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Sample records for adaptive optics optical

  1. Adaptive optics in microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Martin J

    2007-12-15

    The imaging properties of optical microscopes are often compromised by aberrations that reduce image resolution and contrast. Adaptive optics technology has been employed in various systems to correct these aberrations and restore performance. This has required various departures from the traditional adaptive optics schemes that are used in astronomy. This review discusses the sources of aberrations, their effects and their correction with adaptive optics, particularly in confocal and two-photon microscopes. Different methods of wavefront sensing, indirect aberration measurement and aberration correction devices are discussed. Applications of adaptive optics in the related areas of optical data storage, optical tweezers and micro/nanofabrication are also reviewed.

  2. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptive optics in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroshnikov, Nikita G.; Larichev, Andrey V.

    2006-09-01

    We present the experimental implementation of ophthalmic diagnostic systems with adaptive optics compensation of human eye aberration. The systems feature high speed operation and utilize deformable bimorph mirrors for wavefront correction. The results of aberration measurements and correction are discussed.

  4. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  5. Solar tomography adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang

    2014-03-10

    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  6. Science with Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandner, Wolfgang; ESO Workshop

    2005-01-01

    The field of Adaptive Optics (AO) for astronomy has matured in recent years, and diffraction-limited image resolution in the near-infrared is now routinely achieved by ground-based 8 to 10m class telescopes. This book presents the proceedings of the ESO Workshop on Science with Adaptive Optics held in the fall of 2003. The book provides an overview on AO instrumentation, data acquisition and reduction strategies, and covers observations of the sun, solar system objects, circumstellar disks, substellar companions, HII regions, starburst environments, late-type stars, the galactic center, active galaxies, and quasars. The contributions present a vivid picture of the multitude of science topics being addressed by AO in observational astronomy.

  7. Accuracies Of Optical Processors For Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    Paper presents analysis of accuracies and requirements concerning accuracies of optical linear-algebra processors (OLAP's) in adaptive-optics imaging systems. Much faster than digital electronic processor and eliminate some residual distortion. Question whether errors introduced by analog processing of OLAP overcome advantage of greater speed. Paper addresses issue by presenting estimate of accuracy required in general OLAP that yields smaller average residual aberration of wave front than digital electronic processor computing at given speed.

  8. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  9. Adaptive optics photoacoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minshan; Zhang, Xiangyang; Puliafito, Carmen A; Zhang, Hao F; Jiao, Shuliang

    2010-10-11

    We have developed an adaptive optics photoacoustic microscope (AO-PAM) for high-resolution imaging of biological tissues, especially the retina. To demonstrate the feasibility of AO-PAM we first designed the AO system to correct the wavefront errors of the illuminating light of PAM. The aberrations of the optical system delivering the illuminating light to the sample in PAM was corrected with a close-loop AO system consisting of a 141-element MEMS-based deformable mirror (DM) and a Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensor operating at 15 Hz. The photoacoustic signal induced by the illuminating laser beam was detected by a custom-built needle ultrasonic transducer. When the wavefront errors were corrected by the AO system, the lateral resolution of PAM was measured to be better than 2.5 µm using a low NA objective lens. We tested the system on imaging ex vivo ocular samples, e.g., the ciliary body and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of a pig eye. The AO-PAM images showed significant quality improvement. For the first time we were able to resolve single RPE cells with PAM.

  10. Intelligent Optical Systems Using Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the phrase adaptive optics generally conjured images of large deformable mirrors being integrated into telescopes to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. However, the development of smaller, cheaper devices has sparked interest for other aerospace and commercial applications. Variable focal length lenses, liquid crystal spatial light modulators, tunable filters, phase compensators, polarization compensation, and deformable mirrors are becoming increasingly useful for other imaging applications including guidance navigation and control (GNC), coronagraphs, foveated imaging, situational awareness, autonomous rendezvous and docking, non-mechanical zoom, phase diversity, and enhanced multi-spectral imaging. The active components presented here allow flexibility in the optical design, increasing performance. In addition, the intelligent optical systems presented offer advantages in size and weight and radiation tolerance.

  11. Adaptive Optics Metrics & QC Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien H.

    2017-09-01

    "There are many Adaptive Optics (AO) fed instruments on Paranal and more to come. To monitor their performances and assess the quality of the scientific data, we have developed a scheme and a set of tools and metrics adapted to each flavour of AO and each data product. Our decisions to repeat observations or not depends heavily on this immediate quality control "zero" (QC0). Atmospheric parameters monitoring can also help predict performances . At the end of the chain, the user must be able to find the data that correspond to his/her needs. In Particular, we address the special case of SPHERE."

  12. Atmospheric free-space coherent optical communications with adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chueh; Zhang, Chengyu; Yang, Zikai

    2017-02-01

    Free-space coherent optical communications have a potential application to offer last mile bottleneck solution in future local area networks (LAN) because of their information carrier, information security and license-free status. Coherent optical communication systems using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation are successfully demonstrated in a long-haul tens Giga bits via optical fiber, but they are not yet available in free space due to atmospheric turbulence-induced channel fading. Adaptive optics is recognized as a promising technology to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence in free-space optics. In this paper, a free-space coherent optical communication system using an OFDM digital modulation scheme and adaptive optics (FSO OFDM AO) is proposed, a Gamma-Gamma distribution statistical channel fading model for the FSO OFDM AO system is examined, and FSO OFDM AO system performance is evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus various propagation distances.

  13. Wavefront measurement using computational adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Fredrick A; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Bower, Andrew J; Xu, Yang; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2018-03-01

    In many optical imaging applications, it is necessary to correct for aberrations to obtain high quality images. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides access to the amplitude and phase of the backscattered optical field for three-dimensional (3D) imaging samples. Computational adaptive optics (CAO) modifies the phase of the OCT data in the spatial frequency domain to correct optical aberrations without using a deformable mirror, as is commonly done in hardware-based adaptive optics (AO). This provides improvement of image quality throughout the 3D volume, enabling imaging across greater depth ranges and in highly aberrated samples. However, the CAO aberration correction has a complicated relation to the imaging pupil and is not a direct measurement of the pupil aberrations. Here we present new methods for recovering the wavefront aberrations directly from the OCT data without the use of hardware adaptive optics. This enables both computational measurement and correction of optical aberrations.

  14. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  15. A Miniaturized Adaptive Optic Device for Optical Telecommunications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To advance the state-of-the-art uplink laser communication technology, new adaptive optic beam compensation techniques are needed for removing various time-varying...

  16. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  17. Adaptive optics imaging of the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Battu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics is a relatively new tool that is available to ophthalmologists for study of cellular level details. In addition to the axial resolution provided by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, adaptive optics provides an excellent lateral resolution, enabling visualization of the photoreceptors, blood vessels and details of the optic nerve head. We attempt a mini review of the current role of adaptive optics in retinal imaging. PubMed search was performed with key words Adaptive optics OR Retina OR Retinal imaging. Conference abstracts were searched from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO and American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO meetings. In total, 261 relevant publications and 389 conference abstracts were identified.

  18. Adaptive multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayraktar, Muharrem

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we describe the development of a new class of optical components to enhance the imaging performance by enabling adaptations of the optics. When used at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths, such ‘adaptive optics’ offers the potential to achieve the highest spatial resolution in

  19. Free space optical communications utilizing MEMS adaptive optics correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charles A.; Kartz, Michael W.; Flath, Laurence M.; Wilks, Scott C.; Young, Richard A.; Johnson, Gary W.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2002-12-01

    Free space optical communications (FSO) are beginning to provide attractive alternatives to fiber-based solutions in many situations. Currently, a handful of companies provide fiberless alternatives especially aimed at corporate intranet and sporting event video. These solutions are geared toward solving the 'last mile' connectivity issues. There exists a potential need to extend this pathlength to distances much greater than a 1 km, particularly for government and military applications. For cases of long distance optical propagation, atmospheric turbulence will ultimately limit the maximum achievable data rate. In this paper, we propose a method of improved signal quality through the use of adaptive optics. In particular, we show work in progress toward a high-speed, small footprint Adaptive Optics system for horizontal and slant path laser communications. Such a system relies heavily on recent progress in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) deformable mirrors as well as improved communication and computational components.

  20. Adaptive Optics, LLLFT Interferometry, Astronomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    We propose to build a three telescope Michelson optical interferometer equipped with wavefront compensation technology as a demonstration and test bed for high resolution Deep Space Surveillance (DSS) and Astronomy...

  1. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  2. Maritime Adaptive Optics Beam Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Griot Helium Neon Class II laser with output power of 0.5 mW, operating at a wavelength of 633 nm. The science camera is an IDS uEye-2210SE CCD camera...produced by Edmund Optics, Newport/New Focus, Thor Labs, and CVI Melles Griot . Two computer controllers are used for the full experimental system. The

  3. Adaption of optical Fresnel transform to optical Wigner transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Cuihong; Fan Hongyi

    2010-01-01

    Enlightened by the algorithmic isomorphism between the rotation of the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and the αth fractional Fourier transform, we show that the optical Fresnel transform performed on the input through an ABCD system makes the output naturally adapting to the associated Wigner transform, i.e. there exists algorithmic isomorphism between ABCD transformation of the WDF and the optical Fresnel transform. We prove this adaption in the context of operator language. Both the single-mode and the two-mode Fresnel operators as the image of classical Fresnel transform are introduced in our discussions, while the two-mode Wigner operator in the entangled state representation is introduced for fitting the two-mode Fresnel operator.

  4. Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainty, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    pt. 1. Wavefront correctors and control. Liquid crystal lenses for correction of presbyopia (Invited Paper) / Guoqiang Li and Nasser Peyghambarian. Converging and diverging liquid crystal lenses (oral paper) / Andrew X. Kirby, Philip J. W. Hands, and Gordon D. Love. Liquid lens technology for miniature imaging systems: status of the technology, performance of existing products and future trends (invited paper) / Bruno Berge. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer deformable mirrors for high energy laser applications (oral paper) / S. R. Restaino ... [et al.]. Tiny multilayer deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Tatiana Cherezova ... [et al.]. Performance analysis of piezoelectric deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Oleg Soloviev, Mikhail Loktev and Gleb Vdovin. Deformable membrane mirror with high actuator density and distributed control (oral paper) / Roger Hamelinck ... [et al.]. Characterization and closed-loop demonstration of a novel electrostatic membrane mirror using COTS membranes (oral paper) / David Dayton ... [et al.]. Electrostatic micro-deformable mirror based on polymer materials (oral paper) / Frederic Zamkotsian ... [et al.]. Recent progress in CMOS integrated MEMS A0 mirror development (oral paper) / A. Gehner ... [et al.]. Compact large-stroke piston-tip-tilt actuator and mirror (oral paper) / W. Noell ... [et al.]. MEMS deformable mirrors for high performance AO applications (oral paper) / Paul Bierden, Thomas Bifano and Steven Cornelissen. A versatile interferometric test-rig for the investigation and evaluation of ophthalmic AO systems (poster paper) / Steve Gruppetta, Jiang Jian Zhong and Luis Diaz-Santana. Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics (poster paper) / Thomas Farrell and Chris Dainty. Deformable mirrors based on transversal piezoeffect (poster paper) / Gleb Vdovin, Mikhail Loktev and Oleg Soloviev. Low-cost spatial light modulators for ophthalmic applications (poster paper) / Vincente Durán ... [et al.]. Latest MEMS DM developments and the path ahead

  5. Optical Profilometers Using Adaptive Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gregory A.; Youngquist, Robert; Mikhael, Wasfy

    2006-01-01

    A method of adaptive signal processing has been proposed as the basis of a new generation of interferometric optical profilometers for measuring surfaces. The proposed profilometers would be portable, hand-held units. Sizes could be thus reduced because the adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to substitute lower-power coherent light sources (e.g., laser diodes) for white light sources and would eliminate the need for most of the optical components of current white-light profilometers. The adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to attain scanning ranges of the order of decimeters in the proposed profilometers.

  6. Terahertz adaptive optics with a deformable mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, Mathilde; Sauvage, Jean-François; Perrin, Mathias; Abraham, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    We report on the wavefront correction of a terahertz (THz) beam using adaptive optics, which requires both a wavefront sensor that is able to sense the optical aberrations, as well as a wavefront corrector. The wavefront sensor relies on a direct 2D electro-optic imaging system composed of a ZnTe crystal and a CMOS camera. By measuring the phase variation of the THz electric field in the crystal, we were able to minimize the geometrical aberrations of the beam, thanks to the action of a deformable mirror. This phase control will open the route to THz adaptive optics in order to optimize the THz beam quality for both practical and fundamental applications.

  7. Adaptive optics compensation using active illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Charles; Barclay, Herbert T.; Kansky, Jan E.; Murphy, Daniel V.; Primmerman, Charles A.

    1998-09-01

    We have conducted atmospheric compensation experiments using active illumination for both adaptive-optics and tracking. Tests were performed in support of the Air Force's Airborne Laser program. The tests utilized the 5.4-km horizontal propagation range at the Lincoln Laboratory Firepond facility. The adaptive-optics beacon was provided by actively illuminating the target with a multibeam laser illuminator. A second multibeam laser illuminator was used to provide a beacon for an imaging tracker. Experiments were conducted using two different adaptive-optics illuminator configurations, as well as with point-source beacons. Data were collected over a range of atmospheric conditions. Results from these tests have helped to provide a performance benchmark for the Airborne Laser program.

  8. Optical design of the adaptive optics laser guide star system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The design of an adaptive optics package for the 3 meter Lick telescope is presented. This instrument package includes a 69 actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann type wavefront sensor operating in the visible wavelength; a quadrant detector for the tip-tile sensor and a tip-tilt mirror to stabilize atmospheric first order tip-tile errors. A high speed computer drives the deformable mirror to achieve near diffraction limited imagery. The different optical components and their individual design constraints are described. motorized stages and diagnostics tools are used to operate and maintain alignment throughout observation time from a remote control room. The expected performance are summarized and actual results of astronomical sources are presented.

  9. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Omer P; Turner, Timothy L; Liu, Zhuolin; Miller, Donald T

    2014-12-01

    Image acquisition speed of optical coherence tomography (OCT) remains a fundamental barrier that limits its scientific and clinical utility. Here we demonstrate a novel multi-camera adaptive optics (AO-)OCT system for ophthalmologic use that operates at 1 million A-lines/s at a wavelength of 790 nm with 5.3 μm axial resolution in retinal tissue. Central to the spectral-domain design is a novel detection channel based on four high-speed spectrometers that receive light sequentially from a 1 × 4 optical switch assembly. Absence of moving parts enables ultra-fast (50ns) and precise switching with low insertion loss (-0.18 dB per channel). This manner of control makes use of all available light in the detection channel and avoids camera dead-time, both critical for imaging at high speeds. Additional benefit in signal-to-noise accrues from the larger numerical aperture afforded by the use of AO and yields retinal images of comparable dynamic range to that of clinical OCT. We validated system performance by a series of experiments that included imaging in both model and human eyes. We demonstrated the performance of our MHz AO-OCT system to capture detailed images of individual retinal nerve fiber bundles and cone photoreceptors. This is the fastest ophthalmic OCT system we know of in the 700 to 915 nm spectral band.

  10. Optically sensitive Medipix2 detector for adaptive optics wavefront sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerga, John; McPhate, Jason; Tremsin, Anton; Siegmund, Oswald; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan

    2005-01-01

    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation adaptive optics (AO) wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused microchannel plate (MCP) read out by multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN ('Medipix2') with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 256x256 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting), can be read out at 1 kHz frame rates and is abutable on 3 sides. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 ns. When used in a Shack-Hartmann style wavefront sensor, a detector with 4 Medipix chips should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7x7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest

  11. Adaptive optical probe design for optical coherence tomography and microscopy using tunable optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minseog; Lee, Seungwan; Chang, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Eunsung; Jung, Kyu-Dong; Kim, Woonbae

    2013-01-28

    We present a tunable, adaptive optical imaging probe for multimodal imaging such as optical coherence tomography and microscopy. The probe is compatible with forward-looking scanning laser imaging devices such as an endoscope. The lens configuration includes a tunable iris and two varifocal lenses, both driven by microelectrofluidics, as well as several conventional fixed focus lenses. The modulation transfer function and spot size in the focal plane is evaluated, and we show using optical simulations that there are three possible imaging modes with different transverse resolutions and focal depths.

  12. High Resolution Observations using Adaptive Optics: Achievements ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Over the last few years, several interesting observations were obtained with the help of solar Adaptive Optics (AO). In this paper, few observations made using the solar AO are enlightened and briefly discussed. A list of disadvantages with the current AO system are presented. With telescopes larger than 1.5m ...

  13. Adaptive optics in digital micromirror based confocal microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Pozzi, P.; Wilding, D.; Soloviev, O.A.; Vdovine, Gleb; Verhaegen, M.H.G.; Bifano, Thomas G.; Kubby, Joel; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    This proceeding reports early results in the development of a new technique for adaptive optics in confocal microscopy. The term adaptive optics refers to the branch of optics in which an active element in the optical system is used to correct inhomogeneities in the media through which light propagates. In its most classical form, mostly used in astronomical imaging, adaptive optics is achieved through a closed loop in which the actuators of a deformable mirror are driven by a wavefront senso...

  14. Adaptive optics in digital micromirror based confocal microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozzi, P.; Wilding, D.; Soloviev, O.A.; Vdovine, Gleb; Verhaegen, M.H.G.; Bifano, Thomas G.; Kubby, Joel; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    This proceeding reports early results in the development of a new technique for adaptive optics in confocal microscopy. The term adaptive optics refers to the branch of optics in which an active element in the optical system is used to correct inhomogeneities in the media through which light

  15. Overview of Advanced LIGO adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Aidan F; Abbott, Benjamin; Arain, Muzammil A; Ciani, Giacomo; Cole, Ayodele; Grabeel, Greg; Gustafson, Eric; Guido, Chris; Heintze, Matthew; Heptonstall, Alastair; Jacobson, Mindy; Kim, Won; King, Eleanor; Lynch, Alexander; O'Connor, Stephen; Ottaway, David; Mailand, Ken; Mueller, Guido; Munch, Jesper; Sannibale, Virginio; Shao, Zhenhua; Smith, Michael; Veitch, Peter; Vo, Thomas; Vorvick, Cheryl; Willems, Phil

    2016-10-10

    This is an overview of the adaptive optics used in Advanced LIGO (aLIGO), known as the thermal compensation system (TCS). The TCS was designed to minimize thermally induced spatial distortions in the interferometer optical modes and to provide some correction for static curvature errors in the core optics of aLIGO. The TCS is comprised of ring heater actuators, spatially tunable CO2 laser projectors, and Hartmann wavefront sensors. The system meets the requirements of correcting for nominal distortion in aLIGO to a maximum residual error of 5.4 nm rms, weighted across the laser beam, for up to 125 W of laser input power into the interferometer.

  16. Electron density measurements for plasma adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiswander, Brian W.

    Over the past 40 years, there has been growing interest in both laser communications and directed energy weapons that operate from moving aircraft. As a laser beam propagates from an aircraft in flight, it passes through boundary layers, turbulence, and shear layers in the near-region of the aircraft. These fluid instabilities cause strong density gradients which adversely affect the transmission of laser energy to a target. Adaptive optics provides corrective measures for this problem but current technology cannot respond quickly enough to be useful for high speed flight conditions. This research investigated the use of plasma as a medium for adaptive optics for aero-optics applications. When a laser beam passes through plasma, its phase is shifted proportionally to the electron density and gas heating within the plasma. As a result, plasma can be utilized as a dynamically controllable optical medium. Experiments were carried out using a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge plasma chamber which generated a sub-atmospheric pressure, low-temperature plasma. An electrostatic model of this design was developed and revealed an important design constraint relating to the geometry of the chamber. Optical diagnostic techniques were used to characterize the plasma discharge. Single-wavelength interferometric experiments were performed and demonstrated up to 1.5 microns of optical path difference (OPD) in a 633 nm laser beam. Dual-wavelength interferometry was used to obtain time-resolved profiles of the plasma electron density and gas heating inside the plasma chamber. Furthermore, a new multi-wavelength infrared diagnostic technique was developed and proof-of-concept simulations were conducted to demonstrate the system's capabilities.

  17. Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Sulai, Yusufu

    2011-01-01

    A broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope (BAOSO) consisting of four afocal telescopes, formed by pairs of off-axis spherical mirrors in a non-planar arrangement, is presented. The non-planar folding of the telescopes is used to simultaneously reduce pupil and image plane astigmatism. The former improves the adaptive optics performance by reducing the root-mean-square (RMS) of the wavefront and the beam wandering due to optical scanning. The latter provides diffraction limited performance over a 3 diopter (D) vergence range. This vergence range allows for the use of any broadband light source(s) in the 450-850 nm wavelength range to simultaneously image any combination of retinal layers. Imaging modalities that could benefit from such a large vergence range are optical coherence tomography (OCT), multi- and hyper-spectral imaging, single- and multi-photon fluorescence. The benefits of the non-planar telescopes in the BAOSO are illustrated by resolving the human foveal photoreceptor mosaic in reflectance using two different superluminescent diodes with 680 and 796 nm peak wavelengths, reaching the eye with a vergence of 0.76 D relative to each other. PMID:21698035

  18. Comparison of closed loop and sensorless adaptive optics in widefield optical microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgenot, C.; Saunter, C.D.; Love, G.D.; Girkin, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a closed loop widefield adaptive optics, optical microscopy system in which the feedback signal is provided by backscattered light from the sample acting as a guide star. The improvement in imaging performance is compared to an adaptive optics system controlled via an image optimisation routine commonly described as sensorless adaptive optics. The samples viewed were imaged without fluorescence to ensure that photobleaching and other potential variations did not affect the compar...

