WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptive vaccination strategies

  1. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  2. Vaccination strategies against influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, E

    2009-01-01

    Every year, Influenza virus infection is at the origin of substantial excess in morbidity and mortality in developed as well as developing countries. Influenza viruses undergo antigenic drift which cause annual replacement of strain included in classical trivalent vaccines. Less frequently, this virus can also undergo antigenic shift, which corresponds to a major antigenic change and can lead to an extra medical burden. Several vaccines have been made available to immunize individuals against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza viruses. For seasonal Influenza vaccines, live attenuated and classical inactivated trivalent vaccines have been licensed and are widely used. Additionally, several strategies are under investigations to improve further the efficacy of existing seasonal vaccines in children and elderly. These include the use of adjuvant, increase in antigen content, or alternative route of delivery. Similarly, several approaches have been licensed to address additional challenge posed by pandemic viruses. The different vaccination strategies used to maximise protection against seasonal as well as pandemic influenza will be reviewed and discussed in the perspective the current threat posed by the H1N1v pandemic Influenza.

  3. Expression of the SLAM family of receptors adapter EAT-2 as a novel strategy for enhancing beneficial immune responses to vaccine antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhamen, Yasser A; Appledorn, Daniel M; Seregin, Sergey S; Liu, Chyong-jy J; Schuldt, Nathaniel J; Godbehere, Sarah; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2011-01-15

    Recent studies have shown that activation of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors plays an important role in several aspects of immune regulation. However, translation of this knowledge into a useful clinical application has not been undertaken. One important area where SLAM-mediated immune regulation may have keen importance is in the field of vaccinology. Because SLAM signaling plays such a critical role in the innate and adaptive immunity, we endeavored to develop a strategy to improve the efficacy of vaccines by incorporation of proteins known to be important in SLAM-mediated signaling. In this study, we hypothesized that coexpression of the SLAM adapter EWS-FLI1-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2) along with a pathogen-derived Ag would facilitate induction of beneficial innate immune responses, resulting in improved induction of Ag-specific adaptive immune responses. To test this hypothesis, we used rAd5 vector-based vaccines expressing murine EAT-2, or the HIV-1-derived Ag Gag. Compared with appropriate controls, rAd5 vectors expressing EAT-2 facilitated bystander activation of NK, NKT, B, and T cells early after their administration into animals. EAT-2 overexpression also augments the expression of APC (macrophages and dendritic cells) surface markers. Indeed, this multitiered activation of the innate immune system by vaccine-mediated EAT-2 expression enhanced the induction of Ag-specific cellular immune responses. Because both mice and humans express highly conserved EAT-2 adapters, our results suggest that human vaccination strategies that specifically facilitate SLAM signaling may improve vaccine potency when targeting HIV Ags specifically, as well as numerous other vaccine targets in general.

  4. [Benefit-risk assessment of vaccination strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslik, Thomas; Boëlle, Pierre Yves

    2007-04-01

    This article summarises the various stages of the risk/benefit assessment of vaccination strategies. Establishing the awaited effectiveness of a vaccination strategy supposes to have an epidemiologic description of the disease to be prevented. The effectiveness of the vaccine strategy will be thus expressed in numbers of cases, hospitalizations or deaths avoided. The effectiveness can be direct, expressed as the reduction of the incidence of the infectious disease in the vaccinated subjects compared to unvaccinated subjects. It can also be indirect, the unvaccinated persons being protected by the suspension in circulation of the pathogenic agent, consecutive to the implementation of the vaccination campaign. The risks of vaccination related to the adverse effects detected during the clinical trials preceding marketing are well quantified, but other risks can occur after marketing: e.g., serious and unexpected adverse effects detected by vaccinovigilance systems, or risk of increase in the age of cases if the vaccination coverage is insufficient. The medico-economic evaluation forms a part of the risks/benefit assessment, by positioning the vaccine strategy comparatively with other interventions for health. Epidemiologic and vaccinovigilance informations must be updated very regularly, which underlines the need for having an operational and reliable real time monitoring system to accompany the vaccination strategies. Lastly, in the context of uncertainty which often accompanies the risks/benefit assessments, it is important that an adapted communication towards the public and the doctors is planned.

  5. Vaccine strategies against schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capron

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, the second major parasitic disease in the world after malaria affects at least 200 million people, 500 million being exposed to the risk of infection. It is widely agreed that a vaccine strategy wich could lead to the induction of effector mechanisms reducing the level of reinfection and ideally parasite fecundity would deeply affect the incidence of pathological manifestations as well as the parasite transmission potentialities. Extensive studies performed in the rat model have allowed the identification of novel effector mechanisms involving IgE antibodies and various inflammatory cell populations (eosinophils, macrophages and platelets whereas regulation of immune response by blocking antibodies has been evidencial. Recent epidemiological studies have now entirely confirmed in human populations the the role of IgE antibodies in the acquisition of resistance and the association of IgG4 blocking antibodies with increased susceptibility. On the basis of these concepts, several schistosome glutathion S-transferase (Sm 28 GST appears as a pronising vaccine candidate. Immunization experiments have shown that two complementary goals can be achieved: (a a partial but significant reduction of the worm population (up to 60//in rats; (b a significant reduction of parasite fecundity (up in the mice and 85//in cattle and egg viability (up to 80//. At least two distinct immunological mechanisms account for these two effects. IgE antibodies appear as a major humoral component of acquired resistance whereas IgA antibodies appear as a major humoral factor affecting parasite fecundity. These studies seem to represent a parasite diseases through the identification of potentially protective antigens and of the components of the immune response which vaccination should aim at inducing.

  6. Intranasal formulations: promising strategy to deliver vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Peggy; Sakthivel, Priya; Trittel, Stephanie; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2014-10-01

    The emergence of new diseases and the lack of efficient vaccines against numerous non-treatable pathogens require the development of novel vaccination strategies. To date, only a few mucosal vaccines have been approved for humans. This was in part due to i) the use of live attenuated vaccines, which are not suitable for certain groups of individuals, ii) safety concerns derived from implementation in humans of some mucosal vaccines, iii) the poor stability, absorption and immunogenicity of antigens delivered by the mucosal route and iv) the limited number of available technologies to overcome the bottlenecks associated with mucosal antigen delivery. Recent advances make feasible the development of efficacious mucosal vaccines with adequate safety profile. Thus, currently intranasal vaccines represent an attractive and valid alternative to conventional vaccines. The present review is focused on the potentials and limitations of market-approved intranasal vaccines and promising candidates undergoing clinical investigations. Furthermore, emerging strategies to overcome main bottlenecks including efficient breaching of the mucosal barrier and safety concerns by implementation of new adjuvants and delivery systems are discussed. The rational design of intranasal vaccines requires an in-depth understanding of the anatomic, physicochemical and barrier properties of the nasal mucosa, as well as the molecular mechanisms governing the activation of the local innate and adaptive immune system. This would provide the critical knowledge to establish effective approaches to deliver vaccine antigens across the mucosal barrier, supporting the stimulation of a long-lasting protective response at both mucosal and systemic levels. Current developments in the area of adjuvants, nanotechnologies and mucosal immunology, together with the identification of surface receptors that can be exploited for cell targeting and manipulating their physiological properties, will become instrumental

  7. [Individual adaptation strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldasheva, A A

    2014-01-01

    The article looks at the relation between adaptation strategy and individual style of activity based on the doctrine of human adaptation of V.I. Medvedev that enables opening up characteristics of professional activity in diverse environments. It illustrates a role and the relation between physiological and psychological mechanisms, which can vary, depending on individual adaptation strategies of a person. Theoretical and practical studies based on activity paradigm allow us to look at the basic principles of human interaction with the environment from a new perspective. Based on the law on the conceptual model of adaptation proposed by V.I. Medvedev, the article illustrates that humans are active figures in adaptation situations, modeling their own adaption strategies, using different individual styles manifested in the programs of adaptive behaviour.

  8. Vaccine strategies against schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capron

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the authors analyze the effector and regulatory mechanisms in the immune response to schistosomiasis. To study these mechanisms two animal models were used, mouse and rat. The mouse totaly permissive host like human, show prominent-T cell control in the acquisition of resistance. But other mechanisms like antibody mediated cytotoxity (ADCC involving eosinophils and IgG antibodies described in humans, are observed in rats. Also in this animal, it is observed specific IgE antibody high production and blood and tisssue eosinophilia. Using the rat model and schistosomula as target, some ADCC features have emerged: the cellular population involved are bone marrow derived inflammatory cell (mononuclear phagocytes, eosinophils and platelets, interacting with IgE through IgE Fc receptors. Immunization has been attempted using the recombinant protein Sm28/GST. Protection has been observed in rodents with significant decrease of parasite fecundity and egg viability affecting the number, size and volume of liver egg granulomas. The association of praziquantel and immunization with with Sm28/GST increases the resistance to infection and decreases egg viability. The authors suggest the possibility of the stablishment of a future vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni.

  9. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  10. Strategies in cancer vaccines development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunto-Amesty, Gina; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Luo, Ping; Jousheghany, Fariba; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    The recent definition of tumour-specific immunity in cancer patients and the identification of tumour-associated antigens have generated renewed enthusiasm for the application of immune-based therapies for the treatment of malignancies. Recent developments in cancer vaccines have also been based on an improved understanding of the cellular interactions required to induce a specific anti-tumour immune response. Consequently, a number of cancer vaccines have entered clinical trials. Targeting broad-spectrum tumour-associated antigens has emerged as a strategy to lower the risk of tumour escape due to the loss of specific nominal antigen. Amongst the most challenging of tumour-associated antigens to which to target in active specific immunotherapy applications are carbohydrate antigens. As carbohydrates are intrinsically T-cell-independent antigens, more novel approaches are perhaps needed to drive specific-T-cell-dependent immune responses to carbohydrate antigens. In this context peptide mimetics of core structures of tumour-associated carbohydrate antigens might be developed to augment immune responses to these broad-spectrum antigens.

  11. Nanoparticles for nasal delivery of vaccines : monitoring adaptive immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, C.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous emergence of new pathogens and growing drug resistance of microorganisms asks for innovative vaccination strategies. An alternative to conventional multiple injection vaccines is the nasal route of vaccine delivery. The immune response induced following nasal antigen delivery depends

  12. Vaccines and immunization strategies for dengue prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Jianying; Cheng, Gong

    2016-07-20

    Dengue is currently the most significant arboviral disease afflicting tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. Dengue vaccines, such as the multivalent attenuated, chimeric, DNA and inactivated vaccines, have been developed to prevent dengue infection in humans, and they function predominantly by stimulating immune responses against the dengue virus (DENV) envelope (E) and nonstructural-1 proteins (NS1). Of these vaccines, a live attenuated chimeric tetravalent DENV vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur has been licensed in several countries. However, this vaccine renders only partial protection against the DENV2 infection and is associated with an unexplained increased incidence of hospitalization for severe dengue disease among children younger than nine years old. In addition to the virus-based vaccines, several mosquito-based dengue immunization strategies have been developed to interrupt the vector competence and effectively reduce the number of infected mosquito vectors, thus controlling the transmission of DENV in nature. Here we summarize the recent progress in the development of dengue vaccines and novel immunization strategies and propose some prospective vaccine strategies for disease prevention in the future.

  13. Dengue vaccine development: strategies and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna; Nair, Radhakrishnan R

    2015-03-01

    Infection with dengue virus may result in dengue fever or a more severe outcome, such as dengue hemorrhagic syndrome/shock. Dengue virus infection poses a threat to endemic regions for four reasons: the presence of four serotypes, each with the ability to cause a similar disease outcome, including fatality; difficulties related to vector control; the lack of specific treatment; and the nonavailability of a suitable vaccine. Vaccine development is considered challenging due to the severity of the disease observed in individuals who have acquired dengue-specific immunity, either passively or actively. Therefore, the presence of vaccine-induced immunity against a particular serotype may prime an individual to severe disease on exposure to dengue virus. Vaccine development strategies include live attenuated vaccines, chimeric, DNA-based, subunit, and inactivated vaccines. Each of the candidates is in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. Issues pertaining to selection pressures, viral interaction, and safety still need to be evaluated in order to induce a complete protective immune response against all four serotypes. This review highlights the various strategies that have been employed in vaccine development, and identifies the obstacles to producing a safe and effective vaccine.

  14. Strategies of Adaptive Ability Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of strategies are described for adapting ability test items to individual differences in ability levels of testees. Each strategy consists of a different set of rules for selecting the sequence of test items to be administered to a given testee. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed, and research issues unique to the strategy are described. Strategies reviewed are differentiated into two-stage approaches and multi-stage approaches. Several variations of the two-stage approach are described. The various

  15. DNA vaccination strategies against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A M; Kennedy, R C

    1999-08-01

    DNA immunisation represents a novel approach to vaccine and immunotherapeutic development. Injection of plasmid DNA encoding a foreign gene of interest can result in the subsequent expression of the foreign gene products and the induction of an immune response within a host. This is relevant to prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination strategies when the foreign gene represents a protective epitope from a pathogen. The recent demonstration by a number of laboratories that these immune responses evoke protective immunity against some infectious diseases and cancers provides support for the use of this approach. In this article, we attempt to present an informative and unbiased representation of the field of DNA immunisation. The focus is on studies that impart information on the development of vaccination strategies against a number of human and animal pathogens. Investigations that describe the mechanism(s) of protective immunity induced by DNA immunisation highlight the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to developing vaccines within a given system. A variety of systems in which DNA vaccination has resulted in the induction of protective immunity, as well as the correlates associated with these protective immune responses, will be described. Particular attention will focus on systems involving parasitic diseases. Finally, the potential of DNA immunisation is discussed as it relates to veterinary medicine and its role as a possible vaccine strategy against animal coccidioses.

  16. Recombinant vaccines and the development of new vaccine strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, I P; Leite, L C C

    2012-12-01

    Vaccines were initially developed on an empirical basis, relying mostly on attenuation or inactivation of pathogens. Advances in immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genomics, and proteomics have added new perspectives to the vaccinology field. The use of recombinant proteins allows the targeting of immune responses focused against few protective antigens. There are a variety of expression systems with different advantages, allowing the production of large quantities of proteins depending on the required characteristics. Live recombinant bacteria or viral vectors effectively stimulate the immune system as in natural infections and have intrinsic adjuvant properties. DNA vaccines, which consist of non-replicating plasmids, can induce strong long-term cellular immune responses. Prime-boost strategies combine different antigen delivery systems to broaden the immune response. In general, all of these strategies have shown advantages and disadvantages, and their use will depend on the knowledge of the mechanisms of infection of the target pathogen and of the immune response required for protection. In this review, we discuss some of the major breakthroughs that have been achieved using recombinant vaccine technologies, as well as new approaches and strategies for vaccine development, including potential shortcomings and risks.

  17. Recombinant vaccines and the development of new vaccine strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines were initially developed on an empirical basis, relying mostly on attenuation or inactivation of pathogens. Advances in immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genomics, and proteomics have added new perspectives to the vaccinology field. The use of recombinant proteins allows the targeting of immune responses focused against few protective antigens. There are a variety of expression systems with different advantages, allowing the production of large quantities of proteins depending on the required characteristics. Live recombinant bacteria or viral vectors effectively stimulate the immune system as in natural infections and have intrinsic adjuvant properties. DNA vaccines, which consist of non-replicating plasmids, can induce strong long-term cellular immune responses. Prime-boost strategies combine different antigen delivery systems to broaden the immune response. In general, all of these strategies have shown advantages and disadvantages, and their use will depend on the knowledge of the mechanisms of infection of the target pathogen and of the immune response required for protection. In this review, we discuss some of the major breakthroughs that have been achieved using recombinant vaccine technologies, as well as new approaches and strategies for vaccine development, including potential shortcomings and risks.

  18. Recombinant vaccines and the development of new vaccine strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, I.P.; Leite, L.C.C. [Centro de Biotecnologia, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-07

    Vaccines were initially developed on an empirical basis, relying mostly on attenuation or inactivation of pathogens. Advances in immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genomics, and proteomics have added new perspectives to the vaccinology field. The use of recombinant proteins allows the targeting of immune responses focused against few protective antigens. There are a variety of expression systems with different advantages, allowing the production of large quantities of proteins depending on the required characteristics. Live recombinant bacteria or viral vectors effectively stimulate the immune system as in natural infections and have intrinsic adjuvant properties. DNA vaccines, which consist of non-replicating plasmids, can induce strong long-term cellular immune responses. Prime-boost strategies combine different antigen delivery systems to broaden the immune response. In general, all of these strategies have shown advantages and disadvantages, and their use will depend on the knowledge of the mechanisms of infection of the target pathogen and of the immune response required for protection. In this review, we discuss some of the major breakthroughs that have been achieved using recombinant vaccine technologies, as well as new approaches and strategies for vaccine development, including potential shortcomings and risks.

  19. Optimal vaccination strategies and rational behaviour in seasonal epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutor, Paulo; Rodrigues, Paula; Soares, Maria do Céu; Chalub, Fabio A C C

    2016-12-01

    We consider a SIRS model with time dependent transmission rate. We assume time dependent vaccination which confers the same immunity as natural infection. We study two types of vaccination strategies: (i) optimal vaccination, in the sense that it minimizes the effort of vaccination in the set of vaccination strategies for which, for any sufficiently small perturbation of the disease free state, the number of infectious individuals is monotonically decreasing; (ii) Nash-equilibria strategies where all individuals simultaneously minimize the joint risk of vaccination versus the risk of the disease. The former case corresponds to an optimal solution for mandatory vaccinations, while the second corresponds to the equilibrium to be expected if vaccination is fully voluntary. We are able to show the existence of both optimal and Nash strategies in a general setting. In general, these strategies will not be functions but Radon measures. For specific forms of the transmission rate, we provide explicit formulas for the optimal and the Nash vaccination strategies.

  20. Fairness versus efficiency of vaccine allocation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ming; Marathe, Achla

    2015-03-01

    To develop a framework to objectively measure the degree of fairness of any allocation rule aimed at distributing a limited stockpile of vaccines to contain the spread of influenza. The trade-off between the efficiency and fairness of allocation strategies was demonstrated through an illustrative simulation study of an influenza epidemic in Southwestern Virginia. A Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model was used to represent the disease progression within the host. Our findings showed that among all the criteria considered here, the household size (largest first) combined with age (youngest first)-based strategy leads to the best outcome. At 80% fairness, highest efficiency can be achieved but in order to be 100% fair, disease prevalence will have to rise by approximately 1.5%. This research provides a framework to objectively determine the degree of fairness of vaccine allocation strategies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). This paper reviews seven National Adaptation Strategies that were either formally adopted or under development by Member States at the end of 2008. The strategies are analysed under the following six themes. Firstly, the factors motivating and facilitating...... the development of a national adaptation strategy. Secondly, the scientific and technical support needed for the development and implementation of such a strategy. Thirdly, the role of the strategy in information, communication and awareness-raising of the adaptation issue. Fourthly, new or existing forms...... of multi-level governance to implement the proposed actions. Fifthly, how the strategy addresses integration and coordination with other policy domains. Finally, how the strategy suggests the implementation and how the strategy is evaluated. The paper notes that the role of National Adaptation Strategies...

  2. Economic Analysis of Pandemic Influenza Vaccination Strategies in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vernon J.; Tok, Mei Yin; Chow, Vincent T.; Phua, Kai Hong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Tambyah, Paul A.; Chen, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    Background All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. Methodology We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling) compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay) depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. Principal Findings The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4–0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. Conclusions The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines. PMID:19771173

  3. Economic analysis of pandemic influenza vaccination strategies in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4-0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. CONCLUSIONS: The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines.

  4. Vaccines against Human Carcinomas: Strategies to Improve Antitumor Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Palena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple observations in preclinical and clinical studies support a role for the immune system in controlling tumor growth and progression. Various components of the innate and adaptive immune response are able to mediate tumor cell destruction; however, certain immune cell populations can also induce a protumor environment that favors tumor growth and the development of metastasis. Moreover, tumor cells themselves are equipped with various mechanisms that allow them to evade surveillance by the immune system. The goal of cancer vaccines is to induce a tumor-specific immune response that ultimately will reduce tumor burden by tipping the balance from a protumor to an antitumor immune environment. This review discusses common mechanisms that govern immune cell activation and tumor immune escape, and some of the current strategies employed in the field of cancer vaccines aimed at enhancing activation of tumor-specific T-cells with concurrent reduction of immunosuppression.

  5. Adapting MCH strategies for the nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, R

    1994-01-01

    Brief overview was given for strategies in maternal and child health (MCH) in India that were used in the 1980s and adapted for the 1990s in the following areas: perinatal outcomes, empowerment of women, immunization, oral rehydration, adolescent girls, anthropometric measurement, health education, management, and coordination with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In order to assure a healthy baby weighing 2.5 kg, monitoring of maternal health is occurring. Iron and folic acid and tetanus toxoid vaccine are provided to pregnant mothers, and fetal growth is monitored. Training of traditional birth attendants and multipurpose health workers will contribute to clean deliveries and referral of complicated pregnancies. During the 1990s, women's health in addition to maternal health has received attention. The empowerment of women to care for themselves, to learn how to mix oral rehydration packets (ORS) at home, and to receive the knowledge and skills were deemed more important than the 1980s focus on the delivery system and inputs of MCH. An excellent cold chain for delivery of vaccines has been put in place, which provides the vehicle for the 1990s to maintain high vaccine coverage. The emphasis on oral rehydration in the 1990s will be on teaching mothers about the importance of ORS treatment of diarrhea. During the 1990s, educating the adolescent girl before she becomes married and pregnant will be the focus. Greater emphasis will be placed on stunting or height for age measurements, as a measure of long term nutritional change; age weight for height for measurement of wasting; and maternal nutritional monitoring of arm circumference. Sustained health education, more media exposure to disease conditions and treatment, and social marketing in health will be better coordinated and more cost effective. Accountability for manpower, materials, and money will be in place within management. Management will focus on motivation and training, and other, newer management

  6. Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbing, Jana; Koidl, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Abbing, J. & Koidl, K. (2006). Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies. Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia. June, Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  7. Vaccines and immunization strategies for dengue prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Jianying; Cheng, Gong

    2016-01-01

    .... Dengue vaccines, such as the multivalent attenuated, chimeric, DNA and inactivated vaccines, have been developed to prevent dengue infection in humans, and they function predominantly by stimulating...

  8. Comparative evaluation of cell culture-adapted and chicken embryo-adapted fowl pox vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, M K; Oberoi, M S

    1999-01-01

    Two types of vaccines, chicken embryo adapted (VacCE) and cell culture adapted (VacCC), were tested for their efficacy to elicite the immune response in birds vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk of age. The cell-mediated immune response studied by blastogenesis assay showed that birds vaccinated at the second week of age by both VacCE and VacCC vaccines had significant increase in T-lymphocyte count at 21 days postvaccination (PV) and 7 days postchallenge (PC), whereas in birds vaccinated at 8 wk of age, a significant increase was seen at 21 days PV and 7 days PC with the VacCC vaccine. The rise in passive hemagglutination titers was observed up to 21 days PV and 7 days PC in birds vaccinated at 2 wk of age. However, only the birds vaccinated with VacCC at 8 wk of age showed rise in titers at days 21 PV and 7 PC. Birds were challenged 90 days PV by scarification on the thigh region, and the birds vaccinated with VacCC showed 90% and 70% protection when vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk, respectively. The birds vaccinated with VacCE showed only 60% and 20% protection at the corresponding levels, respectively.

  9. Potential influence of seasonal influenza vaccination requirement versus traditional vaccine promotion strategies on unvaccinated healthcare personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mark G; McIntyre, Anne F; Naleway, Allison L; Black, Carla; Kennedy, Erin D; Ball, Sarah; Walker, Deborah Klein; Henkle, Emily M; Gaglani, Manjusha J

    2013-08-20

    In a prospective cohort study of 1670 healthcare personnel (HCP) providing direct patient care at Scott & White Healthcare in Texas and Kaiser Permanente Northwest in Oregon and Washington, we examined the potential impact of twelve vaccine promotion strategies on the likelihood of being vaccinated. Internet-based surveys were conducted at enrollment (Fall, 2010) and at post-season (Spring, 2011), which asked HCP whether twelve vaccination promotion strategies would make them "much less" to "much more" likely to be vaccinated next season (on a 5-point Likert scale). Overall, 366 of 1670 HCP (22%) were unvaccinated. Half (50%) of unvaccinated HCP self-reported that a vaccination requirement would make them more likely to be vaccinated and most (62%) identified at least one strategy other than a vaccination requirement that would make them more likely to be vaccinated. In sub-groups of unvaccinated HCPs with specific barriers to vaccination, about one in three (range=27-35%) indicated that interventions targeting specific vaccination barrier would increase the likelihood they would be vaccinated. However, in all cases, significantly more unvaccinated HCP reported that a vaccination requirement would increase the likelihood of vaccination than reported a targeted intervention would have this effect (range in difference scores=+11-23%).

  10. Functional demonstration of adaptive immunity in zebrafish using DNA vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lorenzen, Ellen; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    studies have documented existence of a classical innate immune response, there is mainly indirect evidence of functional adaptive immunity. To address this aspect, groups of zebrafish were vaccinated with DNA-vaccines against the rhabdoviruses VHSV, IHNV and SVCV. Seven weeks later, the fish were...... challenged with SVCV by immersion. Despite some variability between replicate aquaria, there was a protective effect of the homologous vaccine and no effect of the heterologous vaccines. The results therefore confirm the existence of not only a well developed but also a fully functional adaptive immune......Due to the well characterized genome, overall highly synteny with the human genome and its suitability for functional genomics studies, the zebrafish is considered to be an ideal animal model for basic studies of mechanisms of diseases and immunity in vertebrates including humans. While several...

  11. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    The absence of a global agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions calls for adaptation to climate change. The associated paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change...... adaptation needed. Issues that must be addressed in case a strategic approach is not developed, as the building sector is continuously investing in measures to adapt to climate change as impacts emerge are described....

  12. A comparative approach between heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy and DNA vaccinations for rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Kiandokht; Ajorloo, Mehdi; Bamdad, Taravat; Mozhgani, Sayed Hamid Reza; Ghaderi, Mostafa; Gholami, Ali Reza

    2015-04-01

    Rabies is a widespread neurological zoonotic disease causing significant mortality rates, especially in developing countries. Although a vaccine for rabies is available, its production and scheduling are costly in such countries. Advances in recombinant DNA technology have made it a good candidate for an affordable vaccine. Among the proteins of rabies virus, the Glycoprotein (RVG) has been the major target for new vaccine development which plays the principal role in providing complete protection against RV challenge. The aim of this study is to produce recombinant RVG which could be a DNA vaccine candidate and to evaluate the efficiency of this construct in a prime-boost vaccination regimen, compared to commercial vaccine. Cloning to pcDNA3.1(+) and expression of rabies virus glycoprotein gene in BSR cell  line were performed followed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of the expressed glycoprotein. The resulting genetic construct was used as a DNA vaccine by injecting 80 µg of the plasmid to MNRI mice twice. Prime-Boost vaccination strategy was performed using 80 µg plasmid construct as prime dose and the second dose of an inactivated rabies virus vaccine. Production of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers of the serum samples were determined by RFFIT. In comparisons between heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy and DNA vaccinations, the potency of group D that received Prime-Boost vaccine with the second dose of pcDNA3.1(+)-Gp was enhanced significantly compared to the group C which had received pcDNA3.1(+)-Gp as first injection. In this study, RVGP expressing construct was used in a comparative approach between Prime-Boost vaccination strategy and DNA vaccination and compared with the standard method of rabies vaccination. It was concluded that this strategy could lead to induction of acceptable humoral immunity.

  13. Toward robust adaptive radiation therapy strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böck, Michelle; Eriksson, Kjell; Forsgren, Anders; Hårdemark, Björn

    2017-06-01

    To set up a framework combining robust treatment planning with adaptive re-optimization in order to maintain high treatment quality, to respond to interfractional geometric variations and to identify those patients who will benefit the most from an adaptive fractionation schedule. The authors propose robust adaptive strategies based on stochastic minimax optimization for a series of simulated treatments on a one-dimensional patient phantom. The plan applied during the first fractions should be able to handle anticipated systematic and random errors. Information on the individual geometric variations is gathered at each fraction. At scheduled fractions, the impact of the measured errors on the delivered dose distribution is evaluated. For a patient having received a dose that does not satisfy specified plan quality criteria, the plan is re-optimized based on these individually measured errors. The re-optimized plan is then applied during subsequent fractions until a new scheduled adaptation becomes necessary. In this study, three different adaptive strategies are introduced and investigated. (a) In the first adaptive strategy, the measured systematic and random error scenarios and their assigned probabilities are updated to guide the robust re-optimization. (b) In the second strategy, the degree of conservativeness is adapted in response to the measured dose delivery errors. (c) In the third strategy, the uncertainty margins around the target are recalculated based on the measured errors. The simulated treatments are subjected to systematic and random errors that are either similar to the anticipated errors or unpredictably larger in order to critically evaluate the performance of these three adaptive strategies. According to the simulations, robustly optimized treatment plans provide sufficient treatment quality for those treatment error scenarios similar to the anticipated error scenarios. Moreover, combining robust planning with adaptation leads to improved organ

  14. Optimization model of vaccination strategy for dengue transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayani, H.; Kallista, M.; Nuraini, N.; Sari, M. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Dengue fever is emerging tropical and subtropical disease caused by dengue virus infection. The vaccination should be done as a prevention of epidemic in population. The host-vector model are modified with consider a vaccination factor to prevent the occurrence of epidemic dengue in a population. An optimal vaccination strategy using non-linear objective function was proposed. The genetic algorithm programming techniques are combined with fourth-order Runge-Kutta method to construct the optimal vaccination. In this paper, the appropriate vaccination strategy by using the optimal minimum cost function which can reduce the number of epidemic was analyzed. The numerical simulation for some specific cases of vaccination strategy is shown.

  15. 2013 update on current vaccination strategies in puppies and kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Wurzler, Gina M

    2014-03-01

    Vaccines remain one of the practitioner's greatest tools in preventing disease and maintaining individual and population health. This article is an update to "Current Vaccination Strategies in Puppies and Kittens" published in Veterinary Clinics of North America, Small Animal Practitioner, in May 2006. There are now comprehensive guidelines readily available for small animal practitioners regarding canine and feline pediatric (and adult) vaccination recommendations. Perhaps more importantly, there is an increased dialogue regarding all aspects of preventive medicine, of which vaccination is only a small, yet significant portion; and an increased drive to provide scientific evidence for developing vaccination recommendations.

  16. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that enable...... adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach is based...... on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant stakeholders...

  17. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2014-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that enable...... adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach is based...... on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant stakeholders...

  18. Policy resistance undermines superspreader vaccination strategies for influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad R Wells

    Full Text Available Theoretical models of infection spread on networks predict that targeting vaccination at individuals with a very large number of contacts (superspreaders can reduce infection incidence by a significant margin. These models generally assume that superspreaders will always agree to be vaccinated. Hence, they cannot capture unintended consequences such as policy resistance, where the behavioral response induced by a new vaccine policy tends to reduce the expected benefits of the policy. Here, we couple a model of influenza transmission on an empirically-based contact network with a psychologically structured model of influenza vaccinating behavior, where individual vaccinating decisions depend on social learning and past experiences of perceived infections, vaccine complications and vaccine failures. We find that policy resistance almost completely undermines the effectiveness of superspreader strategies: the most commonly explored approaches that target a randomly chosen neighbor of an individual, or that preferentially choose neighbors with many contacts, provide at best a 2% relative improvement over their non-targeted counterpart as compared to 12% when behavioral feedbacks are ignored. Increased vaccine coverage in super spreaders is offset by decreased coverage in non-superspreaders, and superspreaders also have a higher rate of perceived vaccine failures on account of being infected more often. Including incentives for vaccination provides modest improvements in outcomes. We conclude that the design of influenza vaccine strategies involving widespread incentive use and/or targeting of superspreaders should account for policy resistance, and mitigate it whenever possible.

  19. Vaccines and vaccination strategies against human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2009-05-01

    One might think that the development of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis would be relatively straightforward because the type of immune response required for protection is known and natural immunity occurs following recovery from primary infection. However, there is as yet no effective vaccine against the disease in humans. Although vaccination in murine studies has yielded promising results, these vaccines have failed miserably when tested in primates or humans. The reasons behind these failures are unknown and remain a major hurdle for vaccine design and development against cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, recovery from natural, deliberate or experimental infections results in development of long-lasting immunity to re-infection. This so called infection-induced resistance is the strongest anti-Leishmania immunity known. Here, we briefly review the different approaches to vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis and argue that vaccines composed of genetically modified (attenuated) parasites, which induce immunity akin to infection-induced resistance, may provide best protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.

  20. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model...... replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination strategies were investigated under four different...... grazing conditions. Furthermore, scenarios were tested with three different index locations stratified for cattle density. The cheapest way to vaccinate cattle with a medium risk profile (less than 1000 total affected cattle) was to vaccinate cattle on pasture. Regional vaccination displayed better...

  1. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  2. Dengue vaccine: an update on recombinant subunit strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Hermida, L

    2016-03-01

    Dengue is an increasing public health problem worldwide, with the four serotypes of the virus infecting over 390 million people annually. There is no specific treatment or antiviral drug for dengue, and prevention is largely limited to controlling the mosquito vectors or disrupting the human-vector contact. Despite the considerable progress made in recent years, an effective vaccine against the virus is not yet available. The development of a dengue vaccine has been hampered by many unique challenges, including the need to ensure the absence of vaccine-induced enhanced severity of disease. Recombinant protein subunit vaccines offer a safer alternative to other vaccine approaches. Several subunit vaccine candidates are presently under development, based on different structural and non-structural proteins of the virus. Novel adjuvants or immunopotentiating strategies are also being tested to improve their immunogenicity. This review summarizes the current status and development trends of subunit dengue vaccines.

  3. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal K. Nath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA in piglets of vaccinated sows. Materials and Methods: A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0 and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days after vaccination and were analyzed by liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, MDA titre was detected in the serum of piglets at 21 and 42 days of age after farrowing of the vaccinated sows. Results: On 28 days after vaccination, serum samples of 83.33% vaccinated pigs showed the desirable level of antibody titer (log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution, whereas 100% animals showed log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution after 42 days of vaccination. Animals received a booster dose at 28 and 180 days post vaccination showed stable high-level antibody titre till the end of the study period. Further, piglets born from pigs vaccinated 1 month after conception showed the desirable level of MDA up to 42 days of age. Conclusion: CSF causes major losses in pig industry. Lapinised vaccines against CSFV are used routinely in endemic countries. In the present study, a cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine has been evaluated. Based on the level of humoral immune response of vaccinated pigs and MDA titer in piglets born from immunized sows, it may be concluded that the more effective vaccination schedule for prevention of CSF is primary vaccination at 2 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 28 and 180 days post primary vaccination and at 1 month of gestation.

  4. Adaptation strategies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Bergsma, E.; Jong, P.; Albrecht, E.; Schmidt, M.; Mißler-Behr, M.; Spyra, S.P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Although climate change has been prominently featured on the global scientific and political agendas since the World Climate Conference in 1979 (WCC 1979), the specific importance of adaptation to climate change has only been underlined about 20 years later. The Netherlands, because it lies largely

  5. Strategies for Fostering HPV Vaccine Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines that protect against infection with the types of human papillomavirus (HPV commonly associated with cervical cancer (HPV 16 and 18 and genital warts (HPV 6 and 11 are expected to become available in the near future. Because HPV vaccines are prophylactic, they must be administered prior to exposure to the virus, ideally during preadolescence or adolescence. The young age of the target vaccination population means that physicians, parents, and patients will all be involved in the decision-making process. Research has shown that parents and patients are more likely to accept a vaccine if it is efficacious, safe, reasonably priced, and recommended by a physician. Widespread education of physicians, patients, and parents about the risks and consequences of HPV infection and the benefits of vaccination will be instrumental for fostering vaccine acceptance.

  6. Building An Adaptive Cyber Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    on creating a secure cyberspace. The foundations of the current cybersecurity strategy are sound as a necessary baseline, but cybersecurity will...the community to provide a common sight picture of the adversary, but it does not implement cyber strategy or direct/coordinate operational action...primarily oriented around gathering information to support targeting for action based AU/ACSC/SMITH, FI/AY16 authorities or crafting policy responses

  7. Strategies for designing and monitoring malaria vaccines targeting diverse antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa E Barry

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After more than 50 years of intensive research and development, only one malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S, has progressed to Phase 3 clinical trials. Despite only partial efficacy, this candidate is now forecast to become the first licensed malaria vaccine. Hence, more efficacious second-generation malaria vaccines that can significantly reduce transmission are urgently needed. This review will focus on a major obstacle hindering development of effective malaria vaccines: parasite antigenic diversity. Despite extensive genetic diversity in leading candidate antigens, vaccines have been and continue to be formulated using recombinant antigens representing only one or two strains. These vaccine strains represent only a small fraction of the diversity circulating in natural parasite populations, leading to escape of non-vaccine strains and challenging investigators’ abilities to measure strain-specific efficacy in vaccine trials. Novel strategies are needed to overcome antigenic diversity in order for vaccine development to succeed. Many studies have now catalogued the global diversity of leading Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax vaccine antigens. In this review, we describe how population genetic approaches can be applied to this rich data source to predict the alleles that best represent antigenic diversity, polymorphisms that contribute to it, and to identify key polymorphisms associated with antigenic escape. We also suggest an approach to summarise the known global diversity of a given antigen to predict antigenic diversity, how to select variants that best represent the strains circulating in natural parasite populations and how to investigate the strain-specific efficacy of vaccine trials. Use of these strategies in the design and monitoring of vaccine trials will not only shed light on the contribution of genetic diversity to the antigenic diversity of malaria, but will also maximise the potential of future malaria vaccine

  8. DENGUE VACCINE, CHALLENGES, DEVELOPMENT AND STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Marbawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPenyakit demam Dengue endemik di lebih dari 100 negara di dunia. Obat anti virus Dengue efektif belum ditemukan danpengendalian vektor dinilai kurang efektif, sehingga diperlukan upaya pencegahan dengan vaksinasi. Vaksin Dengue yangideal adalah murah, mencakup 4 serotipe, efektif dalam memberikan kekebalan, cukup diberikan sekali seumur hidup, aman,memberi kekebalan jangka panjang, stabil dalam penyimpanan dan stabil secara genetis (tidak bermutasi. Beberapakandidat vaksin yang telah dan sedang dikembangkan oleh para peneliti di seluruh dunia adalah tetravalent live attenuatedvaccine, vaksin Chimera (ChimeriVax, vaksin subunit dan vaksin DNA. Vaksin Dengue dipandang sebagai pendekatan yangefektif dan berkesinambungan dalam mengendalikan penyakit Dengue. Tahun 2003 telah terbentuk Pediatric DengueVaccine Initiative (PDVI, yaitu sebuah konsorsium internasional yang bergerak dalam advokasi untuk meyakinkanmasyarakat internasional akan penting dan mendesaknya vaksin Dengue. Konsorsium vaksin Dengue Indonesia saat iniberupaya mengembangkan vaksin Dengue dengan menggunakan strain virus lokal.Kata kunci: Dengue, virus, vaksinABSTRACTDengue fever is endemic in more than 100 countries in the world. The effective dengue antiviral drug has not been found yet,and vector control is considered less effective. Prevention program by vaccination is needed. An ideal dengue vaccine shouldbe inexpensive, covering four serotypes (tetravalent, effective in providing immunity, given once a lifetime, safe, stable instorage and genetically. Several vaccine candidates have been and are being developed included attenuated tetravalentvaccine, ChimeriVax, sub- unit vaccines and DNA vaccines. Dengue vaccine is seen as an effective and sustainable approachto controll Dengue infection. In 2003, Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI has been formed as an internationalconsortium involved in advocacy to convince the international community about the essence and urgency

  9. The development of the Swiss Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, R.; Köllner-Heck, P.; Probst, T.

    2010-09-01

    In summer 2009, the Federal Council mandated the Departement of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) to develop a Swiss adaptation strategy. This strategy aims to coordinate the efforts of all federal departments involved in adaptation, and to provide them with the necessary basic information. For the development of the Swiss adaptation strategy the following principles are fundamental. (1.) The strategy aims to achieve the overarching objectives of harnessing the opportunities that climate change presents, minimizing the risks of climate change to people and assets, and to increases the adaptive capacity of all resources. (2) The strategy is based on the most recent scientific knowledge about climate change and climate change impacts. (3.) It is based in on a sound and comprehensive analysis of climate change risks. (4.) It includes strategic goals for the sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change, i.e., water management, biodiversity management, agriculture, forestry, natural hazard prevention, health care, energy generation, tourism, land use. (5.) It thoroughly analyzes the interfaces between the sectoral strategies in order solve existing conflicts and profit form existing synergies. The Swiss Adaptation Strategy will be completed and submitted to the Federal Council by the End of 2011.

  10. New Strategies Toward Edible Vaccines: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryamvally, Anjali; Gunasekaran, Vignesh; Narenthiran, Keerthana Ragavi; Pasupathi, Rathinasabapathi

    2016-04-11

    With the ever growing population, advancements in edible vaccines and related technologies have seen a rise in popularity. Antigenic peptides incorporated into an edible part of a plant can be administered raw as a vaccine. While conventional vaccines have improved the quality of life by drastically reducing the onset of diseases, edible vaccines are able to perform the same with greater accessibility and at an affordable price. Low cost of production, ease of storage, transportation and administration are some of the many reasons behind the push for the development of edible vaccines. This article aims at giving an overview of the different plant systems used to produce vaccines in various experiments, as well as the merits and demerits of using that particular expression system. Further, the article elaborates on the problems faced in the production of edible vaccines and the measures adopted to surpass them. The major obstacle in the process is attaining a sufficiently large concentration of foreign antigen in the plant system. The article discusses various plant expression systems like banana, rice, alfalfa, mushroom, potato, tomato, pea, tobacco, and maize. When these were reviewed, it was found that the inability to produce the desired antigen concentration was one of the primary reasons why edible vaccines sometimes fail to generate the desired level of immune response in the recipient. We conclude with a promising solution to the problem by incorporating nano-technological advancements to the already existing protocols for edible vaccine development.

  11. Immunostimulation, vaccine and phage therapy strategies in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    This invited article provides a comparison between fish and shrimp immunity, and reviews the use of immunostimulation, vaccination strategies and bacteriophage therapies. Immunostimulants, a heterogenous group of compounds that are derived from bacterial, plant and animal extracts are compounds bel...

  12. Strategies and hurdles using DNA vaccines to fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hølvold, Linn B; Myhr, Anne I; Dalmo, Roy A

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccinations against fish viral diseases as IHNV at commercial level in Canada against VHSV at experimental level are both success stories. DNA vaccination strategies against many other viral diseases have, however, not yet yielded sufficient results in terms of protection. There is an obvious need to combat many other viral diseases within aquaculture where inactivated vaccines fail. There are many explanations to why DNA vaccine strategies against other viral diseases fail to induce protective immune responses in fish. These obstacles include: 1) too low immunogenicity of the transgene, 2) too low expression of the transgene that is supposed to induce protection, 3) suboptimal immune responses, and 4) too high degradation rate of the delivered plasmid DNA. There are also uncertainties with regard distribution and degradation of DNA vaccines that may have implications for safety and regulatory requirements that need to be clarified. By combining plasmid DNA with different kind of adjuvants one can increase the immunogenicity of the transgene antigen - and perhaps increase the vaccine efficacy. By using molecular adjuvants with or without in combination with targeting assemblies one may expect different responses compared with naked DNA. This includes targeting of DNA vaccines to antigen presenting cells as a central factor in improving their potencies and efficacies by means of encapsulating the DNA vaccine in certain carriers systems that may increase transgene and MHC expression. This review will focus on DNA vaccine delivery, by the use of biodegradable PLGA particles as vehicles for plasmid DNA mainly in fish.

  13. [Vaccination safety and media publicity strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jibin; Guo, Xiaomin; Li, Keli; Zhang, Xiumin

    2016-03-01

    Due to the over negative report of adverse event following immunization (AEFI) by media, some people began to question the safety of vaccination. Date published since 2005 were collected by literature retrieval, mainly including relative AEFI date, current status of media report of AEFI, public awareness about AEFI. Public concern about the vaccination safety mainly focused on the serious diseases which might be caused, influence on immune system. Media' s over negative reactions to AEFI and lack of related knowledge in general public have led to the public' s concern about vaccination safety. Vaccination is the most economical and effective measure for the prevention of diseases and AEFI incidence rate is very low. Therefore, it is necessary for media to give more positive report about vaccination safety.

  14. [Strategies to improve influenza vaccination coverage in Primary Health Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, F; Richart, M J; Serrano, S; Martínez, A M; Pruteanu, D F

    2016-04-01

    Vaccination coverage reached in adults is insufficient, and there is a real need for new strategies. To compare strategies for improving influenza vaccination coverage in persons older than 64 years. New strategies were introduced in our health care centre during 2013-2014 influenza vaccination campaign, which included vaccinating patients in homes for the aged as well as in the health care centre. A comparison was made on vaccination coverage over the last 4 years in 3 practices of our health care centre: P1, the general physician vaccinated patients older than 64 that came to the practice; P2, the general physician systematically insisted in vaccination in elderly patients, strongly advising to book appointments, and P3, the general physician did not insist. These practices looked after P1: 278; P2: 320; P3: 294 patients older than 64 years. Overall/P1/P2/P3 coverages in 2010: 51.2/51.4/55/46.9% (P=NS), in 2011: 52.4/52.9/53.8/50.3% (P=NS), in 2012: 51.9/52.5/55.3/47.6% (P=NS), and in 2013: 63.5/79.1/59.7/52.7 (P=.000, P1 versus P2 and P3; P=NS between P2 and P3). Comparing the coverages in 2012-2013 within each practice P1 (P=.000); P2 (P=.045); P3 (P=.018). In P2 and P3 all vaccinations were given by the nurses as previously scheduled. In P3, 55% of the vaccinations were given by the nurses, 24.1% by the GP, 9.7% rejected vaccination, and the remainder did not come to the practice during the vaccination period (October 2013-February 2014). The strategy of vaccinating in the homes for the aged improved the vaccination coverage by 5% in each practice. The strategy of "I've got you here, I jab you here" in P1 improved the vaccination coverage by 22%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Therapeutic Vaccine Strategies against Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Khallouf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV cause over 500,000 cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer cases per year. The transforming potential of HPVs is mediated by viral oncoproteins. These are essential for the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Thus, HPV-mediated malignancies pose the unique opportunity in cancer vaccination to target immunologically foreign epitopes. Therapeutic HPV vaccination is therefore an ideal scenario for proof-of-concept studies of cancer immunotherapy. This is reflected by the fact that a multitude of approaches has been utilized in therapeutic HPV vaccination design: protein and peptide vaccination, DNA vaccination, nanoparticle- and cell-based vaccines, and live viral and bacterial vectors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of completed and ongoing clinical trials in therapeutic HPV vaccination (summarized in tables, and also highlights selected promising preclinical studies. Special emphasis is given to adjuvant science and the potential impact of novel developments in vaccinology research, such as combination therapies to overcome tumor immune suppression, the use of novel materials and mouse models, as well as systems vaccinology and immunogenetics approaches.

  16. Optimal pandemic influenza vaccine allocation strategies for the Canadian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh R Tuite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The world is currently confronting the first influenza pandemic of the 21(st century. Influenza vaccination is an effective preventive measure, but the unique epidemiological features of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 (pH1N1 introduce uncertainty as to the best strategy for prioritization of vaccine allocation. We sought to determine optimal prioritization of vaccine distribution among different age and risk groups within the Canadian population, to minimize influenza-attributable morbidity and mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a deterministic, age-structured compartmental model of influenza transmission, with key parameter values estimated from data collected during the initial phase of the epidemic in Ontario, Canada. We examined the effect of different vaccination strategies on attack rates, hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and mortality. In all scenarios, prioritization of high-risk individuals (those with underlying chronic conditions and pregnant women, regardless of age, markedly decreased the frequency of severe outcomes. When individuals with underlying medical conditions were not prioritized and an age group-based approach was used, preferential vaccination of age groups at increased risk of severe outcomes following infection generally resulted in decreased mortality compared to targeting vaccine to age groups with higher transmission, at a cost of higher population-level attack rates. All simulations were sensitive to the timing of the epidemic peak in relation to vaccine availability, with vaccination having the greatest impact when it was implemented well in advance of the epidemic peak. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model simulations suggest that vaccine should be allocated to high-risk groups, regardless of age, followed by age groups at increased risk of severe outcomes. Vaccination may significantly reduce influenza-attributable morbidity and mortality, but the benefits are

  17. Compliance to compulsory vaccination: strategies and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, G; Caramello, S; Vaudetto, S

    1995-06-01

    This report is devoted to analyze the effect that compulsory vaccination has on the compliance of the population, compared with the results obtained by massive campaigns for optional vaccinations. The implementation of a specific software for the management of individual schedules helps to reach a substantial complete coverage of the individuals for the first ones, while improving but incomplete results regard the vaccines against pertussis and measles-mumps-rubella, optional in Italy. The optimization of data management at the local health unit level improves the quality and the satisfaction of the work performed by the personnel, but has a limited effect on the already nearly complete coverage for the compulsory immunizations. The mounting percentage of children immunized with optional vaccines can be explained both by the massive campaigns of information conducted in recent years and by the better tracking of individual immunization schedules.

  18. Bacterial otitis media: current vaccine development strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Allan W; Kyd, Jennelle

    2003-02-01

    Otitis media is the most common reason for children less than 5 years of age to visit a medical practitioner. Whilst the disease rarely results in death, there is significant associated morbidity. The most common complication is loss of hearing at a critical stage of the development of speech, language and cognitive abilities in children. The cause and pathogenesis of otitis media is multifactorial. Among the contributing factors, the single most important are viral and bacterial infections. Infection with respiratory syncytial virus, influenza viruses, para-influenza viruses, enteroviruses and adenovirus are most commonly associated with acute and chronic otitis media. Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most commonly isolated bacteria from the middle ears of children with otitis media. Treatment of otitis media has largely relied on the administration of antimicrobials and surgical intervention. However, attention has recently focused on the development of a vaccine. For a vaccine to be effective against bacterial otitis media, it must, at the very least, contain antigens that induce a protective immune response in the middle ear against the three most common infecting bacteria. Whilst over the past decade there has been significant progress in the development of vaccines against invasive S. pneumoniae disease, these vaccines are less efficacious for otitis media. The search for candidate vaccine antigens for non-typeable H. influenzae are well advanced whilst less progress has been made for M. catarrhalis. No human studies have been conducted for non-typeable H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis and the concept of a tribacterial vaccine remains to be tested in animal models. Only when vaccine antigens are determined and an understanding of the immune responses induced in the middle ear by infection and immunization is gained will the formulation of a tribacterial vaccine against otitis media be possible.

  19. Vaccination strategies for managing brucellosis in Yellowstone bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, John J; Johnson, Joseph S; Wallen, Rick L; Cilles, Sara; Crowley, Philip H; Cox, John J; Maehr, David S; White, P J; Plumb, Glenn E

    2010-10-01

    Concerns over migratory bison (Bison bison) at Yellowstone National Park transmitting brucellosis (Brucella abortus) to cattle herds on adjacent lands led to proposals for bison vaccination. We developed an individual-based model to evaluate how brucellosis infection might respond under alternate vaccination strategies, including: (1) vaccination of female calves and yearlings captured at the park boundary when bison move outside the primary conservation area; (2) combining boundary vaccination with the remote delivery of vaccine to female calves and yearlings distributed throughout the park; and (3) vaccinating all female bison (including adults) during boundary capture and throughout the park using remote delivery of vaccine. Simulations suggested Alternative 3 would be most effective, with brucellosis seroprevalence decreasing by 66% (from 0.47 to 0.16) over a 30-year period resulting from 29% of the population receiving protection through vaccination. Under this alternative, bison would receive multiple vaccinations that extend the duration of vaccine protection and defend against recurring infection in latently infected animals. The initial decrease in population seroprevalence will likely be slow due to high initial seroprevalence (40-60%), long-lived antibodies, and the culling of some vaccinated bison that were subsequently exposed to field strain Brucella and reacted positively on serologic tests. Vaccination is unlikely to eradicate B. abortus from Yellowstone bison, but could be an effective tool for reducing the level of infection. Our approach and findings have applicability world-wide for managers dealing with intractable wildlife diseases that cross wildlife-livestock and wildlife-human interfaces and affect public health or economic well-being.

  20. Readapting the adaptive immune response - therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Andrew P; Mallat, Ziad

    2017-01-04

    Cardiovascular diseases remain a major global health issue, with the development of atherosclerosis as a major underlying cause. Our treatment of cardiovascular disease has improved greatly over the past three decades, but much remains to be done reduce disease burden. Current priorities include reducing atherosclerosis advancement to clinically significant stages and preventing plaque rupture or erosion. Inflammation and involvement of the adaptive immune system influences all these aspects and therefore is one focus for future therapeutic development. The atherosclerotic vascular wall is now recognized to be invaded from both sides (arterial lumen and adventitia), for better or worse, by the adaptive immune system. Atherosclerosis is also affected at several stages by adaptive immune responses, overall providing many opportunities to target these responses and to reduce disease progression. Protective influences that may be defective in diseased individuals include humoral responses to modified LDL and regulatory T cell responses. There are many strategies in development to boost these pathways in humans, including vaccine-based therapies. The effects of various existing adaptive immune targeting therapies, such as blocking critical co-stimulatory pathways or B cell depletion, on cardiovascular disease are beginning to emerge with important consequences for both autoimmune disease patients and the potential for wider use of such therapies. Entering the translation phase for adaptive immune targeting therapies is an exciting and promising prospect.

  1. Vaccination strategies for SEIR models using feedback linearization. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

    2011-01-01

    A linearization-based feedback-control strategy for a SEIR epidemic model is discussed. The vaccination objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically tend to zero. The disease controlpolicy is designed based on a feedback linearization technique which provides a general method to generate families of vaccination policies with sound technical background.

  2. An autoimmune-mediated strategy for prophylactic breast cancer vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaini, Ritika; Kesaraju, Pavani; Johnson, Justin M; Altuntas, Cengiz Z; Jane-Wit, Daniel; Tuohy, Vincent K

    2010-07-01

    Although vaccination is most effective when used to prevent disease, cancer vaccine development has focused predominantly on providing therapy against established growing tumors. The difficulty in developing prophylactic cancer vaccines is primarily due to the fact that tumor antigens are variations of self proteins and would probably mediate profound autoimmune complications if used in a preventive vaccine setting. Here we use several mouse breast cancer models to define a prototypic strategy for prophylactic cancer vaccination. We selected alpha-lactalbumin as our target vaccine autoantigen because it is a breast-specific differentiation protein expressed in high amounts in the majority of human breast carcinomas and in mammary epithelial cells only during lactation. We found that immunoreactivity against alpha-lactalbumin provides substantial protection and therapy against growth of autochthonous tumors in transgenic mouse models of breast cancer and against 4T1 transplantable breast tumors in BALB/c mice. Because alpha-lactalbumin is conditionally expressed only during lactation, vaccination-induced prophylaxis occurs without any detectable inflammation in normal nonlactating breast tissue. Thus, alpha-lactalbumin vaccination may provide safe and effective protection against the development of breast cancer for women in their post-child-bearing, premenopausal years, when lactation is readily avoidable and risk for developing breast cancer is high.

