for therapeutic treatment in addiction. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Variation in turbidity with precipitation and flow in a regulated river system – River Göta Älv, SW Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    M. Larson; D. Bendz; G. Göransson

    2013-01-01

    The turbidity variation in time and space is investigated in the downstream stretch of the river Göta Älv in Sweden. The river is heavily regulated and carries the discharge from the largest fresh water lake in Sweden, Lake Vänern, to the outflow point in Göteborg Harbour on the Swedish west coast. The river is an important waterway and serves as a fresh-water supply for 700 000 users. Turbidity is utilised as a water quality indicator to ensure sufficient quality of the intake water to the t...

  14. Adaptive Significance of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Regulation of Rhamnolipids by Integration of Growth Rate in Burkholderia glumae: A Trade-Off between Survival and Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent mechanism which enables a population of bacteria to coordinate cooperative behaviors in response to the accumulation of self-produced autoinducer signals in their local environment. An emerging framework is that the adaptive significance of QS in the regulation of production of costly extracellular metabolites ("public goods") is to maintain the homeostasis of cooperation. We investigated this model using the phytopathogenic bacterium Burkholderia glumae, which we have previously demonstrated uses QS to regulate the production of rhamnolipids, extracellular surface-active glycolipids promoting the social behavior called "swarming motility." Using mass spectrometric quantification and chromosomal lux-based gene expression, we made the unexpected finding that when unrestricted nutrient resources are provided, production of rhamnolipids is carried out completely independently of QS regulation. This is a unique observation among known QS-controlled factors in bacteria. On the other hand, under nutrient-limited conditions, QS then becomes the main regulating mechanism, significantly enhancing the specific rhamnolipids yield. Accordingly, decreasing nutrient concentrations amplifies rhamnolipid biosynthesis gene expression, revealing a system where QS-dependent regulation is specifically triggered by the growth rate of the population, rather than by its cell density. Furthermore, a gradual increase in QS signal specific concentration upon decrease of specific growth rate suggests a reduction in quorum threshold, which reflects an increase in cellular demand for production of QS-dependent target gene product at low density populations. Integration of growth rate with QS as a decision-making mechanism for biosynthesis of costly metabolites, such as rhamnolipids, could serve to assess the demand and timing for expanding the carrying capacity of a population through spatial expansion mechanisms, such as swarming motility, thus

  15. PGC-1α-mediated adaptations in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Kiilerich, Kristian; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    multiple pathways and functions underline the potential importance of PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle adaptations in humans. The absence of exercise-induced PGC-1alpha-mediated gene regulation during a physical inactive lifestyle is suggested to lead to reduced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle...... involved in angiogenesis and the anti-oxidant defence as well as to affect expression of inflammatory markers. Exercise increases PGC-1alpha transcription and potentially PGC-1alpha activity through post-translational modifications, and concomitant PGC-1alpha-mediated gene regulation is suggested...... to be an underlying mechanism for adaptations in skeletal muscle, when exercise is repeated. The current review presents some of the key findings in PGC-1alpha-mediated regulation of metabolically related, anti-oxidant and inflammatory proteins in skeletal muscle in the basal state and in response to exercise...

  16. Interaction and developmental activation of two neuroendocrine systems that regulate light-mediated skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolesi, Gabriel E; Song, Yi N; Atkinson-Leadbeater, Karen; Yang, Jung-Lynn J; McFarlane, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Lower vertebrates use rapid light-regulated changes in skin colour for camouflage (background adaptation) or during circadian variation in irradiance levels. Two neuroendocrine systems, the eye/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the pineal complex/melatonin circuits, regulate the process through their respective dispersion and aggregation of pigment granules (melanosomes) in skin melanophores. During development, Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised on a black background or in the dark perceive less light sensed by the eye and darken in response to increased α-MSH secretion. As embryogenesis proceeds, the pineal complex/melatonin circuit becomes the dominant regulator in the dark and induces lightening of the skin of larvae. The eye/α-MSH circuit continues to mediate darkening of embryos on a black background, but we propose the circuit is shut down in complete darkness in part by melatonin acting on receptors expressed by pituitary cells to inhibit the expression of pomc, the precursor of α-MSH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Adaptive LQG controller tuning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Miroslav; Böhm, Josef; Nedoma, Petr; Tesař, Ludvík

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 6 (2003), s. 655-665 ISSN 1350-2379 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0204; GA AV ČR IBS1075102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : adaptive controller * LQG controller * controller design Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2003

  18. Regulatory hotspots in the malaria parasite genome dictate transcriptional variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Gonzales

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of transcriptional regulation in malaria parasites remain elusive. The presence of a well-characterized gene expression cascade shared by different Plasmodium falciparum strains could imply that transcriptional regulation and its natural variation do not contribute significantly to the evolution of parasite drug resistance. To clarify the role of transcriptional variation as a source of stain-specific diversity in the most deadly malaria species and to find genetic loci that dictate variations in gene expression, we examined genome-wide expression level polymorphisms (ELPs in a genetic cross between phenotypically distinct parasite clones. Significant variation in gene expression is observed through direct co-hybridizations of RNA from different P. falciparum clones. Nearly 18% of genes were regulated by a significant expression quantitative trait locus. The genetic determinants of most of these ELPs resided in hotspots that are physically distant from their targets. The most prominent regulatory locus, influencing 269 transcripts, coincided with a Chromosome 5 amplification event carrying the drug resistance gene, pfmdr1, and 13 other genes. Drug selection pressure in the Dd2 parental clone lineage led not only to a copy number change in the pfmdr1 gene but also to an increased copy number of putative neighboring regulatory factors that, in turn, broadly influence the transcriptional network. Previously unrecognized transcriptional variation, controlled by polymorphic regulatory genes and possibly master regulators within large copy number variants, contributes to sweeping phenotypic evolution in drug-resistant malaria parasites.

  19. Spatiotemporal variation in resource selection: Insights from the American marten (Martes Americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Shirk; Martin G. Raphael; Samuel A. Cushman

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and genetic adaptations to spatiotemporal variation in habitat conditions allow species to maximize their biogeographic range and persist over time in dynamic environments. An understanding of these local adaptations can be used to guide management and conservation of populations over broad extents encompassing diverse habitats. This understanding is often...

  20. Maximum Wind Power Tracking of Doubly Fed Wind Turbine System Based on Adaptive Gain Second-Order Sliding Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchang Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive gain second-order sliding mode control strategy to track optimal electromagnetic torque and regulate reactive power of doubly fed wind turbine system. Firstly, wind turbine aerodynamic characteristics and doubly fed induction generator (DFIG modeling are presented. Then, electromagnetic torque error and reactive power error are chosen as sliding variables, and fixed gain super-twisting sliding mode control scheme is designed. Considering that uncertainty upper bound is unknown and is hard to be estimated in actual doubly fed wind turbine system, a gain scheduled law is proposed to compel control parameters variation according to uncertainty upper bound real-time. Adaptive gain second-order sliding mode rotor voltage control method is constructed in detail and finite time stability of doubly fed wind turbine control system is strictly proved. The superiority and robustness of the proposed control scheme are finally evaluated on a 1.5 MW DFIG wind turbine system.

  1. Frequency variations of discrete cranial traits in major human populations. I. Supernumerary ossicle variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanihara, T; Ishida, H

    2001-06-01

    Four supernumerary ossicle variations-the ossicle at the lambda, the parietal notch bone, the asterionic bone, and the occipitomastoid bone-were examined for laterality differences, intertrait correlations, sex differences, and between group variations in the samples from around the world. Significant laterality differences were not detected in almost all samples. In some pairs of traits, significant association of occurrence were found. Several geographic samples were sexually dimorphic with respect to the asterionic bone and to a lesser extent for the parietal notch bone. East/Northeast Asians including the Arctic populations in general had lower frequencies of the 4 accessory ossicles. Australians, Melanesians and the majority of the New World peoples, on the other hand, generally had high frequencies. In the western hemisphere of the Old World, Subsaharan Africans had relatively high frequencies. Except for the ossicle at the lambda, the distribution pattern in incidence showed clinal variation from south to north. Any identifiable adaptive value related to environmental or subsistence factors may be expressed in such clinal variation. This may allow us to hypothesise that not only mechanical factors but a founder effect, genetic drift, and population structure could have been the underlying causes for interregional variation and possible clines in the incidences of the accessory ossicles.

  2. Nitric oxide and TNFα are critical regulators of reversible lymph node vascular remodeling and adaptive immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Sellers

    Full Text Available Lymph node (LN vascular growth, at the level of the main arteriole, was recently characterized for the first time during infection. Arteriole diameter was shown to increase for at least seven days and to occur via a CD4(+ T cell dependent mechanism, with vascular expansion playing a critical role in regulating induction of adaptive immune response. Here, using intravital microscopy of the inguinal LN during herpes simplex type II (HSV-2 infection, the data provides the first studies that demonstrate arteriole expansion during infection is a reversible vascular event that occurs via eutrophic outward remodeling. Furthermore, using genetic ablation models, and pharmacological blockade, we reveal arteriole remodeling and LN hypertrophy to be dependent upon both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and TNFα expression. Additionally, we reveal transient changes in nitric oxide (NO levels to be a notable feature of response to viral infection and LN vascular remodeling and provide evidence that mast cells are the critical source of TNFα required to drive arteriole remodeling. Overall, this study is the first to fully characterize LN arteriole vascular changes throughout the course of infection. It effectively reveals a novel role for NO and TNFα in LN cellularity and changes in LN vascularity, which represent key advances in understanding LN vascular physiology and adaptive immune response.

  3. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  4. Stress-induced variation in evolution: from behavioural plasticity to genetic assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyaev, Alexander V

    2005-05-07

    Extreme environments are closely associated with phenotypic evolution, yet the mechanisms behind this relationship are poorly understood. Several themes and approaches in recent studies significantly further our understanding of the importance that stress-induced variation plays in evolution. First, stressful environments modify (and often reduce) the integration of neuroendocrinological, morphological and behavioural regulatory systems. Second, such reduced integration and subsequent accommodation of stress-induced variation by developmental systems enables organismal 'memory' of a stressful event as well as phenotypic and genetic assimilation of the response to a stressor. Third, in complex functional systems, a stress-induced increase in phenotypic and genetic variance is often directional, channelled by existing ontogenetic pathways. This accounts for similarity among individuals in stress-induced changes and thus significantly facilitates the rate of adaptive evolution. Fourth, accumulation of phenotypically neutral genetic variation might be a common property of locally adapted and complex organismal systems, and extreme environments facilitate the phenotypic expression of this variance. Finally, stress-induced effects and stress-resistance strategies often persist for several generations through maternal, ecological and cultural inheritance. These transgenerational effects, along with both the complexity of developmental systems and stressor recurrence, might facilitate genetic assimilation of stress-induced effects. Accumulation of phenotypically neutral genetic variance by developmental systems and phenotypic accommodation of stress-induced effects, together with the inheritance of stress-induced modifications, ensure the evolutionary persistence of stress-response strategies and provide a link between individual adaptability and evolutionary adaptation.

  5. Effects of shifting growth stage and regulating temperature on seasonal variation of CH4 emission from rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Yamada, Hiromi; Kimura, Makoto

    2001-09-01

    Seasonal variations in CH4 emission rates from rice paddies have been reported to have one or more maxima during the middle and late periods of rice growth. The factor affecting an appearance of CH4 emission maxima was examined in three types of pot experiments. In the experiment 1, four rice cultivars with difference in length of the period from transplanting to heading were transplanted on the same days. For the experiment 2, a cultivar was transplanted 4 times with interval of two weeks. In these experiments, the heading differed about a month between the earliest and latest treatments, respectively. However, shifting growth stage of rice plants did not shift the CH4 emission maxima, and the CH4 emission maxima often matched the maxima of daily mean air temperature. The effect of variation in temperature on CH4 emission rate was further investigated in the experiment 3 by placing the rice-planted pots under regulated temperature. Besides the first emission peak of CH4 attributable to rice straw (RS) carbon, three emission peaks corresponding to the peaks of air temperature were detected for the RS-applied pots placed outdoors. These three peaks were not observed or much less conspicuous for the RS-applied pots in a phytotron at 30°C. Temporal decreases in CH4 emission were detected both for the pots placed in the phytotron and outdoors just after the topdressing of (NH4)2SO4, which was considered to be a major cause of irregular disagreement between the variations in CH4 emission rates and in air temperature during the middle period of rice growth.

  6. Noncoding transcription by alternative rna polymerases dynamically regulates an auxin-driven chromatin loop

    KAUST Repository

    Ariel, Federico D.; Jé gu, Teddy; Latrasse, David; Romero-Barrios, Natali; Christ, Auré lie; Benhamed, Moussa; Crespi, Martí n D.

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic epigenome is shaped by the genome topology in three-dimensional space. Dynamic reversible variations in this epigenome structure directly influence the transcriptional responses to developmental cues. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) APOLO is transcribed by RNA polymerases II and V in response to auxin, a phytohormone controlling numerous facets of plant development. This dual APOLO transcription regulates the formation of a chromatin loop encompassing the promoter of its neighboring gene PID, a key regulator of polar auxin transport. Altering APOLO expression affects chromatin loop formation, whereas RNA-dependent DNA methylation, active DNA demethylation, and Polycomb complexes control loop dynamics. This dynamic chromatin topology determines PID expression patterns. Hence, the dual transcription of a lincRNA influences local chromatin topology and directs dynamic auxin-controlled developmental outputs on neighboring genes. This mechanism likely underscores the adaptive success of plants in diverse environments and may be widespread in eukaryotes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Noncoding transcription by alternative rna polymerases dynamically regulates an auxin-driven chromatin loop

    KAUST Repository

    Ariel, Federico D.

    2014-08-01

    The eukaryotic epigenome is shaped by the genome topology in three-dimensional space. Dynamic reversible variations in this epigenome structure directly influence the transcriptional responses to developmental cues. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) APOLO is transcribed by RNA polymerases II and V in response to auxin, a phytohormone controlling numerous facets of plant development. This dual APOLO transcription regulates the formation of a chromatin loop encompassing the promoter of its neighboring gene PID, a key regulator of polar auxin transport. Altering APOLO expression affects chromatin loop formation, whereas RNA-dependent DNA methylation, active DNA demethylation, and Polycomb complexes control loop dynamics. This dynamic chromatin topology determines PID expression patterns. Hence, the dual transcription of a lincRNA influences local chromatin topology and directs dynamic auxin-controlled developmental outputs on neighboring genes. This mechanism likely underscores the adaptive success of plants in diverse environments and may be widespread in eukaryotes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Variation in MHC class II B genes in marbled murrelets: implications for delineating conservation units

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Vásquez-Carrillo; V. Friesen; L. Hall; M.Z. Peery

    2013-01-01

    Conserving genetic variation is critical for maintaining the evolutionary potential and viability of a species. Genetic studies seeking to delineate conservation units, however, typically focus on characterizing neutral genetic variation and may not identify populations harboring local adaptations. Here, variation at two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II...

  9. SU-C-202-02: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Adaptive Daily Planning for Cervical Cancer HDR Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerschaert, R; Paul, A; Zhuang, L [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology Division, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Nalichowski, A [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology Division, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Burmeister, J; Miller, A [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology Division, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology Division, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate adaptive daily planning for cervical cancer patients who underwent high-dose-rate intra-cavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT). Methods: This study included 22 cervical cancer patients who underwent 5 fractions of HDR ICBT. Regions of interest (ROIs) including high-risk clinical tumor volume (HR-CTV) and organs-at-risk (OARs) were manually contoured on daily CT images. All patients were treated with adaptive daily plans, which involved ROI delineation and dose optimization at each treatment fraction. Single treatment plans were retrospectively generated by applying the first treatment fraction’s dwell times adjusted for decay and dwell positions of the applicator to subsequent treatment fractions. Various existing similarity metrics were calculated for the ROIs to quantify interfractional organ variations. A novel similarity score (JRARM) was established, which combined both volumetric overlap metrics (DSC, JSC, and RVD) and distance metrics (ASD, MSD, and RMSD). Linear regression was performed to determine a relationship between inter-fractional organ variations of various similarity metrics and D2cc variations from both plans. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests were used to assess adaptive daily plans and single plans by comparing EQD2 D2cc (α/β=3) for OARs. Results: For inter-fractional organ variations, the sigmoid demonstrated the greatest variations based on the JRARM and DSC similarity metrics. Comparisons between paired ROIs showed differences in JRARM scores and DSCs at each treatment fraction. RVD, MSD, and RMSD were found to be significantly correlated to D2cc variations for bladder and sigmoid. The comparison between plans found that adaptive daily planning provided lower EQD2 D2cc of OARs than single planning, specifically for the sigmoid (p=0.015). Conclusion: Substantial inter-fractional organ motion can occur during HDR-BT, which may significantly affect D2cc of OARs. Adaptive daily planning provides improved dose sparing for OARs

  10. High-speed atomic force microscope imaging: Adaptive multiloop mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Juan; Zou, Qingze; Li, Bo; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, an imaging mode (called the adaptive multiloop mode) of atomic force microscope (AFM) is proposed to substantially increase the speed of tapping mode (TM) imaging while preserving the advantages of TM imaging over contact mode (CM) imaging. Due to its superior image quality and less sample disturbances over CM imaging, particularly for soft materials such as polymers, TM imaging is currently the most widely used imaging technique. The speed of TM imaging, however, is substantially (over an order of magnitude) lower than that of CM imaging, becoming the major bottleneck of this technique. Increasing the speed of TM imaging is challenging as a stable probe tapping on the sample surface must be maintained to preserve the image quality, whereas the probe tapping is rather sensitive to the sample topography variation. As a result, the increase of imaging speed can quickly lead to loss of the probe-sample contact and/or annihilation of the probe tapping, resulting in image distortion and/or sample deformation. The proposed adaptive multiloop mode (AMLM) imaging overcomes these limitations of TM imaging through the following three efforts integrated together: First, it is proposed to account for the variation of the TM deflection when quantifying the sample topography; second, an inner-outer feedback control loop to regulate the TM deflection is added on top of the tapping-feedback control loop to improve the sample topography tracking; and, third, an online iterative feedforward controller is augmented to the whole control system to further enhance the topography tracking, where the next-line sample topography is predicted and utilized to reduce the tracking error. The added feedback regulation of the TM deflection ensures the probe-sample interaction force remains near the minimum for maintaining a stable probe-sample interaction. The proposed AMLM imaging is tested and demonstrated by imaging a poly(tert-butyl acrylate) sample in experiments. The

  11. Evidence of a New Role for the High-Osmolarity Glycerol Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway in Yeast: Regulating Adaptation to Citric Acid Stress†

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Clare L.; Botting, Catherine H.; Antrobus, Robin; Coote, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Screening the Saccharomyces cerevisiae disruptome, profiling transcripts, and determining changes in protein expression have identified an important new role for the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the regulation of adaptation to citric acid stress. Deletion of HOG1, SSK1, PBS2, PTC2, PTP2, and PTP3 resulted in sensitivity to citric acid. Furthermore, citric acid resulted in the dual phosphorylation, and thus activation, of Hog1p. Despite mino...