  19. Adaptive optics in gravitational wave interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avino, Saverio; Barone, Fabrizio; Calloni, Enrico; de Rosa, Rosario; di Fiore, Luciano; Milano, Leopoldo; Restaino, Sergio R.; Tierno, Alessio

    2004-10-01

    In this paper we briefly discuss the possibility to use Adaptive Optics in long baseline interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Analisys is carried out to demonstrate the usefulness of Adaptive Optics as a method to integrate double-mode-cleaner systems, presently used or foreseen in the next generation detectors as systems for the reduction of geometrical fluctuations of input laser beam. Finally a prototype of (AO) system for the control of geometrical fluctuations in a laser beam, based on the interferometric detection of phase front, is presented. By comparison with the usual Shack-Hartmann based AO system, we show that this technique is of particular interest when high sensitivity and high band-pass are required for correction of small perturbations like, for instance, the control of the input beam of gravitational waves interferometric detectors.

  20. Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections. PMID:22808435

  1. Sensorless adaptive optics implementation in widefield optical sectioning microscopy inside in vivo Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzani, Mélanie; Loriette, Vincent; Tchenio, Paul; Benrezzak, Sakina; Nutarelli, Daniele; Fragola, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    We present an implementation of a sensorless adaptive optics loop in a widefield fluorescence microscope. This setup is designed to compensate for aberrations induced by the sample on both excitation and emission pathways. It allows fast optical sectioning inside a living Drosophila brain. We present a detailed characterization of the system performances. We prove that the gain brought to optical sectioning by realizing structured illumination microscopy with adaptive optics down to 50 μm deep inside living Drosophila brain.

  2. Adaptive optics and laser guide stars at Lick observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    For the past several years LLNL has been developing adaptive optics systems for correction of both atmospheric turbulence effects and thermal distortions in optics for high-power lasers. Our early work focused on adaptive optics for beam control in laser isotope separation and ground-based free electron lasers. We are currently developing innovative adaptive optics and laser systems for sodium laser guide star applications at the University of California`s Lick and Keck Observeratories. This talk will describe our adaptive optics technology and some of its applications in high-resolution imaging and beam control.

  3. Optimization-based adaptive optics for optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraete, H.R.G.W.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique for non-invasive imaging based on low coherence interferometry. Its main application is found in ophthalmology, where it is used for 3D in vivo imaging of the cornea and the retina. OCT has evolved over the past decade as one of the most important

  4. Adaptive optics system application for solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Krivolutskiy, N. P.; Lavrionova, L. N.; Skomorovski, V. I.

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of applying adaptive correction to ground-based solar astronomy is considered. Several experimental systems for image stabilization are described along with the results of their tests. Using our work along several years and world experience in solar adaptive optics (AO) we are assuming to obtain first light to the end of 2008 for the first Russian low order ANGARA solar AO system on the Big Solar Vacuum Telescope (BSVT) with 37 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based of our modified correlation tracker algorithm, DALSTAR video camera, 37 elements deformable bimorph mirror, home made fast tip-tip mirror with separate correlation tracker. Too strong daytime turbulence is on the BSVT site and we are planning to obtain a partial correction for part of Sun surface image.

  5. PASSATA - Object oriented numerical simulation software for adaptive optics

    OpenAIRE

    Agapito, G.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the last version of the PyrAmid Simulator Software for Adaptive opTics Arcetri (PASSATA), an IDL and CUDA based object oriented software developed in the Adaptive Optics group of the Arcetri observatory for Monte-Carlo end-to-end adaptive optics simulations. The original aim of this software was to evaluate the performance of a single conjugate adaptive optics system for ground based telescope with a pyramid wavefront sensor. After some years of development, the current version of ...

  6. Problems of Aero-optics and Adaptive Optical Systems: Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Shanin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical review gives the basic concepts of the aero-optics problem arising from the radiation propagation in the region of the boundary layers of a laser installation carrier aircraft. Estimates the radiation wave front distortions at its propagation in the near and far field. Presents main calculation approaches and methods to solve the gas-dynamic and optical problems in propagating laser radiation. Conducts a detailed analysis of the flows and their generating optical aberrations introduced by the aircraft turret (a projection platform of the on-board laser. Considers the effect of various factors (shock wave, difference in wall and flow temperatures on the flow pattern and the optical aberrations. Provides research data on the aero-optics obtained in the flying laboratory directly while in flight. Briefly considers the experimental research methods, diagnostic equipment, and synthesis of results while studying the aero-optics problem. Discusses some methods for mitigating the aerodynamic effects on the light propagation under flight conditions. Presents data about the passive, active, and hybrid effects on the flow in the boundary layers in order to reduce aberrations through improving the flow aerodynamics.The paper considers operation of adaptive optical systems under conditions of aero-optical distortions. Presents the study results concerning the reduction of the aero-optics effect on the characteristics of radiation in far field. Gives some research results regarding the effect on the efficiency of the adaptive system of a laser beam jitter and a time delay in the feedback signal transmission, which occur under application conditions. Provides data on adaptive correction of aero-optical wave fronts of radiation. Considers some application aspects in control systems of the on-board adaptive optics of adaptive filtration as a way to improve the efficiency of adaptive optical systems. The project in mind is to use obtained results

  7. The research and development of the adaptive optics in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuhan; Zhang, Xiaofang; Chen, Weilin

    2015-08-01

    Recently the combination of adaptive optics and ophthalmology has made great progress and become highly effective. The retina disease is diagnosed by retina imaging technique based on scanning optical system, so the scanning of eye requires optical system characterized by great ability of anti-moving and optical aberration correction. The adaptive optics possesses high level of adaptability and is available for real time imaging, which meets the requirement of medical retina detection with accurate images. Now the Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope and the Optical Coherence Tomography are widely used, which are the core techniques in the area of medical retina detection. Based on the above techniques, in China, a few adaptive optics systems used for eye medical scanning have been designed by some researchers from The Institute of Optics And Electronics of CAS(The Chinese Academy of Sciences); some foreign research institutions have adopted other methods to eliminate the interference of eye moving and optical aberration; there are many relevant patents at home and abroad. In this paper, the principles and relevant technique details of the Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope and the Optical Coherence Tomography are described. And the recent development and progress of adaptive optics in the field of eye retina imaging are analyzed and summarized.

  8. Design of least-mean-square based adaptive optical equalizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anjan; Barner, Jim; Paparao, Palacharla

    1992-07-01

    Dispersion effects and attenuation over long distances cause degradation to a signal waveform in any communication channel, even optical fibers. Equalization is the process of restoring the shape of the signal waveform. Most current equalization techniques to combat signal distortion in optical fibers rely upon complex electronic realizations to process data converted from the optical signal of interest. The focus of this paper is to study the feasibility of designing efficient optical adaptive equalizers for the optical processing of guided lightwave signal waveforms corrupted by dispersion and attenuation effects varying slowly with time. The least-mean-square algorithm is used to adapt an equalizer's weights in real-time as the optical channel varies. The convergence and learning capabilities of the equalizer are analyzed as a function of the equalizer parameters and optical hardware errors. Optimal equalizer parameters are determined through analysis and numerical simulation such that the effects of optical errors and noise are reduced.

  9. Image registration for daylight adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael

    2018-03-15

    Daytime use of adaptive optics (AO) at large telescopes is hampered by shot noise from the bright sky background. Wave-front sensing may use a sodium laser guide star observed through a magneto-optical filter to suppress the background, but the laser beacon is not sensitive to overall image motion. To estimate that, laser-guided AO systems generally rely on light from the object itself, collected through the full aperture of the telescope. Daylight sets a lower limit to the brightness of an object that may be tracked at rates sufficient to overcome the image jitter. Below that limit, wave-front correction on the basis of the laser alone will yield an image that is approximately diffraction limited but that moves randomly. I describe an iterative registration algorithm that recovers high-resolution long-exposure images in this regime from a rapid series of short exposures with very low signal-to-noise ratio. The technique takes advantage of the fact that in the photon noise limit there is negligible penalty in taking short exposures, and also that once the images are recorded, it is not necessary, as in the case of an AO tracker loop, to estimate the image motion correctly and quickly on every cycle. The algorithm is likely to find application in space situational awareness, where high-resolution daytime imaging of artificial satellites is important.

  10. Robust adaptive optics systems for vision science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. A.; de Castro, A.; Sawides, L.; Luo, T.; Sapoznik, K.

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is of growing importance for understanding the impact of retinal and systemic diseases on the retina. While AO retinal imaging in healthy eyes is now routine, AO imaging in older eyes and eyes with optical changes to the anterior eye can be difficult and requires a control and an imaging system that is resilient when there is scattering and occlusion from the cornea and lens, as well as in the presence of irregular and small pupils. Our AO retinal imaging system combines evaluation of local image quality of the pupil, with spatially programmable detection. The wavefront control system uses a woofer tweeter approach, combining an electromagnetic mirror and a MEMS mirror and a single Shack Hartmann sensor. The SH sensor samples an 8 mm exit pupil and the subject is aligned to a region within this larger system pupil using a chin and forehead rest. A spot quality metric is calculated in real time for each lenslet. Individual lenslets that do not meet the quality metric are eliminated from the processing. Mirror shapes are smoothed outside the region of wavefront control when pupils are small. The system allows imaging even with smaller irregular pupils, however because the depth of field increases under these conditions, sectioning performance decreases. A retinal conjugate micromirror array selectively directs mid-range scatter to additional detectors. This improves detection of retinal capillaries even when the confocal image has poorer image quality that includes both photoreceptors and blood vessels.

  11. Launch telescope for astronomical adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Alberto; Novi, Andrea; Basile, Giuseppe

    2005-09-01

    The Launch Telescope Assembly (LTA) consists of a 50 cm class beam expander (angular magnification 12.5x) and it is an essential subsystem of Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF), which provides an artificial reference star for adaptive compensation of atmospheric turbulence for one of the VLT (Very Large Telescope) 8-meters telescopes of ESO (European Southern Observatory). LTA is an afocal system, with parabolic primary and secondary mirrors, a flat 45° tertiary mirror and an exit window. It is fed with collimated Sodium laser beam, expanding and directing it along the line of sight of the 8-m telescope. Resonance backscatter from atmospheric Sodium layer at about 90 km altitude produces a point like artificial source at this altitude. The high optical quality requested for very fast optics, the severe constraints of the layout accommodation and the mass reduction made LTA a technological challenge that Galileo Avionica has been able to design, realise, align and test as requested. LTA will be positioned atop the secondary mirror unit of one of the four VLTs.

  12. Adaptive optics for structured illumination microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Débarre, Delphine; Botcherby, Edward J; Booth, Martin J; Wilson, Tony

    2008-06-23

    We implement wave front sensor-less adaptive optics in a structured illumination microscope. We investigate how the image formation process in this type of microscope is affected by aberrations. It is found that aberrations can be classified into two groups, those that affect imaging of the illumination pattern and those that have no influence on this pattern. We derive a set of aberration modes ideally suited to this application and use these modes as the basis for an efficient aberration correction scheme. Each mode is corrected independently through the sequential optimisation of an image quality metric. Aberration corrected imaging is demonstrated using fixed fluorescent specimens. Images are further improved using differential aberration imaging for reduction of background fluorescence.

  13. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  14. The Durham Adaptive Optics Simulation Platform (DASP): Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, A. G.; Bharmal, N. A.; Jenkins, D.; Morris, T. J.; Osborn, J.; Peng, J.; Staykov, L.

    2018-01-01

    The Durham Adaptive Optics Simulation Platform (DASP) is a Monte-Carlo modelling tool used for the simulation of astronomical and solar adaptive optics systems. In recent years, this tool has been used to predict the expected performance of the forthcoming extremely large telescope adaptive optics systems, and has seen the addition of several modules with new features, including Fresnel optics propagation and extended object wavefront sensing. Here, we provide an overview of the features of DASP and the situations in which it can be used. Additionally, the user tools for configuration and control are described.

  15. Optical properties of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium cells investigated with adaptive optics optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuolin

    Human vision starts when photoreceptors collect and respond to light. Photoreceptors do not function in isolation though, but share close interdependence with neighboring photoreceptors and underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. These cellular interactions are essential for normal function of the photoreceptor-RPE complex, but methods to assess these in the living human eye are limited. One approach that has gained increased promise is high-resolution retinal imaging that has undergone tremendous technological advances over the last two decades to probe the living retina at the cellular level. Pivotal in these advances has been adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that together allow unprecedented spatial resolution of retinal structures in all three dimensions. Using these high-resolution systems, cone photoreceptor are now routinely imaged in healthy and diseased retina enabling fundamental structural properties of cones to be studied such as cell spacing, packing arrangement, and alignment. Other important cell properties, however, have remained elusive to investigation as even better imaging performance is required and thus has resulted in an incomplete understanding of how cells in the photoreceptor-RPE complex interact with light. To address this technical bottleneck, we expanded the imaging capability of AO-OCT to detect and quantify more accurately and completely the optical properties of cone photoreceptor and RPE cells at the cellular level in the living human retina. The first objective of this thesis was development of a new AO-OCT method that is more precise and sensitive, thus enabling a more detailed view of the 3D optical signature of the photoreceptor-RPE complex than was previously possible (Chapter 2). Using this new system, the second objective was quantifying the waveguide properties of individual cone photoreceptor inner and outer segments across the macula (Chapter 3). The third objective extended the AO

  16. Optical implementations of associative networks with versatile adaptive learning capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A D; Lippincott, W L; Lee, J N

    1987-12-01

    Optical associative, parallel-processing architectures are being developed using a multimodule approach, where a number of smaller, adaptive, associative modules are nonlinearly interconnected and cascaded under the guidance of a variety of organizational principles to structure larger architectures for solving specific problems. A number of novel optical implementations with versatile adaptive learning capabilities are presented for the individual associative modules, including holographic configurations and five specific electrooptic configurations. The practical issues involved in real optical architectures are analyzed, and actual laboratory optical implementations of associative modules based on Hebbian and Widrow-Hoff learning rules are discussed, including successful experimental demonstrations of their operation.

  17. Linear zonal atmospheric prediction for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick C.; Rhoadarmer, Troy A.; Coy, Hanna A.; Angel, J. Roger P.; Lloyd-Hart, Michael

    2000-07-01

    We compare linear zonal predictors of atmospheric turbulence for adaptive optics. Zonal prediction has the possible advantage of being able to interpret and utilize wind-velocity information from the wavefront sensor better than modal prediction. For simulated open-loop atmospheric data for a 2- meter 16-subaperture AO telescope with 5 millisecond prediction and a lookback of 4 slope-vectors, we find that Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule training of linear nets and Back- Propagation training of non-linear multilayer neural networks is quite slow, getting stuck on plateaus or in local minima. Recursive Least Squares training of linear predictors is two orders of magnitude faster and it also converges to the solution with global minimum error. We have successfully implemented Amari's Adaptive Natural Gradient Learning (ANGL) technique for a linear zonal predictor, which premultiplies the Delta-Rule gradients with a matrix that orthogonalizes the parameter space and speeds up the training by two orders of magnitude, like the Recursive Least Squares predictor. This shows that the simple Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule's slow convergence is not a fluke. In the case of bright guidestars, the ANGL, RLS, and standard matrix-inversion least-squares (MILS) algorithms all converge to the same global minimum linear total phase error (approximately 0.18 rad2), which is only approximately 5% higher than the spatial phase error (approximately 0.17 rad2), and is approximately 33% lower than the total 'naive' phase error without prediction (approximately 0.27 rad2). ANGL can, in principle, also be extended to make non-linear neural network training feasible for these large networks, with the potential to lower the predictor error below the linear predictor error. We will soon scale our linear work to the approximately 108-subaperture MMT AO system, both with simulations and real wavefront sensor data from prime focus.

  18. Receding-horizon adaptive contyrol of aero-optical wavefronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesch, J.; Gibson, S.; Verhaegen, M.

    2013-01-01

    A new method for adaptive prediction and correction of wavefront errors in adaptive optics (AO) is introduced. The new method is based on receding-horizon control design and an adaptive lattice filter. Experimental results presented illustrate the capability of the new adaptive controller to predict

  19. Pulse front adaptive optics in two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bangshan; Salter, Patrick S; Booth, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive optics has been extensively studied for the correction of phase front aberrations in optical systems. In systems using ultrafast lasers, distortions can also exist in the pulse front (contour of constant intensity in space and time), but until now their correction has been mostly unexplored due to technological limitations. In this Letter, we apply newly developed pulse front adaptive optics, for the first time to our knowledge, to practical compensation of a two-photon fluorescence microscope. With adaptive correction of the system-induced pulse front distortion, improvements beyond conventional phase correction are demonstrated.

  20. Adaptive Filtering, Identification, and Control with Applications to Adaptive Optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    .... Additional application areas included optical communication systems, blind identification and deconvolution, active control of noise and vibration, and detection of damage in elastic structures...

  1. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-10-01

    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  2. Generation of optical vortices with an adaptive helical mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Devinder Pal

    2011-04-01

    Generation of optical vortices using a new design of adaptive helical mirror (AHM) is reported. The new AHM is a reflective device that can generate an optical vortex of any desired topological charge, both positive and negative, within its breakdown limits. The most fascinating feature of the AHM is that the topological charge of the optical vortex generated with it can be changed in real time by varying the excitation voltage. Generation of optical vortices up to topological charge 4 has been demonstrated. The presence of a vortex in the optical field generated with the AHM is confirmed by producing both fork and spiral fringes in an interferometric setup. Various design improvements to further enhance the performance of the reported AHM are discussed. Some of the important applications of AHM are also listed. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. Digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging (DAOLCI) system is proposed by applying digital holographic adaptive optics to a digital form of line-scanning confocal imaging system. In DAOLCI, each line scan is recorded by a digital hologram, which allows access to the complex optical field from one slice of the sample through digital holography. This complex optical field contains both the information of one slice of the sample and the optical aberration of the system, thus allowing us to compensate for the effect of the optical aberration, which can be sensed by a complex guide star hologram. After numerical aberration compensation, the corrected optical fields of a sequence of line scans are stitched into the final corrected confocal image. In DAOLCI, a numerical slit is applied to realize the confocality at the sensor end. The width of this slit can be adjusted to control the image contrast and speckle noise for scattering samples. DAOLCI dispenses with the hardware pieces, such as Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor and deformable mirror, and the closed-loop feedbacks adopted in the conventional adaptive optics confocal imaging system, thus reducing the optomechanical complexity and cost. Numerical simulations and proof-of-principle experiments are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of this idea. PMID:26140334

  4. Horizontal path laser communications employing MEMS adaptive optics correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charles A.; Wilks, Scott C.; Brase, James M.; Young, Richard A.; Johnson, Gary W.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2002-02-01

    Horizontal path laser communications are beginning to provide attractive alternatives for high-speed optical communications. In particular, companies are beginning to sell fiberless alternatives for intranet and sporting event video. These applications are primarily aimed at short distance applications (on the order of 1 km pathlength). There exists a potential need to extend this pathlength to distances much greater than a 1km. For cases of long distance optical propagation, atmospheric turbulence will ultimately limit the maximum achievable data rate. In this paper, we propose a method of improved signal quality through the use of adaptive optics. In particular, we show work in progress toward a high-speed, small footprint Adaptive Optics system for horizontal path laser communications. Such a system relies heavily on recent progress in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) deformable mirrors as well as improved communication and computational components. In this paper we detail two Adaptive Optics approaches for improved through-put, the first is the compensated receiver (the traditional Adaptive Optics approach), the second is the compensated transmitter/receiver. The second approach allows for correction of the optical wavefront before transmission from the transmitter and prior to detection at the receiver.

  5. Adaptation technology between IP layer and optical layer in optical Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuefeng; Li, Hua; Sun, Yongmei

    2001-10-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network provides a platform with high bandwidth capacity and is supposed to be the backbone infrastructure supporting the next-generation high-speed multi-service networks (ATM, IP, etc.). In the foreseeable future, IP will be the predominant data traffic, to make fully use of the bandwidth of the WDM optical network, many attentions have been focused on IP over WDM, which has been proposed as the most promising technology for new kind of network, so-called Optical Internet. According to OSI model, IP is in the 3rd layer (network layer) and optical network is in the 1st layer (physical layer), so the key issue is what adaptation technology should be used in the 2nd layer (data link layer). In this paper, firstly, we analyze and compare the current adaptation technologies used in backbone network nowadays. Secondly, aiming at the drawbacks of above technologies, we present a novel adaptation protocol (DONA) between IP layer and optical layer in Optical Internet and describe it in details. Thirdly, the gigabit transmission adapter (GTA) we accomplished based on the novel protocol is described. Finally, we set up an experiment platform to apply and verify the DONA and GTA, the results and conclusions of the experiment are given.

  6. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Heidi; Sredar, Nripun; Queener, Hope; Li, Chaohong; Porter, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Wavefront sensor noise and fidelity place a fundamental limit on achievable image quality in current adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes. Additionally, the wavefront sensor ‘beacon’ can interfere with visual experiments. We demonstrate real-time (25 Hz), wavefront sensorless adaptive optics imaging in the living human eye with image quality rivaling that of wavefront sensor based control in the same system. A stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm directly optimized the mean intensity in retinal image frames acquired with a confocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). When imaging through natural, undilated pupils, both control methods resulted in comparable mean image intensities. However, when imaging through dilated pupils, image intensity was generally higher following wavefront sensor-based control. Despite the typically reduced intensity, image contrast was higher, on average, with sensorless control. Wavefront sensorless control is a viable option for imaging the living human eye and future refinements of this technique may result in even greater optical gains. PMID:21934779

  7. Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Julie; Paques, Michel; Krivosic, Valérie; Dupas, Bénédicte; Couturier, Aude; Kulcsar, Caroline; Tadayoni, Ramin; Massin, Pascale; Gaudric, Alain

    2015-01-01

    To explore the anatomic correlation of the retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. Retrospective nonconsecutive observational case series. A retrospective review of the multimodal imaging charts of 6 patients with focal alteration of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics was performed. Retinal diseases included acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (n = 1), hydroxychloroquine retinopathy (n = 1), and macular telangiectasia type 2 (n = 4). High-resolution retinal images were obtained using a flood-illumination adaptive optics camera. Images were recorded using standard imaging modalities: color and red-free fundus camera photography; infrared reflectance scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. On OCT, in the marginal zone of the lesions, a disappearance of the interdigitation zone was observed, while the ellipsoid zone was preserved. Image recording demonstrated that such attenuation of the interdigitation zone co-localized with the disappearance of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. In 1 case, the restoration of the interdigitation zone paralleled that of the cone mosaic after a 2-month follow-up. Our results suggest that the interdigitation zone could contribute substantially to the reflectance of the cone photoreceptor mosaic. The absence of cones on adaptive optics images does not necessarily mean photoreceptor cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Optical power allocation for adaptive transmissions in wavelength-division multiplexing free space optical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Attracting increasing attention in recent years, the Free Space Optics (FSO technology has been recognized as a cost-effective wireless access technology for multi-Gigabit rate wireless networks. Radio on Free Space Optics (RoFSO provides a new approach to support various bandwidth-intensive wireless services in an optical wireless link. In an RoFSO system using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM, it is possible to concurrently transmit multiple data streams consisting of various wireless services at very high rate. In this paper, we investigate the problem of optical power allocation under power budget and eye safety constraints for adaptive WDM transmission in RoFSO networks. We develop power allocation schemes for adaptive WDM transmissions to combat the effect of weather turbulence on RoFSO links. Simulation results show that WDM RoFSO can support high data rates even over long distance or under bad weather conditions with an adequate system design.