  3. [Pertussis in fully vaccinated infants and children. Are new vaccination strategies required?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Mendoza-Palomar, Natàlia; Muntaner-Alonso, Antoni; Codina-Grau, Gemma; Fàbregas-Martori, Anna; Campins-Martí, Magda

    2014-04-01

    To analyse the vaccination status of children diagnosed with pertussis and to compare the clinical manifestations of fully vaccinated with unvaccinated, or incompletely-vaccinated, children. The clinical histories and vaccination cards of patients under 16years of age seen in the Emergency Room of the University Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona (Spain), for pertussis confirmed by a microbiological study were reviewed. The study period lasted from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2011. Two hundred and twelve cases were studied: 35 in 2009, 28 in 2010 and 149 in 2011. RT-PCR was positive in 210 patients, and 73 had a positive culture. Infants under 6months of age account for 36.8% of all cases. Forty-four patients (21.5%) were not vaccinated. Forty-four (21.5%) children were between 2 and 5months of age and had received 1-2vaccine doses. One hundred and seventeen (57%) children were fully vaccinated; 76.9% (90cases) had received the last dose less than 4years ago. When clinical manifestations of the fully vaccinated patients were compared with those of the non-vaccinated or incompletely-vaccinated children, only cyanosis was found with a higher frequency in the latter group (P<.001). The age-adjusted probability of hospitalisation was significantly associated with non-vaccination (P=.001). The case mortality rate among inpatients was 1.3%. The number of pertussis cases seen in our centre has risen significantly in the last year. More than half (57%) of the patients were fully vaccinated, and 76.9% had received the last dose in the previous 4years. Other vaccination strategies, such as vaccination of adolescents, adults, and pregnant women, as well as a cocoon strategy are required to protect infants under 6months of age. More effective vaccines need to be developed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. An epidemiological model with vaccination strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Dérek B.; Silva, Jaqueline M.; Gomes, Jessica L.; Kritz, Maurício V.

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical models can be widely found in the literature describing epidemics. The epidemical models that use differential equations to represent mathematically such description are especially sensible to parameters. This work analyze a variation of the SIR model when applied to a epidemic scenario including several aspects, as constant vaccination, pulse vaccination, seasonality, cross-immunity factor, birth and dead rate. The analysis and results are performed through numerical solutions of the model and a special attention is given to the discussion generated by the paramenters variation.

  5. [Adaptation strategies faced with chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioy, Antoine

    2017-05-01

    Chronic pain constitutes a challenge for patients. It makes them uneasy with regard to their personality, their corporality and their life balance, and leaves long-lasting effects on their experience as a patient. The development of adaptation strategies and resources to deal with chronic pain is therefore essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Instance Optimality of the Adaptive Maximum Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Diening; C. Kreuzer; R. Stevenson

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the standard adaptive finite element method with a (modified) maximum marking strategy is instance optimal for the total error, being the square root of the squared energy error plus the squared oscillation. This result will be derived in the model setting of Poisson’s e

  7. On the robust optimization to the uncertain vaccination strategy problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaerani, D., E-mail: d.chaerani@unpad.ac.id; Anggriani, N., E-mail: d.chaerani@unpad.ac.id; Firdaniza, E-mail: d.chaerani@unpad.ac.id [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Padjadjaran Indonesia, Jalan Raya Bandung Sumedang KM 21 Jatinangor Sumedang 45363 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-21

    In order to prevent an epidemic of infectious diseases, the vaccination coverage needs to be minimized and also the basic reproduction number needs to be maintained below 1. This means that as we get the vaccination coverage as minimum as possible, thus we need to prevent the epidemic to a small number of people who already get infected. In this paper, we discuss the case of vaccination strategy in term of minimizing vaccination coverage, when the basic reproduction number is assumed as an uncertain parameter that lies between 0 and 1. We refer to the linear optimization model for vaccination strategy that propose by Becker and Starrzak (see [2]). Assuming that there is parameter uncertainty involved, we can see Tanner et al (see [9]) who propose the optimal solution of the problem using stochastic programming. In this paper we discuss an alternative way of optimizing the uncertain vaccination strategy using Robust Optimization (see [3]). In this approach we assume that the parameter uncertainty lies within an ellipsoidal uncertainty set such that we can claim that the obtained result will be achieved in a polynomial time algorithm (as it is guaranteed by the RO methodology). The robust counterpart model is presented.

  8. Killed whole-HIV vaccine; employing a well established strategy for antiviral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C Yong; Gao, Yong

    2017-09-12

    The development of an efficient prophylactic HIV vaccine has been one of the major challenges in infectious disease research during the last three decades. Here, we present a mini review on strategies employed for the development of HIV vaccines with an emphasis on a well-established vaccine technology, the killed whole-virus vaccine approach. Recently, we reported an evaluation of the safety and the immunogenicity of a genetically modified and killed whole-HIV-1 vaccine designated as SAV001 [1]. HIV-1 Clade B NL4-3 was genetically modified by deleting the nef and vpu genes and substituting the coding sequence of the Env signal peptide with that of honeybee melittin to produce an avirulent and replication efficient HIV-1. This genetically modified virus (gmHIV-1 NL4-3 ) was propagated in a human T cell line followed by virus purification and inactivation by aldrithiol-2 and γ-irradiation. We found that SAV001 was well tolerated with no serious adverse events. HIV-1 NL4-3 -specific polymerase chain reaction showed no evidence of vaccine virus replication in participants receiving SAV001 and in human T cells infected in vitro. Furthermore, SAV001 with an adjuvant significantly increased the antibody response to HIV-1 structural proteins. Moreover, antibodies in the plasma from these vaccinations neutralized tier I and tier II of HIV-1 B, A, and D subtypes. These results indicated that the killed whole-HIV vaccine is safe and may trigger appropriate immune responses to prevent HIV infection. Utilization of this killed whole-HIV vaccine strategy may pave the way to develop an effective HIV vaccine.

  9. Current vaccination strategies for prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joniau, S.; Abrahamsson, P.A.; Bellmunt, J.; Figdor, C.G.; Hamdy, F.; Verhagen, P.; Vogelzang, N.J.; Wirth, M.; Poppel, H. van; Osanto, S.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: The first therapeutic cancer vaccine demonstrating effectiveness in a phase 3 study was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on 29 April 2010. The pivotal trial demonstrated overall survival (OS) benefit in patients treated with antigen-loaded leukapheresis cells compared with a

  10. New strategies for simplifying influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murugappan, Senthil

    2014-01-01

    Griep is een virale ziekte die wereldwijd een enorme impact heeft op de gezondheid van de mens. Vaccinatie wordt gezien als de beste maatregel om de verspreiding van het influenzavirus onder controle te houden. De huidige vaccins hebben echter een aantal tekortkomingen. Ze moeten per injectie worden

  11. Current and future vaccines and vaccination strategies against infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) respiratory disease of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Maricarmen

    2017-07-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry that affects the industry worldwide. Vaccination is the principal tool in the control of the disease. Two types of vaccines, live attenuated and recombinant viral vector, are commercially available. The first generation of GaHV-1 vaccines available since the early 1960's are live viruses, attenuated by continuous passages in cell culture or embryos. These vaccines significantly reduce mortalities and, in particular, the chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines have shown to limit outbreaks of the disease. However, the CEO vaccines can regain virulence and become the source of outbreaks. Recombinant viral vector vaccines, the second generation of GaHV-1 vaccines, were first introduced in the early 2000's. These are Fowl Pox virus (FPV) and Herpes virus of turkeys (HVT) vectors expressing one or multiple GaHV-1 immunogenic proteins. Recombinant viral vector vaccines are considered a much safer alternative because they do not regain virulence. In the face of challenge, they improve bird performance and ameliorate clinical signs of the disease but fail to reduce shedding of the challenge virus increasing the likelihood of outbreaks. At the moment, several new strategies are being evaluated to improve both live attenuated and viral vector vaccines. Potential new live vaccines attenuated by deletion of genes associated with virulence or by selection of CEO viral subpopulations that do not exhibit increased virulence upon passages in birds are being evaluated. Also new vector alternatives to express GaHV-1 glycoproteins in Newcastle diseases virus (NDV) or in modified very virulent (vv) serotype I Marek's disease virus (MDV) were developed and evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A vaccination strategy to SEIR-CA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzakki, Muhammad Zaki; Nuraini, Nuning

    2016-04-01

    A combination between Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Removed (SEIR) model and Cellular Automaton (CA) called SEIR-CA model has been proposed to simulate spreading diseases through populations. We make an improvement to the parameter which describe the impact of neighborhood in CA system. We also propose a vaccination strategy to the model. Three examples are given to illustrate the model. The first one shows that the previously established SEIR-CA model does not work properly in a population with randomly distributed individuals. After an improvement to the neighborhood impact parameter has been made, the model works properly in a population with randomly distributed individuals and it is shown in the second example. The last example shows the spreading mechanisms with a chosen vaccination strategy. We also show that the vaccination strategy can reduce the number of infected individuals and can suppress the spread of the diseases.

  13. Adaptation Strategies for Global Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Corell, R.

    2007-12-01

    The global environmental challenges society faces today are unheralded due to the pace at which human activities are affecting the earth system. The rates of energy consumption, nitrogen use and production, and water use increases each year leading to greater global environmental changes affecting warming of the earth system and loss of ecosystem services. The challenge we face today as a society is the manner and speed at which we can adapt to these changes affecting the ecosystem services we depend upon. Innovative strategies are needed to develop the adaptive management tools to integrate the sectors and science necessary to deal with the complexity of effects. Developing strategies to better guide decision making related to climate change trends into changing weather patterns at meaningful temporal and spatial scales are needed, observations and prognostic analyses of climate related triggers of threshold events in ecosystem dynamics, and transfer of knowledge between science, technology, and decision makers. These strategies need to better integrate science (physical, biological, and social knowledge), engineering, policy, and economics interests to create a framework to develop strategies for adaptation and mitigation to global change and to create bridges with institutions and organizations that deal with these issues as a governmental agency or private sector enterprise.

  14. Evaluation of targeted influenza vaccination strategies via population modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Glasser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because they can generate comparable predictions, mathematical models are ideal tools for evaluating alternative drug or vaccine allocation strategies. To remain credible, however, results must be consistent. Authors of a recent assessment of possible influenza vaccination strategies conclude that older children, adolescents, and young adults are the optimal targets, no matter the objective, and argue for vaccinating them. Authors of two earlier studies concluded, respectively, that optimal targets depend on objectives and cautioned against changing policy. Which should we believe? METHODS AND FINDINGS: In matrices whose elements are contacts between persons by age, the main diagonal always predominates, reflecting contacts between contemporaries. Indirect effects (e.g., impacts of vaccinating one group on morbidity or mortality in others result from off-diagonal elements. Mixing matrices based on periods in proximity with others have greater sub- and super-diagonals, reflecting contacts between parents and children, and other off-diagonal elements (reflecting, e.g., age-independent contacts among co-workers, than those based on face-to-face conversations. To assess the impact of targeted vaccination, we used a time-usage study's mixing matrix and allowed vaccine efficacy to vary with age. And we derived mortality rates either by dividing observed deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza by average annual cases from a demographically-realistic SEIRS model or by multiplying those rates by ratios of (versus adding to them differences between pandemic and pre-pandemic mortalities. CONCLUSIONS: In our simulations, vaccinating older children, adolescents, and young adults averts the most cases, but vaccinating either younger children and older adults or young adults averts the most deaths, depending on the age distribution of mortality. These results are consistent with those of the earlier studies.

  15. An adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹一家; 张红先

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic systems. By employing the phase space reconstruction technique in nonlinear dynamical systems theory, the proposed strategy transforms the nonlinear system into canonical form, and employs a nonlinear observer to estimate the uncertainties and disturbances of the nonlinear system, and then establishes a state-error-like feedback law. The developed control scheme allows chaos control in spite of modeling errors and parametric variations. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through its applications to two well-known chaotic systems : Duffing oscillator and Rǒssler chaos.

  16. An adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi-Jia; Hang, Hong-Xian

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic systems. By employing the phase space reconstruction technique in nonlinear dynamical systems theory, the proposed strategy transforms the nonlinear system into canonical form, and employs a nonlinear observer to estimate the uncertainties and disturbances of the nonlinear system, and then establishes a state-error-like feedback law. The developed control scheme allows chaos control in spite of modeling errors and parametric variations. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through its applications to two well-known chaotic systems: Duffing oscillator and Rössler chaos.

  17. An adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹一家; 张红先

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic systems. By employing the phase space reconstruction technique in nonlinear dynamical systems theory, the proposed strategy transforms the nonlinear system into canonical form, and employs a nonlinear observer to estimate the uncertainties and disturbances of the nonlinear system, and then establishes a state-error-like feedback law. The developed control scheme allows chaos control in spite of modeling errors and parametric variations. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through its applications to two well-known chaotic systems: Duffing oscillator and Rossler chaos.

  18. Funding climate adaptation strategies with climate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Richard Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate adaptation requires large capital investments that could be provided not only by traditional sources like governments and banks, but also by derivatives markets. Such markets would allow two parties with different tolerances and expectations about climate risks to transact for their mutual benefit and, in so doing, finance climate adaptation. Here we calculate the price of a derivative called a European put option, based on future sea surface temperature (SST in Tasmania, Australia, with an 18 °C strike threshold. This price represents a quantifiable indicator of climate risk, and forms the basis for aquaculture industries exposed to the risk of higher SST to finance adaptation strategies through the sale of derivative contracts. Such contracts provide a real incentive to parties with different climate outlooks, or risk exposure to take a market assessment of climate change.

  19. DNA vaccine prime and recombinant FPV vaccine boost: an important candidate immunization strategy to control bluetongue virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junping; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qingyuan; Sun, Encheng; Feng, Yufei; Lv, Shuang; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Haixiu; Wu, Donglai

    2015-10-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of bluetongue (BT), an important sheep disease that caused great economic loss to the sheep industry. There are 26 BTV serotypes based on the outer protein VP2. However, the serotypes BTV-1 and BTV-16 are the two most prevalent serotypes in China. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing viral infections. Therefore, the need for an effective vaccine against BTV is urgent. In this study, DNA vaccines and recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) vaccines expressing VP2 alone or VP2 in combination with VP5 or co-expressing the VP2 and VP5 proteins of BTV-1 were evaluated in both mice and sheep. Several strategies were tested in mice, including DNA vaccine prime and boost, rFPV vaccine prime and boost, and DNA vaccine prime and rFPV vaccine boost. We then determined the best vaccine strategy in sheep. Our results indicated that a strategy combining a DNA vaccine prime (co-expressing VP2 and VP5) followed by an rFPV vaccine boost (co-expressing VP2 and VP5) induced a high titer of neutralizing antibodies in sheep. Therefore, our data suggest that a DNA vaccine consisting of a pCAG-(VP2+VP5) prime and an rFPV-(VP2+VP5) boost is an important candidate for the design of a novel vaccine against BTV-1.

  20. Design strategies for irregularly adapting parallel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Shan, Hongzhang; Sing, Jaswinder Pal

    2000-11-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance of dynamically adapting computations. In this work, we examine two major classes of adaptive applications, under five competing programming methodologies and four leading parallel architectures. Results indicate that it is possible to achieve message-passing performance using shared-memory programming techniques by carefully following the same high level strategies. Adaptive applications have computational work loads and communication patterns which change unpredictably at runtime, requiring dynamic load balancing to achieve scalable performance on parallel machines. Efficient parallel implementations of such adaptive applications are therefore a challenging task. This work examines the implementation of two typical adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, across various programming paradigms and architectural platforms. We compare several critical factors of the parallel code development, including performance, programmability, scalability, algorithmic development, and portability.

  1. Meningococcal B vaccination strategies and their practical application in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Panatto, D

    2015-08-31

    Immunisation against meningococcal meningitis has a long history, which has passed through several phases: the studies by Flexner, extraction of the polysaccharide capsule, the development of monovalent and multivalent conjugate vaccines, the outer membrane vesicle vaccines up to the development of effective and safe vaccines for meningococcal B invasive disease through the application of the techniques of molecular biology and reverse vaccinology. The new available vaccines are Bexsero® and Trumenba®. Bexsero ® has been approved and is available in Europe, the USA, Canada, Australia and Chile, and is currently under review in Brazil for the prevention of MenB invasive disease in subjects ≥ 2 months. Trumemba® is currently approved only in the USA, for use in adolescents and young adults. At present, the greatest obstacle to the extensive use of these vaccines in industrialised countries is the high cost and the need administer multiple doses in infants. However, in some European countries and in some Italian Regions, strategies (free and active call) to fight the disease through vaccination (Bexsero®) are already in place.

  2. Strategies to vaccinate against cancer of the cervix: feasibility of a school-based HPV vaccination program in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Mary; Bartolini, Rosario; Mosqueira, N Rocio; LaMontagne, D Scott; Mendoza, Maria Ana; Ramos, Irma; Winkler, Jennifer L; Villafana, Jose; Janmohamed, Amynah; Jumaan, Aisha O

    2011-07-12

    Operational research using a mixed method, cross-sectional, case-study approach assessed the feasibility and health system impact of large-scale implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination into routine vaccine delivery by the Ministry of Health in Peru. The strategy was school-based vaccination of fifth grade girls in 527 primary schools in Piura region. Our evaluation showed that school-based HPV vaccination is feasible without major changes in existing health systems. This was reflected in the opinions of health personnel, the lack of impact on other vaccine coverage, and the high HPV vaccine coverage documented in routine records and by an independent community-based survey.

  3. Identifying optimal vaccination strategies for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis conjugate vaccine in the African meningitis belt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tartof

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The optimal long-term vaccination strategies to provide population-level protection against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (MenA are unknown. We developed an age-structured mathematical model of MenA transmission, colonization, and disease in the African meningitis belt, and used this model to explore the impact of various vaccination strategies. METHODS: The model stratifies the simulated population into groups based on age, infection status, and MenA antibody levels. We defined the model parameters (such as birth and death rates, age-specific incidence rates, and age-specific duration of protection using published data and maximum likelihood estimation. We assessed the validity of the model by comparing simulated incidence of invasive MenA and prevalence of MenA carriage to observed incidence and carriage data. RESULTS: The model fit well to observed age- and season-specific prevalence of carriage (mean pseudo-R2 0.84 and incidence of invasive disease (mean R2 0.89. The model is able to reproduce the observed dynamics of MenA epidemics in the African meningitis belt, including seasonal increases in incidence, with large epidemics occurring every eight to twelve years. Following a mass vaccination campaign of all persons 1-29 years of age, the most effective modeled vaccination strategy is to conduct mass vaccination campaigns every 5 years for children 1-5 years of age. Less frequent campaigns covering broader age groups would also be effective, although somewhat less so. Introducing conjugate MenA vaccine into the EPI vaccination schedule at 9 months of age results in higher predicted incidence than periodic mass campaigns. DISCUSSION: We have developed the first mathematical model of MenA in Africa to incorporate age structures and progressively waning protection over time. Our model accurately reproduces key features of MenA epidemiology in the African meningitis belt. This model can help policy makers consider vaccine

  4. An Overview of Vaccination Strategies and Antigen Delivery Systems for Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccines in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Paul, Joydeb; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-12-13

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia (Niloticus oreochromis) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of vaccination strategies and antigen delivery systems currently used for S. agalactiae vaccines in tilapia. Furthermore, as shown herein, current vaccine designs include the use of replicative antigen delivery systems, such as attenuated virulent strains, heterologous vectors and DNA vaccines, while non-replicative vaccines include the inactivated whole cell (IWC) and subunit vaccines encoding different S. agalactiae immunogenic proteins. Intraperitoneal vaccination is the most widely used immunization strategy, although immersion, spray and oral vaccines have also been tried with variable success. Vaccine efficacy is mostly evaluated by use of the intraperitoneal challenge model aimed at evaluating the relative percent survival (RPS) of vaccinated fish. The major limitation with this approach is that it lacks the ability to elucidate the mechanism of vaccine protection at portals of bacterial entry in mucosal organs and prevention of pathology in target organs. Despite this, indications are that the correlates of vaccine protection can be established based on antibody responses and antigen dose, although these parameters require optimization before they can become an integral part of routine vaccine production. Nevertheless, this review shows that different approaches can be used to produce protective vaccines against S. agalactiae in tilapia although there is a need to optimize the measures of vaccine efficacy.

  5. An Overview of Vaccination Strategies and Antigen Delivery Systems for Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccines in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba; Paul, Joydeb; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia (Niloticus oreochromis) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of vaccination strategies and antigen delivery systems currently used for S. agalactiae vaccines in tilapia. Furthermore, as shown herein, current vaccine designs include the use of replicative antigen delivery systems, such as attenuated virulent strains, heterologous vectors and DNA vaccines, while non-replicative vaccines include the inactivated whole cell (IWC) and subunit vaccines encoding different S. agalactiae immunogenic proteins. Intraperitoneal vaccination is the most widely used immunization strategy, although immersion, spray and oral vaccines have also been tried with variable success. Vaccine efficacy is mostly evaluated by use of the intraperitoneal challenge model aimed at evaluating the relative percent survival (RPS) of vaccinated fish. The major limitation with this approach is that it lacks the ability to elucidate the mechanism of vaccine protection at portals of bacterial entry in mucosal organs and prevention of pathology in target organs. Despite this, indications are that the correlates of vaccine protection can be established based on antibody responses and antigen dose, although these parameters require optimization before they can become an integral part of routine vaccine production. Nevertheless, this review shows that different approaches can be used to produce protective vaccines against S. agalactiae in tilapia although there is a need to optimize the measures of vaccine efficacy. PMID:27983591

  6. Vaccination Strategies: a comparative study in an epidemic scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, D. B.; Jardim, C. L. T. F.; Ferreira, L. A. F.; da Silva, J. M.; Kritz, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    Epidemics are an extremely important matter of study within the Mathematical Modeling area and can be widely found in the literature. Some epidemiological models use differential equations, which are very sensible to parameters, to represent and describe the diseases mathematically. For this work, a variation of the SIR model is discussed and applied to a certain epidemic scenario, wherein vaccination is introduced through two different strategies: constant vaccination and vaccination in pulses. Other epidemiological and population aspects are also considered, such as mortality/natality and infection rates. The analysis and results are performed through numerical solutions of the model and a special attention is given to the discussion generated by the paramenters variation.

  7. Vaccine strategies against bacterial pathogens in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, V; Gaillard, J-L; Herrmann, J-L

    2016-02-01

    A large number of cystic fibrosis pathogens such as bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Mycobacterium abscessus are associated with complex therapeutic problems due to their inherent resistance to antibiotics. No vaccine is currently available against those pathogens. Vaccines are therefore crucial to combat these multidrug-resistant bacteria in specific clinical situations including cystic fibrosis. Various strategies may be considered to develop these vaccines. Similar virulence factors are expressed during the infection with various pathogens; they could thus be used as antigen to assess cross-protection. Many clinical trials are currently being conducted to try and develop a prophylactic treatment for patients presenting with cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Adaptive Strategies in the Iterated Exchange Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraov, Arthur

    2011-03-01

    We argue for clear separation of the exchange problem from the exchange paradox to avoid confusion about the subject matter of these two distinct problems. The exchange problem in its current format belongs to the domain of optimal decision making—it doesn't make any sense as a game of competition. But it takes just a tiny modification in the statement of the problem to breathe new life into it and make it a practicable and meaningful game of competition. In this paper, we offer an explanation for paradoxical priors and discuss adaptive strategies for both the house and the player in the restated exchange problem.

  9. Potential population health outcomes and expenditures of HIV vaccination strategies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elisa F; Brandeau, Margaret L; Owens, Douglas K

    2009-08-27

    Estimating the potential health benefits and expenditures of a partially effective HIV vaccine is an important consideration in the debate about whether HIV vaccine research should continue. We developed an epidemic model to estimate HIV prevalence, new infections, and the cost-effectiveness of vaccination strategies in the U.S. Vaccines with modest efficacy could prevent 300,000-700,000 HIV infections and save $30 billion in healthcare expenditures over 20 years. Targeted vaccination of high-risk individuals is economically efficient, but difficulty in reaching these groups may mitigate these benefits. Universal vaccination is cost-effective for vaccines with 50% efficacy and price similar to other infectious disease vaccines.

  10. Post-polio eradication: vaccination strategies and options for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakrishnan Thayyil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis globally. Since then, the initiative has reported dramatic progress in decreasing the incidence of poliomyelitis and limiting the geographical extent of transmission. 2013 is recorded as the second consecutive year not reporting wild poliovirus (WPV from India. If the country can retain this position for one more year India will be declared as polio eradicated. What should be the future vaccination strategies? We searched and reviewed the full text of the available published literature on polio eradication via PubMed and examined Internet sources and websites of major international health agencies. The oral polio vaccine (OPV has been the main tool in the polio eradication program. Once WPV transmission is interrupted, the poliomyelitis will be caused only by OPV. India could expect 1 vaccine-associated paralytic polio per 4.2-4.6 million doses of OPV. Considering the threat of vaccine-derived viruses to polio eradication, WHO urged to develop a strategy to safely discontinue OPV after certification. The ultimate aim is to stop OPV safely and effectively, and eventually substitute with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. The argument against the use of IPV is its cost. From India, field based data were available on the efficacy of IPV, which was better than OPV. IPV given intradermally resulted in seroconversion rates similar to full-dose intramuscular vaccine. The incremental cost of adopting IPV to replace OPV is relatively low, about US $1 per child per year, and most countries should be able to afford this additional cost.

  11. Voluntary vaccination strategy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Cressman, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the spread and control of sexually transmitted diseases when a game-theory based vaccination strategy is involved. An individual's decision on vaccination uptake may follow a cost-benefit analysis since the individual obtains immunity against the disease from the vaccination and, at the same time, may have some perceived side effects. Evolutionary game theory is integrated into the epidemic model to reveal the relationship between individuals' voluntary decisions on vaccination uptake and the spread and control of such diseases. We show that decreasing the perceived cost of taking vaccine or increasing the payoff from social obligation is beneficial to controlling the disease. It is also shown how the "degree of rationality" of males and females affects the disease spread through the net payoff of the game. In particular, individual awareness of the consequences of the disease on the infectives also contributes to slowing down the disease spread. By analyzing an asymmetric version of our evolutionary game, it is shown that the disease is better controlled when individuals are more sensitive to fitness differences when net payoff is positive than when it is negative.

  12. Clinical evaluation strategies for a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precioso, Alexander Roberto; Palacios, Ricardo; Thomé, Beatriz; Mondini, Gabriella; Braga, Patrícia; Kalil, Jorge

    2015-12-10

    Butantan Institute is a public Brazilian biomedical research-manufacturer center affiliated to the São Paulo State Secretary of Health. Currently, Butantan is one of the main public producers of vaccines, antivenoms, and antitoxins in Latin America. The partnership between Butantan and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United Sates has been one of the longest and most successful partnerships in the development and manufacturing of new vaccines. Recently, Butantan Institute has developed and manufactured a lyophilized tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine with the four dengue viruses attenuated and licensed from the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at The National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (LID/NIAID/NIH). The objective of this paper is to describe the clinical evaluation strategies of a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (Butantan-DV) developed and manufactured by Butantan Institute. These clinical strategies will be used to evaluate the Butantan-DV Phase III trial to support the Butantan-DV licensure for protection against any symptomatic dengue caused by any serotype in people aged 2 to 59 years.

  13. Adaptive Strategies for Materials Design using Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; Hogden, John; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    We compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young’s (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don’t. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties.

  14. Biometeorology - a science supporting adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzarakis, A.; Cegnar, T.

    2010-09-01

    Biometeorology as an interdisciplinary science deals with the interactions between atmospheric processes and living organisms (plants, animals and humans). If and in what way weather and climate affect the well-being of all the living creatures? This is the most important question biometeorology is answering. The International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has built an international forum for the promotion of interdisciplinary collaboration between meteorologists, health professionals, biologists, climatologists, ecologists and other scientists. The Society acts as a community of scientists with similar interests, and fulfills an important role in providing information, expertise and advice for international organizations requiring this assistance. The ISB represents the most comprehensive organization, which brings together people with expertise in these areas. Another specific aim of the ISB is the stimulation of research. Therefore, groups of members are working on several topics organized in commissions for specific targets. The recent five commissions are working in the several fields including climate change issues. Some of examples will be presented, which have been initiated by the members of the ISB and how they can be included as a solid scientific basis to develop efficient adaptation strategies. One such example is a project combining natural and social sciences (in the fields of cooperation processes, tourism analysis and strategy, weather and climate change analysis, information and communication and knowledge transfer) in a transdisciplinary approach that includes players from tourism policy and business and which focuses on the North Sea Coast and the Black Forest. The project "Climate trends and sustainable development of tourism in coastal and mountain range regions was divided into four phases - diagnosis, assessment, strategy/design of solutions, and evaluation - where scientific subprojects and practical partners meet regularly to discuss the

  15. Educational Cognitive Technologies as Human Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Nesterova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity is characterized by profound changes in all spheres of human life caused by the global transformations on macro and micro levels of social reality. These changes allow us to speak about the present as the era of civilizational transition in the mode of uncertainty. Therefore, this situation demands qualitative transformations of human adaptive strategies and educational technologies accordingly. The dominant role in the dynamics of pedagogics and andragogy’s landscape belongs to transformative learning. The transformative learning theory is considered as the relevant approach to education of the individual, which is able to become an autonomous communicative actor of the social complexity. The article considers the cognitive technologies of social cohesion development and perspectives of their implementation in the educational dimension. In addition to implementing the principles of inclusion, equity in education, an important factor for improving social cohesion, stability and unity of society is the development of cognitive educational technologies. The key factors and foundations for the cognitive educational technologies are transversal competencies. They create the conditions for civil, public dialogue, non-violent type of communication. These “21st century skills” are extremely important for better human adaptation. One of the aspects and roots of social adaptation is social cohesion. Mutual determinations and connections between social cohesion development and transversal competences have been shown. The perspective direction of further researches is to find a methodological base for the further development of cognitive education technologies and platform for realization of innovative services for educational programs. New educational paradigm offers the concept of human adaptation as cognitive effectiveness and how to reach it through educational technologies. The article includes topics of creative thinking, teambuilding

  16. Sublingual vaccination induces mucosal and systemic adaptive immunity for protection against lung tumor challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailbala Singh

    Full Text Available Sublingual route offers a safer and more practical approach for delivering vaccines relative to other systemic and mucosal immunization strategies. Here we present evidence demonstrating protection against ovalbumin expressing B16 (B16-OVA metastatic melanoma lung tumor formation by sublingual vaccination with the model tumor antigen OVA plus synthetic glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (aGalCer for harnessing the adjuvant potential of natural killer T (NKT cells, which effectively bridge innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. The protective efficacy of immunization with OVA plus aGalCer was antigen-specific as immunized mice challenged with parental B16 tumors lacking OVA expression were not protected. Multiple sublingual immunizations in the presence, but not in the absence of aGalCer, resulted in repeated activation of NKT cells in the draining lymph nodes, spleens, and lungs of immunized animals concurrent with progressively increasing OVA-specific CD8+ T cell responses as well as serum IgG and vaginal IgA levels. Furthermore, sublingual administration of the antigen only in the presence of the aGalCer adjuvant effectively boosted the OVA-specific immune responses. These results support potential clinical utility of sublingual route of vaccination with aGalCer-for prevention of pulmonary metastases.

  17. Sublingual vaccination induces mucosal and systemic adaptive immunity for protection against lung tumor challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailbala; Yang, Guojun; Schluns, Kimberly S; Anthony, Scott M; Sastry, K Jagannadha

    2014-01-01

    Sublingual route offers a safer and more practical approach for delivering vaccines relative to other systemic and mucosal immunization strategies. Here we present evidence demonstrating protection against ovalbumin expressing B16 (B16-OVA) metastatic melanoma lung tumor formation by sublingual vaccination with the model tumor antigen OVA plus synthetic glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (aGalCer) for harnessing the adjuvant potential of natural killer T (NKT) cells, which effectively bridge innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. The protective efficacy of immunization with OVA plus aGalCer was antigen-specific as immunized mice challenged with parental B16 tumors lacking OVA expression were not protected. Multiple sublingual immunizations in the presence, but not in the absence of aGalCer, resulted in repeated activation of NKT cells in the draining lymph nodes, spleens, and lungs of immunized animals concurrent with progressively increasing OVA-specific CD8+ T cell responses as well as serum IgG and vaginal IgA levels. Furthermore, sublingual administration of the antigen only in the presence of the aGalCer adjuvant effectively boosted the OVA-specific immune responses. These results support potential clinical utility of sublingual route of vaccination with aGalCer-for prevention of pulmonary metastases.

  18. Coccidiosis in poultry: anticoccidial products, vaccines and other prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, H W; Landman, W J M

    2011-09-01

    Coccidiosis in chickens is a parasitic disease with great economic significance, which has been controlled successfully for decades using mainly anticoccidial products. However, large-scale and long-term use of anticoccidial drugs has led to the worldwide development of resistance against all these drugs. In order to minimize the occurrence of resistance, the rotation of various anticoccidial drugs in single and/or shuttle programmes is used. Unfortunately, this has not solved the anticoccidial resistance problem. Recently, live anticoccidial vaccines have been incorporated into rotation programmes, resulting in an increasing incidence of anticoccidial drug-sensitive Eimeria spp. field isolates, which may ameliorate the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs. Nevertheless, possible upcoming bans restricting the use of anticoccidials as feed additives, consumer concerns on residues and increasing regulations have prompted the quest for alternative coccidiosis control strategies. Although management and biosecurity measures could halt the introduction of Eimeria spp. to a farm, in practice they do not suffice to prevent coccidiosis outbreaks. Phytotherapy, aromatherapy and pre- and probiotics either show conflicting, non-consistent or non-convincing results, and have therefore not been applied at a large scale in the field. So far, live attenuated and non-attenuated anticoccidial vaccines have proved to be the most solid and successful coccidiosis prevention and control strategy. Despite the drawbacks associated with their production and use, their popularity is increasing. If with time, the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines can be improved, they could represent the next generation of highly efficient and low-cost anticoccidial strategies.

  19. Strategies for improved stability of Peste des Petits Ruminants Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Carina; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2011-07-12

    The main focus of this work was the improvement of the stability of the current PPRV vaccine. First, new formulations based on the Tris buffer were tested, with and without the addition of sucrose and trehalose and compared with the formulation normally used to stabilize the vaccine, the Weybridge medium. The results show a virus half-life of 21 h at 37°C and 1 month at 4°C for the Tris/trehalose liquid formulation and, in the lyophilized form, the formulation was able to maintain the viral titer above the 1 × 10(4) TCID(50)/mL (>10 doses/mL) for at least 21 months at 4°C (0.6 log lost), 144 h at 37°C (0.6 log lost) and 120 h at 45°C (1 log lost). Secondly, a strategy based on culture medium composition manipulation aiming at improving the intrinsic PPRV vaccine stability was also evaluated. The addition of 25 mM fructose resulted in a higher virus production (1log increase) with higher stability (2.6-fold increase compared to glucose 25 mM) at 37°C. Increased concentrations of NaCl, improved virus release, reducing the cell-associated fraction of the virus produced. Moreover this harvesting strategy is scalable and more suitable for a larger scale production than the freeze/thaw cycles normally used. The information gathered in this work showed that it is possible for the PPRV vaccine to have adequate short-term stability at non-freezing temperatures to support manufacturing, short-term shipping and storage. The identification of a more stable formulation should significantly enhance the utility of the vaccine in the control of a PPRV outbreak.

  20. Use of DNA vaccination for determination of onset of adaptive immunity in rainbow trout fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper Skou; Lorenzen, Ellen; Kjær, Torben Egil

    2013-01-01

    that intramuscular injection of the DNA vaccine encoding the viral glycoprotein G induced protective immunity to VHS in rainbow trout fry of 0.5g.However, the vaccine is known to induce both innate and adaptive protection. The present work therefore aimed at determination of which type of protection the DNA vaccine...... to innate cross-reactive antiviral mechanisms of shorter duration. The critical size for induction of an adaptive immune response in rainbow trout to this type of vaccination thus appears to be between 0.25 and 0.5g. This work was supported by the “DAFINET” grant from the Danish Council for Strategic...... the duration and nature of the protective immunity induced by the vaccines in the fish. The present work aimed at determination of the smallest size at which specific immunity could be induced in rainbow trout fry by DNA vaccination against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS). Earlier experiments revealed...

  1. Rational design of diagnostic and vaccination strategies for tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Borsuk

    Full Text Available The development of diagnostic tests which can readily differentiate between vaccinated and tuberculosis-infected individuals is crucial for the wider utilization of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG as vaccine in humans and animals. BCG_0092 is an antigen that elicits specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions similar in size and morphological aspects to that elicited by purified protein derivative, in both animals and humans infected with the tubercle bacilli. We carried out bioinformatics analyses of the BCG_0092 and designed a diagnostic test by using the predicted MHC class I epitopes. In addition, we performed a knockout of this gene by homologous recombination in the BCG vaccine strain to allow differentiation of vaccinated from infected individuals. For that, the flanking sequences of the target gene (BCG_0092were cloned into a suicide vector. Spontaneous double crossovers, which result in wild type revertants or knockouts were selected using SacB. BCG_0092 is present only in members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Eight predicted MHC class I epitopes with potential for immunological diagnosis were defined, allowing the design of a specific diagnostic test. The strategy used to delete the (BCG_0092 gene from BCG was successful. The knockout genotype was confirmed by PCR and by Southern blot. The mutant BCG strain has the potential of inducing protection against tuberculosis without interfering with the diagnostic test based on the use of selected epitopes from BCG_0092.

  2. Rational design of diagnostic and vaccination strategies for tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Borsuk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of diagnostic tests which can readily differentiate between vaccinated and tuberculosis-infected individuals is crucial for the wider utilization of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG as vaccine in humans and animals. BCG_0092 is an antigen that elicits specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions similar in size and morphological aspects to that elicited by purified protein derivative, in both animals and humans infected with the tubercle bacilli. We carried out bioinformatics analyses of the BCG_0092 and designed a diagnostic test by using the predicted MHC class I epitopes. In addition, we performed a knockout of this gene by homologous recombination in the BCG vaccine strain to allow differentiation of vaccinated from infected individuals. For that, the flanking sequences of the target gene (BCG_0092were cloned into a suicide vector. Spontaneous double crossovers, which result in wild type revertants or knockouts were selected using SacB. BCG_0092 is present only in members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Eight predicted MHC class I epitopes with potential for immunological diagnosis were defined, allowing the design of a specific diagnostic test. The strategy used to delete the (BCG_0092 gene from BCG was successful. The knockout genotype was confirmed by PCR and by Southern blot. The mutant BCG strain has the potential of inducing protection against tuberculosis without interfering with the diagnostic test based on the use of selected epitopes from BCG_0092.

  3. DNA-based vaccines activate innate and adaptive antitumor immunity by engaging the NKG2D receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, He; Luo, Yunping; Lo, Jeng-fan; Kaplan, Charles D; Mizutani, Masato; Mizutani, Noriko; Lee, Jiing-Dwan; Primus, F James; Becker, Jürgen C; Xiang, Rong; Reisfeld, Ralph A

    2005-08-02

    The interaction of NKG2D, a stimulatory receptor expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and activated CD8(+) T cells, and its ligands mediates stimulatory and costimulatory signals to these cells. Here, we demonstrate that DNA-based vaccines, encoding syngeneic or allogeneic NKG2D ligands together with tumor antigens such as survivin or carcinoembryonic antigen, markedly activate both innate and adaptive antitumor immunity. Such vaccines result in highly effective, NK- and CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection against either breast or colon carcinoma cells in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Notably, this protection was irrespective of the NKG2D ligand expression level of the tumor cells. Hence, this strategy has the potential to lead to widely applicable and possibly clinically useful DNA-based cancer vaccines.

  4. Some vaccination strategies for the SEIR epidemic model. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a vaccination-based control strategy for a SEIR (susceptible plus infected plus infectious plus removed populations) propagation disease model. The model takes into account the total population amounts as a refrain for the illness transmission since its increase makes more difficult contacts among susceptible and infected. The control objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically tend to zero.

  5. Tick-host-Borrelia interaction : Implications for host immunity and vaccination strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, novel vaccination strategies and targets against Lyme borreliosis are explored, including tick antigens as vaccine targets and the use of DNA vaccination against Borrelia afzelii. Furthermore, Borrelia miyamotoi, a novel tick-borne pathogen is investigated: The presence of Borrelia m

  6. Tick-host-Borrelia interaction : Implications for host immunity and vaccination strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, novel vaccination strategies and targets against Lyme borreliosis are explored, including tick antigens as vaccine targets and the use of DNA vaccination against Borrelia afzelii. Furthermore, Borrelia miyamotoi, a novel tick-borne pathogen is investigated: The presence of Borrelia

  7. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management. Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adapta...

  8. Economic Analysis of Vaccination Strategies for PRRS Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C L Linhares

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv is a swine-specific pathogen that causes significant increases in production costs. When a breeding herd becomes infected, in an attempt to hasten control and elimination of PRRSv, some veterinarians have adopted a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introductions into the herd for several weeks (herd closure and exposing the whole herd to a replicating PRRSv to boost herd immunity. Either modified-live virus (MLV vaccine or live field-virus inoculation (FVI is used. This study consisted of partial budget analyses to compare MLV to FVI as the exposure method of load-close-expose program to control and eliminate PRRSv from infected breeding herds, and secondly to estimate benefit / cost of vaccinating sow herds preventatively. Under the assumptions used in this study, MLV held economic advantage over FVI. However, sensitivity analysis revealed that decreasing margin over variable costs below $ 47.32, or increasing PRRSv-attributed cost above $18.89 or achieving time-to-stability before 25 weeks resulted in advantage of FVI over MLV. Preventive vaccination of sow herds was beneficial when the frequency of PRRSv infection was at least every 2.1 years. The economics of preventative vaccination was minimally affected by cost attributed to field-type PRRSv infection on growing pigs or by the breeding herd productivity level. The models developed and described in this paper provide valuable tools to assist veterinarians in their efforts to control PRRSv.

  9. Growing assisted migration: Synthesis of a climate change adaptation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary I. Williams; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2013-01-01

    Assisted migration may be necessary as a climate change adaptation strategy for native plant species that are less adaptive or mobile. Moving plants has been practiced a long time in human history, but movement of species in response to climate change is a new context. First proposed in 1985, assisted migration has gained attention since 2007 as a strategy to prevent...

  10. Vaccination of adolescents with chronic medical conditions: Special considerations and strategies for enhancing uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Annika M; LaRussa, Philip; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with chronic medical conditions (CMCs), a growing population worldwide, possess a wide array of preventive health care needs. Vaccination is strongly recommended for the vast majority of these adolescents given their increased risk of vaccine preventable infection and associated complications. Not only should they receive routine vaccines, but some also require additional vaccines. Despite these guidelines, evidence suggests that adolescents with CMCs often fail to receive needed vaccines. Many factors contribute to this under-immunization, including lack of knowledge among parents and providers and suboptimal coordination of primary and subspecialty care. This review describes current vaccination recommendations for these adolescents as well as recent data related to infection risk, vaccine efficacy and safety, vaccination coverage, and the unique multilevel factors impacting uptake in this population. It also discusses strategies for improving coverage levels and reducing missed vaccination opportunities, with a particular focus on technology-based interventions. PMID:26212313

  11. Comparative Effectiveness of Different Strategies of Oral Cholera Vaccination in Bangladesh: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dobromir T.; Troeger, Christopher; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.; Chao, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Killed, oral cholera vaccines have proven safe and effective, and several large-scale mass cholera vaccination efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of widespread deployment. This study uses a mathematical model of cholera transmission in Bangladesh to examine the effectiveness of potential vaccination strategies. Methods & Findings We developed an age-structured mathematical model of cholera transmission and calibrated it to reproduce the dynamics of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. We used the model to predict the effectiveness of different cholera vaccination strategies over a period of 20 years. We explored vaccination programs that targeted one of three increasingly focused age groups (the entire vaccine-eligible population of age one year and older, children of ages 1 to 14 years, or preschoolers of ages 1 to 4 years) and that could occur either as campaigns recurring every five years or as continuous ongoing vaccination efforts. Our modeling results suggest that vaccinating 70% of the population would avert 90% of cholera cases in the first year but that campaign and continuous vaccination strategies differ in effectiveness over 20 years. Maintaining 70% coverage of the population would be sufficient to prevent sustained transmission of endemic cholera in Matlab, while vaccinating periodically every five years is less effective. Selectively vaccinating children 1–14 years old would prevent the most cholera cases per vaccine administered in both campaign and continuous strategies. Conclusions We conclude that continuous mass vaccination would be more effective against endemic cholera than periodic campaigns. Vaccinating children averts more cases per dose than vaccinating all age groups, although vaccinating only children is unlikely to control endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Careful consideration must be made before generalizing these results to other regions. PMID:25473851

  12. Comparative effectiveness of different strategies of oral cholera vaccination in bangladesh: a modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobromir T Dimitrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Killed, oral cholera vaccines have proven safe and effective, and several large-scale mass cholera vaccination efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of widespread deployment. This study uses a mathematical model of cholera transmission in Bangladesh to examine the effectiveness of potential vaccination strategies.We developed an age-structured mathematical model of cholera transmission and calibrated it to reproduce the dynamics of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. We used the model to predict the effectiveness of different cholera vaccination strategies over a period of 20 years. We explored vaccination programs that targeted one of three increasingly focused age groups (the entire vaccine-eligible population of age one year and older, children of ages 1 to 14 years, or preschoolers of ages 1 to 4 years and that could occur either as campaigns recurring every five years or as continuous ongoing vaccination efforts. Our modeling results suggest that vaccinating 70% of the population would avert 90% of cholera cases in the first year but that campaign and continuous vaccination strategies differ in effectiveness over 20 years. Maintaining 70% coverage of the population would be sufficient to prevent sustained transmission of endemic cholera in Matlab, while vaccinating periodically every five years is less effective. Selectively vaccinating children 1-14 years old would prevent the most cholera cases per vaccine administered in both campaign and continuous strategies.We conclude that continuous mass vaccination would be more effective against endemic cholera than periodic campaigns. Vaccinating children averts more cases per dose than vaccinating all age groups, although vaccinating only children is unlikely to control endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Careful consideration must be made before generalizing these results to other regions.

  13. Comparative effectiveness of different strategies of oral cholera vaccination in bangladesh: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dobromir T; Troeger, Christopher; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M; Chao, Dennis L

    2014-12-01

    Killed, oral cholera vaccines have proven safe and effective, and several large-scale mass cholera vaccination efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of widespread deployment. This study uses a mathematical model of cholera transmission in Bangladesh to examine the effectiveness of potential vaccination strategies. We developed an age-structured mathematical model of cholera transmission and calibrated it to reproduce the dynamics of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. We used the model to predict the effectiveness of different cholera vaccination strategies over a period of 20 years. We explored vaccination programs that targeted one of three increasingly focused age groups (the entire vaccine-eligible population of age one year and older, children of ages 1 to 14 years, or preschoolers of ages 1 to 4 years) and that could occur either as campaigns recurring every five years or as continuous ongoing vaccination efforts. Our modeling results suggest that vaccinating 70% of the population would avert 90% of cholera cases in the first year but that campaign and continuous vaccination strategies differ in effectiveness over 20 years. Maintaining 70% coverage of the population would be sufficient to prevent sustained transmission of endemic cholera in Matlab, while vaccinating periodically every five years is less effective. Selectively vaccinating children 1-14 years old would prevent the most cholera cases per vaccine administered in both campaign and continuous strategies. We conclude that continuous mass vaccination would be more effective against endemic cholera than periodic campaigns. Vaccinating children averts more cases per dose than vaccinating all age groups, although vaccinating only children is unlikely to control endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Careful consideration must be made before generalizing these results to other regions.

  14. A Generic Polymer-Protein Ligation Strategy for Vaccine Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybaert, Lien; Vanparijs, Nane; Fierens, Kaat; Schuijs, Martijn; Nuhn, Lutz; Lambrecht, Bart N; De Geest, Bruno G

    2016-03-14

    Although the field of cancer immunotherapy is intensively investigated, there is still a need for generic strategies that allow easy, mild and efficient formulation of vaccine antigens. Here we report on a generic polymer-protein ligation strategy to formulate protein antigens into reversible polymeric conjugates for enhanced uptake by dendritic cells and presentation to CD8 T-cells. A N-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA)-based copolymer was synthesized via RAFT polymerization followed by introduction of pyridyldisulfide moieties. To enhance ligation efficiency to ovalbumin, which is used as a model protein antigen, protected thiols were introduced onto lysine residues and deprotected in situ in the presence of the polymer. The ligation efficiency was compared for both the thiol-modified versus unmodified ovalbumin, and the reversibility was confirmed. Furthermore, the obtained nanoconjugates were tested in vitro for their interaction and association with dendritic cells, showing enhanced cellular uptake and antigen cross-presentation to CD8 T-cells.

  15. A New Adaptive Checkpointing Strategy for Mobile Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENChaoguang; ZUODecheng; YANGXiaozong

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive checkpointing strategy is an efficient recovery scheme, which is suitable for mobile computing system. However, all existing adaptive checkpointing schemes are not correct to recover system when failure occurs in some special period. In this paper, the issues that will lead to system inconsistency are first discussed and then a new adaptive strategy that can recover system to correct consistent state is proposed. Our algorithm improves system recovery performance because only failure process needs rollback through logging.

  16. Assessment of governance strategies for climate adaptation in Flanders / Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Verhofstede, Björn; Leinfelder, Hans; Allaert, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Climate discourse in recent decades has mainly focused on the issue of mitigation. Through a better understanding and assessment of climate challenges, adaptation arises as a complementary strategy to mitigation. Vulnerability in relation to climate change is seen as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Adaptation can influence sensitivity while mitigating impacts on the exposure to climate change. (IPCC, 2007). Adaptation requires space for climate on a local scale and ...

  17. Strategy correlations and timing of adaptation in Minority Games

    OpenAIRE

    Galla, Tobias; Sherrington, David

    2005-01-01

    We study the role of strategy correlations and timing of adaptation for the dynamics of Minority Games, both simulationally and analytically. Using the exact generating functional approach a la De Dominicis we compute the phase diagram and the behaviour of batch and on-line games with correlated strategies, complementing exisiting replica studies of their statics. It is shown that the timing of adaptation can be relevant; while conventional games with uncorrelated strategies are nearly insens...

  18. Is vaccination good value for money? A review of cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Barbieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to review published cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries and to assess whether there are differences in cost-effectiveness terms among countries and vaccinations. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database and the PubMed database. Cost-utility analyses of any type of vaccination that used quality-adjusted life years (QALYs as measure of benefit and conducted in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands or the UK were included. Results: A total of 94 studies were identified. As a result of our search methodology, the vast majority of studies were conducted in the Netherlands or UK (33 and 30 studies, respectively. The most frequent vaccination types were against Human papillomavirus (HPV with 23 studies, followed by vaccination against pneumococcal infections (19 studies. The analysed vaccinations were generally cost-effective but with high variability. Considering an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of 40,000€/QALY, we noticed that the following vaccinations studies are below this threshold, i.e. all varicella and influenza (with one outlier studies, 90% of the studies for HPV and 75% of the studies for pneumococcal vaccinations. Rotavirus vaccination was considered as not cost-effective, with only 30% of studies below the threshold of 40,000€/QALY. There was no clear trend for vaccinations being more cost-effective in some countries. Conclusions: The published literature has shown that vaccination strategies are generally cost-effective in European countries. High heterogeneity in the results among studies and countries was found.

  19. Development of an epitope-based HIV-1 vaccine strategy from HIV-1 lipopeptide to dendritic-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surenaud, Mathieu; Lacabaratz, Christine; Zurawski, Gérard; Lévy, Yves; Lelièvre, Jean-Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Development of a safe, effective and globally affordable Human Immunodeficiency Virus strain 1 (HIV-1) vaccine offers the best hope for future control of the HIV-1 pandemic. However, with the exception of the recent RV144 trial, which elicited a modest level of protection against infection, no vaccine candidate has shown efficacy in preventing HIV-1 infection or in controlling virus replication in humans. There is also a great need for a successful immunotherapeutic vaccine since combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) does not eliminate the reservoir of HIV-infected cells. But to date, no vaccine candidate has proven to significantly alter the natural history of an individual with HIV-1 infection. Areas covered: For over 25 years, the ANRS (France Recherche Nord&Sud Sida-HIV hépatites) has been committed to an original program combining basic science and clinical research developing an epitope-based vaccine strategy to induce a multiepitopic cellular response against HIV-1. This review describes the evolution of concepts, based on strategies using HIV-1 lipopeptides towards the use of dendritic cell (DC) manipulation. Expert commentary: Understanding the crucial role of DCs in immune responses allowed moving from the non-specific administration of HIV-1 sequences with lipopeptides to DC-based vaccines. These DC-targeting strategies should improve HIV-1 vaccine efficacy.

  20. Europe adapts to climate change: comparing national adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.R.; Swart, R.J.; Carter, T.R.; Cowan, C.; Henrichs, T.; Mela, H.; Morcecroft, M.D.; Rey, D.

    2010-01-01

    For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started to

  1. Mucosal and systemic immune responses induced by a single time vaccination strategy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Aznar, Elizabeth; Romeu, Belkis; Lastre, Miriam; Zayas, Caridad; Cuello, Maribel; Cabrera, Osmir; Valdez, Yolanda; Fariñas, Mildrey; Pérez, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    Vaccination is considered by the World Health Organization as the most cost-effective strategy for controlling infectious diseases. In spite of great successes with vaccines, many infectious diseases are still leading killers, because of the inadequate coverage of many vaccines. Several factors have been responsible: number of doses, high vaccine reactogenicity, vaccine costs, vaccination policy, among others. Contradictorily, few vaccines are of single dose and even less of mucosal administration. However, more common infections occur via mucosa, where secretory immunoglobulin A plays an essential role. As an alternative, we proposed a novel protocol of vaccination called Single Time Vaccination Strategy (SinTimVaS) by immunizing 2 priming doses at the same time: one by mucosal route and the other by parenteral route. Here, the mucosal and systemic responses induced by Finlay adjuvants (AF Proteoliposome 1 and AF Cochleate 1) implementing SinTimVaS in BALB/c mice were evaluated. One intranasal dose of AF Cochleate 1 and an intramuscular dose of AF Proteoliposome 1 adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide, with bovine serum albumin or tetanus toxoid as model antigens, administrated at the same time, induced potent specific mucosal and systemic immune responses. Also, we demonstrated that SinTimVaS using other mucosal routes like oral and sublingual, in combination with the subcutaneous route elicits immune responses. SinTimVaS, as a new immunization strategy, could increase vaccination coverage and reduce time-cost vaccines campaigns, adding the benefits of immune response in mucosa.