  12. Climate Change Impacts on Seagrass Meadows and Macroalgal Forests: An Integrative Perspective on Acclimation and Adaptation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Duarte

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine macrophytes are the foundation of algal forests and seagrass meadows–some of the most productive and diverse coastal marine ecosystems on the planet. These ecosystems provide nursery grounds and food for fish and invertebrates, coastline protection from erosion, carbon sequestration, and nutrient fixation. For marine macrophytes, temperature is generally the most important range limiting factor, and ocean warming is considered the most severe threat among global climate change factors. Ocean warming induced losses of dominant macrophytes along their equatorial range edges, as well as range extensions into polar regions, are predicted and already documented. While adaptive evolution based on genetic change is considered too slow to keep pace with the increasing rate of anthropogenic environmental changes, rapid adaptation may come about through a set of non-genetic mechanisms involving the functional composition of the associated microbiome, as well as epigenetic modification of the genome and its regulatory effect on gene expression and the activity of transposable elements. While research in terrestrial plants demonstrates that the integration of non-genetic mechanisms provide a more holistic picture of a species' evolutionary potential, research in marine systems is lagging behind. Here, we aim to review the potential of marine macrophytes to acclimatize and adapt to major climate change effects via intraspecific variation at the genetic, epigenetic, and microbiome levels. All three levels create phenotypic variation that may either enhance fitness within individuals (plasticity or be subject to selection and ultimately, adaptation. We review three of the most important phenotypic variations in a climate change context, including physiological variation, variation in propagation success, and in herbivore resistance. Integrating different levels of plasticity, and adaptability into ecological models will allow to obtain a more holistic

  13. Intestinal transcriptome analysis revealed differential salinity adaptation between two tilapiine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronkin, Dana; Seroussi, Eyal; Nitzan, Tali; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Cnaani, Avner

    2015-03-01

    Tilapias are a group of freshwater species, which vary in their ability to adapt to high salinity water. Osmotic regulation in fish is conducted mainly in the gills, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The mechanisms involved in ion and water transport through the GIT is not well-characterized, with only a few described complexes. Comparing the transcriptome of the anterior and posterior intestinal sections of a freshwater and saltwater adapted fish by deep-sequencing, we examined the salinity adaptation of two tilapia species: the high salinity-tolerant Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia), and the less salinity-tolerant Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia). This comparative analysis revealed high similarity in gene expression response to salinity change between species in the posterior intestine and large differences in the anterior intestine. Furthermore, in the anterior intestine 68 genes were saltwater up-regulated in one species and down-regulated in the other species (47 genes up-regulated in O. niloticus and down-regulated in O. mossambicus, with 21 genes showing the reverse pattern). Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed a high proportion of transporter and ion channel function among these genes. The results of this study point to a group of genes that differed in their salinity-dependent regulation pattern in the anterior intestine as potentially having a role in the differential salinity tolerance of these two closely related species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolutionary significance of epigenetic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, C.L.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Bossdorf, O.; Wendel, J.F.; Greilhuber, J.; Dolezel, J.; Leitch, I.J.

    2012-01-01

    Several chapters in this volume demonstrate how epigenetic work at the molecular level over the last few decades has revolutionized our understanding of genome function and developmental biology. However, epigenetic processes not only further our understanding of variation and regulation at the

  15. The role of the adaptive immune system in regulation of gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Lucia M; Kawamoto, Shimpei; Maruya, Mikako; Fagarasan, Sidonia

    2014-07-01

    The gut nourishes rich bacterial communities that affect profoundly the functions of the immune system. The relationship between gut microbiota and the immune system is one of reciprocity. The microbiota contributes to nutrient processing and the development, maturation, and function of the immune system. Conversely, the immune system, particularly the adaptive immune system, plays a key role in shaping the repertoire of gut microbiota. The fitness of host immune system is reflected in the gut microbiota, and deficiencies in either innate or adaptive immunity impact on diversity and structures of bacterial communities in the gut. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that underlie this reciprocity and emphasize how the adaptive immune system via immunoglobulins (i.e. IgA) contributes to diversification and balance of gut microbiota required for immune homeostasis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Adaptive Transcutaneous Power Transfer to Implantable Devices: A State of the Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocan, Kara N; Sejdić, Ervin

    2016-03-18

    Wireless energy transfer is a broad research area that has recently become applicable to implantable medical devices. Wireless powering of and communication with implanted devices is possible through wireless transcutaneous energy transfer. However, designing wireless transcutaneous systems is complicated due to the variability of the environment. The focus of this review is on strategies to sense and adapt to environmental variations in wireless transcutaneous systems. Adaptive systems provide the ability to maintain performance in the face of both unpredictability (variation from expected parameters) and variability (changes over time). Current strategies in adaptive (or tunable) systems include sensing relevant metrics to evaluate the function of the system in its environment and adjusting control parameters according to sensed values through the use of tunable components. Some challenges of applying adaptive designs to implantable devices are challenges common to all implantable devices, including size and power reduction on the implant, efficiency of power transfer and safety related to energy absorption in tissue. Challenges specifically associated with adaptation include choosing relevant and accessible parameters to sense and adjust, minimizing the tuning time and complexity of control, utilizing feedback from the implanted device and coordinating adaptation at the transmitter and receiver.

  17. Adaptive Transcutaneous Power Transfer to Implantable Devices: A State of the Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara N. Bocan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless energy transfer is a broad research area that has recently become applicable to implantable medical devices. Wireless powering of and communication with implanted devices is possible through wireless transcutaneous energy transfer. However, designing wireless transcutaneous systems is complicated due to the variability of the environment. The focus of this review is on strategies to sense and adapt to environmental variations in wireless transcutaneous systems. Adaptive systems provide the ability to maintain performance in the face of both unpredictability (variation from expected parameters and variability (changes over time. Current strategies in adaptive (or tunable systems include sensing relevant metrics to evaluate the function of the system in its environment and adjusting control parameters according to sensed values through the use of tunable components. Some challenges of applying adaptive designs to implantable devices are challenges common to all implantable devices, including size and power reduction on the implant, efficiency of power transfer and safety related to energy absorption in tissue. Challenges specifically associated with adaptation include choosing relevant and accessible parameters to sense and adjust, minimizing the tuning time and complexity of control, utilizing feedback from the implanted device and coordinating adaptation at the transmitter and receiver.

  18. Adaptations to High Salt in a Halophilic Protist: Differential Expression and Gene Acquisitions through Duplications and Gene Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Tommy; Roger, Andrew J.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of halophiles to thrive in extreme hypersaline habitats derives partly from the tight regulation of ion homeostasis, the salt-dependent adjustment of plasma membrane fluidity, and the increased capability to manage oxidative stress. Halophilic bacteria, and archaea have been intensively studied, and substantial research has been conducted on halophilic fungi, and the green alga Dunaliella. By contrast, there have been very few investigations of halophiles that are phagotrophic protists, i.e., protozoa. To gather fundamental knowledge about salt adaptation in these organisms, we studied the transcriptome-level response of Halocafeteria seosinensis (Stramenopiles) grown under contrasting salinities. We provided further evolutionary context to our analysis by identifying genes that underwent recent duplications. Genes that were highly responsive to salinity variations were involved in stress response (e.g., chaperones), ion homeostasis (e.g., Na+/H+ transporter), metabolism and transport of lipids (e.g., sterol biosynthetic genes), carbohydrate metabolism (e.g., glycosidases), and signal transduction pathways (e.g., transcription factors). A significantly high proportion (43%) of duplicated genes were also differentially expressed, accentuating the importance of gene expansion in adaptation by H. seosinensis to high salt environments. Furthermore, we found two genes that were lateral acquisitions from bacteria, and were also highly up-regulated and highly expressed at high salt, suggesting that this evolutionary mechanism could also have facilitated adaptation to high salt. We propose that a transition toward high-salt adaptation in the ancestors of H. seosinensis required the acquisition of new genes via duplication, and some lateral gene transfers (LGTs), as well as the alteration of transcriptional programs, leading to increased stress resistance, proper establishment of ion gradients, and modification of cell structure properties like membrane

  19. Adaptations to High Salt in a Halophilic Protist: Differential Expression and Gene Acquisitions through Duplications and Gene Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Harding

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of halophiles to thrive in extreme hypersaline habitats derives partly from the tight regulation of ion homeostasis, the salt-dependent adjustment of plasma membrane fluidity, and the increased capability to manage oxidative stress. Halophilic bacteria, and archaea have been intensively studied, and substantial research has been conducted on halophilic fungi, and the green alga Dunaliella. By contrast, there have been very few investigations of halophiles that are phagotrophic protists, i.e., protozoa. To gather fundamental knowledge about salt adaptation in these organisms, we studied the transcriptome-level response of Halocafeteria seosinensis (Stramenopiles grown under contrasting salinities. We provided further evolutionary context to our analysis by identifying genes that underwent recent duplications. Genes that were highly responsive to salinity variations were involved in stress response (e.g., chaperones, ion homeostasis (e.g., Na+/H+ transporter, metabolism and transport of lipids (e.g., sterol biosynthetic genes, carbohydrate metabolism (e.g., glycosidases, and signal transduction pathways (e.g., transcription factors. A significantly high proportion (43% of duplicated genes were also differentially expressed, accentuating the importance of gene expansion in adaptation by H. seosinensis to high salt environments. Furthermore, we found two genes that were lateral acquisitions from bacteria, and were also highly up-regulated and highly expressed at high salt, suggesting that this evolutionary mechanism could also have facilitated adaptation to high salt. We propose that a transition toward high-salt adaptation in the ancestors of H. seosinensis required the acquisition of new genes via duplication, and some lateral gene transfers (LGTs, as well as the alteration of transcriptional programs, leading to increased stress resistance, proper establishment of ion gradients, and modification of cell structure properties like

  20. SU-F-I-10: Spatially Local Statistics for Adaptive Image Filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, AS; Sun, X; Floros, D; Zhang, Y; Yin, FF; Ren, L; Pitsianis, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate adaptive image filtering operations, addressing spatial variations in both noise and signal. Such issues are prevalent in cone-beam projections, where physical effects such as X-ray scattering result in spatially variant noise, violating common assumptions of homogeneous noise and challenging conventional filtering approaches to signal extraction and noise suppression. Methods: We present a computational mechanism for probing into and quantifying the spatial variance of noise throughout an image. The mechanism builds a pyramid of local statistics at multiple spatial scales; local statistical information at each scale includes (weighted) mean, median, standard deviation, median absolute deviation, as well as histogram or dynamic range after local mean/median shifting. Based on inter-scale differences of local statistics, the spatial scope of distinguishable noise variation is detected in a semi- or un-supervised manner. Additionally, we propose and demonstrate the incorporation of such information in globally parametrized (i.e., non-adaptive) filters, effectively transforming the latter into spatially adaptive filters. The multi-scale mechanism is materialized by efficient algorithms and implemented in parallel CPU/GPU architectures. Results: We demonstrate the impact of local statistics for adaptive image processing and analysis using cone-beam projections of a Catphan phantom, fitted within an annulus to increase X-ray scattering. The effective spatial scope of local statistics calculations is shown to vary throughout the image domain, necessitating multi-scale noise and signal structure analysis. Filtering results with and without spatial filter adaptation are compared visually, illustrating improvements in imaging signal extraction and noise suppression, and in preserving information in low-contrast regions. Conclusion: Local image statistics can be incorporated in filtering operations to equip them with spatial adaptivity to spatial

  1. SU-F-I-10: Spatially Local Statistics for Adaptive Image Filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliopoulos, AS; Sun, X [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Floros, D [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Zhang, Y; Yin, FF; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Pitsianis, N [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To facilitate adaptive image filtering operations, addressing spatial variations in both noise and signal. Such issues are prevalent in cone-beam projections, where physical effects such as X-ray scattering result in spatially variant noise, violating common assumptions of homogeneous noise and challenging conventional filtering approaches to signal extraction and noise suppression. Methods: We present a computational mechanism for probing into and quantifying the spatial variance of noise throughout an image. The mechanism builds a pyramid of local statistics at multiple spatial scales; local statistical information at each scale includes (weighted) mean, median, standard deviation, median absolute deviation, as well as histogram or dynamic range after local mean/median shifting. Based on inter-scale differences of local statistics, the spatial scope of distinguishable noise variation is detected in a semi- or un-supervised manner. Additionally, we propose and demonstrate the incorporation of such information in globally parametrized (i.e., non-adaptive) filters, effectively transforming the latter into spatially adaptive filters. The multi-scale mechanism is materialized by efficient algorithms and implemented in parallel CPU/GPU architectures. Results: We demonstrate the impact of local statistics for adaptive image processing and analysis using cone-beam projections of a Catphan phantom, fitted within an annulus to increase X-ray scattering. The effective spatial scope of local statistics calculations is shown to vary throughout the image domain, necessitating multi-scale noise and signal structure analysis. Filtering results with and without spatial filter adaptation are compared visually, illustrating improvements in imaging signal extraction and noise suppression, and in preserving information in low-contrast regions. Conclusion: Local image statistics can be incorporated in filtering operations to equip them with spatial adaptivity to spatial

  2. Opinion: Interactions of innate and adaptive lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. Less well understood is the contribution of the adaptive immune system to the orchestration of innate lymphocyte responses. We review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which adaptive T cells function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. We highlight the potential role of regulatory and helper T cells in these processes and discuss major questions in the emerging area of crosstalk between adaptive and innate lymphocytes. PMID:25132095

  3. Retrospectively reported month-to-month variation in sleeping problems of people naturally exposed to high-amplitude annual variation in daylength and/or temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcady A. Putilov

    Full Text Available Compared to literature on seasonal variation in mood and well-being, reports on seasonality of trouble sleeping are scarce and contradictive. To extend geography of such reports on example of people naturally exposed to high-amplitude annual variation in daylength and/or temperature. Participants were the residents of Turkmenia, West Siberia, South and North Yakutia, Chukotka, and Alaska. Health and sleep-wake adaptabilities, month-to-month variation in sleeping problems, well-being and behaviors were self-assessed. More than a half of 2398 respondents acknowledged seasonality of sleeping problems. Four of the assessed sleeping problems demonstrated three different patterns of seasonal variation. Rate of the problems significantly increased in winter months with long nights and cold days (daytime sleepiness and difficulties falling and staying asleep as well as in summer months with either long days (premature awakening and difficulties falling and staying asleep or hot nights and days (all 4 sleeping problems. Individual differences between respondents in pattern and level of seasonality of sleeping problems were significantly associated with differences in several other domains of individual variation, such as gender, age, ethnicity, physical health, morning-evening preference, sleep quality, and adaptability of the sleep-wake cycle. These results have practical relevance to understanding of the roles playing by natural environmental factors in seasonality of sleeping problems as well as to research on prevalence of sleep disorders and methods of their prevention and treatment in regions with large seasonal differences in temperature and daylength.

  4. Predicting ethnic variation in adaptation to later life: styles of socioemotional functioning and constrained heterotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol; Conway, Francine

    2004-06-01

    It is an axiom of social gerontology that populations of older individuals become increasingly differentiated as they age. Adaptations to physical and social losses and the increased dependency that typically accompany greater age are likely to be similarly heterogeneous, with different individuals adjusting to the aging process in widely diverse ways. In this paper we consider how individuals with diverse emotional and regulatory profiles, different levels of religiosity, and varied patterns of social relatedness fare as they age. Specifically, we examine the relation between ethnicity and patterns of socioemotional adaptation in a large, ethnically diverse sample (N = 1118) of community-dwelling older adults. Cluster analysis was applied to 11 measures of socioemotional functioning. Ten qualitatively different profiles were extracted and then related to a measure of physical resiliency. Consistent with ethnographic and psychological theory, individuals from different ethnic backgrounds were unevenly distributed across the clusters. Resilient participants of African descent (African Americans, Jamaicans, Trinidadians, Barbadians) were more likely to manifest patterns of adaptation characterized by religious beliefs, while resilient US-born Whites and Immigrant Whites were more likely to be resilient as a result of non-religious social connectedness. Taken together, although these data underscore the diversity of adaptation to later life, we suggest that patterns of successful adaptation vary systematically across ethnic groups. Implications for the continued study of ethnicity in aging and directions for future research are given.

  5. Adaptive slope compensation for high bandwidth digital current mode controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taeed, Fazel; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive slope compensation method for digital current mode control of dc-dc converters is proposed in this paper. The compensation slope is used for stabilizing the inner current loop in peak current mode control. In this method, the compensation slope is adapted with the variations...... in converter duty cycle. The adaptive slope compensation provides optimum controller operation in term of bandwidth over wide range of operating points. In this paper operation principle of the controller is discussed. The proposed controller is implemented in an FPGA to control a 100 W buck converter...

  6. Discrete Model Reference Adaptive Control System for Automatic Profiling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic profiling machine is a movement system that has a high degree of parameter variation and high frequency of transient process, and it requires an accurate control in time. In this paper, the discrete model reference adaptive control system of automatic profiling machine is discussed. Firstly, the model of automatic profiling machine is presented according to the parameters of DC motor. Then the design of the discrete model reference adaptive control is proposed, and the control rules are proven. The results of simulation show that adaptive control system has favorable dynamic performances.

  7. Local Stereo Matching Using Adaptive Local Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damjanovic, S.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    We propose a new dense local stereo matching framework for gray-level images based on an adaptive local segmentation using a dynamic threshold. We define a new validity domain of the fronto-parallel assumption based on the local intensity variations in the 4-neighborhood of the matching pixel. The

  8. Epigenetic differentiation and relationship to adaptive genetic divergence in discrete populations of the violet Viola cazorlensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar

    2010-08-01

    *In plants, epigenetic variations based on DNA methylation are often heritable and could influence the course of evolution. Before this hypothesis can be assessed, fundamental questions about epigenetic variation remain to be addressed in a real-world context, including its magnitude, structuring within and among natural populations, and autonomy in relation to the genetic context. *Extent and patterns of cytosine methylation, and the relationship to adaptive genetic divergence between populations, were investigated for wild populations of the southern Spanish violet Viola cazorlensis (Violaceae) using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique, a modification of the amplified fragment length polymorphism method (AFLP) based on the differential sensitivity of isoschizomeric restriction enzymes to site-specific cytosine methylation. *The genome of V. cazorlensis plants exhibited extensive levels of methylation, and methylation-based epigenetic variation was structured into distinct between- and within- population components. Epigenetic differentiation of populations was correlated with adaptive genetic divergence revealed by a Bayesian population-genomic analysis of AFLP data. Significant associations existed at the individual genome level between adaptive AFLP loci and the methylation state of methylation-susceptible MSAP loci. *Population-specific, divergent patterns of correlated selection on epigenetic and genetic individual variation could account for the coordinated epigenetic-genetic adaptive population differentiation revealed by this study.

  9. Analysis of the Portuguese building regulation system

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Meijer, F.M.; Visscher, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Portuguese building regulation system has undergone significant changes in the last 20 years. Almost all building regulations presently in force were approved during that period. Some of those building regulations resulted from the transposition of European Directives. Other building regulations were changed due to improvements in the scientific knowledge. The changes in the building control system were mainly driven by an adaptation to more pressing circumstances of practice. The lack...

  10. Dynamic sporulation gene co-expression networks for Bacillus subtilis 168 and the food-borne isolate Bacillus amyloliquefaciens : a transcriptomic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omony, Jimmy; de Jong, Anne; Krawczyk, Antonina O; Eijlander, Robyn T; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2018-01-01

    Sporulation is a survival strategy, adapted by bacterial cells in response to harsh environmental adversities. The adaptation potential differs between strains and the variations may arise from differences in gene regulation. Gene networks are a valuable way of studying such regulation processes and

  11. Voltage regulator for generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, K

    1989-01-17

    It is an object of this invention to provide a voltage regulator for a generator charging a battery, wherein even if the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator rises abnormally high, possible thermal breakage of the semiconductor elements constituting the voltage regulator can be avoided. A feature of this invention is that the semiconductor elements can be protected from thermal breakage, even at an abnormal ambient temperature rise at the voltage regulator for the battery charging generator, by controlling a maximum conduction ratio of a power transistor in the voltage regulator in accordance with the temperature at the voltage regulator. This is achieved through a switching device connected in series to the field coil of the generator and adapted to be controlled in accordance with an output voltage of the generator and the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator. 6 figs.