  9. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  10. Photonic crystal-adaptive optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas

    is investigated and switching times and driving voltages are competitive with existing non-projection liquid crystal displays. The principle has been investigated for use in projection displays but may also be applied to other applications such as cell manipulation in lab-on-a-chip systems and reconfigurable...... are minimized, thus allowing a homogeneous, glare-free, white-light daylighting into the room. Even more functionality can be achieved when the optical effects are tunable or reconfigurable. This is investigated with photonic crystal dye lasers. These lasers combine a photonic crystal resonator with a dye-doped...

  11. Extragalactic Fields Optimized for Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    field (§ 5.2). 14Prom the list compiled by 1. Brinchmann; see http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nV -jadelSurveys/ DeepFields /index.html. ISNote that in Fig...single-laser, single wave- front sensor ) AO. 5.1. Figure of Merit Any number of figures of merit can be devised for intercom- paring the performance of...optics (MOAO) and systems with faint IR tip-tilt sensors whose images are sharpened by the AO system. Future AO systems are expected to be less sensitive

  12. Adaptive optics in coherent lidar wind measurements: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    Laser Doppler radar (lidar) is widely used for remote sensing of wind velocities. Usable wavelengths for the laser are limited by the effects of atmospheric turbulence. An adaptive optical system is proposed to compensate for turbulence effects on signal power. The feasibility of an adaptive system is considered in light of the effects of speckle from the aerosol target. It is concluded that adaptive optics is a promising technique for improving the performance of a 2 micron lidar wind measurement system. The chief technical challenges are a laser that will give the required output and pulse repetition rate, a combined Hartmann sensor and heterodyne detector, and a suitable reconstruction algorithm.

  13. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Devaney, Nicholas; Parravano, Mariacristina; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging. PMID:23271600

  14. Adaptive Forward Error Correction for Energy Efficient Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel scheme for on the fly code rate adjustment for forward error correcting (FEC) codes on optical links. The proposed scheme makes it possible to adjust the code rate independently for each optical frame. This allows for seamless rate adaption based on the link state...... of the optical light path and the required amount of throughput going towards the destination node. The result is a dynamic FEC, which can be used to optimize the connections for throughput and/or energy efficiency, depending on the current demand....

  15. Optical pattern recognition via adaptive spatial homodyne detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Magnus T L; Knittel, Joachim; Morizur, Jean-Francois; Bachor, Hans-A; Bowen, Warwick P

    2010-12-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of an optical pattern recognition scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. Our scheme is adaptive, all-optical, utilizes a single-element photo-detector, and provides a single parameter readout to quantify the efficacy of pattern recognition, thereby allowing very fast pattern recognition speeds. The spatial homodyne detector was applied to the identification of one- and two-dimensional phase profiles.

  16. Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G; Graf, Benedikt W; Ahmad, Adeel; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2012-05-08

    Aberrations in optical microscopy reduce image resolution and contrast, and can limit imaging depth when focusing into biological samples. Static correction of aberrations may be achieved through appropriate lens design, but this approach does not offer the flexibility of simultaneously correcting aberrations for all imaging depths, nor the adaptability to correct for sample-specific aberrations for high-quality tomographic optical imaging. Incorporation of adaptive optics (AO) methods have demonstrated considerable improvement in optical image contrast and resolution in noninterferometric microscopy techniques, as well as in optical coherence tomography. Here we present a method to correct aberrations in a tomogram rather than the beam of a broadband optical interferometry system. Based on Fourier optics principles, we correct aberrations of a virtual pupil using Zernike polynomials. When used in conjunction with the computed imaging method interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy, this computational AO enables object reconstruction (within the single scattering limit) with ideal focal-plane resolution at all depths. Tomographic reconstructions of tissue phantoms containing subresolution titanium-dioxide particles and of ex vivo rat lung tissue demonstrate aberration correction in datasets acquired with a highly astigmatic illumination beam. These results also demonstrate that imaging with an aberrated astigmatic beam provides the advantage of a more uniform depth-dependent signal compared to imaging with a standard gaussian beam. With further work, computational AO could enable the replacement of complicated and expensive optical hardware components with algorithms implemented on a standard desktop computer, making high-resolution 3D interferometric tomography accessible to a wider group of users and nonspecialists.

  17. Wavelet methods in multi-conjugate adaptive optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helin, T; Yudytskiy, M

    2013-01-01

    The next generation ground-based telescopes rely heavily on adaptive optics for overcoming the limitation of atmospheric turbulence. In the future adaptive optics modalities, like multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO), atmospheric tomography is the major mathematical and computational challenge. In this severely ill-posed problem, a fast and stable reconstruction algorithm is needed that can take into account many real-life phenomena of telescope imaging. We introduce a novel reconstruction method for the atmospheric tomography problem and demonstrate its performance and flexibility in the context of MCAO. Our method is based on using locality properties of compactly supported wavelets, both in the spatial and frequency domains. The reconstruction in the atmospheric tomography problem is obtained by solving the Bayesian MAP estimator with a conjugate-gradient-based algorithm. An accelerated algorithm with preconditioning is also introduced. Numerical performance is demonstrated on the official end-to-end simulation tool OCTOPUS of European Southern Observatory. (paper)

  18. Characterization and Operation of Liquid Crystal Adaptive Optics Phoropter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, A; Bauman, B; Gavel, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Hardy, J L; Barnes, T; Werner, J S

    2003-02-05

    Adaptive optics (AO), a mature technology developed for astronomy to compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence, can also be used to correct the aberrations of the eye. The classic phoropter is used by ophthalmologists and optometrists to estimate and correct the lower-order aberrations of the eye, defocus and astigmatism, in order to derive a vision correction prescription for their patients. An adaptive optics phoropter measures and corrects the aberrations in the human eye using adaptive optics techniques, which are capable of dealing with both the standard low-order aberrations and higher-order aberrations, including coma and spherical aberration. High-order aberrations have been shown to degrade visual performance for clinical subjects in initial investigations. An adaptive optics phoropter has been designed and constructed based on a Shack-Hartmann sensor to measure the aberrations of the eye, and a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to compensate for them. This system should produce near diffraction-limited optical image quality at the retina, which will enable investigation of the psychophysical limits of human vision. This paper describes the characterization and operation of the AO phoropter with results from human subject testing.

  19. Characterization and operation of a liquid crystal adaptive optics phoropter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwal, Abdul Ahad S.; Bauman, Brian J.; Gavel, Donald T.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones, Steve; Silva, Dennis A.; Hardy, Joseph L.; Barnes, Thomas B.; Werner, John S.

    2003-12-01

    Adaptive optics (AO), a mature technology developed for astronomy to compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence, can also be used to correct the aberrations of the eye. The classic phoropter is used by ophthalmologists and optometrists to estimate and correct the lower-order aberrations of the eye, defocus and astigmatism, in order to derive a vision correction prescription for their patients. An adaptive optics phoropter measures and corrects the aberrations in the human eye using adaptive optics techniques, which are capable of dealing with both the standard low-order aberrations and higher-order aberrations, including coma and spherical aberration. High-order aberrations have been shown to degrade visual performance for clinical subjects in initial investigations. An adaptive optics phoropter has been designed and constructed based on a Shack-Hartmann sensor to measure the aberrations of the eye, and a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to compensate for them. This system should produce near diffraction-limited optical image quality at the retina, which will enable investigation of the psychophysical limits of human vision. This paper describes the characterization and operation of the AO phoropter with results from human subject testing.

  20. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  1. Digital adaptive optics confocal microscopy based on iterative retrieval of optical aberration from a guidestar hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Thapa, Damber; Yao, Xincheng

    2017-04-03

    Guidestar hologram based digital adaptive optics (DAO) is one recently emerging active imaging modality. It records each complex distorted line field reflected or scattered from the sample by an off-axis digital hologram, measures the optical aberration from a separate off-axis digital guidestar hologram, and removes the optical aberration from the distorted line fields by numerical processing. In previously demonstrated DAO systems, the optical aberration was directly retrieved from the guidestar hologram by taking its Fourier transform and extracting the phase term. For the direct retrieval method (DRM), when the sample is not coincident with the guidestar focal plane, the accuracy of the optical aberration retrieved by DRM undergoes a fast decay, leading to quality deterioration of corrected images. To tackle this problem, we explore here an image metrics-based iterative method (MIM) to retrieve the optical aberration from the guidestar hologram. Using an aberrated objective lens and scattering samples, we demonstrate that MIM can improve the accuracy of the retrieved aberrations from both focused and defocused guidestar holograms, compared to DRM, to improve the robustness of the DAO.

  2. LEO-to-ground optical communications link using adaptive optics correction on the OPALS downlink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Malcolm W.; Kovalik, Joseph; Morris, Jeff; Abrahamson, Matthew; Biswas, Abhijit

    2016-03-01

    The Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) recently demonstrated successful optical downlinks to the NASA/JPL 1-m aperture telescope at the Optical Communication Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) located near Wrightwood, CA. A large area (200 μm diameter) free space coupled avalanche photodiode (APD) detector was used to receive video and a bit patterns at 50 Mb/s. We report on a recent experiment that used an adaptive optics system at OCTL to correct for atmospherically-induced refractive index fluctuations so that the downlink from the ISS could be coupled into a single mode fiber receiver. Stable fiber coupled power was achieved over an entire pass using a self-referencing interferometer based adaptive optics system that was provided and operated by Boeing Co. and integrated to OCTL. End-to-end transmission and reconstruction of an HD video signal verified the communication performance as in the original OPALS demonstration. Coupling the signal into a single mode fiber opens the possibility for higher bandwidth and efficiency modulation schemes and serves as a pilot experiment for future implementations.

  3. Statistical learning methods for aero-optic wavefront prediction and adaptive-optic latency compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. Robert

    Since the early 1970's research in airborne laser systems has been the subject of continued interest. Airborne laser applications depend on being able to propagate a near diffraction-limited laser beam from an airborne platform. Turbulent air flowing over the aircraft produces density fluctuations through which the beam must propagate. Because the index of refraction of the air is directly related to the density, the turbulent flow imposes aberrations on the beam passing through it. This problem is referred to as Aero-Optics. Aero-Optics is recognized as a major technical issue that needs to be solved before airborne optical systems can become routinely fielded. This dissertation research specifically addresses an approach to mitigating the deleterious effects imposed on an airborne optical system by aero-optics. A promising technology is adaptive optics: a feedback control method that measures optical aberrations and imprints the conjugate aberrations onto an outgoing beam. The challenge is that it is a computationally-difficult problem, since aero-optic disturbances are on the order of kilohertz for practical applications. High control loop frequencies and high disturbance frequencies mean that adaptive-optic systems are sensitive to latency in sensors, mirrors, amplifiers, and computation. These latencies build up to result in a dramatic reduction in the system's effective bandwidth. This work presents two variations of an algorithm that uses model reduction and data-driven predictors to estimate the evolution of measured wavefronts over a short temporal horizon and thus compensate for feedback latency. The efficacy of the two methods are compared in this research, and evaluated against similar algorithms that have been previously developed. The best version achieved over 75% disturbance rejection in simulation in the most optically active flow region in the wake of a turret, considerably outperforming conventional approaches. The algorithm is shown to be

  4. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  5. Modeling for deformable mirrors and the adaptive optics optimization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henesian, M.A.; Haney, S.W.; Trenholme, J.B.; Thomas, M.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss aspects of adaptive optics optimization for large fusion laser systems such as the 192-arm National Ignition Facility (NIF) at LLNL. By way of example, we considered the discrete actuator deformable mirror and Hartmann sensor system used on the Beamlet laser. Beamlet is a single-aperture prototype of the 11-0-5 slab amplifier design for NIF, and so we expect similar optical distortion levels and deformable mirror correction requirements. We are now in the process of developing a numerically efficient object oriented C++ language implementation of our adaptive optics and wavefront sensor code, but this code is not yet operational. Results are based instead on the prototype algorithms, coded-up in an interpreted array processing computer language

  6. Extended depth of focus adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Makita, Shuichi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    We present an adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography (AO-SDOCT) with a long focal range by active phase modulation of the pupil. A long focal range is achieved by introducing AO-controlled third-order spherical aberration (SA). The property of SA and its effects on focal range are investigated in detail using the Huygens-Fresnel principle, beam profile measurement and OCT imaging of a phantom. The results indicate that the focal range is extended by applying SA, and the direction of extension can be controlled by the sign of applied SA. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo human retinal imaging by altering the applied SA. PMID:23082278

  7. In vivo imaging of human photoreceptor mosaic with wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin S K; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2015-02-01

    Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation.

  8. Surface Plasmon Wave Adapter Designed with Transformation Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Wubs, Martijn

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved wit...... with homogeneous anisotropic naturally occurring materials or subwavelength grating-structured dielectric materials. Full wave simulations based on a finite-element method have been performed to validate our proposal.......On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved...

  9. A Status Report on the Thirty Meter Telescope Adaptive Optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We provide an update on the recent development of the adaptive optics (AO) systems for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) since mid-2011. The first light AO facility for TMT consists of the Narrow Field Infra-Red AO System (NFIRAOS) and the associated Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF). This order 60 × 60 ...

  10. A Status Report on the Thirty Meter Telescope Adaptive Optics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We provide an update on the recent development of the adaptive optics (AO) systems for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) since mid-2011. The first light AO facility for TMT consists of the Narrow Field Infra-Red AO System (NFIRAOS) and the associated Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF). This order 60 × 60 ...

  11. Thermally tuneable optical modulator adapted for differential signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortman, William A.

    2016-01-12

    An apparatus for optical modulation is provided. The apparatus includes a modulator structure and a heater structure. The modulator structure comprises a ring or disk optical resonator having a closed curvilinear periphery and a pair of oppositely doped semiconductor regions within and/or adjacent to the optical resonator and conformed to modify the optical length of the optical resonator upon application of a bias voltage. The heater structure comprises a relatively resistive annulus of semiconductor material enclosed between an inner disk and an outer annulus of relatively conductive semiconductor material. The inner disk and the outer annulus are adapted as contact regions for a heater activation current. The heater structure is situated within the periphery of the optical resonator such that in operation, at least a portion of the resonator is heated by radial conductive heat flow from the heater structure. The apparatus further includes a substantially annular isolation region of dielectric or relatively resistive semiconductor material interposed between the heater structure and the modulator structure. The isolation region is effective to electrically isolate the bias voltage from the heater activation current.

  12. Binary stars observed with adaptive optics at the starfire optical range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, Jack D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, RDSAM, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In reviewing observations taken of binary stars used as calibration objects for non-astronomical purposes with adaptive optics on the 3.5 m Starfire Optical Range telescope over the past 2 years, one-fifth of them were found to be off-orbit. In order to understand such a high number of discrepant position angles and separations, all previous observations in the Washington Double Star Catalog for these rogue binaries were obtained from the Naval Observatory. Adding our observations to these yields new orbits for all, resolving the discrepancies. We have detected both components of γ Gem for the first time, and we have shown that 7 Cam is an optical pair, not physically bound.

  13. Adaptive optics stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (AO-STORM) by particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Kayvan F; Zhang, Yiwen; Shen, Ping; Kner, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) can achieve resolutions of better than 20nm imaging single fluorescently labeled cells. However, when optical aberrations induced by larger biological samples degrade the point spread function (PSF), the localization accuracy and number of localizations are both reduced, destroying the resolution of STORM. Adaptive optics (AO) can be used to correct the wavefront, restoring the high resolution of STORM. A challenge for AO-STORM microscopy is the development of robust optimization algorithms which can efficiently correct the wavefront from stochastic raw STORM images. Here we present the implementation of a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach with a Fourier metric for real-time correction of wavefront aberrations during STORM acquisition. We apply our approach to imaging boutons 100 μm deep inside the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila melanogaster larvae achieving a resolution of 146 nm.

  14. Compact MEMS-based Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography for Clinical Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Zawadzki, R; Evans, J; Choi, S; Werner, J

    2008-02-04

    We describe a compact MEMS-based adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography system with improved AO performance and ease of clinical use. A typical AO system consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror that measures and corrects the ocular and system aberrations. Because of the limitation on the current deformable mirror technologies, the amount of real-time ocular-aberration compensation is restricted and small in the previous AO-OCT instruments. In this instrument, we proposed to add an optical apparatus to correct the spectacle aberrations of the patients such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This eliminated the tedious process of the trial lenses in clinical imaging. Different amount of spectacle aberration compensation was achieved by motorized stages and automated with the AO computer for ease of clinical use. In addition, the compact AO-OCT was optimized to have minimum system aberrations to reduce AO registration errors and improve AO performance.

  15. Compact MEMS-based adaptive optics: optical coherence tomography for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Diana C.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones, Steven M.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Evans, Julia W.; Choi, Stacey S.; Werner, John S.

    2008-02-01

    We describe a compact MEMS-based adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with improved AO performance and ease of clinical use. A typical AO system consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror that measures and corrects the ocular and system aberrations. Because of limitations on current deformable mirror technologies, the amount of real-time ocular-aberration compensation is restricted and small in previous AO-OCT instruments. In this instrument, we incorporate an optical apparatus to correct the spectacle aberrations of the patients such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This eliminates the tedious process of using trial lenses in clinical imaging. Different amount of spectacle aberration compensation was achieved by motorized stages and automated with the AO computer for ease of clinical use. In addition, the compact AO-OCT was optimized to have minimum system aberrations to reduce AO registration errors and improve AO performance.

  16. Acute Solar Retinopathy Imaged With Adaptive Optics, Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, and En Face Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chris Y; Jansen, Michael E; Andrade, Jorge; Chui, Toco Y P; Do, Anna T; Rosen, Richard B; Deobhakta, Avnish

    2018-01-01

    Solar retinopathy is a rare form of retinal injury that occurs after direct sungazing. To enhance understanding of the structural changes that occur in solar retinopathy by obtaining high-resolution in vivo en face images. Case report of a young adult woman who presented to the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary with symptoms of acute solar retinopathy after viewing the solar eclipse on August 21, 2017. Results of comprehensive ophthalmic examination and images obtained by fundus photography, microperimetry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy, OCT angiography, and en face OCT. The patient was examined after viewing the solar eclipse. Visual acuity was 20/20 OD and 20/25 OS. The patient was left-eye dominant. Spectral-domain OCT images were consistent with mild and severe acute solar retinopathy in the right and left eye, respectively. Microperimetry was normal in the right eye but showed paracentral decreased retinal sensitivity in the left eye with a central absolute scotoma. Adaptive optics images of the right eye showed a small region of nonwaveguiding photoreceptors, while images of the left eye showed a large area of abnormal and nonwaveguiding photoreceptors. Optical coherence tomography angiography images were normal in both eyes. En face OCT images of the right eye showed a small circular hyperreflective area, with central hyporeflectivity in the outer retina of the right eye. The left eye showed a hyperreflective lesion that intensified in area from inner to middle retina and became mostly hyporeflective in the outer retina. The shape of the lesion on adaptive optics and en face OCT images of the left eye corresponded to the shape of the scotoma drawn by the patient on Amsler grid. Acute solar retinopathy can present with foveal cone photoreceptor mosaic disturbances on adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy imaging. Corresponding reflectivity changes can be seen on en face OCT, especially

  17. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of ...

  18. Segmented bimorph mirrors for adaptive optics: morphing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaits, Renaud; Alaluf, David; Belloni, Edoardo; Rodrigues, Gonçalo; Preumont, André

    2014-08-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a light weight segmented bimorph mirror for adaptive optics. It focuses on the morphing strategy and addresses the ill-conditioning of the Jacobian of the segments, which are partly outside the optical pupil. Two options are discussed, one based on truncating the singular values and one called damped least squares, which minimizes a combined measure of the sensor error and the voltage vector. A comparison of various configurations of segmented mirrors was conducted; it is shown that segmentation sharply increases the natural frequency of the system with limited deterioration of the image quality.

  19. Application of optical processing to adaptive phased array radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, C. W.; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the applicability of optical processing to Adaptive Phased Array Radar (APAR) data processing will be summarized. Subjects that are covered include: (1) new iterative Fourier transform based technique to determine the array antenna weight vector such that the resulting antenna pattern has nulls at desired locations; (2) obtaining the solution of the optimal Wiener weight vector by both iterative and direct methods on two laboratory Optical Linear Algebra Processing (OLAP) systems; and (3) an investigation of the effects of errors present in OLAP systems on the solution vectors.

  20. Adaptive optics confocal microscopy using direct wavefront sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Fernandez, Bautista; Azucena, Oscar; Fu, Min; Garcia, Denise; Zuo, Yi; Chen, Diana C; Kubby, Joel

    2011-04-01

    Optical aberrations due to the inhomogeneous refractive index of tissue degrade the resolution and brightness of images in deep-tissue imaging. We introduce a confocal fluorescence microscope with adaptive optics, which can correct aberrations based on direct wavefront measurements using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with a fluorescent bead used as a point source reference beacon. The results show a 4.3× improvement in the Strehl ratio and a 240% improvement in the signal intensity for fixed mouse tissues at depths of up to 100 μm.