  2. [Research and development strategies, examples among new vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, F; Ploy, M-C

    2009-05-01

    Classical methods are still providing new vaccines, but molecular biology and genetic engineering have enabled new approaches to development. Changes in vaccinology have involved the isolation, presentation and administration of vaccinal antigens or attenuated vaccinal strains. New methods of vaccine delivery other than injection will be used (e.g. mucosal administration) and new vectors or adjuvants will be added to vaccines in order to stimulate specific responses. New vaccines can also be obtained by using viral-like particles (VLP of papillomavirus), conjugate polysaccharides (N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae) or the reassortment of segmented genomes (rotavirus, influenza). Here, we analyze the different steps of a vaccine's life using concrete cases of two new vaccines against papillomavirus and rotavirus. Vaccination has a promising future.

  3. Jabs and barbs: ways to address misleading vaccination and immunisation information using currently available strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jon; Stewart, Cameron; Parker, Malcolm

    2013-09-01

    Misleading vaccination information undermines confidence in vaccination and may lead to reductions in the effectiveness of vaccination programs. A number of regulatory techniques can be employed to challenge the spread of false information, including health care complaints, therapeutic goods laws, consumer protection laws and professional discipline. This article examines three case studies involving the publication of anti-vaccination information by non-professionally aligned organisations, by non-registered health professionals, and by registered health professionals under the National Law. The article examines the effectiveness of different regulatory responses and makes suggestions for future strategies to deal with the publication of demonstrably false information regarding vaccination.

  4. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  5. Climate Changea Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick Mwendwa; Richard A. Giliba

    2012-01-01

    To determine the climate changes that are due to natural variability and those due to human activities is quite challenging, just like delineating the impacts. Moreover, it is equally difficult to ascertain the adaptive strategies for coping with the climate chang- es and in particular for developing countries like Kenya. While climate change is a global phenomenon, the impacts are more or less specific to local areas such as observed in Kenyan case. There- fore climate change impacts adaptation strategies are appropriately applicable to a given local perspective. The study investigated the main indicators of climate change and effective adaptive strategies that can be employed in Kenya. Based on online questionnaire survey, the study established unpredictable rainfall patterns as the major indicator of climate change in the country, while water harvesting and change of cropping methods are the best adaptive strategies.

  6. Analysis of farmers' adaptation strategies to climate change in cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of farmers' adaptation strategies to climate change in cocoa ... Changing climate and weather patterns are predicted to have severe negative impacts on ... out of eight Local Government Areas (LGAs) producing cocoa in Kwara State.

  7. Robustness of networks against propagating attacks under vaccination strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Takehisa

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of vaccination on robustness of networks against propagating attacks that obey the susceptible-infected-removed model. By extending the generating function formalism developed by Newman (2005), we analytically determine the robustness of networks that depends on the vaccination parameters. We consider the random defense where nodes are vaccinated randomly and the degree-based defense where hubs are preferentially vaccinated. We apply the obtained results to the random graph and scale-free networks.

  8. Adaptation strategies to climate change to sustain food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogers, P.; Dam, van J.C.; Hoogeveen, J.; Loeve, R.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on the impact of climate change on food and water issues. An overview of global issues and trends is followed by a more in-depth analysis of field-scale impact and adaptation strategies for the seven basins in the ADAPT context

  9. Adapting to the global shortage of cholera vaccines: targeted single dose cholera vaccine in response to an outbreak in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lucy A; Rumunu, John; Jamet, Christine; Kenyi, Yona; Lino, Richard Laku; Wamala, Joseph F; Mpairwe, Allan M; Ciglenecki, Iza; Luquero, Francisco J; Azman, Andrew S; Cabrol, Jean-Clement

    2017-01-18

    Shortages of vaccines for epidemic diseases, such as cholera, meningitis, and yellow fever, have become common over the past decade, hampering efforts to control outbreaks through mass reactive vaccination campaigns. Additionally, various epidemiological, political, and logistical challenges, which are poorly documented in the literature, often lead to delays in reactive campaigns, ultimately reducing the effect of vaccination. In June 2015, a cholera outbreak occurred in Juba, South Sudan, and because of the global shortage of oral cholera vaccine, authorities were unable to secure sufficient doses to vaccinate the entire at-risk population-approximately 1 million people. In this Personal View, we document the first public health use of a reduced, single-dose regimen of oral cholera vaccine, and show the details of the decision-making process and timeline. We also make recommendations to help improve reactive vaccination campaigns against cholera, and discuss the importance of new and flexible context-specific dose regimens and vaccination strategies.

  10. FORMATION OF INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FLAVIVIRUS VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Krylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review examines in a comparative perspective the key moments of formation of innate and adaptive immune responses to different types of current flavivirus vaccines: live attenuated against yellow fever virus and inactivated whole virus against tick-borne encephalitis virus. Particular attention is paid to the ability of these different vaccines, containing exogenous pathogen-associated molecular structures, to stimulate innate immunity. Live attenuated vaccine by infecting several subtypes of dendritic cells activates them through various pattern-recognition receptors, such as Tolland RIG-I-like receptors, which leads to significant production of proinflammatory cytokines, including interferon-α primary mediator of innate antiviral immunity. By simulating natural viral infection, this vaccine quickly spreads over the vascular network, and the dendritic cells, activated by it, migrate to the draining lymph nodes and trigger multiple foci of Tand B-cell activation. Inactivated vaccine stimulates the innate immunity predominantly at the injection site, and for the sufficient activation requires the presence in its composition of an adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide, which effects the formation and activation of inflammasomes, ensuring the formation and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 that, in turn, trigger a cascade of cellular and humoral innate immune responses. We demonstrated the possibility of involvement in the induction of innate immunity, mediated by the inactivated vaccine, endogenous pathogenassociated molecular patterns (uric acid and host cell DNA, forming at the vaccine injection site. We discuss the triggering of Band T-cell responses by flavivirus vaccines that determine various duration of protection against various pathogens. A single injection of the live vaccine against yellow fever virus induces polyvalent adaptive immune response, including the production of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, Th1and Th2-cells and neutralizing antibodies

  11. Strategies to use immune modulators in therapeutic vaccines against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzofsky, Jay A; Terabe, Masaki; Wood, Lauren V

    2012-06-01

    Cancers so much resemble self that they prove difficult for the immune system to eliminate, and those that have already escaped natural immunosurveillance have gotten past the natural immune barriers to malignancy. A successful therapeutic cancer vaccine must overcome these escape mechanisms. Our laboratory has focused on a multistep "push-pull" approach in which we combine strategies to overcome each of the mechanisms of escape. If tumor epitopes are insufficiently immunogenic, we increase their immunogenicity by epitope enhancement, improving their binding affinity to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. If the anti-tumor response is too weak or of the wrong phenotype, we use cytokines, costimulatory molecules, Toll-like receptor ligands, and other molecular adjuvants to increase not only the quantity of the response but also its quality, to push the response in the right direction. Finally, the tumor invokes multiple immunosuppressive mechanisms to defend itself, so we need to overcome those as well, including blocking or depleting regulatory cells or inhibiting regulatory molecules, to pull the response by removing the brakes. Some of these strategies individually have now been translated into human clinical trials in cancer patients. Combinations of these in a push-pull approach are promising for the successful immunotherapy of cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Strategies to use immune modulators in therapeutic vaccines against cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzofsky, Jay A.; Terabe, Masaki; Wood, Lauren V.

    2012-01-01

    Cancers so much resemble self that they prove difficult for the immune system to eliminate, and those that have already escaped natural immunosurveillance have gotten past the natural immune barriers to malignancy. A successful therapeutic cancer vaccine must overcome these escape mechanisms. Our laboratory has focused on a multistep “push-pull” approach in which we combine strategies to overcome each of the mechanisms of escape. If tumor epitopes are insufficiently immunogenic, we increase their immunogenicity by epitope enhancement, improving their binding affinity to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. If the anti-tumor response is too weak or of the wrong phenotype, we use cytokines, costimulatory molecules, Toll-like receptor ligands, and other molecular adjuvants to increase not only the quantity of the response, but also its quality, to push the response in the right direction. Finally, the tumor invokes multiple immunosuppressive mechanisms to defend itself, so we need to overcome those as well, including blocking or depleting regulatory cells or inhibiting regulatory molecules, to pull the response by removing the brakes. Some of these strategies individually have now been translated into human clinical trials in cancer patients. Combinations of these in a push-pull approach are promising for the successful immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:22595057

  13. A game-theoretic approach to valuating toxoplasmosis vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, David; Rychtář, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite often found in wild and domestic cats, and it is the cause of the disease toxoplasmosis. More than 60 million people in the United States carry the parasite, and the Centers for Disease Control have placed toxoplasmosis in their disease classification group Neglected Parasitic Infections as one of five parasitic diseases targeted as priorities for public health action. In recent years, there has been significant progress toward the development of a practical vaccine, so vaccination programs may soon be a viable approach to controlling the disease. Anticipating the availability of a toxoplasmosis vaccine, we are interested in determining when cat owners should vaccinate their own pets. We have created a mathematical model describing the conditions under which vaccination is advantageous. Our model can be used to predict the average vaccination level in the population. We find that there is a critical vaccine cost threshold above which no one will use the vaccine. A vaccine cost slightly below this threshold, however, results in high usage of the vaccine, and consequently in a significant reduction in population seroprevalence. Not surprisingly, we find that populations may achieve herd immunity only if the cost of vaccine is zero.

  14. Next-generation dengue vaccines: novel strategies currently under development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna P; Whitehead, Stephen S

    2011-10-01

    Dengue has become the most important arboviral infection worldwide with more than 30 million cases of dengue fever estimated to occur each year. The need for a dengue vaccine is great and several live attenuated dengue candidate vaccines are proceeding through clinical evaluation. The need to induce a balanced immune response against all four DENV serotypes with a single vaccine has been a challenge for dengue vaccine developers. A live attenuated DENV chimeric vaccine produced by Sanofi Pasteur has recently entered Phase III evaluation in numerous dengue-endemic regions of the world. Viral interference between serotypes contained in live vaccines has required up to three doses of the vaccine be given over a 12-month period of time. For this reason, novel DENV candidate vaccines are being developed with the goal of achieving a protective immune response with an immunization schedule that can be given over the course of a few months. These next-generation candidates include DNA vaccines, recombinant adenovirus vectored vaccines, alphavirus replicons, and sub-unit protein vaccines. Several of these novel candidates will be discussed.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p chickens.

  16. Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Gregg; Jacobs, Katharine; Buizer, James

    2008-06-01

    Climate Change Adaptation for Water Managers; Oracle, Arizona, 4-5 February 2008; The most visible manifestation of climate change in the American Southwest is its effects on water resources. Since 1999, the region's water supplies and major rivers have been tested by burgeoning population growth and drought. Model projections suggest increasing drought severity and duration due to rising temperatures, increased evapotranspiration, and enhanced atmospheric circulation from the tropics (Hadley circulation).

  17. Dynamics of vaccination strategies via projected dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Monica-Gabriela; Bauch, Chris T; Johnston, Matthew D

    2007-07-01

    Previous game theoretical analyses of vaccinating behaviour have underscored the strategic interaction between individuals attempting to maximise their health states, in situations where an individual's health state depends upon the vaccination decisions of others due to the presence of herd immunity. Here, we extend such analyses by applying the theories of variational inequalities (VI) and projected dynamical systems (PDS) to vaccination games. A PDS provides a dynamics that gives the conditions for existence, uniqueness and stability properties of Nash equilibria. In this paper, it is used to analyse the dynamics of vaccinating behaviour in a population consisting of distinct social groups, where each group has different perceptions of vaccine and disease risks. In particular, we study populations with two groups, where the size of one group is strictly larger than the size of the other group (a majority/minority population). We find that a population with a vaccine-inclined majority group and a vaccine-averse minority group exhibits higher average vaccine coverage than the corresponding homogeneous population, when the vaccine is perceived as being risky relative to the disease. Our model also reproduces a feature of real populations: In certain parameter regimes, it is possible to have a majority group adopting high vaccination rates and simultaneously a vaccine-averse minority group adopting low vaccination rates. Moreover, we find that minority groups will tend to exhibit more extreme changes in vaccinating behaviour for a given change in risk perception, in comparison to majority groups. These results emphasise the important role played by social heterogeneity in vaccination behaviour, while also highlighting the valuable role that can be played by PDS and VI in mathematical epidemiology.

  18. The Contextual Adaptation of English Teachers' Questioning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hong-mei; Li, Wang-zi; Lei, Ping

    2010-01-01

    In order to guarantee an interactive classroom atmosphere, English teachers pay much attention to the questioning strategies when they use question-answer teaching method. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis on English teachers' questioning strategies from the perspective of adaptation theory. It shows that the utilization of teachers'…

  19. Impact of coverage-dependent marginal costs on optimal HPV vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Marc D; McGoff, Kevin; Herzog, David P; Sivakoff, David J; Myers, Evan R

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of vaccinating males against the human papillomavirus (HPV) remains a controversial subject. Many existing studies conclude that increasing female coverage is more effective than diverting resources into male vaccination. Recently, several empirical studies on HPV immunization have been published, providing evidence of the fact that marginal vaccination costs increase with coverage. In this study, we use a stochastic agent-based modeling framework to revisit the male vaccination debate in light of these new findings. Within this framework, we assess the impact of coverage-dependent marginal costs of vaccine distribution on optimal immunization strategies against HPV. Focusing on the two scenarios of ongoing and new vaccination programs, we analyze different resource allocation policies and their effects on overall disease burden. Our results suggest that if the costs associated with vaccinating males are relatively close to those associated with vaccinating females, then coverage-dependent, increasing marginal costs may favor vaccination strategies that entail immunization of both genders. In particular, this study emphasizes the necessity for further empirical research on the nature of coverage-dependent vaccination costs.

  20. Impact of coverage-dependent marginal costs on optimal HPV vaccination strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D. Ryser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of vaccinating males against the human papillomavirus (HPV remains a controversial subject. Many existing studies conclude that increasing female coverage is more effective than diverting resources into male vaccination. Recently, several empirical studies on HPV immunization have been published, providing evidence of the fact that marginal vaccination costs increase with coverage. In this study, we use a stochastic agent-based modeling framework to revisit the male vaccination debate in light of these new findings. Within this framework, we assess the impact of coverage-dependent marginal costs of vaccine distribution on optimal immunization strategies against HPV. Focusing on the two scenarios of ongoing and new vaccination programs, we analyze different resource allocation policies and their effects on overall disease burden. Our results suggest that if the costs associated with vaccinating males are relatively close to those associated with vaccinating females, then coverage-dependent, increasing marginal costs may favor vaccination strategies that entail immunization of both genders. In particular, this study emphasizes the necessity for further empirical research on the nature of coverage-dependent vaccination costs.

  1. Vaccine instability in the cold chain: mechanisms, analysis and formulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Ozan S; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Smith, Dawn E; Middaugh, C Russell; Prusik, Ted; Volkin, David B

    2014-09-01

    Instability of vaccines often emerges as a key challenge during clinical development (lab to clinic) as well as commercial distribution (factory to patient). To yield stable, efficacious vaccine dosage forms for human use, successful formulation strategies must address a combination of interrelated topics including stabilization of antigens, selection of appropriate adjuvants, and development of stability-indicating analytical methods. This review covers key concepts in understanding the causes and mechanisms of vaccine instability including (1) the complex and delicate nature of antigen structures (e.g., viruses, proteins, carbohydrates, protein-carbohydrate conjugates, etc.), (2) use of adjuvants to further enhance immune responses, (3) development of physicochemical and biological assays to assess vaccine integrity and potency, and (4) stabilization strategies to protect vaccine antigens and adjuvants (and their interactions) during storage. Despite these challenges, vaccines can usually be sufficiently stabilized for use as medicines through a combination of formulation approaches combined with maintenance of an efficient cold chain (manufacturing, distribution, storage and administration). Several illustrative case studies are described regarding mechanisms of vaccine instability along with formulation approaches for stabilization within the vaccine cold chain. These include live, attenuated (measles, polio) and inactivated (influenza, polio) viral vaccines as well as recombinant protein (hepatitis B) vaccines. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The introduction of new vaccines into developing countries. IV: Global Access Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Richard T; Krattiger, Anatole; Clemens, John D; Curtiss, Roy

    2007-05-16

    This paper offers a framework for managing a comprehensive Global Access Strategy for new vaccines in developing countries. It is aimed at strengthening the ability of public-sector entities to reach their goals. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and The Rockefeller Foundation have been leaders in stimulating the creation of new organizations - public/private product development partnerships (PDPs) - that seek to accelerate vaccine development and distribution to meet the health needs of the world's poor. Case studies of two of these PDPs - the Salmonella Anti-pneumococcal Vaccine Program and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative - examine development of such strategies. Relying on the application of innovation theory, the strategy leads to the identification of six Components of Innovation which cover all aspects of the vaccine innovation process. Appropriately modified, the proposed framework can be applied to the development and introduction of other products in developing countries including drugs, and nutritional and agricultural products.

  3. Adapting Heuristic Mastermind Strategies to Evolutionary Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Runarsson, Tomas Philip

    2009-01-01

    The art of solving the Mastermind puzzle was initiated by Donald Knuth and is already more than 30 years old; despite that, it still receives much attention in operational research and computer games journals, not to mention the nature-inspired stochastic algorithm literature. In this paper we try to suggest a strategy that will allow nature-inspired algorithms to obtain results as good as those based on exhaustive search strategies; in order to do that, we first review, compare and improve current approaches to solving the puzzle; then we test one of these strategies with an estimation of distribution algorithm. Finally, we try to find a strategy that falls short of being exhaustive, and is then amenable for inclusion in nature inspired algorithms (such as evolutionary or particle swarm algorithms). This paper proves that by the incorporation of local entropy into the fitness function of the evolutionary algorithm it becomes a better player than a random one, and gives a rule of thumb on how to incorporate t...

  4. Enhanced Vaccine Control of Epidemics in Adaptive Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    Ira B. Schwartz Code 6792, Nonlinear Systems Dynamics Section, Plasma Physics Division, US Naval Research Laboratory , Washington, DC 20375, USA...SIRS. Models with no immunity are suitable for many bacterial infections, such as meningitis, plague, and venereal diseases , as well as certain...37, cholera and typhoid fever 35, as well as pertussis 38. Although not all of the above diseases currently possess a vaccine, research is ongo

  5. Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA): Highly Temperature Sensitive Polioviruses as Novel Vaccine Strains for a Next Generation Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara P; de Los Rios Oakes, Isabel; van Hoek, Vladimir; Bockstal, Viki; Kamphuis, Tobias; Uil, Taco G; Song, Yutong; Cooper, Gillian; Crawt, Laura E; Martín, Javier; Zahn, Roland; Lewis, John; Wimmer, Eckard; Custers, Jerome H H V; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Cello, Jeronimo; Edo-Matas, Diana

    2016-03-01

    The poliovirus vaccine field is moving towards novel vaccination strategies. Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and implementation of the conventional Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (cIPV) is imminent. Moreover, replacement of the virulent poliovirus strains currently used for cIPV with attenuated strains is preferred. We generated Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA) poliovirus strains by serial passage at low temperature and subsequent genetic engineering, which contain the capsid sequences of cIPV strains combined with a set of mutations identified during cold-adaptation. These viruses displayed a highly temperature sensitive phenotype with no signs of productive infection at 37°C as visualized by electron microscopy. Furthermore, decreases in infectious titers, viral RNA, and protein levels were measured during infection at 37°C, suggesting a block in the viral replication cycle at RNA replication, protein translation, or earlier. However, at 30°C, they could be propagated to high titers (9.4-9.9 Log10TCID50/ml) on the PER.C6 cell culture platform. We identified 14 mutations in the IRES and non-structural regions, which in combination induced the temperature sensitive phenotype, also when transferred to the genomes of other wild-type and attenuated polioviruses. The temperature sensitivity translated to complete absence of neurovirulence in CD155 transgenic mice. Attenuation was also confirmed after extended in vitro passage at small scale using conditions (MOI, cell density, temperature) anticipated for vaccine production. The inability of CAVA strains to replicate at 37°C makes reversion to a neurovirulent phenotype in vivo highly unlikely, therefore, these strains can be considered safe for the manufacture of IPV. The CAVA strains were immunogenic in the Wistar rat potency model for cIPV, inducing high neutralizing antibody titers in a dose-dependent manner in response to D-antigen doses used for cIPV. In combination with the highly productive

  6. Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA): Highly Temperature Sensitive Polioviruses as Novel Vaccine Strains for a Next Generation Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara P.; de los Rios Oakes, Isabel; van Hoek, Vladimir; Bockstal, Viki; Kamphuis, Tobias; Uil, Taco G.; Song, Yutong; Cooper, Gillian; Crawt, Laura E.; Martín, Javier; Zahn, Roland; Lewis, John; Wimmer, Eckard; Custers, Jerome H. H. V.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Cello, Jeronimo; Edo-Matas, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The poliovirus vaccine field is moving towards novel vaccination strategies. Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and implementation of the conventional Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (cIPV) is imminent. Moreover, replacement of the virulent poliovirus strains currently used for cIPV with attenuated strains is preferred. We generated Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA) poliovirus strains by serial passage at low temperature and subsequent genetic engineering, which contain the capsid sequences of cIPV strains combined with a set of mutations identified during cold-adaptation. These viruses displayed a highly temperature sensitive phenotype with no signs of productive infection at 37°C as visualized by electron microscopy. Furthermore, decreases in infectious titers, viral RNA, and protein levels were measured during infection at 37°C, suggesting a block in the viral replication cycle at RNA replication, protein translation, or earlier. However, at 30°C, they could be propagated to high titers (9.4–9.9 Log10TCID50/ml) on the PER.C6 cell culture platform. We identified 14 mutations in the IRES and non-structural regions, which in combination induced the temperature sensitive phenotype, also when transferred to the genomes of other wild-type and attenuated polioviruses. The temperature sensitivity translated to complete absence of neurovirulence in CD155 transgenic mice. Attenuation was also confirmed after extended in vitro passage at small scale using conditions (MOI, cell density, temperature) anticipated for vaccine production. The inability of CAVA strains to replicate at 37°C makes reversion to a neurovirulent phenotype in vivo highly unlikely, therefore, these strains can be considered safe for the manufacture of IPV. The CAVA strains were immunogenic in the Wistar rat potency model for cIPV, inducing high neutralizing antibody titers in a dose-dependent manner in response to D-antigen doses used for cIPV. In combination with the highly productive

  7. An analysis of climatic impacts and adaptation strategies in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojoyi, MM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management An analysis of climatic impacts and adaptation strategies in Tanzania Mercy M. Ojoyi School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa... of climate change. Practical implications - The study suggests the need for leverage on resource use through education and good governance strategies to be employed by resource planners, leaders and policy makers. Social implications - This study links...

  8. Parental decisional strategies regarding HPV vaccination before media debates: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Empelen, P. van; Vogel, I.; Raat, H.; Ballegooijen, M. van; Korfage, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Before the introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, decisional strategies and factors that could guide HPV vaccination intentions were explored. The authors conducted 4 focus group discussions with 36 parents of children 8-15 years of age. Three groups consisted primarily of Dutch

  9. New strategies for the development of H5N1 subtype influenza vaccines: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, John

    2011-10-01

    The emergence and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) viruses among poultry in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa have fueled concerns of a possible human pandemic, and spurred efforts towards developing vaccines against H5N1 influenza viruses, as well as improving vaccine production methods. In recent years, promising experimental reverse genetics-derived H5N1 live attenuated vaccines have been generated and characterized, including vaccines that are attenuated through temperature-sensitive mutation, modulation of the interferon antagonist protein, or disruption of the M2 protein. Live attenuated influenza virus vaccines based on each of these modalities have conferred protection against homologous and heterologous challenge in animal models of influenza virus infection. Alternative vaccine strategies that do not require the use of live virus, such as virus-like particle (VLP) and DNA-based vaccines, have also been vigorously pursued in recent years. Studies have demonstrated that influenza VLP vaccination can confer homologous and heterologous protection from lethal challenge in a mouse model of infection. There have also been improvements in the formulation and production of vaccines following concerns over the threat of H5N1 influenza viruses. The use of novel substrates for the growth of vaccine virus stocks has been intensively researched in recent years, and several candidate cell culture-based systems for vaccine amplification have emerged, including production systems based on Madin-Darby canine kidney, Vero, and PerC6 cell lines. Such systems promise increased scalability of product, and reduced reliance on embryonated chicken eggs as a growth substrate. Studies into the use of adjuvants have shown that oil-in-water-based adjuvants can improve the immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccines and conserve antigen in such formulations. Finally, efforts to develop more broadly cross-protective immunization strategies through the inclusion

  10. Delayed adaptive immunity is related to higher MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömbeck, Anna; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2016-04-01

    There are notable inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in vaccinated children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. In the FARMFLORA birth cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with the MMR vaccine at 18 months of age. MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers were measured in plasma samples obtained at 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples obtained at birth, 3-5 days and at 4 and 18 months of age were analyzed for T- and B-cell numbers, proportions of naive and memory T and B cells, and fractions of putative regulatory T cells. Multivariate factor analyses show that higher anti-MMR antibody titers were associated with a lower degree of adaptive immune maturation, that is, lower proportions of memory T cells and a lower capacity of mononuclear cells to produce cytokines, but with higher proportions of putative regulatory T cells. Further, children born by cesarean section (CS) had significantly higher anti-measles titers than vaginally-born children; and CS was found to be associated with delayed adaptive immunity. Also, girls presented with significantly higher anti-mumps and anti-rubella antibody levels than boys at 36 months of age. These results indicate that delayed adaptive immune maturation before and in close proximity to immunization seems to be advantageous for the ability of children to respond with higher anti-MMR antibody levels after vaccination.

  11. [Strategies for BCG vaccination 1947 - 94].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harthug, Henrik

    2016-06-01

    The tuberculosis reform of 1947 stipulated a clear responsibility of the state to combat tuberculosis. This entailed sanctions directed at individuals, as well as compulsory vaccination. Universal vaccination was to be achieved through extensive information work that emphasised the responsibility of the individual. The decline in the disease, the dawning of human rights thinking and the decline of professional boards in public administration help to explain the downgrading of compulsory vaccination over time.

  12. Parallel Programming Strategies for Irregular Adaptive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance for such computations. In this work, we examine two typical irregular adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, under competing programming methodologies and across various parallel architectures. The Dynamic Remeshing application simulates flow over an airfoil, and refines localized regions of the underlying unstructured mesh. The N-Body experiment models two neighboring Plummer galaxies that are about to undergo a merger. Both problems demonstrate dramatic changes in processor workloads and interprocessor communication with time; thus, dynamic load balancing is a required component.

  13. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Foged, Camilla; Korsholm, Karen Smith

    2016-01-01

    The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens....... Immunostimulators represent highly diverse classes of molecules, e.g., lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and peptides, and they are ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which are differentially expressed on APC subsets. Different formulation strategies might thus be required for incorporation...

  14. A literature review of Foot-and-Mouth Disease emergency vaccination strategies and their implementation in contingency planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben

    2012-01-01

    There is no single FMD eradication strategy that is perfect or even appropriate for all circumstances. The emphasis given to various control measures in devising FMD control and eradication strategies will depend on epidemiological factors, livestock husbandry systems, community acceptance...... international movement during the past decade towards preparing for the use of emergency vaccination in the case of an FMD epidemic. Various types of decision tools have been developed to assist in making timely and difficult decisions on how to manage FMD outbreaks. Considering the multi-factorial management...... control measures in devising FMD control and eradication strategies will depend on epidemiological factors, livestock husbandry systems, community acceptance and the likely costs. The strategy chosen is likely to be a combination of some appropriate approaches and will likely have to be adapted...

  15. Multiserotype protection elicited by a combinatorial prime-boost vaccination strategy against bluetongue virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Calvo-Pinilla

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV belongs to the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. The development of vector-based vaccines expressing conserved protective antigens results in increased immune activation and could reduce the number of multiserotype vaccinations required, therefore providing a cost-effective product. Recent recombinant DNA technology has allowed the development of novel strategies to develop marker and safe vaccines against BTV. We have now engineered naked DNAs and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA expressing VP2, VP7 and NS1 proteins from BTV-4. IFNAR((-/- mice inoculated with DNA/rMVA-VP2,-VP7-NS1 in an heterologous prime boost vaccination strategy generated significant levels of antibodies specific of VP2, VP7, and NS1, including those with neutralizing activity against BTV-4. In addition, vaccination stimulated specific CD8(+ T cell responses against these three BTV proteins. Importantly, the vaccine combination expressing NS1, VP2 and VP7 proteins of BTV-4, elicited sterile protection against a lethal dose of homologous BTV-4 infection. Remarkably, the vaccine induced cross-protection against lethal doses of heterologous BTV-8 and BTV-1 suggesting that the DNA/rMVA-VP2,-VP7,-NS1 marker vaccine is a promising multiserotype vaccine against BTV.

  16. Can We Translate Vitamin D Immunomodulating Effect on Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Vaccine Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Olivier Lang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D (VitD, which is well known for its classic role in the maintenance of bone mineral density, has now become increasingly studied for its extra-skeletal roles. It has an important influence on the body’s immune system and modulates both innate and adaptive immunity and regulates the inflammatory cascade. In this review our aim was to describe how VitD might influence immune responsiveness and its potential modulating role in vaccine immunogenicity. In the first instance, we consider the literature that may provide molecular and genetic support to the idea that VitD status may be related to innate and/or adaptive immune response with a particular focus on vaccine immunogenicity and then discuss observational studies and controlled trials of VitD supplementation conducted in humans. Finally, we conclude with some knowledge gaps surrounding VitD and vaccine response, and that it is still premature to recommend “booster” of VitD at vaccination time to enhance vaccine response.

  17. Evaluation of vaccination strategies for SIR epidemics on random networks incorporating household structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the analysis of vaccination strategies in a stochastic SIR (susceptible $\\to$ infected $\\to$ removed) model for the spread of an epidemic amongst a population of individuals with a random network of social contacts that is also partitioned into households. Under various vaccine action models, we consider both household-based vaccination schemes, in which the way in which individuals are chosen for vaccination depends on the size of the households in which they reside, and acquaintance vaccination, which targets individuals of high degree in the social network. For both types of vaccination scheme, assuming a large population with few initial infectives, we derive a threshold parameter which determines whether or not a large outbreak can occur and also the probability and fraction of the population infected by such an outbreak. The performance of these schemes is studied numerically, focusing on the influence of the household size distribution and the degree distribution of the soc...

  18. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Mikułowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~validated model of a real, passive landing gear as a reference. Potential for improvement is estimated statistically in terms of the mean and median (significant peak strut forces as well as in terms of the extended safe sinking velocity range. Three control strategies are verified experimentally using a laboratory test stand.

  19. Strategies for adapting to high rates of employee turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowday, R T

    1984-01-01

    For many organizations facing high rates of employee turnover, strategies for increasing employee retention may not be practical because employees leave for reasons beyond the control of management or the costs of reducing turnover exceed the benefits to be derived. In this situation managers need to consider strategies that can minimize or buffer the organization from the negative consequences that often follow from turnover. Strategies organizations can use to adapt to uncontrollably high employee turnover rates are presented in this article. In addition, suggestions are made for how managers should make choices among the alternative strategies.

  20. Event driven adaptation, land use and human coping strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reenberg, Anette; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Fog, Bjarne

    The paper focuses on assessing the wider perspectives of adaptive resource management strategies in former subsistence agriculture societies in the SW Pacific. Firstly, we will briefly introduce the theoretical context related to the livelihood framework, adaptation to socio-environmental change...... on the entire household livelihood portfolio and reveal that the natural resources remains a widespread activity, yet increasingly supplemented by other income generating activities( ex. shop keeping, private business, government employment). Group interviews have been employed to reveal how local farmers...

  1. HLA alleles associated with the adaptive immune response to smallpox vaccine: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Pankratz, V Shane; Salk, Hannah M; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2014-09-01

    We previously reported HLA allelic associations with vaccinia virus (VACV)-induced adaptive immune responses in a cohort of healthy individuals (n = 1,071 subjects) after a single dose of the licensed smallpox (Dryvax) vaccine. This study demonstrated that specific HLA alleles were significantly associated with VACV-induced neutralizing antibody (NA) titers (HLA-B*13:02, *38:02, *44:03, *48:01, and HLA-DQB1*03:02, *06:04) and cytokine (HLA-DRB1*01:03, *03:01, *10:01, *13:01, *15:01) immune responses. We undertook an independent study of 1,053 healthy individuals and examined associations between HLA alleles and measures of adaptive immunity after a single dose of Dryvax-derived ACAM2000 vaccine to evaluate previously discovered HLA allelic associations from the Dryvax study and determine if these associations are replicated with ACAM2000. Females had significantly higher NA titers than male subjects in both study cohorts [median ID50 discovery cohort 159 (93, 256) vs. 125 (75, 186), p smallpox vaccine-induced adaptive immune responses are significantly influenced by HLA gene polymorphisms. These data provide information for functional studies and design of novel candidate smallpox vaccines.

  2. The adaptation study of oral communication strategy inventory into Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saziye Yaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals use a variety of strategies in the course of speaking which can be identified via measurement tools. In the literature, strategy inventories are regarded as the most commonly used measurement tools. However, most of the strategy inventories lack the reliability and validity studies. Furthermore, most of them represent strategies that the learner could use throughout the language learning process and they are not directly relevant to the skill of speaking. Moreover, in the literature, most of the studies carried out on speaking strategies are based on the inventories developed for learners learning English as a second language. With respect to other measurement tools, Oral Communication Strategy Inventory (OCSI developed by Nakatani (2006 for Japanese learning English as a foreign language had a clear factor structure and it seemed less problematic. Thus, the purpose of this study was to adapt OCSI into Turkish. Our concern in the adaptation study of OCSI is to investigate whether oral communication strategies classified in OCSI developed by Nakatani (2006 would also measure Turkish EFL students’ speaking strategy use. Within the scope of adaptation study, the inventory was translated to Turkish and evaluated with the method of back translation. The equivalence between English form and Turkish form, construct validity and internal consistency were examined. The research was conducted with 808 students studying English as a foreign language at ELT departments of three different universities and Anatolian High schools. Based on the findings concerning the reliability and validity studies, it can be concluded that the classification of the original form of OCSI differs from the adapted version to some extent in that the Turkish form is made up of seven factors in contrast to the original inventory consisting of eight factors. Non verbal strategies which existed in Nakatani’s original inventory did not appear in the adaptation form

  3. Pharmacy management of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, H Eric

    2007-09-01

    Although standard vaccines have traditionally been granted full coverage in managed care, the recent introduction of several novel vaccine products has necessitated the revision of pharmacy management strategies throughout the nation. To review pharmacy management strategies for a number of emerging vaccines, with unique plan perspectives from SelectHealth, an Intermountain Healthcare company serving approximately 500,000 members in Utah. Because several recently introduced vaccines target previously unaddressed diseases and carry higher costs than traditional vaccines, several plans have adapted a novel approach to manage vaccine coverage on an individual product basis. At SelectHealth, recently introduced vaccines for rotavirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus (HPV) have required special attention in terms of pharmacy management. After carefully weighing acquisition and administration costs, anticipated uptake and use, direct and indirect health care costs averted, and quality of life issues, plan leadership decided to cover many of the new vaccines (i.e., rotavirus, RSV, and herpes zoster) under a nonstandard vaccination benefit. However, because substantial cost savings and high use of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was anticipated within SelectHealth, the plan decided to fully cover the product. Although they complicate traditional pharmacy management, novel vaccines provide clinical benefit that managed care organizations cannot ignore. One universal strategy will not suffice in managing all the different vaccines entering the market, and a tailored approach should be employed based on the individual characteristics and use of each product.

  4. Pneumonia immunization in older adults: review of vaccine effectiveness and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaad U

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Usama Assaad,2 Ibrahim El-Masri,2 Jahan Porhomayon,1,3 Ali A El-Solh1–41The Veterans Affairs Western New York Healthcare System, Buffalo, NY, USA; 2Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesia, 4Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and School of Public Health and Health Professions, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Vaccination remains the primary preventive strategy in the elderly against Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza infections. The effectiveness of this strategy in preventing pneumonia has been in doubt despite the increase in vaccination coverage among older adults. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs and observational studies aimed at determining clinical outcomes and immune response following pneumococcal vaccination have yielded conflicting results. The protective efficacy of pneumococcal vaccination against pneumonia in older adults has not been firmly established due to a lack of RCTs specifically examining patients ≥ 65 years of age. Similarly, the reported benefits of influenza vaccination have been derived from observational data. The assessment of clinical benefit from influenza vaccination in the elderly population is complicated by varying cohorts, virulence of the influenza strain, and matching of vaccine and circulating viral strains. The presence of selection bias and use of nonspecific end points in these studies make the current evidence inconclusive in terms of overall benefit. The development of more immunogenic vaccines through new formulations or addition of adjuvants holds the promise of revolutionizing delivery and improving efficacy. Dismantling existing barriers through education, providing technology assistance predominantly to developing countries, and establishing clear regulatory guidance on pathways for approval are necessary to ensure timely production and equitable distribution

  5. Antibody-Mediated Fcγ Receptor-Based Mechanisms of HIV Inhibition: Recent Findings and New Vaccination Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Moog

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS pandemic is one of the most devastating pandemics worldwide. Today, the major route of infection by HIV is sexual transmission. One of the most promising strategies for vaccination against HIV sexual infection is the development of a mucosal vaccine, which should be able to induce strong local and systemic protective immunity. It is believed that both humoral and cellular immune responses are needed for inducing a sterilizing protection against HIV. Recently, passive administration of monoclonal neutralizing antibodies in macaques infected by vaginal challenge demonstrated a crucial role of FcγRs in the protection afforded by these antibodies. This questioned about the role of innate and adaptive immune functions, including ADCC, ADCVI, phagocytosis of opsonized HIV particles and the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, in the mechanism of HIV inhibition in vivo. Other monoclonal antibodies - non-neutralizing inhibitory antibodies - which recognize immunogenic epitopes, have been shown to display potent FcγRs-dependent inhibition of HIV replication in vitro. The potential role of these antibodies in protection against sexual transmission of HIV and their biological relevance for the development of an HIV vaccine therefore need to be determined. This review highlights the potential role of FcγRsmediated innate and adaptive immune functions in the mechanism of HIV protection.

  6. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  7. Real-Time Adaptation of Influence Strategies in Online Selling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time adjustments in online selling are becoming increasingly common. In this paper we describe a novel method of real-time adaptation, and introduce influence strategies as a useful level of analysis for personalization of online selling. The proposed method incorporates three perspectives on r

  8. Representing adaptive eLearning strategies in IMS Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Burgos, D., Tattersall, C., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). Representing adaptive eLearning strategies in IMS Learning Design. In R. Koper & K. Stefanov (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development (pp. 54-60). March, 30-31, 2006, Sofia, Bulgar

  9. Novel vaccine development strategies for inducing mucosal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujkuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kataoka, Kosuke; Gilbert, Rebekah S; McGhee, Jerry R; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2012-03-01

    To develop protective immune responses against mucosal pathogens, the delivery route and adjuvants for vaccination are important. The host, however, strives to maintain mucosal homeostasis by responding to mucosal antigens with tolerance, instead of immune activation. Thus, induction of mucosal immunity through vaccination is a rather difficult task, and potent mucosal adjuvants, vectors or other special delivery systems are often used, especially in the elderly. By taking advantage of the common mucosal immune system, the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells and microfold epithelial cells may facilitate the induction of effective mucosal immunity. Thus, novel routes of immunization and antigen delivery systems also show great potential for the development of effective and safe mucosal vaccines against various pathogens. The purpose of this review is to introduce several recent approaches to induce mucosal immunity to vaccines, with an emphasis on mucosal tissue targeting, new immunization routes and delivery systems. Defining the mechanisms of mucosal vaccines is as important as their efficacy and safety, and in this article, examples of recent approaches, which will likely accelerate progress in mucosal vaccine development, are discussed.

  10. Paradigms for adaptive statistical information designs: practical experiences and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sue-Jane; Hung, H M James; O'Neill, Robert

    2012-11-10

    design. We highlight the substantial risk of planning the sample size for confirmatory trials when information is very uninformative and stipulate the advantages of adaptive statistical information designs for planning exploratory trials. Practical experiences and strategies as lessons learned from more recent adaptive design proposals will be discussed to pinpoint the improved utilities of adaptive design clinical trials and their potential to increase the chance of a successful drug development.

  11. Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution Algorithm With Zoning Evolution of Control Parameters and Adaptive Mutation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qinqin; Yan, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the differential evolution (DE) algorithm is significantly affected by the choice of mutation strategies and control parameters. Maintaining the search capability of various control parameter combinations throughout the entire evolution process is also a key issue. A self-adaptive DE algorithm with zoning evolution of control parameters and adaptive mutation strategies is proposed in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, the mutation strategies are automatically adjusted with population evolution, and the control parameters evolve in their own zoning to self-adapt and discover near optimal values autonomously. The proposed algorithm is compared with five state-of-the-art DE algorithm variants according to a set of benchmark test functions. Furthermore, seven nonparametric statistical tests are implemented to analyze the experimental results. The results indicate that the overall performance of the proposed algorithm is better than those of the five existing improved algorithms.

  12. Strategy Uniform Crossover Adaptation Evolution in a Minority Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟松; 汪秉宏; 全宏俊; 胡进锟

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new adaptation minority game for understanding the complex dynamical behaviour characterized by agent interactions competing limited resources in many natural and social systems. Intelligent agents may modify a part of their strategies periodically, depending on the strategyperformances. In the present model, the strategies will be updated according to a uniform-crossover variation process inspired by genetic evolution algorithm in biology. The performances of the agents in our model are calculated for different parameter conditions. It has been found that the new system may evolve via the strategy uniform crossover adaptation mechanism into a frozen equilibrium state in which the performance of the system may reach the best limit, implying the strongest cooperation among agents and the most effective utilization of the social resources.

  13. Anticipating crisis: towards a pandemic flu vaccination strategy through alignment of public health and industrial policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daems, Rudi; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

    2005-12-30

    Flu pandemics (worldwide epidemics) have occurred at irregular and unpredictable intervals, and have been associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and economic cost. In response to the emerging potential for a new pandemic to occur, national and international preparedness plans are being drawn up specifying the use of antivirals and vaccines. A number of challenges to pandemic vaccine development, large-scale production and the timing of distribution have also been highlighted. This article reviews the rationale and consequential policy for aligned public- and private sector planning in the present inter-pandemic period despite the prevalent risks and uncertainties. We propose a model for product development of pandemic flu vaccine based on public-private partnership, including push and pull incentive mechanisms for stimulating work in this therapeutic area. In addition, we argue that innovative vaccination strategies, together with special vaccine formulations which may offer cross-protection against multiple flu pandemic strains might avert the worse effects of an influenza infection.

  14. Pricing strategies for combination pediatric vaccines based on the lowest overall cost formulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Banafsheh; Jacobson, Sheldon H; Sewell, Edward C

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes pricing strategies for US pediatric combination vaccines by comparing the lowest overall cost formularies (i.e., formularies that have the lowest overall cost). Three pharmaceutical companies compete pairwise over the sale of monovalent and combination vaccines. Particular emphasis is placed on examining the price of Sanofi Pasteur's DTaP-IPV/HIb under different conditions. The main contribution of the paper is to provide the lowest overall cost formularies for different prices of DTaP-IPV/HIb and other Sanofi Pasteur vaccines. The resulting analysis shows that DTaP-IPV/HIb could have been more competitively priced compared with the combination vaccine DTaP-HepB-IPV, for federal contract prices in 2009, 2010 and 2011. This study also proposes the lowest overall cost formularies when shortages of monovalent vaccines occur.

  15. Highest Vaccine Uptake after School-Based Delivery - A County-Level Evaluation of the Implementation Strategies for HPV Catch-Up Vaccination in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moa Rehn

    Full Text Available The Swedish school-based vaccination programme offers HPV vaccine to girls born ≥1999 in 5-6th grade. In 2012, all counties introduced free-of-charge catch-up vaccination campaigns targeting girls born 1993-1998. Varying vaccine uptake in the catch-up group by December 2012 suggested that some implementation strategies were more successful than others. In order to inform future vaccination campaigns, we assessed the impact of different implementation strategies on the county-level catch-up vaccine uptake.We conducted an ecological study including all Swedish counties (n = 21, asking regional health offices about the information channels they used and where vaccination of the catch-up target group took place in their counties. The uptake of ≥1 dose by 30 September 2014 was estimated using data from the voluntary national vaccination register. We investigated associations between counties' catch-up vaccine uptake, information channels and vaccination settings by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using negative binomial regression models.County level catch-up vaccine uptake varied between 49-84%. All counties offered vaccination through primary health care settings. Apart from this eight (34% also offered the vaccine in some of their schools, four (19% in all their schools, and two (10% in other health care centres. The information channels most frequently used were: information at the national on-line health care consulting web-page (100%, letter/invitations (90%, and advertisement (81%. Counties offering vaccination to girls in all schools and counties offering vaccination in some of their schools, reached higher vaccine uptake compared to counties not offering vaccination in any of their schools (all schools adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, some schools adjusted IRR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3.Counties offering HPV vaccination to catch-up groups in schools reached the highest vaccine uptake. No information

  16. Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information

  17. Influenza-vaccination: an inventory of strategies to reach the target population and optimise vaccination uptake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroneman, M.; Paget, J.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Influenza continues to be a considerable health problem of the populations in Europe. Complications of influenza are especially present in elderly patients and patients with chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disorders and respiratory disorders. Vaccination is an effective

  18. Effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine and revaccination strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-shu LI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on vaccination efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine,and explore the effective revaccination strategy.Methods Seventy-six adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 70 sex-and age-matched healthy individuals from 4 vaccination centers,who were vaccinated for one standard schedule(month 0,1,6 with gene recombinant yeast hepatitis B vaccine,were enrolled in present study.The serum anti-HBs and geometric mean titer(GMT thereof were assayed before and month 1,12,24 after completion of one standard schedule of vaccination.The profiles of serum cytokines including interferon-γ(IFN-γ,interleukin(IL-2,-4 and-10 were determined before and after vaccination.To improve the vaccine efficacy of non-or lower-response patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,a dose of 20μg gene recombinant yeast hepatitis B vaccine were used to revaccinate intramuscularly or subcutaneously plus intramuscularly.Results One month after completion of one standard schedule of vaccination,the positive conversion rates of anti-HBs in diabetes mellitus group and healthy group were 98.6 and 92.1%(P < 0.05,the anti-HBs GMT were 106.78 mU/ml and 167.14 mU/ml(P < 0.01,and the non-or lower-response rate were 19.7% and 7.1%,respectively(P < 0.05.The mean levels of serum IFN-γ,IL-2 and IL-4 were lower in diabetes mellitus group(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01,especially in non-or lower-response individuals,than in healthy group before and after a standard schedule of vaccination.Patients with non-or lower-response type 2 diabetes mellitus received revaccination with 20μg hepatitis B vaccine,the positive conversion rates of anti-HBs were 60.0% and 73.3%,respectively(P < 0.05,when injected subcutaneously plus intramuscularly or only intramuscularly.Conclusions Type 2 diabetes mellitus could influence the vaccination efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine,probably through a mechanism of down-regulating Th1 and Th2 mediated immune response

  19. From individual to herd protection with pneumococcal vaccines: the contribution of the Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Linares-Pérez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is currently undergoing advanced clinical evaluation prior to its planned introduction in Cuba. The implementation of the pneumococcal vaccination strategy has been designed with consideration of the need to maximize both its direct and indirect effects. A novel approach is suggested, which addresses preschool children as the first-line target group to generate herd immunity in infants and to have an impact on transmission at the community level. The clinical evaluation pipeline is described herein, including evaluations of effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and impact. The scientific contribution of the Cuban strategy could support a paradigm shift from individual protection to a population effect based on a rigorous body of scientific evidence.

  20. HIV/AIDS vaccines for Africa: scientific opportunities, challenges and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Ruhanya, Vurayai

    2015-01-01

    More than decades have already elapsed since human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was identified as the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The HIV has since spread to all parts of the world with devastating effects. In sub-saharan Africa, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has reached unprecedented proportions. Safe, effective and affordable HIV/AIDS vaccines for Africans are therefore urgently needed to contain this public health problem. Although, there are challenges, there are also scientific opportunities and strategies that can be exploited in the development of HIV/AIDS vaccines for Africa. The recent RV144 Phase III trial in Thailand has demonstrated that it is possible to develop a vaccine that can potentially elicit modest protective immunity against HIV infection. The main objective of this review is to outline the key scientific opportunities, challenges and strategies in HIV/AIDS vaccine development in Africa. PMID:26185576

  1. An adaptable navigation strategy for Virtual Microscopy from mobile platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Germán; Romero, Eduardo; Iregui, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    Real integration of Virtual Microscopy with the pathologist service workflow requires the design of adaptable strategies for any hospital service to interact with a set of Whole Slide Images. Nowadays, mobile devices have the actual potential of supporting an online pervasive network of specialists working together. However, such devices are still very limited. This article introduces a novel highly adaptable strategy for streaming and visualizing WSI from mobile devices. The presented approach effectively exploits and extends the granularity of the JPEG2000 standard and integrates it with different strategies to achieve a lossless, loosely-coupled, decoder and platform independent implementation, adaptable to any interaction model. The performance was evaluated by two expert pathologists interacting with a set of 20 virtual slides. The method efficiently uses the available device resources: the memory usage did not exceed a 7% of the device capacity while the decoding times were smaller than the 200 ms per Region of Interest, i.e., a window of 256×256 pixels. This model is easily adaptable to other medical imaging scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An unsupervised adaptive strategy for constructing probabilistic roadmaps

    KAUST Repository

    Tapia, L.

    2009-05-01

    Since planning environments are complex and no single planner exists that is best for all problems, much work has been done to explore methods for selecting where and when to apply particular planners. However, these two questions have been difficult to answer, even when adaptive methods meant to facilitate a solution are applied. For example, adaptive solutions such as setting learning rates, hand-classifying spaces, and defining parameters for a library of planners have all been proposed. We demonstrate a strategy based on unsupervised learning methods that makes adaptive planning more practical. The unsupervised strategies require less user intervention, model the topology of the problem in a reasonable and efficient manner, can adapt the sampler depending on characteristics of the problem, and can easily accept new samplers as they become available. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate that in a wide variety of environments, the regions automatically identified by our technique represent the planning space well both in number and placement.We also show that our technique has little overhead and that it out-performs two existing adaptive methods in all complex cases studied.© 2009 IEEE.

  3. Informing rubella vaccination strategies in East Java, Indonesia through transmission modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Wood, James; Khandaker, Gulam; Waddington, Claire; Snelling, Thomas

    2016-11-04

    An estimated 110,000 babies are born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) worldwide annually; a significant proportion of cases occur in Southeast Asia. Rubella vaccine programs have led to successful control of rubella and CRS, and even the elimination of disease in many countries. However, if vaccination is poorly implemented it might increase the number of women reaching childbearing age who remain susceptible to rubella and thereby paradoxically increase CRS. We used an age-structured transmission model to compare seven alternative vaccine strategies for their impact on reducing CRS disease burden in East Java, a setting which is yet to implement a rubella vaccine program. We also investigated the robustness of model predictions to variation in vaccine coverage and other key epidemiological factors. Without rubella vaccination, approximately 700 babies are estimated to be born with CRS in East Java every year at an incidence of 0.77 per 1000live births. This incidence could be reduced to 0.0045 per 1000 live births associated with 99.9% annual reduction in rubella infections after 20 years if the existing two doses of measles vaccine are substituted with two doses of measles plus rubella combination vaccine with the same coverage (87.8% of 9-month-old infants and 80% of 6-year-old children). By comparison a single dose of rubella vaccine will take longer to reduce the burden of rubella and CRS and will be less robust to lower vaccine coverage. While the findings of this study should be informative for settings similar to East Java, the conclusions are dependent on vaccine coverage which would need consideration before applying to all of Indonesia and elsewhere in Asia.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of routine and campaign vaccination strategies in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, D. S.; Robertson, R. L.; Cameron, C. S.; Saturno, P.; Pollack, M.; Manceau, J.; Martínez, P.; Meissner, P.; Perrone, J.

    1989-01-01

    A national household coverage survey of 3697 Ecuadorean children, carried out in July 1986, provided an opportunity for a cost-effectiveness analysis of (1) routine vaccination services based in fixed facilities and (2) mass immunization campaigns. A major purpose of the campaigns was to complement the routine services and to accelerate immunization activities. Based on the coverage survey, the Program for Reduction of Maternal and Childhood Illness (PREMI) and earlier campaigns increased the proportion of children under 5 years who were fully vaccinated from 43% to 64%. In one year, the PREMI campaign was responsible for fully vaccinating 11% of children under one year, 21% of 1-2-year-old children, and 13% of all children under 5 years. The campaign also helped ensure that vaccinations were completed when children were still very young and at greatest risk. The average cost per vaccination dose (in 1985 US$ prices) was approximately $0.29 for fixed facilities and $0.83 for the PREMI campaign. Total national costs were $675,000 and $1,665,000 for routine and campaign services respectively. The cost per fully vaccinated child (FVC) was $4.39 for routine vaccination services and $8.60 for the campaign. The cost per death averted was about $1900 for routine vaccination services, $4200 for the PREMI campaign, and $3200 for the combined programme. Because of Ecuador's lower mortality rates, the costs per death averted in Ecuador from both vaccination strategies are not as low as those from studies of vaccinations in Africa. The campaigns, though less cost-effective than routine services, significantly improved the vaccination coverage of younger children who had been missed by the routine services. The costs per FVC of both the campaign and the routine services compare favourably with such programmes in other countries. PMID:2517411

  5. National strategy for climate change adaptation; Strategie nationale d'adaptation au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  6. Strategic planning for measles control: using data to inform optimal vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Emily; Mort, Molly; Dabbagh, Alya; Strebel, Peter; Wolfson, Lara

    2011-07-01

    In response to repeated requests for assistance in evaluating the health benefit and cost implications of adjustments to national measles immunization strategies, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the Measles Strategic Planning (MSP) tool to harness routinely available data to estimate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of vaccination strategies. The MSP tool estimates measles incidence and mortality through a country-specific cohort model, using a probability of infection dependent on population immunity levels. This method approximates measles transmission dynamics without requiring detailed data that would prohibit use in low- and middle-income countries. Coupled with cost data, the tool estimates incremental costs and cost effectiveness of user-defined vaccination strategies over 5-10 year planning periods. The MSP tool produces valid estimates of measles incidence in settings with low to moderate vaccination coverage. Early adopters report that the tool facilitates decision making by minimizing the amount of time required to assess the impact of vaccination strategies on population immunity. By clearly illustrating what vaccination strategies can effectively protect against measles at the least cost to immunization programs, the MSP tool supports evidence-based decision making for effective and comprehensive measles control. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  7. Vaccination against Alzheimer disease: an update on future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettelschoss, Antonia; Zabel, Franziska; Bachmann, Martin F

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is a devastating chronic disease without adequate therapy. More than 10 years ago, it was demonstrated in transgenic mouse models that vaccination may be a novel, disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer. Subsequent clinical development has been a roller-coaster with some positive and many negative news. Here, we would like to summarize evidence that next generation vaccines optimized for old people and focusing on patients with mild disease stand a good chance to proof efficacious for the treatment of Alzheimer.