  12. Phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in two extreme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of allozymes revealed little genetic overlap among populations. Keywords: allozyme, genotype×environment interaction, genetic variation, local adaptation, reaction norms, starch gel electrophoresis, trade-off. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2008, 25(3): 121–130 ...

  13. Adaptation of European beech (Fagus silvatica L.) to different ecological conditions: leaf size variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, M.

    2004-01-01

    In beech trees, both leaf morphology and leaf area show considerable adaptation capabilities to the local radiation climate. The plants adapting to shade conditions create large leaf area with high chlorophyll concentration and high water content in the living tissues. On the other hand, the leaves of plants exposed to radiation of higher intensity have smaller area, several layers of mesophyll, thick epidermis and cuticle, higher dry weight, higher energy potential of the dry mass and several other characteristic properties

  14. Thermal flow regulator of refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinskij, S.I.; Savchenko, A.G.; Suplin, V.Z.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal flow regulator of refrigerant for helium flow-type temperature-controlled cryostats based on controlling the channel hydraulic resistance due to variation of the flow density and viscosity during liquid helium transformation into the gaseous state. Behind the regulator both two-phase flow and a heated gas can be produced. The regulator resolution is (7-15)x10 -4 l/mW of liquid helium

  15. Patterns of hybrid loss of imprinting reveal tissue- and cluster-specific regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Wiley

    Full Text Available Crosses between natural populations of two species of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus (BW, and P. polionotus (PO, produce parent-of-origin effects on growth and development. BW females mated to PO males (bwxpo produce growth-retarded but otherwise healthy offspring. In contrast, PO females mated to BW males (POxBW produce overgrown and severely defective offspring. The hybrid phenotypes are pronounced in the placenta and include POxBW conceptuses which lack embryonic structures. Evidence to date links variation in control of genomic imprinting with the hybrid defects, particularly in the POxBW offspring. Establishment of genomic imprinting is typically mediated by gametic DNA methylation at sites known as gDMRs. However, imprinted gene clusters vary in their regulation by gDMR sequences.Here we further assess imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation at different cluster types in order to discern patterns. These data reveal POxBW misexpression at the Kcnq1ot1 and Peg3 clusters, both of which lose ICR methylation in placental tissues. In contrast, some embryonic transcripts (Peg10, Kcnq1ot1 reactivated the silenced allele with little or no loss of DNA methylation. Hybrid brains also display different patterns of imprinting perturbations. Several cluster pairs thought to use analogous regulatory mechanisms are differentially affected in the hybrids.These data reinforce the hypothesis that placental and somatic gene regulation differs significantly, as does that between imprinted gene clusters and between species. That such epigenetic regulatory variation exists in recently diverged species suggests a role in reproductive isolation, and that this variation is likely to be adaptive.

  16. Adaptive force regulation of muscle strengthening rehabilitation device with magnetorheological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, Jian Qiao; Rudolph, Katherine

    2006-03-01

    In rehabilitation from neuromuscular trauma or injury, strengthening exercises are often prescribed by physical therapists to recover as much function as possible. Strengthening equipment used in clinical settings range from low-cost devices, such as sandbag weights or elastic bands to large and expensive isotonic and isokinetic devices. The low-cost devices are incapable of measuring strength gains and apply resistance based on the lowest level of torque that is produced by a muscle group. Resistance that varies with joint angle can be achieved with isokinetic devices in which angular velocity is held constant and variable torque is generated when the patient attempts to move faster than the device but are ineffective if a patient cannot generate torque rapidly. In this paper, we report the development of a versatile rehabilitation device that can be used to strengthen different muscle groups based on the torque generating capability of the muscle that changes with joint angle. The device is low cost, is smaller than other commercially available machines, and can be programmed to apply resistance that is unique to a particular patient and that will optimize strengthening. The core of the device, a damper with smart magnetorheological fluids, provides passive exercise force. A digital adaptive control is capable of regulating exercise force precisely following the muscle strengthening profile prescribed by a physical therapist. The device could be programmed with artificial intelligence to dynamically adjust the target force profile to optimize rehabilitation effects. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and can be developed into a small, low-cost device that may be capable of providing optimal strengthening in the home.

  17. Regulation of the hunting season as a tool for adaptive harvest management — first results for pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper; Clausen, Kevin; Christensen, Thomas Kjær

    2016-01-01

    Adjustment of hunting season length is often used to regulate harvest of waterbirds but the effects are disputed. We describe the first results of season length extension on the harvest of the pink-footed goose, which has been selected as the first test case of adaptive harvest management...... of waterbirds in Europe. In Denmark, the season (previously 1 September to 31 December) was extended to include January in 2014–2015 with the aim to increase the harvest and, in the longer term, reduce the population size. The total harvest in Denmark increased by 52% compared to previous years, and almost 50...

  18. Studies of ecomorphological variations of the European hare (Lepus europaeus in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirbaş Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hares (Lepus spp. are widely distributed across the globe and are adapted to diverse climatic conditions. In order to study the ecomorphological variations of hares from Turkey, the body and cranial measurements and body weight, as well as coat color types, of 138 hares collected from all over Turkey between 2006 and 2012, were examined. Statistically significant differences between regional samples (p <0.05, ANOVA only in terms of body weight and hindfoot length were found; however, there were a good number of external phenotypes, particularly in terms of coat color variants of the hare specimens. Furthermore, populations had similar variations in terms of morphometric measurement, body weight and coat coloration between different geographical regions. Turkish hares did not exhibit clinal variations from south to north in body and cranial measurements depending on the mean annual temperatures and precipitation. Therefore, it was assumed that all of these variations might be a polymorphism related to the local adaptations and high level of admixture of gene pools in Anatolia.

  19. Genetic component of flammability variation in a Mediterranean shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, B; Castellanos, M C; Pausas, J G

    2014-03-01

    Recurrent fires impose a strong selection pressure in many ecosystems worldwide. In such ecosystems, plant flammability is of paramount importance because it enhances population persistence, particularly in non-resprouting species. Indeed, there is evidence of phenotypic divergence of flammability under different fire regimes. Our general hypothesis is that flammability-enhancing traits are adaptive; here, we test whether they have a genetic component. To test this hypothesis, we used the postfire obligate seeder Ulex parviflorus from sites historically exposed to different fire recurrence. We associated molecular variation in potentially adaptive loci detected with a genomic scan (using AFLP markers) with individual phenotypic variability in flammability across fire regimes. We found that at least 42% of the phenotypic variation in flammability was explained by the genetic divergence in a subset of AFLP loci. In spite of generalized gene flow, the genetic variability was structured by differences in fire recurrence. Our results provide the first field evidence supporting that traits enhancing plant flammability have a genetic component and thus can be responding to natural selection driven by fire. These results highlight the importance of flammability as an adaptive trait in fire-prone ecosystems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Coordinated Evolution of Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Regulation for Mitochondrial Functions in Yeast Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuepeng Sun

    Full Text Available Evolution of gene regulation has been proposed to play an important role in environmental adaptation. Exploring mechanisms underlying coordinated evolutionary changes at various levels of gene regulation could shed new light on how organism adapt in nature. In this study, we focused on regulatory differences between a laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4742 and a pathogenic S. cerevisiae strain, YJM789. The two strains diverge in many features, including growth rate, morphology, high temperature tolerance, and pathogenicity. Our RNA-Seq and ribosomal footprint profiling data showed that gene expression differences are pervasive, and genes functioning in mitochondria are mostly divergent between the two strains at both transcriptional and translational levels. Combining functional genomics data from other yeast strains, we further demonstrated that significant divergence of expression for genes functioning in the electron transport chain (ETC was likely caused by differential expression of a transcriptional factor, HAP4, and that post-transcriptional regulation mediated by an RNA-binding protein, PUF3, likely led to expression divergence for genes involved in mitochondrial translation. We also explored mito-nuclear interactions via mitochondrial DNA replacement between strains. Although the two mitochondrial genomes harbor substantial sequence divergence, neither growth nor gene expression were affected by mitochondrial DNA replacement in both fermentative and respiratory growth media, indicating compatible mitochondrial and nuclear genomes between these two strains in the tested conditions. Collectively, we used mitochondrial functions as an example to demonstrate for the first time that evolution at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels could lead to coordinated regulatory changes underlying strain specific functional variations.

  1. Adaptive nonlinear control using input normalized neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeghim, Henzeh; Seo, In Ho; Bang, Hyo Choong

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive feedback linearization technique combined with the neural network is addressed to control uncertain nonlinear systems. The neural network-based adaptive control theory has been widely studied. However, the stability analysis of the closed-loop system with the neural network is rather complicated and difficult to understand, and sometimes unnecessary assumptions are involved. As a result, unnecessary assumptions for stability analysis are avoided by using the neural network with input normalization technique. The ultimate boundedness of the tracking error is simply proved by the Lyapunov stability theory. A new simple update law as an adaptive nonlinear control is derived by the simplification of the input normalized neural network assuming the variation of the uncertain term is sufficiently small

  2. Genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Darren; Rodríguez, Rafael L.

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of phenotypic variation arise in part from plasticity owing to social interactions, and these patterns contribute, in turn, to the form of selection that shapes the variation we observe in natural populations. This proximate–ultimate dynamic brings genetic variation in social environments to the forefront of evolutionary theory. However, the extent of this variation remains largely unknown. Here, we use a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) to assess how mate preferences are influenced by genetic variation in the social environment. We used full-sibling split-families as ‘treatment’ social environments, and reared focal females alongside each treatment family, describing the mate preferences of the focal females. With this method, we detected substantial genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences. The mate preferences of focal females varied according to the treatment families along with which they grew up. We discuss the evolutionary implications of the presence of such genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences, including potential contributions to the maintenance of genetic variation, the promotion of divergence, and the adaptive evolution of social effects on fitness-related traits. PMID:23698010

  3. Adapting agriculture to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, S Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger

    2007-12-11

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists.

  4. Wheelchair users' experience of non-adapted and adapted clothes during sailing, quad rugby or wheel-walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, G; Söderback, I; Guidetti, S; Hultling, C; Rykatkin, T; Söderström, M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present quasi-experimental post-test-design study was to compare 32 wheelchair users' (mostly para/tetraplegics) experience of wearing specially adapted clothes and non-adapted clothes for sailing, quad rugby or wheel-walking. Four existing assessment instruments were used: the Klein-Bell Activities of Daily Living Scale; a two-part Basic Information Questionnaire eliciting experience of effort, comfort and feeling of physical condition; the Experience Sampling Form for investigating the individuals' attitudes in terms of involvement and affective and activity mood states, and the Occupational Therapy Assessment of Leisure Time interview framework for collecting data about experience of leisure time. The wheelchair users all associated significantly greater comfort with use of the adapted clothes and, particularly the 'sailors', better physical condition. Overall, significantly greater involvement and more positive affect states were associated with the adapted clothes than with conventional garments, and mood state changed for the better. The wheelchair users set a higher priority upon work or leisure activities than upon independence in activities of daily living, and for this reason the Klein-Bell ratings showed great variation between the 'sailors' and the 'quad rugby players' (range 57%-93%), though these groups demonstrated more independence than the 'wheel-walkers'. The results of the study confirm the value of adapting sportswear for handicapped people. Such adaptations should also be of benefit for other activities than those studied.

  5. Adaptive diversification of growth allometry in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, François; Exposito-Alonso, Moises; Ayala-Garay, Oscar J; Wang, George; Enquist, Brian J; Vile, Denis; Violle, Cyrille; Weigel, Detlef

    2018-03-27

    Seed plants vary tremendously in size and morphology; however, variation and covariation in plant traits may be governed, at least in part, by universal biophysical laws and biological constants. Metabolic scaling theory (MST) posits that whole-organismal metabolism and growth rate are under stabilizing selection that minimizes the scaling of hydrodynamic resistance and maximizes the scaling of resource uptake. This constrains variation in physiological traits and in the rate of biomass accumulation, so that they can be expressed as mathematical functions of plant size with near-constant allometric scaling exponents across species. However, the observed variation in scaling exponents calls into question the evolutionary drivers and the universality of allometric equations. We have measured growth scaling and fitness traits of 451 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions with sequenced genomes. Variation among accessions around the scaling exponent predicted by MST was correlated with relative growth rate, seed production, and stress resistance. Genomic analyses indicate that growth allometry is affected by many genes associated with local climate and abiotic stress response. The gene with the strongest effect, PUB4 , has molecular signatures of balancing selection, suggesting that intraspecific variation in growth scaling is maintained by opposing selection on the trade-off between seed production and abiotic stress resistance. Our findings suggest that variation in allometry contributes to local adaptation to contrasting environments. Our results help reconcile past debates on the origin of allometric scaling in biology and begin to link adaptive variation in allometric scaling to specific genes. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Optimization of adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer: Solutions for photon and proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, A.J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In cervical cancer radiation therapy, an adaptive strategy is required to compensate for interfraction anatomical variations in order to achieve adequate dose delivery. In this thesis, we have aimed at optimizing adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer to improve treatment efficiency and

  7. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.

  8. Conservatism and novelty in the genetic architecture of adaptation in Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, B; Whibley, A; Poul, Y L; Navarro, N; Martin, A; Baxter, S; Shah, A; Gilles, B; Wirth, T; McMillan, W O; Joron, M

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of adaptive traits has been at the centre of modern evolutionary biology since Fisher; however, evaluating how the genetic architecture of ecologically important traits influences their diversification has been hampered by the scarcity of empirical data. Now, high-throughput genomics facilitates the detailed exploration of variation in the genome-to-phenotype map among closely related taxa. Here, we investigate the evolution of wing pattern diversity in Heliconius, a clade of neotropical butterflies that have undergone an adaptive radiation for wing-pattern mimicry and are influenced by distinct selection regimes. Using crosses between natural wing-pattern variants, we used genome-wide restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) genotyping, traditional linkage mapping and multivariate image analysis to study the evolution of the architecture of adaptive variation in two closely related species: Heliconius hecale and H. ismenius. We implemented a new morphometric procedure for the analysis of whole-wing pattern variation, which allows visualising spatial heatmaps of genotype-to-phenotype association for each quantitative trait locus separately. We used the H. melpomene reference genome to fine-map variation for each major wing-patterning region uncovered, evaluated the role of candidate genes and compared genetic architectures across the genus. Our results show that, although the loci responding to mimicry selection are highly conserved between species, their effect size and phenotypic action vary throughout the clade. Multilocus architecture is ancestral and maintained across species under directional selection, whereas the single-locus (supergene) inheritance controlling polymorphism in H. numata appears to have evolved only once. Nevertheless, the conservatism in the wing-patterning toolkit found throughout the genus does not appear to constrain phenotypic evolution towards local adaptive optima.

  9. A self-adaptive feedforward rf control system for linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Renshan; Ben-Zvi, I.; Xie Jialin

    1993-01-01

    The design and performance of a self-adaptive feedforward rf control system are reported. The system was built for the linac of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Variables of time along the linac macropulse, such as field or phase are discretized and represented as vectors. Upon turn-on or after a large change in the operating-point, the control system acquires the response of the system to test signal vectors and generates a linearized system response matrix. During operation an error vector is generated by comparing the linac variable vectors and a target vector. The error vector is multiplied by the inverse of the system's matrix to generate a correction vector is added to an operating point vector. This control system can be used to control a klystron to produce flat rf amplitude and phase pulses, to control a rf cavity to reduce the rf field fluctuation, and to compensate the energy spread among bunches in a rf linac. Beam loading effects can be corrected and a programmed ramp can be produced. The performance of the control system has been evaluated on the control of a klystron's output as well as an rf cavity. Both amplitude and phase have been regulated simultaneously. In initial tests, the rf output from a klystron has been regulated to an amplitude fluctuation of less than ±0.3% and phase variation of less than ±0.6deg. The rf field of the ATF's photo-cathode microwave gun cavity has been regulated to ±5% in amplitude and simultaneously to ±1deg in phase. Regulating just the rf field amplitude in the rf gun cavity, we have achieved amplitude fluctuation of less than ±2%. (orig.)

  10. SU-E-J-153: MRI Based, Daily Adaptive Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer: Contour Adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijnen, J; Burbach, M; Verbraeken, T; Weggers, R; Zoetelief, A; Reerink, O; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B; Asselen, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A major hurdle in adaptive radiotherapy is the adaptation of the planning MRI's delineations to the daily anatomy. We therefore investigate the accuracy and time needed for online clinical target volume (CTV) adaptation by radiation therapists (RTT), to be used in MRI-guided adaptive treatments on a MRI-Linac (MRL). Methods: Sixteen patients, diagnosed with early stage rectal cancer, underwent a T2-weighted MRI prior to each fraction of short-course radiotherapy, resulting in 4–5 scans per patient. On these scans, the CTV was delineated according to guidelines by an experienced radiation oncologist (RO) and considered to be the gold standard. For each patient, the first MRI was considered as the planning MRI and matched on bony anatomy to the 3–4 daily MRIs. The planning MRI's CTV delineation was rigidly propagated to the daily MRI scans as a proposal for adaptation. Three RTTs in training started the adaptation of the CTV conform guidelines, after a two hour training lecture and a two patient (n=7) training set. To assess the inter-therapist variation, all three RTTs altered delineations of 3 patients (n=12). One RTT altered the CTV delineations (n=53) of the remaining 11 patients. Time needed for adaptation of the CTV to guidelines was registered.As a measure of agreement, the conformity index (CI) was determined between the RTTs' delineations as a group. Dice similarity coefficients were determined between delineations of the RTT and the RO. Results: We found good agreement between RTTs' and RO's delineations (average Dice=0.91, SD=0.03). Furthermore, the inter-observer agreement between the RTTs was high (average CI=0.94, SD=0.02). Adaptation time reduced from 10:33 min (SD= 3:46) to 2:56 min (SD=1:06) between the first and last ten delineations, respectively. Conclusion: Daily CTV adaptation by RTTs, seems a feasible and safe way to introduce daily, online MRI-based plan adaptation for a MRL

  11. Adaptive evolution of relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB/IkappaB protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Begun, D J; Whitley, P

    2000-01-01

    NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins have central roles in regulation of inflammation and innate immunity in mammals. Homologues of these proteins also play an important role in regulation of the Drosophila immune response. Here we present a molecular population genetic analysis of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB/IkappaB protein, in Drosophila simulans and D. melanogaster. We find strong evidence for adaptive protein evolution in D. simulans, but not in D. melanogaster. The adaptive evolution appear...

  12. Local climate and cultivation, but not ploidy, predict functional trait variation in Bouteloua gracilis (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Bradley J.; Wood, Troy E.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve the diversity of seed 18 resources for important restoration species has become a high priority for land managers in many parts of the world. Relationships between functional trait values and the environment from which seed sources are collected can provide important insights into patterns of local adaptation and guidelines for seed transfer. However, little is known about which functional traits exhibit genetic differentiation across populations of restoration species and thus may contribute to local adaptation. Here, we report the results of a common garden experiment aimed at assessing genetic (including ploidy level) and environmental regulation of several functional traits among populations of Bouteloua gracilis, a dominant C4 grass and the most highly utilized restoration species across much of the Colorado Plateau. We found that leaf size and specific leaf area (SLA) varied significantly among populations, and were strongly correlated with the source population environment from which seeds were collected. However, variation in ploidy level had no significant effect on functional traits. Leaves of plants grown from commercial seed releases were significantly larger and had lower SLA than those from natural populations, a result that is concordant with the overall relation between climate and these two functional traits. We suggest that the patterns of functional trait variation shown here may extend to other grass species in the western USA, and may serve as useful proxies for more extensive genecology research. Furthermore, we argue that care should be taken to develop commercial seed lines with functional trait values that match those of natural populations occupying climates similar to target restoration sites.