  1. Electrically controllable ionic polymeric gels as adaptive optical lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpoor, Karim; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Mojarrad, Mehran

    1996-02-01

    Reversible change in optical properties of ionic polymeric gels, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (PAMPS) and polyacrylic acid plus sodium acrylate cross-linked with bisacrylamide (PAAM), under the effect of an electric field is reported. The shape of a cylindrical piece of the gel, with flat top and bottom surfaces, changed when affected by an electric field. The top surface became curved and the sense of the curvature (whether concave or convex) depended on the polarity of the applied electric field. The curvature of the surface changed from concave to convex and vice versa by changing the polarity of the electric field. By the use of an optical apparatus, focusing capability of the curved surface was verified and the focal length of the deformed gel was measured. The effect of the intensity of the applied electric field on the surface curvature and thus, on the focal length of the gel are tested. Different mechanisms are discussed; either of them or their combination may explain the surface deformation and curvature. Practical difficulties in the test procedure and the future potential of the electrically adaptive and active optical lenses are also discussed. These adaptive lenses may be considered as smart adaptive lenses for contact lens or other optical applications requiring focal point undulation.

  2. Automated interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy and computational adaptive optics for improved optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Boppart, Stephen A.; Carney, P. Scott

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an algorithm framework for the automation of interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM). Under this framework, common processing steps such as dispersion correction, Fourier domain resampling, and computational adaptive optics aberration correction are carried out as metrics-assisted parameter search problems. We further present the results of this algorithm applied to phantom and biological tissue samples and compare with manually adjusted results. With ...

  3. Adaptive optics improves multiphoton super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Wu, Yicong; Winter, Peter; Shroff, Hari

    2018-02-01

    Three dimensional (3D) fluorescence microscopy has been essential for biological studies. It allows interrogation of structure and function at spatial scales spanning the macromolecular, cellular, and tissue levels. Critical factors to consider in 3D microscopy include spatial resolution, signal-to-noise (SNR), signal-to-background (SBR), and temporal resolution. Maintaining high quality imaging becomes progressively more difficult at increasing depth (where optical aberrations, induced by inhomogeneities of refractive index in the sample, degrade resolution and SNR), and in thick or densely labeled samples (where out-of-focus background can swamp the valuable, in-focus-signal from each plane). In this report, we introduce our new instrumentation to address these problems. A multiphoton structured illumination microscope was simply modified to integrate an adpative optics system for optical aberrations correction. Firstly, the optical aberrations are determined using direct wavefront sensing with a nonlinear guide star and subsequently corrected using a deformable mirror, restoring super-resolution information. We demonstrate the flexibility of our adaptive optics approach on a variety of semi-transparent samples, including bead phantoms, cultured cells in collagen gels and biological tissues. The performance of our super-resolution microscope is improved in all of these samples, as peak intensity is increased (up to 40-fold) and resolution recovered (up to 176+/-10 nm laterally and 729+/-39 nm axially) at depths up to 250 μm from the coverslip surface.

  4. Wavefront sensing and adaptive optics in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Ruth; Dainty, Christopher

    2005-06-01

    When light propagates through the atmosphere the fluctuating refractive index caused by temperature gradients, humidity fluctuations and the wind mixing of air cause the phase of the optical field to be corrupted. In strong turbulence, over horizontal paths or at large zenith angles, the phase aberration is converted to intensity variation (scintillation) as interference within the beam and diffraction effects produce the peaks and zeros of a speckle-like pattern. At the zeros of intensity the phase becomes indeterminate as both the real and imaginary parts of the field go to zero. The wavefront is no longer continuous but contains dislocations along lines connecting phase singularities of opposite rotation. Conventional adaptive optics techniques of wavefront sensing and wavefront reconstruction do not account for discontinuous phase functions and hence can only conjugate an averaged, continuous wavefront. We are developing an adaptive optics system that can cope with dislocations in the phase function for potential use in a line-of-sight optical communications link. Using a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator (FLC SLM) to generate dynamic atmospheric phase screens in the laboratory, we simulate strong scintillation conditions where high densities of phase singularities exist in order to compare wavefront sensors for tolerance to scintillation and accuracy of wavefront recovery.

  5. Packetisation in Optical Packet Switch Fabrics using adaptive timeout values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brian Bach

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid electro-optical packet switches utilize optics in the backplane to switch optical packets from inputs to outputs on electronic line cards. The optical packets are traditionally considerably larger than minimum size IP packets. IP packets entering the switch must be formatted (segmented) an...

  6. Contrast-based sensorless adaptive optics for retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Bui, Bang; Nguyen, Christine T O; He, Zheng; Metha, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Conventional adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes use wavefront sensing methods to characterize ocular aberrations for real-time correction. However, there are important situations in which the wavefront sensing step is susceptible to difficulties that affect the accuracy of the correction. To circumvent these, wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (or non-wavefront sensing AO; NS-AO) imaging has recently been developed and has been applied to point-scanning based retinal imaging modalities. In this study we show, for the first time, contrast-based NS-AO ophthalmoscopy for full-frame in vivo imaging of human and animal eyes. We suggest a robust image quality metric that could be used for any imaging modality, and test its performance against other metrics using (physical) model eyes.

  7. Adaptive optics for enhanced signal in CARS microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A J; Poland, S P; Girkin, J M; Freudiger, C W; Evans, C L; Xie, X S

    2007-12-24

    We report the use of adaptive optics with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for label-free deep tissue imaging based on molecular vibrational spectroscopy. The setup employs a deformable membrane mirror and a random search optimization algorithm to improve signal intensity and image quality at large sample depths. We demonstrate the ability to correct for both system and sample-induced aberrations in test samples as well as in muscle tissue in order to enhance the CARS signal. The combined system and sample-induced aberration correction increased the signal by an average factor of approximately 3x for the test samples at a depth of 700 microm and approximately 6x for muscle tissue at a depth of 260 microm. The enhanced signal and higher penetration depth offered by adaptive optics will augment CARS microscopy as an in vivo and in situ biomedical imaging modality.

  8. 3D adaptive optics in a light sheet microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgenot, Cyril; Saunter, Christopher D; Taylor, Jonathan M; Girkin, John M; Love, Gordon D

    2012-06-04

    We report on a single plane illumination microscope (SPIM) incorporating adaptive optics in the imaging arm. We show how aberrations can occur from the sample mounting tube and quantify the aberrations both experimentally and computationally. A wavefront sensorless approach was taken to imaging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) labelled transgenic zebrafish. We show improvements in image quality whilst recording a 3D "z-stack" and show how the aberrations come from varying depths in the fish.

  9. Adaptive optics enables 3D STED microscopy in aberrating specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Travis J; Burke, Daniel; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Booth, Martin J

    2012-09-10

    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy allows fluorescence far-field imaging with diffraction-unlimited resolution. Unfortunately, extending this technique to three-dimensional (3D) imaging of thick specimens has been inhibited by sample-induced aberrations. Here we present the first implementation of adaptive optics in STED microscopy to allow 3D super-resolution imaging in strongly aberrated imaging conditions, such as those introduced by thick biological tissue.

  10. Adaptive optics enables 3D STED microscopy in aberrating specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Travis J.; Burke, Daniel; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Booth, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy allows fluorescence far-field imaging with diffraction-unlimited resolution. Unfortunately, extending this technique to three-dimensional (3D) imaging of thick specimens has been inhibited by sample-induced aberrations. Here we present the first implementation of adaptive optics in STED microscopy to allow 3D super-resolution imaging in strongly aberrated imaging conditions, such as those introduced by thick biological tissue. PMID:23037223

  11. Analysis and Design of Adaptive OCDMA Passive Optical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Mohammad; Pakravan, Mohammad Reza

    2017-07-01

    OCDMA systems can support multiple classes of service by differentiating code parameters, power level and diversity order. In this paper, we analyze BER performance of a multi-class 1D/2D OCDMA system and propose a new approximation method that can be used to generate accurate estimation of system BER using a simple mathematical form. The proposed approximation provides insight into proper system level analysis, system level design and sensitivity of system performance to the factors such as code parameters, power level and diversity order. Considering code design, code cardinality and system performance constraints, two design problems are defined and their optimal solutions are provided. We then propose an adaptive OCDMA-PON that adaptively shares unused resources of inactive users among active ones to improve upstream system performance. Using the approximated BER expression and defined design problems, two adaptive code allocation algorithms for the adaptive OCDMA-PON are presented and their performances are evaluated by simulation. Simulation results show that the adaptive code allocation algorithms can increase average transmission rate or decrease average optical power consumption of ONUs for dynamic traffic patterns. According to the simulation results, for an adaptive OCDMA-PON with BER value of 1e-7 and user activity probability of 0.5, transmission rate (optical power consumption) can be increased (decreased) by a factor of 2.25 (0.27) compared to fixed code assignment.

  12. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R.; Rossi, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2–3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5–0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05–0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3–5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7–1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07–0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing. PMID:26114033

  13. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  14. Digital adaptive optics for achieving space-invariant lateral resolution in optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical interferometric imaging technique that provides reflectivity profiles of the sample structures with high axial resolution. The high axial resolution is due to the use of low coherence (broad-band) light source. However, the lateral resolution in OCT depends on the numerical aperture (NA) of the focusing/imaging optics and it is affected by defocus and other higher order optical aberrations induced by the imperfect optics, or by the sample itself.Hardware based adaptive optics (AO) has been successfully combined with OCT to achieve high lateral resolution in combination with high axial resolution provided by OCT. AO, which conventionally uses Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH WFS) and deformable mirror for wavefront sensing and correction respectively, can compensate for optical aberration and can enable diffraction-limited resolution in OCT. Visualization of cone photoreceptors in 3-D has been successfully demonstrated using AO-OCT. However, OCT being an interferometric imaging technique can provide access to phase information.This phase information can be exploited by digital adaptive optics (DAO) techniques to correct optical aberration in the post-processing step to obtain diffraction-limited space invariant lateral resolution throughout the image volume. Thus, the need for hardware based AO can be eliminated, which in turn can reduce the system complexity and economical cost. In the first paper of this thesis, a novel DAO method based on sub-aperture correlation is presented which is the digital equivalent of SH WFS. The advantage of this method is that it is non-iterative in nature and it does not require a priori knowledge of any system parameters such wavelength, focal length, NA or detector pixel size. For experimental proof, a FF SS OCT system was used and the sample consisted of resolution test target and a plastic plate that introduced random optical aberration. Experimental results show that

  15. Phase-sensitive imaging of the outer retina using optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnal, Ravi S; Kocaoglu, Omer P; Wang, Qiang; Lee, Sangyeol; Miller, Donald T

    2012-01-01

    The cone photoreceptor's outer segment (OS) experiences changes in optical path length, both in response to visible stimuli and as a matter of its daily course of renewal and shedding. These changes are of interest, to quantify function in healthy cells and assess dysfunction in diseased ones. While optical coherence tomography (OCT), combined with adaptive optics (AO), has permitted unprecedented three-dimensional resolution in the living retina, it has not generally been able to measure these OS dynamics, whose scale is smaller than OCT's axial resolution of a few microns. A possible solution is to take advantage of the phase information encoded in the OCT signal. Phase-sensitive implementations of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) have been demonstrated, capable of resolving sample axial displacements much smaller than the imaging wavelength, but these have been limited to ex vivo samples. In this paper we present a novel technique for retrieving phase information from OCT volumes of the outer retina. The key component of our technique is quantification of phase differences within the retina. We provide a quantitative analysis of such phase information and show that-when combined with appropriate methods for filtering and unwrapping-it can improve the sensitivity to OS length change by more than an order of magnitude, down to 45 nm, slightly thicker than a single OS disc. We further show that phase sensitivity drops off with retinal eccentricity, and that the best location for phase imaging is close to the fovea. We apply the technique to the measurement of sub-resolution changes in the OS over matters of hours. Using custom software for registration and tracking, these microscopic changes are monitored in hundreds of cones over time. In two subjects, the OS was found to have average elongation rates of 150 nm/hr, values which agree with our previous findings. 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. SILDENAFIL CITRATE INDUCED RETINAL TOXICITY-ELECTRORETINOGRAM, OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY, AND ADAPTIVE OPTICS FINDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoga, Fatoumata; Gentile, Ronald C; Chui, Toco Y P; Freund, K Bailey; Fell, Millie; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Rosen, Richard B

    2018-02-27

    To report a case of persistent retinal toxicity associated with a high dose of sildenafil citrate intake. Single retrospective case report. A 31-year-old white man with no medical history presented with complaints of bilateral multicolored photopsias and erythropsia (red-tinted vision), shortly after taking sildenafil citrate-purchased through the internet. Patient was found to have cone photoreceptor damage, demonstrated using electroretinogram, optical coherence tomography, and adaptive optics imaging. The patient's symptoms and the photoreceptor structural changes persisted for several months. Sildenafil citrate is a widely used erectile dysfunction medication that is typically associated with transient visual symptoms in normal dosage. At high dosage, sildenafil citrate can lead to persistent retinal toxicity in certain individuals.

  17. Adaptive phase measurements in linear optical quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph, T C; Lund, A P; Wiseman, H M

    2005-01-01

    Photon counting induces an effective non-linear optical phase shift in certain states derived by linear optics from single photons. Although this non-linearity is non-deterministic, it is sufficient in principle to allow scalable linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The most obvious way to encode a qubit optically is as a superposition of the vacuum and a single photon in one mode-so-called 'single-rail' logic. Until now this approach was thought to be prohibitively expensive (in resources) compared to 'dual-rail' logic where a qubit is stored by a photon across two modes. Here we attack this problem with real-time feedback control, which can realize a quantum-limited phase measurement on a single mode, as has been recently demonstrated experimentally. We show that with this added measurement resource, the resource requirements for single-rail LOQC are not substantially different from those of dual-rail LOQC. In particular, with adaptive phase measurements an arbitrary qubit state α vertical bar 0>+β vertical bar 1> can be prepared deterministically

  18. Adapting smartphones for low-cost optical medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Vollet-Filho, José D.; Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Blanco, Kate; Inada, Natalia M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Optical images have been used in several medical situations to improve diagnosis of lesions or to monitor treatments. However, most systems employ expensive scientific (CCD or CMOS) cameras and need computers to display and save the images, usually resulting in a high final cost for the system. Additionally, this sort of apparatus operation usually becomes more complex, requiring more and more specialized technical knowledge from the operator. Currently, the number of people using smartphone-like devices with built-in high quality cameras is increasing, which might allow using such devices as an efficient, lower cost, portable imaging system for medical applications. Thus, we aim to develop methods of adaptation of those devices to optical medical imaging techniques, such as fluorescence. Particularly, smartphones covers were adapted to connect a smartphone-like device to widefield fluorescence imaging systems. These systems were used to detect lesions in different tissues, such as cervix and mouth/throat mucosa, and to monitor ALA-induced protoporphyrin-IX formation for photodynamic treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. This approach may contribute significantly to low-cost, portable and simple clinical optical imaging collection.

  19. Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianyong; Germain, Ronald N; Cui, Meng

    2012-05-29

    Biological tissues are rarely transparent, presenting major challenges for deep tissue optical microscopy. The achievable imaging depth is fundamentally limited by wavefront distortions caused by aberration and random scattering. Here, we report an iterative wavefront compensation technique that takes advantage of the nonlinearity of multiphoton signals to determine and compensate for these distortions and to focus light inside deep tissues. Different from conventional adaptive optics methods, this technique can rapidly measure highly complicated wavefront distortions encountered in deep tissue imaging and provide compensations for not only aberration but random scattering. The technique is tested with a variety of highly heterogeneous biological samples including mouse brain tissue, skull, and lymph nodes. We show that high quality three-dimensional imaging can be realized at depths beyond the reach of conventional multiphoton microscopy and adaptive optics methods, albeit over restricted distances for a given correction. Moreover, the required laser excitation power can be greatly reduced in deep tissues, deviating from the power requirement of ballistic light excitation and thus significantly reducing photo damage to the biological tissue.

  20. Automated interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy and computational adaptive optics for improved optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Boppart, Stephen A; Carney, P Scott

    2016-03-10

    In this paper, we introduce an algorithm framework for the automation of interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM). Under this framework, common processing steps such as dispersion correction, Fourier domain resampling, and computational adaptive optics aberration correction are carried out as metrics-assisted parameter search problems. We further present the results of this algorithm applied to phantom and biological tissue samples and compare with manually adjusted results. With the automated algorithm, near-optimal ISAM reconstruction can be achieved without manual adjustment. At the same time, the technical barrier for the nonexpert using ISAM imaging is also significantly lowered.

  1. Aberrations and adaptive optics in super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Martin; Andrade, Débora; Burke, Daniel; Patton, Brian; Zurauskas, Mantas

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most powerful tools in the biological investigation of cellular structures and dynamic processes, fluorescence microscopy has undergone extraordinary developments in the past decades. The advent of super-resolution techniques has enabled fluorescence microscopy – or rather nanoscopy – to achieve nanoscale resolution in living specimens and unravelled the interior of cells with unprecedented detail. The methods employed in this expanding field of microscopy, however, are especially prone to the detrimental effects of optical aberrations. In this review, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy techniques based upon single-molecule switching, stimulated emission depletion and structured illumination each suffer from aberrations in different ways that are dependent upon intrinsic technical aspects. We discuss the use of adaptive optics as an effective means to overcome this problem. PMID:26124194

  2. Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    A Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system and its basic principles are proposed. The CCD is put at the exact Fourier transform plane of the pupil of the eye lens. The spherical curvature introduced by the optics except the eye lens itself is eliminated. The CCD is also at image plane of the target. The point-spread function of the system is directly recorded, making it easier to determine the correct guide-star hologram. Also, the light signal will be stronger at the CCD, especially for phase-aberration sensing. Numerical propagation is avoided. The sensor aperture has nothing to do with the resolution and the possibility of using low coherence or incoherent illumination is opened. The system becomes more efficient and flexible. Although it is intended for ophthalmic use, it also shows potential application in microscopy. The robustness and feasibility of this compact system are demonstrated by simulations and experiments using scattering objects. PMID:23262541

  3. Optimization-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics for multiphoton microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, Jacopo; van Werkhoven, Tim; Verhaegen, Michel; Truong, Hoa H; Keller, Christoph U; Gerritsen, Hans C

    2014-06-01

    Optical aberrations have detrimental effects in multiphoton microscopy. These effects can be curtailed by implementing model-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics, which only requires the addition of a wavefront shaping device, such as a deformable mirror (DM) to an existing microscope. The aberration correction is achieved by maximizing a suitable image quality metric. We implement a model-based aberration correction algorithm in a second-harmonic microscope. The tip, tilt, and defocus aberrations are removed from the basis functions used for the control of the DM, as these aberrations induce distortions in the acquired images. We compute the parameters of a quadratic polynomial that is used to model the image quality metric directly from experimental input-output measurements. Finally, we apply the aberration correction by maximizing the image quality metric using the least-squares estimate of the unknown aberration.

  4. Aberrations and adaptive optics in super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Martin; Andrade, Débora; Burke, Daniel; Patton, Brian; Zurauskas, Mantas

    2015-08-01

    As one of the most powerful tools in the biological investigation of cellular structures and dynamic processes, fluorescence microscopy has undergone extraordinary developments in the past decades. The advent of super-resolution techniques has enabled fluorescence microscopy - or rather nanoscopy - to achieve nanoscale resolution in living specimens and unravelled the interior of cells with unprecedented detail. The methods employed in this expanding field of microscopy, however, are especially prone to the detrimental effects of optical aberrations. In this review, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy techniques based upon single-molecule switching, stimulated emission depletion and structured illumination each suffer from aberrations in different ways that are dependent upon intrinsic technical aspects. We discuss the use of adaptive optics as an effective means to overcome this problem. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy.

  5. Design of the Dual Conjugate Adaptive Optics Test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Bell, K.; Crampton, D.; Fitzsimmons, J.; Herriot, Glen; Jolissaint, Laurent; Lee, B.; Richardson, H.; van der Kamp, D.; Veran, Jean-Pierre

    In this paper, we describe the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics laboratory test-bed presently under construction at the University of Victoria, Canada. The test-bench will be used to support research in the performance of multi-conjugate adaptive optics, turbulence simulators, laser guide stars and miniaturizing adaptive optics. The main components of the test-bed include two micro-machined deformable mirrors, a tip-tilt mirror, four wavefront sensors, a source simulator, a dual-layer turbulence simulator, as well as computational and control hardware. The paper will describe in detail the opto-mechanical design of the adaptive optics module, the design of the hot-air turbulence generator and the configuration chosen for the source simulator. Below, we present a summary of these aspects of the bench. The optical and mechanical design of the test-bed has been largely driven by the particular choice of the deformable mirrors. These are continuous micro-machined mirrors manufactured by Boston Micromachines Corporation. They have a clear aperture of 3.3 mm and are deformed with 140 actuators arranged in a square grid. Although the mirrors have an open-loop bandwidth of 6.6 KHz, their shape can be updated at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. In our optical design, the mirrors are conjugated at 0km and 10 km in the atmosphere. A planar optical layout was achieved by using four off-axis paraboloids and several folding mirrors. These optics will be mounted on two solid blocks which can be aligned with respect to each other. The wavefront path design accommodates 3 monochromatic guide stars that can be placed at either 90 km or at infinity. The design relies on the natural separation of the beam into 3 parts because of differences in locations of the guide stars in the field of view. In total four wavefront sensors will be procured from Adaptive Optics Associates (AOA) or built in-house: three for the guide stars and the fourth to collect data from the science source output in

  6. Design of an optimized adaptive optics system with a photo-controlled deformable mirror

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilař, Jan; Bonora, Stefano; Lucianetti, Antonio; Jelínková, H.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 13 (2016), s. 1422-1425 ISSN 1041-1135 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : adaptive optics * closed loop systems * deformable mirror Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.375, year: 2016

  7. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF RETINAL MICROANEURYSMS WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Sonja G; Salas, Matthias; Hafner, Julia; Scholda, Christoph; Vogl, Wolf-Dieter; Drexler, Wolfgang; Pircher, Michael; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2018-01-19

    To characterize retinal microaneurysms (MAs) in patients with diabetes using adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT) and compare details found in AOOCT with those found in commercially available retinal imaging techniques. Patients with diabetes and MA in the macular area were included in this pilot study. The area of interest, identified in standard fluorescein angiography, was imaged using an AO fundus camera and AOOCT. Microaneurysms were characterized in AOOCT (visibility, reflectivity, feeding/draining vessels, and intraretinal location) and compared with findings in AO fundus camera, OCT angiography, and fluorescein angiography. Fifty-three MAs were imaged in 15 eyes of 10 patients. Feeding and/or draining vessels from both capillary plexus could be identified in 34 MAs in AOOCT images. Of 45 MAs imaged with OCT angiography, 18 (40%) were visible in the superior plexus, 12 (27%) in the deep capillary plexus, and 15 MAs (33%) could not be identified at all. Intraluminal hyperreflectivity, commonly seen in AO fundus camera, corresponded only in 8 of 27 cases (30%) to intraluminal densities seen in AOOCT. Adaptive optics OCT imaging revealed that MAs located in the inner nuclear layer were connected to the intermediate and/or deep capillary plexus. Intraluminal hyperreflectivity seen on AO fundus camera images originated from a strong reflection from the vessel wall and only in a third of the cases from intraluminal clots. Currently, AOOCT is the most expedient in vivo imaging method to capture morphologic details of retinal microvasculature in 3D and in the context of the surrounding retinal anatomy.