  8. Efficient community-based control strategies in adaptive networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Most researches on adaptive networks mainly concentrate on the properties of steady state, but neglect transient dynamics. In this study, we pay attention to the emergence of community structures in transient process and the effects of community-based control strategies on epidemic spreading. First, by normalizing modularity $Q$, we investigate the evolution of community structures during the transient process, and find that very strong community structures are induced by rewiring mechanism in the early stage of epidemic spreading, which remarkably delays the outbreaks of epidemic. Then we study the effects of control strategies started from different stages on the prevalence. Both immunization and quarantine strategies indicate that it is not "the earlier, the better" for the implementing of control measures. And the optimal control effect is obtained if control measures can be efficiently implemented in the period of strong community structure. For immunization strategy, immunizing the S nodes on SI links a...

  9. [Realities of immunizations in the armed forces: necessity of continued adaptation of vaccinations against cerebrospinal meningitis, typhoid and hepatitis A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyran, M; Buisson, Y; Desfontaine, M

    1993-12-01

    The history of military medicine has always been closely linked with that of vaccinations. Doctors of Armed Forces, doctors of collectivities, have contributed to vaccination progresses in large amounts. But evolutions are often rapid here: epidemiological modifications, improvements in the existing vaccines or creation of new vaccines, diversification of military specificities. Three recent modifications in the vaccination schedule of the Armed Forces show this necessary adaptation: Systematization of the meningococcal A + C vaccination during the incorporation, because of the modification of the disease's epidemiological profile: increase of the frequency in serogroup C with a mortality increase (9 cases of death out of 10 observed between 1991 and 1992). Cancellation of antityphoïd vaccination for recruits serving in home country. Indeed the disease has become rare in France, and this is often due to imported cases (3 cases in the Armed Forces in 1992). Introduction in 1994 of vaccination against viral hepatitis A, systematic under the age of 25 years and after a serological selection above for servicemen having to serve overseas or for outside operations. These 3 examples show the necessity to have updated and adaptable vaccination schedules.

  10. Tailoring DNA vaccines: designing strategies against HER2 positive cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMarchini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The crucial role of HER2 in epithelial transformation and its selective overexpression on cancer tissues makes it an ideal target for cancer immunotherapies such as passive immunotherapy with Trastuzumab. There are, however, a number of concerns regarding the use of monoclonal antibodies which include resistance, repeated treatments, considerable costs and side effects that make active immunotherapies against HER2 desirable alternative approaches. The efficacy of anti-HER2 DNA vaccination has been widely demonstrated in transgenic cancer-prone mice, which recapitulate several features of human breast cancers. Nonetheless, the rational design of a cancer vaccine able to trigger a long lasting immunity, and thus prevent tumor recurrence in patients, would require the understanding of how tolerance and immunosuppression regulate antitumor immune responses and, at the same time, the identification of the most immunogenic portions of the target protein. We herein retrace the findings that led to our most promising DNA vaccines that, by encoding human/rat chimeric forms of HER2, are able to circumvent peripheral tolerance. Preclinical data obtained with these chimeric DNA vaccines have provided the rationale for their use in an ongoing phase I clinical trial (EudraCT 2011-001104-34.

  11. Transitions in optimal adaptive strategies for populations in fluctuating environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Andreas; Mora, Thierry; Rivoire, Olivier; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2017-09-01

    Biological populations are subject to fluctuating environmental conditions. Different adaptive strategies can allow them to cope with these fluctuations: specialization to one particular environmental condition, adoption of a generalist phenotype that compromises between conditions, or population-wise diversification (bet hedging). Which strategy provides the largest selective advantage in the long run depends on the range of accessible phenotypes and the statistics of the environmental fluctuations. Here, we analyze this problem in a simple mathematical model of population growth. First, we review and extend a graphical method to identify the nature of the optimal strategy when the environmental fluctuations are uncorrelated. Temporal correlations in environmental fluctuations open up new strategies that rely on memory but are mathematically challenging to study: We present analytical results to address this challenge. We illustrate our general approach by analyzing optimal adaptive strategies in the presence of trade-offs that constrain the range of accessible phenotypes. Our results extend several previous studies and have applications to a variety of biological phenomena, from antibiotic resistance in bacteria to immune responses in vertebrates.

  12. Controls on Extreme Droughts and Adaptation Strategies in Semiarid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Cook, C.; Fernando, D. N.; LeBlanc, M.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing vulnerability to droughts with reduced per capita water storage, particularly in semiarid regions, underscores the need for predictive understanding of drought controls and development of adaptation strategies for water resources management. In this study we evaluate causes of major droughts in southwest and southcentral US (California and Texas) and southeast Australia (Murray Darling Basin). Impacts of climate cycles (ENSO, PDO, AMO, NAO, IOD) and atmospheric circulation on drought initiation and persistence are examined. Effects of drought on surface water reservoir storage, groundwater storage, irrigation, and crop production are compared. Adaptation strategies being evaluated include water transfers among sectors, particularly from irrigated agriculture to other groups, increasing storage using managed aquifer recharge, water reuse, and development of new water sources (e.g. seawater desalination). It is critical to develop a broad portfolio of water sources to increase resilience to future droughts.

  13. Low 2012-13 influenza vaccine effectiveness associated with mutation in the egg-adapted H3N2 vaccine strain not antigenic drift in circulating viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta M Skowronski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE is generally interpreted in the context of vaccine match/mismatch to circulating strains with evolutionary drift in the latter invoked to explain reduced protection. During the 2012-13 season, however, detailed genotypic and phenotypic characterization shows that low VE was instead related to mutations in the egg-adapted H3N2 vaccine strain rather than antigenic drift in circulating viruses. METHODS/FINDINGS: Component-specific VE against medically-attended, PCR-confirmed influenza was estimated in Canada by test-negative case-control design. Influenza A viruses were characterized genotypically by amino acid (AA sequencing of established haemagglutinin (HA antigenic sites and phenotypically through haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay. H3N2 viruses were characterized in relation to the WHO-recommended, cell-passaged vaccine prototype (A/Victoria/361/2011 as well as the egg-adapted strain as per actually used in vaccine production. Among the total of 1501 participants, influenza virus was detected in 652 (43%. Nearly two-thirds of viruses typed/subtyped were A(H3N2 (394/626; 63%; the remainder were A(H1N1pdm09 (79/626; 13%, B/Yamagata (98/626; 16% or B/Victoria (54/626; 9%. Suboptimal VE of 50% (95%CI: 33-63% overall was driven by predominant H3N2 activity for which VE was 41% (95%CI: 17-59%. All H3N2 field isolates were HI-characterized as well-matched to the WHO-recommended A/Victoria/361/2011 prototype whereas all but one were antigenically distinct from the egg-adapted strain as per actually used in vaccine production. The egg-adapted strain was itself antigenically distinct from the WHO-recommended prototype, and bore three AA mutations at antigenic sites B [H156Q, G186V] and D [S219Y]. Conversely, circulating viruses were identical to the WHO-recommended prototype at these positions with other genetic variation that did not affect antigenicity. VE was 59% (95%CI:16-80% against A(H1N1pdm09

  14. Ethnic differences in the adaptation rate of HIV gp120 from a vaccine trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Phillip W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Differences in HIV-1 gp120 sequence variation were examined in North American volunteers who became infected during a phase III vaccine trial using the rgp120 vaccine. Molecular adaptation of the virus in vaccine and placebo recipients from different ethnic subgroups was compared by estimating the dN/dS ratios in viruses sampled from each individual using three different methods. ANOVA analyses detected significant differences in dN/dS ratios among races (P dN/dS ratios for all estimators (1.24–1.45 than in other races (0.66–1.35, and several pairwise comparisons involving blacks remained significant (P P dN/dS ratios (1.3–1.66 than placebo individuals from the other races (0.65–1.56. These results suggest intrinsic differences among races in immune response and highlight the need for including multiple ethnicities in the design of future HIV-1 vaccine studies and trials.

  15. Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, S.

    2008-05-01

    Many decisions concerning long-lived investments need to take into account climate change. But doing so is not easy for at least two reasons. First, due to the rate of climate change, new infrastructure will have to be able to cope with a large range of changing climate conditions, which will make design more difficult and construction more expensive. Second, uncertainty in future climate makes it impossible to directly use the output of a single climate model as an input for infrastructure design, and there are good reasons to think that the needed climate information will not be available soon. Instead of optimizing based on the climate conditions projected by models, therefore, future infrastructure should be made more robust to possible changes in climate conditions. This aim implies that users of climate information must also change their practices and decision-making frameworks, for instance by adapting the uncertainty-management methods they currently apply to exchange rates or R&D outcomes. Five methods are examined: (i) introducing long-term prospective exercises; (ii) selecting "no-regret" strategies; (iii) favouring reversible options; (iv) promoting soft adaptation strategies; (v) reducing decision time horizons. I argue that adaptation strategies should not be assessed in an isolated context. In particular, it is essential to consider both negative and positive side-effects and externalities, and possible changes in future energy costs.

  16. Adaptive strategies to climate change in Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidanti-Malunga, J.

    Climate change poses a big challenge to rural livelihoods in the Shire Valley area of Southern Malawi, where communities have depended almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture for generations. The Shire Valley area comprises of low-altitude dambo areas and uplands which have been the main agricultural areas. Since early to mid 1980s, the uplands have experienced prolonged droughts and poor rainfall distribution, while the dambos have experienced recurrent seasonal floods. This study assessed some of the adaptive strategies exercised by small-scale rural farmers in response to climate change in the Shire Valley. The methodology used in collecting information includes group discussions, household surveys in the area, secondary data, and field observations. The results show that small-scale rural farmers exercise a number of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. These adaptive strategies include: increased use of water resources for small-scale irrigation or wetland farming, mostly using simple delivery techniques; increased management of residual moisture; and increased alternative sources of income such as fishing and crop diversity. It was also observed that government promoted the use of portable motorized pumps for small-scale irrigation in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, these external interventions were not fully adopted; instead the farmers preferred local interventions which mostly had indigenous elements.

  17. Climate change impacts and adaptive strategies: lessons from the grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Abernethy, Kirsten E; Smart, Richard E; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2016-11-01

    The cultivation of grapevines for winemaking, known as viticulture, is widely cited as a climate-sensitive agricultural system that has been used as an indicator of both historic and contemporary climate change. Numerous studies have questioned the viability of major viticulture regions under future climate projections. We review the methods used to study the impacts of climate change on viticulture in the light of what is known about the effects of climate and weather on the yields and quality of vineyard harvests. Many potential impacts of climate change on viticulture, particularly those associated with a change in climate variability or seasonal weather patterns, are rarely captured. Key biophysical characteristics of viticulture are often unaccounted for, including the variability of grapevine phenology and the exploitation of microclimatic niches that permit successful cultivation under suboptimal macroclimatic conditions. We consider how these same biophysical characteristics permit a variety of strategies by which viticulture can adapt to changing climatic conditions. The ability to realize these strategies, however, is affected by uneven exposure to risks across the winemaking sector, and the evolving capacity for decision-making within and across organizational boundaries. The role grape provenance plays in shaping perceptions of wine value and quality illustrates how conflicts of interest influence decisions about adaptive strategies within the industry. We conclude by considering what lessons can be taken from viticulture for studies of climate change impacts and the capacity for adaptation in other agricultural and natural systems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Omics Approaches for the Study of Adaptive Immunity to Staphylococcus aureus and the Selection of Vaccine Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfreter, Silva; Kolata, Julia; Stentzel, Sebastian; Bauerfeind, Stephanie; Schmidt, Frank; Sundaramoorthy, Nandakumar; Bröker, Barbara M.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen both in hospitals and in the community. Due to the crisis of antibiotic resistance, there is an urgent need for new strategies to combat S. aureus infections, such as vaccination. Increasing our knowledge about the mechanisms of protection will be key for the successful prevention or treatment of S. aureus invasion. Omics technologies generate a comprehensive picture of the physiological and pathophysiological processes within cells, tissues, organs, organisms and even populations. This review provides an overview of the contribution of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and immunoproteomics to the current understanding of S. aureus‑host interaction, with a focus on the adaptive immune response to the microorganism. While antibody responses during colonization and infection have been analyzed in detail using immunoproteomics, the full potential of omics technologies has not been tapped yet in terms of T-cells. Omics technologies promise to speed up vaccine development by enabling reverse vaccinology approaches. In consequence, omics technologies are powerful tools for deepening our understanding of the “superbug” S. aureus and for improving its control.

  19. A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat for fish, shellfish, and wildlife, including species of concern, such as the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). We present a climate change adaptation strategy (CCAS) adopted by scientific, management, and policy stakeholders for managing coastal marshes and enhancing system resiliency. A common adaptive management approach previously used for restoration projects was modified to identify climate-related vulnerabilities and plan climate change adaptive actions. As an example of implementation of the CCAS, we describe the stakeholder plans and management actions the US Fish and Wildlife Service and partners developed to build coastal resiliency in the Narrow River Estuary, RI, in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. When possible, an experimental BACI (before-after, control-impact) design, described as pre- and post-sampling at the impact site and one or more control sites, was incorporated into the climate change adaptation and implementation plans. Specific climate change adaptive actions and monitoring plans are described and include shoreline stabilization, restoring marsh drainage, increasing marsh elevation, and enabling upland marsh migration. The CCAS provides a framework and methodology for successfully managing coa

  20. A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat for fish, shellfish, and wildlife, including species of concern, such as the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). We present a climate change adaptation strategy (CCAS) adopted by scientific, management, and policy stakeholders for managing coastal marshes and enhancing system resiliency. A common adaptive management approach previously used for restoration projects was modified to identify climate-related vulnerabilities and plan climate change adaptive actions. As an example of implementation of the CCAS, we describe the stakeholder plans and management actions the US Fish and Wildlife Service and partners developed to build coastal resiliency in the Narrow River Estuary, RI, in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. When possible, an experimental BACI (before-after, control-impact) design, described as pre- and post-sampling at the impact site and one or more control sites, was incorporated into the climate change adaptation and implementation plans. Specific climate change adaptive actions and monitoring plans are described and include shoreline stabilization, restoring marsh drainage, increasing marsh elevation, and enabling upland marsh migration. The CCAS provides a framework and methodology for successfully managing coa

  1. Pricing strategies for combination pediatric vaccines and their impact on revenue: Pediarix or Pentacel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sheldon H; Sewell, Edward C

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyzes pricing strategies for pediatric combination vaccines and their impact on the United States pediatric vaccine market. Three pharmaceutical companies compete pairwise with each other over the sale of vaccines containing two or three antigens per injection. Specific emphasis is placed on examining the competition between two pentavalent vaccines: GlaxoSmithKline's Pediarix (DTaP-HepB-IPV) and Sanofi Pasteur's Pentacel (DTaP-IPV/Hib). The main contribution of the paper is to provide a methodology for analyzing pricing strategies of directly competing, partially overlapping, and mutually exclusive combination vaccines in the United States pediatric vaccine market, with the goal of maximizing each pharmaceutical company's expected revenue. The resulting analysis shows that Pentacel is not competitively priced when compared to Pediarix, its strongest competitor, for federal contract prices ending 31 March 2010. Accordingly, Sanofi Pasteur should expect to generate low revenue upon market entry, while Pediarix remains well priced, with GlaxoSmithKline able to generate a high level of revenue at the expense of Sanofi Pasteur. The proposed pricing approach suggests an appropriate price for Pentacel whereby a substantial increase in expected revenue can be realized.

  2. Prion疾病疫苗研究策略%Strategies of Vaccines against Prion Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕; 董小平

    2009-01-01

    朊病毒病是一类侵袭人类及多种动物中枢神经系统的致死性退行性脑病,目前缺乏有效的预防和治疗方法.朊病毒病的重组蛋白亚单位疫苗、DNA疫苗、合成肽疫苗、病毒样颗粒疫苗、树突状细胞疫苗、黏膜免疫疫苗等已取得一定进展,但现有的免疫策略仅能部分克服免疫耐受,诱导较低或中等滴度的抗体,对PrP~(Sc)感染动物模型只能提供部分保护,Prion疫苗研究任重而道远.%Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders which can be acquired by human and many kinds of animals.At present,there are no effective preventive and therapeutic methods.Recombinant protein subunit vaccine,DNA vaccine,synthetic peptide vaccine,viral like particles,dendritic cell vaccine and musocal vaccine against Prion diseases have achieved certain progress.However,strategies used now can only partially overcome immune tolerance,induce only low and moderate degree of antibody,and provide inadequate protection in animal models.Therefore,strategy of vaccines against Prion diseases is thorny but imminent.

  3. Immunological efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine strategies in HIV-infected adults: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlier, C; O'Dea, S; Bennett, K; Dunne, J; Conlon, N; Bergin, C

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the immunologic response to a prime-boost immunization strategy combining the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV23) versus the PPSV23 alone in HIV-infected adults. HIV-infected adults were randomized to receive PCV13 at week 0 followed by PPSV23 at week 4 (n = 31, prime-boost group) or PPSV23 alone at week 4 (n = 33, PPSV23-alone group). Serotype specific IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) and functional oposonophagocytic (OPA) geometric mean titer (GMT) were compared for 12 pneumococcal serotypes shared by both vaccines at week 8 and week 28. The prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥2-fold increase in IgG GMC and a GMC >1 ug/ml at week 8 (odds ratio (OR) 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46-2.74, p boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥4-fold increase in GMT at week 8 (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.22-2.39, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.15-2.3, p < 0.01). This study adds to evidence supporting current pneumococcal vaccination recommendations combining the conjugate and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines in the United States and Europe for HIV-infected individuals.

  4. 76 FR 30193 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy; Notice of Intent: Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Technical Teams will take primary responsibility for developing the content of the Strategy, based around... Fish and Wildlife Service National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy; Notice of... National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (Strategy). The Strategy will provide a...

  5. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M; Beck, Andrew S; Bankamp, Bettina; Rota, Paul A

    2017-01-19

    Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Improved vaccine delivery methods will likely play an important role in achieving measles elimination goals as these delivery methods circumvent many of the logistic issues associated with subcutaneous injection. This review highlights the status of global measles epidemiology, novel measles vaccination strategies, and describes the pathway toward measles elimination.

  6. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M.; Beck, Andrew S.; Bankamp, Bettina; Rota, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Improved vaccine delivery methods will likely play an important role in achieving measles elimination goals as these delivery methods circumvent many of the logistic issues associated with subcutaneous injection. This review highlights the status of global measles epidemiology, novel measles vaccination strategies, and describes the pathway toward measles elimination. PMID:28106841

  7. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Coughlin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Improved vaccine delivery methods will likely play an important role in achieving measles elimination goals as these delivery methods circumvent many of the logistic issues associated with subcutaneous injection. This review highlights the status of global measles epidemiology, novel measles vaccination strategies, and describes the pathway toward measles elimination.

  8. Improving influenza vaccination coverage among high-risk patients : a role for computer-supported prevention strategy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; van Essen, G A; Stalman, W A; de Melker, R A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, population-based influenza vaccination strategies are being developed to trace, immunize and monitor high-risk persons efficiently. Computerized prevention modules may facilitate such a strategy in general practice. OBJECTIVES: We established the applicability of a computerize

  9. Pneumococcal vaccine targeting strategy for older adults: customized risk profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balicer, Ran D; Cohen, Chandra J; Leibowitz, Morton; Feldman, Becca S; Brufman, Ilan; Roberts, Craig; Hoshen, Moshe

    2014-02-12

    Current pneumococcal vaccine campaigns take a broad, primarily age-based approach to immunization targeting, overlooking many clinical and administrative considerations necessary in disease prevention and resource planning for specific patient populations. We aim to demonstrate the utility of a population-specific predictive model for hospital-treated pneumonia to direct effective vaccine targeting. Data was extracted for 1,053,435 members of an Israeli HMO, age 50 and older, during the study period 2008-2010. We developed and validated a logistic regression model to predict hospital-treated pneumonia using training and test samples, including a set of standard and population-specific risk factors. The model's predictive value was tested for prospectively identifying cases of pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), and was compared to the existing international paradigm for patient immunization targeting. In a multivariate regression, age, co-morbidity burden and previous pneumonia events were most strongly positively associated with hospital-treated pneumonia. The model predicting hospital-treated pneumonia yielded a c-statistic of 0.80. Utilizing the predictive model, the top 17% highest-risk within the study validation population were targeted to detect 54% of those members who were subsequently treated for hospitalized pneumonia in the follow up period. The high-risk population identified through this model included 46% of the follow-up year's IPD cases, and 27% of community-treated pneumonia cases. These outcomes were compared with international guidelines for risk for pneumococcal diseases that accurately identified only 35% of hospitalized pneumonia, 41% of IPD cases and 21% of community-treated pneumonia. We demonstrate that a customized model for vaccine targeting performs better than international guidelines, and therefore, risk modeling may allow for more precise vaccine targeting and resource allocation than current national and international

  10. Health Care Providers' Knowledge of HPV Vaccination, Barriers, and Strategies in a State With Low HPV Vaccine Receipt: Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Echo L; Ding, Qian; Pappas, Lisa; Bodson, Julia; Fowler, Brynn; Mooney, Ryan; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Kepka, Deanna

    2017-08-11

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is below national goals in the United States. Health care providers are at the forefront of improving vaccination in the United States, given their close interactions with patients and parents. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between demographic and practice characteristics of the health care providers with the knowledge of HPV vaccination and HPV vaccine guidelines. Furthermore, our aim was to contextualize the providers' perceptions of barriers to HPV vaccination and strategies for improving vaccination in a state with low HPV vaccine receipt. In this mixed-methods study, participating providers (N=254) were recruited from statewide pediatric, family medicine, and nursing organizations in Utah. Participants completed a Web-based survey of demographics, practice characteristics, HPV vaccine knowledge (≤10 correct vs 11-12 correct answers), and knowledge of HPV vaccine guidelines (correct vs incorrect). Demographic and practice characteristics were compared using chi-square and Fisher exact tests for HPV knowledge outcomes. Four open-ended questions pertaining to the barriers and strategies for improving HPV vaccination were content analyzed. Family practice providers (52.2%, 71/136; P=.001), institutional or university clinics (54.0%, 20/37; P=.001), and busier clinics seeing 20 to 29 patients per day (50.0%, 28/56; P=.04) had the highest proportion of respondents with high HPV vaccination knowledge. Older providers aged 40 to 49 years (85.1%, 57/67; P=.04) and those who were a Vaccines for Children provider (78.7%, 133/169; P=.03) had the highest proportion of respondents with high knowledge of HPV vaccine recommendations. Providers perceived the lack of parental education to be the main barrier to HPV vaccination. They endorsed stronger, consistent, and more direct provider recommendations for HPV vaccination delivered to parents through printed materials available in clinical settings and

  11. All eyes on the next generation of HIV vaccines: strategies for inducing a broadly neutralizing antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Jeffrey D

    2014-04-01

    HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs) develop after several years of infection through a recursive process of memory B cell adaptation and maturation against co-evolving virus quasispecies. Advances in single-cell sorting and memory B cell antibody cloning methods have identified many new HIV BNAbs targeting conserved epitopes on the HIV envelope (env) protein. 3D crystal structures and biophysical analyses of BNAbs bound to invariant virus structures expressed on monomeric gp120, epitope scaffolds, core structures, and native trimers have helped us to visualize unique binding interactions and paratope orientations that have been instrumental in guiding vaccine design. A paradigm shift in the approach to structure-based design of HIV-1 envelope immunogens came recently after several laboratories discovered that native viral envelopes or "env-structures" reverse-engineered to bind with high affinity to a handful of broadly neutralizing antibodies did not in fact bind the predicted germline precursors of these broadly neutralizing antibodies. A major challenge for HIV-1 B cell vaccine development moving forward is the design of new envelope immunogens that can trigger the selection and expansion of germline precursor and intermediate memory B cells to recapitulate B cell ontogenies associated with the maturation of a broadly neutralizing antibody response. Equally important for vaccine development is the identification of delivery systems, prime-boost strategies, and synergistic adjuvant combinations that can induce the magnitude and quality of antigen-specific T follicular helper (TFH) cell responses needed to drive somatic hypermutation (SHM) and B cell maturation against heterologous primary virus envelopes. Finding the combination of multi-protein envelope immunogens and immunization strategies that can evolve a potent broadly neutralizing antibody response portends to require a complex vaccine regimen that might be difficult to implement on any scale

  12. The new first-line defense: the potential of nasopharyngeal colonization in vaccine strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan WY

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Win-Yan Chan, Jonathan M Cohen, Jeremy S Brown Centre for Inflammation and Tissue Repair, UCL Respiratory, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK Abstract: Pathogens that can colonize the upper respiratory tract include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. While these pathogens commonly asymptomatically colonize the nasopharynx of healthy adults, disease progression may occur in some individuals. In addition to these respiratory pathogens, there are a large number of commensal species also found in the upper respiratory tract which only very rarely cause disease, creating a complex community of bacterial species in the nasopharynx. This review addresses the novel, potential strategies that utilize the interactions between both homologous and heterologous species in the nasopharynx to vaccinate individuals against pathogenic bacteria. These strategies include the mechanisms employed by colonizing bacteria to regulate the presence of other species in the nasopharynx and the effect that colonization of the nasopharynx has on the host immune response. Interventional strategies investigated so far include the introduction of nonpathogenic bacteria to the nasopharynx to immunize against a closely related species, controlled colonization using both wild-type and attenuated species, and the use of other nonpathogenic colonizers to express antigens from potential pathogens. All these approaches harness the ability of the colonization to induce a mucosal immune response that can protect against future infection. In this review, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis colonization are used as case studies for this approach as the immunological effects of colonization have been widely studied in animal and human models. Colonization-based strategies have great potential, and, in particular, the attenuated strain approach has produced some encouraging data

  13. The importance of contact network topology for the success of vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junling; van den Driessche, P; Willeboordse, Frederick H

    2013-05-21

    The effects of a number of vaccination strategies on the spread of an SIR type disease are numerically investigated for several common network topologies including random, scale-free, small world, and meta-random networks. These strategies, namely, prioritized, random, follow links and contact tracing, are compared across networks using extensive simulations with disease parameters relevant for viruses such as pandemic influenza H1N1/09. Two scenarios for a network SIR model are considered. First, a model with a given transmission rate is studied. Second, a model with a given initial growth rate is considered, because the initial growth rate is commonly used to impute the transmission rate from incidence curves and to predict the course of an epidemic. Since a vaccine may not be readily available for a new virus, the case of a delay in the start of vaccination is also considered in addition to the case of no delay. It is found that network topology can have a larger impact on the spread of the disease than the choice of vaccination strategy. Simulations also show that the network structure has a large effect on both the course of an epidemic and the determination of the transmission rate from the initial growth rate. The effect of delay in the vaccination start time varies tremendously with network topology. Results show that, without the knowledge of network topology, predictions on the peak and the final size of an epidemic cannot be made solely based on the initial exponential growth rate or transmission rate. This demonstrates the importance of understanding the topology of realistic contact networks when evaluating vaccination strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling the impact of extended vaccination strategies on the epidemiology of pertussis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, M.H.; De Vries, R.; Le, H.H.; Postma, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal pertussis booster vaccination strategy for The Netherlands. A realistic age-structured deterministic model was designed. Assuming a steady-state situation and correcting for underreporting, the model was calibrated using notification data from the

  15. Effectiveness of Ring Vaccination as Control Strategy for Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Adam J; Eggo, Rosalind M; Watson, Conall H; Camacho, Anton; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W John

    2016-01-01

    Using an Ebola virus disease transmission model, we found that addition of ring vaccination at the outset of the West Africa epidemic might not have led to containment of this disease. However, in later stages of the epidemic or in outbreaks with less intense transmission or more effective control, this strategy could help eliminate the disease.

  16. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  17. Running training and adaptive strategies of locomotor-respiratory coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, William J; Van Emmerik, Richard E A; Hamill, Joseph

    2003-06-01

    It has been suggested that stronger coupling between locomotory and breathing rhythms may occur as a result of training in the particular movement pattern and also may reduce the perceived workload or metabolic cost of the movement. Research findings on human locomotor-respiratory coordination are equivocal, due in part to the fact that assessment techniques range in sensitivity to important aspects of coordination (e.g. temporal ordering of patterns, half-integer couplings and changes in frequency and phase coupling). An additional aspect that has not received much attention is the adaptability of this coordination to changes in task constraints. The current study investigated the effect of running training on the locomotor-respiratory coordination and the adaptive strategies observed across a wide range of walking and running speeds. Locomotor-respiratory coordination was evaluated by the strength and variability of both frequency and phase coupling patterns that subjects displayed within and across the speed conditions. Male subjects (five runners, five non-runners) locomoted at seven different treadmill speeds. Group results indicated no differences between runners and non-runners with respect to breathing parameters, stride parameters, as well as the strength and variability of the coupling at each speed. Individual results, however, showed that grouping subjects masks large individual differences and strategies across speeds. Coupling strategies indicated that runners show more stable dominant couplings across locomotory speeds than non-runners do. These findings suggest that running training does not change the strength of locomotor-respiratory coupling but rather how these systems adapt to changing speeds.

  18. Adapting qualitative research strategies to technology savvy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Deanna Marie; Ide, Bette

    2014-05-01

    To adapt research strategies involving adolescents in a grounded theory qualitative research study by conducting email rather than face-to-face interviews. Adolescent culture relies heavily on text-based communication and teens prefer interactions mediated through technology. Traditional qualitative research strategies need to be rethought when working with adolescents. Adapting interviewing strategies to electronic environments is timely and relevant for researching adolescents. Twenty three adolescents (aged 16-21) were interviewed by email. A letter of invitation was distributed. Potential participants emailed the researcher to convey interest in participating. If the inclusion criteria were met, email interviews were initiated. Participants controlled the interviews through their rate of response to interview questions. A grounded theory methodology was employed. Initial contact with participants reiterated confidentiality and the ability to withdraw from the study at any time. Interviews began with the collection of demographic information and a broad opening based on a semi-structured interview guide. All data were permissible, including text, photos, music, videos or outside media, for example YouTube. The participant was allowed to give direction to the interview after initial questions were posed. Email interviews continued until saturation was reached in the data. Participants were enthusiastic about email interviewing. Attrition did not occur. Email interviewing gave participants more control over the research, decreased power differentials between the adolescent and researcher, allowed the study to be adapted to cultural, linguistic and developmental needs, and maintained confidentiality. As participants said that email communication was slow and they preferred instant messaging, replication in faster-paced media is recommended. Repetition in face-to-face settings is warranted to evaluate how technology may have influenced the findings. Implications for

  19. Recombinant Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins of Clostridium perfringens: Production Strategies and Applications as Veterinary Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos Roberto A.; Moreira, Gustavo Marçal S. G.; da Cunha, Carlos Eduardo P.; Mendonça, Marcelo; Salvarani, Felipe M.; Moreira, Ângela N.; Conceição, Fabricio R.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming, commensal, ubiquitous bacterium that is present in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals. This bacterium produces up to 18 toxins. The species is classified into five toxinotypes (A–E) according to the toxins that the bacterium produces: alpha, beta, epsilon, or iota. Each of these toxinotypes is associated with myriad different, frequently fatal, illnesses that affect a range of farm animals and humans. Alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are the main causes of disease. Vaccinations that generate neutralizing antibodies are the most common prophylactic measures that are currently in use. These vaccines consist of toxoids that are obtained from C. perfringens cultures. Recombinant vaccines offer several advantages over conventional toxoids, especially in terms of the production process. As such, they are steadily gaining ground as a promising vaccination solution. This review discusses the main strategies that are currently used to produce recombinant vaccines containing alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins of C. perfringens, as well as the potential application of these molecules as vaccines for mammalian livestock animals. PMID:27879630

  20. Segmented bimorph mirrors for adaptive optics: morphing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaits, Renaud; Alaluf, David; Belloni, Edoardo; Rodrigues, Gonçalo; Preumont, André

    2014-08-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a light weight segmented bimorph mirror for adaptive optics. It focuses on the morphing strategy and addresses the ill-conditioning of the Jacobian of the segments, which are partly outside the optical pupil. Two options are discussed, one based on truncating the singular values and one called damped least squares, which minimizes a combined measure of the sensor error and the voltage vector. A comparison of various configurations of segmented mirrors was conducted; it is shown that segmentation sharply increases the natural frequency of the system with limited deterioration of the image quality.

  1. Adaptive strategy for multi-user robotic rehabilitation games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caurin, Glauco A P; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Andrade, Kleber O; Joaquim, Ricardo C; Krebs, Hermano I

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a strategy for the adaptation of the "difficulty level" in games intended to include motor planning during robotic rehabilitation. We consider concurrently the motivation of the user and his/her performance in a Pong game. User motivation is classified in three levels (not motivated, well motivated and overloaded). User performance is measured as a combination of knowledge of results--achieved goals and score points in the game--and knowledge of performance--joint displacement, speed, aiming, user work, etc. Initial results of a pilot test with unimpaired healthy young volunteers are also presented showing a tendency for individualization of the parameter values.

  2. Strategies of Adaptation: A Soviet Enterprise Under Perestroika and Privatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    the early 1970’s (see Il’in, 1973; Gorlin , 1976), we have referred to it as an enterprise throughout this paper. Strateaies of Adaptation 5 convinced...fact, some refer to it as "Shop 1." "See Il’in (1973) and Gorlin (1976) for a discussion of the policy of consolidating enterprises into production...34edineniia. ( Gorlin , 1976; Il’in, 1973) This was encouraged by the state but it also complemented the enterprise strategy of increasing bargaining power

  3. Mucosal vaccines: novel strategies and applications for the control of pathogens and tumors at mucosal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis Cs; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites.

  4. HBV vaccination in liver transplant recipients: not an effective strategy in the prophylaxis of HBV recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, Z; Ozacar, T; Akarca, U; Ersoz, G; Erensoy, S; Gunsar, F; Kobat, A; Tokat, Y; Batur, Y

    2005-03-01

    Anti-HBs immunoglobulins (HBIG) and lamivudine are main options to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) reinfection after liver transplantation. Although they are very effective, development of mutant viruses and high cost of treatment are main limitations for their application. Additionally there is an uncertainity for the duration of that prophylaxis regimen and its mostly applied indefinitely. Recently, post-transplant HBV vaccination is reported to be a cheaper alternative prophylaksis strategy, that enables discontinuation of HBIG. To investigate the efficacy of HBV vaccination in patients transplanted for HBV cirrhosis, we administered double course of double dose recombinant HBV vaccine (Genhavac B; containing HBV pre-S1, pre-S2, and S gene products). Vaccination has been started 1 month after HBIg discontinuation, and lamivudine (100 mg/day) was given throughout the study. The first cycle consisted of 0, 1- and 6-month schedule, and, in nonresponders, second cycle 0, 1-, 2-month schedule. Fourteen patients included into the study. Only one patient seroconverted (an anti-HBs titre of 37 IU/L) after the first cycle. No other patient responded to second cycle. HBV vaccination in the post-transplantation setting does not seems like an effective strategy in the prophylaxis of HBV recurrence.

  5. Toward a cure for HIV--Seeking effective therapeutic vaccine strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autran, Brigitte

    2015-12-01

    This review article focuses on the rationale and evaluation of therapeutic vaccines against HIV. This strategy has been developed in order to restore or restimulate HIV-specific immunity in patients treated with antiretroviral therapies. Despite the lack of good candidate vaccines against HIV, two objectives have been targeted during the past 15 years. Therapeutic immunization was first proposed to help control virus relapses during treatment interruptions. More recently, the concept of therapeutic immunization has been boosted by efforts to reach HIV remission or cure, in combination to HIV reactivating agents, to help purge HIV reservoirs in a "shock and kill" strategy. This review analyses the rationales for these strategies and the results of the most widely therapeutic vaccines designed to generate T-cell immunity, i.e. recombinant viral vectors and dendritic cell-based strategies, while extremely few strategies targeted HIV-specific Abs. Only marginal control of HIV was obtained with cellular-based strategies, suggesting that approaches targeting or using broadly neutralizing Abs, should be of benefit for future efforts of therapeutic immunization against HIV in the quest toward a cure for HIV.

  6. Longitudinal Control Strategy for Vehicle Adaptive Cruise Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-jun; LIU Zhao-du; MA Yue-feng

    2007-01-01

    A new longitudinal control strategy for vehicle adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems is presented.The running relationship between the ACC vehicle and the detected target vehicle is described by the relative velocity and the deviation between the actual headway distance and the prescribed safety distance.Based on this,two state space models are built and the linear quadratic optimal control theory is used to yield desired velocity for the ACC-equipped vehicle when with the target vehicle detected.By switching among four control modes,the desired velocity profile is designed to deal with different running situations.A velocity controller,which includes a PID controller for throttle openness and a neural network controller for brake application,is developed to achieve the desired velocity profile.The proposed control strategy is applied to a non-linear vehicle model in a simulation environment and is shown to provide the ACC vehicle comfortable ride and satisfying safety.

  7. Bed bugs evolved unique adaptive strategy to resist pyrethroid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fang; Gujar, Hemant; Gordon, Jennifer R; Haynes, Kenneth F; Potter, Michael F; Palli, Subba R

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have facilitated a genome-wide analysis of the insecticide resistance-associated genes in insects. Through bed bug, Cimex lectularius transcriptome analysis, we identified 14 molecular markers associated with pyrethroid resistance. Our studies revealed that most of the resistance-associated genes functioning in diverse mechanisms are expressed in the epidermal layer of the integument, which could prevent or slow down the toxin from reaching the target sites on nerve cells, where an additional layer of resistance (kdr) is possible. This strategy evolved in bed bugs is based on their unique morphological, physiological and behavioral characteristics and has not been reported in any other insect species. RNA interference-aided knockdown of resistance associated genes showed the relative contribution of each mechanism towards overall resistance development. Understanding the complexity of adaptive strategies employed by bed bugs will help in designing the most effective and sustainable bed bug control methods.

  8. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Tandrup Schmidt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce protective immunity, and they are often combined with adjuvants to ensure robust immune responses. Adjuvants are capable of enhancing and/or modulating immune responses by exposing antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APCs concomitantly with conferring immune activation signals. Few adjuvant systems have been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI. Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly be classified into delivery systems or immunostimulators. Liposomes are versatile delivery systems for antigens, and they can carefully be customized towards desired immune profiles by combining them with immunostimulators and optimizing their composition, physicochemical properties and antigen-loading mode. Immunostimulators represent highly diverse classes of molecules, e.g., lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and peptides, and they are ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which are differentially expressed on APC subsets. Different formulation strategies might thus be required for incorporation of immunostimulators and antigens, respectively, into liposomes, and the choice of immunostimulator should ideally be based on knowledge regarding the

  9. Maternal antibodies: clinical significance, mechanism of interference with immune responses, and possible vaccination strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eNiewiesk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonates have an immature immune system which cannot adequately protect against infectious diseases. Early in life, immune protection is accomplished by maternal antibodies transferred from mother to offspring. However, decaying maternal antibodies inhibit vaccination as is examplified by the inhibition of seroconversion after measles vaccination. This phenomenon has been described in both human and veterinary medicine and is independent of the type of vaccine being used. This review will discuss the use of animal models for vaccine research. I will review clinical solutions for inhibition of vaccination by maternal antibodies, and the testing and development of potentially effective vaccines. These are based on new mechanistic insight about the inhibitory mechanism of maternal antibodies. Maternal antibodies inhibit the generation of antibodies whereas the T cell response is usually unaffected. B cell inhibition is mediated through a cross-link between B-cell receptor (BCR with the Fcg receptor IIB (FcgRIIB by a vaccine-antibody complex. In animal experiments, this inhibition can be partially overcome by injection of a vaccine-specific monoclonal IgM antibody. IgM stimulates the B-cell directly through cross-linking the BCR via complement protein C3d and antigen to the complement receptor 2 (CR2 signaling complex. In addition, it was shown that interferon alpha binds to the CD21 chain of CR2 as well as the interferon receptor and that this dual receptor usage drives B cell responses in the presence of maternal antibodies. In lieu of immunizing the infant the concept of maternal immunization as a strategy to protect neonates has been proposed. This approach would still not solve the question of how to immunize in the presence of maternal antibodies but would defer the time of infection to an age where infection might not have such a detrimental outcome as in neonates. I will review successful examples and potential challenges of implementing

  10. Adaptive immune responses to booster vaccination against yellow fever virus are much reduced compared to those after primary vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, Michael; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Rasmussen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    vaccination is deemed to confer life-long immune protection. Here, we have examined humoral (neutralizing antibody) and cellular (CD8 and CD4 T cell) immune responses in primary and booster vaccinees (the latter spanning 8 to 36 years after primary vaccination). After primary vaccination, we observed strong...... cellular immune responses with T cell activation peaking ≈2 weeks and subsiding to background levels ≈ 4 weeks post-vaccination. The number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells declined over the following years. In >90% of vaccinees, in vitro expandable T cells could still be detected >10 years post-vaccination....... Although most vaccinees responded to a booster vaccination, both the humoral and cellular immune responses observed following booster vaccination were strikingly reduced compared to primary responses. This suggests that pre-existing immunity efficiently controls booster inoculums of YF-17D. In a situation...

  11. Enhancement of the safety of live influenza vaccine by attenuating mutations from cold-adapted hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Jae [Graduate Program in Biomaterials Science and Engineering, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vaccine Translational Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yo Han [Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Paul; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Young Jae [Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vaccine Translational Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Kyusik [Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Baik Lin, E-mail: blseong@yonsei.ac.kr [Graduate Program in Biomaterials Science and Engineering, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vaccine Translational Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In our previous study, X-31ca-based H5N1 LAIVs, in particular, became more virulent in mice than the X-31ca MDV, possibly by the introduction of the surface antigens of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, implying that additional attenuation is needed in this cases to increase the safety level of the vaccine. In this report we suggest an approach to further increase the safety of LAIV through additional cold-adapted mutations in the hemagglutinin. The cold-adaptation of X-31 virus resulted in four amino acid mutations in the HA. We generated a panel of 7:1 reassortant viruses each carrying the hemagglutinins with individual single amino acid mutations. We examined their phenotypes and found a major attenuating mutation, N81K. This attenuation marker conferred additional temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotype to the LAIV. Our data indicate that the cold-adapted mutation in the HA confers additional attenuation to the LAIV strain, without compromising its productivity and immune response. - Highlights: • Cold-adaptation process induced four amino acid mutations in the HA of X-31 virus. • The four mutations in the HA also contributed to attenuation of the X-31ca virus • N81K mutation was the most significant marker for the attenuation of X-31ca virus. • Introduction of N81K mutation into H3N2 LAIV further attenuated the vaccine. • This approach provides a useful guideline for enhancing the safety of the LAIVs.

  12. Health Belief Model Scale for Human Papilloma Virus and its Vaccination: Adaptation and Psychometric Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Gulten; Seven, Memnun; Akyuz, Aygul

    2016-06-01

    To adapt and psychometrically test the Health Belief Model Scale for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Its Vaccination (HBMS-HPVV) for use in a Turkish population and to assess the Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge score (HPV-KS) among female college students. Instrument adaptation and psychometric testing study. The sample consisted of 302 nursing students at a nursing school in Turkey between April and May 2013. Questionnaire-based data were collected from the participants. Information regarding HBMS-HPVV and HPV knowledge and descriptive characteristic of participants was collected using translated HBMS-HPVV and HPV-KS. Test-retest reliability was evaluated and Cronbach α was used to assess internal consistency reliability, and exploratory factor analysis was used to assess construct validity of the HBMS-HPVV. The scale consists of 4 subscales that measure 4 constructs of the Health Belief Model covering the perceived susceptibility and severity of HPV and the benefits and barriers. The final 14-item scale had satisfactory validity and internal consistency. Cronbach α values for the 4 subscales ranged from 0.71 to 0.78. Total HPV-KS ranged from 0 to 8 (scale range, 0-10; 3.80 ± 2.12). The HBMS-HPVV is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring young Turkish women's beliefs and attitudes about HPV and its vaccination. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measles vaccine effectiveness in standard and early immunization strategies, Niger, 1995.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaninda, A V; Legros, D; Jataou, I M; Malfait, P.; Maisonneuve, M; Paquet, C; Moren, A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An Expanded Programme on Immunization was started in late 1987 in Niger, including vaccination against measles with one dose of standard titer Schwarz vaccine given to infants after 9 months of age. During epidemics an early two-dose strategy was implemented (one dose between 6 and 8 months and one dose after 9 months). From January 1, 1995, until May 7, 1995, 13 892 measles cases were reported in Niamey, Niger. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a crowded area...

  14. Climate Variability and Household Adaptation Strategies in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassie Berhanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants and implied economic impacts of climate change adaptation strategies in the context of traditional pastoralism. It is based on econometric analysis of survey data generated from household level interviews in southern Ethiopian rangelands. Pastoralists’ perception of climate change in the region is found to be very consistent with the actually recorded trends of increased temperature and the evident secular declines in precipitation. Not only long-term declines, trends in the region’s rainfall also appear to have taken a shift towards the direction of more unpredictability. Pastoralist adaptation response strategies broadly involve adjustments in pastoral practices and shifts to non-pastoral livelihoods. Results of the estimated models confirm that pastoral mobility is still quite essential in the present context of climate-induced household vulnerabilities. Increased mobility and diversification of pastoral herd portfolios in favor of a drought-tolerant species (camel are found to be positively associated with pastoral household net income. A policy stance that ignores the detrimental impacts of the currently pervasive private rangeland enclosures or intends to hasten pastoralist sedentarization in the area is simply untenable in the present context of climate-induced risks and pastoral livelihood vulnerability.

  15. Design of Sequentially Randomized Trials for Testing Adaptive Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbagaber, Semhar B.; Karp, Jordan; Wahed, Abdus S.

    2016-01-01

    An adaptive treatment strategy (ATS) is an outcome-guided algorithm that allows personalized treatment of complex diseases based on patients’ disease status and treatment history. Conditions such as AIDS, depression, and cancer usually require several stages of treatment due to the chronic, multifactorial nature of illness progression and management. Sequential multiple assignment randomized (SMAR) designs permit simultaneous inference about multiple ATSs, where patients are sequentially randomized to treatments at different stages depending upon response status. The purpose of the article is to develop a sample size formula to ensure adequate power for comparing two or more ATSs. Based on a Wald-type statistic for comparing multiple ATSs with a continuous endpoint, we develop a sample size formula and test it through simulation studies. We show via simulation that the proposed sample size formula maintains the nominal power. The proposed sample size formula is not applicable to designs with time-to-event endpoints but the formula will be useful for practitioners while designing SMAR trials to compare adaptive treatment strategies. PMID:26412033

  16. Adaptation of high-growth influenza H5N1 vaccine virus in Vero cells: implications for pandemic preparedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fen Tseng

    Full Text Available Current egg-based influenza vaccine production technology can't promptly meet the global demand during an influenza pandemic as shown in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Moreover, its manufacturing capacity would be vulnerable during pandemics caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Therefore, vaccine production using mammalian cell technology is becoming attractive. Current influenza H5N1 vaccine strain (NIBRG-14, a reassortant virus between A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1 virus and egg-adapted high-growth A/PR/8/1934 virus, could grow efficiently in eggs and MDCK cells but not Vero cells which is the most popular cell line for manufacturing human vaccines. After serial passages and plaque purifications of the NIBRG-14 vaccine virus in Vero cells, one high-growth virus strain (Vero-15 was generated and can grow over 10(8 TCID(50/ml. In conclusion, one high-growth H5N1 vaccine virus was generated in Vero cells, which can be used to manufacture influenza H5N1 vaccines and prepare reassortant vaccine viruses for other influenza A subtypes.

  17. Using quality improvement methods to increase use of pain prevention strategies for childhood vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurman, Jennifer Verrill; Deacy, Amanda D; Johnson, Rebecca J; Parker, Jolynn; Williams, Kristi; Wallace, Dustin; Connelly, Mark; Anson, Lynn; Mroczka, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To increase evidence-based pain prevention strategy use during routine vaccinations in a pediatric primary care clinic using quality improvement methodology. METHODS Specific intervention strategies (i.e., comfort positioning, nonnutritive sucking and sucrose analgesia, distraction) were identified, selected and introduced in three waves, using a Plan-Do-Study-Act framework. System-wide change was measured from baseline to post-intervention by: (1) percent of vaccination visits during which an evidence-based pain prevention strategy was reported as being used; and (2) caregiver satisfaction ratings following the visit. Additionally, self-reported staff and caregiver attitudes and beliefs about pain prevention were measured at baseline and 1-year post-intervention to assess for possible long-term cultural shifts. RESULTS Significant improvements were noted post-intervention. Use of at least one pain prevention strategy was documented at 99% of patient visits and 94% of caregivers were satisfied or very satisfied with the pain prevention care received. Parents/caregivers reported greater satisfaction with the specific pain prevention strategy used [t(143) = 2.50, P ≤ 0.05], as well as greater agreement that the pain prevention strategies used helped their children’s pain [t(180) = 2.17, P ≤ 0.05] and that they would be willing to use the same strategy again in the future [t(179) = 3.26, P ≤ 0.001] as compared to baseline. Staff and caregivers also demonstrated a shift in attitudes from baseline to 1-year post-intervention. Specifically, staff reported greater agreement that the pain felt from vaccinations can result in harmful effects [2.47 vs 3.10; t(70) = -2.11, P ≤ 0.05], less agreement that pain from vaccinations is “just part of the process” [3.94 vs 3.23; t(70) = 2.61, P ≤ 0.05], and less agreement that parents expect their children to experience pain during vaccinations [4.81 vs 4.38; t(69) = 2.24, P ≤ 0.05]. Parents/caregivers reported

  18. Strategies and actions of multi-purpose health communication on vaccine preventable infectious diseases in order to increase vaccination coverage in the population: The ESCULAPIO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Lauri, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Levi, Miriam; Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Pellizzari, Barbara; Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Vitale, Francesco; Iannazzo, Stefania; Boccalini, Sara

    2017-02-01

    The ESCULAPIO Project aims at increasing awareness on vaccine preventable infectious diseases (VPID) and vaccinations in different target populations and to spread the culture of prevention. Information/training interventions on VPID have been developed and health promotion activities for the general population, students and their parents, teachers and health care workers (HCWs) were set up. In Tuscany, educational courses on VPID in high schools were organized and students were stimulated to prepare informative materials on VPID for lower grade school pupils. In Liguria, an educational card game (named 'Vaccine at the Fair') was presented to children of primary schools. Stands in shopping centers were used in Palermo to distribute the regional vaccination schedule and gadgets, also providing indications on reliable websites where to find correct information on vaccinations. A music video played by health care workers (HCWs) was created and used in the University Hospital of Cagliari to promote the anti-flu vaccination campaign in HCWs. In Apulia, meetings with the general population were organized to collect controversial issues about vaccinations and a national call center was launched to create a direct line from the general population to experts in vaccines and vaccination strategies. In Veneto, meetings in the birth centers and home visits for subjects refusing vaccination have been organized. All activities are useful and effective tools to increase knowledge about VPID and confidence in vaccination, which are crucial aspects in order to increase vaccine uptake. The project was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) in 2013.

  19. Alternative adaptive immunity strategies: coelacanth, cod and shark immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Francesco; Gerdol, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The advent of high throughput sequencing has permitted to investigate the genome and the transcriptome of novel non-model species with unprecedented depth. This technological advance provided a better understanding of the evolution of adaptive immune genes in gnathostomes, revealing several unexpected features in different fish species which are of particular interest. In the present paper, we review the current understanding of the adaptive immune system of the coelacanth, the elephant shark and the Atlantic cod. The study of coelacanth, the only living extant of the long thought to be extinct Sarcopterygian lineage, is fundamental to bring new insights on the evolution of the immune system in higher vertebrates. Surprisingly, coelacanths are the only known jawed vertebrates to lack IgM, whereas two IgD/W loci are present. Cartilaginous fish are of great interest due to their basal position in the vertebrate tree of life; the genome of the elephant shark revealed the lack of several important immune genes related to T cell functions, which suggest the existence of a primordial set of TH1-like cells. Finally, the Atlantic cod lacks a functional major histocompatibility II complex, but balances this evolutionary loss with the expansion of specific gene families, including MHC I, Toll-like receptors and antimicrobial peptides. Overall, these data point out that several fish species present an unconventional adaptive immune system, but the loss of important immune genes is balanced by adaptive evolutionary strategies which still guarantee the establishment of an efficient immune response against the pathogens they have to fight during their life.

  20. Plant-based vaccines: novel and low-cost possible route for Mediterranean innovative vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Ata, Aboul-Ata E; Vitti, Antonella; Nuzzaci, Maria; El-Attar, Ahmad K; Piazzolla, Giuseppina; Tortorella, Cosimo; Harandi, Ali M; Olson, Olof; Wright, Sandra A; Piazzolla, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    A plant bioreactor has enormous capability as a system that supports many biological activities, that is, production of plant bodies, virus-like particles (VLPs), and vaccines. Foreign gene expression is an efficient mechanism for getting protein vaccines against different human viral and nonviral diseases. Plants make it easy to deal with safe, inexpensive, and provide trouble-free storage. The broad spectrum of safe gene promoters is being used to avoid risk assessments. Engineered virus-based vectors have no side effect. The process can be manipulated as follows: (a) retrieve and select gene encoding, use an antigenic protein from GenBank and/or from a viral-genome sequence, (b) design and construct hybrid-virus vectors (viral vector with a gene of interest) eventually flanked by plant-specific genetic regulatory elements for constitutive expression for obtaining chimeric virus, (c) gene transformation and/or transfection, for transient expression, into a plant-host model, that is, tobacco, to get protocols processed positively, and then moving into edible host plants, (d) confirmation of protein expression by bioassay, PCR-associated tests (RT-PCR), Northern and Western blotting analysis, and serological assay (ELISA), (e) expression for adjuvant recombinant protein seeking better antigenicity, (f) extraction and purification of expressed protein for identification and dosing, (g) antigenicity capability evaluated using parental or oral delivery in animal models (mice and/or rabbit immunization), and (h) growing of construct-treated edible crops in protective green houses. Some successful cases of heterologous gene-expressed protein, as edible vaccine, are being discussed, that is, hepatitis C virus (HCV). R9 mimotope, also named hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), was derived from the HVR1 of HCV. It was used as a potential neutralizing epitope of HCV. The mimotope was expressed using cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CP), alfalfa mosaic virus CP P3/RNA3, and

  1. Rational design of vaccine targets and strategies for HIV: a crossroad of statistical physics, biology, and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup K.; Barton, John P.