  13. The state of climate change adaptation in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, James D; McDowell, Graham; Jones, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic climate is rapidly changing, with wide ranging impacts on natural and social systems. A variety of adaptation policies, programs and practices have been adopted to this end, yet our understanding of if, how, and where adaptation is occurring is limited. In response, this paper develops a systematic approach to characterize the current state of adaptation in the Arctic. Using reported adaptations in the English language peer reviewed literature as our data source, we document 157 discrete adaptation initiatives between 2003 and 2013. Results indicate large variations in adaptation by region and sector, dominated by reporting from North America, particularly with regards to subsistence harvesting by Inuit communities. Few adaptations were documented in the European and Russian Arctic, or have a focus on the business and economy, or infrastructure sectors. Adaptations are being motivated primarily by the combination of climatic and non-climatic factors, have a strong emphasis on reducing current vulnerability involving incremental changes to existing risk management processes, and are primarily initiated and led at the individual/community level. There is limited evidence of trans-boundary adaptations or initiatives considering potential cross-scale/sector impacts. (letter)

  14. ADAPTATION PROCESS TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN AGRICULTURE- AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Climatic variations affect agriculture in a process with no known end means. Adaptations help to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change. Unfortunately, adaptation has never been considered as a process. Current study empirically identified the adaptation process and its different stages. Moreover, little is known about the farm level adaptation strategies and their determinants. The study in hand found farm level adaptation strategies and determinants of these strategies. The study identified three stages of adaptation i.e. perception, intention and adaptation. It was found that 71.4% farmers perceived about climate change, 58.5% intended to adapt while 40.2% actually adapted. The study further explored that farmers do adaptations through changing crop variety (56.3%, changing planting dates (44.6%, tree plantation (37.5%, increase/conserve irrigation (39.3% and crop diversification (49.2%. The adaptation strategies used by farmers were autonomous and mostly determined perception to climate change. It was also noted that the adaptation strategies move in a circular process and once they are adapted they remained adapted for a longer period of time. Some constraints slow the adaptation process so; we recommend farmers should be given price incentives to speed-up this process.

  15. Genomic footprints of dryland stress adaptation in Egyptian fat-tail sheep and their divergence from East African and western Asia cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwacharo, Joram M; Kim, Eui-Soo; Elbeltagy, Ahmed R; Aboul-Naga, Adel M; Rischkowsky, Barbara A; Rothschild, Max F

    2017-12-15

    African indigenous sheep are classified as fat-tail, thin-tail and fat-rump hair sheep. The fat-tail are well adapted to dryland environments, but little is known on their genome profiles. We analyzed patterns of genomic variation by genotyping, with the Ovine SNP50K microarray, 394 individuals from five populations of fat-tail sheep from a desert environment in Egypt. Comparative inferences with other East African and western Asia fat-tail and European sheep, reveal at least two phylogeographically distinct genepools of fat-tail sheep in Africa that differ from the European genepool, suggesting separate evolutionary and breeding history. We identified 24 candidate selection sweep regions, spanning 172 potentially novel and known genes, which are enriched with genes underpinning dryland adaptation physiology. In particular, we found selection sweeps spanning genes and/or pathways associated with metabolism; response to stress, ultraviolet radiation, oxidative stress and DNA damage repair; activation of immune response; regulation of reproduction, organ function and development, body size and morphology, skin and hair pigmentation, and keratinization. Our findings provide insights on the complexity of genome architecture regarding dryland stress adaptation in the fat-tail sheep and showcase the indigenous stocks as appropriate genotypes for adaptation planning to sustain livestock production and human livelihoods, under future climates.

  16. Induction machine Direct Torque Control system based on fuzzy adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-ping; Yu, Yan; Jiao, Zhen-gang; Gu, Shu-sheng

    2009-07-01

    Direct Torque Control technology is a high-performance communication control method, it uses the space voltage vector method, and then to the inverter switch state control, to obtain high torque dynamic performance. But none of the switching states is able to generate the exact voltage vector to produce the desired changes in torque and flux in most of the switching instances. This causes a high ripple in torque. To solve this problem, a fuzzy implementation of Direct Torque Control of Induction machine is presented here. Error of stator flux, error of motor electromagnetic torque and position of angle of flux are taken as fuzzy variables. In order to further solve nonlinear problem of variation parameters in direct torque control system, the paper proposes a fuzzy parameter PID adaptive control method which is suitable for the direct torque control of an asynchronous motor. The generation of its fuzzy control is obtained by analyzing and optimizing PID control step response and combining expert's experience. For this reason, it carries out fuzzy work to PID regulator of motor speed to achieve to regulate PID parameters. Therefore the control system gets swifter response velocity, stronger robustness and higher precision of velocity control. The computer simulated results verify the validity of this novel method.

  17. Ancestral Variations in the Shape and Size of the Zygoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettlé, Anna C; Demeter, Fabrice P; L'abbé, Ericka N

    2017-01-01

    The variable development of the zygoma, dictating its shape and size variations among ancestral groups, has important clinical implications and valuable anthropological and evolutionary inferences. The purpose of the study was to review the literature regarding the variations in the zygoma with ancestry. Ancestral variation in the zygoma reflects genetic variations because of genetic drift as well as natural selection and epigenetic changes to adapt to diet and climate variations with possible intensification by isolation. Prominence of the zygoma, zygomaxillary tuberosity, and malar tubercle have been associated with Eastern Asian populations in whom these features intensified. Prominence of the zygoma is also associated with groups from Eastern Europe and the rest of Asia. Diffusion of these traits occurred across the Behring Sea to the Arctic areas and to North and South America. The greatest zygomatic projections are exhibited in Arctic groups as an adaptation to extreme cold conditions, while Native South American groups also present with other features of facial robusticity. Groups from Australia, Malaysia, and Oceania show prominence of the zygoma to a certain extent, possibly because of archaic occupations by undifferentiated Southeast Asian populations. More recent interactions with Chinese groups might explain the prominent cheekbones noted in certain South African groups. Many deductions regarding evolutionary processes and diversifications of early groups have been made. Cognisance of these ancestral variations also have implications for forensic anthropological assessments as well as plastic and reconstructive surgery. More studies are needed to improve accuracy of forensic anthropological identification techniques. Anat Rec, 300:196-208, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Adaptive Control Algorithm of the Synchronous Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the the problem of controlling a synchronous generator, namely, maintaining the stability of the control object in the conditions of occurrence of noise and disturbances in the regulatory process. The model of a synchronous generator is represented by a system of differential equations of Park-Gorev, where state variables are computed relative to synchronously rotating d, q-axis. Management of synchronous generator is proposed to organize on the basis of the position-path control using algorithms to adapt with the reference model. Basic control law directed on the stabilizing indicators the frequency generated by the current and the required power level, which is achieved by controlling the mechanical torque on the shaft of the turbine and the value of the excitation voltage of the synchronous generator. Modification of the classic adaptation algorithm using the reference model, allowing to minimize the error of the reference regulation and the model under investigation within the prescribed limits, produced by means of the introduction of additional variables controller adaptation in the model. Сarried out the mathematical modeling of control provided influence on the studied model of continuous nonlinear and unmeasured the disturbance. Simulation results confirm the high level accuracy of tracking and adaptation investigated model with respect to the reference, and the present value of the loop error depends on parameters performance of regulator.

  19. Effects of competition and life history stage on the expression of local adaptation in two native bunchgrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice Kevin J.; Knapp Eric E.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about the use of genetically appropriate material in restoration often focus on questions of local adaptation. Many reciprocal transplant studies have demonstrated local adaptation in native plant species, but very few have examined how interspecific competition affects the expression of adaptive variation. Our study examined...

  20. Adaptive landing gear concept—feedback control validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulowski, Grzegorz M.; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an integrated feedback control concept for adaptive landing gears (ALG) and its experimental validation. Aeroplanes are subjected to high dynamic loads as a result of the impact during each landing. Classical landing gears, which are in common use, are designed in accordance with official regulations in a way that ensures the optimal energy dissipation for the critical (maximum) sink speed. The regulations were formulated in order to ensure the functional capability of the landing gears during an emergency landing. However, the landing gears, whose characteristics are optimized for these critical conditions, do not perform well under normal impact conditions. For that situation it is reasonable to introduce a system that would adapt the characteristics of the landing gears according to the sink speed of landing. The considered system assumes adaptation of the damping force generated by the landing gear, which would perform optimally in an emergency situation and would adapt itself for regular landings as well. This research covers the formulation and design of the control algorithms for an adaptive landing gear based on MR fluid, implementation of the algorithms on an FPGA platform and experimental verification on a lab-scale landing gear device. The main challenge of the research was to develop a control methodology that could operate effectively within 50 ms, which is assumed to be the total duration of the phenomenon. The control algorithm proposed in this research was able to control the energy dissipation process on the experimental stand.

  1. Self-Adaptive On-Chip System Based on Cross-Layer Adaptation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kais Loukil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of mobile and battery operated multimedia systems and the diversity of supported applications mount new challenges in terms of design efficiency of these systems which must provide a maximum application quality of service (QoS in the presence of a dynamically varying environment. These optimization problems cannot be entirely solved at design time and some efficiency gains can be obtained at run-time by means of self-adaptivity. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer hardware (HW/software (SW adaptation solution for embedded mobile systems. It supports application QoS under real-time and lifetime constraints via coordinated adaptation in the hardware, operating system (OS, and application layers. Our method relies on an original middleware solution used on both global and local managers. The global manager (GM handles large, long-term variations whereas the local manager (LM is used to guarantee real-time constraints. The GM acts in three layers whereas the LM acts in application and OS layers only. The main role of GM is to select the best configuration for each application to meet the constraints of the system and respect the preferences of the user. The proposed approach has been applied to a 3D graphics application and successfully implemented on an Altera FPGA.

  2. Grandfather regulations, new source bias, and state air toxics regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, Arik

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses plant-level data from the Census of Manufactures and the variation in toxic air pollution regulations across states to measure the effects of laws that are more stringent for new sources of pollution than for existing sources (so-called 'grandfather' regulations). Of particular interest is the resulting 'new source bias' and its effects on capital vintage and investment. Two industries are examined: commercial printing, which has a local product market; and paint manufacturing, which has a more national market. In general, there seem to be no statistically significant differences in capital vintage or investment between plants in states that grandfather new sources of pollution, plants in states that have no air toxics regulations, and plants in states that regulate both new and existing sources

  3. Low pH, Aluminum, and Phosphorus Coordinately Regulate Malate Exudation through GmALMT1 to Improve Soybean Adaptation to Acid Soils1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A.; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V.; Liao, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function. PMID:23341359

  4. Regulation of liquid metal coolant flow rate in experimental loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Laptev, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility to use the VRT-2, RPA-T and R 133 analog temperature regulators for the automated regulation of liquid metal flow rate in the experimental loops for investigations on sodium and sodium-potassium alloy technology is considered. The RPA-T device is shown to be the most convenient one; it is characterized by the following parameters: measuring modulus transfer coefficient is 500; the range of regulating modulus proportionality factor variation - 0.3 - 50; the range of the regulating modulus intergrating time constant variation - 5 - 500 s

  5. Post-translational regulation enables robust p53 regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Chen, Kai-Yuan; Sayed, Ali H; Hencey, Brandon; Shen, Xiling

    2013-08-30

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays important roles in DNA damage repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Due to its critical functions, the level of p53 is tightly regulated by a negative feedback mechanism to increase its tolerance towards fluctuations and disturbances. Interestingly, the p53 level is controlled by post-translational regulation rather than transcriptional regulation in this feedback mechanism. We analyzed the dynamics of this feedback to understand whether post-translational regulation provides any advantages over transcriptional regulation in regard to disturbance rejection. When a disturbance happens, even though negative feedback reduces the steady-state error, it can cause a system to become less stable and transiently overshoots, which may erroneously trigger downstream reactions. Therefore, the system needs to balance the trade-off between steady-state and transient errors. Feedback control and adaptive estimation theories revealed that post-translational regulation achieves a better trade-off than transcriptional regulation, contributing to a more steady level of p53 under the influence of noise and disturbances. Furthermore, post-translational regulation enables cells to respond more promptly to stress conditions with consistent amplitude. However, for better disturbance rejection, the p53- Mdm2 negative feedback has to pay a price of higher stochastic noise. Our analyses suggest that the p53-Mdm2 feedback favors regulatory mechanisms that provide the optimal trade-offs for dynamic control.

  6. Convergent evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa within patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Madsen Sommer, Lea Mette; Molin, Søren

    2015-01-01

    fibrosis. Our analysis of 36 P. aeruginosa lineages identified convergent molecular evolution in 52 genes. This list of genes suggests a role in host adaptation for remodeling of regulatory networks and central metabolism, acquisition of antibiotic resistance and loss of extracellular virulence factors....... Furthermore, we find an ordered succession of mutations in key regulatory networks. Accordingly, mutations in downstream transcriptional regulators were contingent upon mutations in upstream regulators, suggesting that remodeling of regulatory networks might be important in adaptation. The characterization...

  7. Dengue virus genomic variation associated with mosquito adaptation defines the pattern of viral non-coding RNAs and fitness in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V Filomatori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus includes a large number of medically relevant pathogens that cycle between humans and arthropods. This host alternation imposes a selective pressure on the viral population. Here, we found that dengue virus, the most important viral human pathogen transmitted by insects, evolved a mechanism to differentially regulate the production of viral non-coding RNAs in mosquitos and humans, with a significant impact on viral fitness in each host. Flavivirus infections accumulate non-coding RNAs derived from the viral 3'UTRs (known as sfRNAs, relevant in viral pathogenesis and immune evasion. We found that dengue virus host adaptation leads to the accumulation of different species of sfRNAs in vertebrate and invertebrate cells. This process does not depend on differences in the host machinery; but it was found to be dependent on the selection of specific mutations in the viral 3'UTR. Dissecting the viral population and studying phenotypes of cloned variants, the molecular determinants for the switch in the sfRNA pattern during host change were mapped to a single RNA structure. Point mutations selected in mosquito cells were sufficient to change the pattern of sfRNAs, induce higher type I interferon responses and reduce viral fitness in human cells, explaining the rapid clearance of certain viral variants after host change. In addition, using epidemic and pre-epidemic Zika viruses, similar patterns of sfRNAs were observed in mosquito and human infected cells, but they were different from those observed during dengue virus infections, indicating that distinct selective pressures act on the 3'UTR of these closely related viruses. In summary, we present a novel mechanism by which dengue virus evolved an RNA structure that is under strong selective pressure in the two hosts, as regulator of non-coding RNA accumulation and viral fitness. This work provides new ideas about the impact of host adaptation on the variability and evolution of

  8. Neutral mutation as the source of genetic variation in life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcić-Kostić, Krunoslav

    2005-08-01

    The mechanism underlying the maintenance of adaptive genetic variation is a long-standing question in evolutionary genetics. There are two concepts (mutation-selection balance and balancing selection) which are based on the phenotypic differences between alleles. Mutation - selection balance and balancing selection cannot properly explain the process of gene substitution, i.e. the molecular evolution of quantitative trait loci affecting fitness. I assume that such loci have non-essential functions (small effects on fitness), and that they have the potential to evolve into new functions and acquire new adaptations. Here I show that a high amount of neutral polymorphism at these loci can exist in real populations. Consistent with this, I propose a hypothesis for the maintenance of genetic variation in life history traits which can be efficient for the fixation of alleles with very small selective advantage. The hypothesis is based on neutral polymorphism at quantitative trait loci and both neutral and adaptive gene substitutions. The model of neutral - adaptive conversion (NAC) assumes that neutral alleles are not neutral indefinitely, and that in specific and very rare situations phenotypic (relative fitness) differences between them can appear. In this paper I focus on NAC due to phenotypic plasticity of neutral alleles. The important evolutionary consequence of NAC could be the increased adaptive potential of a population. Loci responsible for adaptation should be fast evolving genes with minimally discernible phenotypic effects, and the recent discovery of genes with such characteristics implicates them as suitable candidates for loci involved in adaptation.

  9. 5 CFR 5.1 - Civil Service regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... if such a variation is within the spirit of the regulations, and the efficiency of the Government and... hardship involved, (b) what is permitted in place of what is required by regulations, (c) the circumstances...

  10. Adaptive Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammad, Armita; Rambeau, Joachim; Held, Torsten; Kovacova, Viera; Berg, Johannes; Lässig, Michael

    2017-08-08

    Gene expression levels are important quantitative traits that link genotypes to molecular functions and fitness. In Drosophila, population-genetic studies have revealed substantial adaptive evolution at the genomic level, but the evolutionary modes of gene expression remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in flies. We show that 64% of the observed expression divergence across seven Drosophila species are adaptive changes driven by directional selection. Our results are derived from time-resolved data of gene expression divergence across a family of related species, using a probabilistic inference method for gene-specific selection. Adaptive gene expression is stronger in specific functional classes, including regulation, sensory perception, sexual behavior, and morphology. Moreover, we identify a large group of genes with sex-specific adaptation of expression, which predominantly occurs in males. Our analysis opens an avenue to map system-wide selection on molecular quantitative traits independently of their genetic basis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptive Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Nourmohammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression levels are important quantitative traits that link genotypes to molecular functions and fitness. In Drosophila, population-genetic studies have revealed substantial adaptive evolution at the genomic level, but the evolutionary modes of gene expression remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in flies. We show that 64% of the observed expression divergence across seven Drosophila species are adaptive changes driven by directional selection. Our results are derived from time-resolved data of gene expression divergence across a family of related species, using a probabilistic inference method for gene-specific selection. Adaptive gene expression is stronger in specific functional classes, including regulation, sensory perception, sexual behavior, and morphology. Moreover, we identify a large group of genes with sex-specific adaptation of expression, which predominantly occurs in males. Our analysis opens an avenue to map system-wide selection on molecular quantitative traits independently of their genetic basis.

  12. PULSE INTENSITY CENTERING FOR ADAPTIVE ADJUSTMENT OF PHASE SHIFTER COORDINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shuts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing methods for traffic flow control at a main road have a number of disadvantages. Flow control optimization with the help of adaptive regulation presupposes setting-up of transport detectors. The paper proposes an adaptive method on the basis on a phase adjustment of traffic lights on main street.

  13. Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, H

    2011-08-23

    This work generalizes a multilevel forward Euler Monte Carlo method introduced in Michael B. Giles. (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607–617, 2008.) for the approximation of expected values depending on the solution to an Itô stochastic differential equation. The work (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607– 617, 2008.) proposed and analyzed a forward Euler multilevelMonte Carlo method based on a hierarchy of uniform time discretizations and control variates to reduce the computational effort required by a standard, single level, Forward Euler Monte Carlo method. This work introduces an adaptive hierarchy of non uniform time discretizations, generated by an adaptive algorithmintroduced in (AnnaDzougoutov et al. Raùl Tempone. Adaptive Monte Carlo algorithms for stopped diffusion. In Multiscale methods in science and engineering, volume 44 of Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. Eng., pages 59–88. Springer, Berlin, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. Stoch. Anal. Appl. 23(3):511–558, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. An adaptive algorithm for ordinary, stochastic and partial differential equations. In Recent advances in adaptive computation, volume 383 of Contemp. Math., pages 325–343. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2005.). This form of the adaptive algorithm generates stochastic, path dependent, time steps and is based on a posteriori error expansions first developed in (Anders Szepessy et al. Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 54(10):1169– 1214, 2001). Our numerical results for a stopped diffusion problem, exhibit savings in the computational cost to achieve an accuracy of ϑ(TOL),from(TOL−3), from using a single level version of the adaptive algorithm to ϑ(((TOL−1)log(TOL))2).