  8. Optimal model-based sensorless adaptive optics for epifluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Paolo; Soloviev, Oleg; Wilding, Dean; Vdovin, Gleb; Verhaegen, Michel

    2018-01-01

    We report on a universal sample-independent sensorless adaptive optics method, based on modal optimization of the second moment of the fluorescence emission from a point-like excitation. Our method employs a sample-independent precalibration, performed only once for the particular system, to establish the direct relation between the image quality and the aberration. The method is potentially applicable to any form of microscopy with epifluorescence detection, including the practically important case of incoherent fluorescence emission from a three dimensional object, through minor hardware modifications. We have applied the technique successfully to a widefield epifluorescence microscope and to a multiaperture confocal microscope.

  9. Adaptive optics multiphoton microscopy to study ex vivo ocular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Juan M; Gualda, Emilio J; Artal, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We develop an adaptive optics (AO) multiphoton microscope by incorporating a deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. The AO module operating in closed-loop is used to correct for the aberrations of the illumination laser beam. This increases the efficiency of the nonlinear processes in reducing tissue photodamage, improves contrast, and enhances lateral resolution in images of nonstained ocular tissues. In particular, the use of AO in the multiphoton microscope provides a better visualization of ocular structures, which are relevant in ophthalmology. This instrument might be useful to explore the possible connections between changes in ocular structures and the associated pathologies.

  10. Control algorithms and applications of the wavefront sensorless adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Yuanshen; Yang, Huizhen

    2017-10-01

    Compared with the conventional adaptive optics (AO) system, the wavefront sensorless (WFSless) AO system need not to measure the wavefront and reconstruct it. It is simpler than the conventional AO in system architecture and can be applied to the complex conditions. Based on the analysis of principle and system model of the WFSless AO system, wavefront correction methods of the WFSless AO system were divided into two categories: model-free-based and model-based control algorithms. The WFSless AO system based on model-free-based control algorithms commonly considers the performance metric as a function of the control parameters and then uses certain control algorithm to improve the performance metric. The model-based control algorithms include modal control algorithms, nonlinear control algorithms and control algorithms based on geometrical optics. Based on the brief description of above typical control algorithms, hybrid methods combining the model-free-based control algorithm with the model-based control algorithm were generalized. Additionally, characteristics of various control algorithms were compared and analyzed. We also discussed the extensive applications of WFSless AO system in free space optical communication (FSO), retinal imaging in the human eye, confocal microscope, coherent beam combination (CBC) techniques and extended objects.

  11. Optical Design of Adaptive Optics Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope with Two Deformable Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinsheng; Wang, Yuanyuan; Rao, Xuejun; Wei, Ling; Li, Xiqi; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    We describe the optical design of a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with two deformable mirrors. Spherical mirrors are used for pupil relay. Defocus aberration of the human eye is corrected by a Badal focusing structure and astigmatism aberration is corrected by a deformable mirror. The main optical system achieves a diffraction-limited performance through the entire scanning field (6 mm pupil, 3 degrees on pupil plane). The performance of the optical system, with correction of defocus and astigmatism, is also evaluated.

  12. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of three conditions were performed: 1) constant 12 cm optic flow amplitude (24 cm peak-to-peak), 2) constant 4 cm amplitude (8 cm p-t-p), and 3) a transition in amplitude from 4 to 12 cm. The average power of head sway velocity (Pvel) was calculated for consecutive 5 s intervals during the trial to examine the changes in sway within and between trials. A mixed factor repeated measures ANOVA was performed to examine the effects of subject Group, Trial, and Interval on the Pvel. Pvel was greater in older adults in all conditions (p Pvel of the older adults decreased significantly between all 3 trials, but decreased only between trial 1 and 2 in young adults. While the responses of the young adults to the transition in optic flow from 4 to 12 cm did not significantly change, older adults had an increase in Pvel following the transition, ranging from 6.5 dB for the first trial to 3.4 dB for the third trial. These results show that older adults can habituate to repeated visual perturbation exposures; however, this habituation requires a greater number of exposures than young adults. This suggests aging impacts the ability to quickly modify the relative weighting of the sensory feedback for postural stabilization. PMID:18329878

  13. Overview of deformable mirror technologies for adaptive optics and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, P.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    From the ardent bucklers used during the Syracuse battle to set fire to Romans’ ships to more contemporary piezoelectric deformable mirrors widely used in astronomy, from very large voice coil deformable mirrors considered in future Extremely Large Telescopes to very small and compact ones embedded in Multi Object Adaptive Optics systems, this paper aims at giving an overview of Deformable Mirror technology for Adaptive Optics and Astronomy. First the main drivers for the design of Deformable Mirrors are recalled, not only related to atmospheric aberration compensation but also to environmental conditions or mechanical constraints. Then the different technologies available today for the manufacturing of Deformable Mirrors will be described, pros and cons analyzed. A review of the Companies and Institutes with capabilities in delivering Deformable Mirrors to astronomers will be presented, as well as lessons learned from the past 25 years of technological development and operation on sky. In conclusion, perspective will be tentatively drawn for what regards the future of Deformable Mirror technology for Astronomy.

  14. Photometric Calibration of the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Sarah Anne; Rodrigo Carrasco Damele, Eleazar; Thomas-Osip, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) is an instrument available on the Gemini South telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, utilizing the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS). In order to allow users to easily perform photometry with this instrument and to monitor any changes in the instrument in the future, we seek to set up a process for performing photometric calibration with standard star observations taken across the time of the instrument’s operation. We construct a Python-based pipeline that includes IRAF wrappers for reduction and combines the AstroPy photutils package and original Python scripts with the IRAF apphot and photcal packages to carry out photometry and linear regression fitting. Using the pipeline, we examine standard star observations made with GSAOI on 68 nights between 2013 and 2015 in order to determine the nightly photometric zero points in the J, H, Kshort, and K bands. This work is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, processed using the Gemini IRAF and gemini_python packages, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  15. SOAR Adaptive Optics Observations of Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceno, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    I present results from recent studies of nearby star-forming regions using the SOAR 4.1m telescope Ground-layer Adaptive Optics system.Using narrow-band Hα and [SII] imaging we discovered a spectacular extended Herbig-Haro jet powered by a 26 MJup young brown dwarf located in the vicinity of the σ Orionis cluster. The collimated structure of multiple knots spans 0.26 pc, making it a scaled down version of the parsec-length jets seen in T Tauri stars, and the first substellar analog of an HH jet system.In the ε Chamaeleon stellar group we carried out an Adaptive Optics-aided speckle imaging study of 47 members and candidate members, to characterize the multiplicity of this, one of the nearest groups of young (~3-5 Myr) stars. We resolved 10 new binary pairs, 5 previously know binaries and two triple systems. We find a companion frequency of 0.010±0.04 per decade of separation, in the 4 to 300 AU separation range, a result comparable to main sequence dwarfs in the field. However, the more massive association members, with B and A spectral types, all have companions in this separation range. Finally, we provide new constraints on the orbital elements of the ε Cha triple system.

  16. Large stroke actuators and mirror devices for ocular adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingtao; Li, Hong; Yao, Li; Ou, Haijiang; Pang, Chaoyang

    2012-03-01

    After laboratory studies have demonstrated that the DM-based adaptive optics ophthalmic instruments are promising for future clinical applications, the next step would be to further enhance the functionality of ocular adaptive optics for research and commercialize it for clinical applications. The first essential requirement is the stroke which should cover most wavefront errors of the eyes in clinical population, for which, we presented here design, modeling, and experimental performance of PMN-PT unimorph actuators suitable for generating large stroke up to 50μm per 1-mm pixel in order to cover wavefront correction for older adults and patients with diseased eyes. Clinical acceptance will also requires DMs to be low cost, have a small form factor, running low power, have satisfactory speed, and be an easy add-on for system integration, thus we further presented an effort of developing a high voltage amplifier (HVA) based application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) for driving the mirror actuators with significantly reduced power and system form factors.

  17. IMAGING WITH MULTIMODAL ADAPTIVE-OPTICS OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN MULTIPLE EVANESCENT WHITE DOT SYNDROME: THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labriola, Leanne T; Legarreta, Andrew D; Legarreta, John E; Nadler, Zach; Gallagher, Denise; Hammer, Daniel X; Ferguson, R Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the location of pathological changes in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) with the use of multimodal adaptive optics (AO) imaging. A 5-year observational case study of a 24-year-old female with recurrent MEWDS. Full examination included history, Snellen chart visual acuity, pupil assessment, intraocular pressures, slit lamp evaluation, dilated fundoscopic exam, imaging with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), blue-light fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography. Three distinct acute episodes of MEWDS occurred during the period of follow-up. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive-optics imaging showed disturbance in the photoreceptor outer segments (PR OS) in the posterior pole with each flare. The degree of disturbance at the photoreceptor level corresponded to size and extent of the visual field changes. All findings were transient with delineation of the photoreceptor recovery from the outer edges of the lesion inward. Hyperautofluorescence was seen during acute flares. Increase in choroidal thickness did occur with each active flare but resolved. Although changes in the choroid and RPE can be observed in MEWDS, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography, and multimodal adaptive optics imaging localized the visually significant changes seen in this disease at the level of the photoreceptors. These transient retinal changes specifically occur at the level of the inner segment ellipsoid and OS/RPE line. En face optical coherence tomography imaging provides a detailed, yet noninvasive method for following the convalescence of MEWDS and provides insight into the structural and functional relationship of this transient inflammatory retinal disease.

  18. Performance analysis of an adaptive optics system for free-space optics communication through atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Xu, Huanyu; Li, Dayu; Wang, Rui; Jin, Chengbin; Yin, Xianghui; Gao, Shijie; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li; Cao, Zhaoliang

    2018-01-18

    The performance of free-space optics communication (FSOC) is greatly degraded by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is an effective method for attenuating the influence. In this paper, the influence of the spatial and temporal characteristics of turbulence on the performance of AO in a FSOC system is investigated. Based on the Greenwood frequency (GF) and the ratio of receiver aperture diameter to atmospheric coherent length (D/r 0 ), the relationship between FSOC performance (CE) and AO parameters (corrected Zernike modes number and bandwidth) is derived for the first time. Then, simulations and experiments are conducted to analyze the influence of AO parameters on FSOC performance under different GF and D/r 0 . The simulation and experimental results show that, for common turbulence conditions, the number of corrected Zernike modes can be fixed at 35 and the bandwidth of the AO system should be larger than the GF. Measurements of the bit error rate (BER) for moderate turbulence conditions (D/r 0  = 10, f G  = 60 Hz) show that when the bandwidth is two times that of GF, the average BER is decreased by two orders of magnitude compared with f G /f 3dB  = 1. These results and conclusions can provide important guidance in the design of an AO system for FSOC.

  19. Adaptive optics-assisted optical coherence tomography for imaging of patients with age related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Kenta; Cense, Barry

    2013-03-01

    We developed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) prototype with a sample arm that uses a 3.4 mm beam, which is considerably larger than the 1.2 to 1.5 mm beam that is used in commercialized OCT systems. The system is equipped with adaptive optics (AO), and to distinguish it from traditional AO-OCT systems with a larger 6 mm beam we have coined this concept AO-assisted OCT. Compared to commercialized OCT systems, the 3.4 mm aperture combined with AO improves light collection efficiency and imaging lateral resolution. In this paper, the performance of the AOa-OCT system was compared to a standard OCT system and demonstrated for imaging of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Measurements were performed on the retinas of three human volunteers with healthy eyes and on one eye of a patient diagnosed with AMD. The AO-assisted OCT system imaged retinal structures of healthy human eyes and a patient eye affected by AMD with higher lateral resolution and a 9° by 9° field of view. This combination of a large isoplanatic patch and high lateral resolution can be expected to fill a gap between standard OCT with a 1.2 mm beam and conventional AO-OCT with a 6 mm beam and a 1.5° by 1.5° isoplanatic patch.

  20. Adaptive optics stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (AO-STORM) using a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Kayvan F; Xu, Jianquan; Zhang, Yiwen; Shen, Ping; Kner, Peter

    2015-05-18

    The resolution of Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SML) is dependent on the width of the Point Spread Function (PSF) and the number of photons collected. However, biological samples tend to degrade the shape of the PSF due to the heterogeneity of the index of refraction. In addition, there are aberrations caused by imperfections in the optical components and alignment, and the refractive index mismatch between the coverslip and the sample, all of which directly reduce the accuracy of SML. Adaptive Optics (AO) can play a critical role in compensating for aberrations in order to increase the resolution. However the stochastic nature of single molecule emission presents a challenge for wavefront optimization because the large fluctuations in photon emission do not permit many traditional optimization techniques to be used. Here we present an approach that optimizes the wavefront during SML acquisition by combining an intensity independent merit function with a Genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the PSF despite the fluctuating intensity. We demonstrate the use of AO with GA in tissue culture cells and through ~50µm of tissue in the Drosophila Central Nervous System (CNS) to achieve a 4-fold increase in the localization precision.

  1. Research on Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm by Improved Expectation Maximization Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Dongming; Su, Wei; Yang, Jinhua; Jiang, Yutong

    2014-01-01

    To improve the effect of adaptive optics images’ restoration, we put forward a deconvolution algorithm improved by the EM algorithm which joints multiframe adaptive optics images based on expectation-maximization theory. Firstly, we need to make a mathematical model for the degenerate multiframe adaptive optics images. The function model is deduced for the points that spread with time based on phase error. The AO images are denoised using the image power spectral density and support constrain...

  2. Optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  3. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merino D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available David Merino, Pablo Loza-Alvarez The Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Adaptive optics (AO retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it. Keywords: high-resolution, in vivo retinal imaging, AOSLO

  4. Status of the PALM-3000 high order adaptive optics instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, Rick S.; Dekany, Richard G.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Shelton, J. C.; Wallace, J. K.; Tesch, Jonathan A.; Palmer, Dean L.; Hale, David; Bartos, Randall; Rykoski, Kevin M.; Heffner, Carolyn M.; Eriksen, Jamey E.; Vescelus, Fred

    2014-07-01

    We report on the status of PALM-3000, the second generation adaptive optics instrument for the 5.1 meter Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. PALM-3000 was released as a facility class instrument in October 2011, and has since been used on the Hale telescope a total of over 250 nights. In the past year, the PALM-3000 team introduced several instrument upgrades, including the release of the 32x32 pupil sampling mode which allows for correction on fainter guide stars, the upgrade of wavefront sensor relay optics, the diagnosis and repair of hardware problems, and the release of software improvements. We describe the performance of the PALM-3000 instrument as a result of these upgrades, and provide on-sky results. In the 32x32 pupil sampling mode (15.8 cm per subaperture), we have achieved K-band strehl ratios as high as 11% on a 14.4 mv star, and in the 64x64 pupil sampling mode (8.1 cm per subaperture), we have achieved K-band strehl ratios as high as 86% on stars brighter than 7th mv.

  5. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in combination with en-face optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felberer, F.

    2014-01-01

    The human retina is a most important tissue and plays a fundamental role for the vision. Diseases of the eye affect the normal retinal function which, if untreated, may lead to vision loss or ultimately to blindness. Thus, in vivo diagnostic tools that provide detailed information on the retinal status are required in order to improve diagnosis and treatment. In recent years, several new optical imaging methods of the human retina have been developed and now represent the key part in a standard ophthalmic examination process. One of these technologies is optical coherence tomography (OCT), which provides images of the retina noninvasively and with a high axial resolution. However, imperfections of the eye's optics cause aberrations of the wavefront of the imaging light, thus limiting the transverse resolution of such systems. Improvements in the resolution of retinal images are necessary to resolve individual cells (e.g. photoreceptors) which may provide new opportunities in retinal diagnostics and therapy control. Adaptive optics (AO), a technology known from astronomy, may be used to increase image resolution. Aberrations of the imaging light are measured and corrected, resulting in an increase of lateral resolution up to the diffraction limit. Within this thesis, AO was combined with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) that enables high resolution imaging of the retina. Measurements on healthy subjects demonstrated the ability of the system to resolve foveal cones (the smallest cone photoreceptors within the retina) and even rod photoreceptors. However, the depth resolution of the system remained limited compared to OCT instruments. Thus, in a second step, the instrument was extended to a combined AO-SLO/OCT system. The OCT system is based on transversal scanning (TS)-OCT which records en-face images of the retina and incorporates a high-speed axial eye tracking device. Together with transverse motion correction based on the AO-SLO images, the system

  6. W. M. Keck Observatory's next-generation adaptive optics facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizinowich, P.; Adkins, S.; Dekany, R.; Gavel, D.; Max, C.; Bartos, R.; Bell, J.; Bouchez, A.; Chin, J.; Conrad, A.; Delacroix, A.; Johansson, E.; Kupke, R.; Lockwood, C.; Lyke, J.; Marchis, F.; McGrath, E.; Medeiros, D.; Morris, M.; Morrison, D.; Neyman, C.; Panteleev, S.; Pollard, M.; Reinig, M.; Stalcup, T.; Thomas, S.; Troy, M.; Tsubota, K.; Velur, V.; Wallace, K.; Wetherell, E.

    2010-07-01

    We report on the preliminary design of W.M. Keck Observatory's (WMKO's) next-generation adaptive optics (NGAO) facility. This facility is designed to address key science questions including understanding the formation and evolution of today's galaxies, measuring dark matter in our galaxy and beyond, testing the theory of general relativity in the Galactic Center, understanding the formation of planetary systems around nearby stars, and exploring the origins of our own solar system. The requirements derived from these science questions have resulted in NGAO being designed to have near diffraction-limited performance in the near-IR (K-Strehl ~ 80%) over narrow fields (benefit quantitative astronomy, a cooled science path to reduce thermal background, and a high-efficiency science instrument providing imaging and integral field spectroscopy.

  7. Adaptive fiber optics collimator based on flexible hinges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Pengfei; Si, Lei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu

    2014-08-20

    In this manuscript, we present a new design for an adaptive fiber optics collimator (AFOC) based on flexible hinges by using piezoelectric stacks actuators for X-Y displacement. Different from traditional AFOC, the new structure is based on flexible hinges to drive the fiber end cap instead of naked fiber. We fabricated a real AFOC based on flexible hinges, and the end cap's deviation and resonance frequency of the device were measured. Experimental results show that this new AFOC can provide fast control of tip-tilt deviation of the laser beam emitting from the end cap. As a result, the fiber end cap can support much higher power than naked fiber, which makes the new structure ideal for tip-tilt controlling in a high-power fiber laser system.

  8. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics temporal focusing-based multiphoton microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Cheng, Li-Chung; Su, Hung-Wei; Hu, Yvonne Yuling; Cho, Keng-Chi; Yen, Wei-Chung; Xu, Chris; Dong, Chen Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2014-06-01

    Temporal profile distortions reduce excitation efficiency and image quality in temporal focusing-based multiphoton microscopy. In order to compensate the distortions, a wavefront sensorless adaptive optics system (AOS) was integrated into the microscope. The feedback control signal of the AOS was acquired from local image intensity maximization via a hill-climbing algorithm. The control signal was then utilized to drive a deformable mirror in such a way as to eliminate the distortions. With the AOS correction, not only is the axial excitation symmetrically refocused, but the axial resolution with full two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) intensity is also maintained. Hence, the contrast of the TPEF image of a R6G-doped PMMA thin film is enhanced along with a 3.7-fold increase in intensity. Furthermore, the TPEF image quality of 1μm fluorescent beads sealed in agarose gel at different depths is improved.

  9. Closed loop adaptive optics for microscopy without a wavefront sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kner, Peter; Winoto, Lukman; Agard, David A; Sedat, John W

    2010-02-24

    A three-dimensional wide-field image of a small fluorescent bead contains more than enough information to accurately calculate the wavefront in the microscope objective back pupil plane using the phase retrieval technique. The phase-retrieved wavefront can then be used to set a deformable mirror to correct the point-spread function (PSF) of the microscope without the use of a wavefront sensor. This technique will be useful for aligning the deformable mirror in a widefield microscope with adaptive optics and could potentially be used to correct aberrations in samples where small fluorescent beads or other point sources are used as reference beacons. Another advantage is the high resolution of the retrieved wavefont as compared with current Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Here we demonstrate effective correction of the PSF in 3 iterations. Starting from a severely aberrated system, we achieve a Strehl ratio of 0.78 and a greater than 10-fold increase in maximum intensity.

  10. Kalman filtering to suppress spurious signals in Adaptive Optics control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyneer, L; Veran, J P

    2010-03-29

    In many scenarios, an Adaptive Optics (AO) control system operates in the presence of temporally non-white noise. We use a Kalman filter with a state space formulation that allows suppression of this colored noise, hence improving residual error over the case where the noise is assumed to be white. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new filter in the case of the estimated Gemini Planet Imager tip-tilt environment, where there are both common-path and non-common path vibrations. We discuss how this same framework can also be used to suppress spatial aliasing during predictive wavefront control assuming frozen flow in a low-order AO system without a spatially filtered wavefront sensor, and present experimental measurements from Altair that clearly reveal these aliased components.