    2017-03-01

    Vaccination has saved more lives than any other medical procedure. Pathogens have now evolved that have not succumbed to vaccination using the empirical paradigms pioneered by Pasteur and Jenner. Vaccine design strategies that are based on a mechanistic understanding of the pertinent immunology and virology are required to confront and eliminate these scourges. In this perspective, we describe just a few examples of work aimed to achieve this goal by bringing together approaches from statistical physics with biology and clinical research.

  2. Modelling influenza A H5N1 vaccination strategy scenarios in the household poultry sector in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Masry, Ihab; Rijks, Jolianne; Peyre, Marisa; Taylor, Nick; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) due to H5N1 virus was first reported in Egypt in February 2006; since then, the government has allowed avian influenza vaccination in poultry. The present study evaluated the impact of AI vaccination in terms of cumulative annual flock immunity (CAFI): the percentage of bird × weeks protected by immunity. This evaluation took account of the combined effects of vaccination coverage, vaccine efficacy (VE), and different characteristics of household poultry production on the effectiveness of the adopted vaccination strategy (VS), and provided alternative options for improvement. The evaluation used a population and vaccination model that calculates the CAFI. Participatory approaches were employed in 21 villages to develop the vaccination and flock parameters required for the model. The adopted VS were compared in the model with three alternative VS scenarios in terms of the CAFI. Vaccination coverage varied among villages but was generally low (between 1 and 48 %; median 14 %). Under the adopted VS, the CAFI predicted for the villages ranged from 2 to 31 %. It was concluded that despite the enormous effort put into rural household poultry AI vaccination by the Egyptian government, village CAFI is unlikely to be maintained at the levels required to significantly reduce the virus load and restrict transmission. In HPAI-endemic countries that consider AI vaccination as one of the disease control options, the high cost of mass AI vaccination campaigns and their achievable benefits must be compared with other available control measures, which may include targeted vaccination. Achievable vaccination coverage, VE and the different characteristics of commercial and household (village) poultry production are key parameters determining the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of different AI vaccination strategies.

  3. Strategies for Developing Oral Vaccines for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Induced Cancer using Nanoparticle mediated Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Kouzi, Samir A; Hussain, Muhammad Delwar

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) are a diverse group of small non-enveloped DNA viruses. Some HPVs are classified as low-risk as they are very rarely associated with neoplasia or cancer in the general population, and cause lenient warts. Other HPVs are considered as high-risk types because they are responsible for several important human cancers, including cervical cancer, a large proportion of other anogenital cancers, and a growing number of head and neck cancers. Transmission of HPV occurs primarily by skin-to-skin contact. The risk of contracting genital HPV infection and cervical cancer is influenced by sexual activity. Currently two prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil® (Merck, USA) and Cervarix® (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), are available and recommended for mass immunization of adolescents. However, these vaccines have limitations as they are expensive and require cold chain storage and trained personnel to administer them by injection. The use of nano or micro particulate vaccines could address most of these limitations as they are stable at room temperature, inexpensive to produce and distribute to resource poor regions, and can be administered orally without the need for adjuvants in the formulation. Also it is possible to increase the efficiency of these particulate vaccines by decorating the surface of the nano or micro particulates with suitable ligands for targeted delivery. Oral vaccines, which can be delivered using particulate formulations, have the added potential to stimulate mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue located in the digestive tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, both of which are important for the induction of effective mucosal response against many viruses. In addition, oral vaccines provide the opportunity to reduce production and administration costs and are very patient compliant. This review elaborately discusses different strategies that can be pursued to develop a nano or micro particulate oral vaccine for HPV induced cancers and

  4. Assessment of national strategies for control of high-pathogenicity avian influenza and low-pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza in poultry, with emphasis on vaccines and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Pavade, G; Hamilton, K; Vallat, B; Miyagishima, K

    2011-12-01

    programmes, accounting for 8.1% of the total H5/H7 AI vaccine usage, as compared to 91.9% of the vaccine used against HPAI. Of the six countries that have used vaccine to control LPNAI, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Italy have been the biggest users. In countries with enzootic HPAI and LPNAI, development and implementation of exit strategies has been difficult.

  5. Development of a therapeutic vaccination strategy against cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the effi cacy of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and premalignant cervical disease. Cervical cancer is caused by persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of

  6. Climate factors play a limited role for past adaptation strategies in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Nielsen, Jonas Østergaard;

    2010-01-01

    The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa has experienced recurrent droughts since the mid-1970s and today there is considerable concern for how this region will be able to adapt to future climate change. To develop well targeted adaptation strategies, the relative importance of climate factors...... to be reflected in national adaptation strategies in the region....

  7. Adaptive immune response to whole cell pertussis vaccine reflects vaccine quality: A possible complementation to the Pertussis Serological Potency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, M E; Verhagen, L M; van der Maas, L; Metz, B; Uittenbogaard, J P; van de Waterbeemd, B; van Els, C A C M; van Eden, W; Hendriksen, C F M; Sloots, A; Han, W G H

    2016-08-17

    Whole cell Bordetella pertussis (wP) vaccines are still used in many countries to protect against the respiratory disease pertussis. The potency of whole-cell pertussis vaccine lots is determined by an intracerebral challenge test (the Kendrick test). This test is criticized due to lack of immunological relevance of the read-out after an intracerebral challenge with B. pertussis. The alternative in vivo test, which assesses specific antibody levels in serum after wP vaccination, is the Pertussis Serological Potency test (PSPT). Although the PSPT focuses on a parameter that contributes to protection, the protective immune mechanisms after wP vaccination includes more elements than specific antibody responses only. In this study, additional parameters were investigated, i.e. circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, antibody specificity and T helper cell responses and it was evaluated whether they can be used as complementary readout parameters in the PSPT to assess wP lot quality. By deliberate manipulation of the vaccine preparation procedure, a panel of high, intermediate and low quality wP vaccines were made. The results revealed that these vaccines induced similar IL-6 and IP10 levels in serum 4h after vaccination (innate responses) and similar antibody levels directed against the entire bacterium. In contrast, the induced antibody specificity to distinct wP antigens differed after vaccination with high, intermediate and low quality wP vaccines. In addition, the magnitude of wP-induced Th cell responses (Th17, Th1 and Th2) was reduced after vaccination with a wP vaccine of low quality. T cell responses and antibody specificity are therefore correlates of qualitative differences in the investigated vaccines, while the current parameter of the PSPT alone was not sensitive enough to distinguish between vaccines of different qualities. This study demonstrates that assessment of the magnitude of Th cell responses and the antigen specificity of antibodies induced by w

  8. Gene-based vaccines and immunotherapeutic strategies against neurodegenerative diseases: Potential utility and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrna, Jeremy J; Ugen, Kenneth E

    2015-01-01

    There has been a recent expansion of vaccination and immunotherapeutic strategies from controlling infectious diseases to the targeting of non-infectious conditions including neurodegenerative disorders. In addition to conventional vaccine and immunotherapeutic modalities, gene-based methods that express antigens for presentation to the immune system by either live viral vectors or non-viral naked DNA plasmids have been developed and evaluated. This mini-review/commentary summarizes the advantages and disadvantages, as well as the research findings to date, of both of these gene-based vaccination approaches in terms of how they can be targeted against appropriate antigens within the Alzheimer and Parkinson disease pathogenesis processes as well as potentially against targets in other neurodegenerative diseases. Most recently, the novel utilization of these viral vector and naked DNA gene-based technologies includes the delivery of immunoglobulin genes from established biologically active monoclonal antibodies. This modified passive immunotherapeutic strategy has recently been applied to deliver passive antibody immunotherapy against the pathologically relevant amyloid β protein in Alzheimer disease. The advantages and disadvantages of this technological application of gene-based immune interventions, as well as research findings to date are also summarized. In sum, it is suggested that further evaluation of gene based vaccines and immunotherapies against neurodegenerative diseases are warranted to determine their potential clinical utility.

  9. Adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Klein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this issue of JFDE discuss the potential of adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies. The applied practice paper demonstrates decision strategies behind the adaptive sun shading system of the Al-Bahr Towers. Additivity in building envelopes is not only a strategy to fulfil the growing demands for energy efficient buildings and comfort but has great architectural implications as well. In general it asks for more complex components as well as control strategies. But complexity also means costs and risks, and we need to discuss the means and effects. This discussion in particular is very interesting because here science and practice meet. The Journal of Facade Design and Engineering JFDE will actively follow and stimulate by providing high quality contributions. Four of the paper contributions have their origins in the Conference ‘Facades 2014’, held in November 2014 in Lucerne. The contributions have been carefully selected and have been subjected to the regular double blind review process of the journal. We want to thank Prof. Dr. Andres Luible for the help in making this issue happen. We are proud that JFDE is the scientific partner for a number of conferences such as ‘The Future Envelope’ Conference on Building Envelopes held yearly in Delft (NL or Bath (UK, the ICAE International Congress on Architectural Envelopes in San Sebastian (ES and the above mentioned conference ‘Facades’ in Lucerne (CH and Detmold (D. Our latest partner is the ICBEST 2017 - International Conference on Building Envelope Systems and Technologies in Istanbul. The growing number of partners indicates the relevance of JFDE for our growing discipline and will assure the continuity of the journal. Facade Design and Engineering is a peer reviewed, open access journal, funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO (www.nwo.nl. We see ‘open access’ as the future publishing model

  10. Adaptive immune response to whole cell pertussis vaccine reflects vaccine quality : A possible complementation to the Pertussis Serological Potency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonakker, M E; Verhagen, L M; van der Maas, L; Metz, B; Uittenbogaard, J P; van de Waterbeemd, B; van Els, C A C M; van Eden, W; Hendriksen, C F M; Sloots, A; Han, W G H

    2016-01-01

    Whole cell Bordetella pertussis (wP) vaccines are still used in many countries to protect against the respiratory disease pertussis. The potency of whole-cell pertussis vaccine lots is determined by an intracerebral challenge test (the Kendrick test). This test is criticized due to lack of immunolog

  11. Climate change adaptation strategy for the Folk Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Al-Pavel, Muha.; Khan, Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin; Rahman, Syed Ajijur

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh, impacts on agriculture from extreme climate are increasingly vulnerable. On the other hand, folk communities are intensely depending on agriculture for their livelihoods. Climate change has already negatively affected the vegetable production by annual recurrent flood in Bangladesh....... This study is an assessment of the new vegetable production system that could adopt in a changing climatic condition. With the popular eight vegetable species, the field experiment consisted of four treatments which were conducted in the bags. However, treatment (TD) which consisted of Coriander (Coriander...... of this study might be helpful for the flood affected folk communities produce vegetables for their own consumption and income. Likewise, new experiments with altered technique and vegetable species are recommended to conclusively develop climate change adaptation strategies for flood prone areas....

  12. Global Isotope Metabolomics Reveals Adaptive Strategies for Nitrogen Assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczy, Michael E; Forsberg, Erica M; Thorgersen, Michael P; Poole, Farris L; Benton, H Paul; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Tran, Minerva L; Wall, Judy D; Elias, Dwayne A; Adams, Michael W W; Siuzdak, Gary

    2016-06-17

    Nitrogen cycling is a microbial metabolic process essential for global ecological/agricultural balance. To investigate the link between the well-established ammonium and the alternative nitrate assimilation metabolic pathways, global isotope metabolomics was employed to examine three nitrate reducing bacteria using (15)NO3 as a nitrogen source. In contrast to a control (Pseudomonas stutzeri RCH2), the results show that two of the isolates from Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Pseudomonas N2A2 and N2E2) utilize nitrate and ammonia for assimilation concurrently with differential labeling observed across multiple classes of metabolites including amino acids and nucleotides. The data reveal that the N2A2 and N2E2 strains conserve nitrogen-containing metabolites, indicating that the nitrate assimilation pathway is a conservation mechanism for the assimilation of nitrogen. Co-utilization of nitrate and ammonia is likely an adaption to manage higher levels of nitrite since the denitrification pathways utilized by the N2A2 and N2E2 strains from the Oak Ridge site are predisposed to the accumulation of the toxic nitrite. The use of global isotope metabolomics allowed for this adaptive strategy to be investigated, which would otherwise not have been possible to decipher.

  13. International experiences on the formulation and implementation of transboundary climate change adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, J.G.; Ly, T.; Nguyen Huong Thuy, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Mekong River Commission’s (MRC) Climate Change and Adaptation Initiative (CCAI) aims at formulating the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for the Lower Mekong Basin. An important first step in developing this strategy is to review international experiences of existing strategies, to learn from

  14. International experiences on the formulation and implementation of transboundary climate change adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, J.G.; Ly, T.; Nguyen Huong Thuy, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Mekong River Commission’s (MRC) Climate Change and Adaptation Initiative (CCAI) aims at formulating the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for the Lower Mekong Basin. An important first step in developing this strategy is to review international experiences of existing strategies, to learn from

  15. Adult vaccination strategies for the control of pertussis in the United States: an economic evaluation including the dynamic population effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Coudeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior economic evaluations of adult and adolescent vaccination strategies against pertussis have reached disparate conclusions. Using static approaches only, previous studies failed to analytically include the indirect benefits derived from herd immunity as well as the impact of vaccination on the evolution of disease incidence over time. METHODS: We assessed the impact of different pertussis vaccination strategies using a dynamic compartmental model able to consider pertussis transmission. We then combined the results with economic data to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of pertussis immunization strategies for adolescents and adults in the US. The analysis compares combinations of programs targeting adolescents, parents of newborns (i.e. cocoon strategy, or adults of various ages. RESULTS: In the absence of adolescent or adult vaccination, pertussis incidence among adults is predicted to more than double in 20 years. Implementing an adult program in addition to childhood and adolescent vaccination either based on 1 a cocoon strategy and a single booster dose or 2 a decennial routine vaccination would maintain a low level of pertussis incidence in the long run for all age groups (respectively 30 and 20 cases per 100,000 person years. These strategies would also result in significant reductions of pertussis costs (between -77% and -80% including additional vaccination costs. The cocoon strategy complemented by a single booster dose is the most cost-effective one, whereas the decennial adult vaccination is slightly more effective in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: By providing a high level of disease control, the implementation of an adult vaccination program against pertussis appears to be highly cost-effective and often cost-saving.

  16. Synthetic vaccine nanoparticles target to lymph node triggering enhanced innate and adaptive antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Noh, Young-Woock; Kang, Tae Heung; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Sohyun; Um, Soong Ho; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Park, Yeong-Min; Lim, Yong Taik

    2017-06-01

    In this study, synthetic vaccine nanoparticles (SVNPs) that efficiently targeted lymph nodes, where immune responses against foreign antigens are primed, were developed to enhance antitumor immunity. The size (20-70 nm) and surface character (amination) of poly(γ-glutamic acid)-based SVNPs were selected for effective loading and delivery (i.e., migration and retention) of model tumor antigen (OVA) and toll-like receptor 3 agonist (poly (I:C)) to immune cells in lymph nodes. Antigen-presenting cells treated with SVNP-OVA and SVNP-IC showed higher uptake of OVA and poly (I:C) and higher secretion of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) and type I interferon (IFN-α, IFN-β) than those treated with OVA and poly (I:C) alone. In vivo analysis revealed higher levels of activation markers, inflammatory cytokines, and type I IFNs in the lymph nodes of mice immunized with SVNP-IC compared to those of mice in other groups. SVNP-IC-treated mice showed significantly greater in vivo natural killer cell expansion/activation (NK1.1(+) cells) and CD8(+) T cell response (CD8(+) INF-γ(+) cells) in innate and adaptive immunity, respectively. Both preventive and therapeutic vaccination of EG7-OVA tumor-bearing mice using the simultaneous injection of both SVNP-OVA and SVNP-IC induced higher antitumor immunity and inhibited tumor growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Peptide crosslinked micelles: a new strategy for the design and synthesis of peptide vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Jihua; Kwissa, Marcin; Pulendran, Bali; Murthy, Niren

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new and simple methodology for the synthesis of multicomponent peptide vaccines, named the peptide crosslinked micelles (PCMs). The PCMs are core shell micelles designed to deliver peptide antigens and immunostimulatory DNA to antigen-presenting cells (APCs). They are composed of immunostimulatory DNA, peptide antigen, and a thiopyridal derived poly(ethylene glycol)-polylysine block copolymer. The peptide antigen acts as a crosslinker in the PCM strategy, which allows t...

  18. Adaptive strategy for the statistical analysis of connectomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalel Eddine Meskaldji

    Full Text Available We study an adaptive statistical approach to analyze brain networks represented by brain connection matrices of interregional connectivity (connectomes. Our approach is at a middle level between a global analysis and single connections analysis by considering subnetworks of the global brain network. These subnetworks represent either the inter-connectivity between two brain anatomical regions or by the intra-connectivity within the same brain anatomical region. An appropriate summary statistic, that characterizes a meaningful feature of the subnetwork, is evaluated. Based on this summary statistic, a statistical test is performed to derive the corresponding p-value. The reformulation of the problem in this way reduces the number of statistical tests in an orderly fashion based on our understanding of the problem. Considering the global testing problem, the p-values are corrected to control the rate of false discoveries. Finally, the procedure is followed by a local investigation within the significant subnetworks. We contrast this strategy with the one based on the individual measures in terms of power. We show that this strategy has a great potential, in particular in cases where the subnetworks are well defined and the summary statistics are properly chosen. As an application example, we compare structural brain connection matrices of two groups of subjects with a 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, distinguished by their IQ scores.

  19. Adaptive immunity in the colostrum-deprived calf: response to early vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis strain bacille Calmette Guerin and ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnecke, B J; Waters, W R; Goff, J P; Foote, M R

    2012-01-01

    Responses of the newborn calf to vaccination are frequently characterized by marginal antibody (Ab) responses. The present study evaluated effects of colostrum ingestion on the adaptive immune response of the preruminant calf to early vaccination. Colostrum-fed (CF) and colostrum-deprived (CD) calves were vaccinated at 2 d of age with Mycobacterium bovis, Pasteur strain of bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG), and ovalbumin (OVA) to track development of the adaptive immune response during the first 8 wk of life. Dams were also vaccinated with BCG prepartum. At wk 0, serum IgG(1), IgG(2), IgA, and IgM were elevated in CF calves, with IgG(1) predominating. In these calves, IgG(2), IgA, and IgM concentrations decreased with age. The CD calves, in contrast, had very low or undetectable serum immunoglobulin concentrations at wk 0 followed by an age-related increase in IgG(1), IgG(2), and IgM concentrations, suggesting endogenous production of these immunoglobulin classes. Immunoblot and ELISA analyses of Ab response to BCG vaccination indicated that colostrum ingestion was associated with measurable serum anti-mycobacterial Ab in CF calves during the first month postpartum, with substantially lower levels at 7 wk of age. Although mycobacteria-specific Ab was undetectable in CD calves at wk 0, it was present at 4 and 7 wk of age, suggesting that these calves, unlike CF calves, were capable of generating an Ab response to BCG vaccination. Antibody responses of CF and CD calves to vaccination with OVA, an antigen not present in the natural environment of dairy cattle, were of comparable magnitude and characterized by a progressive increase in Ab levels from birth (wk 0) to 7 wk of age. The disparate Ab responses of CF calves to BCG and OVA suggest that maternal antigenic experience or exposure influences Ab responses of the colostrum-fed preruminant calf to early vaccination. Ex vivo, antigen [OVA and M. bovis-derived purified protein derivative (PPDb)]-induced IFN-γ and nitric

  20. Prioritization of pandemic influenza vaccine: rationale and strategy for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Benjamin; Orenstein, Walter A

    2009-01-01

    Few catastrophes can compare with the global impact of a severe influenza pandemic. The 1918-1919 pandemic was associated with more than 500,000 deaths in the USA and an estimated 20-40 million deaths worldwide, though some place the global total much higher. In an era when infectious disease mortality had been steadily decreasing, the 1918-1919 pandemic caused a large spike in overall population mortality, temporarily reversing decades of progress. The US Department of Health and Human Services, extrapolating from the 1918-1919 pandemic to the current US population size and demographics, has estimated that a comparable pandemic today would result in almost two million deaths. Vaccination is an important component of a pandemic response. Public health measures such as reduction of close contacts with others, improved hygiene, and respiratory protection with facemasks or respirators can reduce the risk of exposure and illness (Germann et al. 2006; Ferguson et al. 2006), but would not reduce susceptibility among the population. Prophylaxis with antiviral medications also may prevent illness but depends on the availability of large antiviral drug stockpiles and also does not provide long-term immunity. By contrast, immunization with a well-matched pandemic vaccine would provide active immunity and represent the most durable pandemic response. However, given current timelines for the development of a pandemic influenza vaccine and its production capacity, vaccine is likely not to be available in sufficient quantities to protect the entire population before pandemic outbreaks occur, and thus potentially limited stocks may need to be prioritized. This chapter reviews information on influenza vaccine production capacity, describes approaches used in the USA to set priorities for vaccination in the setting of limited supply, and presents a proposed strategy for prioritization.

  1. Application of SCR priming VLP boosting as a novel vaccination strategy against HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Seyed Mehdi; Zabihollahi, Rezvan; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Memarnejadian, Arash; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Parivar, Kazem

    2011-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a worldwide health problem and a protective vaccine is desperately needed to control the AIDS pandemics. To address this concern, we previously constructed single-cycle replicable (SCR) HIV-1 virions, which completely maintained the antigenic structures of HIV-1. Herein, to optimize a vaccination strategy, we studied the immunogenicity of produced SCR virions and adjuvant-formulated HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs) in homologous and heterologous prime-boosting regimens. Accordingly, BALB/c mice received three doses of immunogens in 3-week intervals and their immune responses were evaluated using ELISA, cytokine and IFN-γ ELISpot assays. These analyses not only indicated the superiority of SCR prime-VLP boosting for strong induction of specific IFN-γ producing cells, but also showed the capability of this strategy over the others for better stimulation of humoral response, which was evidenced with the detection of highest titer of total IgG against HIV ENV glycoprotein. Furthermore, determination of IgG subclasses and IFN-γ/IL4 secretion ratio in cultured splenocytes demonstrated the efficient augmentation of mixed responses with the dominancy of Th1 immunity following SCR/VLP immunization strategy. Our results additionally pointed towards the applicability of Montanide ISA 720 + CpG as a potent Th1-directing adjuvant mixture. Overall, this study suggests SCR prime-VLP boosting as a promising approach in HIV vaccine development.

  2. Modulation of innate and adaptive cellular immunity relevant to HIV-1 vaccine design by seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Kevin J; Kent, Stephen J; Parsons, Matthew S

    2017-01-28

    Mucosal exposure to HIV-1 infection generally occurs in the presence of semen. Immunomodulation by seminal plasma is well described in the reproductive biology literature. Little is known, however, about the impact of seminal plasma on innate and adaptive anti-HIV-1 cellular immunity. The study investigated the effects of seminal plasma on immune responses considered important for prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine development, namely innate and adaptive cellular immunity mediated by natural killer (NK) cells and T cells, respectively. The ability of seminal plasma to modulate direct, antibody-dependent and cytokine-stimulated NK cell activation was assessed utilizing intracellular cytokine staining. Direct and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase release assays. The effects of seminal plasma on T-cell activation upon stimulation with staphylococcus enterotoxin B or HIV-1 Gag peptides were assessed by intracellular cytokine staining. The impact of seminal plasma on redirected cytolysis mediated by T cells was measured using lactate dehydrogenase release assays. Both direct and antibody-dependent NK cell activation were dramatically impaired by the presence of either HIV-1-uninfected or HIV-1-infected seminal plasma in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, seminal plasma suppressed both direct and antibody-dependent NK cell-mediated cytolysis, including anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent cytolysis of gp120-pulsed CEM.NKr-CCR5 cells. Finally, seminal plasma attenuated both HIV-1 Gag-specific and staphylococcus enterotoxin B-induced CTL activation. Semen contains potent immunosuppressors of both NK cell and CD8 T-cell-mediated anti-HIV-1 immune responses. This could impede attempts to provide vaccine-induced immunity to HIV-1.

  3. Vaccine hesitancy and healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Pauline; Meurice, François; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Glismann, Steffen; Rosenthal, Susan L; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-12-20

    While most people vaccinate according to the recommended schedule, this success is challenged by individuals and groups who delay or refuse vaccines. The aim of this article is to review studies on vaccine hesitancy among healthcare providers (HCPs), and the influences of their own vaccine confidence and vaccination behaviour on their vaccination recommendations to others. The search strategy was developed in Medline and then adapted across several multidisciplinary mainstream databases including Embase Classic & Embase, and PschInfo. All foreign language articles were included if the abstract was available in English. A total of 185 articles were included in the literature review. 66% studied the vaccine hesitancy among HCPs, 17% analysed concerns, attitudes and/or behaviour of HCPs towards vaccinating others, and 9% were about evaluating intervention(s). Overall, knowledge about particular vaccines, their efficacy and safety, helped to build HCPs own confidence in vaccines and their willingness to recommend vaccines to others. The importance of societal endorsement and support from colleagues was also reported. In the face of emerging vaccine hesitancy, HCPs still remain the most trusted advisor and influencer of vaccination decisions. The capacity and confidence of HCPs, though, are stretched as they are faced with time constraints, increased workload and limited resources, and often have inadequate information or training support to address parents' questions. Overall, HCPs need more support to manage the quickly evolving vaccine environment as well as changing public, especially those who are reluctant or refuse vaccination. Some recommended strategies included strengthening trust between HCPs, health authorities and policymakers, through more shared involvement in the establishment of vaccine recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Time-adaptive versus history-adaptive strategies for multicriterion routing in stochastic time-dependent networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretolani, Daniele; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan;

    We compare two different models for multicriterion routing in stochastic time-dependent networks: the  classic "time-adaptive'' route choice and the more flexible "history-adaptive'' route choice. We point out some interesting properties of the sets of efficient solutions ("strategies'') found...... under the two models. We also suggest possible directions for improving computational techniques....

  5. A Comparison of the Adaptive Immune Response between Recovered Anthrax Patients and Individuals Receiving Three Different Anthrax Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Thomas R; Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Chitadze, Nazibriola; Little, Stephen F; Webster, Wendy M; Debes, Amanda K; Saginadze, Salome; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Chubinidze, Mariam; Rivard, Robert G; Tsanava, Shota; Dyson, Edward H; Simpson, Andrew J H; Hepburn, Matthew J; Trapaidze, Nino

    2016-01-01

    Several different human vaccines are available to protect against anthrax. We compared the human adaptive immune responses generated by three different anthrax vaccines or by previous exposure to cutaneous anthrax. Adaptive immunity was measured by ELISPOT to count cells that produce interferon (IFN)-γ in response to restimulation ex vivo with the anthrax toxin components PA, LF and EF and by measuring circulating IgG specific to these antigens. Neutralising activity of antisera against anthrax toxin was also assayed. We found that the different exposures to anthrax antigens promoted varying immune responses. Cutaneous anthrax promoted strong IFN-γ responses to all three antigens and antibody responses to PA and LF. The American AVA and Russian LAAV vaccines induced antibody responses to PA only. The British AVP vaccine produced IFN-γ responses to EF and antibody responses to all three antigens. Anti-PA (in AVA and LAAV vaccinees) or anti-LF (in AVP vaccinees) antibody titres correlated with toxin neutralisation activities. Our study is the first to compare all three vaccines in humans and show the diversity of responses against anthrax antigens.

  6. A Comparison of the Adaptive Immune Response between Recovered Anthrax Patients and Individuals Receiving Three Different Anthrax Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Laws

    Full Text Available Several different human vaccines are available to protect against anthrax. We compared the human adaptive immune responses generated by three different anthrax vaccines or by previous exposure to cutaneous anthrax. Adaptive immunity was measured by ELISPOT to count cells that produce interferon (IFN-γ in response to restimulation ex vivo with the anthrax toxin components PA, LF and EF and by measuring circulating IgG specific to these antigens. Neutralising activity of antisera against anthrax toxin was also assayed. We found that the different exposures to anthrax antigens promoted varying immune responses. Cutaneous anthrax promoted strong IFN-γ responses to all three antigens and antibody responses to PA and LF. The American AVA and Russian LAAV vaccines induced antibody responses to PA only. The British AVP vaccine produced IFN-γ responses to EF and antibody responses to all three antigens. Anti-PA (in AVA and LAAV vaccinees or anti-LF (in AVP vaccinees antibody titres correlated with toxin neutralisation activities. Our study is the first to compare all three vaccines in humans and show the diversity of responses against anthrax antigens.

  7. Current therapeutic vaccination and immunotherapy strategies for HPV-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeate, Joseph G; Woodham, Andrew W; Einstein, Mark H; Da Silva, Diane M; Kast, W Martin

    2016-06-01

    Carcinomas of the anogenital tract, in particular cervical cancer, remains one of the most common cancers in women, and represent the most frequent gynecological malignancies and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions are immunologically distinct in that they express viral antigens, which are necessary to maintain the cancerous phenotype. The causal relationship between HPV infection and anogenital cancer has prompted substantial interest in the development of therapeutic vaccines against high-risk HPV types targeting the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. This review will focus on the most recent clinical trials for immunotherapies for mucosal HPV-induced lesions as well as emerging therapeutic strategies that have been tested in pre-clinical models for HPV-induced diseases. Progress in peptide- and protein-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, viral/bacterial vector-based vaccines, immune checkpoint inhibition, immune response modifiers, and adoptive cell therapy for HPV will be discussed.

  8. Ethnic enclaves and middleman minorities: alternative strategies of immigrant adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobas, J A

    1987-04-01

    This article examines 2 modes or strategies of immigrant adaptation: middleman minorities and ethnic enclaves. Although they have been discussed as if they were disjointed and mutually exclusive, the authors challenge this view. Middleman minorities 1) tend to be self-employed or to work for a coethnic, 2) are usually concentrated in small business, 3) tend to rely on the in-group for resources, and 4) fill a "status gap" in the receiving society. Ethnic enclaves depend on 3 features: 1) recent coethnic arrivals spend a tour of duty at the worst jobs, 2) coethnics provide ethnic entrepreneurs with consumer markets, 3) ethnic businesses rely on each other to supply their operating needs. Ethnic enclaves are concentrated and spatially identifiable. For this study, the authors collected data in a survey of the Cuban exile community of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The sample selection procedure yielded a total of 261 individuals, 220 of whom were interviewed. 10 predictions found in the middleman minority and ethnic enclave perspectives were checked against the researchers' data. 4 of these predictions are hld in common by both approaches: 1) eomployment in an ethnic enterprise increases subsequent chances of self-employment, 2) ethnic firms rely on the in-group for business resources, 3) coethnic workers represent an asset to the ethnic entrepreneur in that they occupy important positions requiring the employer's trust, and 4) there is business competition between locals and minority members. As predicted by the middleman strategy, Cuban businesses in Puerto Rico tend not to be immediately productive and there is no evidence of spatial concentration of these businesses. However, fitting the enclave approach, these firms do not dominate certain business lines, Cuban entrepreneurs do not appear to be sojourners, and they tend to have business backgrounds. The middleman perspective is supported in that some elements of the local elite favor Cuban exiles. Thus, there is no

  9. Cold-Chain Adaptability During Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine in Bangladesh, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billah, Mallick M; Zaman, K; Estivariz, Concepcion F; Snider, Cynthia J; Anand, Abhijeet; Hampton, Lee M; Bari, Tajul I A; Russell, Kevin L; Chai, Shua J

    2017-07-01

    Introduction of inactivated polio vaccine creates challenges in maintaining the cold chain for vaccine storage and distribution. We evaluated the cold chain in 23 health facilities and 36 outreach vaccination sessions in 8 districts and cities of Bangladesh, using purposive sampling during August-October 2015. We interviewed immunization and cold-chain staff, assessed equipment, and recorded temperatures during vaccine storage and transportation. All health facilities had functioning refrigerators, and 96% had freezers. Temperature monitors were observed in all refrigerators and freezers but in only 14 of 66 vaccine transporters (21%). Recorders detected temperatures >8°C for >60 minutes in 5 of 23 refrigerators (22%), 3 of 6 cold boxes (50%) transporting vaccines from national to subnational depots, and 8 of 48 vaccine carriers (17%) used in outreach vaccination sites. Temperatures cold boxes (21%) transporting vaccine from subnational depots to health facilities and 14 of 48 vaccine carriers (29%). Bangladesh has substantial cold-chain storage and transportation capacity after inactivated polio vaccine introduction, but temperature fluctuations during vaccine transport could cause vaccine potency loss that could go undetected. Bangladesh and other countries should strive to ensure consistent and sufficient cold-chain storage and monitor the cold chain during vaccine transportation at all levels.

  10. Evolving T-cell vaccine strategies for HIV, the virus with a thousand faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    HIV's rapid global spread and the human suffering it has left in its wake have made AIDS a global heath priority for the 25 years since its discovery. Yet its capacity to rapidly evolve has made combating this virus a tremendous challenge. The obstacles to creating an effective HIV vaccine are formidable, but there are advances in the field on many fronts, in terms of novel vectors, adjuvants, and antigen design strategies. SIV live attenuated vaccine models are able to confer protection against heterologous challenge, and this continues to provide opportunities to explore the biological underpinnings of a protective effect (9). More indirect, but equally important, is new understanding regarding the biology of acute infection (43), the role of immune response in long-term non-progression (6,62, 81), and defining characteristics of broadly neutralizing antibodies (4). In this review we will focus on summarizing strategies directed towards a single issue, that of contending with HIV variation in terms of designing aT-cell vaccine. The strategies that prove most effective in this area can ultimately be combined with the best strategies under development in other areas, with the hope of ultimately converging on a viable vaccine candidate. Only two large HIV vaccine efficacy trials have been completed and both have failed to prevent infection or confer a benefit to infected individual (23,34), but there is ample reason to continue our efforts. A historic breakthrough came in 1996, when it was realized that although the virus could escape from a single antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, it could be thwarted by a combination of medications that simultaneously targeted different parts of the virus (HAART) (38). This revelation came after 15 years of research, thought, and clinical testing; to enable that vital progress the research and clinical communities had to first define and understand, then develop a strategy to counter, the remarkable evolutionary potential of the

  11. Climate adaptation in NVE's areas of responsibility - Strategy 2010 - 2014; Klimatilpasning innen NVEs ansvarsomraader - Strategi 2010 - 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamarsland, Arne T. (ed.)

    2010-09-15

    NVE has developed a comprehensive climate change strategies within their areas of responsibility. There is a systematic review of how a future climate change will affect NVE management areas; how to meet challenges, vulnerabilities, opportunities and proposals for adaptation measures. Climate adaptation is a dynamic process. It is therefore necessary to follow up the work continuously and correct direction at regular intervals. Climate change adaptation strategy of adaptation measures is a foundation and a direction sensor in NVE's business planning. (AG)

  12. Adaptive Gaze Strategies for Locomotion with Constricted Visual Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colas N. Authié

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In retinitis pigmentosa (RP, loss of peripheral visual field accounts for most difficulties encountered in visuo-motor coordination during locomotion. The purpose of this study was to accurately assess the impact of peripheral visual field loss on gaze strategies during locomotion, and identify compensatory mechanisms. Nine RP subjects presenting a central visual field limited to 10–25° in diameter, and nine healthy subjects were asked to walk in one of three directions—straight ahead to a visual target, leftward and rightward through a door frame, with or without obstacle on the way. Whole body kinematics were recorded by motion capture, and gaze direction in space was reconstructed using an eye-tracker. Changes in gaze strategies were identified in RP subjects, including extensive exploration prior to walking, frequent fixations of the ground (even knowing no obstacle was present, of door edges, essentially of the proximal one, of obstacle edge/corner, and alternating door edges fixations when approaching the door. This was associated with more frequent, sometimes larger rapid-eye-movements, larger movements, and forward tilting of the head. Despite the visual handicap, the trajectory geometry was identical between groups, with a small decrease in walking speed in RPs. These findings identify the adaptive changes in sensory-motor coordination, in order to ensure visual awareness of the surrounding, detect changes in spatial configuration, collect information for self-motion, update the postural reference frame, and update egocentric distances to environmental objects. They are of crucial importance for the design of optimized rehabilitation procedures.

  13. Immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccines in prostate cancer:an update on current strategies and clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B Harpreet Singh; James L Gulley

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable and attractive strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. While there are multiple ways to target the immune system, therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been most successful in late-stage clinical trials. The landmark Food and Drug Administration approval of sipuleucel-T for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer set the stage for ongoing phase III trials with the cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM and the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab. A common feature of these immune-based therapies is the appearance of improved overall survival without short-term changes in disease progression. This class effect appears to be due to modulation of tumor growth rate kinetics, in which the activated immune system exerts constant immunologic pressure that slows net tumor growth. Emerging data suggest that the ideal population for clinical trials of cancer vaccines is patients with lower tumor volume and less aggressive disease. Combination strategies that combine immunotherapy with standard therapies have been shown to augment both immune response and clinical beneift.

  14. Immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccines in prostate cancer: an update on current strategies and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Harpreet Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable and attractive strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. While there are multiple ways to target the immune system, therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been most successful in late-stage clinical trials. The landmark Food and Drug Administration approval of sipuleucel-T for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer set the stage for ongoing phase III trials with the cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM and the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab. A common feature of these immune-based therapies is the appearance of improved overall survival without short-term changes in disease progression. This class effect appears to be due to modulation of tumor growth rate kinetics, in which the activated immune system exerts constant immunologic pressure that slows net tumor growth. Emerging data suggest that the ideal population for clinical trials of cancer vaccines is patients with lower tumor volume and less aggressive disease. Combination strategies that combine immunotherapy with standard therapies have been shown to augment both immune response and clinical benefit.

  15. Nordic national climate adaptation and tourism strategies – (how) are they interlinked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landauer, Mia; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Juhola, Sirkku

    2017-01-01

    The tourism sector is affected by climate change. Nordic tourism destinations have also experienced changes, such as changing precipitation patterns, lack of snow in winter and shifts in seasons. The sector has to implement adaptation strategies but it is unclear whether the current public climate...... policy is sufficient to support considering adaptation actions. We reviewed national climate strategies of the Nordic countries from the perspectives of tourism, but excluding the transport sector. We also reviewed Nordic national tourism strategies from the perspective of climate change, particularly...... the extent to which they address climate adaptation. We found out that the national climate strategies do not pay enough attention to tourism adaptation needs, nor do the national tourism strategies present adaptation actions that tourism actors could consider. To connect these national-level strategies...

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate a Potential Hepatitis B Booster Vaccination Strategy Using Combined Hepatitis A and B Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangjun; Hu, Yuansheng; Zhou, Youming; Chen, Lixin; Xia, Wei; Song, Yufei; Tan, Zhengliang; Gao, Lidong; Yang, Zhong; Zeng, Gang; Han, Xing; Li, Junhua; Li, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Booster doses could play a major role in no responders or low responders to primary hepatitis B (HB) vaccine. Planed time point for hepatitis A vaccination in China provides a good opportunity to carry out HB booster dose by using combined hepatitis A and B vaccine. A randomized, double-blinded clinical trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of toddlers 18-24 months of age receiving 3 different vaccination regimens: 2 doses of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (group 1), 1 dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine plus 1 dose of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (group 2) or 2 doses of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (group 3). All 3 groups showed 100% seroprotection for antihepatitis A virus antibody after vaccination. Seroprotection rate for anti-HB antibody before vaccination ranged from 79.5% to 92.9% in the 3 groups. After second inoculation, anti-HBs seroprotection increased from 92.9% to 100% in group 2 with postvaccination geometric mean concentration (GMC) of 2258.3 mIU/mL and from 79.5% to 98.9% in group 3 with postvaccination GMC of 2055.3 mIU/mL. The adverse events were not statistically different among groups (P = 0.345). Combined hepatitis A and B vaccine could stimulate high level of both antihepatitis A virus and anti-HBs antibodies and not increase adverse events, providing a new choice for HB booster.

  17. Floral thermogenesis: An adaptive strategy of pollination biology in Magnoliaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruohan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Floral thermogenesis plays a crucial role in pollination biology, especially in plant-pollinator interactions. We have recently explored how thermogenesis is related to pollinator activity and odour release in Magnolia sprengeri. By analyzing flower temperatures, emission of volatiles, and insect visitation, we found that floral blends released during pistillate and staminate stages were similar and coincided with sap beetle visitation. Thus, odour mimicry of staminate-stage flowers may occur during the pistillate stage and may be an adaptive strategy of Magnolia species to attract pollinators during both stages, ensuring successful pollination. In addition to the biological significance of floral thermogenesis in Magnolia species, we explored the underlying regulatory mechanisms via profiling miRNA expression in M. denudata flowers during thermogenic and non-thermogenic stages. We identified 17 miRNAs that may play regulatory roles in floral thermogenesis. Functional annotation of their target genes indicated that these miRNAs regulate floral thermogenesis by influencing cellular respiration and light reactions. These findings increase our understanding of plant-pollinator interactions and the regulatory mechanisms in thermogenic plants.

  18. Ensemble analysis of adaptive compressed genome sequencing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acquiring genomes at single-cell resolution has many applications such as in the study of microbiota. However, deep sequencing and assembly of all of millions of cells in a sample is prohibitively costly. A property that can come to rescue is that deep sequencing of every cell should not be necessary to capture all distinct genomes, as the majority of cells are biological replicates. Biologically important samples are often sparse in that sense. In this paper, we propose an adaptive compressed method, also known as distilled sensing, to capture all distinct genomes in a sparse microbial community with reduced sequencing effort. As opposed to group testing in which the number of distinct events is often constant and sparsity is equivalent to rarity of an event, sparsity in our case means scarcity of distinct events in comparison to the data size. Previously, we introduced the problem and proposed a distilled sensing solution based on the breadth first search strategy. We simulated the whole process which constrained our ability to study the behavior of the algorithm for the entire ensemble due to its computational intensity. Results In this paper, we modify our previous breadth first search strategy and introduce the depth first search strategy. Instead of simulating the entire process, which is intractable for a large number of experiments, we provide a dynamic programming algorithm to analyze the behavior of the method for the entire ensemble. The ensemble analysis algorithm recursively calculates the probability of capturing every distinct genome and also the expected total sequenced nucleotides for a given population profile. Our results suggest that the expected total sequenced nucleotides grows proportional to log of the number of cells and proportional linearly with the number of distinct genomes. The probability of missing a genome depends on its abundance and the ratio of its size over the maximum genome size in the sample. The modified resource

  19. Fire risk and adaptation strategies in Northern Eurasian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    permafrost areas. Overall, Russia should expect a disproportionate escalation of fire regimes compared to increasing climatic fire danger. Thus, development and implementation of an efficient adaptation strategy is a pressing problem of current forest management of the country. An appropriate system of forest fire protection which would be able to meet challenges of future climates is a corner stone of such a strategy. We consider possible systems solutions of this complex problem including (1) integrated ecological and socio-economic analysis of current and future fire regimes; (2) regional requirements to and specific features of a new paradigm of forest fire protection in the boreal zone of Northern Eurasia; (3) anticipatory strategy of the prevention of large-scale disturbances in forests, including adaptation of forest landscapes to the future climates (regulation of tree composition; setup of relevant spatial structure of forest landscapes; etc.); (4) implementation of an effective system of forest monitoring as part of integrated observing systems; (5) transition to ecologically-friendly systems of industrial development of northern territories; (6) development of new/ improvement of existing legislation and institutional frameworks of forest management which would be satisfactory to react on challenges of climate change; and (6) international cooperation.

  20. Adaptive hybrid optimization strategy for calibration and parameter estimation of physical models

    CERN Document Server

    Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2011-01-01

    A new adaptive hybrid optimization strategy, entitled squads, is proposed for complex inverse analysis of computationally intensive physical models. The new strategy is designed to be computationally efficient and robust in identification of the global optimum (e.g. maximum or minimum value of an objective function). It integrates a global Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) strategy with a local Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) optimization strategy using adaptive rules based on runtime performance. The global strategy optimizes the location of a set of solutions (particles) in the parameter space. The LM strategy is applied only to a subset of the particles at different stages of the optimization based on the adaptive rules. After the LM adjustment of the subset of particle positions, the updated particles are returned to the APSO strategy. The advantages of coupling APSO and LM in the manner implemented in squads is demonstrated by comparisons of squads performance against Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), Particl...

  1. Roles of State Strategy of Adaptation to Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Can; Huang Shanfeng; Zhang Mengheng

    2007-01-01

    For the adverse impacts of climate change,China government should place the problem of adaptation to climate change on the agenda.It is time to institute and implement a State adaptive strategy to reduce the adverse impacts on economy,community and people's health and life by international cooperation and our own endeavor.A state strategyofadaptationto cfimate change should be closely linked with other current interrelated national strategies,and they should be supplemented and improved by each other.This paper discusses the roles of the state strategy of adaptation to climate change in the State climate change integrative strategy,the environmental protection strategy,and the sustainable development strategy in China.Furthermore,it proposes the main aims of the State adaptive strategy of China.

  2. Adaptive Management as an Effective Strategy: Interdisciplinary Perceptions for Natural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, Lindsay M.; Hessenauer, Jan-Michael; Nathan, Lucas R.; O'Connor, Kelly M.; Liberati, Marjorie R.; Kloster, Danielle P.; Barclay, Janet R.; Vokoun, Jason C.; Morzillo, Anita T.

    2017-02-01

    Adaptive management is a well-established approach to managing natural resources, but there is little evidence demonstrating effectiveness of adaptive management over traditional management techniques. Peer-reviewed literature attempts to draw conclusions about adaptive management effectiveness using social perceptions, but those studies are largely restricted to employees of US federal organizations. To gain a more comprehensive insight into perceived adaptive management effectiveness, this study aimed to broaden the suite of disciplines, professional affiliations, and geographic backgrounds represented by both practitioners and scholars. A questionnaire contained a series of questions concerning factors that lead to or inhibit effective management, followed by another set of questions focused on adaptive management. Using a continuum representing strategies of both adaptive management and traditional management, respondents selected those strategies that they perceived as being effective. Overall, characteristics (i.e., strategies, stakeholders, and barriers) identified by respondents as contributing to effective management closely aligned with adaptive management. Responses were correlated to the type of adaptive management experience rather than an individual's discipline, occupational, or regional affiliation. In particular, perceptions of characteristics contributing to adaptive management effectiveness varied between respondents who identified as adaptive management scholars (i.e., no implementation experience) and adaptive management practitioners. Together, these results supported two concepts that make adaptive management effective: practitioners emphasized adaptive management's value as a long-term approach and scholars noted the importance of stakeholder involvement. Even so, more communication between practitioners and scholars regarding adaptive management effectiveness could promote interdisciplinary learning and problem solving for improved

  3. Successful vaccination strategies that protect aged mice from lethal challenge from influenza virus and heterologous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Timothy; Whitmore, Alan; Long, Kristin; Ferris, Martin; Rockx, Barry; Funkhouser, William; Donaldson, Eric; Gralinski, Lisa; Collier, Martha; Heise, Mark; Davis, Nancy; Johnston, Robert; Baric, Ralph S

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging viruses often circulate as a heterogeneous swarm in wild animal reservoirs prior to their emergence in humans, and their antigenic identities are often unknown until an outbreak situation. The newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and reemerging influenza virus cause disproportionate disease in the aged, who are also notoriously difficult to successfully vaccinate, likely due to immunosenescence. To protect against future emerging strains, vaccine platforms should induce broad cross-reactive immunity that is sufficient to protect from homologous and heterologous challenge in all ages. From initial studies, we hypothesized that attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particle (VRP) vaccine glycoproteins mediated vaccine failure in the aged. We then compared the efficacies of vaccines bearing attenuated (VRP(3014)) or wild-type VEE glycoproteins (VRP(3000)) in young and aged mice within novel models of severe SARS-CoV pathogenesis. Aged animals receiving VRP(3000)-based vaccines were protected from SARS-CoV disease, while animals receiving the VRP(3014)-based vaccines were not. The superior protection for the aged observed with VRP(3000)-based vaccines was confirmed in a lethal influenza virus challenge model. While the VRP(3000) vaccine's immune responses in the aged were sufficient to protect against lethal homologous and heterologous challenge, our data suggest that innate defects within the VRP(3014) platform mediate vaccine failure. Exploration into the mechanism(s) of successful vaccination in the immunosenescent should aid in the development of successful vaccine strategies for other viral diseases disproportionately affecting the elderly, like West Nile virus, influenza virus, norovirus, or other emerging viruses of the future.

  4. Adaptive Strategies, Gender Ideology, and Work-Family Balance Among Dutch Dual Earners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda-Boer, H.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Vermulst, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Using questionnaire data on 149 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children participating in the European Famwork study, we examine how adaptive strategies and gender ideology relate to parents' perceived success in balancing work and family. Path analysis indicates that some adaptive strategies m

  5. Adaptive Strategies, Gender Ideology, and Work-Family Balance among Dutch Dual Earners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierda-Boer, Hilde H.; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Vermulst, Ad A.

    2008-01-01

    Using questionnaire data on 149 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children participating in the European Famwork study, we examine how adaptive strategies and gender ideology relate to parents' perceived success in balancing work and family. Path analysis indicates that some adaptive strategies may harm individuals' work-family balance,…

  6. Comparing control strategies against foot-and-mouth disease: Will vaccination be cost-effective in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2013-01-01

    ring depopulation or emergency vaccination to control these outbreaks. Two stochastic simulation models (InterSpreadPlus (ISP) and the modified Davis Animal Disease Simulation model (DTU-DADS)) were used to simulate the spread of FMD in Denmark using different control strategies.Each epidemic...... scenario plus depopulation in ring zones around detected herds (Depop), (3) the basic scenario plus protective vaccination within ring zones around detected herds, and (4) the basic scenario plus protective vaccination within ring zones around detected herds. Disease spread was simulated through direct...... or when 10 herds have been diagnosed would be more efficient than implementing additional control measures when more herds have been diagnosed. Protective vaccination scenarios would never be cost-effective, whereas depopulation or suppressive vaccination scenarios would most often be recommended. Looking...

  7. The strategy for prevention of measles and rubella prevalence with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Toshiaki

    2009-05-21

    To eliminate the indigenous measles and rubella virus by 2012 in Japan, the strategy fro prevention of measles and rubella prevalence with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine was proposed. Since the vast majority of 1-year old infants are susceptible to measles and rubella, the first MR vaccine, the first MR vaccine should be administered at 1-year old to sustain the herd immunity. Since significant elevation of measles and rubella antibody titers were eliminated in a half of children after the second dose, the second dose of of MR vaccine within 1 year before elementary school entry is the effective maneuver. Moreover, supplement MR vaccination to the teenage group and 20-29 years' group might be necessary, because the mean measles antibody titers in this group were significantly lower compared with those in the older individuals' groups.

  8. Strategies for differentiating infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) for foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Parida, Satya; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2010-01-01

    for the presence of infection. This literature review describes the current knowledge on the use of DIVA diagnostic strategies for three important transboundary animal diseases: foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals, classical swine fever in pigs and avian influenza in poultry.......The prophylactic use of vaccines against exotic viral infections in production animals is undertaken exclusively in regions where the disease concerned is endemic. In such areas, the infection pressure is very high and so, to assure optimal protection, the most efficient vaccines are used. However......, in areas considered to be free from these diseases and in which there is the possibility of only limited outbreaks, the use of Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) or marker vaccines allows for vaccination while still retaining the possibility of serological surveillance...

  9. Chemical process dynamic optimization based on the differential evolution algorithm with an adaptive scheduling mutation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Yan, Xuefeng; Zhao, Weixiang

    2013-10-01

    To solve chemical process dynamic optimization problems, a differential evolution algorithm integrated with adaptive scheduling mutation strategy (ASDE) is proposed. According to the evolution feedback information, ASDE, with adaptive control parameters, adopts the round-robin scheduling algorithm to adaptively schedule different mutation strategies. By employing an adaptive mutation strategy and control parameters, the real-time optimal control parameters and mutation strategy are obtained to improve the optimization performance. The performance of ASDE is evaluated using a suite of 14 benchmark functions. The results demonstrate that ASDE performs better than four conventional differential evolution (DE) algorithm variants with different mutation strategies, and that the whole performance of ASDE is equivalent to a self-adaptive DE algorithm variant and better than five conventional DE algorithm variants. Furthermore, ASDE was applied to solve a typical dynamic optimization problem of a chemical process. The obtained results indicate that ASDE is a feasible and competitive optimizer for this kind of problem.

  10. Rapid strategy for screening by pyrosequencing of influenza virus reassortants--candidates for live attenuated vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Shcherbik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Live attenuated influenza vaccine viruses (LAIVs can be generated by classical reassortment of gene segments between a cold adapted, temperature sensitive and attenuated Master Donor Virus (MDV and a seasonal wild-type (wt virus. The vaccine candidates contain hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes derived from the circulating wt viruses and the remaining six genes derived from the MDV strains. Rapid, efficient selection of the viruses with 6∶2 genome compositions from the large number of genetically different viruses generated during reassortment is essential for the biannual production schedule of vaccine viruses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This manuscript describes a new approach for the genotypic analysis of LAIV reassortant virus clones based on pyrosequencing. LAIV candidate viruses were created by classical reassortment of seasonal influenza A (H3N2 (A/Victoria/361/2011, A/Ohio/02/2012, A/Texas/50/2012 or influenza A (H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013 wt viruses with the MDV A/Leningrad/134/17/57(H2N2. Using strain-specific pyrosequencing assays, mixed gene variations were detected in the allantoic progenies during the cloning procedure. The pyrosequencing analysis also allowed for estimation of the relative abundance of segment variants in mixed populations. This semi-quantitative approach was used for selecting specific clones for the subsequent cloning procedures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study demonstrates that pyrosequencing analysis is a useful technique for rapid and reliable genotyping of reassortants and intermediate clones during the preparation of LAIV candidates, and can expedite the selection of vaccine virus candidates.

  11. "Saving lives": Adapting and adopting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Katharina T

    2016-03-01

    Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from "lagging behind" in 2008 into "Europe's frontrunner" by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made "good enough" over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential.

  12. The adaptiveness of defence strategies against cuckoo parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planqué, Robert; Britton, Nicholas F; Franks, Nigel R; Peletier, Mark A

    2002-11-01

    Host bird species of the Eurasian Cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, often display egg-discrimination behaviour but chick-rejection behaviour has never been reported. In this paper, we analyse a host-cuckoo association in which both population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics are explored in a discrete-time model. We introduce four host types, each with their own defence behaviour, displaying either egg or chick rejection, neither or both, We also introduce fitness functions for each of these host types. Although we can characterize the long term behaviour in many cases by a simple heuristic argument which is in accordance with common views in ecology, there are a number of other phenomena that are not explained within this framework: we describe stable oscillatory behaviour and coexistence of two defensive host types. We analyse the scenarios in which chick rejection may establish itself and give a first explanation as to why this defence trait has never been recorded in nature. We find that chick rejectors generally are at an intrinsic disadvantage with respect to a host type that rejects eggs. Hosts benefit more from rejecting cuckoo eggs than cuckoo chicks, and our model suggests that this is chiefly responsible for the absence of chick rejection. Moreover, even though it seems that chick rejection must be useful as an extra defence, it is shown that hosts with both defence strategies are less likely to establish themselves in competition with egg-rejectors than hosts which reject chicks only. These results provide insight in the extent to which adaptations may be perfected by natural selection.