  14. Bloodstream form pre-adaptation to the tsetse fly inTrypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eRico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomes are sustained in the bloodstream of their mammalian hosts by their extreme capacity for antigenic variation. However, for life cycle progression, trypanosomes also must generate transmission stages called stumpy forms that are pre-adapted to survive when taken up during the bloodmeal of the disease vector, tsetse flies. These stumpy forms are rather different to the proliferative slender forms that maintain the bloodstream parasitaemia. Firstly, they are non proliferative and morphologically distinct, secondly, they show particular sensitivity to environmental cues that signal entry to the tsetse fly and, thirdly, they are relatively robust such that they survive the changes in temperature, pH and proteolytic environment encountered within the tsetse midgut. These characteristics require regulated changes in gene expression to pre-adapt the parasite and the use of environmental sensing mechanisms, both of which allow the rapid initiation of differentiation to tsetse midgut procyclic forms upon transmission. Interestingly, the generation of stumpy forms is also regulated and periodic in the mammalian blood, this being governed by a density-sensing mechanism whereby a parasite-derived signal drives cell cycle arrest and cellular development both to optimise transmission and to prevent uncontrolled parasite multiplication overwhelming the host.In this review we detail recent developments in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underpin the production of stumpy forms in the mammalian bloodstream and their signal perception pathways both in the mammalian bloodstream and upon entry into the tsetse fly. These discoveries are discussed in the context of conserved eukaryotic signalling and differentiation mechanisms. Further, their potential to act as targets for therapeutic strategies that disrupt parasite development either in the mammalian bloodstream or upon their transmission to tsetse flies is also discussed.

  15. Achieving Optimal Self-Adaptivity for Dynamic Tuning of Organic Semiconductors through Resonance Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Xu, Lijia; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Runfeng; Li, Huanhuan; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Chao; Huang, Wei

    2016-08-03

    Current static-state explorations of organic semiconductors for optimal material properties and device performance are hindered by limited insights into the dynamically changed molecular states and charge transport and energy transfer processes upon device operation. Here, we propose a simple yet successful strategy, resonance variation-based dynamic adaptation (RVDA), to realize optimized self-adaptive properties in donor-resonance-acceptor molecules by engineering the resonance variation for dynamic tuning of organic semiconductors. Organic light-emitting diodes hosted by these RVDA materials exhibit remarkably high performance, with external quantum efficiencies up to 21.7% and favorable device stability. Our approach, which supports simultaneous realization of dynamically adapted and selectively enhanced properties via resonance engineering, illustrates a feasible design map for the preparation of smart organic semiconductors capable of dynamic structure and property modulations, promoting the studies of organic electronics from static to dynamic.

  16. Bioinspired adaptive gradient refractive index distribution lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kezhen; Lai, Chuan-Yar; Wang, Jia; Ji, Shanzuo; Aldridge, James; Feng, Jingxing; Olah, Andrew; Baer, Eric; Ponting, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by the soft, deformable human eye lens, a synthetic polymer gradient refractive index distribution (GRIN) lens with an adaptive geometry and focal power has been demonstrated via multilayer coextrusion and thermoforming of nanolayered elastomeric polymer films. A set of 30 polymer nanolayered films comprised of two thermoplastic polyurethanes having a refractive index difference of 0.05 were coextruded via forced-assembly technique. The set of 30 nanolayered polymer films exhibited transmission near 90% with each film varying in refractive index by 0.0017. An adaptive GRIN lens was fabricated from a laminated stack of the variable refractive index films with a 0.05 spherical GRIN. This lens was subsequently deformed by mechanical ring compression of the lens. Variation in the optical properties of the deformable GRIN lens was determined, including 20% variation in focal length and reduced spherical aberration. These properties were measured and compared to simulated results by placido-cone topography and ANSYS methods. The demonstration of a solid-state, dynamic focal length, GRIN lens with improved aberration correction was discussed relative to the potential future use in implantable devices.

  17. Vitamin B5 Reduces Bacterial Growth via Regulating Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity in Mice Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which vitamins regulate immunity and their effect as an adjuvant treatment for tuberculosis have gradually become very important research topics. Studies have found that vitamin B5 (VB5 can promote epithelial cells to express inflammatory cytokines. We aimed to examine the proinflammatory and antibacterial effect of VB5 in macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain H37Rv and the therapeutic potential of VB5 in vivo with tuberculosis. We investigated the activation of inflammatory signal molecules (NF-κB, AKT, JNK, ERK, and p38, the expression of two primary inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 and the bacterial burdens in H37Rv-infected macrophages stimulated with VB5 to explore the effect of VB5 on the inflammatory and antibacterial responses of macrophages. We further treated the H37Rv-infected mice with VB5 to explore VB5’s promotion of the clearance of H37Rv in the lungs and the effect of VB5 on regulating the percentage of inflammatory cells. Our data showed that VB5 enhanced the phagocytosis and inflammatory response in macrophages infected with H37Rv. Oral administration of VB5 decreased the number of colony-forming units of H37Rv in lungs of mice at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after infection. In addition, VB5 regulated the percentage of macrophages and promoted CD4+ T cells to express interferon-γ and interleukin-17; however, it had no effect on the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In conclusion, VB5 significantly inhibits the growth of MTB by regulating innate immunity and adaptive immunity.

  18. "I know, therefore I adapt?" Complexities of individual adaptation to climate-induced forest dieback in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Oakes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual actions to avoid, benefit from, or cope with climate change impacts partly shape adaptation; much research on adaptation has focused at the systems level, overlooking drivers of individual responses. Theoretical frameworks and empirical studies of environmental behavior identify a complex web of cognitive, affective, and evaluative factors that motivate stewardship. We explore the relationship between knowledge of, and adaptation to, widespread, climate-induced tree mortality to understand the cognitive (i.e., knowledge and learning, affective (i.e., attitudes and place attachment, and evaluative (i.e., use values factors that influence how individuals respond to climate-change impacts. From 43 semistructured interviews with forest managers and users in a temperate forest, we identified distinct responses to local, climate-induced environmental changes that we then categorized as either behavioral or psychological adaptations. Interviewees developed a depth of knowledge about the dieback through a combination of direct, place-based experiences and indirect, mediated learning through social interactions. Knowing that the dieback was associated with climate change led to different adaptive responses among the interviewees, although knowledge alone did not explain this variation. Forest users reported psychological adaptations to process negative attitudes; these adaptations were spurred by knowledge of the causes, losses of intangible values, and impacts to a species to which they held attachment. Behavioral adaptations exclusive to a high level of knowledge included actions such as using the forests to educate others or changing transportation behaviors to reduce personal energy consumption. Managers integrated awareness of the dieback and its dynamics across spatial scales into current management objectives. Our findings suggest that adaptive management may occur from the bottom up, as individual managers implement new practices in

  19. Adaptive radiotherapy for long course neo-adjuvant treatment of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijkamp, Jasper; Marijnen, Corrie; Herk, Marcel van; Triest, Baukelien van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the potential margin reduction with adaptive radiotherapy (ART) during neo-adjuvant treatment of locally-advanced rectal cancer. Methods and materials: Repeat CT scans were acquired for 28 patients treated with 25 × 2 Gy, daily during the first week, and followed by weekly scans. The CTV was delineated on all scans, and shape variation was estimated. Five ART strategies were tested, consisting of an average CTV over the planning CT and one to five repeat CTs. Required PTV margins were calculated for adapted and non-adapted treatment. The strategy with the least PTV volume over the whole treatment was selected and bowel area dose reduction was estimated. Results: Substantial systematic and random shape variation demanded for a PTV margin up to 2.4 cm at the upper-anterior part of the CTV. Plan adaptation after fraction 4 resulted in a maximum 0.7 cm margin reduction and a significant PTV reduction from 1185 to 1023 cc (p < 0.0001). The bowel area volume receiving 15, 45, and 50 Gy was reduced from 436 to 402 cc, 111 to 81 cc, and 49 to 29 cc, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: With adaptive radiotherapy, maximum required PTV margins can be reduced from 2.4 to 1.7 cm, resulting in significantly less dose to the bowel area.

  20. Allelic heterogeneity and trade-off shape natural variation for response to soil micronutrient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifollah Poormohammad Kiani

    Full Text Available As sessile organisms, plants have to cope with diverse environmental constraints that may vary through time and space, eventually leading to changes in the phenotype of populations through fixation of adaptive genetic variation. To fully comprehend the mechanisms of evolution and make sense of the extensive genotypic diversity currently revealed by new sequencing technologies, we are challenged with identifying the molecular basis of such adaptive variation. Here, we have identified a new variant of a molybdenum (Mo transporter, MOT1, which is causal for fitness changes under artificial conditions of both Mo-deficiency and Mo-toxicity and in which allelic variation among West-Asian populations is strictly correlated with the concentration of available Mo in native soils. In addition, this association is accompanied at different scales with patterns of polymorphisms that are not consistent with neutral evolution and show signs of diversifying selection. Resolving such a case of allelic heterogeneity helps explain species-wide phenotypic variation for Mo homeostasis and potentially reveals trade-off effects, a finding still rarely linked to fitness.

  1. Phytoplasma adapt to the diverse environments of their plant and insect hosts by altering gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    a role in host adaptation. 74 genes were up-regulated in insects and included genes involved in stress response, phospholipid synthesis, malate and pyruvate metabolism, hemolysin and transporter genes, multiple copies of thymidylate kinase, sigma factor and Zn-proteases genes. In plants, 34 genes...... encoding an immune dominant membrane protein, membrane-associated proteins, and multidrug resistance ABC-type transporters, were up-regulated. Differential regulation of gene expression thus appears to play an important role in host adaptation of phytoplasmas....

  2. The human endurance athlete: heterogeneity and adaptability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In human subjects, large variations between individuals (up to 3-fold) exist in the capacity for endurance exercise performance. In a heterogeneous population, endurance performance is strongly related to whole body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). This is in part genotype dependent (~25%) but is adaptable with ...

  3. Robust synchronization of drive-response chaotic systems via adaptive sliding mode control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.-L.; Chang, K.-M.

    2009-01-01

    A robust adaptive sliding control scheme is developed in this study to achieve synchronization for two identical chaotic systems in the presence of uncertain system parameters, external disturbances and nonlinear control inputs. An adaptation algorithm is given based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Using this adaptation technique to estimate the upper-bounds of parameter variation and external disturbance uncertainties, an adaptive sliding mode controller is then constructed without requiring the bounds of parameter and disturbance uncertainties to be known in advance. It is proven that the proposed adaptive sliding mode controller can maintain the existence of sliding mode in finite time in uncertain chaotic systems. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  4. Heterogeneous treatment in the variational nodal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    The variational nodal transport method is reduced to its diffusion form and generalized for the treatment of heterogeneous nodes while maintaining nodal balances. Adapting variational methods to heterogeneous nodes requires the ability to integrate over a node with discontinuous cross sections. In this work, integrals are evaluated using composite gaussian quadrature rules, which permit accurate integration while minimizing computing time. Allowing structure within a nodal solution scheme avoids some of the necessity of cross section homogenization, and more accurately defines the intra-nodal flux shape. Ideally, any desired heterogeneity can be constructed within the node; but in reality, the finite set of basis functions limits the practical resolution to which fine detail can be defined within the node. Preliminary comparison tests show that the heterogeneous variational nodal method provides satisfactory results even if some improvements are needed for very difficult, configurations

  5. Quality based approach for adaptive face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Ali J.; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2009-05-01

    Recent advances in biometric technology have pushed towards more robust and reliable systems. We aim to build systems that have low recognition errors and are less affected by variation in recording conditions. Recognition errors are often attributed to the usage of low quality biometric samples. Hence, there is a need to develop new intelligent techniques and strategies to automatically measure/quantify the quality of biometric image samples and if necessary restore image quality according to the need of the intended application. In this paper, we present no-reference image quality measures in the spatial domain that have impact on face recognition. The first is called symmetrical adaptive local quality index (SALQI) and the second is called middle halve (MH). Also, an adaptive strategy has been developed to select the best way to restore the image quality, called symmetrical adaptive histogram equalization (SAHE). The main benefits of using quality measures for adaptive strategy are: (1) avoidance of excessive unnecessary enhancement procedures that may cause undesired artifacts, and (2) reduced computational complexity which is essential for real time applications. We test the success of the proposed measures and adaptive approach for a wavelet-based face recognition system that uses the nearest neighborhood classifier. We shall demonstrate noticeable improvements in the performance of adaptive face recognition system over the corresponding non-adaptive scheme.

  6. Functional regulation of Pb-Ti/MoS_2 composite coatings for environmentally adaptive solid lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Siming; Li, Hao; Cui, Mingjun; Wang, Liping; Pu, Jibin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-doped Pb-Ti/MoS_2 composite coatings were successfully fabricated by unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. • Co-doped Pb-Ti/MoS_2 composite coatings showed lower friction coefficient and longer wear life in both humid and vacuum environments than that of single-doped ones. • The wear behaviours of Pb-Ti/MoS_2 composite coatings with the increase of Pb content is in accordance with the variation in H/E ratio that higher H/E is corresponding to the lower wear rate of coating. - Abstract: The lubrication of molybdenum disulfide coatings has commonly been limited by the application environments, for instance, the crystal MoS_2 are easily affected by water to form MoO_3 that causes a higher friction coefficient and short lifetime. Therefore, to improve the tribolgical performance of MoS_2 in high humidity condition, the co-doped Pb-Ti/MoS_2 composite coatings are deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. The design of the co-doping elements in MoS_2-based coatings can not only maintain the characteristic of low humidity-sensitivity as the Ti/MoS_2 coating but also improve the mechanical properties and tribological performance of coatings as a comparison with single-doped ones. Moreover, the ultra-low friction coefficient with a minimum value of 0.006 under the vacuum condition is achieved for Pb-Ti/MoS_2 composite coating containing about 4.6 at.% Pb, depending on the densification structure of coating. Intriguingly, the wear behaviours of Pb-Ti/MoS_2 composite coatings are in accordance with the variation in H/E (hardness to the elastic modulus) ratio that the coating with higher H/E exhibits lower wear rate. These results demonstrate that the lubricating properties of MoS_2 coatings in both humid environment and vacuum condition can be achieved through the Pb and Ti co-doped, which is of great significant for developing MoS_2 coatings as the environmentally adaptive lubricants.

  7. Alertness function of thalamus in conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Xue, Gui; Chen, Antao

    2016-05-15

    Conflict adaptation reflects the ability to improve current conflict resolution based on previously experienced conflict, which is crucial for our goal-directed behaviors. In recent years, the roles of alertness are attracting increasing attention when discussing the generation of conflict adaptation. However, due to the difficulty of manipulating alertness, very limited progress has been made in this line. Inspired by that color may affect alertness, we manipulated background color of experimental task and found that conflict adaptation significantly presented in gray and red backgrounds but did not in blue background. Furthermore, behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging results revealed that the modulation of color on conflict adaptation was implemented through changing alertness level. In particular, blue background eliminated conflict adaptation by damping the alertness regulating function of thalamus and the functional connectivity between thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In contrast, in gray and red backgrounds where alertness levels are typically high, the thalamus and the right IFG functioned normally and conflict adaptations were significant. Therefore, the alertness function of thalamus is determinant to conflict adaptation, and thalamus and right IFG are crucial nodes of the neural circuit subserving this ability. Present findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of conflict adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Image-guided and adaptive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvel, G.; Chajon, E.; Henry, O.; Cazoulat, G.; Le Maitre, A.; Simon, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Crevoisier, R. de

    2012-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) aims to take into account anatomical variations occurring during irradiation by visualization of anatomical structures. It may consist of a rigid registration of the tumour by moving the patient, in case of prostatic irradiation for example. IGRT associated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is strongly recommended when high-dose is delivered in the prostate, where it seems to reduce rectal and bladder toxicity. In case of significant anatomical deformations, as in head and neck tumours (tumour shrinking and decrease in volume of the salivary glands), re-planning appears to be necessary, corresponding to the adaptive radiotherapy. This should ideally be 'monitored' and possibly triggered based on a calculation of cumulative dose, session after session, compared to the initial planning dose, corresponding to the concept of dose-guided adaptive radiotherapy. The creation of 'planning libraries' based on predictable organ positions (as in cervical cancer) is another way of adaptive radiotherapy. All of these strategies still appear very complex and expensive and therefore require stringent validation before being routinely applied. (authors)

  9. Circadian regulation of hormone signaling and plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamian, Hagop S; Harmer, Stacey L

    2016-08-01

    The survival and reproduction of plants depend on their ability to cope with a wide range of daily and seasonal environmental fluctuations during their life cycle. Phytohormones are plant growth regulators that are involved in almost every aspect of growth and development as well as plant adaptation to myriad abiotic and biotic conditions. The circadian clock, an endogenous and cell-autonomous biological timekeeper that produces rhythmic outputs with close to 24-h rhythms, provides an adaptive advantage by synchronizing plant physiological and metabolic processes to the external environment. The circadian clock regulates phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways to generate daily rhythms in hormone activity that fine-tune a range of plant processes, enhancing adaptation to local conditions. This review explores our current understanding of the interplay between the circadian clock and hormone signaling pathways.

  10. Low-level radioactive waste management: French and foreign regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes radioactive waste management regulations applied in USA, CANADA, SCANDINAVIA and FRANCE. For low level radioactive wastes, it is necessary to adapt waste management regulations which were firt definite for high level radioactive wastes. So the exemption concept is a simplification method of regulations applied to low radiation sources

  11. Bilinear models for inter- and intra-patient variation of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y; Radke, R J; Lovelock, D M

    2010-01-01

    We propose bilinear models for capturing and effectively decoupling the expected shape variations of an organ both across the patient population and within a specific patient. Bilinear models have been successfully introduced in other areas of computer vision, but they have rarely been used in medical imaging applications. Our particular interest is in modeling the shape variation of the prostate for potential use in radiation therapy treatment planning. Using a dataset of 204 prostate shapes contoured from CT imagery of 12 different patients, we build bilinear models and show that they can fit both training and testing shapes accurately. We also show how the bilinear model can adapt to a new patient using only a few example shapes, producing a patient-specific model that also reflects expected content variation learnt from a broader population. Finally, we evaluate the training and testing projection error, adaptation performance and image segmentation accuracy of the bilinear model compared to linear principal component analysis and hierarchical point distribution models with the same number of parameters.

  12. A discrete-time adaptive control scheme for robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, M.

    1990-01-01

    A discrete-time model reference adaptive control scheme is developed for trajectory tracking of robot manipulators. The scheme utilizes feedback, feedforward, and auxiliary signals, obtained from joint angle measurement through simple expressions. Hyperstability theory is utilized to derive the adaptation laws for the controller gain matrices. It is shown that trajectory tracking is achieved despite gross robot parameter variation and uncertainties. The method offers considerable design flexibility and enables the designer to improve the performance of the control system by adjusting free design parameters. The discrete-time adaptation algorithm is extremely simple and is therefore suitable for real-time implementation. Simulations and experimental results are given to demonstrate the performance of the scheme.

  13. Circuit Regulates Speed Of dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charles; Padden, Robin; Brown, Floyd A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Driving circuit regulates speed of small dc permanent-magnet motor in tape recorder. Two nested feedback loops maintain speed within 1 percent of constant value. Inner loop provides coarse regulation, while outer loop removes most of variation in speed that remains in the presence of regulation by the inner loop. Compares speed of motor with commanded speed and adjusts current supplied to motor accordingly.