  11. Adaptive Integrated Optical Bragg Grating in Semiconductor Waveguide Suitable for Optical Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniem, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    This article presents a methodology for an integrated Bragg grating using an alloy of GaAs, AlGaAs, and InGaAs with a controllable refractive index to obtain an adaptive Bragg grating suitable for many applications on optical processing and adaptive control systems, such as limitation and filtering. The refractive index of a Bragg grating is controlled by using an external electric field for controlling periodic modulation of the refractive index of the active waveguide region. The designed Bragg grating has refractive indices programmed by using that external electric field. This article presents two approaches for designing the controllable refractive indices active region of a Bragg grating. The first approach is based on the modification of a planar micro-strip structure of the iGaAs traveling wave as the active region, and the second is based on the modification of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots of an alloy from GaAs and InGaAs with a GaP traveling wave. The overall design and results are discussed through numerical simulation by using the finite-difference time-domain, plane wave expansion, and opto-wave simulation methods to confirm its operation and feasibility.

  12. Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ying; Dubra, Alfredo; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Sharma, Robin; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Correction of the eye’s monochromatic aberrations using adaptive optics (AO) can improve the resolution of in vivo mouse retinal images [Biss et al., Opt. Lett. 32(6), 659 (2007) and Alt et al., Proc. SPIE 7550, 755019 (2010)], but previous attempts have been limited by poor spot quality in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS). Recent advances in mouse eye wavefront sensing using an adjustable focus beacon with an annular beam profile have improved the wavefront sensor spot quality [Geng et al., Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 717 (2011)], and we have incorporated them into a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). The performance of the instrument was tested on the living mouse eye, and images of multiple retinal structures, including the photoreceptor mosaic, nerve fiber bundles, fine capillaries and fluorescently labeled ganglion cells were obtained. The in vivo transverse and axial resolutions of the fluorescence channel of the AOSLO were estimated from the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the line and point spread functions (LSF and PSF), and were found to be better than 0.79 μm ± 0.03 μm (STD)(45% wider than the diffraction limit) and 10.8 μm ± 0.7 μm (STD)(two times the diffraction limit), respectively. The axial positional accuracy was estimated to be 0.36 μm. This resolution and positional accuracy has allowed us to classify many ganglion cell types, such as bistratified ganglion cells, in vivo. PMID:22574260

  13. 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Wittrock, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    This book treats the development and application of adaptive optics for industry and medicine. The contributions describe recently developed components for adaptive-optics systems such as deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors, and mirror drivers as well as complete adaptive optical systems and their applications in industry and medicine. Applications range from laser-beam forming and adaptive aberration correction for high-power lasers to retinal imaging in ophthalmology. The contributions are based on presentations made at the 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics in Industry and Medicine which took place in Münster, Germany, in October 2003. This highly successful series of workshops on adaptive optics started in 1997 and continues with the 5th workshop in Beijing in 2005.

  14. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in fundus imaging, a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Ni; Kang, Jie; He, Yi; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) has been a promising technique in funds imaging with growing popularity. This review firstly gives a brief history of adaptive optics (AO) and AO-SLO. Then it compares AO-SLO with conventional imaging methods (fundus fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography) and other AO techniques (adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy and adaptive optics optical coherence tomography). Furthermore, an update of current research situation in AO-SLO is made based on different fundus structures as photoreceptors (cones and rods), fundus vessels, retinal pigment epithelium layer, retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer and lamina cribrosa. Finally, this review indicates possible research directions of AO-SLO in future.

  15. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in fundus imaging, a review and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO has been a promising technique in funds imaging with growing popularity. This review firstly gives a brief history of adaptive optics (AO and AO-SLO. Then it compares AO-SLO with conventional imaging methods (fundus fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography and other AO techniques (adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy and adaptive optics optical coherence tomography. Furthermore, an update of current research situation in AO-SLO is made based on different fundus structures as photoreceptors (cones and rods, fundus vessels, retinal pigment epithelium layer, retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer and lamina cribrosa. Finally, this review indicates possible research directions of AO-SLO in future.

  16. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  17. Adaptive optics for fluorescence wide-field microscopy using spectrally independent guide star and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Pierre; Muro, Eleonora; Pons, Thomas; Loriette, Vincent; Fragola, Alexandra

    2011-07-01

    We describe the implementation and use of an adaptive optics loop in the imaging path of a commercial wide field microscope. We show that it is possible to maintain the optical performances of the original microscope when imaging through aberrant biological samples. The sources used for illuminating the adaptive optics loop are spectrally independent, in excitation and emission, from the sample, so they do not appear in the final image, and their use does not contribute to the sample bleaching. Results are compared with equivalent images obtained with an identical microscope devoid of adaptive optics system.

  18. Three-dimensional STED microscopy of aberrating tissue using dual adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Brian R; Burke, Daniel; Owald, David; Gould, Travis J; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Booth, Martin J

    2016-04-18

    When imaging through tissue, the optical inhomogeneities of the sample generate aberrations that can prevent effective Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) imaging. This is particularly problematic for 3D-enhanced STED. We present here an adaptive optics implementation that incorporates two adaptive optic elements to enable correction in all beam paths, allowing performance improvement in thick tissue samples. We use this to demonstrate 3D STED imaging of complex structures in Drosophila melanogaster brains.

  19. Easy and versatile adaptive optics setup with deformable lens for high-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, P.; Quintavalla, M.; Verstraete, H.; Bijlsma, H.; Bonora, S.; Verhaegen, M.

    2017-06-01

    It has been widely proven in literature that most optical microscopy techniques can greatly benefit from the application of adaptive optics correction of phase aberrations through an adaptive optical element, such as a deformable mirror or a spatial light modulator. However, adaptive optics is not yet widely adopted in the life sciences community, mostly due to the lack of adaptive commercial microscopy systems, and the inherent technical difficulty in modifying an existing microscopy setup to integrate an adaptive element, both on the software and hardware sides. We present a plug-and-play adaptive optics module for generic optical microscopes, based on a prototype refractive 18 actuators adaptive optical element, which can be inserted in any microscope between the objective and the microscope body. Correction is performed in a sensorless fashion, optimizing image quality metrics of the image presented to the user on screen. The results presented show how an end-user oriented commercial confocal laser scanning microscope (Leica SP5) can be upgraded with adaptive optics with minor hardware modifications, and no changes to the microscope control software.

  20. Lasers, lenses and light curves : adaptive optics microscopy and peculiar transiting exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, Theodorus Isaak Mattheus van

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we present an adaptive optics implementation for multi-photon microscopy correcting sample-induced wavefront aberrations using either direct wavefront sensing to run a close-loop adaptive optics system (Chapter 3), or use a model-based sensorless approach to

  1. Shared-hole graph search with adaptive constraints for 3D optic nerve head optical coherence tomography image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Shi, Fei; Gao, Enting; Zhu, Weifang; Chen, Haoyu; Chen, Xinjian

    2018-01-01

    Optic nerve head (ONH) is a crucial region for glaucoma detection and tracking based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. In this region, the existence of a “hole” structure makes retinal layer segmentation and analysis very challenging. To improve retinal layer segmentation, we propose a 3D method for ONH centered SD-OCT image segmentation, which is based on a modified graph search algorithm with a shared-hole and locally adaptive constraints. With the proposed method, both the optic disc boundary and nine retinal surfaces can be accurately segmented in SD-OCT images. An overall mean unsigned border positioning error of 7.27 ± 5.40 µm was achieved for layer segmentation, and a mean Dice coefficient of 0.925 ± 0.03 was achieved for optic disc region detection. PMID:29541497

  2. Status of the ARGOS ground layer adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gässler, Wolfgang; Rabien, Sebastian; Esposito, Simone; Lloyd-Hart, Michael; Barl, Lothar; Beckmann, Udo; Bluemchen, Thomas; Bonaglia, Marco; Borelli, José Luis; Brusa, Guido; Brynnel, Joar; Buschkamp, Peter; Busoni, Lorenzo; Carbonaro, Luca; Connot, Claus; Davies, Richard; Deysenroth, Matthias; Durney, Olivier; Green, Richard; Gemperlein, Hans; Gasho, Victor; Haug, Marcus; Hubbard, Pete; Ihle, Sebastian; Kulas, Martin; Lederer, Reinhard; Lewis, Jason; Loose, Christina; Lehmitz, Michael; Noenickx, Jamison; Nussbaum, Edmund; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Peter, Diethard; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rademacher, Matt; Raab, Walfried; Storm, Jesper; Schwab, Christian; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Ziegleder, Julian

    2012-07-01

    ARGOS the Advanced Rayleigh guided Ground layer adaptive Optics System for the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope) is built by a German-Italian-American consortium. It will be a seeing reducer correcting the turbulence in the lower atmosphere over a field of 2' radius. In such way we expect to improve the spatial resolution over the seeing of about a factor of two and more and to increase the throughput for spectroscopy accordingly. In its initial implementation, ARGOS will feed the two near-infrared spectrograph and imager - LUCI I and LUCI II. The system consist of six Rayleigh lasers - three per eye of the LBT. The lasers are launched from the back of the adaptive secondary mirror of the LBT. ARGOS has one wavefront sensor unit per primary mirror of the LBT, each of the units with three Shack-Hartmann sensors, which are imaged on one detector. In 2010 and 2011, we already mounted parts of the instrument at the telescope to provide an environment for the main sub-systems. The commissioning of the instrument will start in 2012 in a staged approach. We will give an overview of ARGOS and its goals and report about the status and new challenges we encountered during the building phase. Finally we will give an outlook of the upcoming work, how we will operate it and further possibilities the system enables by design.

  3. Adaptive optics for deeper imaging of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girkin, John M; Poland, Simon; Wright, Amanda J

    2009-02-01

    Optical microscopy has been a cornerstone of life science investigations since its first practical application around 400 years ago with the goal being subcellular resolution, three-dimensional images, at depth, in living samples. Nonlinear microscopy brought this dream a step closer, but as one images more deeply the material through which you image can greatly distort the view. By using optical devices, originally developed for astronomy, whose optical properties can be changed in real time, active compensation for sample-induced aberrations is possible. Submicron resolution images are now routinely recorded from depths over 1mm into tissue. Such active optical elements can also be used to keep conventional microscopes, both confocal and widefield, in optimal alignment.

  4. Noninvasive optical imaging of resistance training adaptations in human muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert V.; Cotter, Joshua; Ganesan, Goutham; Le, Lisa; Agustin, Janelle P.; Duarte, Bridgette; Cutler, Kyle; O'Sullivan, Thomas; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative and dynamic analysis of skeletal muscle structure and function can guide training protocols and optimize interventions for rehabilitation and disease. While technologies exist to measure body composition, techniques are still needed for quantitative, long-term functional imaging of muscle at the bedside. We evaluate whether diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) can be used for long-term assessment of resistance training (RT). DOSI measures of tissue composition were obtained from 12 adults before and after 5 weeks of training and compared to lean mass fraction (LMF) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Significant correlations were detected between DXA LMF and DOSI-measured oxy-hemo/myoglobin, deoxy-hemo/myoglobin, total-hemo/myoglobin, water, and lipid. RT-induced increases of ˜6% in oxy-hemo/myoglobin (3.4±1.0 μM, p=0.00314) and total-hemo/myoglobin (4.9±1.1 μM, p=0.00024) from the medial gastrocnemius were detected with DOSI and accompanied by ˜2% increases in lean soft tissue mass (36.4±12.4 g, p=0.01641) and ˜60% increases in 1 rep-max strength (41.5±6.2 kg, p = 1.9E-05). DOSI measures of vascular and/or muscle changes combined with correlations between DOSI and DXA suggest that quantitative diffuse optical methods can be used to evaluate body composition, provide feedback on long-term interventions, and generate new insight into training-induced muscle adaptations.

  5. Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Omer P; Cense, Barry; Jonnal, Ravi S; Wang, Qiang; Lee, Sangyeol; Gao, Weihua; Miller, Donald T

    2011-08-15

    Early detection of axonal tissue loss in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) is critical for effective treatment and management of diseases such as glaucoma. This study aims to evaluate the capability of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics (UHR-AO-OCT) for imaging the RNFL axonal bundles (RNFBs) with 3×3×3μm(3) resolution in the eye. We used a research-grade UHR-AO-OCT system to acquire 3°×3° volumes in four normal subjects and one subject with an arcuate retinal nerve fiber layer defect (n=5; 29-62years). Cross section (B-scans) and en face (C-scan) slices extracted from the volumes were used to assess visibility and size distribution of individual RNFBs. In one subject, we reimaged the same RNFBs twice over a 7month interval and compared bundle width and thickness between the two imaging sessions. Lastly we compared images of an arcuate RNFL defect acquired with UHR-AO-OCT and commercial OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis). Individual RNFBs were distinguishable in all subjects at 3° retinal eccentricity in both cross-sectional and en face views (width: 30-50μm, thickness: 10-15μm). At 6° retinal eccentricity, RNFBs were distinguishable in three of the five subjects in both views (width: 30-45μm, thickness: 20-40μm). Width and thickness RNFB measurements taken 7months apart were strongly correlated (p<0.0005). Mean difference and standard deviation of the differences between the two measurement sessions were -0.1±4.0μm (width) and 0.3±1.5μm (thickness). UHR-AO-OCT outperformed commercial OCT in terms of clarity of the microscopic retina. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements of RNFB cross section reported in the living human eye. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive optics for reduced threshold energy in femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in water based eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Krueger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2013-03-01

    In ophthalmic microsurgery tissue dissection is achieved using femtosecond laser pulses to create an optical breakdown. For vitreo-retinal applications the irradiance distribution in the focal volume is distorted by the anterior components of the eye causing a raised threshold energy for breakdown. In this work, an adaptive optics system enables spatial beam shaping for compensation of aberrations and investigation of wave front influence on optical breakdown. An eye model was designed to allow for aberration correction as well as detection of optical breakdown. The eye model consists of an achromatic lens for modeling the eye's refractive power, a water chamber for modeling the tissue properties, and a PTFE sample for modeling the retina's scattering properties. Aberration correction was performed using a deformable mirror in combination with a Hartmann-Shack-sensor. The influence of an adaptive optics aberration correction on the pulse energy required for photodisruption was investigated using transmission measurements for determination of the breakdown threshold and video imaging of the focal region for study of the gas bubble dynamics. The threshold energy is considerably reduced when correcting for the aberrations of the system and the model eye. Also, a raise in irradiance at constant pulse energy was shown for the aberration corrected case. The reduced pulse energy lowers the potential risk of collateral damage which is especially important for retinal safety. This offers new possibilities for vitreo-retinal surgery using femtosecond laser pulses.

  7. Adaptation and timing recovery for two-dimensional optical storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immink, Andre H.; Riani, Jamal; van Beneden, Steven; Bergmans, Jan; Ciacci, Massimo; Nowbakht Irani, Ali; Coene, Wim; van der Lee, Alexander; Bruls, Dominique

    2004-09-01

    This paper discusses several issues related to adaptation and timing recovery for two-dimensional (2D) optical storage. In the TwoDOS format bits are stored on a 2D hexagonal lattice which is formed by recording multiple bit rows with a fixed phase relation in a so-called broad spiral or meta-spiral. Besides a large increase in data rate by reading out with multiple spots, also a density increase by a factor of two compared to Blu-ray Disc is targeted. To increase the storage density, 2D signal processing is proposed including 2D PRML detection in the form of a stripe-wise Viterbi detector. This detector introduces an increasing detection delay when going from the outer rows towards the center of the broad spiral. For fast control loops in a decision-directed mode, special measures are needed to avoid instability due to this delay. Another issue is the large span of the 2D inter-symbol interference at higher densities and tilt, leading to a large 2D equalizer. Furthermore, in case the broad spiral is recorded with a multiple-pass mastering technology (e.g. for ROM TwoDOS discs), write-channel imperfections such as time-varying lattice distortion require independent timing recovery on each row within the broad spiral.

  8. Nanomechanical characterization of adaptive optics components in microprojectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, Manuel; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    Compact microprojectors are being developed for information display in mobile electronic devices. A key component of the microprojector is the green laser package, which consists of an adaptive optics component with a drive mechanism. A crucial concern is the mechanical wear of key drive mechanism components, such as the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) driving rod, the Zn alloy body and the stainless steel friction plate, after prolonged operation. Since friction and wear are dependent on the mechanical properties, nanoindentation experiments were conducted on these drive mechanism components using a depth-sensing nanoindenter at room and elevated temperatures up to 100 °C. The hardness and elastic modulus of all the materials studied decrease at increasing test temperatures. From plasticity index analysis, a correlation between the tendency for plastic deformation and the mechanical properties was obtained. Nanoscratch studies were also conducted in order to simulate wear, as well as examine the scratch resistance and deformation modes of these materials, where it was found that the CFRP rod exhibited the highest scratch resistance. The CFRP rod undergoes mostly brittle deformation, while the Zn alloy body and friction plate undergo plastic deformation.

  9. W.M. Keck Observatory Adaptive Optics Science Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizinowich, Peter; Campbell, R.

    2009-05-01

    Over 200 refereed science papers have been published using data from the W. M. Keck Observatory adaptive optics (AO) systems through 2008, including over 50 with the laser guide star (LGS) system. Community demand is high with 35% of the Keck II telescope science nights assigned to LGS AO and 10% to natural guide star (NGS) AO in the first half of 2009. A wide range of solar system, galactic and extragalactic science has been performed with the AO systems from weather monitoring on solar system planets and their moons, to the discovery of companions and the determination of the masses of asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects and brown dwarfs, to measuring the fundamental properties of the black hole at the center of our galaxy, to quantifying the kinematics and morphologies of high redshift galaxies and revealing the structure of galaxies through gravitational lensing observations. The Keck AO facilities feed a variety of near to mid-infrared science instruments including an imager, a slit spectrometer, an integral field spectrometer and the Keck Interferometer. We will describe the current capabilities, performance and limitations of the AO facilities, including science instruments, with an emphasis on how this relates to the science. We will also provide a short introduction to future planned capabilities.

  10. Deblurring adaptive optics retinal images using deep convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xiao; Zhao, Junlei; Zhao, Haoxin; Yun, Dai; Zhang, Yudong

    2017-12-01

    The adaptive optics (AO) can be used to compensate for ocular aberrations to achieve near diffraction limited high-resolution retinal images. However, many factors such as the limited aberration measurement and correction accuracy with AO, intraocular scatter, imaging noise and so on will degrade the quality of retinal images. Image post processing is an indispensable and economical method to make up for the limitation of AO retinal imaging procedure. In this paper, we proposed a deep learning method to restore the degraded retinal images for the first time. The method directly learned an end-to-end mapping between the blurred and restored retinal images. The mapping was represented as a deep convolutional neural network that was trained to output high-quality images directly from blurry inputs without any preprocessing. This network was validated on synthetically generated retinal images as well as real AO retinal images. The assessment of the restored retinal images demonstrated that the image quality had been significantly improved.

  11. SOUL: the Single conjugated adaptive Optics Upgrade for LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, E.; Esposito, S.; Hinz, P.; Agapito, G.; Bonaglia, M.; Puglisi, A.; Xompero, M.; Riccardi, A.; Briguglio, R.; Arcidiacono, C.; Carbonaro, L.; Fini, L.; Montoya, M.; Durney, O.

    2016-07-01

    We present here SOUL: the Single conjugated adaptive Optics Upgrade for LBT. Soul will upgrade the wavefront sensors replacing the existing CCD detector with an EMCCD camera and the rest of the system in order to enable the closed loop operations at a faster cycle rate and with higher number of slopes. Thanks to reduced noise, higher number of pixel and framerate, we expect a gain (for a given SR) around 1.5-2 magnitudes at all wavelengths in the range 7.5 70% in I-band and 0.6asec seeing) and the sky coverage will be multiplied by a factor 5 at all galactic latitudes. Upgrading the SCAO systems at all the 4 focal stations, SOUL will provide these benefits in 2017 to the LBTI interferometer and in 2018 to the 2 LUCI NIR spectro-imagers. In the same year the SOUL correction will be exploited also by the new generation of LBT instruments: V-SHARK, SHARK-NIR and iLocater.

  12. Novel adaptive fiber-optics collimator for coherent beam combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Pengfei; Ma, Yanxing; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2014-12-15

    In this manuscript, we experimentally validate a novel design of adaptive fiber-optics collimator (AFOC), which utilizes two levers to enlarge the movable range of the fiber end cap. The enlargement of the range makes the new AFOC possible to compensate the end-cap/tilt aberration in fiber laser beam combining system. The new AFOC based on flexible hinges and levers was fabricated and the performance of the new AFOC was tested carefully, including its control range, frequency response and control accuracy. Coherent beam combination (CBC) of two 5-W fiber amplifiers array with simultaneously end-cap/tilt control and phase-locking control was implemented successfully with the novel AFOC. Experimental results show that the average normalized power in the bucket (PIB) value increases from 0.311 to 0.934 with active phasing and tilt aberration compensation simultaneously, and with both controls on, the fringe contrast improves to more than 82% from 0% for the case with both control off. This work presents a promising structure for tilt aberration control in high power CBC system.

  13. [Reproducibility of goniometry with slitlamp-adapted optical coherence tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandish, A; Wirbelauer, C; Häberle, H; Pham, D T

    2004-06-01

    Visualization of the anterior chamber angle (ACA) is an important diagnostic part of evaluating patients with glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and interobserver variability and reliability of the ACA and angle opening distance (AOD) measurements using optical coherence tomography (OCT). To evaluate the intra- and interobserver variability, ACA and AOD were both measured five times and in three consecutive images in 22 patients (24 eyes) by two experienced observers. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a measure of reliability was determined to estimate the intra- and interobserver variability. The main outcome measures were accuracy, reproducibility assessed with the coefficient of variation (CV), and the limits of agreement of ACA and AOD. The intraobserver variability of five replicate measurements was +/-1.4 degrees for ACA (CV 6.2%) and +/-11 micro m for AOD (CV 4%). The ICC for the intraobserver reliability was 0.99 for both ACA and AOD. The interobserver variability of three intersessional measurements was +/-2.5 degrees for ACA (CV 10.9%) and +/-24 micro m (CV 8.3%) for AOD. The ICC was 0.95 for ACA and 0.98 for AOD. There was no difference ( p>0.05) between the two observers measuring ACA and AOD. Two-dimensional visualization of the ACA and its assessment with slitlamp-adapted OCT yielded reliable ACA and AOD measurements in a clinical setting. Thus, OCT goniometry could provide an objective method to assess the anterior chamber angle.