  13. Adaptive immunity in the colostrum-deprived calf: Response to early vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis, strain Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) and ovalbumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Responses of the newborn calf to vaccination are variable and frequently characterized by marginal antibody (Ab) responses. The present study evaluated effects of colostrum ingestion on the adaptive immune response of the preruminant calf to early vaccination. Colostrum-fed (CF) and colostrum-depriv...

  14. Adaptive immune responses to booster vaccination against yellow fever virus are much reduced compared to those after primary vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, Michael; Bassi, Maria R; Rasmussen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    cellular immune responses with T cell activation peaking ≈2 weeks and subsiding to background levels ≈ 4 weeks post-vaccination. The number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells declined over the following years. In >90% of vaccinees, in vitro expandable T cells could still be detected >10 years post...

  15. Evaluation of Efficacy of Stabilizers on the Thermostability of Live Attenuated Thermo-adapted Peste des petits ruminants Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thachamvally Riyesh; Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan; Amab Sen; Veerakyathappa Bhanuprakash; Gnanavel Venkatesan; Vinita Yadav; Raj Kumar Singh

    2011-01-01

    In this study,thermo-adapted(Ta)PPR vaccines were assessed for their stability at 25,37,40,42 and 45℃ in lyophilized form using two extrinsic stabilizers(lactalbumin hydrolysate-sucrose(LS)and stabilizer E)and in reconstituted form with the diluents(1 mol/L MgS04 or 0.85% NaCl). The lyophilized vaccines showed an expiry period of 24-26 days at 25℃,7-8 days at 37℃ and 3-4 days at 40℃. LS stabilizer was superior at 42℃ with a shelf-life of 44 h,whereas in stabilizer E,a 40 h shelf-life with a comparable half-life was observed. At 45℃,the half-life in stabilizer E was better than LS and lasted for 1 day. Furthermore,the reconstituted vaccine maintained the titre for 48 h both at 4℃ and 25℃ and for 24-30 h at 37℃. As both the stabilizers performed equally well with regard to shelf-life and half-life,the present study suggests LS as stabilizer as a choice for lyophilization with 0.85% NaCI diluent,because it has better performance at higher temperature. These Ta vaccines can be used as alternatives to existing vaccines for the control of the disease in tropical countries as they are effective in avoiding vaccination failure due to the breakdown in cold-chain maintenance,as this vaccine is considerably more stable at ambient temperatures.

  16. Differential effects of IL-15 on the generation, maintenance and cytotoxic potential of adaptive cellular responses induced by DNA vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyao; Valentin, Antonio; Ng, Sinnie; Beach, Rachel Kelly; Alicea, Candido; Bergamaschi, Cristina; Felber, Barbara K; Pavlakis, George N

    2015-02-25

    IL-15 is an important cytokine for the regulation of lymphocyte homeostasis. However, the role of IL-15 in the generation, maintenance and cytotoxic potential of antigen specific T cells is not fully understood. Because the route of antigenic delivery and the vaccine modality could influence the IL-15 requirement for mounting and preserving cytotoxic T cell responses, we have investigated the immunogenicity of DNA-based vaccines in IL-15 KO mice. DNA vaccination with SIV Gag induced antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the absence of IL-15. However, the absolute number of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells was decreased in IL-15 KO mice compared to WT animals, suggesting that IL-15 is important for the generation of maximal number of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Interestingly, antigen-specific memory CD8 cells could be efficiently boosted 8 months after the final vaccination in both WT and KO strains of mice, suggesting that the maintenance of antigen-specific long-term memory T cells induced by DNA vaccination is comparable in the absence and presence of IL-15. Importantly, boosting by DNA 8-months after vaccination revealed severely reduced granzyme B content in CD8(+) T cells of IL-15 KO mice compared to WT mice. This suggests that the cytotoxic potential of the long-term memory CD8(+) T cells is impaired. These results suggest that IL-15 is not essential for the generation and maintenance of adaptive cellular responses upon DNA vaccination, but it is critical for the preservation of maximal numbers and for the activity of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Mathematical analysis of a Chlamydia epidemic model with pulse vaccination strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, G P

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we have considered a dynamical model of Chlamydia disease with varying total population size, bilinear incidence rate and pulse vaccination strategy. We have defined two positive numbers R₀ and (R₁≤ R₀). It is proved that there exists an infection-free periodic solution which is globally attractive if R₀ 1 The important mathematical findings for the dynamical behaviour of the Chlamydia disease model are also numerically verified using MATLAB. Finally epidemiological implications of our analytical findings are addressed critically.

  18. A multivalent and cross-protective vaccine strategy against arenaviruses associated with human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya F Kotturi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses are the causative pathogens of severe hemorrhagic fever and aseptic meningitis in humans, for which no licensed vaccines are currently available. Pathogen heterogeneity within the Arenaviridae family poses a significant challenge for vaccine development. The main hypothesis we tested in the present study was whether it is possible to design a universal vaccine strategy capable of inducing simultaneous HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell responses against 7 pathogenic arenaviruses (including the lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Lassa, Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Whitewater Arroyo viruses, either through the identification of widely conserved epitopes, or by the identification of a collection of epitopes derived from multiple arenavirus species. By inoculating HLA transgenic mice with a panel of recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs expressing the different arenavirus proteins, we identified 10 HLA-A02 and 10 HLA-A03-restricted epitopes that are naturally processed in human antigen-presenting cells. For some of these epitopes we were able to demonstrate cross-reactive CD8+ T cell responses, further increasing the coverage afforded by the epitope set against each different arenavirus species. Importantly, we showed that immunization of HLA transgenic mice with an epitope cocktail generated simultaneous CD8+ T cell responses against all 7 arenaviruses, and protected mice against challenge with rVACVs expressing either Old or New World arenavirus glycoproteins. In conclusion, the set of identified epitopes allows broad, non-ethnically biased coverage of all 7 viral species targeted by our studies.

  19. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  20. How will the EU climate adaptation strategy affect EU agricultural policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Karali, Eleni; Castellari, Sergio;

    A key objective in the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change (COM (2013) 216 final) is to ensure mainstreaming, i.e. integration, of adaptation measures into European sectoral policies. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one such sectoral policy which is prioritised in the strategy...... to adaptation in agricultural production and analyses to what extent the reformed CAP as currently proposed will provide the tools to deal with the key vulnerabilities and adaptation needs. Specifically, the paper analyses the policy instruments available in the CAPs 1st and 2nd pillars and assesses......, the paper will also analyze the institutional mechanisms available in the adaptation strategy in order to assess their strength with regards to mainstreaming adaptation into agricultural policy. The paper is based on analysis of key EU policy documents and compares the policy instruments...

  1. Employee stress management: An examination of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies on employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, M Kim; Barry, Adam E; Chaney, J Don

    2015-01-01

    Employees commonly report feeling stressed at work. Examine how employees cope with work and personal stress, whether their coping strategies are adaptive (protective to health) or maladaptive (detrimental to health), and if the manner in which employees cope with stress influences perceived stress management. In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of 2,500 full-time university non-student employees (i.e. faculty, salaried professionals, and hourly non-professionals) were surveyed on health related behaviors including stress and coping. Approximately 1,277 completed the survey (51% ). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to assess the ability of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies to predict self-reported stress management, while controlling for multiple demographic variables. Over half of employees surveyed reported effective stress management. Most frequently used adaptive coping strategies were communication with friend/family member and exercise, while most frequently used maladaptive coping strategies were drinking alcohol and eating more than usual. Both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies made significant (p employee's perceived stress management. Only adaptive coping strategies (B = 0.265) predicted whether someone would self-identify as effectively managing stress. Use of maladaptive coping strategies decreased likelihood of self-reporting effective stress management. Actual coping strategies employed may influence employees' perceived stress management. Adaptive coping strategies may be more influential than maladaptive coping strategies on perceived stress management. Results illustrate themes for effective workplace stress management programs. Stress management programs focused on increasing use of adaptive coping may have a greater impact on employee stress management than those focused on decreasing use of maladaptive coping. Coping is not only a reaction to stressful experiences but also a consequence of coping resources

  2. The influence of context on the implementation of adaptive emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-08-01

    Putatively adaptive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., acceptance, problem solving, reappraisal) show weaker associations with psychopathology than putatively maladaptive strategies (e.g., avoidance, self-criticism, hiding expression, suppression of experience, worry, rumination). This is puzzling, given the central role that adaptive strategies play in a wide range of psychotherapeutic approaches. We explored this asymmetry by examining the effects of context (i.e., emotion intensity, type of emotion, social vs. academic circumstances) on the implementation of adaptive and maladaptive strategies. We asked 111 participants to describe 8 emotion-eliciting situations and identify which strategies they used in order to regulate their affect. We found support for a contextual model of emotion regulation, in which adaptive strategies were implemented with more cross-situational variability than maladaptive strategies. In addition, the variability in implementation of two adaptive strategies (acceptance, problem solving) predicted lower levels of psychopathology, suggesting that flexible implementation of such strategies in line with contextual demands is associated with better mental health. We discuss these findings by underscoring the importance of adopting a functional approach to the delineation of contextual factors that influence the implementation of emotion regulation strategies.

  3. Evaluating a strategy to deliver vaccine to white-tailed deer at a landscape level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Justin W.; Blass, Chad R.; Walter, William D.; Anderson, Charles W.; Lavelle, Michael J.; Hall, Wayne H.; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Effective delivery of vaccines and other pharmaceuticals to wildlife populations is needed when zoonotic diseases pose a risk to public health and natural resources or have considerable economic consequences. The objective of our study was to develop a bait-distribution strategy for potential delivery of oral bovine tuberculosis (bTB) vaccine to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) where deer are reservoirs for the disease. During 17 February and 2 March 2011, we created a grid of experimental bait stations (n = 64) on Sandhill Wildlife Management Area, Wisconsin, USA, to assess station densities needed to attract and deliver placebo baits to free-ranging white-tailed deer and look for associations among deer density, number of bait stations per deer, and bait consumption. We placed 1 L of commercially available alfalfa cubes at bait stations 652 m apart, and monitored stations with motion-activated cameras for 5 days to document visitation and consumption by deer and nontarget species. Deer discovered 38% of all bait stations within 37 hr, on average (SE = 3.91 hr), and consumed variable amounts of bait at each station. Deer were documented in 94% of all photographs of wildlife at bait stations. We found no correlation between bait consumption and deer density or the number of bait stations per deer. We provide the first information on use of baits by free-ranging deer and nontarget wildlife to eventually vaccinate deer against bTB at a landscape level. The results of this study can further the development of strategies in delivery of pharmaceuticals to free-ranging white-tailed deer.

  4. A hybrid adaptive control strategy for a smart prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Hung; Naidu, D Subbaram; Perez-Gracia, Alba; Schoen, Marco P

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid of a soft computing technique of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a hard computing technique of adaptive control for a two-dimensional movement of a prosthetic hand with a thumb and index finger. In particular, ANFIS is used for inverse kinematics, and the adaptive control is used for linearized dynamics to minimize tracking error. The simulations of this hybrid controller, when compared with the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller showed enhanced performance. Work is in progress to extend this methodology to a five-fingered, three-dimensional prosthetic hand.

  5. [Current status of immunization in the Armed Forces: need of continuous adaptation of vaccinations against cerebrospinal meningitis, typhoid and hepatitis A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyran, M; Buisson, Y; Desfontaine, M

    1994-10-01

    The history of military medicine has always been closely linked with that of vaccinations. Doctors of Armed Forces, doctors of collectivities, have contributed to vaccination progresses in large amounts. But evolutions are often rapid here: epidemiological modifications, improvements in the existing vaccines or creation of new vaccines, diversification of military specificities. Three recent modifications in the vaccination schedule of the Armed Forces show this necessary adaptation: systematization of the meningococcal A+C vaccination during the incorporation, because of the modification of the disease's epidemiological profile; increase of the frequency in serogroup C with a mortality increase (9 cases of death out of 10 observed between 1991 and 1992); cancellation of antityphoid vaccination for recruits serving in home country. Indeed the disease has become rare in France, and this is often due to imported cases (3 cases in the Armed Forces in 1992); introduction in 1994 of vaccination against viral hepatitis A, systematic under the age of 25 years and after a serological selection above for servicemen having to serve overseas or for outside operations. These 3 examples show the necessity to have updated and adaptable vaccination schedules.

  6. New strategies for combination vaccines based on the extended recombinant bacterial ghost system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eko, F O; Witte, A; Huter, V; Kuen, B; Fürst-Ladani, S; Haslberger, A; Katinger, A; Hensel, A; Szostak, M P; Resch, S; Mader, H; Raza, P; Brand, E; Marchart, J; Jechlinger, W; Haidinger, W; Lubitz, W

    1999-03-26

    antigens there is no limitation in the size of foreign antigens to be inserted and the capacity of all spaces including the membranes, periplasma and internal lumen of the ghosts can be fully utilized. Using the different building blocks and combining them into the recombinant ghost system represents a new strategy for adjuvant free combination vaccines.

  7. Human papillomavirus vaccination: what is the best choice? A comparison of 16 strategies by means of a decisional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Manfredi, P; Ansaldi, F; Lucioni, C; Gallelli, G; Panatto, D

    2009-06-01

    Some European countries decided to include human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in national immunization schedules. In order to help decision makers choose the best vaccination policy for females, a decisional model has been developed. The study was performed from the National Health Service perspective. Several hypotheses of multi-cohort vaccination policies were compared. 'Potentially avoidable infections' were chosen as the outcome. The model envisioned a short-term scenario (2008-2011). The best policy was that of vaccinating 12-year-olds and, a year later, those aged 14-16 years; the most expensive strategy was that of vaccinating 12-year-old females and, after 1 year, vaccinating those aged 15, 18 and 25 years. The sensitivity analysis showed that coverage rate has a great effect on the cost of avoidable infections. The study offers stake-holders an important datum-point for the choice of the best HPV policy vaccination in the short term. Indeed, it could generate interesting savings for the National Health Service and a rapid HPV immunization of young girls.

  8. Coastal zones : shifting shores, sharing adaptation strategies for coastal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, J.E. [Waikato Univ. (New Zealand); Morneau, F.; Savard, J.P. [Ouranos, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Madruga, R.P. [Centre of Investigation on the Global Economy (Cuba); Leslie, K.R. [Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (Belize); Agricole, W. [Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Seychelles); Burkett, V. [United States Geological Survey (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A parallel event to the eleventh Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change was held to demonstrate examples of adaptation from around the world in the areas of food security, water resources, coastal zones, and communities/infrastructure. Panels on each theme presented examples from developing countries, countries in economic transition, and developed countries. These 4 themes were chosen because both mitigation and adaptation are essential to meeting the challenge of climate change. The objective of the event was to improve the knowledge of Canada's vulnerabilities to climate change, identify ways to minimize the negative effects of future impacts, and explore opportunities that take advantage of any positive impacts. This third session focused on how coastal communities are adapting to climate change in such places as Quebec, the Caribbean, and small Island States. It also presented the example of how a developed country became vulnerable to Hurricane Katrina which hit the coastal zone in the United States Gulf of Mexico. The presentations addressed the challenges facing coastal communities along with progress in risk assessment and adaptation both globally and in the Pacific. Examples of coastal erosion in Quebec resulting from climate change were presented along with climate change and variability impacts over the coastal zones of Seychelles. Cuba's vulnerability and adaptation to climate change was discussed together with an integrated operational approach to climate change, adaptation, biodiversity and land utilization in the Caribbean region. The lessons learned from around the world emphasize that adaptation is needed to reduce unavoidable risks posed by climate change and to better prepare for the changes ahead. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Design of different strategies of multivalent DNA-based vaccination against rabies and canine distemper in mice and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touihri Leila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the vaccination campaigns, puppies younger than 3 months old are not targeted and remain unvaccinated for at least the first year of their lives. Almost half of the reported rabid dogs are 6 months or younger. Hence, we should recommend the vaccination against rabies of young puppies. Unfortunately, owing to the exposure of puppies to infections with either canine parvovirus (CPV or distemper virus (CDV after the intervention of the vaccinators, owners are reluctant to vaccinate puppies against rabies. Therefore, it is necessary to include the CPV and CDV valences in the vaccine against rabies. Multivalent DNA-based vaccination in dogs, including rabies and distemper valences, could help in raising vaccine coverage. Methods We have designed monovalent and multivalent DNA-based vaccine candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays. These plasmids encode to the rabies virus glycoprotein and/or the canine distemper virus hemagglutinin. The first strategy of multivalent DNA-based vaccination is by mixing plasmids encoding to a single antigen each. The second is by simply fusing the genes of the antigens together. The third is by adding the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV 2A oligopeptide gene into the antigen genes. The last strategy is by the design and use of a bicistronic plasmid with an “Internal Ribosome Entry Site” (IRES domain. Results The monovalent construct against canine distemper was efficiently validated by inducing higher humoral immune responses compared to cell-culture-derived vaccine both in mice and dogs. All multivalent plasmids efficiently expressed both valences after in vitro transfection of BHK-21 cells. In BALB/c mice, the bicistronic IRES-dependant construct was the most efficient inducer of virus-neutralizing antibodies against both valences. It was able to induce better humoral immune responses compared to the administration of either cell-culture-derived vaccines or monovalent plasmids. The

  10. Dosimetric advantages of a clinical daily adaptive plan selection strategy compared with a non-adaptive strategy in cervical cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schoot, Agustinus J A J; de Boer, Peter; Visser, Jorrit; Stalpers, Lukas J A; Rasch, Coen R N; Bel, Arjan

    2017-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) using a daily plan selection adaptive strategy can be applied to account for interfraction organ motion while limiting organ at risk dose. The aim of this study was to quantify the dosimetric consequences of daily plan selection compared with non-adaptive RT in cervical cancer. Ten consecutive patients who received pelvic irradiation, planning CTs (full and empty bladder), weekly post-fraction CTs and pre-fraction CBCTs were included. Non-adaptive plans were generated based on the PTV defined using the full bladder planning CT. For the adaptive strategy, multiple PTVs were created based on both planning CTs by ITVs of the primary CTVs (i.e., GTV, cervix, corpus-uterus and upper part of the vagina) and corresponding library plans were generated. Daily CBCTs were rigidly aligned to the full bladder planning CT for plan selection. For daily plan recalculation, selected CTs based on initial similarity were deformably registered to CBCTs. Differences in daily target coverage (D98% > 95%) and in V0.5Gy, V1.5Gy, V2Gy, D50% and D2% for rectum, bladder and bowel were assessed. Non-adaptive RT showed inadequate primary CTV coverage in 17% of the daily fractions. Plan selection compensated for anatomical changes and improved primary CTV coverage significantly (p adaptive RT, plan selection decreased the fraction dose to rectum and bowel indicated by significant (p adaptive strategy led to inadequate target coverage for individual patients. Daily plan selection corrected for day-to-day anatomical variations and resulted in adequate target coverage in all fractions. The dose to bowel and rectum was decreased significantly when applying adaptive RT.

  11. On Adaptive Extended Different Life Cycle of Product Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of following the whole lifespan of product and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces enterprises of different nature, enterprises at different developing stage will adopt different mode strategy. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated in different developing stages such as company development period, crisis predicament period, lasting steadies period, improving by payback period, issues steadies secondary period, declining go and live period, enterprise should pursue different mode product tactics of research and development such as shrinking strategy, consolidating strategy, innovation keeping forging ahead strategy. Enterprise should break regular management mode to introduce different research and development mode to promote enterprise's competitiveness effectively.

  12. Progress in new vaccine strategies against influenza: a review%流感疫苗研制的新策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志辉; 姜涛; 秦鄂德; 冉多良; 秦成峰

    2012-01-01

    Influenza, caused by influenza virus, is a serious respiratory illness which poses a global public health threat. Vaccination is the primary strategy for the prevention and control of influenza. Although both inactivated vaccines and the live attenuated vaccines are effective in preventing influenza, the current vaccines have poor efficacy in the elderly and fail to provide protection against heterosubtype viruses. Development of a safer and more effective influenza vaccine that provides broad cross protection, overcoming the intrinsic limitation of the current vaccines, has been a scientific challenge.During the past decades, structural biology, reverse genetic and other virological technologies developed quickly and sped the progress of influenza vaccinology. Some new strategies for developing influenza vaccine have been generated, produced encouraging results, which showed great prospect as next-generation of influenza vaccines.%流感病毒感染可引起急性呼吸道传染病,严重危害人类的健康与生命.疫苗免疫是防控流感的重要手段.目前广泛应用的传统灭活疫苗和减毒活疫苗,在预防流感中发挥了重要作用,但存在通用性差和免疫效率低等不足.研制更为安全高效特别是能针对多种流感亚型的新型广谱疫苗成为当前流感疫苗研究的热点.随着结构生物学和反向遗传生物学等新技术的迅速发展,一些新策略不断应用于新型流感疫苗的研究,显示出良好的应用前景.

  13. Evaluation of mucosal and systemic immune responses elicited by GPI-0100- adjuvanted influenza vaccine delivered by different immunization strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    Full Text Available Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN or the intrapulmonary (IPL route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses.

  14. Improved probabilistic neural networks with self-adaptive strategies for transformer fault diagnosis problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Hong Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic neural network has successfully solved all kinds of engineering problems in various fields since it is proposed. In probabilistic neural network, Spread has great influence on its performance, and probabilistic neural network will generate bad prediction results if it is improperly selected. It is difficult to select the optimal manually. In this article, a variant of probabilistic neural network with self-adaptive strategy, called self-adaptive probabilistic neural network, is proposed. In self-adaptive probabilistic neural network, Spread can be self-adaptively adjusted and selected and then the best selected Spread is used to guide the self-adaptive probabilistic neural network train and test. In addition, two simplified strategies are incorporated into the proposed self-adaptive probabilistic neural network with the aim of further improving its performance and then two versions of simplified self-adaptive probabilistic neural network (simplified self-adaptive probabilistic neural networks 1 and 2 are proposed. The variants of self-adaptive probabilistic neural networks are further applied to solve the transformer fault diagnosis problem. By comparing them with basic probabilistic neural network, and the traditional back propagation, extreme learning machine, general regression neural network, and self-adaptive extreme learning machine, the results have experimentally proven that self-adaptive probabilistic neural networks have a more accurate prediction and better generalization performance when addressing the transformer fault diagnosis problem.

  15. Field experience with two different vaccination strategies aiming to control infections with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in a fattening pig herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of pleurisies recorded at slaughter is increasing in Sweden, and acute outbreaks of actinobacillosis that require antimicrobial treatments have become more frequent. As an increased use of antimicrobials may result in the development of antimicrobial resistance it is essential to develop alternative measures to control the disease. Vaccinations present an appealing alternative to antimicrobial treatments. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of two different vaccination strategies in a specialized fattening herd affected by actinobacillosis. Methods The study was conducted in a specialized fattening herd employing age segregated rearing in eight units. The herd suffered from infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, confirmed by necropsy and serology. The study included 54 batches of pigs grouped into five periods. Batches of pigs of the second period were vaccinated against actinobacillosis twice, and pigs in the fourth period were vaccinated three times. Batches of pigs of the first, third and fifth period were not vaccinated. Concentrations of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae and serum amyloid A (SAA) were analysed and production data were recorded. Results Despite vaccinating, medical treatments were required to reduce the impact of the disease. The mean incidence of individual treatments for respiratory diseases during the rearing period ranged from 0 to 4.7 ± 1.8%, and was greatest during the triple vaccination period (period IV; p pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the absence of a SAA-response. The prevalence of pleuritis decreased from 25.4 ± 6.5% in the first period to 5.0 ± 3.7% in the fifth period (p pleuropneumoniae infections, but seroconversion to A. pleuropneumoniae in the absence of a SAA-response in a large number pigs indicated that the vaccine had activated the immune system. Further, the prevalence of pleuritis decreased with time. This indicates that vaccinations together

  16. Climate factors play a limited role for past adaptation strategies in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Nielsen, Jonas Østergaard

    2010-01-01

    The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa has experienced recurrent droughts since the mid-1970s and today there is considerable concern for how this region will be able to adapt to future climate change. To develop well targeted adaptation strategies, the relative importance of climate factors as ...

  17. Competition and time-dependent behavior in spatial iterated prisoner’s dilemma incorporating adaptive zero-determinant strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Xu, Chen; Liu, Jie; Hui, Pak Ming

    2016-10-01

    We propose and study the competitiveness of a class of adaptive zero-determinant strategies (ZDSs) in a population with spatial structure against four classic strategies in iterated prisoner’s dilemma. Besides strategy updating via a probabilistic mechanism by imitating the strategy of a better performing opponent, players using the ZDSs can also adapt their strategies to take advantage of their local competing environment with another probability. The adapted ZDSs could be extortionate-like to avoid being continually cheated by defectors or to take advantage of unconditional cooperators. The adapted ZDSs could also be a compliance strategy so as to cooperate with the conditionally cooperative players. This flexibility makes adaptive ZDSs more competitive than nonadaptive ZDSs. Results show that adaptive ZDSs can either dominate over other strategies or at least coexist with them when the ZDSs are allowed to adapt more readily than to imitate other strategies. The effectiveness of the adaptive ZDSs relies on how fast they can adapt to the competing environment before they are replaced by other strategies. The adaptive ZDSs generally work well as they could adapt gradually and make use of other strategies for suppressing their enemies. When adaptation happens more readily than imitation for the ZDSs, they outperform other strategies over a wide range of cost-to-benefit ratios.

  18. Evolving institutional and policy frameworks to support adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Cleaves

    2014-01-01

    Given the consequences and opportunities of the Anthropocene, what is our underlying theory or vision of successful adaptation? This essay discusses the building blocks of this theory, and how will we translate this theory into guiding principles for management and policy.

  19. Adaptation Strategies and Resilience to Climate Change of Historic Dwellings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlos Rubio-Bellido; Jesus A Pulido-Arcas; Jose M Cabeza-Lainez

    2015-01-01

    .... This paper thoroughly investigates the extant urban conglomerate in Cádiz and analyses, in a qualitative and quantitative manner, which bioclimatic design strategies were applied and the city's...

  20. On Adaptive Extended Compatibility Changing Type of Product Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of Enterprise localization and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces at different stages for development, different kinds of enterprises will adopt product design and development policies of different modes. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated enterprises in leading position in market, technology and brand adopt pioneer strategy type of product research and development. These enterprise relying on the large-scale leading enterprise offering a complete set service adopts the passively duplicating type tactic of product research and development. Some enterprise in part of advantage in technology, market, management or brand adopt following up strategy of product research and development. The enterprises with relative advantage position adopt the strategy of technology applied taking optimizing services as centre in product research and development in fields of brand culture and market service.

  1. Adaptation strategies to climate variability and change and its limitations to smallholder farmers. A literature search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Phillipo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge on adaptation strategies to climate variability and change are scattered and fragmented due to lack of standpoints adaptation framework. This paper intends to analyse differences in adaptation strategies across agro-ecological zones, and finding out factors dictating adaptation to climate variability and change to smallholder farmers. The paper is based on documentary review methodology in which journals and books on adaptation were used as the main sources of information. The collected information were analysed by using content analysis. This paper found that smallholder farmers use a variety of practices to adapt to climate variability and change. These practices include: crop management, livestock management, diversification of livelihood strategies and land use management. Availability of extension services, climate change information and membership to social networks were among the factors identified dictating smallholder farmers adaptation to climate variability and change. The paper recommends to the Government of sub-Saharan Africa and development partners to come up with adaptation framework that takes into consideration differences in geographical location. They are needed also to provide enabling conditions to smallholder farmers through strengthening farmers’ supportive services to enhance their adaptive capacities.

  2. An optimal control strategies using vaccination and fogging in dengue fever transmission model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitria, Irma; Winarni, Pancahayani, Sigit; Subchan

    2017-08-01

    This paper discussed regarding a model and an optimal control problem of dengue fever transmission. We classified the model as human and vector (mosquito) population classes. For the human population, there are three subclasses, such as susceptible, infected, and resistant classes. Then, for the vector population, we divided it into wiggler, susceptible, and infected vector classes. Thus, the model consists of six dynamic equations. To minimize the number of dengue fever cases, we designed two optimal control variables in the model, the giving of fogging and vaccination. The objective function of this optimal control problem is to minimize the number of infected human population, the number of vector, and the cost of the controlling efforts. By giving the fogging optimally, the number of vector can be minimized. In this case, we considered the giving of vaccination as a control variable because it is one of the efforts that are being developed to reduce the spreading of dengue fever. We used Pontryagin Minimum Principle to solve the optimal control problem. Furthermore, the numerical simulation results are given to show the effect of the optimal control strategies in order to minimize the epidemic of dengue fever.

  3. New vaccine strategies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: II: Enhanced systemic and secreted antibody responses against the CFA/I fimbriae by priming with DNA and boosting with a live recombinant Salmonella vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Lásaro

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The induction of systemic (IgG and mucosal (IgA antibody responses against the colonization factor I antigen (CFA/I of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC was evaluated in mice primed with an intramuscularly delivered CFA/I-encoding DNA vaccine followed by two oral immunizations with a live recombinant Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing the ETEC antigen. The booster effect induced by the oral immunization was detected two weeks and one year after the administration of the DNA vaccine. The DNA-primed/Salmonella-boosted vaccination regime showed a synergistic effect on the induced CFA/I-specific systemic and secreted antibody levels which could not be attained by either immunization strategy alone. These results suggest that the combined use of DNA vaccines and recombinant Salmonella vaccine strains can be a useful immunization strategy against enteric pathogens.

  4. How climate compatible are livelihood adaptation strategies and development programs in rural Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Wise

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving climate compatible development (CCD is a necessity in developing countries, but there are few examples of requisite planning processes, or manifestations of CCD. This paper presents a multi-stakeholder, participatory planning process designed to screen and prioritise rural livelihood adaptation strategies against nine CCD criteria. The process also integrated three principles of adaptation pathways: interventions should be (1 ‘no regrets’ and maintain reversibility to avoid mal-adaptation; (2 address both proximate and underlying systemic drivers of community vulnerability; and (3 linked across spatial scales and jurisdictional levels to promote coordination. Using examples of two rural sub-districts in Indonesia, we demonstrate the process and resulting CCD strategies. Priority strategies varied between the sub-districts but all reflected standard development interventions: water management, intensification or diversification of agriculture and aquaculture, education, health, food security and skills-building for communities. Strategies delivered co-benefits for human development and ecosystem services and hence adaptive capacity, but greenhouse mitigation co-benefits were less significant. Actions to deliver the strategies’ objectives were screened for reversibility, and a minority were potentially mal-adaptive (i.e. path dependent, disproportionately burdening the most vulnerable, reducing incentives to adapt, or increasing greenhouse gas emissions yet highly feasible. These related to infrastructure, which paradoxically is necessary to deliver ‘soft’ adaptation benefits (i.e. road access to health services. Only a small minority of transformative strategies addressed the systemic (i.e. institutional and political drivers of vulnerability. Strategies were well-matched by development programs, suggesting that current interventions mirror CCD. However, development programs tackled fewer systemic drivers, were poorly

  5. Cultural adaptation of preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum for Pakistani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Ayesha; Tariq, Pervaiz N; Zaman, Sahira

    2015-06-01

    Cultural adaptation of evidence-based programmes has gained importance primarily owing to its perceived impact on the established effectiveness of a programme. To date, many researchers have proposed different frameworks for systematic adaptation process. This article presents the cultural adaptation of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum for Pakistani children using the heuristic framework of adaptation (Barrera & Castro, 2006). The study was completed in four steps: information gathering, preliminary adaptation design, preliminary adaptation test and adaptation refinement. Feedbacks on programme content suggested universality of the core programme components. Suggested changes were mostly surface structure: language, presentation of materials, conceptual equivalence of concepts, training needs of implementation staff and frequency of programme delivery. In-depth analysis was done to acquire cultural equivalence. Pilot testing of the outcome measures showed strong internal consistency. The results were further discussed with reference to similar work undertaken in other cultures. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Development of a vaccine strategy against human and bovine schistosomiasis: background and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Capron

    1995-04-01

    . Immunization with the corresponding synthetic peptides was followed by a decrease of 70% of parasite fecundity and egg viability. As a preliminary step towards phase I human trials, vaccination experiments have been performed in cattle, a natural model for Schistosoma bovis. Vaccination of calves with the S. bovis GST has led to a reduction of ever 80% of egg output and tissue egg count. Significant levels of protection were also observed in goats after immunization with the recombinant S. bovis GST. Increasing evidence of the participation of IgA antibodies in protective immunity has prompted us toward the development of mucosal immunization. Preliminary results indicate that significant levels of protection can be achieved following oral immunization with live attenuated vectors or liposomes. These studies seem to represent a promising approach towards the future development of a vaccine strategy against one of major human parasitic diseases.

  7. Edible vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Artnzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach t...

  8. Effects of Self-Statements and Coping Strategies on Adaptational Outcomes of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Max R.; Plater, Sharon A.

    1989-01-01

    Examined effects of self-statements and coping strategies on adaptational outcomes of stress in female subjects (N=62). Results indicated self-statements did not discriminate significantly between individuals who effectively or ineffectively handled stressful encounters. Only information-seeking coping strategy showed a trend toward a significant…

  9. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  10. F:ACTS! : Forms for adapting to climate change through territorial strategies : the handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.M.; Ónega, J.; Crecente, R.; Holst, van F.; Abts, E.; Timmermans, W.; Stolk, M.

    2014-01-01

    The F:ACTS! project contributed to generating knowledge on how to develop territorial strategies to adapt to climate change, facilitating the interchange of experience and information among its 14 partners across 8 countries. Integrated territorial strategies incorporate local diversity since they e

  11. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  12. Climate change adaptation strategies of maize producers of the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Hasen Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change are considered to be strong in countries located in tropical Africa that depend on agriculture for their food, income and livelihood. Therefore, a better understanding of the local dimensions of adaptation strategies is essential to develop appropriate measures that will mitigate adverse consequences. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the most commonly used adaptation strategies that farm households practice among a set of options to withstand the effects of climate change and to identify factors that affect the choice of climate change adaptation strategies in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. To address this objective, Multivariate Probit model was used. The results of the model indicated that the likelihood of households to adapt improved varieties of crops, adjust planting date, crop diversification and soil conservation practices were 58.73%, 57.72%, 35.61% and 41.15%, respectively. The Simulated Maximum Likelihood estimation of the Multivariate Probit model results suggested that there was positive and significant interdependence between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and using improved varieties of crops; and between adjusting planting date and using improved varieties of crops. The results also showed that there was a negative and significant relationship between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and soil conservation practices. The paper also recommended household, socioeconomic, institutional and plot characteristics that facilitate and impede the probability of choosing those adaptation strategies.

  13. Nucleoprotein nanostructures combined with adjuvants adapted to the neonatal immune context: a candidate mucosal RSV vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Remot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the leading cause of severe bronchiolitis in infants worldwide. The most severe RSV diseases occur between 2 and 6 months-of-age, so pediatric vaccination will have to be started within the first weeks after birth, when the immune system is prone to Th2 responses that may turn deleterious upon exposure to the virus. So far, the high risk to prime for immunopathological responses in infants has hampered the development of vaccine. In the present study we investigated the safety and efficacy of ring-nanostructures formed by the recombinant nucleoprotein N of hRSV (N(SRS as a mucosal vaccine candidate against RSV in BALB/c neonates, which are highly sensitive to immunopathological Th2 imprinting. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single intranasal administration of N(SRS with detoxified E. coli enterotoxin LT(R192G to 5-7 day old neonates provided a significant reduction of the viral load after an RSV challenge at five weeks of age. However, neonatal vaccination also generated an enhanced lung infiltration by neutrophils and eosinophils following the RSV challenge. Analysis of antibody subclasses and cytokines produced after an RSV challenge or a boost administration of the vaccine suggested that neonatal vaccination induced a Th2 biased local immune memory. This Th2 bias and the eosinophilic reaction could be prevented by adding CpG to the vaccine formulation, which, however did not prevent pulmonary inflammation and neutrophil infiltration upon viral challenge. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, protective vaccination against RSV can be achieved in neonates but requires an appropriate combination of adjuvants to prevent harmful Th2 imprinting.

  14. Key Parameters Estimation and Adaptive Warning Strategy for Rear-End Collision of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rear-end collision warning system requires reliable warning decision mechanism to adapt the actual driving situation. To overcome the shortcomings of existing warning methods, an adaptive strategy is proposed to address the practical aspects of the collision warning problem. The proposed strategy is based on the parameter-adaptive and variable-threshold approaches. First, several key parameter estimation algorithms are developed to provide more accurate and reliable information for subsequent warning method. They include a two-stage algorithm which contains a Kalman filter and a Luenberger observer for relative acceleration estimation, a Bayesian theory-based algorithm of estimating the road friction coefficient, and an artificial neural network for estimating the driver’s reaction time. Further, the variable-threshold warning method is designed to achieve the global warning decision. In the method, the safety distance is employed to judge the dangerous state. The calculation method of the safety distance in this paper can be adaptively adjusted according to the different driving conditions of the leading vehicle. Due to the real-time estimation of the key parameters and the adaptive calculation of the warning threshold, the strategy can adapt to various road and driving conditions. Finally, the proposed strategy is evaluated through simulation and field tests. The experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  15. Pandemic vaccination strategies and influenza severe outcomes during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and the post-pandemic influenza season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil Cuesta, Julita; Aavitsland, Preben; Englund, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    During the 2009/10 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, the five Nordic countries adopted different approaches to pandemic vaccination. We compared pandemic vaccination strategies and severe influenza outcomes, in seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in these countries with similar influenza surveillance...... and experienced less A(H1N1)pdm09-related severe outcomes in 2010/11. Pandemic vaccination may have had an impact on severe influenza outcomes in the post-pandemic season. Surveillance of severe outcomes may be used to compare the impact of influenza between seasons and support different vaccination strategies....

  16. Resilience, human agency and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Frank

    2009-01-01

      In the Arctic, indigenous peoples, researchers and governments are working to develop climate change adaptation strategies due to the rapid changes in sea ice extent, weather conditions and in the ecosystem as such. These strategies are often based on specific perceptions of vulnerability...... the political processes taking place in the Arctic: one aspect emphasises stakeholder participation and integration while the other aspect emphasises rightholder possibilites and self-determination. The focus is thus on how adaptation strategies relate to political and legal processes at different scales...

  17. Analysis of the mitigation and adaptation strategies of the transport industry in the city of Mexicali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelia Melero Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an analysis of mitigation and adaptation strategies in the transport sector in the city of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Based on the methodology of the Programs of Action on Climate Change (PACC, we analyzed the Mexicali emissions inventory and generated a diagnosis. Once we analyzed the current situation, we studied mitigation strategies such as Bus Rapid Transit (BRT, the smog check, new importation legislation for used cars, biofuel production, the promotion of lower–emission vehicles and urban planning. On adaptation strategies vehicle recycling and the use of non–motorized transport were studied as an alternative of sustainable mobility.

  18. Flexible stocking strategies for adapting to climatic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of precipitation-induced variability on forage production, ranchers have difficulty matching animal demand with forage availability in their operations. Flexible stocking strategies could more effectively use extra forage in highly productive years and limit risk of overgrazing during dr...

  19. IS IT NECESSARY TO VACCINATE CHILDREN AGAINST HEPATITIS A ROUTINELY IN PRESENT TIME? THE EVALUATION OF RESULTS OF SUCH STRATEGY OF HEPATITIS A VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS IN SELECTED REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shakhgildian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Data about efficacy of conducting of routine vaccination of children against Hepatitis A are presented in the article. The results of realization such strategy of vaccine prevention of Hepatitis A in selected regions of Russian Federation are evaluated. The perspectives of using this experience in other regions of the country is discussed.

  20. Optimized oral cholera vaccine distribution strategies to minimize disease incidence: A mixed integer programming model and analysis of a Bangladesh scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Hannah K; Keskinocak, Pinar; Swann, Julie; Hinman, Alan

    2015-11-17

    In addition to improved sanitation, hygiene, and better access to safe water, oral cholera vaccines can help to control the spread of cholera in the short term. However, there is currently no systematic method for determining the best allocation of oral cholera vaccines to minimize disease incidence in a population where the disease is endemic and resources are limited. We present a mathematical model for optimally allocating vaccines in a region under varying levels of demographic and incidence data availability. The model addresses the questions of where, when, and how many doses of vaccines to send. Considering vaccine efficacies (which may vary based on age and the number of years since vaccination), we analyze distribution strategies which allocate vaccines over multiple years. Results indicate that, given appropriate surveillance data, targeting age groups and regions with the highest disease incidence should be the first priority, followed by other groups primarily in order of disease incidence, as this approach is the most life-saving and cost-effective. A lack of detailed incidence data results in distribution strategies which are not cost-effective and can lead to thousands more deaths from the disease. The mathematical model allows for what-if analysis for various vaccine distribution strategies by providing the ability to easily vary parameters such as numbers and sizes of regions and age groups, risk levels, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, production capacity and budget.

  1. Improving immunogenicity and effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weiping; Kim, Jin Hyang; Chirkova, Tatiana; Reber, Adrian J; Biber, Renata; Shay, David K; Sambhara, Suryaprakash

    2011-11-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in immune function (immunosenescence) that leads to progressive deterioration in both innate and adaptive immune functions. These changes contribute to the subsequent increased risk for infectious diseases and their sequelae. Vaccination is the most effective and inexpensive public health strategy for prevention of infection, despite the decreased efficacy of vaccines in older adults due to immunosenescence. The rapid rise in the older adult population globally represents a great challenge for vaccination programs. This article first addresses the status of innate and adaptive immune functions in aging and then focuses on influenza vaccine. The development history of influenza vaccines, current status, and potential strategies to improve the immunogenicity and vaccine effectiveness in older adults are discussed.

  2. An update of cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in indonesia: Takinga birth-dose vaccination strategy into account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwantika, A.A.; Setiawan, D.; Atthobari, J.; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Rotavirus infection was reported as the major cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5-years-old in Indonesia. A low cost rotavirus vaccine to protect infants from birth has been developed for developing countries, such as Indonesia. This study aims to update our initial analysis on

  3. Urban Planning and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a current phenomenon: the temperatures rise, rainfall patterns are changing, glaciers melt and the average global sea level is rising. It is expected that these changes will continue and that the extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts, will become more frequent and intense. The impact and vulnerability factors for nature, for the economy and for our health are different, depending on the territorial, social and economic aspects. The current scientific debate is focused on the need to formulate effective policies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change. The city plays an important role in this issue: it emits the most greenhouse gas emissions (more than 60% of the world population currently lives in urban areas and the city is more exposed and vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Urban planning and territorial governance play a crucial role in this context: the international debate on the sustainability of urban areas is increasing. It’s necessary to adapt the tools of building regulations to increase the quality of energy - environment of the cities.

  4. Introduction of silent mutations into the NP gene of influenza A viruses as a possible strategy for the creation of a live attenuated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhlan, Darisuren; Hrincius, Eike-Roman; Scholtissek, Christoph; Ludwig, Stephan

    2012-06-22

    The nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A virus (IAV) is associated with many different functions including host range restriction. Multiple sequence alignment analyses of 748 NP gene sequences from GenBank revealed a highly conserved region of 60 nucleotides within the ORF at the 3'-ends of the cRNA, in some codons even silent mutations were not found. This suggests that the RNA structure integrity within this region is crucial for IAV replication. To explore the impact of these conserved nucleotides for viral replication we created mutant viruses with one or more silent mutations in the respective region of the NP gene of the IAV strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1) (WSN). Assessment of viral replication of these WSN mutant viruses showed significant growth disadvantages when compared to the corresponding parental strain. On the basis of these findings we tested whether the attenuation of IAV by introduction of silent mutations into the NP gene may serve as a strategy to create a live attenuated vaccine. Mice vaccinated with the attenuated WSN mutant survived a lethal challenge dose of wild type WSN virus or the mouse adapted pandemic H1N1v strain A/Hamburg/4/2009. Thus, introduction of silent mutations in the NP of IAV is a feasible approach for a novel vaccination strategy allowing attenuation of the master strain but leaves the antigenicity of the gene product unaltered. This principle is potentially applicable for all viruses with segmented genomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of B. pertussis vaccine antigen gene variants in pertussis resurgence and possible consequences for vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Whooping cough, or pertussis, caused by Bordetella pertussis is considered resurgent in a number of countries world-wide, despite continued high level vaccine coverage. Among a number of causes for this that have been proposed, is the emergence of B. pertussis strains expressing variants of the antigens contained in acellular pertussis vaccines; i.e. the evolution of B. pertussis toward vaccine escape. This commentary highlights the contradictory nature of evidence for this but also discusses the importance of understanding the role of B. pertussis adaptation to vaccine-mediated immune selection pressures for vaccine-mediated pertussis control strategies.

  6. An adaptive fusion strategy of polarization image based on NSCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang-xia; Duan, Jin; Mo, Chun-he; Chen, Guang-qiu; Fu, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    An improved image fusion algorithm based on the NSCT is proposed in this paper. After decomposition NSCT method of multi-scale and multiple directions, polarization image was decomposed into two parts: low frequency sub-band and high frequency band-pass images. The fusion strategy of combining local regional energy and gradient structure similarity were used in low-frequency coefficients. While in the high-frequency band-pass coefficients part, the fusion strategy of the location spatial frequency as the correlation coefficient was used. The intensity image and polarization degree image are fused for improving the sharpness and contrast of the image. The experiments show that the algorithm is effective to improve the imaging quality in the turbid medium.

  7. Protective efficacy of crude virus-like particle vaccine against HPAI H5N1 in chickens and its application on DIVA strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Youn, Ha-Na; Kim, Myeong-Seob; Lee, Yu-Na; Yuk, Seong-Su; Lim, Tae-Hyun; Jang, Jun-Hyuk; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Kang, Sang-Moo; Seong, Baik-Lin; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2013-05-01

    Currently, Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has become widespread across continents. These viruses are persistently circulating among poultry populations in endemic regions, causing huge economic losses, and raising concerns about an H5N1 pandemic. To control HPAI H5N1, effective vaccines for poultry are urgently needed. In this study, we developed HPAI virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine as a candidate poultry vaccine and evaluated its protective efficacy and possible application for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Specific pathogen-free chickens received a single injection of HPAI H5N1 VLP vaccine generated using baculovirus expression vector system. Immunogenicity of VLP vaccines was determined using hemagglutination inhibition (HI), neuraminidase inhibition (NI), and ELISA test. Challenge study was performed to evaluate efficacy of VLP vaccines. A single immunization with HPAI H5N1 VLP vaccine induced high levels of HI and NI antibodies and protected chickens from a lethal challenge of wild-type HPAI H5N1 virus. Viral excretion from the vaccinated and challenged group was strongly reduced compared with a mock-vaccinated control group. Furthermore, we were able to differentiate VLP-vaccinated chickens from vaccinated and then infected chickens with a commercial ELISA test kit, which offers a promising strategy for the application of DIVA concept. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Boeckmann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  9. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  10. Generation and characterization of a cold-adapted attenuated live H3N2 subtype influenza virus vaccine candidate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Wen-qi; LIU Xiu-fan; WANG Xi-liang; YANG Peng-hui; DUAN Yue-qiang; LUO De-yan; TANG Chong; JIA Wei-hong; XING Li; SHI Xin-fu; ZHANG Yu-jing

    2009-01-01

    Background H3N2 subtype influenza A viruses have been identified in humans worldwide, raising concerns about their pandemic potential and prompting the development of candidate vaccines to protect humans against this subtype of influenza A virus. The aim of this study was to establish a system for rescuing of a cold-adapted high-yielding H3N2 subtype human influenza virus by reverse genetics. Methods In order to generate better and safer vaccine candidate viruses, a cold-adapted high yielding reassortant H3N2 influenza A virus was genetically constructed by reverse genetics and was designated as rgAA-H3N2. The rgAA-H3N2 virus contained HA and NA genes from an epidemic strain A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2) in a background of internal genes derived from the master donor viruses (MDV), cold-adapted (ca), temperature sensitive (te), live attenuated influenza virus strain A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (MDV-A). Results In this presentation, the virus HA titer of rgAA-H3N2 in the allantoic fluid from infected embryonated eggs was as high as 1:1024. A fluorescent focus assay (FFU) was performed 24-36 hours post-infection using a specific antibody and bright staining was used for determining the virus titer. The allantoic fluid containing the recovered influenza virus was analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and the specific inhibition was found. Conclusion The results mentioned above demonstrated that cold-adapted, attenuated reassortant H3N2 subtype influenza A virus was successfully generated, which laid a good foundation for the further related research.

  11. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Peñuelas, Josep; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-02-01

    Urban environments that are stressful for plant function and growth will become increasingly widespread in future. In this opinion article, we define the concept of 'urban plant physiology', which focuses on plant responses and long term adaptations to urban conditions and on the capacity of urban vegetation to mitigate environmental hazards in urbanized settings such as air and soil pollution. Use of appropriate control treatments would allow for studies in urban environments to be comparable to expensive manipulative experiments. In this opinion article, we propose to couple two approaches, based either on environmental gradients or manipulated gradients, to develop the concept of urban plant physiology for assessing how single or multiple environmental factors affect the key environmental services provided by urban forests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vaccination strategies against myxomavirus infections: are we really doing the best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, D

    2010-03-01

    Vaccination is the best way to control myxomatosis in both pet and production rabbits. Two types of myxomatosis vaccines are commercially available, namely, a vaccine prepared from the Shope fibroma virus (SFV) and one prepared from an attenuated myxoma virus (MV) strain, e.g., SG33. The first one is weakly immunogenic and provides only short-term protection whereas atypical reactions have been described with the second one. This short review describes the vaccine strains and provides some data on the host-virus relationship, resistance, and immunity in myxomatosis. In the last section, recommended myxomatosis vaccination schemes for production and pet animals are presented.

  13. Adaptive planning : Generating conditions for urban adaptability.Lessons from Dutch organic development strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, Ward; de Roo, Gert

    2016-01-01

    The development of cities includes a wide variety of uncertainties which challenge spatial planners and decision makers. In response, planning approaches which move away from the ambition to achieve predefined outcomes are being explored in the literature. One of them is an adaptive approach to

  14. A Mage3/Heat Shock Protein70 DNA vaccine induces both innate and adaptive immune responses for the antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifeng; Rollins, Lisa; Gu, Qinlong; Chen, Si-Yi; Huang, Xue F

    2009-12-11

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly effective and versatile molecules in promoting antitumor immune responses. We tested whether a HSP-based DNA vaccine can induce effective immune response against Mage3, a cancer testis (CT) antigen frequently expressed in many human tumors, thereby controlling the Mage3-expressing tumor. The vaccine was constructed by linking human inducible HSP70 to the C-terminus of a modified Mage3 gene (sMage3) that was attached at its N-terminus with the signal leader sequence of the human RANTES for releasing the expressed fusion protein from the transduced cells. Intramuscular injection of sMage3Hsp DNA induced CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell and antibody responses. Vaccination with sMage3Hsp DNA was more effective in inhibiting Mage3-expressing TC-1 tumors. When we dissected the antitumor activity of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells by immunizing CD4(+) and CD8(+) knockout mice with sMage3Hsp DNA, we found that both CD8(+) T and CD4(+) T cells played a role in control of inoculated tumor, but did not constitute the whole of immune protection in the prophylactic immunization. Instead, depletion of natural killer (NK) cells led to a major loss of antitumor activity in the immunized mice. These results indicate that the HSP-based Mage3 DNA vaccine can more effectively inhibit tumor growth by inducing both the innate immune responses and Mage3-specific adaptive immune responses via the Hsp-associated adjuvant function.

  15. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Foged, Camilla; Korsholm, Karen Smith;

    2016-01-01

    for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce......The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens...... been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly...

  16. A CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre/Lox system-based express vaccine development strategy against re-emerging Pseudorabies virus

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Virus evolves rapidly to escape vaccine-induced immunity, posing a desperate demand for efficient vaccine development biotechnologies. Here we present an express vaccine development strategy based on CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre/Lox system against re-emerging Pseudorabies virus, which caused the recent devastating swine pseudorabies outbreak in China. By CRISPR/Cas9 system, the virulent genes of the newly isolated strain were simultaneously substituted by marker genes, which were subsequently excised ...

  17. An adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jinchao; Qin Chenghu; Jia Kebin; Han Dong; Liu Kai; Zhu Shouping; Yang Xin; Tian Jie [Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Electronic Information and Control Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China) and School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) provides an effective tool for monitoring physiological and pathological activities in vivo. However, the measured data in bioluminescence imaging are corrupted by noise. Therefore, regularization methods are commonly used to find a regularized solution. Nevertheless, for the quality of the reconstructed bioluminescent source obtained by regularization methods, the choice of the regularization parameters is crucial. To date, the selection of regularization parameters remains challenging. With regards to the above problems, the authors proposed a BLT reconstruction algorithm with an adaptive parameter choice rule. Methods: The proposed reconstruction algorithm uses a diffusion equation for modeling the bioluminescent photon transport. The diffusion equation is solved with a finite element method. Computed tomography (CT) images provide anatomical information regarding the geometry of the small animal and its internal organs. To reduce the ill-posedness of BLT, spectral information and the optimal permissible source region are employed. Then, the relationship between the unknown source distribution and multiview and multispectral boundary measurements is established based on the finite element method and the optimal permissible source region. Since the measured data are noisy, the BLT reconstruction is formulated as l{sub 2} data fidelity and a general regularization term. When choosing the regularization parameters for BLT, an efficient model function approach is proposed, which does not require knowledge of the noise level. This approach only requests the computation of the residual and regularized solution norm. With this knowledge, we construct the model function to approximate the objective function, and the regularization parameter is updated iteratively. Results: First, the micro-CT based mouse phantom was used for simulation verification. Simulation experiments were used to illustrate why multispectral data were used

  18. Evaluation of regulated delayed attenuation strategies for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine vectors in neonatal and infant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huoying; Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy

    2013-06-01

    We developed regulated delayed attenuation strategies for Salmonella vaccine vectors. In this study, we evaluated the combination of these strategies in recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine vectors with similar genetic backgrounds in vitro and in vivo. Our goal is to develop a vaccine to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in newborns; thus, all strains delivered a pneumococcal antigen PspA and the impact of maternal antibodies was evaluated. The results showed that all strains with the regulated delayed attenuated phenotype (RDAP) displayed an invasive ability stronger than that of the S. Typhi vaccine strain, Ty21a, but weaker than that of their corresponding wild-type parental strains. The survival curves of different RDAP vaccine vectors in vitro and in vivo exhibited diverse regulated delayed attenuation kinetics, which was different from S. Typhi Ty21a and the wild-type parental strains. Under the influence of maternal antibody, the persistence of the S. Typhimurium RDAP strain displayed a regulated delayed attenuation trend in nasal lymphoid tissue (NALT), lung, and Peyer's patches, while the persistence of S. Typhi RDAP strains followed the curve only in NALT. The bacterial loads of S. Typhi RDAP strains were lower in NALT, lung, and Peyer's patches in mice born to immune mothers than in those born to naive mothers. In accordance with these results, RDAP vaccine strains induced high titers of IgG antibodies against PspA and against Salmonella lipopolysaccharides. Immunization of mothers with S. Typhi RDAP strains enhanced the level of vaginal mucosal IgA, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) and resulted in a higher level of protection against S. pneumoniae challenge.