  14. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-01-01

    to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics...

  15. Adaptability: Conceptual and Empirical Perspectives on Responses to Change, Novelty and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Nejad, Harry; Colmar, Susan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptability is proposed as individuals' capacity to constructively regulate psycho-behavioral functions in response to new, changing, and/or uncertain circumstances, conditions and situations. The present investigation explored the internal and external validity of an hypothesised adaptability scale. The sample comprised 2,731 high school…

  16. Testing for local adaptation in brown trout using reciprocal transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelkens Rike B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local adaptation can drive the divergence of populations but identification of the traits under selection remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Reciprocal transplant experiments are ideal tests of local adaptation, yet rarely used for higher vertebrates because of the mobility and potential invasiveness of non-native organisms. Here, we reciprocally transplanted 2500 brown trout (Salmo trutta embryos from five populations to investigate local adaptation in early life history traits. Embryos were bred in a full-factorial design and raised in natural riverbeds until emergence. Customized egg capsules were used to simulate the natural redd environment and allowed tracking the fate of every individual until retrieval. We predicted that 1 within sites, native populations would outperform non-natives, and 2 across sites, populations would show higher performance at ‘home’ compared to ‘away’ sites. Results There was no evidence for local adaptation but we found large differences in survival and hatching rates between sites, indicative of considerable variation in habitat quality. Survival was generally high across all populations (55% ± 3%, but ranged from 4% to 89% between sites. Average hatching rate was 25% ± 3% across populations ranging from 0% to 62% between sites. Conclusion This study provides rare empirical data on variation in early life history traits in a population network of a salmonid, and large-scale breeding and transplantation experiments like ours provide powerful tests for local adaptation. Despite the recently reported genetic and morphological differences between the populations in our study area, local adaptation at the embryo level is small, non-existent, or confined to ecological conditions that our experiment could not capture.

  17. Climatic factors, genetic structure and phenotypic variation in English yew (Taxus baccata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mayol, Maria; Berganzo, Elisa; Burgarella, Concetta; González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Grivet, Delphine; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; Vincenot, Lucie; Riba, Miquel

    2018-01-01

    Influence of climatic factors on genetic structure and phenotypic variation in English yew (Taxus baccata L.) Conference "Adapting to global change in the Mediterranean hotspot" (Seville, 18-20 September 2013) Mediterranean forests constitute long-term reservoirs of biodiversity and adaptive potential. As compared with their central or northern European counterparts, Mediterranean forests are characterized by highly heterogeneous and fragmented environments, ...

  18. Ecological mechanisms underpinning climate adaptation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavorel, Sandra; Colloff, Matthew J; McIntyre, Sue; Doherty, Michael D; Murphy, Helen T; Metcalfe, Daniel J; Dunlop, Michael; Williams, Richard J; Wise, Russell M; Williams, Kristen J

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services are typically valued for their immediate material or cultural benefits to human wellbeing, supported by regulating and supporting services. Under climate change, with more frequent stresses and novel shocks, 'climate adaptation services', are defined as the benefits to people from increased social ability to respond to change, provided by the capability of ecosystems to moderate and adapt to climate change and variability. They broaden the ecosystem services framework to assist decision makers in planning for an uncertain future with new choices and options. We present a generic framework for operationalising the adaptation services concept. Four steps guide the identification of intrinsic ecological mechanisms that facilitate the maintenance and emergence of ecosystem services during periods of change, and so materialise as adaptation services. We applied this framework for four contrasted Australian ecosystems. Comparative analyses enabled by the operational framework suggest that adaptation services that emerge during trajectories of ecological change are supported by common mechanisms: vegetation structural diversity, the role of keystone species or functional groups, response diversity and landscape connectivity, which underpin the persistence of function and the reassembly of ecological communities under severe climate change and variability. Such understanding should guide ecosystem management towards adaptation planning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Adaptive Functions of Music Listening Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groarke, Jenny M; Hogan, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Music listening may serve many adaptive functions in everyday life. However, studies examining the relationship between the functions of music listening (FML) and wellbeing outcomes have produced mixed findings. The purpose of this study is to develop a new measure to assess music listening functions that is psychometrically robust, and suitable for outcomes-based research on music listening and wellbeing. Scale items were developed based on a literature review and a prior qualitative enquiry. The items were reviewed by four content experts in music psychology and scale development. Scale structure was investigated by EFA and CFA in two large samples of participants ( N = 1,191, 17-66 years, M = 22.04, SD = 6.23, 326 males). Tests of dimensionality revealed a 46-item scale with 11 factors for the Adaptive Functions of Music Listening (AFML) scale. Namely, Stress Regulation, Anxiety Regulation, Anger Regulation, Loneliness Regulation, Rumination, Reminiscence, Strong Emotional Experiences, Awe and Appreciation, Cognitive Regulation, Identity , and Sleep FML. The scale and its subscales possess good internal consistency and construct validity. In line with theory and research on gender differences in FML, scores on factors representing affect regulation FML were significantly higher among female respondents. Supporting the concurrent validity of the AFML scale, factors were positively correlated with an existing measure of the FML-the Music USE questionnaire. Further evidence of construct validity derives from positive associations between affect regulation factor scores and level of reappraisal, and lack of association with suppression, as measured by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Consistent with the view that adaptive FML are positively related to wellbeing, a number of factors, affect regulation factors in particular, were significantly positively correlated with subjective, psychological, and social wellbeing measures across two cross-sectional studies.

  20. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Adaptive Functions of Music Listening Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny M. Groarke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Music listening may serve many adaptive functions in everyday life. However, studies examining the relationship between the functions of music listening (FML and wellbeing outcomes have produced mixed findings. The purpose of this study is to develop a new measure to assess music listening functions that is psychometrically robust, and suitable for outcomes-based research on music listening and wellbeing. Scale items were developed based on a literature review and a prior qualitative enquiry. The items were reviewed by four content experts in music psychology and scale development. Scale structure was investigated by EFA and CFA in two large samples of participants (N = 1,191, 17–66 years, M = 22.04, SD = 6.23, 326 males. Tests of dimensionality revealed a 46-item scale with 11 factors for the Adaptive Functions of Music Listening (AFML scale. Namely, Stress Regulation, Anxiety Regulation, Anger Regulation, Loneliness Regulation, Rumination, Reminiscence, Strong Emotional Experiences, Awe and Appreciation, Cognitive Regulation, Identity, and Sleep FML. The scale and its subscales possess good internal consistency and construct validity. In line with theory and research on gender differences in FML, scores on factors representing affect regulation FML were significantly higher among female respondents. Supporting the concurrent validity of the AFML scale, factors were positively correlated with an existing measure of the FML—the Music USE questionnaire. Further evidence of construct validity derives from positive associations between affect regulation factor scores and level of reappraisal, and lack of association with suppression, as measured by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Consistent with the view that adaptive FML are positively related to wellbeing, a number of factors, affect regulation factors in particular, were significantly positively correlated with subjective, psychological, and social wellbeing measures across two cross

  1. Intraspecies variation in a widely distributed tree species regulates the responses of soil microbiome to different temperature regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Jing; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Drake, John E; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G; Tissue, David T; Wang, Jun-Tao; He, Ji-Zheng; Singh, Brajesh K

    2018-04-01

    Plant characteristics in different provenances within a single species may vary in response to climate change, which might alter soil microbial communities and ecosystem functions. We conducted a glasshouse experiment and grew seedlings of three provenances (temperate, subtropical and tropical origins) of a tree species (i.e., Eucalyptus tereticornis) at different growth temperatures (18, 21.5, 25, 28.5, 32 and 35.5°C) for 54 days. At the end of the experiment, bacterial and fungal community composition, diversity and abundance were characterized. Measured soil functions included surrogates of microbial respiration, enzyme activities and nutrient cycling. Using Permutation multivariate analysis of variance (PerMANOVA) and network analysis, we found that the identity of tree provenances regulated both structure and function of soil microbiomes. In some cases, tree provenances substantially affected the response of microbial communities to the temperature treatments. For example, we found significant interactions of temperature and tree provenance on bacterial community and relative abundances of Chloroflexi and Zygomycota, and inorganic nitrogen. Microbial abundance was altered in response to increasing temperature, but was not affected by tree provenances. Our study provides novel evidence that even a small variation in biotic components (i.e., intraspecies tree variation) can significantly influence the response of soil microbial community composition and specific soil functions to global warming. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Modulation of neuronal dynamic range using two different adaptation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of neurons to discriminate between intensity of external stimulus is measured by its dynamic range. A larger dynamic range indicates a greater probability of neuronal survival. In this study, the potential roles of adaptation mechanisms (ion currents in modulating neuronal dynamic range were numerically investigated. Based on the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model, which includes two different adaptation mechanisms, i.e. subthreshold and suprathreshold (spike-triggered adaptation, our results reveal that the two adaptation mechanisms exhibit rather different roles in regulating neuronal dynamic range. Specifically, subthreshold adaptation acts as a negative factor that observably decreases the neuronal dynamic range, while suprathreshold adaptation has little influence on the neuronal dynamic range. Moreover, when stochastic noise was introduced into the adaptation mechanisms, the dynamic range was apparently enhanced, regardless of what state the neuron was in, e.g. adaptive or non-adaptive. Our model results suggested that the neuronal dynamic range can be differentially modulated by different adaptation mechanisms. Additionally, noise was a non-ignorable factor, which could effectively modulate the neuronal dynamic range.

  3. Radiation-induced adaptive response in fetal mice: a micro-array study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vares, G.; Bing, Wang; Mitsuru, Nenoi; Tetsuo, Nakajima; Kaoru, Tanaka; Isamu, Hayata

    2006-01-01

    Exposure of sublethal doses of ionizing radiation can induce protective mechanisms against a subsequent higher dose irradiation. This phenomenon called radio-adaptation (or adaptive response - AR), has been described in a wide range of biological models. In a series of studies, we demonstrated the existence of a radiation-induced AR in mice during late organogenesis. For better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying AR in our model, we performed a global analysis of transcriptome regulations in cells collected from whole mouse fetuses. Using cDNA micro-arrays, we studied gene expression in these cells after in utero priming exposure to irradiation. Several combinations of radiation dose and dose-rate were applied to induce or not an AR in our system. Gene regulation was observed after exposure to priming radiation in each condition. Student's t-test was performed in order to identify genes whose expression modulation was specifically different in AR-inducing an( non-AR-inducing conditions. Genes were ranked according to their ability in discriminating AR-specific modulations. Since AR genes were implicated in variety of functions and cellular processes, we applied a functional classification algorithm, which clustered genes in a limited number of functionally related group: We established that AR genes are significantly enriched for specific keywords. Our results show a significant modulation of genes implicated in signal transduction pathways. No AR-specific alteration of DNA repair could be observed. Nevertheless, it is likely that modulation of DNA repair activity results, at least partly, from post-transcriptional regulation. One major hypothesis is that de-regulations of signal transduction pathways and apoptosis may be responsible for AR phenotype. In previous work, we demonstrated that radiation-induced AR in mice during organogenesis is related to Trp53 gene status and to the occurrence of radiation-induced apoptosis. Other work proposed that p53

  4. Adaptive control using a hybrid-neural model: application to a polymerisation reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the use of a hybrid-neural model for predictive control of a plug flow polymerisation reactor. The hybrid-neural model (HNM is based on fundamental conservation laws associated with a neural network (NN used to model the uncertain parameters. By simulations, the performance of this approach was studied for a peroxide-initiated styrene tubular reactor. The HNM was synthesised for a CSTR reactor with a radial basis function neural net (RBFN used to estimate the reaction rates recursively. The adaptive HNM was incorporated in two model predictive control strategies, a direct synthesis scheme and an optimum steady state scheme. Tests for servo and regulator control showed excellent behaviour following different setpoint variations, and rejecting perturbations. The good generalisation and training capacities of hybrid models, associated with the simplicity and robustness characteristics of the MPC formulations, make an attractive combination for the control of a polymerisation reactor.

  5. Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smekens, Marret; Van Tienderen, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions.

  6. New features on the environmental regulation of metabolism revealed by modeling the cellular proteomic adaptations induced by light, carbon and inorganic nitrogen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Gérin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are currently emerging to be very promising organisms for the production of biofuels and high-added value compounds. Understanding the influence of environmental alterations on their metabolism is a crucial issue. Light, carbon and nitrogen availability have been reported to induce important metabolic adaptations. So far, the influence of these variables has essentially been studied while varying only one or two environmental factors at the same time. The goal of the present work was to model the cellular proteomic adaptations of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon the simultaneous changes of light intensity, carbon concentrations (CO2 and acetate and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (nitrate and ammonium in the culture medium. Statistical design of experiments (DOE enabled to define 32 culture conditions to be tested experimentally. Relative protein abundance was quantified by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE. Additional assays for respiration, photosynthesis, and lipid and pigment concentrations were also carried out. A hierarchical clustering survey enabled to partition biological variables (proteins + assays into eight co-regulated clusters. In most cases, the biological variables partitioned in the same cluster had already been reported to participate to common biological functions (acetate assimilation, bioenergetic processes, light harvesting, Calvin cycle and protein metabolism. The environmental regulation within each cluster was further characterized by a series of multivariate methods including principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions. This metadata analysis enabled to highlight the existence of a clear regulatory pattern for every cluster and to mathematically simulate the effects of light, carbon and nitrogen. The influence of these environmental variables on cellular metabolism is described in details and thoroughly discussed. This work provides an overview

  7. Adaptive bone formation in acellular vertebrae of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.; Cleynenbreugel, van T.; Schipper, H.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian bone is an active tissue in which osteoblasts and osteoclasts balance bone mass. This process of adaptive modelling and remodelling is probably regulated by strain-sensing osteocytes. Bone of advanced teleosts is acellular yet, despite the lack of osteocytes, it is capable of an adaptive

  8. Sensory trait variation in an echolocating bat suggests roles for both selection and plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Across heterogeneous environments selection and gene flow interact to influence the rate and extent of adaptive trait evolution. This complex relationship is further influenced by the rarely considered role of phenotypic plasticity in the evolution of adaptive population variation. Plasticity can be adaptive if it promotes colonization and survival in novel environments and in doing so may increase the potential for future population differentiation via selection. Gene flow between selectively divergent environments may favour the evolution of phenotypic plasticity or conversely, plasticity itself may promote gene flow, leading to a pattern of trait differentiation in the presence of gene flow. Variation in sensory traits is particularly informative in testing the role of environment in trait and population differentiation. Here we test the hypothesis of ‘adaptive differentiation with minimal gene flow’ in resting echolocation frequencies (RF) of Cape horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus capensis) across a gradient of increasingly cluttered habitats. Results Our analysis reveals a geographically structured pattern of increasing RF from open to highly cluttered habitats in R. capensis; however genetic drift appears to be a minor player in the processes influencing this pattern. Although Bayesian analysis of population structure uncovered a number of spatially defined mitochondrial groups and coalescent methods revealed regional-scale gene flow, phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial sequences did not correlate with RF differentiation. Instead, habitat discontinuities between biomes, and not genetic and geographic distances, best explained echolocation variation in this species. We argue that both selection for increased detection distance in relatively less cluttered habitats and adaptive phenotypic plasticity may have influenced the evolution of matched echolocation frequencies and habitats across different populations. Conclusions Our study reveals

  9. Genetic Regulation of Phenotypic Plasticity and Canalisation in Yeast Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Yadav

    Full Text Available The ability of a genotype to show diverse phenotypes in different environments is called phenotypic plasticity. Phenotypic plasticity helps populations to evade extinctions in novel environments, facilitates adaptation and fuels evolution. However, most studies focus on understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic regulation in specific environments. As a result, while it's evolutionary relevance is well established, genetic mechanisms regulating phenotypic plasticity and their overlap with the environment specific regulators is not well understood. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is highly sensitive to the environment, which acts as not just external stimulus but also as signalling cue for this unicellular, sessile organism. We used a previously published dataset of a biparental yeast population grown in 34 diverse environments and mapped genetic loci regulating variation in phenotypic plasticity, plasticity QTL, and compared them with environment-specific QTL. Plasticity QTL is one whose one allele exhibits high plasticity whereas the other shows a relatively canalised behaviour. We mapped phenotypic plasticity using two parameters-environmental variance, an environmental order-independent parameter and reaction norm (slope, an environmental order-dependent parameter. Our results show a partial overlap between pleiotropic QTL and plasticity QTL such that while some plasticity QTL are also pleiotropic, others have a significant effect on phenotypic plasticity without being significant in any environment independently. Furthermore, while some plasticity QTL are revealed only in specific environmental orders, we identify large effect plasticity QTL, which are order-independent such that whatever the order of the environments, one allele is always plastic and the other is canalised. Finally, we show that the environments can be divided into two categories based on the phenotypic diversity of the population within them and the two categories have

  10. Gyroaveraging operations using adaptive matrix operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominski, Julien; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Chang, Choong-Seock

    2018-05-01

    A new adaptive scheme to be used in particle-in-cell codes for carrying out gyroaveraging operations with matrices is presented. This new scheme uses an intermediate velocity grid whose resolution is adapted to the local thermal Larmor radius. The charge density is computed by projecting marker weights in a field-line following manner while preserving the adiabatic magnetic moment μ. These choices permit to improve the accuracy of the gyroaveraging operations performed with matrices even when strong spatial variation of temperature and magnetic field is present. Accuracy of the scheme in different geometries from simple 2D slab geometry to realistic 3D toroidal equilibrium has been studied. A successful implementation in the gyrokinetic code XGC is presented in the delta-f limit.

  11. Proposal for adaptive management to conserve biotic integrity in a regulated segment of the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Elise R.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2002-01-01

    Conserving river biota will require innovative approaches that foster and utilize scientific understanding of ecosystem responses to alternative river-management scenarios. We describe ecological and societal issues involved in flow management of a section of the Tallapoosa River (Alabama, U.S.A.) in which a species-rich native fauna is adversely affected by flow alteration by an upstream hydropower dam. We hypothesize that depleted Iow flows, flow instability and thermal alteration resulting from pulsed flow releases at the hydropower dam are most responsible for changes in the Tallapoosa River biota. However, existing data are insufficient to prescribe with certainty minimum flow levels or the frequency and duration of stable flow periods that would be necessary or sufficient to protect riverine biotic integrity. Rather than negotiate a specific change in the flow regime, we propose that stakeholders--including management agencies, the power utility, and river advocates--engage in a process of adaptive-flow management. This process would require that stakeholders (1) develop and agree to management objectives; (2) model hypothesized relations between dam operations and management objectives; (3) implement a change in dam operations; and (4) evaluate biological responses and other stakeholder benefits through an externally reviewed monitoring program. Models would be updated with monitoring data and stakeholders would agree to further modify flow regimes as necessary to achieve management objectives. A primary obstacle to adaptive management will be a perceived uncertainty of future costs for the power utility and other stakeholders. However, an adaptive, iterative approach offers the best opportunity for improving flow regimes for native biota while gaining information critical to guiding management decisions in other flow-regulated rivers.