  14. Performance evaluation of a sensorless adaptive optics multiphoton microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorsetz, Martin; Artal, Pablo; Bueno, Juan M

    2016-03-01

    A wavefront sensorless adaptive optics technique was combined with a custom-made multiphoton microscope to correct for specimen-induced aberrations. A liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCoS) modulator was used to systematically generate Zernike modes during image recording. The performance of the instrument was evaluated in samples providing different nonlinear signals and the benefit of correcting higher order aberrations was always noticeable (in both contrast and resolution). The optimum aberration pattern was stable in time for the samples here involved. For a particular depth location within the sample, the wavefront to be precompensated was independent on the size of the imaged area (up to ∼ 360 × 360 μm(2)). The mode combination optimizing the recorded image depended on the Zernike correction control sequence; however, the final images hardly differed. At deeper locations, a noticeable dominance of spherical aberration was found. The influence of other aberration terms was also compared to the effect of the spherical aberration. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. Optical techniques to understand biofunctional adaptation in human dentine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishen, Anil; Asundi, Anand K.

    2004-08-01

    Human tooth structure in the oral environment is subjected to mechanical forces and thermal fluctuations. Dentine, the major component of the tooth structure, is a bio-composite, mainly composed of a highly mineralized phase and a collagenous phase. When subjected to changes in load and/or temperature, dentine will experience stresses and strains distribution within their structure. Though such effects are found to cause deleterious effects on artificial dental restorations, biological structures such as dentine seem to posses an inherent ability to adapt to functional thermo-mechanical loads. Optical techniques enable visualization and quantification of deformation, strain and stress on dental structures and provide a better understanding on their thermo-mechanical response. In this study 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional digital photoelasticity, digital moiré interferometry and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) are all shown to be quite promising in this application. This paper will highlight these techniques and the corresponding applications. These experiments will aid in designing and development of better dental restorations and implants in clinical practice.

  16. Control code for laboratory adaptive optics teaching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Moonseob; Luder, Ryan; Sanchez, Lucas; Hart, Michael

    2017-09-01

    By sensing and compensating wavefront aberration, adaptive optics (AO) systems have proven themselves crucial in large astronomical telescopes, retinal imaging, and holographic coherent imaging. Commercial AO systems for laboratory use are now available in the market. One such is the ThorLabs AO kit built around a Boston Micromachines deformable mirror. However, there are limitations in applying these systems to research and pedagogical projects since the software is written with limited flexibility. In this paper, we describe a MATLAB-based software suite to interface with the ThorLabs AO kit by using the MATLAB Engine API and Visual Studio. The software is designed to offer complete access to the wavefront sensor data, through the various levels of processing, to the command signals to the deformable mirror and fast steering mirror. In this way, through a MATLAB GUI, an operator can experiment with every aspect of the AO system's functioning. This is particularly valuable for tests of new control algorithms as well as to support student engagement in an academic environment. We plan to make the code freely available to the community.

  17. Based on ground station adaptive optics for laser communications demonstration platform structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Tong, Shoufeng; Wang, Haozeng; Yang, Hongkun

    2013-08-01

    With the rapid development of modern science and technology in astronomical imaging, optical communications, optical radar, optical information processing, high-precision ranging, tracking, guidance, and remote sensing, light waves propagating in the medium, especially in the turbulent atmosphere spread more and more important. Atmospheric turbulence is one of the main factors which have influence on the performance of a laser communication system. Adaptive optics technology is an important means to solve the problem of atmospheric turbulence. This paper states how adaptive optics technique can be used in space laser communication system to compensate atmospheric turbulence when laser beam transmission through it. The core content of adaptive optics is correct laser beam wave-front disturbance in real-time,with it to enhance optical system imaging quality and the next aim is reach the level of diffraction limitation. Adaptive optics system consists of wave-front detection, wave-front control and wave-front correction . The demo platform including: atmospheric turbulence simulation unit、adaptive correction unit、signal transmitting and receiving unit. Liquid crystal spatial light modulator applications in adaptive optics system and the turbulence simulation system introduced. And used zernike polynomials method to produce atmospheric turbulence phase screen simulation analysis. Simulation results show that: in the low spatial frequency components, the atmospheric turbulence phase screen generated by Zernike polynomial method consistent with the theoretical values, but in the high spatial frequency components, the simulation results with large difference between the theoretical values. In addition, the simulation results also show that: we can change the distribution of turbulence in the atmospheric turbulence phase screen by increasing the Zernike polynomials of orders or change the receiving apertures, but to calculate the large calculate the complex and

  18. Differential Polarization Nonlinear Optical Microscopy with Adaptive Optics Controlled Multiplexed Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginijus Barzda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential polarization nonlinear optical microscopy has the potential to become an indispensable tool for structural investigations of ordered biological assemblies and microcrystalline aggregates. Their microscopic organization can be probed through fast and sensitive measurements of nonlinear optical signal anisotropy, which can be achieved with microscopic spatial resolution by using time-multiplexed pulsed laser beams with perpendicular polarization orientations and photon-counting detection electronics for signal demultiplexing. In addition, deformable membrane mirrors can be used to correct for optical aberrations in the microscope and simultaneously optimize beam overlap using a genetic algorithm. The beam overlap can be achieved with better accuracy than diffraction limited point-spread function, which allows to perform polarization-resolved measurements on the pixel-by-pixel basis. We describe a newly developed differential polarization microscope and present applications of the differential microscopy technique for structural studies of collagen and cellulose. Both, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence-detected nonlinear absorption anisotropy are used in these investigations. It is shown that the orientation and structural properties of the fibers in biological tissue can be deduced and that the orientation of fluorescent molecules (Congo Red, which label the fibers, can be determined. Differential polarization microscopy sidesteps common issues such as photobleaching and sample movement. Due to tens of megahertz alternating polarization of excitation pulses fast data acquisition can be conveniently applied to measure changes in the nonlinear signal anisotropy in dynamically changing in vivo structures.

  19. Differential polarization nonlinear optical microscopy with adaptive optics controlled multiplexed beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samim, Masood; Sandkuijl, Daaf; Tretyakov, Ian; Cisek, Richard; Barzda, Virginijus

    2013-09-09

    Differential polarization nonlinear optical microscopy has the potential to become an indispensable tool for structural investigations of ordered biological assemblies and microcrystalline aggregates. Their microscopic organization can be probed through fast and sensitive measurements of nonlinear optical signal anisotropy, which can be achieved with microscopic spatial resolution by using time-multiplexed pulsed laser beams with perpendicular polarization orientations and photon-counting detection electronics for signal demultiplexing. In addition, deformable membrane mirrors can be used to correct for optical aberrations in the microscope and simultaneously optimize beam overlap using a genetic algorithm. The beam overlap can be achieved with better accuracy than diffraction limited point-spread function, which allows to perform polarization-resolved measurements on the pixel-by-pixel basis. We describe a newly developed differential polarization microscope and present applications of the differential microscopy technique for structural studies of collagen and cellulose. Both, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence-detected nonlinear absorption anisotropy are used in these investigations. It is shown that the orientation and structural properties of the fibers in biological tissue can be deduced and that the orientation of fluorescent molecules (Congo Red), which label the fibers, can be determined. Differential polarization microscopy sidesteps common issues such as photobleaching and sample movement. Due to tens of megahertz alternating polarization of excitation pulses fast data acquisition can be conveniently applied to measure changes in the nonlinear signal anisotropy in dynamically changing in vivo structures.

  20. Differential Polarization Nonlinear Optical Microscopy with Adaptive Optics Controlled Multiplexed Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samim, Masood; Sandkuijl, Daaf; Tretyakov, Ian; Cisek, Richard; Barzda, Virginijus

    2013-01-01

    Differential polarization nonlinear optical microscopy has the potential to become an indispensable tool for structural investigations of ordered biological assemblies and microcrystalline aggregates. Their microscopic organization can be probed through fast and sensitive measurements of nonlinear optical signal anisotropy, which can be achieved with microscopic spatial resolution by using time-multiplexed pulsed laser beams with perpendicular polarization orientations and photon-counting detection electronics for signal demultiplexing. In addition, deformable membrane mirrors can be used to correct for optical aberrations in the microscope and simultaneously optimize beam overlap using a genetic algorithm. The beam overlap can be achieved with better accuracy than diffraction limited point-spread function, which allows to perform polarization-resolved measurements on the pixel-by-pixel basis. We describe a newly developed differential polarization microscope and present applications of the differential microscopy technique for structural studies of collagen and cellulose. Both, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence-detected nonlinear absorption anisotropy are used in these investigations. It is shown that the orientation and structural properties of the fibers in biological tissue can be deduced and that the orientation of fluorescent molecules (Congo Red), which label the fibers, can be determined. Differential polarization microscopy sidesteps common issues such as photobleaching and sample movement. Due to tens of megahertz alternating polarization of excitation pulses fast data acquisition can be conveniently applied to measure changes in the nonlinear signal anisotropy in dynamically changing in vivo structures. PMID:24022688

  1. Performance verification of adaptive optics for satellite-to-ground coherent optical communications at large zenith angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Rui, Daoman; Xian, Hao

    2018-02-19

    Although there is an urgent demand, it is still a tremendous challenge to use the coherent optical communication technology to the satellite-to-ground data transmission system especially at large zenith angle due to the influence of atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is a considerable scheme to solve the problem. In this paper, we integrate the adaptive optics (AO) to the coherent laser communications and the performances of mixing efficiency as well as bit-error-rate (BER) at different zenith angles are studied. The analytical results show that the increasing of zenith angle can severely decrease the performances of the coherent detection, and increase the BER to higher than 10 -3 , which is unacceptable. The simulative results of coherent detection with AO compensation indicate that the larger mixing efficiency and lower BER can be performed by the coherent receiver with a high-mode AO compensation. The experiment of correcting the atmospheric turbulence wavefront distortion using a 249-element AO system at large zenith angles is carried out. The result demonstrates that the AO system has a significant improvement on satellite-to-ground coherent optical communication system at large zenith angle. It also indicates that the 249-element AO system can only meet the needs of coherent communication systems at zenith angle smaller than 65̊ for the 1.8m telescope under weak and moderate turbulence.

  2. Analysis technique for controlling system wavefront error with active/adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, Victor L.; Michels, Gregory J.

    2017-08-01

    The ultimate goal of an active mirror system is to control system level wavefront error (WFE). In the past, the use of this technique was limited by the difficulty of obtaining a linear optics model. In this paper, an automated method for controlling system level WFE using a linear optics model is presented. An error estimate is included in the analysis output for both surface error disturbance fitting and actuator influence function fitting. To control adaptive optics, the technique has been extended to write system WFE in state space matrix form. The technique is demonstrated by example with SigFit, a commercially available tool integrating mechanical analysis with optical analysis.

  3. Hot dust in the active nucleus of NGC 7469 probed by adaptive optics observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, O.; Alloin, D.

    1998-08-01

    The use of adaptive optics has allowed to reach in the infrared an angular resolution around 0.35'', allowing to study the temperature, mass and distribution of the dust component within the 400 pc radius central region of \

  4. Experimental Adaptive Digital Performance Monitoring for Optical DP-QPSK Coherent Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Zhang, Xu; Zibar, Darko

    2011-01-01

    We report on a successful experimental demonstration of a digital optical performance monitoring (OPM) yielding satisfactory estimation accuracy along with adaptive impairment equalization. No observable penalty is measured when equalizer is driven by monitoring module.......We report on a successful experimental demonstration of a digital optical performance monitoring (OPM) yielding satisfactory estimation accuracy along with adaptive impairment equalization. No observable penalty is measured when equalizer is driven by monitoring module....

  5. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics versus sensor-based adaptive optics for in vivo fluorescence retinal imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Daniel J.; Zhang, Pengfei; Jian, Yifan; Bonora, Stefano; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2017-02-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is essential for achieving diffraction limited resolution in large numerical aperture (NA) in-vivo retinal imaging in small animals. Cellular-resolution in-vivo imaging of fluorescently labeled cells is highly desirable for studying pathophysiology in animal models of retina diseases in pre-clinical vision research. Currently, wavefront sensor-based (WFS-based) AO is widely used for retinal imaging and has demonstrated great success. However, the performance can be limited by several factors including common path errors, wavefront reconstruction errors and an ill-defined reference plane on the retina. Wavefront sensorless (WFS-less) AO has the advantage of avoiding these issues at the cost of algorithmic execution time. We have investigated WFS-less AO on a fluorescence scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (fSLO) system that was originally designed for WFS-based AO. The WFS-based AO uses a Shack-Hartmann WFS and a continuous surface deformable mirror in a closed-loop control system to measure and correct for aberrations induced by the mouse eye. The WFS-less AO performs an open-loop modal optimization with an image quality metric. After WFS-less AO aberration correction, the WFS was used as a control of the closed-loop WFS-less AO operation. We can easily switch between WFS-based and WFS-less control of the deformable mirror multiple times within an imaging session for the same mouse. This allows for a direct comparison between these two types of AO correction for fSLO. Our results demonstrate volumetric AO-fSLO imaging of mouse retinal cells labeled with GFP. Most significantly, we have analyzed and compared the aberration correction results for WFS-based and WFS-less AO imaging.

  6. Wavefront Reconstruction and Mirror Surface Optimizationfor Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Aberrations: Part II. Bellingham, WA: SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1998. [21] H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers , Foundations of Image Science. Hoboken, NJ...optimization in MATLAB,” in Proceedings of CACSD, Taipei, Taiwan, 2004. [Online]. Available: http: //users.isy.liu.se/johanl/yalmip [71] W. L. Briggs , V...E. Henson, and S. F. McCormick, A Multigrid Tutorial. Philadelphia, PA: SIAM, 2000. [72] W. L. Briggs and V. E. Henson, “Wavelets and multigrid

  7. Adaptive optics improves multiphoton super-resolution imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Wu, Yicong; Winter, Peter; Fischer, Robert; Nogare, Damian Dalle; Hong, Amy; McCormick, Chad; Christensen, Ryan; Dempsey, William P; Arnold, Don B; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Chitnis, Ajay; Sellers, James; Waterman, Clare; Shroff, Hari

    2017-09-01

    We improve multiphoton structured illumination microscopy using a nonlinear guide star to determine optical aberrations and a deformable mirror to correct them. We demonstrate our method on bead phantoms, cells in collagen gels, nematode larvae and embryos, Drosophila brain, and zebrafish embryos. Peak intensity is increased (up to 40-fold) and resolution recovered (up to 176 ± 10 nm laterally, 729 ± 39 nm axially) at depths ∼250 μm from the coverslip surface.

  8. Adaptive optics fundus images of cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomoko; Fuchizawa, Chiharu; Oiwake, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa using an adaptive optics fundus camera and to investigate any correlations between cone photoreceptor density and findings on optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence. We examined two patients with typical retinitis pigmentosa who underwent ophthalmological examination, including measurement of visual acuity, and gathering of electroretinographic, optical coherence tomographic, fundus autofluorescent, and adaptive optics fundus images. The cone photoreceptors in the adaptive optics images of the two patients with retinitis pigmentosa and five healthy subjects were analyzed. An abnormal parafoveal ring of high-density fundus autofluorescence was observed in the macula in both patients. The border of the ring corresponded to the border of the external limiting membrane and the inner segment and outer segment line in the optical coherence tomographic images. Cone photoreceptors at the abnormal parafoveal ring were blurred and decreased in the adaptive optics images. The blurred area corresponded to the abnormal parafoveal ring in the fundus autofluorescence images. Cone densities were low at the blurred areas and at the nasal and temporal retina along a line from the fovea compared with those of healthy controls. The results for cone spacing and Voronoi domains in the macula corresponded with those for the cone densities. Cone densities were heavily decreased in the macula, especially at the parafoveal ring on high-density fundus autofluorescence in both patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Adaptive optics images enabled us to observe in vivo changes in the cone photoreceptors of patients with retinitis pigmentosa, which corresponded to changes in the optical coherence tomographic and fundus autofluorescence images.

  9. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    .... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...

  10. Radio over fiber link with adaptive order n‐QAM optical phase modulated OFDM and digital coherent detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Borkowski, Robert; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Successful digital coherent demodulation of asynchronous optical phase‐modulated adaptive order QAM (4, 16, and 64) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signals is achieved by a single reconfigurable digital receiver after 78 km of optical deployed fiber transmission....

  11. Keck Adaptive Optics Observations of Neptune's Ring and Satellite Keck Adaptive Optics Observations of Neptune's Ring and Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S.; Martin, S.; Marchis, F.; Roe, H. G.; Macintosh, B.

    2003-05-01

    We observed Neptune, its satellites and ring system on UT 27 and 28 July 2002, with NIRC2 on the 10-m Keck II telescope at 2.2 micron. The total field of view was 10". Each image was integrated for 1 minute; on the first day we had a total of 18 frames, and 33 images on the second day, each spread out over a time interval of 1-2 hours. The complete Adams and Le Verrier rings are visible on each day, after combining all images. In the regions away from the ring arcs, we find that the Le Verrier ring is brighter (up to 20-40%) than the Adams ring. The ring arcs are readily apparent in combinations of the data that take into account Keplerian motion. The ring arc positions are in close agreement with Nicholson et al's (1995) result, as in HST/NICMOS images (Dumas et al. 2002). The Egalite ring has broadened even more since observed with HST/NICMOS in 1998, and is clearly the brightest ring arc. Liberte has decreased in intensity since Voyager and NICMOS. Courage was extremely faint in our images. The satellites Proteus, Larissa, Galatea and Despina are easily seen on individual frames. Thalassa is detected after properly shifting/rotating and adding several frames. This is the first time since the Voyager flybys that Thalassa is detected. Preliminary astrometric measurements suggest the satellites Larissa and Galathea, relative to Proteus, to be off from their nominal (JPL Horizons) positions by 0.3", and Despina by 0.1". Recent results indicate that Proteus is offset by 0.1" compared to Triton (Martins et al. 2003). Preliminary I/F values are 0.06 for Proteus, 0.045 for Larissa and Galatea, and 0.03 for Despina and Thalassa. These observations were supported by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, managed by the University of California at Santa Cruz under cooperative agreement No. AST-9876783

  12. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optics has been used in computing for a number of years but the main emphasis has been and continues to be to link portions of computers, for communications, or more intrin- sically in devices that have some optical application or component (optical pattern recognition, etc). Optical digi- tal computers are still some years ...

  13. Astrophysical Adaptation of Points, the Precision Optical Interferometer in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.; Babcock, Robert W.; Murison, Marc A.; Noecker, M. Charles; Phillips, James D.; Schumaker, Bonny L.; Ulvestad, James S.; McKinley, William; Zielinski, Robert J.; Lillie, Charles F.

    1996-01-01

    POINTS (Precision Optical INTerferometer in Space) would perform microarcsecond optical astrometric measurements from space, yielding submicroarcsecond astrometric results from the mission. It comprises a pair of independent Michelson stellar interferometers and a laser metrology system that measures both the critical starlight paths and the angle between the baselines. The instrument has two baselines of 2 m, each with two subapertures of 35 cm; by articulating the angle between the baselines, it observes targets separated by 87 to 93 deg. POINTS does global astrometry, i.e., it measures widely separated targets, which yields closure calibration, numerous bright reference stars, and absolute parallax. Simplicity, stability, and the mitigation of systematic error are the central design themes. The instrument has only three moving-part mechanisms, and only one of these must move with sub-milliradian precision; the other two can tolerate a precision of several tenths of a degree. Optical surfaces preceding the beamsplitter or its fold flat are interferometrically critical; on each side of the interferometer, there are only three such. Thus, light loss and wavefront distortion are minimized. POINTS represents a minimalistic design developed ab initio for space. Since it is intended for astrometry, and therefore does not require the u-v-plane coverage of an imaging, instrument, each interferometer need have only two subapertures. The design relies on articulation of the angle between the interferometers and body pointing to select targets; the observations are restricted to the 'instrument plane.' That plane, which is fixed in the pointed instrument, is defined by the sensitive direction for the two interferometers. Thus, there is no need for siderostats and moving delay lines, which would have added many precision mechanisms with rolling and sliding parts that would be required to function throughout the mission. Further, there is no need for a third interferometer

  14. The use of adaptive optics for retinal imaging with microscopic resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortada A Abozaid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. Adding AO to retinal imaging tools allows noninvasive direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries, and nerve fiber bundles by correcting the eye’s monochromatic aberrations. AO can provide new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases, can also monitor response to novel treatments at the cellular level, and can help better select candidates for such treatments. This review discusses the basics, clinical applications, and challenges of AO retinal imaging.

  15. Closed-loop adaptive optics using a spatial light modulator for sensing and compensating of optical aberrations in ophthalmic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akondi, Vyas; Jewel, Md. Atikur Rahman; Vohnsen, Brian

    2014-09-01

    Sensing and compensating of optical aberrations in closed-loop mode using a single spatial light modulator (SLM) for ophthalmic applications is demonstrated. Notwithstanding the disadvantages of the SLM, in certain cases, this multitasking capability of the device makes it advantageous over existing deformable mirrors (DMs), which are expensive and in general used for aberration compensation alone. A closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) system based on a single SLM was built. Beam resizing optics were used to utilize the large active area of the device and hence make it feasible to generate 137 active subapertures for wavefront sensing. While correcting Zernike aberrations up to fourth order introduced with the help of a DM (for testing purposes), diffraction-limited resolution was achieved. It is shown that matched filter and intensity-weighted centroiding techniques stand out among others. Closed-loop wavefront correction of aberrations in backscattered light from the eyes of three healthy human subjects was demonstrated after satisfactory results were obtained using an artificial eye, which was simulated with a short focal length lens and a sheet of white paper as diffuser. It is shown that the closed-loop AO system based on a single SLM is capable of diffraction-limited correction for ophthalmic applications.