  19. Field experience with two different vaccination strategies aiming to control infections with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in a fattening pig herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjölund Marie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of pleurisies recorded at slaughter is increasing in Sweden, and acute outbreaks of actinobacillosis that require antimicrobial treatments have become more frequent. As an increased use of antimicrobials may result in the development of antimicrobial resistance it is essential to develop alternative measures to control the disease. Vaccinations present an appealing alternative to antimicrobial treatments. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of two different vaccination strategies in a specialized fattening herd affected by actinobacillosis. Methods The study was conducted in a specialized fattening herd employing age segregated rearing in eight units. The herd suffered from infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, confirmed by necropsy and serology. The study included 54 batches of pigs grouped into five periods. Batches of pigs of the second period were vaccinated against actinobacillosis twice, and pigs in the fourth period were vaccinated three times. Batches of pigs of the first, third and fifth period were not vaccinated. Concentrations of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae and serum amyloid A (SAA were analysed and production data were recorded. Results Despite vaccinating, medical treatments were required to reduce the impact of the disease. The mean incidence of individual treatments for respiratory diseases during the rearing period ranged from 0 to 4.7 ± 1.8%, and was greatest during the triple vaccination period (period IV; p A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the absence of a SAA-response. The prevalence of pleuritis decreased from 25.4 ± 6.5% in the first period to 5.0 ± 3.7% in the fifth period (p Conclusions The vaccine did not effectively prevent clinical expression of A. pleuropneumoniae infections, but seroconversion to A. pleuropneumoniae in the absence of a SAA-response in a large number pigs indicated that the vaccine had activated the immune

  20. Numerous strategies but limited implementation guidance in US local adaptation plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sierra C.; Stults, Missy

    2016-08-01

    Adaptation planning offers a promising approach for identifying and devising solutions to address local climate change impacts. Yet there is little empirical understanding of the content and quality of these plans. We use content analysis to evaluate 44 local adaptation plans in the United States and multivariate regression to examine how plan quality varies across communities. We find that plans draw on multiple data sources to analyse future climate impacts and include a breadth of strategies. Most plans, however, fail to prioritize impacts and strategies or provide detailed implementation processes, raising concerns about whether adaptation plans will translate into on-the-ground reductions in vulnerability. Our analysis also finds that plans authored by the planning department and those that engaged elected officials in the planning process were of higher quality. The results provide important insights for practitioners, policymakers and scientists wanting to improve local climate adaptation planning and action.

  1. Leaf Area Adjustment As an Optimal Drought-Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Beyer, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Vico, G.; Weih, M.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf phenology plays a major role in land-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges. Much work has focused on phenological responses to light and temperature, but less to leaf area changes during dry periods. Because the duration of droughts is expected to increase under future climates in seasonally-dry as well as mesic environments, it is crucial to (i) predict drought-related phenological changes and (ii) to develop physiologically-sound models of leaf area dynamics during dry periods. Several optimization criteria have been proposed to model leaf area adjustment as soil moisture decreases. Some theories are based on the plant carbon (C) balance, hypothesizing that leaf area will decline when instantaneous net photosynthetic rates become negative (equivalent to maximization of cumulative C gain). Other theories draw on hydraulic principles, suggesting that leaf area should adjust to either maintain a constant leaf water potential (isohydric behavior) or to avoid leaf water potentials with negative impacts on photosynthesis (i.e., minimization of water stress). Evergreen leaf phenology is considered as a control case. Merging these theories into a unified framework, we quantify the effect of phenological strategy and climate forcing on the net C gain over the entire growing season. By accounting for the C costs of leaf flushing and the gains stemming from leaf photosynthesis, this metric assesses the effectiveness of different phenological strategies, under different climatic scenarios. Evergreen species are favored only when the dry period is relatively short, as they can exploit most of the growing season, and only incur leaf maintenance costs during the short dry period. In contrast, deciduous species that lower maintenance costs by losing leaves are advantaged under drier climates. Moreover, among drought-deciduous species, isohydric behavior leads to lowest C gains. Losing leaves gradually so as to maintain a net C uptake equal to zero during the driest period in

  2. Adaptive Work Strategy for Evaluating a Conceptual Site Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, P.; Utom, A. U.; Werban, U.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive, diagnostic, procedural and adaptive scheme involving a combination of geophysical and direct push methods was developed and applied in the Wurmlingen study site situated within the region of Baden-Württemberg (southwest Germany). The goal of the study was to test the applicability of electrical resistivity method in imaging resistivity contrasts, and mapping the depth to and lateral extent of field-scale subsurface structures and existence of flow paths that may control concentration gradients of groundwater solution contents. Based on a relatively fast and cost-effective areal mapping with vertical electrical sounding technique, a northwest-southeast trending stream-channel-like depression (low apparent resistivity feature) through a Pleistocene aquifer was detected. For a more detailed characterization, we implemented electrical resistivity tomography method followed by direct push (DP) technologies. Beside the use of DP for verification of structures identified by geophysical tools, we used it for multi-level groundwater sampling. Results from groundwater chemistry indicate zones of steep nitrate concentration gradients associated with the feature.

  3. Comprehensive screening for immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived poliovirus: an essential oral poliovirus vaccine cessation risk management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, R J; Thompson, K M

    2017-01-01

    If the world can successfully control all outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus that may occur soon after global oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, then immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) from rare and mostly asymptomatic long-term excretors (defined as ⩾6 months of excretion) will become the main source of potential poliovirus outbreaks for as long as iVDPV excretion continues. Using existing models of global iVDPV prevalence and global long-term poliovirus risk management, we explore the implications of uncertainties related to iVDPV risks, including the ability to identify asymptomatic iVDPV excretors to treat with polio antiviral drugs (PAVDs) and the transmissibility of iVDPVs. The expected benefits of expanded screening to identify and treat long-term iVDPV excretors with PAVDs range from US$0.7 to 1.5 billion with the identification of 25-90% of asymptomatic long-term iVDPV excretors, respectively. However, these estimates depend strongly on assumptions about the transmissibility of iVDPVs and model inputs affecting the global iVDPV prevalence. For example, the expected benefits may decrease to as low as US$260 million with the identification of 90% of asymptomatic iVDPV excretors if iVDPVs behave and transmit like partially reverted viruses instead of fully reverted viruses. Comprehensive screening for iVDPVs will reduce uncertainties and maximize the expected benefits of PAVD use.

  4. Systems Pharmacology-based strategy to screen new adjuvant for hepatitis B vaccine from Traditional Chinese Medicine Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingbo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Baoxiu; Yang, Yan; Xie, Jun; Zhu, Naishuo

    2017-01-01

    Adjuvants are common component for many vaccines but there are still few licensed for human use due to low efficiency or side effects. The present work adopted Systems Pharmacology analysis as a new strategy to screen adjuvants from traditional Chinese medicine. Ophiocordyceps sinensis has been used for many years in China and other Asian countries with many biological properties, but the pharmacological mechanism has not been fully elucidated. First in this study, 190 putative targets for 17 active compounds in Ophiocordyceps sinensis were retrieved and a systems pharmacology-based approach was applied to provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of the drug. Pathway enrichment analysis found that the targets participated in several immunological processes. Based on this, we selected cordycepin as a target compound to serve as an adjuvant of the hepatitis B vaccine because the existing vaccine often fails to induce an effective immune response in many subjects. Animal and cellular experiments finally validated that the new vaccine simultaneously improves the humoral and cellular immunity of BALB/c mice without side effects. All this results demonstrate that cordycepin could work as adjuvant to hepatitis b vaccine and systems-pharmacology analysis could be used as a new method to select adjuvants. PMID:28317886

  5. Recruitment of hard-to-reach population subgroups via adaptations of the snowball sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Lee, Hau-Chen; Lim, Rod Seung-Hwan; Fullerton, Judith

    2010-09-01

    Nurse researchers and educators often engage in outreach to narrowly defined populations. This article offers examples of how variations on the snowball sampling recruitment strategy can be applied in the creation of culturally appropriate, community-based information dissemination efforts related to recruitment to health education programs and research studies. Examples from the primary author's program of research are provided to demonstrate how adaptations of snowball sampling can be used effectively in the recruitment of members of traditionally underserved or vulnerable populations. The adaptation of snowball sampling techniques, as described in this article, helped the authors to gain access to each of the more-vulnerable population groups of interest. The use of culturally sensitive recruitment strategies is both appropriate and effective in enlisting the involvement of members of vulnerable populations. Adaptations of snowball sampling strategies should be considered when recruiting participants for education programs or for research studies when the recruitment of a population-based sample is not essential.

  6. Stress-induced cellular adaptive strategies: ancient evolutionarily conserved programs as new anticancer therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipponi, Arcadi; Thomas, David M

    2014-06-01

    Despite the remarkable achievements of novel targeted anti-cancer drugs, most therapies only produce remission for a limited time, resistance to treatment, and relapse, often being the ultimate outcome. Drug resistance is due to highly efficient adaptive strategies utilized by cancer cells. Exogenous and endogenous stress stimuli are known to induce first-line responses, capable of re-establishing cellular homeostasis and determining cell fate decisions. Cancer cells may also mount second-line adaptive strategies, such as the mutator response. Hypermutable subpopulations of cells may expand under severe selective stress, thereby accelerating the emergence of adapted clones. As with first-line protective responses, these strategies appear highly conserved, and are found in yeasts and bacteria. We hypothesize that evolutionarily conserved programs rheostatically regulate mutability in fluctuating environments, and contribute to drug resistance in cancer cells. Elucidating the conserved genetic and molecular mechanisms may present novel opportunities to increase the effectiveness of cancer therapies. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Climate change effects and adaptation strategies in the wine sector: a quantitative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Sacchelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative literature review focusing on how scientific research analysed climate change impact on wine chain as well as potential adaptation strategies. The work is based on content analysis and text mining and takes into account researches from 1990 to 2015. A particular emphasis was given to the evaluation of suggested or implemented adaptation strategies at both global and national levels. Data were analysed using cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling and specificity evaluation. Results show that the study of climate change impacts on the wine sector is a recently emerging research topic. Adaptation strategies have not yet been explored thoroughly in the literature, and in-depth uncertainty quantification is also needed. Finally, additional research gaps and potential future issues are suggested.

  8. Synergies, Conflicts, and Trade-offs of C40 Cities Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur; De Rosa, Michele; Lehmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature in the field of urban climate change adaptation planning that indicate a need to address climate change planning measures from a more holistic sustainable development perspective. This paper presents the findings from a recently completed study that indicates...... there remain significant unresolved tensions between the development pathways and the climate change adaptation strategies of the 58 cities within the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group....

  9. Impacts of climate change on Brazilian agriculture: an analysis of irrigation as an adaptation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Denis Antonio da; Coelho, Alexandre Braganca; Feres, Jose; Braga, Marcelo Jose

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the effects of climate change on Brazilian agriculture considering irrigation adoption as an adaptation strategy. Investigation on how climatic variability influences irrigation adoption was performed as well as whether this adaptation measure actually reduces producers’ vulnerability to climate change. We used matching methods to analyze the choice of irrigation in the first stage and the land values for two types of farmer (irrigators or dryland) in the second sta...

  10. Life Strategies and Adaptations in Bryophytes from the Near and Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    KÜRSCHNER, Harald

    2014-01-01

    A review article on life strategies and ecomorphological adaptations (xerothalloid and xeropottioid life syndromes) of bryophytes is given, based on the hitherto known and analysed terrestrial, saxicolous and epiphytic communities of the Near and Middle East. The examples given impressively demonstrate common adaptive trends that arise convergently but independently in unrelated taxa when they evolve under similar habitat conditions. These functional types are important for the establishment,...

  11. Impact of combined vector-control and vaccination strategies on transmission dynamics of dengue fever: a model-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerer, Gerhart; Currie, Christine S M; Brailsford, Sally C

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a vector-borne disease prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. It is an important public health problem with a considerable and often under-valued disease burden in terms of frequency, cost and quality-of-life. Recent literature reviews have documented the development of mathematical models of dengue fever both to identify important characteristics for future model development as well as to assess the impact of dengue control interventions. Such reviews highlight the importance of short-term cross-protection; antibody-dependent enhancement; and seasonality (in terms of both favourable and unfavourable conditions for mosquitoes). The compartmental model extends work by Bartley (2002) and combines the following factors: seasonality, age-structure, consecutive infection by all four serotypes, cross-protection and immune enhancement, as well as combined vector-host transmission. The model is used to represent dengue transmission dynamics using parameters appropriate for Thailand and to assess the potential impact of combined vector-control and vaccination strategies including routine and catch-up vaccination strategies on disease dynamics. When seasonality and temporary cross-protection between serotypes are included, the model is able to approximate the observed incidence of dengue fever in Thailand. We find vaccination to be the most effective single intervention, albeit with imperfect efficacy (30.2 %) and limited duration of protection. However, in combination, control interventions and vaccination exhibit a marked impact on dengue fever transmission. This study shows that an imperfect vaccine can be a useful weapon in reducing disease spread within the community, although it will be most effective when promoted as one of several strategies for combating dengue fever transmission.

  12. Adapting to climate change in forest based land use systems: A guide to strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrett, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    The prospect of climate change and sea level rise as a result of greenhouse gas emissions presents a serious challenge to decision-makers concerned with ensuring sustainable development. This report provides a guide to means of reducing the potential impact of the global warming problem on the forest sector whilst ensuring that more immediate development priorities are met. The most effective response strategy will be one that simultaneously brings both immediate development and longer-term adaptive benefits. This report outlines ways of constructing an adaptive response strategy that can help achieve these ends. The approach is referred to as sustainable adaptation. A prototype methodological framework of the sustainable adaptation approach has been provided with the summary. The first priority of sustainable adaption is to base climate change responses on actions that meet basic ecological and social needs now and in the future. Solutions should necessarily include relieving current development pressures in the tropical forest sector. The key is to couple adaptive responses to climate change with sustainable development solutions to present-day forest use problems. Implementing adaptive land-use policies and management practices which are likely to minimise the adverse impacts of anticipated climate change should meet current sustainable management goals. Implementing sustainable land-use and forestry management practices should meet adaptation goals. This report presents a discussion of the fundamental issues underlying the development of a sustainable adaptation strategy and a prototype methodological framework. The findings are based on case studies conducted in Central America (Costa Rica and Nicaragua); SADCC countries in Africa (Zimbabwe, Botswana, Tanzania); and Asia (Vietnam). 450 refs

  13. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-Yan; LIU Cai-Hong; LI Yan-Chun; FANG Jian-Gang; LI Lin; LI Hong-Mei; ZHENG Guang-Fen; DENG Zhen-Yong; DONG An-Xiang; GUO Jun-Qin; ZHANG Cun-Jie; SUN Lan-Dong; ZHANG Xu-Dong; LIN Jing-Jing; WANG You-Heng; FANG Feng; MA Peng-Li

    2014-01-01

    Climate change resulted in changes in crop growth duration and planting structure, northward movement of planting region, and more severe plant diseases and insect pests in Northwest China. It caused earlier seeding for spring crop, later seeding for autumn crop, accelerated crop growth, and reduced mortality for winter crop. To adapt to climate change, measures such as optimization of agricultural arrangement, adjustment of planting structure, expansion of thermophilic crops, and development of water-saving agriculture have been taken. Damaging consequences of imbalance between grassland and livestock were enhanced. The deterioration trend of grassland was intensified; both grass quantity and quality declined. With overgrazing, proportions of inferior grass, weeds and poisonous weeds increased in plateau pastoral areas. Returning farmland to grazing, returning grazing to grassland, fence enclosure and artificial grassland construction have been implemented to restore the grassland vegetation, to increase the grassland coverage, to reasonably control the livestock carrying capacity, to prevent overgrazing, to keep balance between grassland and livestock, and to develop the ecological animal husbandry. In Northwest China, because the amount of regional water resources had an overall decreasing trend, there was a continuous expansion in the regional land desertification, and soil erosion was very serious. A series of measures, such as development of artificial precipitation (snow), water resources control, regional water diversion, water storage project and so on, were used effectively to respond to water deficit. It had played a certain role in controlling soil erosion by natural forest protection and returning farmland to forest and grassland. In the early 21st century, noticeable achievements had been made in prevention and control of desertification in Northwest China. The regional ecological environment has been improved obviously, and the desertification trend

  14. Vulnerability of maize production under future climate change: possible adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannayan, Mohammad; Paymard, Parisa; Ashraf, Batool

    2016-10-01

    Climate change can affect the productivity and geographic distribution of crops. Therefore, evaluation of adaptive management options is crucial in dealing with negative impacts of climate change. The objectives of this study were to simulate the impacts of climate change on maize production in the north-east of Iran. Moreover, vulnerability index which indicated that how much of the crop yield loss is related to the drought was computed for each location to identify where adaptation and mitigation strategies are effective. Different sowing dates were also applied as an adaptation approach to decrease the negative impacts of climate change in study area. The results showed that the maize yield would decline during the 21st century from -2.6% to -82% at all study locations in comparison with the baseline. The result of vulnerability index also indicated that using the adaptation strategies could be effective in all of the study areas. Using different sowing dates as an adaptation approach showed that delaying the sowing date will be advantageous in order to obtain higher yield in all study locations in future. This study provided insight regarding the climate change impacts on maize production and the efficacy of adaptation strategies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Multilevel Optimization Framework for Hierarchical Stiffened Shells Accelerated by Adaptive Equivalent Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Tian, Kuo; Zhao, Haixin; Hao, Peng; Zhu, Tianyu; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Yunlong

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve the post-buckling optimization efficiency of hierarchical stiffened shells, a multilevel optimization framework accelerated by adaptive equivalent strategy is presented in this paper. Firstly, the Numerical-based Smeared Stiffener Method (NSSM) for hierarchical stiffened shells is derived by means of the numerical implementation of asymptotic homogenization (NIAH) method. Based on the NSSM, a reasonable adaptive equivalent strategy for hierarchical stiffened shells is developed from the concept of hierarchy reduction. Its core idea is to self-adaptively decide which hierarchy of the structure should be equivalent according to the critical buckling mode rapidly predicted by NSSM. Compared with the detailed model, the high prediction accuracy and efficiency of the proposed model is highlighted. On the basis of this adaptive equivalent model, a multilevel optimization framework is then established by decomposing the complex entire optimization process into major-stiffener-level and minor-stiffener-level sub-optimizations, during which Fixed Point Iteration (FPI) is employed to accelerate convergence. Finally, the illustrative examples of the multilevel framework is carried out to demonstrate its efficiency and effectiveness to search for the global optimum result by contrast with the single-level optimization method. Remarkably, the high efficiency and flexibility of the adaptive equivalent strategy is indicated by compared with the single equivalent strategy.

  16. An interdisciplinary approach to identify adaptation strategies that enhance flood resilience and urban liveability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, B. C.; Bertram, N.; Gunn, Alex

    This paper provides guidance on how to identify and design the most suitable climate adaptation strategies for enhancing the liveability and flood resilience of urban catchments. It presents findings from a case study of Elwood, a coastal Melbourne suburb regularly affected by flooding...... that ensuring a city’s flood resilience involves a range of measures to retreat from, adapt to and defend against flooding; this necessarily requires an integrated approach and interdisciplinary expertise to develop adaptation pathways that are grounded in community aspirations and priorities, inspired by novel...

  17. Strategies for adaptation of mAb-producing CHO cells to serum-free medium

    OpenAIRE

    Costa A; Rodrigues M.; Henriques Mariana; Oliveira Rosário; Azeredo Joana

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals commonly requires the use of serum-free medium, for safety and cost reasons. However, serum is essential to most mammalian cells growth, and its removal implies a very time-consuming process for cell adaptation. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate different strategies for cell adaptation to serum-free medium. Three cell types were used to assess the impact of transfection on adaptation: one common CHO-K1 cell line and two CHO-K1 cells tr...

  18. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a generic framework to characterize climate change adaptation uncertainty according to three dimensions: level, source and nature. Our framework is different, and in this respect more comprehensive, than the present UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approach and could...... are epistemic (reducible) by nature but uncertainties on adaptation measures are complex, with ambiguity often being added to impact uncertainties. Strategies to deal with uncertainty in climate change adaptation should reflect the nature of the uncertainty sources and how they interact with risk level...

  19. Developmental prosopagnosia and adaptative compensatory strategies: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anair Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Prosopagnosia is a type of visual agnosia with inability to identify faces, usually secondary to brain lesion in associative cortex areas, but there is also a congenital form known as developmental prosopagnosia. Objectives: To describe a case of developmental prosopagnosia that illustrates the specificity of the pathways for perception of faces in the visual system. Also, we will describe possible mechanisms of recognition used by this patient. Methods: R.S., a 50 year-old woman, was referred for neuropsychological assessment due to difficulties in perception of familiar faces since childhood, unexplained by any loss of visual acuity. Results: The exam showed good performance for comprehension, reasoning, concept formation, constructional abilities, criticism, judgment, mental control, memory and visual perception for other kinds of stimuli. No difficulties were seen regarding identification of ethnicity, age and types of animals. The patient was able to match celebrities' faces in different positions, but could not identify the matching pictures for unknown people. Conclusions: These findings indicate the patient had developed strategies, throughout life, to recognize familiar faces (relatives, celebrities from memorized fragments, but still had difficulties in identifying non-familiar faces holistically.

  20. The environment matters: Comparing individuals and dyads in their adaptive use of decision strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane E. Kaemmer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals have been shown to adaptively select decision strategies depending on the environment structure. Two experiments extended this research to the group level. Subjects (N = 240 worked either individually or in two-person groups, or dyads, on a multi-attribute paired-comparison task. They were randomly assigned to two different environments that favored one of two prototypical decision strategies---weighted additive or take-the-best (between-subjects design in Experiment 1 and within-subject design in Experiment 2. Performance measures revealed that both individuals and dyads learned to adapt over time. A higher starting and overall performance rate in the environment in which weighted additive performed best led to the conclusion that weighted additive served as a default strategy. When this default strategy had to be replaced, because the environmental structure favored take-the-best, the superior adaptive capacity of dyads became observable in the form of a steeper learning rate. Analyses of nominal dyads indicate that real dyads performed at the level of the best individuals. Fine-grained analyses of information-search data are presented. Results thus point to the strong moderating role of the environment structure when comparing individual with group performance and are discussed within the framework of adaptive strategy selection.

  1. Multiagents-based wide area protection with best-effort adaptive strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yongli; Wang, Dewen [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China); Song, Shaoqun [Fuzhou Electric Power Industry Bureau, Fujian Province (China)

    2009-02-15

    Abstract - Multi-trips of circuit breakers often occur within a short period in a severe blackout, and the tripping usually relates to relays' mal-operations. In fact, when two ore more electric primary devices are isolated by circuit breakers, the settings of most relays to protect their power system are getting infeasible and uncoordinated. Adaptive settings are needed to prevent them from wrong operation. This paper presents an adaptive protection scheme based on wide area information with best-effort protection strategy, and the outline of multiagents and WAN Based Adaptive Protection System (MAWAPS). In the scheme, the best-effort adaptive strategy is used to guarantee the adaptive settings to operate safely and effectively in most situations. The IP/SDH-based wide area network (WAN) is used to realize real-time wide area information exchange in the proposed protection scheme. Adaptive setting algorithms for the second stage zero-sequence current and phase overcurrent relays are proposed, which can provide larger line coverage than traditional relays. Moreover, multiagent techniques and IEC 61850 are employed to realize the fast communication between different agents, and MMS plays a prominent role in real-time remote communication. A simulating system has been developed according to the above ideas and approaches, and the experimental results show that the proposed adaptive protection scheme is feasible from the view of protective performance including the executing time. (author)

  2. Heat shock proteins and hypometabolism: adaptive strategy for proteome preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey KB

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth B Storey, Janet M StoreyDepartments of Biology and Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, CanadaAbstract: To survive under harsh environmental conditions many organisms retreat into hypometabolic states where metabolic rate may be reduced by 80% or more and energy use is reprioritized to emphasize key functions that sustain viability and provide cytoprotection. ATP-expensive activities, such as gene expression, protein turnover (synthesis and degradation, and the cell cycle, are largely shut down. As a consequence, mechanisms that stabilize the existing cellular proteome can become critical for long-term survival. Heat shock proteins (HSPs are well-known for their actions as chaperones that act to fold new proteins or refold proteins that are damaged. Indeed, they are part of the “minimal stress proteome” that appears to be a ubiquitous response by all cells as they attempt, successfully or unsuccessfully, to deal with stress. The present review summarizes evidence that HSPs are also a conserved feature of natural animal hypometabolism including the phenomena of estivation, hibernation, diapause, cold-hardiness, anaerobiosis, and anhydrobiosis. That is, organisms that retreat into dormant or torpid states in anticipation that environmental conditions may become too difficult for normal life also integrate the use of HSPs to protect their proteome while hypometabolic. Multiple studies show a common upregulation of expression of hsp genes and/or HSP proteins prior to or during hypometabolism in organisms as diverse as ground squirrels, turtles, land snails, insects, and brine shrimp and in situations of both preprogrammed dormancies (eg, seasonal or life stage specific and opportunistic hypometabolism (eg, triggered by desiccation or lack of oxygen. Hence, HSPs are not just a “shock” response that attempts to rescue cells from damaging stress but are a key protective strategy that is an integral component of natural states of

  3. Strategies for the plant-based expression of dengue subunit vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Yun-Kiam; Smith, Duncan R

    2010-10-01

    Despite significant efforts in many countries, there is still no commercially viable dengue vaccine. Currently, attention is focused on the development of either live attenuated vaccines or live attenuated chimaeric vaccines using a variety of backbones. Alternate vaccine approaches, such as whole inactivated virus and subunit vaccines are in the early stages of development, and are each associated with different problems. Subunit vaccines offer the advantage of providing a uniform antigen of well-defined nature, without the added risk of introducing any genetic material into the person being inoculated. Preliminary trials of subunit vaccines (using dengue E protein) in rhesus monkeys have shown promising results. However, the primary disadvantages of dengue subunit vaccines are the low levels of expression of dengue proteins in mammalian or insect cells, as well as the added unknown risks of antigens produced from mammalian cells containing other potential sources of contamination. In the past two decades, plants have emerged as an alternative platform for expression of biopharmaceutical products, including antigens of bacterial, fungal or viral origin. In the present minireview, we highlight the current plant expression technologies used for expression of biopharmaceutical products, with an emphasis on plants as a production system for dengue subunit vaccines.

  4. Sequential causal inference: application to randomized trials of adaptive treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ree; Lavori, Philip W

    2008-05-10

    Clinical trials that randomize subjects to decision algorithms, which adapt treatments over time according to individual response, have gained considerable interest as investigators seek designs that directly inform clinical decision making. We consider designs in which subjects are randomized sequentially at decision points, among adaptive treatment options under evaluation. We present a sequential method to estimate the comparative effects of the randomized adaptive treatments, which are formalized as adaptive treatment strategies. Our causal estimators are derived using Bayesian predictive inference. We use analytical and empirical calculations to compare the predictive estimators to (i) the 'standard' approach that allocates the sequentially obtained data to separate strategy-specific groups as would arise from randomizing subjects at baseline; (ii) the semi-parametric approach of marginal mean models that, under appropriate experimental conditions, provides the same sequential estimator of causal differences as the proposed approach. Simulation studies demonstrate that sequential causal inference offers substantial efficiency gains over the standard approach to comparing treatments, because the predictive estimators can take advantage of the monotone structure of shared data among adaptive strategies. We further demonstrate that the semi-parametric asymptotic variances, which are marginal 'one-step' estimators, may exhibit significant bias, in contrast to the predictive variances. We show that the conditions under which the sequential method is attractive relative to the other two approaches are those most likely to occur in real studies.

  5. Risks associated with the use of live-attenuated vaccine poliovirus strains and the strategies for control and eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliaka, Vaia; Kyriakopoulou, Zaharoula; Markoulatos, Panayotis

    2012-05-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988 with the aim to eliminate paralytic poliomyelitis. Two effective vaccines are available: inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). Since 1964, OPV has been used instead of IPV in most countries due to several economic and biological advantages. However, in rare cases, the live-attenuated Sabin strains of OPV revert to neurovirulence and cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in vaccinees or lead to emergence of vaccine-derived poliovirus strains. Attenuating mutations and recombination events have been associated with the reversion of vaccine strains to neurovirulence. The substitution of OPV with an improved new-generation IPV and the availability of new specific drugs against polioviruses are considered as future strategies for outbreak control and the eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide.

  6. Vaccination strategies for Parkinson disease: induction of a swift attack or raising tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ramos, Marina; von Euler Chelpin, Marianne; Sanchez-Guajardo, Vanesa

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, but there is currently no available cure for it. Current treatments only alleviate some of the symptoms for a few years, but they become ineffective in the long run and do not stop the disease. Therefore it is of outmost importance to develop therapeutic strategies that can prevent, stop, or cure Parkinson disease. A very promising target for these therapies is the peripheral immune system due to its probable involvement in the disease and its potential as a tool to modulate neuroinflammation. But for such strategies to be successful, we need to understand the particular state of the peripheral immune system during Parkinson disease in order to avoid its weaknesses. In this review we examine the available data regarding how dopamine regulates the peripheral immune system and how this regulation is affected in Parkinson disease; the specific cytokine profiles observed during disease progression and the alterations documented to date in patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We also review the different strategies used in Parkinson disease animal models to modulate the adaptive immune response to salvage dopaminergic neurons from cell death. After analyzing the evidence, we hypothesize the need to prime the immune system to restore natural tolerance against α-synuclein in Parkinson disease, including at the same time B and T cells, so that T cells can reprogram microglia activation to a beneficial pattern and B cell/IgG can help neurons cope with the pathological forms of α-synuclein.

  7. Technologies and Second Language: Nigerian Students' Adaptive Strategies to Cope with Language Barrier in Northern Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elega, Adeola Abdulateef; Özad, Bahire Efe

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to investigate how Nigerian students in Northern Cyprus cope with language barrier and increase interactions with people of the host community beyond the classroom via utilizing technological adaptive strategies. In order to complete this study, a descriptive design based on a survey conducted among 238 Nigerian students studying…

  8. Assessment of Model Predictive and Adaptive Glucose Control Strategies for People with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe;

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses overnight blood glucose stabilization in people with type 1 diabetes using a Model Predictive Controller (MPC). We use a control strategy based on an adaptive ARMAX model in which we use a Recursive Extended Least Squares (RELS) method to estimate parameters of the stochastic...

  9. Assessment of Model Predictive and Adaptive Glucose Control Strategies for People with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses overnight blood glucose stabilization in people with type 1 diabetes using a Model Predictive Controller (MPC). We use a control strategy based on an adaptive ARMAX model in which we use a Recursive Extended Least Squares (RELS) method to estimate parameters of the stochastic...

  10. International EFL/ESL Master Students' Adaptation Strategies for Academic Writing Practices at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2017-01-01

    The present research provides insights into the different forms of adaptation strategies employed by international graduate students to overcome the challenges faced in the academic writing practices and gain access to their disciplinary communities of practice at Master's level. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured in-depth…

  11. The Effect of Adaptive Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…

  12. The Effect of Adaptive Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…

  13. An extension of the classification of evolutionary singular strategies in Adaptive Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boldin, Barbara; Diekmann, Odo

    2014-01-01

    The existing classification of evolutionarily singular strategies in Adaptive Dynamics (Geritz et al. in Evol Ecol 12:35–57, 1998; Metz et al. in Stochastic and spatial structures of dynamical systems, pp 183–231, 1996) assumes an invasion exponent that is differentiable twice as a function of both

  14. The importance of training strategy adaptation: a learner-oriented approach for improving older adults' memory and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiroli, Sara; Cavallini, Elena; Dunlosky, John; Vecchi, Tomaso; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the benefits of strategy-adaptation training for promoting transfer effects. This learner-oriented approach--which directly encourages the learner to generalize strategic behavior to new tasks--helps older adults appraise new tasks and adapt trained strategies to them. In Experiment 1, older adults in a strategy-adaptation training group used 2 strategies (imagery and sentence generation) while practicing 2 tasks (list and associative learning); they were then instructed on how to do a simple task analysis to help them adapt the trained strategies for 2 different unpracticed tasks (place learning and text learning) that were discussed during training. Two additional criterion tasks (name-face associative learning and grocery-list learning) were never mentioned during training. Two other groups were included: A strategy training group (who received strategy training and transfer instructions but not strategy-adaptation training) and a waiting-list control group. Both training procedures enhanced older adults' performance on the trained tasks and those tasks that were discussed during training, but transfer was greatest after strategy-adaptation training. Experiment 2 found that strategy-adaptation training conducted via a manual that older adults used at home also promoted transfer. These findings demonstrate the importance of adopting a learner-oriented approach to promote transfer of strategy training.

  15. Strategies to enhance immunogenicity of cDNA vaccine encoded antigens by modulation of antigen processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Marit de Groot, A; Andersen, Peter; Ovaa, Huib; Kloetzel, Peter M; Mishto, Michele; Sijts, Alice J A M

    2016-01-01

    Most vaccines are based on protective humoral responses while for intracellular pathogens CD8(+) T cells are regularly needed to provide protection. However, poor processing efficiency of antigens is often a limiting factor in CD8(+) T cell priming, hampering vaccine efficacy. The multistage cDNA va

  16. Vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic arenaviruses: the next steps toward clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olschläger

    Full Text Available Vaccination is one of the most valuable weapons against infectious diseases and has led to a significant reduction in mortality and morbidity. However, for most viral hemorrhagic fevers caused by arenaviruses, no prophylactic vaccine is available. This is particularly problematic as these diseases are notoriously difficult to diagnose and treat. Lassa fever is globally the most important of the fevers caused by arenaviruses, potentially affecting millions of people living in endemic areas, particularly in Nigeria. Annually, an estimated 300,000 humans are infected and several thousands succumb to the disease. The successful development of the vaccine "Candid#1" against Junin virus, the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, proved that an effective arenavirus vaccine can be developed. Although several promising studies toward the development of a Lassa fever vaccine have been published, no vaccine candidate has been tested in human volunteers or patients. This review summarizes the immunology and other aspects of existing experimental arenavirus vaccine studies, discusses the reasons for the lack of a vaccine, and proposes a plan for overcoming the final hurdles toward clinical trials.

  17. Vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic arenaviruses: the next steps toward clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olschläger, Stephan; Flatz, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most valuable weapons against infectious diseases and has led to a significant reduction in mortality and morbidity. However, for most viral hemorrhagic fevers caused by arenaviruses, no prophylactic vaccine is available. This is particularly problematic as these diseases are notoriously difficult to diagnose and treat. Lassa fever is globally the most important of the fevers caused by arenaviruses, potentially affecting millions of people living in endemic areas, particularly in Nigeria. Annually, an estimated 300,000 humans are infected and several thousands succumb to the disease. The successful development of the vaccine "Candid#1" against Junin virus, the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, proved that an effective arenavirus vaccine can be developed. Although several promising studies toward the development of a Lassa fever vaccine have been published, no vaccine candidate has been tested in human volunteers or patients. This review summarizes the immunology and other aspects of existing experimental arenavirus vaccine studies, discusses the reasons for the lack of a vaccine, and proposes a plan for overcoming the final hurdles toward clinical trials.

  18. Hepatitis B vaccination at three months of age: a successful strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Federica; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Mongillo, Michele; Ferretto, Luca; Nicolli, Annamaria; Trevisan, Andrea

    2013-03-25

    Vaccination of infants, children and adolescents against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is mandatory in Italy. It is crucial to assess whether vaccinated subjects have protective antibody level during adulthood when the risk of HBV infection increases due to lifestyle or occupational exposure. Two groups of students attending to University of Padova Medical School were enrolled between 2004 and 2011 and HBV antibodies and antigens were measured. The first group (Group A) comprised students vaccinated at three months of age and the second group (Group B) comprised students vaccinated after the first year of life. The follow-up was 18.0 (Group A) and 17.9 (Group B) years. The students vaccinated at three months of age had a higher rate of non-protective antibodies (47.2%) comparing to those vaccinated after the first year of life (17.0%, P<0.0001) with a significantly lower antibody level (P<0.001). The rate of non-protective antibodies was inversely related to vaccination age. The results clearly show that children vaccinated after the first year of life are better protected against HBV. On the other hand, both groups show a good immunological memory as evidenced by the achievement of protective antibody level after the booster dose in 97.8% of subjects.

  19. Innate gamma/delta T-cells during HIV infection: Terra relatively Incognita in novel vaccination strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrati, Chiara; D'Offizi, Gianpiero; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Malkovsky, Miroslav; Sacchi, Alessandra; Casetti, Rita; Bordoni, Veronica; Cimini, Eleonora; Martini, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Despite a long-lasting global effort, the Holy Grail quest for a protective vaccine, able to confer prevention to HIV infection, did not reach the hoped for results, nor seems able to do so in the near future. Since mucosal surfaces of the host serve as the main entry point for HIV, it seems now logical to switch from a systemic to a localized view of events, in order to reveal critical steps useful in designing new and different vaccination strategies. In this context, the recent description of the very early phases of infection, from the eclipse to the viremia peak phase, seems to define a point-of-no-return threshold after which the main HIV infection steps, i.e. the massive destruction of the CD4+CCR5+ cell pool, the destruction of the mucosal physical barrier, and the establishment of reservoir sanctuaries, have already been accomplished. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms, the timing, and the consequences of evasion mechanisms exploited by HIV are still under scrutiny. Innate immunity, as part of a rapid lymphoid stress surveillance system, is known to play a central role in host responses to many infectious agents. In particular, Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells are able to quickly respond to danger signals without the need for classical major histocompatibility complex presentation, and may act as a bridge between innate and acquired arms of immune response, being able to kill infected/transformed cells, release antimicrobial soluble factors, and increase the deployment of other innate and acquired responses. Many experimental evidences suggest a direct role of circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells during HIV disease. They may exert a direct anti-HIV role by secreting chemokines competing for HIV entry coreceptors as well as other soluble antiviral factors, and by killing infected cells by cytotoxic natural killer-like mechanisms. Moreover, they were found progressively depleted and anergic in advanced stages of HIV disease, this effect being directly linked to uncontrolled

  20. Adaptive backstepping sliding mode control with fuzzy monitoring strategy for a kind of mechanical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhankui; Sun, Kaibiao

    2014-01-01

    A novel adaptive backstepping sliding mode control (ABSMC) law with fuzzy monitoring strategy is proposed for the tracking-control of a kind of nonlinear mechanical system. The proposed ABSMC scheme combining the sliding mode control and backstepping technique ensure that the occurrence of the sliding motion in finite-time and the trajectory of tracking-error converge to equilibrium point. To obtain a better perturbation rejection property, an adaptive control law is employed to compensate the lumped perturbation. Furthermore, we introduce fuzzy monitoring strategy to improve adaptive capacity and soften the control signal. The convergence and stability of the proposed control scheme are proved by using Lyaponov's method. Finally, numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  1. APPLICATION OF RESTART COVARIANCE MATRIX ADAPTATION EVOLUTION STRATEGY (RCMA-ES TO GENERATION EXPANSION PLANNING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karthikeyan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of an evolutionary algorithm, Restart Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (RCMA-ES to the Generation Expansion Planning (GEP problem. RCMA-ES is a class of continuous Evolutionary Algorithm (EA derived from the concept of self-adaptation in evolution strategies, which adapts the covariance matrix of a multivariate normal search distribution. The original GEP problem is modified by incorporating Virtual Mapping Procedure (VMP. The GEP problem of a synthetic test systems for 6-year, 14-year and 24-year planning horizons having five types of candidate units is considered. Two different constraint-handling methods are incorporated and impact of each method has been compared. In addition, comparison and validation has also made with dynamic programming method.

  2. Use of vaccination in avian influenza control and eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, S; Cecchinato, M; Capua, I

    2008-01-01

    Vaccination against avian influenza (AI) infections caused by viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes has been used in several occasions in recent years with the general objective of controlling and in some cases eradicating the disease. To contain AI infections effectively, vaccination should only be used as part of a comprehensive control strategy that also includes biosecurity, quarantine, surveillance, education, and elimination of infected and at-risk poultry. Although properly used, potent AI vaccines can prevent disease and death, increase resistance to infection, reduce virus replication and shedding, and reduce viral transmission, they cannot completely prevent AI virus replication. A wide variety of vaccines against AI has been developed and tested in experimental conditions, but only inactivated whole AI virus vaccines and recombinant H5-AI vaccines have been licensed and widely used in various countries. AI vaccination programmes should be adapted to local conditions to guarantee efficacy and sustainability. In particular, vaccination programmes should be modulated in diverse situations according to the virus strain involved, the characteristics of the poultry producing sector, the capacity of the veterinary infrastructure, and the availability of adequate resources. Based on the eco-epidemiological situation in the affected region/area/compartment and the assessment of the risk of AI introduction, different vaccination strategies could be implemented to control AI: (i) routine vaccination performed in endemic areas; (ii) emergency vaccination in the face of an epidemic; and (iii) preventative vaccination carried out whenever a high risk of virus incursion is identified.

  3. Dosimetric evaluation of three adaptive strategies for prostate cancer treatment including pelvic lymph nodes irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantin, Audrey; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis, E-mail: louis.archambault@phy.ulaval.ca [Département de Physique, de génie Physique et d’optique et Centre de Recherche sur le Cancer, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Lachance, Bernard; Foster, William [Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Goudreault, Julie [Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie, CSSS de Gatineau–Hôpital de Gatineau, 909 Boulevard La Vérendrye, Gatineau, Québec J8P 7H2 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The movements of the prostate relative to the pelvic lymph nodes during intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment can limit margin reduction and affect the protection of the organs at risk (OAR). In this study, the authors performed an analysis of three adaptive treatment strategies that combine information from both bony and gold marker registrations. The robustness of those treatments against the interfraction prostate movements was evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on five prostate cancer patients with 7–13 daily cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). The clinical target volumes (CTVs) consisting of pelvic lymph nodes, prostate, and seminal vesicles as well as the OARs were delineated on each CBCT and the initial CT. Three adaptive strategies were analyzed. Two of these methods relied on a two-step patient positioning at each fraction. First step: a bony registration was used to deliver the nodal CTV prescription. Second step: a gold marker registration was then used either to (1) complete the dose delivered to the prostate (complement); (2) or give almost the entire prescription to the prostate with a weak dose gradient between the targets to compensate for possible motions (gradient). The third method (COR) used a pool of precalculated plans based on images acquired at previous treatment fractions. At each new fraction, a plan is selected from that pool based on the daily position of prostate center-of-mass. The dosimetric comparison was conducted and results are presented with and without the systematic shift in the prostate position on the CT planning. The adaptive strategies were compared to the current clinical standard where all fractions are treated with the initial nonadaptive plan. Results: The minimum daily prostate D{sub 95%} is improved by 2%, 9%, and 6% for the complement, the gradient, and the COR approaches, respectively, compared to the nonadaptive method. The average nodal CTV D{sub 95%} remains constant across the

  4. A rapid immunization strategy with a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine elicits protective neutralizing antibody responses in non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping eAmbuel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENVs cause approximately 390 million cases of DENV infections annually and over 3 billion people worldwide are at risk of infection. No dengue vaccine is currently available nor is there an antiviral therapy for DENV infections. We have developed a tetravalent live-attenuated DENV vaccine (TDV that consists of a molecularly characterized attenuated DENV-2 strain (TDV-2 and three chimeric viruses containing the pre-membrane and envelope genes of DENV-1, -3 and -4 expressed in the context of the TDV-2 genome. To impact dengue vaccine delivery in endemic areas and immunize travelers, a simple and rapid immunization strategy (RIS is preferred. We investigated RIS consisting of two full vaccine doses being administered subcutaneously or intradermally on the initial vaccination visit (day 0 at two different anatomical locations with a needle-free disposable syringe jet injection (DSJI delivery devices (PharmaJet in non-human primates (NHP. This vaccination strategy resulted in efficient priming and induction of neutralizing antibody responses to all four DENV serotypes comparable to those elicited by the traditional prime and boost (two months later vaccination schedule. In addition, the vaccine induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α, and targeting the DENV-2 NS1, NS3 and NS5 proteins. Moreover, vaccine-specific T cells were cross-reactive with the non-structural NS3 and NS5 proteins of DENV-4. When animals were challenged with DENV-2 they were protected with no detectable viremia, and exhibited sterilizing immunity (no increase of neutralizing titers post- challenge. RIS could decrease vaccination visits and provide quick immune response to all four DENV serotypes. This strategy could increase vaccination compliance and would be especially advantageous for travelers into endemic areas.

  5. Anamnestic responses in pigs to the Taenia solium TSOL18 vaccine and implications for control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell; Elaiyaraja, M; Maithal, Kapil; Kumar, K Anand; Gauci, Charles G; Firestone, Simon M; Sarasola, Patxi; Rowan, Tim G

    2016-04-01

    Specific antibody responses were assessed in pigs immunized with the Taenia solium vaccine TSOL18. Anti-TSOL18 responses were compared 2 weeks after secondary immunization, where the interval between primary and secondary immunization was 4, 8, 12, 16 or 20 weeks. All animals responded to the vaccine and there was no diminution in antibody responses in animals receiving their second injection after an interval up to 20 weeks. Pigs receiving vaccinations at an interval of 12 weeks developed significantly increased antibody responses compared with animals receiving immunizations 4 weeks apart (P = 0.046). The ability to deliver TSOL18 vaccination effectively where the revaccination schedule can be delayed for up to 12-16 weeks in pigs increases the options available for designing T. solium control interventions that incorporate TSOL18 vaccination.

  6. Adapting to Adaptations: Behavioural Strategies that are Robust to Mutations and Other Organisational-Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Matthew D.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic mutations, infection by parasites or symbionts, and other events can transform the way that an organism’s internal state changes in response to a given environment. We use a minimalistic computational model to support an argument that by behaving “interoceptively,” i.e. responding to internal state rather than to the environment, organisms can be robust to these organisational-transformations. We suggest that the robustness of interoceptive behaviour is due, in part, to the asymmetrical relationship between an organism and its environment, where the latter more substantially influences the former than vice versa. This relationship means that interoceptive behaviour can respond to the environment, the internal state and the interaction between the two, while exteroceptive behaviour can only respond to the environment. We discuss the possibilities that (i) interoceptive behaviour may play an important role of facilitating adaptive evolution (especially in the early evolution of primitive life) and (ii) interoceptive mechanisms could prove useful in efforts to create more robust synthetic life-forms. PMID:26743579

  7. Adapting to Adaptations: Behavioural Strategies that are Robust to Mutations and Other Organisational-Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Matthew D; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-08

    Genetic mutations, infection by parasites or symbionts, and other events can transform the way that an organism's internal state changes in response to a given environment. We use a minimalistic computational model to support an argument that by behaving "interoceptively," i.e. responding to internal state rather than to the environment, organisms can be robust to these organisational-transformations. We suggest that the robustness of interoceptive behaviour is due, in part, to the asymmetrical relationship between an organism and its environment, where the latter more substantially influences the former than vice versa. This relationship means that interoceptive behaviour can respond to the environment, the internal state and the interaction between the two, while exteroceptive behaviour can only respond to the environment. We discuss the possibilities that (i) interoceptive behaviour may play an important role of facilitating adaptive evolution (especially in the early evolution of primitive life) and (ii) interoceptive mechanisms could prove useful in efforts to create more robust synthetic life-forms.

  8. Toolbox for uncertainty; Introduction of adaptive heuristics as strategies for project decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stingl, Verena; Geraldi, Joana

    2017-01-01

    they are ‘ecologically rational’. The model builds on the individual definitions of ecological rationality and organizes them according to two types of uncertainty (‘knowable’ and ‘unknowable’). Decision problems and heuristics are furthermore grouped by decision task (choice and judgement). The article discusses......This article presents adaptive heuristics as an alternative approach to navigate uncertainty in project decision-making. Adaptive heuristic are a class of simple decision strategies that have received only scant attention in project studies. Yet, they can strive in contexts of high uncertainty...... and limited information, which are the typical project decision context. This article develops a conceptual model that supports a systematic connection between adaptive heuristics and project decisions. Individual adaptive heuristics succeed only in specific decision environments, in which...

  9. Laboratory Evolution to Alternating Substrate Environments Yields Distinct Phenotypic and Genetic Adaptive Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Troy E.; Lloyd, Colton J.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiments are often designed to maintain a static culturing environment to minimize confounding variables that could influence the adaptive process, but dynamic nutrient conditions occur frequently in natural and bioprocessing settings. To study the nature...... of carbon substrate fitness tradeoffs, we evolved batch cultures of Escherichia coli via serial propagation into tubes alternating between glucose and either xylose, glycerol, or acetate. Genome sequencing of evolved cultures revealed several genetic changes preferentially selected for under dynamic...... to the observed distinct adaptive strategies. This study gives insight into the population dynamics of adaptation in an alternating environment and into the underlying metabolic and genetic mechanisms. Furthermore, ALE-generated optimized strains have phenotypes with potential industrial bioprocessing...

  10. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    be used to address concerns that the IPCC approach is oversimplified. We have studied the role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation planning using examples from four Danish water related sectors. The dominating sources of uncertainty differ greatly among issues; most uncertainties on impacts......We propose a generic framework to characterize climate change adaptation uncertainty according to three dimensions: level, source and nature. Our framework is different, and in this respect more comprehensive, than the present UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approach and could...... are epistemic (reducible) by nature but uncertainties on adaptation measures are complex, with ambiguity often being added to impact uncertainties. Strategies to deal with uncertainty in climate change adaptation should reflect the nature of the uncertainty sources and how they interact with risk level...

  11. A novel adaptive modulation and coding strategy based on partial feedback for enhanced MBMS network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Yu; PENG Mu-gen; WANG Wen-bo

    2008-01-01

    The difference in link condition of broadcast/multicast users and the limitation of uplink resource, make itdifficult to utilize adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) in theenhanced multimedia broadcast and multicast service (E-MBMS)network. To obtain the improvement of system throughput, thisstudy proposes an adaptive modulation and coding schemebased on partial feedback, by which only partial users whosechannel qualities are lower than the system threshold need tomake a response to the modulation coding scheme (MCS)adaptation procedure. By this investigation, an adaptive schemecan be introduced in the E-MBMS network. Both the theoreticalanalysis and simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of theproposed strategy, in which the performance is close to the idealone and has a significant throughput improvement whencompared with that of the fixed MCS transmission scheme.

  12. Effects of adaptive degrees of trust on coevolution of quantum strategies on scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Chen, Minyou; Perc, Matjaž; Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek

    2013-10-01

    We study the impact of adaptive degrees of trust on the evolution of cooperation in the quantum prisoner's dilemma game. In addition to the strategies, links between players are also subject to evolution. Starting with a scale-free interaction network, players adjust trust towards their neighbors based on received payoffs. The latter governs the strategy adoption process, while trust governs the rewiring of links. As soon as the degree of trust towards a neighbor drops to zero, the link is rewired to another randomly chosen player within the network. We find that for small temptations to defect cooperators always dominate, while for intermediate and strong temptations a single quantum strategy is able to outperform all other strategies. In general, reciprocal trust remains within close relationships and favors the dominance of a single strategy. Due to coevolution, the power-law degree distributions transform to Poisson distributions.

  13. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Innes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

  14. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lasage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings. A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD. Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr–1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr–1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD −107 to −1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different

  15. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by

  16. The cost-effectiveness of two strategies for vaccinating US veterans with hepatitis C virus infection against hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakiche, Rita; Borrego, Matthew E; Raisch, Dennis W; Gupchup, Gireesh V; Pai, Manjunath A; Jakiche, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Although hepatitis A and B vaccinations are recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), the ideal vaccination strategy has not been determined. Our objective was to model the cost-effectiveness of two strategies for vaccinating patients with HCV infection against hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses. The strategies evaluated were: universal vaccination with the combined HAV and HBV vaccine, and selective vaccination based on immunity determined by blood testing. A decision tree model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of the two vaccination strategies from the New Mexico Veterans Affairs Health Care System (NMVAHCS) perspective. A retrospective review of all HCV patients (2517 subjects) at the NMVAHCS was performed to extract prevalence of immunity to HAV and HBV, and prevalence of decompensated liver disease. Literature review was performed to obtain other probabilities for the model. Only direct medical costs were considered; the effectiveness measure was the number of patients immune to both HAV and HBV. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test robustness of the results to changes in input variables. All costs were in 2004 US dollars. The selective strategy was less costly but less effective, with a cost-effectiveness ratio of 105 dollars per patient immune to HAV and HBV. The universal strategy was more effective but more expensive with a cost-effectiveness ratio of 112 dollars per patient immune to HAV and HBV. Compared with the selective strategy, universal strategy was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness (ICE) ratio of 154 dollars per additional patient immune to HAV and HBV. The universal strategy would become more cost-effective if 1) the cost of combined vaccine was reduced to less than 30.75 dollars (9.7% reduction), 2) the cost of HBV vaccine increased to greater than 34.50 dollars (25% increase), 3) the cost of blood tests for immunity increased to more than 25.25 dollars (23% increase), or

  17. Vaccination Strategies against Malaria: novel carrier(s) more than a tour de force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Rajeev K; Garg, Neeraj K; Sahu, Tejram

    2012-08-20

    The introduction of vaccine technology has facilitated an unprecedented multi-antigen approach to develop an effective vaccine against complex systemic inflammatory pathogens such as Plasmodium spp. that cause severe malaria. The capacity of multi subunit DNA vaccine encoding different stage Plasmodium antigens to induce CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes and interferon-γ responses in mice, monkeys and humans has been observed. Moreover, genetic vaccination may be capable of eliciting both cell mediated and humoral immune responses. The cytotoxic T cell responses are categorically needed against intracellular hepatic stage and humoral response with antibodies targeted against antigens from all stages of malaria parasite life cycle. Therefore, the key to success for any DNA based vaccine is to design a vector able to serve as a safe and efficient delivery system. This has encouraged the development of non-viral DNA-mediated gene transfer techniques such as liposome, virosomes, microsphere and nanoparticles. Efficient and relatively safe DNA transfection using lipoplexes makes them an appealing alternative to be explored for gene delivery. Also, liposome-entrapped DNA has been shown to enhance the potency of DNA vaccines, possibly by facilitating uptake of the plasmid by antigen-presenting cells (APC). Another recent technology using cationic lipids has been deployed and has generated substantial interest in this approach to gene transfer. In this review we discussed various aspects that could be decisive in the formulation of efficient and stable carrier system(s) for the development of malaria vaccine.