  12. Leptin expression in ruminants: nutritional and physiological regulations in relation with energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilliard, Y; Delavaud, C; Bonnet, M

    2005-07-01

    Leptin, mainly produced in adipose tissue (AT), is a protein involved in the central and/or peripheral regulation of body homeostasis, energy intake, storage and expenditure, fertility and immune functions. Its role is well documented in rodent and human species, but less in ruminants. This review is focused on some intrinsic and extrinsic factors which regulate adipose tissue leptin gene expression and leptinemia in cattle, sheep, goat and camel: age, physiological status (particularly pregnancy and lactation) in interaction with long-term (adiposity) and short-term effects of feeding level, energy intake and balance, diet composition, specific nutrients and hormones (insulin, glucose and fatty acids), and seasonal non-dietary factors such as photoperiod. Body fatness strongly regulates leptin and its responses to other factors. For example, leptinemia is higher after underfeeding or during lactation in fat than in lean animals. Physiological status per se also modulates leptin expression, with lactation down-regulating leptinemia, even when energy balance (EB) is positive. These results suggest that leptin could be a link between nutritional history and physiological regulations, which integrates the animal's requirements (e.g., for a pregnancy-lactation cycle), predictable food availability (e.g., due to seasonal variations) and potential for survival (e.g., body fatness level). Reaching permissive leptin thresholds should be necessary for pubertal or postpartum reproductive activity. In addition to the understanding of leptin yield regulation, these data are helpful to understand the physiological significance of changes in leptin secretion and leptin effects, and how husbandry strategies could integrate the adaptative capacities of ruminant species to their environment.

  13. Comparative transcriptional and genomic analysis of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J Mackinnon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms for differential regulation of gene expression may underlie much of the phenotypic variation and adaptability of malaria parasites. Here we describe transcriptional variation among culture-adapted field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for most malarial disease. It was found that genes coding for parasite protein export into the red cell cytosol and onto its surface, and genes coding for sexual stage proteins involved in parasite transmission are up-regulated in field isolates compared with long-term laboratory isolates. Much of this variability was associated with the loss of small or large chromosomal segments, or other forms of gene copy number variation that are prevalent in the P. falciparum genome (copy number variants, CNVs. Expression levels of genes inside these segments were correlated to that of genes outside and adjacent to the segment boundaries, and this association declined with distance from the CNV boundary. This observation could not be explained by copy number variation in these adjacent genes. This suggests a local-acting regulatory role for CNVs in transcription of neighboring genes and helps explain the chromosomal clustering that we observed here. Transcriptional co-regulation of physical clusters of adaptive genes may provide a way for the parasite to readily adapt to its highly heterogeneous and strongly selective environment.

  14. An adaptive response to alkylating agents in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, P; Shawcross, S G; Strike, P

    1988-11-01

    A simple method is described for demonstrating adaptation to alkylation damage in Aspergillus nidulans. One wild type, two MNNG-sensitive, and one MNNG-resistant strain all showed improvement in colony growth when challenged with MNNG following appropriate inducing pretreatments. Other alkylating agents (MMS, EMS) could also adapt mycelium to later MNNG challenge, while 4NQO and UV could not. The inducible effect was not transmissible through conidia. A standard reversion assay based upon methG proved impractical for studying mutation frequencies during alkylation treatments owing to variations in MNNG resistance amongst revertants.

  15. Genetic Adaptation to Growth Under Laboratory Conditions in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Knöppel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evolution under controlled laboratory conditions is becoming increasingly important to address various evolutionary questions, including, for example, the dynamics and mechanisms of genetic adaptation to different growth and stress conditions. In such experiments, mutations typically appear that increase the fitness under the conditions tested (medium adaptation, but that are not necessarily of interest for the specific research question. Here, we have identified mutations that appeared during serial passage of E. coli and S. enterica in four different and commonly used laboratory media and measured the relative competitive fitness and maximum growth rate of 111 genetically re-constituted strains, carrying different single and multiple mutations. Little overlap was found between the mutations that were selected in the two species and the different media, implying that adaptation occurs via different genetic pathways. Furthermore, we show that commonly occurring adaptive mutations can generate undesired genetic variation in a population and reduce the accuracy of competition experiments. However, by introducing media adaptation mutations with large effects into the parental strain that was used for the evolution experiment, the variation (standard deviation was decreased 10-fold, and it was possible to measure fitness differences between two competitors as small as |s| < 0.001.

  16. SU-E-J-102: Performance Variations Among Clinically Available Deformable Image Registration Tools in Adaptive Radiotherapy: How Should We Evaluate and Interpret the Result?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, K; Pouliot, J; Smith, E; Chuang, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance variations in commercial deformable image registration (DIR) tools for adaptive radiation therapy. Methods: Representative plans from three different anatomical sites, prostate, head-and-neck (HN) and cranial spinal irradiation (CSI) with L-spine boost, were included. Computerized deformed CT images were first generated using virtual DIR QA software (ImSimQA) for each case. The corresponding transformations served as the “reference”. Three commercial software packages MIMVista v5.5 and MIMMaestro v6.0, VelocityAI v2.6.2, and OnQ rts v2.1.15 were tested. The warped contours and doses were compared with the “reference” and among each other. Results: The performance in transferring contours was comparable among all three tools with an average DICE coefficient of 0.81 for all the organs. However, the performance of dose warping accuracy appeared to rely on the evaluation end points. Volume based DVH comparisons were not sensitive enough to illustrate all the detailed variations while isodose assessment on a slice-by-slice basis could be tedious. Point-based evaluation was over-sensitive by having up to 30% hot/cold-spot differences. If adapting the 3mm/3% gamma analysis into the evaluation of dose warping, all three algorithms presented a reasonable level of equivalency. One algorithm had over 10% of the voxels not meeting this criterion for the HN case while another showed disagreement for the CSI case. Conclusion: Overall, our results demonstrated that evaluation based only on the performance of contour transformation could not guarantee the accuracy in dose warping. However, the performance of dose warping accuracy relied on the evaluation methodologies. Nevertheless, as more DIR tools are available for clinical use, the performance could vary at certain degrees. A standard quality assurance criterion with clinical meaning should be established for DIR QA, similar to the gamma index concept, in the near future

  17. Adaptation as process: the future of Darwinism and the legacy of Theodosius Dobzhansky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, David J

    2011-03-01

    Conceptions of adaptation have varied in the history of genetic Darwinism depending on whether what is taken to be focal is the process of adaptation, adapted states of populations, or discrete adaptations in individual organisms. I argue that Theodosius Dobzhansky's view of adaptation as a dynamical process contrasts with so-called "adaptationist" views of natural selection figured as "design-without-a-designer" of relatively discrete, enumerable adaptations. Correlated with these respectively process and product oriented approaches to adaptive natural selection are divergent pictures of organisms themselves as developmental wholes or as "bundles" of adaptations. While even process versions of genetical Darwinism are insufficiently sensitive to the fact much of the variation on which adaptive selection works consists of changes in the timing, rate, or location of ontogenetic events, I argue that articulations of the Modern Synthesis influenced by Dobzhansky are more easily reconciled with the recent shift to evolutionary developmentalism than are versions that make discrete adaptations central. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Methodology for Investigating Adaptive Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, P. V.; Riccio, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    overt goals. It follows that an essential characteristic of postural behavior is the effective maintenance of the orientation and stability of the sensory and motor "platforms" (e.g., head or shoulders) over variations in the human, the environment and the task. This general skill suggests that individuals should be sensitive to the functional consequences of body configuration and stability. In other words, individuals should perceive the relation between configuration, stability, and performance so that they can adaptively control their interaction with the surroundings. Human-environment interactions constitute robust systems in that individuals can maintain the stability of such interactions over uncertainty about and variations in the dynamics of the interaction. Robust interactions allow individuals to adopt orientations and configurations that are not optimal with respect to purely energetic criteria. Individuals can tolerate variation in postural states, and such variation can serve an important function in adaptive systems. Postural variability generates stimulation which is "textured" by the dynamics of the human-environment system. The texture or structure in stimulation provides information about variation in dynamics, and such information can be sufficient to guide adaption in control strategies. Our method were designed to measure informative patterns of movement variability.

  19. Robust Adaptive Thresholder For Document Scanning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, To R.

    1982-12-01

    In document scanning applications, thresholding is used to obtain binary data from a scanner. However, due to: (1) a wide range of different color backgrounds; (2) density variations of printed text information; and (3) the shading effect caused by the optical systems, the use of adaptive thresholding to enhance the useful information is highly desired. This paper describes a new robust adaptive thresholder for obtaining valid binary images. It is basically a memory type algorithm which can dynamically update the black and white reference level to optimize a local adaptive threshold function. The results of high image quality from different types of simulate test patterns can be obtained by this algorithm. The software algorithm is described and experiment results are present to describe the procedures. Results also show that the techniques described here can be used for real-time signal processing in the varied applications.

  20. Emotion regulation choice : A conceptual framework and supporting evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppes, Gal; Scheibe, Susanne; Suri, Gaurav; Radu, Peter; Blechert, Jens; Gross, James J.

    Choice behavior is considered the fundamental means by which individuals exert control over their environments. One important choice domain that remains virtually unexplored is that of emotion regulation. This is surprising given that healthy adaptation requires flexibly choosing between regulation

  1. An Adaptive Sparse Grid Algorithm for Elliptic PDEs with Lognormal Diffusion Coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Nobile, Fabio

    2016-03-18

    In this work we build on the classical adaptive sparse grid algorithm (T. Gerstner and M. Griebel, Dimension-adaptive tensor-product quadrature), obtaining an enhanced version capable of using non-nested collocation points, and supporting quadrature and interpolation on unbounded sets. We also consider several profit indicators that are suitable to drive the adaptation process. We then use such algorithm to solve an important test case in Uncertainty Quantification problem, namely the Darcy equation with lognormal permeability random field, and compare the results with those obtained with the quasi-optimal sparse grids based on profit estimates, which we have proposed in our previous works (cf. e.g. Convergence of quasi-optimal sparse grids approximation of Hilbert-valued functions: application to random elliptic PDEs). To treat the case of rough permeability fields, in which a sparse grid approach may not be suitable, we propose to use the adaptive sparse grid quadrature as a control variate in a Monte Carlo simulation. Numerical results show that the adaptive sparse grids have performances similar to those of the quasi-optimal sparse grids and are very effective in the case of smooth permeability fields. Moreover, their use as control variate in a Monte Carlo simulation allows to tackle efficiently also problems with rough coefficients, significantly improving the performances of a standard Monte Carlo scheme.

  2. Regulation of circadian blood pressure: from mice to astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Circadian variation is commonly seen in healthy people; aberration in these biological rhythms is an early sign of disease. Impaired circadian variation of blood pressure (BP) has been shown to be associated with greater target organ damage and with an elevated risk of cardiovascular events independent of the BP load. The purpose of this review is to examine the physiology of circadian BP variation and propose a tripartite model that explains the regulation of circadian BP. The time-keeper in mammals resides centrally in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Apart from this central clock, molecular clocks exist in most peripheral tissues including vascular tissue and the kidney. These molecular clocks regulate sodium balance, sympathetic function and vascular tone. A physiological model is proposed that integrates our understanding of molecular clocks in mice with the circadian BP variation among humans. The master regulator in this proposed model is the sleep-activity cycle. The equivalents of peripheral clocks are endothelial and adrenergic functions. Thus, in the proposed model, the variation in circadian BP is dependent upon three major factors: physical activity, autonomic function, and sodium sensitivity. The integrated consideration of physical activity, autonomic function, and sodium sensitivity appears to explain the physiology of circadian BP variation and the pathophysiology of disrupted BP rhythms in various conditions and disease states. Our understanding of molecular clocks in mice may help to explain the provenance of blunted circadian BP variation even among astronauts.

  3. Adapting to extreme events related to natural variability and climate change: the imperative of coupling technology with strong regulation and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kythreotis, A P; Mercer, T G; Frostick, L E

    2013-09-03

    In recent years there has been an increase in extreme events related to natural variability (such as earthquakes, tsunamis and hurricanes) and climate change (such as flooding and more extreme weather). Developing innovative technologies is crucial in making society more resilient to such events. However, little emphasis has been placed on the role of human decision-making in maximizing the positive impacts of technological developments. This is exacerbated by the lack of appropriate adaptation options and the privatization of existing infrastructure, which can leave people exposed to increasing risk. This work examines the need for more robust government regulation and legislation to complement developments and innovations in technology in order to protect communities against such extreme events.

  4. Total Variation Regularization for Functions with Values in a Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2013-12-01

    While total variation is among the most popular regularizers for variational problems, its extension to functions with values in a manifold is an open problem. In this paper, we propose the first algorithm to solve such problems which applies to arbitrary Riemannian manifolds. The key idea is to reformulate the variational problem as a multilabel optimization problem with an infinite number of labels. This leads to a hard optimization problem which can be approximately solved using convex relaxation techniques. The framework can be easily adapted to different manifolds including spheres and three-dimensional rotations, and allows to obtain accurate solutions even with a relatively coarse discretization. With numerous examples we demonstrate that the proposed framework can be applied to variational models that incorporate chromaticity values, normal fields, or camera trajectories. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Total Variation Regularization for Functions with Values in a Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan; Strekalovskiy, Evgeny; Koetter, Sabrina; Cremers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    While total variation is among the most popular regularizers for variational problems, its extension to functions with values in a manifold is an open problem. In this paper, we propose the first algorithm to solve such problems which applies to arbitrary Riemannian manifolds. The key idea is to reformulate the variational problem as a multilabel optimization problem with an infinite number of labels. This leads to a hard optimization problem which can be approximately solved using convex relaxation techniques. The framework can be easily adapted to different manifolds including spheres and three-dimensional rotations, and allows to obtain accurate solutions even with a relatively coarse discretization. With numerous examples we demonstrate that the proposed framework can be applied to variational models that incorporate chromaticity values, normal fields, or camera trajectories. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. An Improved Multi-Objective Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm with Regulation Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuyuan Huo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To achieve effective and accurate optimization for multi-objective optimization problems, a multi-objective artificial bee colony algorithm with regulation operators (RMOABC inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees was proposed in this paper. The proposed algorithm utilizes the Pareto dominance theory and takes advantage of adaptive grid and regulation operator mechanisms. The adaptive grid technique is used to adaptively assess the Pareto front maintained in an external archive and the regulation operator is used to balance the weights of the local search and the global search in the evolution of the algorithm. The performance of RMOABC was evaluated in comparison with other nature inspired algorithms includes NSGA-II and MOEA/D. The experiments results demonstrated that the RMOABC approach has better accuracy and minimal execution time.

  7. Tolerance and potential for adaptation of a Baltic Sea rockweed under predicted climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugiu, Luca; Manninen, Iita; Rothäusler, Eva; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2018-03-01

    Climate change is threating species' persistence worldwide. To predict species responses to climate change we need information not just on their environmental tolerance but also on its adaptive potential. We tested how the foundation species of rocky littoral habitats, Fucus vesiculosus, responds to combined hyposalinity and warming projected to the Baltic Sea by 2070-2099. We quantified responses of replicated populations originating from the entrance, central, and marginal Baltic regions. Using replicated individuals, we tested for the presence of within-population tolerance variation. Future conditions hampered growth and survival of the central and marginal populations whereas the entrance populations fared well. Further, both the among- and within-population variation in responses to climate change indicated existence of genetic variation in tolerance. Such standing genetic variation provides the raw material necessary for adaptation to a changing environment, which may eventually ensure the persistence of the species in the inner Baltic Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adaptive Control of a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Operating in Region 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.; Wright, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to nonlinear applications, such as wind turbines, which are difficult to accurately model and which have effects from poorly known operating environments. The turbulent and unpredictable conditions in which wind turbines operate create many challenges for their operation. In this paper, we design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a utility scale, variable-speed horizontal axis wind turbine. The objective of the adaptive pitch controller in Region 3 is to regulate generator speed and reject step disturbances. The control objective is accomplished by collectively pitching the turbine blades. We use an extension of the Direct Model Reference Adaptive Control (DMRAC) approach to track a reference point and to reject persistent disturbances. The turbine simulation models the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. The CART is a utility-scale wind turbine which has a well-developed and extensively verified simulator. The adaptive collective pitch controller for Region 3 was compared in simulations with a bas celliansesical Proportional Integrator (PI) collective pitch controller. In the simulations, the adaptive pitch controller showed improved speed regulation in Region 3 when compared with the baseline PI pitch controller and it demonstrated robustness to modeling errors.

  9. The role of extracellular vesicles when innate meets adaptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot Kormelink, Tom; Mol, Sanne; de Jong, Esther C; Wauben, Marca H M

    2018-04-03

    Innate immune cells are recognized for their rapid and critical contribution to the body's first line of defense against invading pathogens and harmful agents. These actions can be further amplified by specific adaptive immune responses adapted to the activating stimulus. Recently, the awareness has grown that virtually all innate immune cells, i.e., mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils, basophils, and NK cells, are able to communicate with dendritic cells (DCs) and/or T and B cells, and thereby significantly contribute to the orchestration of adaptive immune responses. The means of communication that are thus far primarily associated with this function are cell-cell contacts and the release of a broad range of soluble mediators. Moreover, the possible contribution of innate immune cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) to the modulation of adaptive immunity will be outlined in this review. EVs are submicron particles composed of a lipid bilayer, proteins, and nucleic acids released by cells in a regulated fashion. EVs are involved in intercellular communication between multiple cell types, including those of the immune system. A good understanding of the mechanisms by which innate immune cell-derived EVs influence adaptive immune responses, or vice versa, may reveal novel insights in the regulation of the immune system and can open up new possibilities for EVs (or their components) in controlling immune responses, either as a therapy, target, or as an adjuvant in future immune modulating treatments.

  10. ADAPTIVE STRATEGIES OF THE HALOPHYTE POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Z. Glukhov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the adaptive strategies of halophytes at different levels of their organization are important not only for assessment of their health condition and prognosticating their future behaviors, but also for testing potential suitability of technogenic edaphotopes for plant growth without making additional analyses. We investigated the population structure and morphological variation of three halophilic Gypsophyla L. species which actively spread in different technogenic ecotopes of Ukraine by methods generally accepted in ecology and phytocenology. By the type of strategy populations of species of the genus Gypsophila in technogenic edaphotopes can change the primary type of strategy for the secondary, or gain the stress-tolerant type, mainly due to the changes of parameters of seed productivity. The studied populations are stable with predominance of individuals which reached the prereproductive and reproductive stages of their development. At the organism level the species differ by phenotypic plasticity revealing in compensatory development of vegetative and generative organs. This reflects not only in absolute values of parameters of features, but also when calculating the coefficients of divergence, variation, as well as the vitality classes in populations.By the adaptive strategy halophytes are candidates for use in local phytoremediation of disturbed lands.

  11. Distributed Adaptive Droop Control for DC Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasirian, Vahidreza; Davoudi, Ali; Lewis, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A distributed-adaptive droop mechanism is proposed for secondary/primary control of dc Microgrids. The conventional secondary control, that adjusts the voltage set point for the local droop mechanism, is replaced by a voltage regulator. A current regulator is then added to fine-tune the droop...... coefficient for different loading conditions. The voltage regulator uses an observer that processes neighbors’ data to estimate the average voltage across the Microgrid. This estimation is further used to generate a voltage correction term to adjust the local voltage set point. The current regulator compares...... engaged. A low-voltage dc Microgrid prototype is used to verify the controller performance, link-failure resiliency, and the plug-andplay capabilities....

  12. Adaptive variation in Pinus ponderosa from Intermountain regions. II. Middle Columbia River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald Rehfeldt

    1986-01-01

    Seedling populations were grown and compared in common environments. Statistical analyses detected genetic differences between populations for numerous traits reflecting growth potential and periodicity of shoot elongation. Multiple regression models described an adaptive landscape in which populations from low elevations have a high growth potential while those from...

  13. Terahertz adaptive optics with a deformable mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, Mathilde; Sauvage, Jean-François; Perrin, Mathias; Abraham, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    We report on the wavefront correction of a terahertz (THz) beam using adaptive optics, which requires both a wavefront sensor that is able to sense the optical aberrations, as well as a wavefront corrector. The wavefront sensor relies on a direct 2D electro-optic imaging system composed of a ZnTe crystal and a CMOS camera. By measuring the phase variation of the THz electric field in the crystal, we were able to minimize the geometrical aberrations of the beam, thanks to the action of a deformable mirror. This phase control will open the route to THz adaptive optics in order to optimize the THz beam quality for both practical and fundamental applications.

  14. Voltage-regulating constant-current sources in a linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Juan; Cao Kefeng; Deng Jianjun; Zhu Lijun; Yang Jia; Ye Chao; Huang Bin; Cao Ningxiang; Dong Jinxuan; Zhang Jichang; Yu Zhiguo; Chen Min

    2002-01-01

    Constant-current Sources are one of key units in a linear induction accelerator. The requirements for the sources are to supply stable direct current of high power for the induction coil, be easy to computer-control and highly stable and reliable. Applying the technique of linear current source regulating in series, the primary voltage of the power transformer is regulated through an MJYS-JL-350A type three-phase alterative voltage-regulating module. The output current variation is 300-500 A when the load variation is 0.06-0.1 Ω and the voltage drop of the regulator tube is controlled within 8 V±2V when the variation of mains voltage is in ±10%. Both the current ripple and stability meet the technical requirements. The constant-current sources are controlled through an industrial controller. For each of the constant-current sources has a smallest system comprised of 8051 which is communication-controlled through a RS-485 interface, the sources can be controlled remotely

  15. Natural Selection and Evolution: Using Multimedia Slide Shows to Emphasize the Role of Genetic Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Most middle school students comprehend that organisms have adaptations that enable their survival and that successful adaptations prevail in a population over time. Yet they often miss that those bird beaks, moth-wing colors, or whatever traits are the result of random, normal genetic variations that just happen to confer a negative, neutral, or…

  16. Burkholderia pseudomallei transcriptional adaptation in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieng Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. How the bacterium interacts with host macrophage cells is still not well understood and is critical to appreciate the strategies used by this bacterium to survive and how intracellular survival leads to disease manifestation. Results Here we report the expression profile of intracellular B. pseudomallei following infection of human macrophage-like U937 cells. During intracellular growth over the 6 h infection period, approximately 22 % of the B. pseudomallei genome showed significant transcriptional adaptation. B. pseudomallei adapted rapidly to the intracellular environment by down-regulating numerous genes involved in metabolism, cell envelope, motility, replication, amino acid and ion transport system and regulatory function pathways. Reduced expression in catabolic and housekeeping genes suggested lower energy requirement and growth arrest during macrophage infection, while expression of genes encoding anaerobic metabolism functions were up regulated. However, whilst the type VI secretion system was up regulated, expression of many known virulence factors was not significantly modulated over the 6hours of infection. Conclusions The transcriptome profile described here provides the first comprehensive view of how B. pseudomallei survives within host cells and will help identify potential virulence factors and proteins that are important for the survival and growth of B. pseudomallei within human cells.

  17. Intra and Interspecific Variations of Gene Expression Levels in Yeast Are Largely Neutral: (Nei Lecture, SMBE 2016, Gold Coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Rong; Maclean, Calum J; Park, Chungoo; Zhao, Huabin; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2017-09-01

    It is commonly, although not universally, accepted that most intra and interspecific genome sequence variations are more or less neutral, whereas a large fraction of organism-level phenotypic variations are adaptive. Gene expression levels are molecular phenotypes that bridge the gap between genotypes and corresponding organism-level phenotypes. Yet, it is unknown whether natural variations in gene expression levels are mostly neutral or adaptive. Here we address this fundamental question by genome-wide profiling and comparison of gene expression levels in nine yeast strains belonging to three closely related Saccharomyces species and originating from five different ecological environments. We find that the transcriptome-based clustering of the nine strains approximates the genome sequence-based phylogeny irrespective of their ecological environments. Remarkably, only ∼0.5% of genes exhibit similar expression levels among strains from a common ecological environment, no greater than that among strains with comparable phylogenetic relationships but different environments. These and other observations strongly suggest that most intra and interspecific variations in yeast gene expression levels result from the accumulation of random mutations rather than environmental adaptations. This finding has profound implications for understanding the driving force of gene expression evolution, genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation, and general role of stochasticity in evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Selection for earlier flowering crop associated with climatic variations in the Sahel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Vigouroux

    Full Text Available Climate changes will have an impact on food production and will require costly adaptive responses. Adapting to a changing environment will be particularly challenging in sub-Saharan Africa where climate change is expected to have a major impact. However, one important phenomenon that is often overlooked and is poorly documented is the ability of agro-systems to rapidly adapt to environmental variations. Such an adaptation could proceed by the adoption of new varieties or by the adaptation of varieties to a changing environment. In this study, we analyzed these two processes in one of the driest agro-ecosystems in Africa, the Sahel. We performed a detailed study in Niger where pearl millet is the main crop and covers 65% of the cultivated area. To assess how the agro-system is responding to recent recurrent drought, we analyzed samples of pearl millet landraces collected in the same villages in 1976 and 2003 throughout the entire cultivated area of Niger. We studied phenological and morphological differences in the 1976 and 2003 collections by comparing them over three cropping seasons in a common garden experiment. We found no major changes in the main cultivated varieties or in their genetic diversity. However, we observed a significant shift in adaptive traits. Compared to the 1976 samples, samples collected in 2003 displayed a shorter lifecycle, and a reduction in plant and spike size. We also found that an early flowering allele at the PHYC locus increased in frequency between 1976 and 2003. The increase exceeded the effect of drift and sampling, suggesting a direct effect of selection for earliness on this gene. We conclude that recurrent drought can lead to selection for earlier flowering in a major Sahelian crop. Surprisingly, these results suggest that diffusion of crop varieties is not the main driver of short term adaptation to climatic variation.

  19. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ADAPTATION MECHANISM FOR ADAPTIVE LUENBERGER OBSERVER SENSORLESS DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. BENNASSAR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many industrial applications require high performance speed sensorless operation and demand new control methods in order to obtain fast dynamic response and insensitive to external disturbances. The current research aims to present the performance of the sensorless direct torque control (DTC of an induction motor (IM using adaptive Luenberger observer (ALO with fuzzy logic controller (FLC for adaptation mechanism. The rotor speed is regulated by proportional integral (PI anti-windup controller. The proposed strategy is directed to reduce the ripple on the torque and the flux. Numerical simulation results show the good performance and effectiveness of the proposed sensorless control for different references of the speed even both low and high speeds.

  20. Parental Influences on Children's Self-Regulation of Energy Intake: Insights from Developmental Literature on Emotion Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A. Frankel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article examines the role of parents in the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake. Various paths of parental influence are offered based on the literature on parental influences on children's emotion self-regulation. The parental paths include modeling, responses to children's behavior, assistance in helping children self-regulate, and motivating children through rewards and punishments. Additionally, sources of variation in parental influences on regulation are examined, including parenting style, child temperament, and child-parent attachment security. Parallels in the nature of parents' role in socializing children's regulation of emotions and energy intake are examined. Implications for future research are discussed.

  1. Ligation-mediated PCR with a back-to-back adapter reduces amplification bias resulting from variations in GC content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Satoru; Kotomura, Naoe; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ochiai, Hiroshi

    2017-08-15

    Ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LM-PCR) is a common technique for amplification of a pool of DNA fragments. Here, a double-stranded oligonucleotide consisting of two primer sequences in back-to-back orientation was designed as an adapter for LM-PCR. When DNA fragments were ligated with this adapter, the fragments were sandwiched between two adapters in random orientations. In the ensuing PCR, ligation products linked at each end to an opposite side of the adapter, i.e. to a distinct primer sequence, were preferentially amplified compared with products linked at each end to an identical primer sequence. The use of this adapter in LM-PCR reduced the impairment of PCR by substrate DNA with a high GC content, compared with the use of traditional LM-PCR adapters. This result suggested that our method has the potential to contribute to reduction of the amplification bias that is caused by an intrinsic property of the sequence context in substrate DNA. A DNA preparation obtained from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using pulldown of a specific form of histone H3 was successfully amplified using the modified LM-PCR, and the amplified products could be used as probes in a fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neural and Fuzzy Adaptive Control of Induction Motor Drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensalem, Y.; Sbita, L.; Abdelkrim, M. N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive neural network speed control scheme for an induction motor (IM) drive. The proposed scheme consists of an adaptive neural network identifier (ANNI) and an adaptive neural network controller (ANNC). For learning the quoted neural networks, a back propagation algorithm was used to automatically adjust the weights of the ANNI and ANNC in order to minimize the performance functions. Here, the ANNI can quickly estimate the plant parameters and the ANNC is used to provide on-line identification of the command and to produce a control force, such that the motor speed can accurately track the reference command. By combining artificial neural network techniques with fuzzy logic concept, a neural and fuzzy adaptive control scheme is developed. Fuzzy logic was used for the adaptation of the neural controller to improve the robustness of the generated command. The developed method is robust to load torque disturbance and the speed target variations when it ensures precise trajectory tracking with the prescribed dynamics. The algorithm was verified by simulation and the results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the IM designed controller

  3. Chambolle's Projection Algorithm for Total Variation Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Duran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Denoising is the problem of removing the inherent noise from an image. The standard noise model is additive white Gaussian noise, where the observed image f is related to the underlying true image u by the degradation model f=u+n, and n is supposed to be at each pixel independently and identically distributed as a zero-mean Gaussian random variable. Since this is an ill-posed problem, Rudin, Osher and Fatemi introduced the total variation as a regularizing term. It has proved to be quite efficient for regularizing images without smoothing the boundaries of the objects. This paper focuses on the simple description of the theory and on the implementation of Chambolle's projection algorithm for minimizing the total variation of a grayscale image. Furthermore, we adapt the algorithm to the vectorial total variation for color images. The implementation is described in detail and its parameters are analyzed and varied to come up with a reliable implementation.

  4. Cryptic Genetic Variation in Evolutionary Developmental Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise B. Paaby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary developmental genetics has traditionally been conducted by two groups: Molecular evolutionists who emphasize divergence between species or higher taxa, and quantitative geneticists who study variation within species. Neither approach really comes to grips with the complexities of evolutionary transitions, particularly in light of the realization from genome-wide association studies that most complex traits fit an infinitesimal architecture, being influenced by thousands of loci. This paper discusses robustness, plasticity and lability, phenomena that we argue potentiate major evolutionary changes and provide a bridge between the conceptual treatments of macro- and micro-evolution. We offer cryptic genetic variation and conditional neutrality as mechanisms by which standing genetic variation can lead to developmental system drift and, sheltered within canalized processes, may facilitate developmental transitions and the evolution of novelty. Synthesis of the two dominant perspectives will require recognition that adaptation, divergence, drift and stability all depend on similar underlying quantitative genetic processes—processes that cannot be fully observed in continuously varying visible traits.

  5. Estimating heat-to-heat variation in mechanical properties from a statistician's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebble, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    A statistical technique known as analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to estimate the variance and standard deviation of differences among heats. The total variation of a collection of observations and how an ANOVA can be used to partition the total variation into its sources are discussed. Then, the ANOVA is adapted to published Japanese data indicating how to estimate heat-to-heat variation. Finally, numerical results are computed for several tensile and creep properties of Types 304 and 316 SS

  6. Fine-scale thermal adaptation in a green turtle nesting population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Sam B.; Broderick, Annette C.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Ellick, Jacqui; Godley, Brendan J.; Blount, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the reproductive success of ectothermic animals is currently a subject of major conservation concern. However, for many threatened species, we still know surprisingly little about the extent of naturally occurring adaptive variation in heat-tolerance. Here, we show

  7. A unified framework for diversity gradients : The adaptive trait continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Stefanescu, Constanti; Vila, Roger; Dinca, Vlad; Font, Xavier; Penuelas, Josep

    Aim Adaptive trait continua are axes of covariation observed in multivariate trait data for a given taxonomic group. These continua quantify and summarize life-history variation at the inter-specific level in multi-specific assemblages. Here we examine whether trait continua can provide a useful

  8. Adaptive super-twisting sliding mode control for a three-phase single-stage grid-connected differential boost inverter based photovoltaic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Akshaya K; Sahoo, N C

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an adaptive super-twisting sliding mode control (STC) along with double-loop control for voltage tracking performance of three-phase differential boost inverter and DC-link capacitor voltage regulation in grid-connected PV system. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated under realistic scenarios such as variations in solar insolation, load power demand, grid voltage, and transition from grid-connected to standalone mode etc. Additional supplementary power quality control functions such as harmonic compensation, and reactive power management are also investigated with the proposed control strategy. The results are compared with conventional proportional-integral controller, and PWM sliding mode controller. The system performance is evaluated in simulation and in real-time. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lifetime Management in Non-US-Technology Nuclear Power Plants using US Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius Steenkamp, J.; Encabo Espartero, J.; Garcia Iglesias, R.

    2013-01-01

    In July 2009 the Spanish Nuclear Regulator (CSN) issued a Safety Instruction (IS-22) for the development of Lifetime Management in the Nuclear Power Plants within Spain. The context of this Safety Instruction is based on the American Regulations 10CFR54, NUREG1800/1801 and the technical guide NEI95-10. All these regulations are aimed at US-Technology Nuclear Power Plants. Lifetime Management of Nuclear Power Plants with a plant design different from US technologies can most certainly be developed with the mentioned US regulations. The successful development of Lifetime Management in these cases depends on the adaptation of the different requirements of the regulations. Challenges resulting from the adaptation process can be resolved by taking into consideration the plant design of the plant in question.

  10. Personality and Emotion Regulation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Hayu Purnamaningsih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emotions has many important functions in our life such as in relation of interpersonal communication, and health. In interpersonal communicative function aimed to signal to other information about internal state. Emotions manifests in specific cognitive, behavioural, and physiological reactions, thus closely related to health. There is wide variety of ways for individuals to regulate their emotion. In this regard, there are two kinds of emotion regulation strategy; first Antecedent-focused emotion regulation consisting of situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change and second, Response-focused emotion regulation consisting of suppression. The purpose of this research is to investigate personality factors relate with emotion regulation strategies. 339 students from Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada were participating in this study and given The Big Five Personality Factors (Ramdhani, 2012, adaptation, and the modified version of the Emotion Regulation Scale was used, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (John & Gross, 2004 which measure personality and emotion regulation respectively. Using multiple regression analysis, the study indicated that personality predicts emotion regulation strategies.

  11. Fostering Self-Regulation in Training Complex Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeuwen, Ludo W.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Bock, Jeano J. P. R.; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2018-01-01

    In complex cognitive domains such as air traffic control, professionals must be able to adapt to and act upon continuing changes in a highly advanced technological work environment. To function optimally in such an environment, the controllers must be able to regulate their learning. Although these regulation skills should be part of their…

  12. A Way to Sustainability: Perspective of Resilience and Adaptation to Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjian Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the previous research findings about resilience, this study focused on the differences between resilience and adaptation from an agricultural drought case study in southern China. A conceptual variation between resilience and adaptation was explored to understand the distinction between resilience and adaptation. In fact, both are attributes of hazard-affected bodies and have connections and differences. Resilience pays more attention to the short-term response to loss (potential during and post disaster, while adaptation places stress on system’s response to disaster risk before disaster, loss or impacts in- and after disaster in the long term in order to reduce vulnerability and enhance resilience. Land use and crop structure change, land policy change and labors turnover present the detailed differences between resilience and adaptation in the case study. Deficiencies of human resources, technology and policy in adapting to disaster risks were founded and discussed. This perspective would offer a way with greater potential in application of adaptation concept, especially in the process of integrated risk governance and regional sustainable development.

  13. Time adaptivity in the diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan; Radwan, Hany; Dalcí n, Lisandro D.; Calo, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the use of time adaptivity applied to the one dimensional diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations. A simple and computationally economical error estimator is discussed which enables time-step size adaptivity. This robust adaptive time discretization corrects the initial time step size to achieve a user specified bound on the discretization error and allows time step size variations of several orders of magnitude. In particular, the one dimensional results presented in this work feature a change of four orders of magnitudes for the time step over the entire simulation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Time adaptivity in the diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan

    2013-05-01

    We discuss the use of time adaptivity applied to the one dimensional diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations. A simple and computationally economical error estimator is discussed which enables time-step size adaptivity. This robust adaptive time discretization corrects the initial time step size to achieve a user specified bound on the discretization error and allows time step size variations of several orders of magnitude. In particular, the one dimensional results presented in this work feature a change of four orders of magnitudes for the time step over the entire simulation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Natural variation and gene regulatory basis for the responses of asparagus beans to soil drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eXu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis is the Asian subspecies of cowpea, a drought-resistant legume crop native to Africa. In order to explore the genetic variation of drought responses in asparagus bean, we conducted multi-year phenotyping of drought resistance traits across the Chinese asparagus bean mini-core. The phenotypic distribution indicated that the ssp. sesquipedalis subgene pool has maintained high natural variation in drought responses despite known domestic bottleneck. Thirty-nine SNP loci were found to show an association with drought resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS. Whole-plant water relations were compared among four genotypes by lysimetric assay. Apparent genotypic differences in transpiration patterns and the critical soil water threshold in relation to dehydration avoidance were observed, indicating a delicate adaptive mechanism for each genotype to its own climate. Microarray gene expression analyses revealed that known drought resistance pathways such as the ABA and phosphate lipid signaling pathways are conserved between genotypes, while differential regulation of certain aquaporin genes and hormonal genes may be important for the genotypic differences. Our results suggest that divergent sensitivity to soil water content is an important mechanism configuring the genotypic specific responses to water deficit. The SNP markers identified provide useful resources for marker-assisted breeding.

  16. Natural variation and gene regulatory basis for the responses of asparagus beans to soil drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Moshelion, Menachem; Wu, XiaoHua; Halperin, Ofer; Wang, BaoGen; Luo, Jie; Wallach, Rony; Wu, Xinyi; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2015-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis) is the Asian subspecies of cowpea, a drought-resistant legume crop native to Africa. In order to explore the genetic variation of drought responses in asparagus bean, we conducted multi-year phenotyping of drought resistance traits across the Chinese asparagus bean mini-core. The phenotypic distribution indicated that the ssp. sesquipedalis subgene pool has maintained high natural variation in drought responses despite known domestic bottleneck. Thirty-nine SNP loci were found to show an association with drought resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Whole-plant water relations were compared among four genotypes by lysimetric assay. Apparent genotypic differences in transpiration patterns and the critical soil water threshold in relation to dehydration avoidance were observed, indicating a delicate adaptive mechanism for each genotype to its own climate. Microarray gene expression analyses revealed that known drought resistance pathways such as the ABA and phosphate lipid signaling pathways are conserved between different genotypes, while differential regulation of certain aquaporin genes and hormonal genes may be important for the genotypic differences. Our results suggest that divergent sensitivity to soil water content is an important mechanism configuring the genotypic specific responses to water deficit. The SNP markers identified provide useful resources for marker-assisted breeding. PMID:26579145

  17. Executive functions and self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Schmeichel, Brandon J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2012-03-01

    Self-regulation is a core aspect of adaptive human behavior that has been studied, largely in parallel, through the lenses of social and personality psychology as well as cognitive psychology. Here, we argue for more communication between these disciplines and highlight recent research that speaks to their connection. We outline how basic facets of executive functioning (working memory operations, behavioral inhibition, and task-switching) may subserve successful self-regulation. We also argue that temporary reductions in executive functions underlie many of the situational risk factors identified in the social psychological research on self-regulation and review recent evidence that the training of executive functions holds significant potential for improving poor self-regulation in problem populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-