  18. Determinants of climate change adaptation strategies used by fish farmers in Epe Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimi, Kayode S

    2014-05-01

    Undesirable impacts of climate change have been a common occurrence that has made fish farmers in developing countries adopt some climate-change adaptation strategies. However, little is known about determinants of climate-change adaptation strategies used by these fish farmers. This study, therefore, articulates novelties on adaptation to climate change, as well ascertains determinants of adaptation strategies used by fish farmers in Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria. Climate change adaptation strategies mostly used by fish farmers include frequent seeking for early warning information about climate change (76.7%) and avoidance of areas susceptible to flooding (60.0%). Climate-change adaptation strategies used by fish farmers were significantly influenced by access to early warning information (β = 7.21), knowledge of farmers about climate change adaptation strategies (β = 8.86), access to capital (β = 28.25), and participation in workshop and conferences (β = 37.19) but were reduced by number of fish stocking (β = -2.06). The adaptation strategies used by fish farmers were autonomous and mostly determined by the access to credit facilities and information. Development policy should focus on carbon capture and storage technology in order to reduce adverse impacts of climate change, as well as making early warning information on climate change available to fish farmers. These will enhance adaptation to climate change. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Assessment of vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic avian influenza in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei SUN,Jinhua LIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI has been implemented in China for a decade, however, the virus is still present in poultry. A series of recombinant vaccines, Re-1 to Re-7, have been developed and used, and Re-8 will also be used in clinical settings to prevent the prevailing flu strains. The question remains, when can China eradicate the disease? Here, we review the epidemiology of H5 HPAI along with the development, usage and problems of vaccines. Further suggestions for controlling the disease in China are provided.

  20. Relationships among adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology during the treatment of comorbid anxiety and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Laren R; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Barlow, David H

    2015-10-01

    Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Workshop approach for developing climate change adaptation strategies and actions for natural resource management agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica E. Halofsky; David L Peterson; Michael J. Furniss; Linda A. Joyce; Constance I. Millar; Ronald P. Neilson

    2011-01-01

    Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help land-management agencies take steps to incorporate climate change into management and take advantage of opportunities to balance the negative effects of climate change. Because the development of adaptation tools and strategies is at an early stage, it is important that ideas and strategies are disseminated...

  2. Socio-economic vulnerability of coastal communities in southern Thailand: the development of adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willroth, P.; Massmann, F.; Wehrhahn, R.; Revilla Diez, J.

    2012-08-01

    The tsunami of December 2004 impacted large areas of Thailand's coastline and caused severe human and economic losses. The recovery period revealed differences in the vulnerabilities of communities affected. An understanding of the causal factors of vulnerability is crucial for minimising the negative effects of future threats and developing adaptive capacities. This paper analyses the vulnerabilities and the development of adaptation strategies in the booming tourist area of Khao Lak and in the predominantly fishing and agricultural area of Ban Nam Khem through a comprehensive vulnerability framework. The results show that social networks played a crucial role in coping with the disaster. Social cohesion is important for strengthening the community and developing successful adaptation strategies. The development of tourism and the turning away from traditional activities have a significant positive influence on the income situation, but create a dependency on a single business sector. It could be shown that households generating their income in the tourism sector were vulnerable unless they had diversified their income previously. Income diversification decreased the vulnerability in the study areas. Adaptation strategies and processes developed in the aftermath clearly address these issues.

  3. Socio-economic vulnerability of coastal communities in southern Thailand: the development of adaptation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Willroth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami of December 2004 impacted large areas of Thailand's coastline and caused severe human and economic losses. The recovery period revealed differences in the vulnerabilities of communities affected. An understanding of the causal factors of vulnerability is crucial for minimising the negative effects of future threats and developing adaptive capacities. This paper analyses the vulnerabilities and the development of adaptation strategies in the booming tourist area of Khao Lak and in the predominantly fishing and agricultural area of Ban Nam Khem through a comprehensive vulnerability framework. The results show that social networks played a crucial role in coping with the disaster. Social cohesion is important for strengthening the community and developing successful adaptation strategies. The development of tourism and the turning away from traditional activities have a significant positive influence on the income situation, but create a dependency on a single business sector. It could be shown that households generating their income in the tourism sector were vulnerable unless they had diversified their income previously. Income diversification decreased the vulnerability in the study areas. Adaptation strategies and processes developed in the aftermath clearly address these issues.

  4. Cautious but committed: moving toward adaptive planning and operation strategies for renewable energy's wildlife implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppel, Johann; Dahmen, Marie; Helfrich, Jennifer; Schuster, Eva; Bulling, Lea

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife planning for renewable energy must cope with the uncertainties of potential wildlife impacts. Unfortunately, the environmental policies which instigate renewable energy and those which protect wildlife are not coherently aligned-creating a green versus green dilemma. Thus, climate mitigation efforts trigger renewable energy development, but then face substantial barriers from biodiversity protection instruments and practices. This article briefly reviews wind energy and wildlife interactions, highlighting the lively debated effects on bats. Today, planning and siting of renewable energy are guided by the precautionary principle in an attempt to carefully address wildlife challenges. However, this planning attitude creates limitations as it struggles to negotiate the aforementioned green versus green dilemma. More adaptive planning and management strategies and practices hold the potential to reconcile these discrepancies to some degree. This adaptive approach is discussed using facets of case studies from policy, planning, siting, and operational stages of wind energy in Germany and the United States, with one case showing adaptive planning in action for solar energy as well. This article attempts to highlight the benefits of more adaptive approaches as well as the possible shortcomings, such as reduced planning security for renewable energy developers. In conclusion, these studies show that adaptive planning and operation strategies can be designed to supplement and enhance the precautionary principle in wildlife planning for green energy.

  5. Urban Heat Island Adaptation Strategies are not created equal: Assessment of Impacts and Tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Matei

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable urban expansion requires an extension of contemporary approaches that focus nearly exclusively on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers have proposed biophysical approaches to urban heat island mitigation (e.g., via deployment of cool or green roofs) but little is known how these technologies vary with place and season and what impacts are beyond those of near surface temperature. Using a suite of continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations for the United States, we examine hydroclimatic impacts for a variety of U.S. urban expansion (to the year 2100) and urban adaptation futures and compare those to contemporary urban extent. Adaptation approaches include widespread adoption of cool roofs, green roofs, and a hypothetical hybrid approach integrating properties of both cool and green roofs (i.e., reflective green roofs). Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibits hydroclimatic impacts that are regionally and seasonally dependent. For some regions and seasons, urban-induced warming of 3°C can be completely offset by the adaptation approaches examined. For other regions and seasons, widespread adoption of some adaptation strategies can result in significant reduction in precipitation. Finally, implications of large-scale urbanization for seasonal energy demand will be examined.

  6. Adaptive terminal sliding-mode control strategy for DC-DC buck converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komurcugil, Hasan

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an adaptive terminal sliding mode control (ATSMC) strategy for DC-DC buck converters. The idea behind this strategy is to use the terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) approach to assure finite time convergence of the output voltage error to the equilibrium point and integrate an adaptive law to the TSMC strategy so as to achieve a dynamic sliding line during the load variations. In addition, the influence of the controller parameters on the performance of closed-loop system is investigated. It is observed that the start up response of the output voltage becomes faster with increasing value of the fractional power used in the sliding function. On the other hand, the transient response of the output voltage, caused by the step change in the load, becomes faster with decreasing the value of the fractional power. Therefore, the value of fractional power is to be chosen to make a compromise between start up and transient responses of the converter. Performance of the proposed ATSMC strategy has been tested through computer simulations and experiments. The simulation results of the proposed ATSMC strategy are compared with the conventional SMC and TSMC strategies. It is shown that the ATSMC exhibits a considerable improvement in terms of a faster output voltage response during load changes.

  7. Social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies, adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide.

  8. Formative research and development of an evidence-based communication strategy: the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine among school-aged children in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pach, Alfred; Tabbusam, Ghurnata; Khan, M Imran; Suhag, Zamir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Hussain, Ejaz; Mumtaz, Uzma; Haq, Inam Ul; Tahir, Rehman; Mirani, Amjad; Yousafzai, Aisha; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Ochiai, R Leon; Soofi, Sajid; Clemens, John D; Favorov, Michael O; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted formative research (a) to identify stakeholders' concerns related to typhoid fever and the need for disease information and (b) to develop a communication strategy to inform stakeholders and address their concerns and motivate for support of a school-based vaccination program in Pakistan. Data were collected during interactive and semi-structured focus group discussions and interviews, followed by a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary consultative process to identify an effective social mobilization strategy comprised of relevant media channels and messages. The authors conducted 14 focus group discussions with the parents of school-aged children and their teachers, and 13 individual interviews with school, religious, and political leaders. Parents thought that typhoid fever was a dangerous disease, but were unsure of their children's risk. They were interested in vaccination and were comfortable with a school-based vaccination if conducted under the supervision of trained and qualified staff. Teachers and leaders needed information on typhoid fever, the vaccine, procedures, and sponsors of the vaccination program. Meetings were considered the best form of information dissemination, followed by printed materials and mass media. This study shows how qualitative research findings can be translated into an effective social mobilization and communication approach. The findings of the research indicated the importance of increasing awareness of typhoid fever and the benefits of vaccination against the disease. Identification and dissemination of relevant, community-based disease and vaccination information will increase demand and use of vaccination.

  9. A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R; O'Malley, Robin; Ojima, Dennis S

    2009-10-01

    The scientific literature contains numerous descriptions of observed and potential effects of global climate change on species and ecosystems. In response to anticipated effects of climate change, conservation organizations and government agencies are developing "adaptation strategies" to facilitate the adjustment of human society and ecological systems to altered climate regimes. We reviewed the literature and climate-change adaptation plans that have been developed in United States, Canada, England, México, and South Africa and found 16 general adaptation strategies that relate directly to the conservation of biological diversity. These strategies can be grouped into four broad categories: land and water protection and management; direct species management; monitoring and planning; and law and policy. Tools for implementing these strategies are similar or identical to those already in use by conservationists worldwide (land and water conservation, ecological restoration, agrienvironment schemes, species translocation, captive propagation, monitoring, natural resource planning, and legislation/regulation). Although our review indicates natural resource managers already have many tools that can be used to address climate-change effects, managers will likely need to apply these tools in novel and innovative ways to meet the unprecedented challenges posed by climate change.

  10. Adaptive Agent Model with Hybrid Routing Selection Strategy for Improving the Road-Network Congestion Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Jiang; Chao Yang; Takao Terano

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive agent model with a hybrid routing selection strategy for studying the road⁃network congestion problem. We focus on improving those severely congested links. Firstly, a multi⁃agent system is built, where each agent stands for a vehicle, and it makes its routing selection by considering the shortest path and the minimum congested degree of the target link simultaneously. The agent⁃based model captures the nonlinear feedback between vehicle routing behaviors and road⁃network congestion status. Secondly, a hybrid routing selection strategy is provided, which guides the vehicle routes adapting to the real⁃time road⁃network congestion status. On this basis, we execute simulation experiments and compare the simulation results of network congestion distribution, by Floyd agent with shortest path strategy and our proposed adaptive agent with hybrid strategy. The simulation results show that our proposed model has reduced the congestion degree of those seriously congested links of road⁃network. Finally, we execute our model on a real road map. The results finds that those seriously congested roads have some common features such as located at the road junction or near the unique road connecting two areas. And, the results also show an effectiveness of our model on reduction of those seriously congested links in this actual road network. Such a bottom⁃up congestion control approach with a hybrid congestion optimization perspective will have its significance for actual traffic congestion control.

  11. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  12. Observer-Based Vaccination Strategy for a True Mass Action SEIR Epidemic Model with Potential Estimation of All the Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple continuous-time linear vaccination-based control strategy for a SEIR (susceptible plus infected plus infectious plus removed populations propagation disease model. The model takes into account the total population amounts as a refrain for the illness transmission since its increase makes more difficult contacts among the susceptible and infected. The control objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e., susceptible plus infected plus infectious to asymptotically converge to zero. A state observer is used to estimate the true various partial populations of the susceptible, infected, infectious, and immune which are assumed to be unknown. The model parameters are also assumed to be, in general, unknown. In this case, the parameters are replaced by available estimates to implement the vaccination action.

  13. The Italian alliance for vaccination strategies: Facebook as a learning tool for preventive medicine and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Miccoli, Silvia; Ricciardi, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Italian Alliance of vaccination strategies project was born with the aim of informing healthcare workers and the general population about vaccination through Facebook. The evaluation of the account has been carried out using 3 indicators: friend membership, numbers of "I like," and amount of "share" of contents for type of news and for day of the week. The survey was performed on 743 users. Institutional events were the most popular type of news; the day of the week in which users were most likely to be attracted by links was Friday. Press releases were the communication form most shared by users. Social media marketing carries the advantages of low cost, rapid transmission and user interaction.

  14. Costs and effectiveness of extended vaccination strategies against pertussis and pneumococcal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, Mark Hermannes

    2013-01-01

    Omdat het Nederlandse Rijksvaccinatieprogramma al intensief is en de gezondheidszorg kampt met gelimiteerde budgetten, zijn de mogelijkheden voor opname van nieuwe vaccins in het Rijksvaccinatieprogramma beperkt. Naast vele andere factoren, hebben doelmatigheidsuitkomsten een groot effect op de besl

  15. Using farmers' attitude and social pressures to design voluntary Bluetongue vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, J; Hogeveen, H; Elbers, A R W; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the context and drivers of farmers' decision-making is critical to designing successful voluntary disease control interventions. This study uses a questionnaire based on the Reasoned Action Approach framework to assess the determinants of farmers' intention to participate in a hypothetical reactive vaccination scheme against Bluetongue. Results suggest that farmers' attitude and social pressures best explained intention. A mix of policy instruments can be used in a complementary way to motivate voluntary vaccination based on the finding that participation is influenced by both internal and external motivation. Next to informational and incentive-based instruments, social pressures, which stem from different type of perceived norms, can spur farmers' vaccination behaviour and serve as catalysts in voluntary vaccination schemes.

  16. Whole-Inactivated and Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Strategies for Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeZure, Adam D; Berkowitz, Nina M; Graham, Barney S; Ledgerwood, Julie E

    2016-12-15

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a global public health threat, having been identified in >60 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas. There is no cure for or licensed vaccine against CHIKV infection. Initial attempts at CHIKV vaccine development began in the early 1960s. Whole-inactivated and virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines are 2 of the current approaches being evaluated. Success of these approaches is dependent on a safe, well-tolerated vaccine that is immunogenic and deployable in regard to manufacturing, stability, and delivery characteristics. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. A comparison of three different adaptive strategies in image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergaard, Anne; Soendergaard, Jimmi; Petersen, Joergen B. (Dept. of Medical Physics, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)), E-mail: annveste@rm.dk; Hoeyer, Morten; Muren, Ludvig Paul (Dept. of Oncology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark))

    2010-10-15

    The urinary bladder shows considerable individual variation in shape and position during a course of radiotherapy (RT). In this study we have developed and compared three different adaptive RT (ART) strategies for bladder cancer involving daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging and plan selection. Material and methods. Ten patients treated for bladder cancer had daily CBCTs acquired that were registered online using bony anatomy registration. Seven patients received intensity modulated RT (IMRT) with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique to the bladder and pelvic lymph nodes. Three patients received treatment to the bladder only. Retrospectively, we compared three ART strategies that were all based on daily selection of the most suitable plan from a library consisting of three IMRT-plans corresponding to a small, medium and large target volume. ART method A utilised population-based margins while methods B and C used the bladder as seen on CBCT-scans from the first week of treatment; method B without delineation of the bladder on CBCT and method C with delineation of the bladder. Total dose distributions were calculated using the planning CT. For each patient, we calculated ratios of the dose volume histograms (DVHs) for the three ART strategies relative to non-adaptive therapy. Results. The inter-patient variation was large for all three ART strategies. The mean ratios of the volumes receiving 57 Gy or more (corresponding to 95% of prescribed dose) for methods A, B and C were 0.66 (SD: 0.11), 0.67 (SD: 0.13) and 0.67 (SD: 0.16) respectively when compared to the non-adaptive plan. Conclusion. When using any of the ART strategies, it is possible to reduce significantly the volumes receiving high doses compared to the use of a standard non-adaptive plan. The differences in dose volume parameters between the three methods were small compared with the differences from the standard plan.

  18. [Poliomyelitis and vaccination strategy in Russian Federation in post-certification period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, O E

    2011-01-01

    Immunization schedules implemented in various countries by using poliovirus vaccines are presented. Approaches to prevent development of vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis and risk groups for this infection are discussed. In recent years poliomyelitis morbidity situation in the European region has become more complex, with the example of poliomyelitis outbreak in Tajikistan in 2010. The resulting problem of protection of Russian against emergence and spread of poliomyelitis caused by wild type virus is discussed.

  19. Vaccination success and body condition in the European wild rabbit: Applications for conservation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas, Sonia; Calvete, C.; Moreno, Sacramento

    2006-01-01

    The European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is the main prey for several endangered species and an important game species in the Iberian Peninsula. However, over the last several decades 2 diseases, myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), have contributed to a decline in rabbit populations. In Spain, vaccination campaigns against both diseases and the translocation of vaccinated rabbits are frequently used in projects aimed at stimulating the recovery of wild populations. We es...

  20. Head-to-head comparison of three vaccination strategies based on DNA and raw insect-derived recombinant proteins against Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todolí, Felicitat; Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Núñez, María Del Carmen; Laurenti, Márcia D; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Rodríguez, Fernando; Pérez-Martín, Eva; Escribano, José M; Alberola, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic diseases plague billions of people among the poorest, killing millions annually, and causing additional millions of disability-adjusted life years lost. Leishmaniases affect more than 12 million people, with over 350 million people at risk. There is an urgent need for efficacious and cheap vaccines and treatments against visceral leishmaniasis (VL), its most severe form. Several vaccination strategies have been proposed but to date no head-to-head comparison was undertaken to assess which is the best in a clinical model of the disease. We simultaneously assayed three vaccination strategies against VL in the hamster model, using KMPII, TRYP, LACK, and PAPLE22 vaccine candidate antigens. Four groups of hamsters were immunized using the following approaches: 1) raw extracts of baculovirus-infected Trichoplusia ni larvae expressing individually one of the four recombinant proteins (PROT); 2) naked pVAX1 plasmids carrying the four genes individually (DNA); 3) a heterologous prime-boost (HPB) strategy involving DNA followed by PROT (DNA-PROT); and 4) a Control including empty pVAX1 plasmid followed by raw extract of wild-type baculovirus-infected T. ni larvae. Hamsters were challenged with L. infantum promastigotes and maintained for 20 weeks. While PROT vaccine was not protective, DNA vaccination achieved protection in spleen. Only DNA-PROT vaccination induced significant NO production by macrophages, accompanied by a significant parasitological protection in spleen and blood. Thus, the DNA-PROT strategy elicits strong immune responses and high parasitological protection in the clinical model of VL, better than its corresponding naked DNA or protein versions. Furthermore, we show that naked DNA coupled with raw recombinant proteins produced in insect larvae biofactories -the cheapest way of producing DNA-PROT vaccines- is a practical and cost-effective way for potential "off the shelf" supplying vaccines at very low prices for the protection against

  1. Effects of egg-adaptation on receptor-binding and antigenic properties of recent influenza A (H3N2) vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lauren; Wharton, Stephen A; Martin, Stephen R; Cross, Karen; Lin, Yipu; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Daniels, Rodney S; McCauley, John W

    2016-06-01

    Influenza A virus (subtype H3N2) causes seasonal human influenza and is included as a component of influenza vaccines. The majority of vaccine viruses are isolated and propagated in eggs, which commonly results in amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. These substitutions can affect virus receptor-binding and alter virus antigenicity, thereby, obfuscating the choice of egg-propagated viruses for development into candidate vaccine viruses. To evaluate the effects of egg-adaptive substitutions seen in H3N2 vaccine viruses on sialic acid receptor-binding, we carried out quantitative measurement of virus receptor-binding using surface biolayer interferometry with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays to correlate changes in receptor avidity with antigenic properties. Included in these studies was a panel of H3N2 viruses generated by reverse genetics containing substitutions seen in recent egg-propagated vaccine viruses and corresponding cell culture-propagated wild-type viruses. These assays provide a quantitative approach to investigating the importance of individual amino acid substitutions in influenza receptor-binding. Results show that viruses with egg-adaptive HA substitutions R156Q, S219Y, and I226N, have increased binding avidity to α2,3-linked receptor-analogues and decreased binding avidity to α2,6-linked receptor-analogues. No measurable binding was detected for the viruses with amino acid substitution combination 156Q+219Y and receptor-binding increased in viruses where egg-adaptation mutations were introduced into cell culture-propagated virus. Substitutions at positions 156 and 190 appeared to be primarily responsible for low reactivity in HI assays with post-infection ferret antisera raised against 2012-2013 season H3N2 viruses. Egg-adaptive substitutions at position 186 caused substantial differences in binding avidity with an insignificant effect on antigenicity.

  2. The diversity of gendered adaptation strategies to climate change of Indian farmers: A feminist intersectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Federica; Martín-López, Berta; Pascual, Unai; Drucker, Adam

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines climate change adaptation and gender issues through an application of a feminist intersectional approach. This approach permits the identification of diverse adaptation responses arising from the existence of multiple and fragmented dimensions of identity (including gender) that intersect with power relations to shape situation-specific interactions between farmers and ecosystems. Based on results from contrasting research cases in Bihar and Uttarakhand, India, this paper demonstrates, inter alia, that there are geographically determined gendered preferences and adoption strategies regarding adaptation options and that these are influenced by the socio-ecological context and institutional dynamics. Intersecting identities, such as caste, wealth, age and gender, influence decisions and reveal power dynamics and negotiation within the household and the community, as well as barriers to adaptation among groups. Overall, the findings suggest that a feminist intersectional approach does appear to be useful and worth further exploration in the context of climate change adaptation. In particular, future research could benefit from more emphasis on a nuanced analysis of the intra-gender differences that shape adaptive capacity to climate change.

  3. Nutritional strategies to support adaptation to high-intensity interval training in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are characterized by intermittent high-intensity activity patterns. Typically, play consists of short periods of very intense or all-out efforts interspersed with longer periods of low-intensity activity. Fatigue is a complex, multi-factorial process, but intense intermittent exercise performance can potentially be limited by reduced availability of substrates stored in skeletal muscle and/or metabolic by-products associated with fuel breakdown. High-intensity interval training (HIT) has been shown to induce adaptations in skeletal muscle that enhance the capacity for both oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism. Nutrient availability is a potent modulator of many acute physiological responses to exercise, including various molecular signaling pathways that are believed to regulate cellular adaptation to training. Several nutritional strategies have also been reported to acutely alter metabolism and enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise performance. However, relatively little is known regarding the effect of chronic interventions, and whether supplementation over a period of weeks or months augments HIT-induced physiological remodeling and promotes greater performance adaptations. Theoretically, a nutritional intervention could augment HIT adaptation by improving energy metabolism during exercise, which could facilitate greater total work and an enhanced chronic training stimulus, or promoting some aspect of the adaptive response during recovery, which could lead to enhanced physiological adaptations over time.

  4. Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far

  5. Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2014-05-01

    There has been a increasing interest in understanding emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012). However, much remains to be understood about the patterns of associations among regulation strategies in the repertoire. Doing so is important in light of the growing recognition that people's ability to flexibly implement strategies is associated with better mental health (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014). Based on previous work (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), we examined whether putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies interacted with each other in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of 71 participants undergoing CBT for SAD. We found that strategies interacted with each other and that this interaction was qualified by a three-way interaction with a contextual factor, namely treatment study phase. Consequently, these findings underscore the importance of modeling contextual factors when seeking to understand emotion regulation deficits in SAD.

  6. Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: Interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a increasing interest in understanding emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012). However, much remains to be understood about the patterns of associations among regulation strategies in the repertoire. Doing so is important in light of the growing recognition that people’s ability to flexibly implement strategies is associated with better mental health (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014). Based on previous work (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), we examined whether putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies interacted with each other in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of 71 participants undergoing CBT for SAD. We found that strategies interacted with each other and that this interaction was qualified by a three-way interaction with a contextual factor, namely treatment study phase. Consequently, these findings underscore the importance of modeling contextual factors when seeking to understand emotion regulation deficits in SAD. PMID:24742755

  7. Prioritization strategies for pandemic influenza vaccine in 27 countries of the European Union and the Global Health Security Action Group: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Walter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is rapid progress in vaccine research regarding influenza pandemic vaccines it is expected that pandemic influenza vaccine production can only start once the pandemic virus has been recognized. Therefore, pandemic vaccine capacity will be limited at least during the first phase of an influenza pandemic, requiring vaccine prioritization strategies. WHO recommends developing preliminary priorities for pandemic vaccine use. The goal of this review is to provide a thorough overview of pandemic vaccine prioritization concepts in the 27 European Union (EU member states and the four non-EU countries of the Global Health Security Action Group. Methods Between September and December 2006 data was collected for each country through two data sources: (i the national influenza pandemic plan; (ii contacting key persons involved in pandemic planning by email and/or phone and/or fax Results Twenty-six (84% countries had established at least one vaccine priority group. Most common reported vaccine priority groups were health care workers (HCW (100%, essential service providers (ESP (92% and high risk individuals (HRI (92%. Ranking of at least one vaccine priority group was done by 17 (65% of 26 countries. Fifteen (88% of these 17 countries including a ranking strategy, decided that HCW with close contact to influenza patients should be vaccinated first; in most countries followed and/or ranked equally by ESP and subsequently HRI. Rationales for prioritization were provided by 22 (85% of 26 countries that established vaccine priority groups. There was large variation in the phrasing and level of detailed specification of rationales. Seven (32% of 22 countries providing rationales clearly associated each vaccine priority group with the specific rationale. Ten (32% of the 31 countries studied countries have consulted and involved ethical experts to guide decisions related to vaccine prioritization. Conclusion In the majority of

  8. An Image Enhancement Method Using the Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization with an Adaptive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement techniques are very important to image processing, which are used to improve image quality or extract the fine details in degraded images. In this paper, two novel objective functions based on the normalized incomplete Beta transform function are proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of grayscale image enhancement and color image enhancement, respectively. Using these objective functions, the parameters of transform functions are estimated by the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO. We also propose an improved QPSO with an adaptive parameter control strategy. The QPSO and the AQPSO algorithms, along with genetic algorithm (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO, are tested on several benchmark grayscale and color images. The results show that the QPSO and AQPSO perform better than GA and PSO for the enhancement of these images, and the AQPSO has some advantages over QPSO due to its adaptive parameter control strategy.

  9. Psychrophilic yeasts from worldwide glacial habitats: diversity, adaptation strategies and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzini, Pietro; Branda, Eva; Goretti, Marta; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2012-11-01

    Glacial habitats (cryosphere) include some of the largest unexplored and extreme biospheres on Earth. These habitats harbor a wide diversity of psychrophilic prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. These highly specialized microorganisms have developed adaptation strategies to overcome the direct and indirect life-endangering influence of low temperatures. For many years Antarctica has been the geographic area preferred by microbiologists for studying the diversity of psychrophilic microorganisms (including yeasts). However, there have been an increasing number of studies on psychrophilic yeasts sharing the non-Antarctic cryosphere. The present paper provides an overview of the distribution and adaptation strategies of psychrophilic yeasts worldwide. Attention is also focused on their biotechnological potential, especially on their exploitation as a source of cold-active enzymes and for bioremediation purposes.

  10. An adaptive feedback linearization strategy for variable speed wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenciaga, F.; Puleston, P.F.; Battaiotto, P.E.; Mantz, R.J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Depto. de Electrotecnia, La Plata (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a control strategy based on adaptive feedback linearization intended for variable speed grid-connected wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The proposed adaptive control law accomplishes energy capture maximization by tracking the wind speed fluctuations. In addition, it linearizes the system even in the presence of turbine model uncertainties, allowing the closed-loop dynamic behaviour to be determined by a simple tuning of the controller parameters. Particularly, the attention is focused on WECS with slip power recovery, which use a power conversion stage as a rotor-controlled double-output induction generator. However, the concepts behind the proposed control strategy are general and can be easily extended to other WECS configurations. (Author)

  11. A Particle Swarm Optimization with Adaptive Multi-Swarm Strategy for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui-Ting CHEN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Capacitated vehicle routing problem with pickups and deliveries (CVRPPD is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization problems which include goods delivery/pickup optimization, vehicle number optimization, routing path optimization and transportation cost minimization. The conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO is difficult to find an optimal solution of the CVRPPD due to its simple search strategy. A PSO with adaptive multi-swarm strategy (AMSPSO is proposed to solve the CVRPPD in this paper. The proposed AMSPSO employs multiple PSO algorithms and an adaptive algorithm with punishment mechanism to search the optimal solution, which can deal with large-scale optimization problems. The simulation results prove that the proposed AMSPSO can solve the CVRPPD with the least number of vehicles and less transportation cost, simultaneously.

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptive Strategies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-li; Shu Geng

    2013-01-01

    China is the world’s most populous country and a major emitter of greenhouse gases. Consequently, China’s role in climate change has received a great deal of attention, whereas the impact of climate change on China has been largely ignored. Studies on the impacts of climate change on agriculture and adaptation strategies are increasingly becoming major areas of scientific concern. However, the clear warming that has been sounded in China in recent decades has not been matched with a clear assessment of the impact of climate change on China’s water resources and agriculture. In the present study, we review observations on climate change, hydrology, and agriculture in China and relate these observations to likely future changes. We also analyse the adaptive strategies in China’s agriculture.

  13. Invasion strategies in clonal aquatic plants: Are phenotypic differences caused by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Lambertini, Carla; Olesen, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: The successful spread of invasive plants in new environments is often linked to multiple introductions and a diverse gene pool that facilitates local adaptation to variable environmental conditions. For clonal plants, however, phenotypic plasticity may be equally important...... conditions and plant morphological characteristics. Conclusions: The results indicate that at the current stage of spread into New Zealand, the primary adaptive strategy of these three invasive macrophytes is phenotypic plasticity. However, while limited, the possibility that genetic diversity between...... populations may facilitate ecotypic differentiation in the future cannot be excluded. These results thus indicate that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to new introduced areas by phenotypic plasticity. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were important in controlling plant size of E. canadensis...

  14. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin

    2013-01-01

    be used to address concerns that the IPCC approach is oversimplified. We have studied the role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation planning using examples from four Danish water related sectors. The dominating sources of uncertainty differ greatly among issues; most uncertainties on impacts...... are epistemic (reducible) by nature but uncertainties on adaptation measures are complex, with ambiguity often being added to impact uncertainties. Strategies to deal with uncertainty in climate change adaptation should reflect the nature of the uncertainty sources and how they interact with risk level...... and decision making: (i) epistemic uncertainties can be reduced by gaining more knowledge; (ii) uncertainties related to ambiguity can be reduced by dialogue and knowledge sharing between the different stakeholders; and (iii) aleatory uncertainty is, by its nature, non-reducible. The uncertainty cascade...

  15. Assessing vaccination as a control strategy in an ongoing epidemic: Bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Getz, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an exotic disease invading the buffalo population (Syncerus caffer) of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We used a sex and age-structured epidemiological model to assess the effectiveness of a vaccination program and define important research directions. The model allows for dispersal between a focal herd and background population and was parameterized with a combination of published data and analyses of over 130 radio-collared buffalo in the central region of the KNP. Radio-tracking data indicated that all sex and age categories move between mixed herds, and males over 8 years old had higher mortality and dispersal rates than any other sex or age category. In part due to the high dispersal rates of buffalo, sensitivity analyses indicate that disease prevalence in the background population accounts for the most variability in the BTB prevalence and quasi-eradication within the focal herd. Vaccination rate and the transmission coefficient were the second and third most important parameters of the sensitivity analyses. Further analyses of the model without dispersal suggest that the amount of vaccination necessary for quasi-eradication (i.e. prevalence 70% of the calf population would have to be vaccinated every year to reduce the prevalence to less than 1%. If the half-life of the vaccine is less than 5 years, even vaccinating every calf for 50 years may not eradicate BTB. Thus, although vaccination provides a means of controlling BTB prevalence it should be combined with other control measures if eradication is the objective.

  16. Adaptive Voltage Control Strategy for Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Connected to a Weak Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Significant voltage fluctuations and power quality issues pose considerable constraints on the efficient integration of remotely located wind turbines into weak networks. Besides, 3p oscillations arising from the wind shear and tower shadow effects induce further voltage perturbations during...... continuous operation. This study investigates and analyses the repercussions raised by integrating a doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine into an ac network of different parameters and very weak conditions. An adaptive voltage control (AVC) strategy is proposed to retain voltage constancy...

  17. Adaptation Strategies of Translating English News Lead——From the Perspective of Discourse Differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨清华

    2009-01-01

    Despite the common ground of outlining the news story and attracting reader's attention,the English News lead differs largely from the Chinese counterpart in terms of the news structures and news elements.Based on Eugene Nida's Functional Equivalence Theory and the analysis of the discourse differences between English and Chinese,three corresponding adaptation strategies of news translation can be summarized--omitting news elements,restructuring news information,and rearranging the attributions.

  18. The significance of avian influenza virus mouse-adaptation and its application in characterizing the efficacy of new vaccines and therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Suk; Lloren, Khristine Kaith S; Baek, Yun Hee; Song, Min-Suk

    2017-07-01

    Due to the increased frequency of interspecies transmission of avian influenza viruses, studies designed to identify the molecular determinants that could lead to an expansion of the host range have been increased. A variety of mouse-based mammalian-adaptation studies of avian influenza viruses have provided insight into the genetic alterations of various avian influenza subtypes that may contribute to the generation of a pandemic virus. To date, the studies have focused on avian influenza subtypes H5, H6, H7, H9, and H10 which have recently caused human infection. Although mice cannot fully reflect the course of human infection with avian influenza, these mouse studies can be a useful method for investigating potential mammalian adaptive markers against newly emerging avian influenza viruses. In addition, due to the lack of appropriate vaccines against the diverse emerging influenza viruses, the generation of mouse-adapted lethal variants could contribute to the development of effective vaccines or therapeutic agents. Within this review, we will summarize studies that have demonstrated adaptations of avian influenza viruses that result in an altered pathogenicity in mice which may suggest the potential application of mouse-lethal strains in the development of influenza vaccines and/or therapeutics in preclinical studies.

  19. Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Using an On-line Support Vector Regression Updating Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wang; Chaohe Yang; Xuemin Tian; Dexian Huang

    2014-01-01

    The performance of data-driven models relies heavily on the amount and quality of training samples, so it might deteriorate significantly in the regions where samples are scarce. The objective of this paper is to develop an on-line SVR model updating strategy to track the change in the process characteristics efficiently with affordable computational burden. This is achieved by adding a new sample that violates the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker condi-tions of the existing SVR model and by deleting the old sample that has the maximum distance with respect to the newly added sample in feature space. The benefits offered by such an updating strategy are exploited to develop an adaptive model-based control scheme, where model updating and control task perform alternately. The effectiveness of the adaptive controller is demonstrated by simulation study on a continuous stirred tank reactor. The results reveal that the adaptive MPC scheme outperforms its non-adaptive counterpart for large-magnitude set point changes and variations in process parameters.

  20. Placebo-free designs for evaluating new mental health treatments: the use of adaptive treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ree; Lavori, Philip W

    2004-11-15

    The dominant pre-marketing clinical trial in psychopharmacology is a non-equivalence design that randomizes patients to one of three treatments: an accepted standard, the innovation (new drug), or placebo, with the main efficacy comparison being innovation vs placebo. The reasons behind the choice of placebo control in new drug development include anticipated small effect size for active-controlled comparisons and the sufficiency of demonstrated treatment effect (new drug vs placebo) for regulatory approval. These reasons have led to great reliance on placebo control in drug evaluation studies, despite the ethical controversy over the use of placebo when there are known effective standard treatments. While the use of placebo controls has been widely debated, a less considered aspect of the usual placebo-controlled non-equivalence design is the disparity between the decisions that it supports and those that pervade clinical practice. We propose an alternative approach that randomizes one group of patients to an adaptive treatment strategy that exemplifies the adaptive nature of clinical decision-making in the treatment of ongoing mental health disorders. The basic idea is to compare the adaptive strategy, which uses a patient's outcomes to date to determine when to switch from an initial treatment (e.g. an accepted standard) to an alternative (e.g. the new) treatment, to fixed trials of either treatment option. We state the conditions under which the adaptive treatment RCT is attractive to implement and the requirements for doing so.

  1. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  2. Farmers' perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  3. Genetically Thermo-Stabilised, Immunogenic Poliovirus Empty Capsids; a Strategy for Non-replicating Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen; Minor, Philip D.

    2017-01-01

    While wild type polio has been nearly eradicated there will be a need to continue immunisation programmes for some time because of the possibility of re-emergence and the existence of long term excreters of poliovirus. All vaccines in current use depend on growth of virus and most of the non-replicating (inactivated) vaccines involve wild type viruses known to cause poliomyelitis. The attenuated vaccine strains involved in the eradication programme have been used to develop new inactivated vaccines as production is thought safer. However it is known that the Sabin vaccine strains are genetically unstable and can revert to a virulent transmissible form. A possible solution to the need for virus growth would be to generate empty viral capsids by recombinant technology, but hitherto such particles are so unstable as to be unusable. We report here the genetic manipulation of the virus to generate stable empty capsids for all three serotypes. The particles are shown to be extremely stable and to generate high levels of protective antibodies in animal models. PMID:28103317

  4. Key issues for estimating the impact and cost-effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Newall, Anthony T; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Many countries have considered or are considering modifying their seasonal influenza immunization policies. Estimating the impact of such changes requires understanding the existing clinical and economic burden of influenza, as well as the potential impact of different vaccination options. Previous studies suggest that vaccinating clinical risk groups, health care workers, children and the elderly may be cost-effective. However, challenges in such estimation include: (1) potential cases are not usually virologically tested; (2) cases have non-specific symptoms and are rarely reported to surveillance systems; (3) endpoints for influenza proxies (such as influenza-like illness) need to be matched to case definitions for treatment costs, (4) disease burden estimates vary from year to year with strain transmissibility, virulence and prior immunity, (5) methods to estimate productivity losses due to influenza vary, (6) vaccine efficacy estimates from trials differ due to variation in subtype prevalence, vaccine match and case ascertainment, and (7) indirect (herd) protection from vaccination depends on setting-specific variables that are difficult to directly measure. Given the importance of knowing the impact of changes to influenza policy, such complexities need careful treatment using tools such as population-based trial designs, meta-analyses, time-series analyses and transmission dynamic models.

  5. The delicate balance in genetically engineering live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, James E; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-07-31

    Contemporary vaccine development relies less on empirical methods of vaccine construction, and now employs a powerful array of precise engineering strategies to construct immunogenic live vaccines. In this review, we will survey various engineering techniques used to create attenuated vaccines, with an emphasis on recent advances and insights. We will further explore the adaptation of attenuated strains to create multivalent vaccine platforms for immunization against multiple unrelated pathogens. These carrier vaccines are engineered to deliver sufficient levels of protective antigens to appropriate lymphoid inductive sites to elicit both carrier-specific and foreign antigen-specific immunity. Although many of these technologies were originally developed for use in Salmonella vaccines, application of the essential logic of these approaches will be extended to development of other enteric vaccines where possible. A central theme driving our discussion will stress that the ultimate success of an engineered vaccine rests on achieving the proper balance between attenuation and immunogenicity. Achieving this balance will avoid over-activation of inflammatory responses, which results in unacceptable reactogenicity, but will retain sufficient metabolic fitness to enable the live vaccine to reach deep tissue inductive sites and trigger protective immunity. The breadth of examples presented herein will clearly demonstrate that genetic engineering offers the potential for rapidly propelling vaccine development forward into novel applications and therapies which will significantly expand the role of vaccines in public health.

  6. Towards Adaptive Management: Examining the Strategies of Policy Entrepreneurs in Dutch Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn Brouwer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of the complexities and uncertainties in water management has put into question the existing paradigms in this field. Increasingly more flexible, integrated, and adaptive policies are promoted. In this context, the understanding of how to effect policy change is becoming more important. This article analyzes policy making at the micro level, focusing on the behavior of policy entrepreneurs, which we understand here as risk-taking bureaucrats who seek to change policy and are involved throughout the policy-change process. Policy entrepreneurs have received a certain level of attention in the adaptive co-management literature and the policy sciences in past decades. Yet, the understanding of the actions they can take to facilitate policy change remains limited. This study addresses this gap in focusing on the strategies that policy entrepreneurs employ in their efforts to effect policy change. The article draws on both theoretical exploration and in-depth field research on water management in the Netherlands, which included a series of semi-structured interviews and a focus group with policy entrepreneurs. We conclude that policy entrepreneurs employ four types of strategies: (1 attention and support-seeking strategies, to demonstrate the significance of a problem and to convince a wide range of participants about their preferred policy; (2 linking strategies, to link with other parties, projects, ideas, and policy games; (3 relational management strategies, to manage the relational factor in policy-change trajectories; and finally, (4 arena strategies, to influence the time and place wherein decisions are made. Our study suggests that by employing these strategies when the "time is right," the development of policy streams and consequently their coupling can, to some extent, be influenced and steered. In other words, policy entrepreneurs can, to a degree, prepare for a window of opportunity and hence direct policy change.

  7. Noncoding RNA danger motifs bridge innate and adaptive immunity and are potent adjuvants for vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lilin; Smith, Dan; Bot, Simona; Dellamary, Luis; Bloom, Amy; Bot, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    The adaptive immune response is triggered by recognition of T and B cell epitopes and is influenced by “danger” motifs that act via innate immune receptors. This study shows that motifs associated with noncoding RNA are essential features in the immune response reminiscent of viral infection, mediating rapid induction of proinflammatory chemokine expression, recruitment and activation of antigen-presenting cells, modulation of regulatory cytokines, subsequent differentiation of Th1 cells, iso...

  8. The immune response to parasitic helminths of veterinary importance and its potential manipulation for future vaccine control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Neil; Elsheikha, Hany M

    2012-05-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the immunobiology and epidemiology of parasitic helminths of the gastrointestinal system and the cardiorespiratory system, complications arising from infections of animals and humans with these parasites are a major clinical and economic problem. This has been attributed to the high incidence of these parasites, the widespread emergence of multi-drug resistant parasite strains and the lack of effective vaccines. Efforts to develop and produce vaccines against virtually all helminths (with the exception of Dictyocaulus viviparus and some cestode species) have been hindered by the complexity of the host-parasite relationship, and incomplete understanding of the molecular and immune regulatory pathways associated with the development of protective immunity against helminths. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and characterisation of effector mechanisms and molecules that govern the host-parasite interactions in these two body systems. Such knowledge provided clues on how appropriate and protective responses are elicited against helminths and, thus, may lead to the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we review advances in the immune response to selected helminths of animal health significance, and subsequent vaccine potential. The topics addressed are important for understanding how helminths interact with host immune defences and also are relevant for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases caused by helminths.

  9. 医务人员乙型肝炎病毒感染及疫苗免疫%Hepatitis B virus infection in health care workers and vaccination strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊凤; 李杰; 庄辉

    2013-01-01

    Health care workers are among the high-risk populations for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as they have more opportunities exposing to blood or other body fluids from HBV infected patients.The main routes of HBV infection are needle sticks or sharp injuries for health care workers.Vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection in this population.The prevalence of HBsAg varies because of different immunization strategies and vaccination coverage rates of health care workers in different regions.In Europe such as France,all of the health care workers except housekeeping and supporting staff must be vaccinated compulsorily and the vaccination coverage rate reached up to 97.0%,which resulted in a quick decrease in HBV infection.In America such as United States,each medical facility is required to provide hepatitis B vaccine free for its health care workers.In 2006,the vaccination coverage rate in USA was 90.0%,and HBV infection rate (1.0× 10-4) was lower than that in general population (5.0 × 10-4).In East Mediterranean countries such as Pakistan,the vaccination coverage rate in health care workers was 73.4% but no immunization strategy for them was found.The relatively high vaccination coverage rate decreased the rate of HBsAg carrier to 0.6%-2.2%,lower than that in the regular population (6.0%).In Africa such as Uganda,only 6.2% of health care workers had history of HBV vaccination,and HBsAg carrier rate was as high as 9.0%.Uganda is currently drafting hepatitis B vaccination strategies for health care workers.In Western Pacific area such as Hong Kong and Taiwan of China,the vaccination coverage rates in health care workers were 85.0% and 73.7 % respectively,but the vaccination strategies were unclear.In 2009,we investigated the HBV infection status in 3 126 health care workers in Jilin province of China,and the positive rates of HBsAg and antiHBc were 1.4% and 33.4%,respectively,which were lower than that in common

  10. Analysis and simulation of aperture-sizing strategies with partial adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Robert K.

    1994-05-01

    The central core intensity of a stellar image observed by a ground-based telescope can be maximized by a judicious balancing of the adaptive optics system and the size of the telescope entrance aperture. For a given aperture, increasing the number of degrees of adaptive optics turbulence compensation will maximize the brightness of the central core. However, for an observatory using an adaptive optics system with a fixed number of degrees-of-freedom, the largest aperture available will not necessarily result in a maximized image central core. The negative effects of atmospheric turbulence, roughly proportional to e(superscript -(D/r(subscript o))(superscript 5/3)), cannot always be compensated by the increased light gathering ability of a larger aperture (proportional to D(superscript 2)). It is shown and verified through simulation that the optimum aperture diameter is a function of N(superscript p) r(subscript o) where N is the number of adaptive optics degrees of freedom and r(subscript o) is the seeing cell size. The simulations show that the exponent p is related to the control algorithm or, more precisely, the figure-of-merit used to drive the deformable mirror actuators. Optimizing the useful aperture of the telescope/adaptive optics system is a strategy that can make use of the variation in site seeing conditions and benefit the astronomer by increasing the available number of observable science objects or reducing the observing time.

  11. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmner, Asa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  12. Head-to-Head Comparison of Three Vaccination Strategies Based on DNA and Raw Insect-Derived Recombinant Proteins against Leishmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, María del Carmen; Laurenti, Márcia D.; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Rodríguez, Fernando; Pérez-Martín, Eva; Escribano, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic diseases plague billions of people among the poorest, killing millions annually, and causing additional millions of disability-adjusted life years lost. Leishmaniases affect more than 12 million people, with over 350 million people at risk. There is an urgent need for efficacious and cheap vaccines and treatments against visceral leishmaniasis (VL), its most severe form. Several vaccination strategies have been proposed but to date no head-to-head comparison was undertaken to assess which is the best in a clinical model of the disease. We simultaneously assayed three vaccination strategies against VL in the hamster model, using KMPII, TRYP, LACK, and PAPLE22 vaccine candidate antigens. Four groups of hamsters were immunized using the following approaches: 1) raw extracts of baculovirus-infected Trichoplusia ni larvae expressing individually one of the four recombinant proteins (PROT); 2) naked pVAX1 plasmids carrying the four genes individually (DNA); 3) a heterologous prime-boost (HPB) strategy involving DNA followed by PROT (DNA-PROT); and 4) a Control including empty pVAX1 plasmid followed by raw extract of wild-type baculovirus-infected T. ni larvae. Hamsters were challenged with L. infantum promastigotes and maintained for 20 weeks. While PROT vaccine was not protective, DNA vaccination achieved protection in spleen. Only DNA-PROT vaccination induced significant NO production by macrophages, accompanied by a significant parasitological protection in spleen and blood. Thus, the DNA-PROT strategy elicits strong immune responses and high parasitological protection in the clinical model of VL, better than its corresponding naked DNA or protein versions. Furthermore, we show that naked DNA coupled with raw recombinant proteins produced in insect larvae biofactories –the cheapest way of producing DNA-PROT vaccines– is a practical and cost-effective way for potential “off the shelf” supplying vaccines at very low prices for the protection against

  13. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Ramanathan

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine.

  14. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Babu; Poh, Chit Laa; Kirk, Kristin; McBride, William John Hannan; Aaskov, John; Grollo, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine.

  15. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Chit Laa; Kirk, Kristin; McBride, William John Hannan; Aaskov, John; Grollo, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine. PMID:27223692

  16. The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: A Temperature Profile Adaptive Scan Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Deierling, W.; Roeder, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar replaces the modified WSR-74C at Patrick AFB that has been in use since 1984. The new radar is a Radtec TDR 43-250, which has Doppler and dual polarization capability. A new fixed scan strategy was designed to best support the space program. The fixed scan strategy represents a complex compromise between many competing factors and relies on climatological heights of various temperatures that are important for improved lightning forecasting and evaluation of Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), which are the weather rules to avoid lightning strikes to in-flight rockets. The 0 C to -20 C layer is vital since most generation of electric charge occurs within it and so it is critical in evaluating Lightning LCC and in forecasting lightning. These are two of the most important duties of 45 WS. While the fixed scan strategy that covers most of the climatological variation of the 0 C to -20 C levels with high resolution ensures that these critical temperatures are well covered most of the time, it also means that on any particular day the radar is spending precious time scanning at angles covering less important heights. The goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly, Interactive Data Language (IDL) computer program that will automatically generate optimized radar scan strategies that adapt to user input of the temperature profile and other important parameters. By using only the required scan angles output by the temperature profile adaptive scan strategy program, faster update times for volume scans and/or collection of more samples per gate for better data quality is possible, while maintaining high resolution at the critical temperature levels. The temperature profile adaptive technique will also take into account earth curvature and refraction

  17. Various carrier system(s)- mediated genetic vaccination strategies against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Rajeev K; Sharma, Pradeep Kumar; Vyas, Suresh P; Mehta, Abhinav

    2008-05-01

    The introduction of vaccine technology has facilitated an unprecedented multiantigen approach to develop an effective vaccine against complex pathogens, such as Plasmodium spp., that cause severe malaria. The capacity of multisubunit DNA vaccines encoding different stage Plasmodium antigens to induce CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes and IFN-gamma responses in mice, monkeys and humans has been observed. Moreover, genetic vaccination may be multi-immune (i.e., capable of eliciting more than one type of immune response, including cell-mediated and humoral). In the case of malaria parasites, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response is categorically needed against the intracellular hepatocyte stage while a humoral response, with antibodies targeted against antigens from all stages of the life cycle, is also needed. Therefore, the key to success for any DNA-based therapy is to design a vector able to serve as a safe and efficient delivery system. This has encouraged the development of nonviral DNA-mediated gene-transfer techniques, such as liposomes, virosomes, microspheres and nanoparticles. Efficient and relatively safe DNA transfection using lipoplexes makes them an appealing alternative to be explored for gene delivery. In addition, liposome-entrapped DNA has been shown to enhance the potency of DNA vaccines, possibly by facilitating uptake of the plasmid by antigen-presenting cells. Another recent technology using cationic lipids has been deployed and has generated substantial interest in this approach to gene transfer. This review comprises various aspects that could be decisive in the formulation of efficient and stable carrier system(s) for the development of malaria vaccines.

  18. Research of Ant Colony Optimized Adaptive Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management control strategy of hybrid electric vehicle has a great influence on the vehicle fuel consumption with electric motors adding to the traditional vehicle power system. As vehicle real driving cycles seem to be uncertain, the dynamic driving cycles will have an impact on control strategy’s energy-saving effect. In order to better adapt the dynamic driving cycles, control strategy should have the ability to recognize the real-time driving cycle and adaptively adjust to the corresponding off-line optimal control parameters. In this paper, four types of representative driving cycles are constructed based on the actual vehicle operating data, and a fuzzy driving cycle recognition algorithm is proposed for online recognizing the type of actual driving cycle. Then, based on the equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy, an ant colony optimization algorithm is utilized to search the optimal control parameters “charge and discharge equivalent factors” for each type of representative driving cycle. At last, the simulation experiments are conducted to verify the accuracy of the proposed fuzzy recognition algorithm and the validity of the designed control strategy optimization method.

  19. Prevention of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle using a prime-boot-vaccination strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can help to control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) that is produced in mammalian...... disease and no FMDV RNA was detected in their sera. Initial inoculation with empty capsids followed by the rSFV-FMDV was much less effective at combating the FMDV challenge and a large post-challenge boost to the level of anti-FMDV antibodies was observed and clinical disease occurred. This prime...

  20. Innate and adaptive cellular immunity in flavivirus-naïve human recipients of a live-attenuated dengue serotype 3 vaccine produced in Vero cells (VDV3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Violette; Gimenez, Sophie; Tomlinson, Brian; Chan, Paul K S; Thomas, G Neil; Forrat, Remi; Chambonneau, Laurent; Deauvieau, Florence; Lang, Jean; Guy, Bruno

    2006-06-05

    VDV3, a clonal derivative of the Mahidol live-attenuated dengue 3 vaccine was prepared in Vero cells. Despite satisfactory preclinical evaluation, VDV3 was reactogenic in humans. We explored whether immunological mechanisms contributed to this outcome by monitoring innate and adaptive cellular immune responses for 28 days after vaccination. While no variations were seen in serum IL12 or TNFalpha levels, a high IFNgamma secretion was detected from Day 8, concomitant to IFNalpha, followed by IL10. Specific Th1 and CD8 responses were detected on Day 28, with high IFNgamma/TNFalpha ratios. Vaccinees exhibited very homogeneous class I HLA profiles, and a new HLA B60-restricted CD8 epitope was identified in NS3. We propose that, among other factors, adaptive immunity may have contributed to reactogenicity, even after this primary vaccination. In addition, the unexpected discordance observed between preclinical results and clinical outcome in humans led us to reconsider some of our preclinical acceptance criteria. Lessons learned from these results will help us to pursue the development of safe and immunogenic vaccines.

  1. Combination of Id2 Knockdown Whole Tumor Cells and Checkpoint Blockade: A Potent Vaccine Strategy in a Mouse Neuroblastoma Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Chakrabarti

    Full Text Available Tumor vaccines have held much promise, but to date have demonstrated little clinical success. This lack of success is conceivably due to poor tumor antigen presentation combined with immuno-suppressive mechanisms exploited by the tumor itself. Knock down of Inhibitor of differentiation protein 2 (Id2-kd in mouse neuroblastoma whole tumor cells rendered these cells immunogenic. Id2-kd neuroblastoma (Neuro2a cells (Id2-kd N2a failed to grow in most immune competent mice and these mice subsequently developed immunity against further wild-type Neuro2a tumor cell challenge. Id2-kd N2a cells grew aggressively in immune-compromised hosts, thereby establishing the immunogenicity of these cells. Therapeutic vaccination with Id2-kd N2a cells alone suppressed tumor growth even in established neuroblastoma tumors and when used in combination with immune checkpoint blockade eradicated large established tumors. Mechanistically, immune cell depletion studies demonstrated that while CD8+ T cells are critical for antitumor immunity, CD4+ T cells are also required to induce a sustained long-lasting helper effect. An increase in number of CD8+ T-cells and enhanced production of interferon gamma (IFNγ was observed in tumor antigen stimulated splenocytes of vaccinated mice. More importantly, a massive influx of cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells infiltrated the shrinking tumor following combined immunotherapy. These findings show that down regulation of Id2 induced tumor cell immunity and in combination with checkpoint blockade produced a novel, potent, T-cell mediated tumor vaccine strategy.