  16. Comparative Study of Neural Network Frameworks for the Next Generation of Adaptive Optics Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Santos, Jesús Daniel; Martínez-Zarzuela, Mario; Basden, Alistair G; Osborn, James; Díaz-Pernas, Francisco Javier; De Cos Juez, Francisco Javier

    2017-06-02

    Many of the next generation of adaptive optics systems on large and extremely large telescopes require tomographic techniques in order to correct for atmospheric turbulence over a large field of view. Multi-object adaptive optics is one such technique. In this paper, different implementations of a tomographic reconstructor based on a machine learning architecture named "CARMEN" are presented. Basic concepts of adaptive optics are introduced first, with a short explanation of three different control systems used on real telescopes and the sensors utilised. The operation of the reconstructor, along with the three neural network frameworks used, and the developed CUDA code are detailed. Changes to the size of the reconstructor influence the training and execution time of the neural network. The native CUDA code turns out to be the best choice for all the systems, although some of the other frameworks offer good performance under certain circumstances.

  17. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  18. Axial range of conjugate adaptive optics in two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Hari P; Taranto, John; Mertz, Jerome; Bifano, Thomas

    2015-08-10

    We describe an adaptive optics technique for two-photon microscopy in which the deformable mirror used for aberration compensation is positioned in a plane conjugate to the plane of the aberration. We demonstrate in a proof-of-principle experiment that this technique yields a large field of view advantage in comparison to standard pupil-conjugate adaptive optics. Further, we show that the extended field of view in conjugate AO is maintained over a relatively large axial translation of the deformable mirror with respect to the conjugate plane. We conclude with a discussion of limitations and prospects for the conjugate AO technique in two-photon biological microscopy.

  19. Coherent optical adaptive technique improves the spatial resolution of STED microscopy in thick samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Yang, Yanlong; Tan, Yu; Chen, Xun; Li, Yang; Qu, Junle; Ye, Tong

    2018-01-01

    Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) is one of far-field optical microscopy techniques that can provide sub-diffraction spatial resolution. The spatial resolution of the STED microscopy is determined by the specially engineered beam profile of the depletion beam and its power. However, the beam profile of the depletion beam may be distorted due to aberrations of optical systems and inhomogeneity of specimens’ optical properties, resulting in a compromised spatial resolution. The situation gets deteriorated when thick samples are imaged. In the worst case, the sever distortion of the depletion beam profile may cause complete loss of the super resolution effect no matter how much depletion power is applied to specimens. Previously several adaptive optics approaches have been explored to compensate aberrations of systems and specimens. However, it is hard to correct the complicated high-order optical aberrations of specimens. In this report, we demonstrate that the complicated distorted wavefront from a thick phantom sample can be measured by using the coherent optical adaptive technique (COAT). The full correction can effectively maintain and improve the spatial resolution in imaging thick samples. PMID:29400356

  20. Precise Prediction of Optical Performance for Near Infrared Instrument Using Adaptive Fitting Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongyeon Ko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infrared optical systems are operated at low temperature and vacuum (LT-V condition, whereas the assembly and alignment are performed at room temperature and non-vacuum (RT-NV condition. The differences in temperature and pressure between assembly/alignment environments and operation environment change the physical characteristics of optical and opto-mechanical parts (e.g., thickness, height, length, curvature, and refractive index, and the resultant optical performance changes accordingly. In this study, using input relay optics (IO, among the components of the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph (IGRINS which is an infrared spectrograph, a simulation based on the physical information of this optical system and an actual experiment were performed; and optical performances in the RT-NV, RT-V, and LT-V environments were predicted with an accuracy of 0.014±0.007 λ rms WFE, by developing an adaptive fitting line. The developed adaptive fitting line can quantitatively control assembly and alignment processes below λ/70 rms WFE. Therefore, it is expected that the subsequent processes of assembly, alignment, and performance analysis could not be repeated.

  1. Precise Prediction of Optical Performance for Near Infrared Instrument Using Adaptive Fitting Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyeongyeon; Han, Jeong-Yeol; Nah, Jakyoung; Oh, Heeyoung; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Oh, Jae Sok; Kim, Kang-Min; Lee, Hanshin; Jeong, Ueejeong; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2013-12-01

    Infrared optical systems are operated at low temperature and vacuum (LT-V) condition, whereas the assembly and alignment are performed at room temperature and non-vacuum (RT-NV) condition. The differences in temperature and pressure between assembly/alignment environments and operation environment change the physical characteristics of optical and opto-mechanical parts (e.g., thickness, height, length, curvature, and refractive index), and the resultant optical performance changes accordingly. In this study, using input relay optics (IO), among the components of the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) which is an infrared spectrograph, a simulation based on the physical information of this optical system and an actual experiment were performed; and optical performances in the RT-NV, RT-V, and LT-V environments were predicted with an accuracy of 0.014±0.007 λ rms WFE, by developing an adaptive fitting line. The developed adaptive fitting line can quantitatively control assembly and alignment processes below λ/70 rms WFE. Therefore, it is expected that the subsequent processes of assembly, alignment, and performance analysis could not be repeated.

  2. Coherent optical adaptive technique improves the spatial resolution of STED microscopy in thick samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Yang, Yanlong; Tan, Yu; Chen, Xun; Li, Yang; Qu, Junle; Ye, Tong

    2017-06-01

    Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) is one of far-field optical microscopy techniques that can provide sub-diffraction spatial resolution. The spatial resolution of the STED microscopy is determined by the specially engineered beam profile of the depletion beam and its power. However, the beam profile of the depletion beam may be distorted due to aberrations of optical systems and inhomogeneity of specimens' optical properties, resulting in a compromised spatial resolution. The situation gets deteriorated when thick samples are imaged. In the worst case, the sever distortion of the depletion beam profile may cause complete loss of the super resolution effect no matter how much depletion power is applied to specimens. Previously several adaptive optics approaches have been explored to compensate aberrations of systems and specimens. However, it is hard to correct the complicated high-order optical aberrations of specimens. In this report, we demonstrate that the complicated distorted wavefront from a thick phantom sample can be measured by using the coherent optical adaptive technique (COAT). The full correction can effectively maintain and improve the spatial resolution in imaging thick samples.

  3. Characterization of a tunable astigmatic fluidic lens with adaptive optics correction for compact phoropter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Huang, Chieh-Tse

    2014-07-01

    Fluidically controlled lenses which adaptively correct prescribed refractive error without mechanically moving parts are extensively applied in the ophthalmic applications. Capable of variable-focusing properties, however, the associated aberrations due to curvature change and refractive index mismatch can inherently degrade image quality severely. Here we present the experimental study of the aberrations in tunable astigmatic lens and use of adaptive optics to compensate for the wavefront errors. Characterization of the optical properties of the individual lenses is carried out by Shack-Hartmann measurements. An adaptive optics (AO) based scheme is demonstrated for three injected fluidic volumes, resulting in a substantial reduction of the wavefront errors from -0.12, -0.25, -0.32 to 0.01, -0.01, -0.20 μm, respectively, corresponding to the optical power tenability of 0.83 to 1.84 D. Furthermore, an integrated optical phoroptor consisting of adjustable astigmatic lenses and AO correction is demonstrated such that an induced refraction error of -1 D cylinder at 180° of a model eye vision is experimentally corrected.

  4. Adaptive optics in spinning disk microscopy: improved contrast and brightness by a simple and fast method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisier, V; Clouvel, G; Jasaitis, A; Dimitrov, A; Piolot, T; Salamero, J

    2015-09-01

    Multiconfocal microscopy gives a good compromise between fast imaging and reasonable resolution. However, the low intensity of live fluorescent emitters is a major limitation to this technique. Aberrations induced by the optical setup, especially the mismatch of the refractive index and the biological sample itself, distort the point spread function and further reduce the amount of detected photons. Altogether, this leads to impaired image quality, preventing accurate analysis of molecular processes in biological samples and imaging deep in the sample. The amount of detected fluorescence can be improved with adaptive optics. Here, we used a compact adaptive optics module (adaptive optics box for sectioning optical microscopy), which was specifically designed for spinning disk confocal microscopy. The module overcomes undesired anomalies by correcting for most of the aberrations in confocal imaging. Existing aberration detection methods require prior illumination, which bleaches the sample. To avoid multiple exposures of the sample, we established an experimental model describing the depth dependence of major aberrations. This model allows us to correct for those aberrations when performing a z-stack, gradually increasing the amplitude of the correction with depth. It does not require illumination of the sample for aberration detection, thus minimizing photobleaching and phototoxicity. With this model, we improved both signal-to-background ratio and image contrast. Here, we present comparative studies on a variety of biological samples. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orszag, A.; Antonetti, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed [fr

  6. Cone and Rod Loss in Stargardt Disease Revealed by Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongxin; Rossi, Ethan A.; Latchney, Lisa; Bessette, Angela; Stone, Edwin; Hunter, Jennifer J.; Williams, David R.; Chung, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Importance Stargardt disease (STGD1) is characterized by macular atrophy and flecks in the retinal pigment epithelium. The causative ABCA4 gene encodes a protein localizing to photoreceptor outer segments. The pathologic steps by which ABCA4 mutations lead to clinically detectable retinal pigment epithelium changes remain unclear. We investigated early STGD1 using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy. Observations Adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy imaging of 2 brothers with early STGD1 and their unaffected parents was compared with conventional imaging. Cone and rod spacing were increased in both patients (P optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy reveals increased cone and rod spacing in areas that appear normal in conventional images, suggesting that photoreceptor loss precedes clinically detectable retinal pigment epithelial disease in STGD1. PMID:26247787

  7. Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Na; Milkie, Daniel E; Betzig, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Biological specimens are rife with optical inhomogeneities that seriously degrade imaging performance under all but the most ideal conditions. Measuring and then correcting for these inhomogeneities is the province of adaptive optics. Here we introduce an approach to adaptive optics in microscopy wherein the rear pupil of an objective lens is segmented into subregions, and light is directed individually to each subregion to measure, by image shift, the deflection faced by each group of rays as they emerge from the objective and travel through the specimen toward the focus. Applying our method to two-photon microscopy, we could recover near-diffraction-limited performance from a variety of biological and nonbiological samples exhibiting aberrations large or small and smoothly varying or abruptly changing. In particular, results from fixed mouse cortical slices illustrate our ability to improve signal and resolution to depths of 400 microm.

  8. Live imaging using adaptive optics with fluorescent protein guide-stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Crest, Justin; Kotadia, Shaila; Azucena, Oscar; Chen, Diana C; Sullivan, William; Kubby, Joel

    2012-07-02

    Spatially and temporally dependent optical aberrations induced by the inhomogeneous refractive index of live samples limit the resolution of live dynamic imaging. We introduce an adaptive optical microscope with a direct wavefront sensing method using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and fluorescent protein guide-stars for live imaging. The results of imaging Drosophila embryos demonstrate its ability to correct aberrations and achieve near diffraction limited images of medial sections of large Drosophila embryos. GFP-polo labeled centrosomes can be observed clearly after correction but cannot be observed before correction. Four dimensional time lapse images are achieved with the correction of dynamic aberrations. These studies also demonstrate that the GFP-tagged centrosome proteins, Polo and Cnn, serve as excellent biological guide-stars for adaptive optics based microscopy.

  9. Hamilton's Optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Hamiton, optics, wavefronts, characterisic function, conical refraction. . Hamilton's Optics. The Power of Wavefronts. Rajaram Nityananada. Building on work by Fermat and Huygens, Hamil- ton transformed the study of geometrical optics in his very first paper, presented when still in his teens. His 'characteristic function' was ...

  10. Benefit of adaptive FEC in shared backup path protected elastic optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Dai, Hua; Wang, Chao; Li, Yongcheng; Bose, Sanjay K; Shen, Gangxiang

    2015-07-27

    We apply an adaptive forward error correction (FEC) allocation strategy to an Elastic Optical Network (EON) operated with shared backup path protection (SBPP). To maximize the protected network capacity that can be carried, an Integer Linear Programing (ILP) model and a spectrum window plane (SWP)-based heuristic algorithm are developed. Simulation results show that the FEC coding overhead required by the adaptive FEC scheme is significantly lower than that needed by a fixed FEC allocation strategy resulting in higher network capacity for the adaptive strategy. The adaptive FEC allocation strategy can also significantly outperform the fixed FEC allocation strategy both in terms of the spare capacity redundancy and the average FEC coding overhead needed per optical channel. The proposed heuristic algorithm is efficient and not only performs closer to the ILP model but also does much better than the shortest-path algorithm.

  11. Development of a Low-order Adaptive Optics System at Udaipur ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A low-order Adaptive Optics (AO) system is being develo- ped at the Udaipur Solar Observatory and we present in this paper the status of the project, which includes the image stabilization system and calibration of wavefront sensor and deformable mirror. The image stabi- lization system comprises of a piezo ...

  12. Neptune’s zonal winds from near-IR Keck adaptive optics imaging in August 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, S.C.; De Pater, I.; Marcus, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present H-band (1.4–1.8 ?m) images of Neptune with a spatial resolution of ?0.06?, taken with the W.M. Keck II telescope using the slit-viewing camera (SCAM) of the NIRSPEC instrument backed with Adaptive Optics. Images with 60-second integration times span 4 hours each on UT 20 and 21 August,

  13. Adapting an optical nanoantenna for high E-field probing applications to a waveguided optical waveguide (WOW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindorf, Lars; Glückstad, Jesper

    2013-03-01

    In the current work we intend to use the optical nano-antenna to include various functionalities for the recently demonstrated waveguided optical waveguide (WOW) by Palima et al. (Optics Express 2012). Specifically, we intend to study a WOW with an optical nano-antenna which can block the guiding light wavelength while admitting other wavelengths of light which address certain functionalities, e.g. drug release, in the WOW. In particular, we study a bow-tie optical nano-antenna to circular dielectric waveguides in aqueous environments. It is shown with finite element computer simulations that the nanoantenna can be made to operate in a bandstop mode around its resonant wavelength where there is a very high evanescent strong electrical probing field close to the antennas, and additionally the fluorescence or Raman excitations will be be unpolluted by stray light from the WOW due to the band-stop characteristic. We give geometrical parameters necessary for realizing functioning nanoantennas.

  14. Adapting an optical nanoantenna for high E-field probing applications to a waveguided optical waveguide (WOW)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Glückstad, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    In the current work we intend to use the optical nano-antenna to include various functionalities for the recently demonstrated waveguided optical waveguide (WOW) by Palima et al. (Optics Express 2012). Specifically, we intend to study a WOW with an optical nano-antenna which can block the guiding...... light wavelength while admitting other wavelengths of light which address certain functionalities, e.g. drug release, in the WOW. In particular, we study a bow-tie optical nano-antenna to circular dielectric waveguides in aqueous environments. It is shown with finite element computer simulations...... that the nanoantenna can be made to operate in a bandstop mode around its resonant wavelength where there is a very high evanescent strong electrical probing field close to the antennas, and additionally the fluorescence or Raman excitations will be be unpolluted by stray light from the WOW due to the band...

  15. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  16. Optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, J; Boutruche, J P

    1986-01-01

    Optical Fibers covers numerous research works on the significant advances in optical fibers, with particular emphasis on their application.This text is composed of three parts encompassing 15 chapters. The first part deals with the manufacture of optical fibers and the materials used in their production. The second part describes optical-fiber connectors, terminals and branches. The third part is concerned with the major optoelectronic components encountered in optical-communication systems.This book will be of value to research scientists, engineers, and patent workers.

  17. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T

    2006-01-01

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  18. Atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balykin, V. I.; Jhe, W.

    1999-01-01

    Atom optics, in analogy to neutron and electron optics, deals with the realization of as a traditional elements, such as lenes, mirrors, beam splitters and atom interferometers, as well as a new 'dissipative' elements such as a slower and a cooler, which have no analogy in an another types of optics. Atom optics made the development of atom interferometer with high sensitivity for measurement of acceleration and rotational possible. The practical interest in atom optics lies in the opportunities to create atom microprobe with atom-size resolution and minimum damage of investigated objects. (Cho, G. S.)

  19. CHARACTERIZING PHOTORECEPTOR CHANGES IN ACUTE POSTERIOR MULTIFOCAL PLACOID PIGMENT EPITHELIOPATHY USING ADAPTIVE OPTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Philipp K; Nesper, Peter L; Onishi, Alex C; Skondra, Dimitra; Jampol, Lee M; Fawzi, Amani A

    2018-01-01

    To characterize lesions of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) by multimodal imaging including adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). We included patients with APMPPE at different stages of evolution of the placoid lesions. Color fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, and AOSLO images were obtained and registered to correlate microstructural changes. Eight eyes of four patients (two women) were included and analyzed by multimodal imaging. Photoreceptor reflectivity within APMPPE lesions was more heterogeneous than in adjacent healthy areas. Hyperpigmentation on color fundus photography appeared hyperreflective on infrared reflectance and on AOSLO. Irregularity of the interdigitation zone and the photoreceptor inner and outer segment junctions (IS/OS) on spectral domain optical coherence tomography was associated with photoreceptor hyporeflectivity on AOSLO. Interruption of the interdigitation zone or IS/OS was associated with loss of photoreceptor reflectivity on AOSLO. Irregularities in the reflectivity of the photoreceptor mosaic are visible on AOSLO even in inactive APMPPE lesions, where the photoreceptor bands on spectral domain optical coherence tomography have recovered. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy combined with multimodal imaging has the potential to enhance our understanding of photoreceptor involvement in APMPPE.

  20. Optical fundamentals of an adaptive substance-on-surface chemical recognizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauconier, Richard; Ndoye, Mandoye; Montlouis, Webert

    2017-10-01

    The objective is to identify the chemical composition of (isotropic and homogeneous) thin liquid and gel films on various surfaces by their infrared reflectance spectra. A bistatic optical sensing concept is proposed here in which a multi-wavelength laser source and a detector are physically displaced from each other. With the aid of the concept apparatus proposed, key optical variables can be measured in real time. The variables in question (substance thickness, refractive index, etc.) are those whose un-observability causes many types of monostatic sensor (in use today) to give ambiguous identifications. Knowledge of the aforementioned key optical variables would allow an adaptive signal-processing algorithm to make unambiguous identifications of the unknown chemicals by their infrared spectra, despite their variable presentations. The proposed bistatic sensor system consists of an optical transmitter and an optical receiver. The whole system can be mounted on a stable platform. Both the optical transmitter subsystem and the optical receiver subsystem contain auxiliary sensors to determine their relative spatial positions and orientations. For each subsystem, these auxiliary sensors include an orientation sensor, and rotational sensors for absolute angular position. A profilometer-and-machine-vision subsystem is also included. An important aspect of determining the necessary optical variables is an aperture that limits the interrogatory beams to a coherent pair, rejecting those resulting from successive multiple reflections. A set of equations is developed to characterize the propagation of a coherent pair of frequency-modulated thin beams through the system. It is also shown that frequency modulation can produce easily measurable beat frequencies for determination of sample thicknesses on the order of microns to millimeters. Also shown is how the apparatus's polarization features allow it to measure the refractive index of any isotropic, homogeneous dielectric

  1. Fuzzy-Based Adaptive Hybrid Burst Assembly Technique for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Muhammad Umaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS paradigm is perceived as an intermediate switching technology for future all-optical networks. Burst assembly that is the first process in OBS is the focus of this paper. In this paper, an intelligent hybrid burst assembly algorithm that is based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The new algorithm is evaluated against the traditional hybrid burst assembly algorithm and the fuzzy adaptive threshold (FAT burst assembly algorithm via simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the hybrid and the FAT algorithms in terms of burst end-to-end delay, packet end-to-end delay, and packet loss ratio.

  2. Enhanced resolution through thick tissue with structured illumination and adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin; Wolstenholme, Adrian; Chaudhari, Snehal N; Kipreos, Edward T; Kner, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Structured illumination microscopy provides twice the linear resolution of conventional fluorescence microscopy, but in thick samples, aberrations degrade the performance and limit the resolution. Here, we demonstrate structured illumination microscopy through 35 μm of tissue using adaptive optics (AO) to correct aberrations resulting in images with a resolution of 140 nm. We report a 60% minimum improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the structured illumination reconstruction through thick tissue by correction with AO. © 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

  3. High-speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging for human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Gu, Boyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Continuous and rapid eye movement causes significant intraframe distortion in adaptive optics high resolution retinal imaging. To minimize this artifact, we developed a high speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging system. A high speed line camera was employed to acquire retinal image and custom adaptive optics was developed to compensate the wave aberration of the human eye's optics. The spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio were assessed in model eye and in living human eye. The improvement of imaging fidelity was estimated by reduction of intra-frame distortion of retinal images acquired in the living human eyes with frame rates at 30 frames/second (FPS), 100 FPS, and 200 FPS. The device produced retinal image with cellular level resolution at 200 FPS with a digitization of 512×512 pixels/frame in the living human eye. Cone photoreceptors in the central fovea and rod photoreceptors near the fovea were resolved in three human subjects in normal chorioretinal health. Compared with retinal images acquired at 30 FPS, the intra-frame distortion in images taken at 200 FPS was reduced by 50.9% to 79.7%. We demonstrated the feasibility of acquiring high resolution retinal images in the living human eye at a speed that minimizes retinal motion artifact. This device may facilitate research involving subjects with nystagmus or unsteady fixation due to central vision loss.

  4. Applied optics and optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, Alexander Eugen

    1957-01-01

    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  5. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics OCT with the DONE algorithm forin vivohuman retinal imaging [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Hans R G W; Heisler, Morgan; Ju, Myeong Jin; Wahl, Daniel; Bliek, Laurens; Kalkman, Jeroen; Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Verhaegen, Michel; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2017-04-01

    In this report, which is an international collaboration of OCT, adaptive optics, and control research, we demonstrate the Data-based Online Nonlinear Extremum-seeker (DONE) algorithm to guide the image based optimization for wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WFSL-AO) OCT for in vivo human retinal imaging. The ocular aberrations were corrected using a multi-actuator adaptive lens after linearization of the hysteresis in the piezoelectric actuators. The DONE algorithm succeeded in drastically improving image quality and the OCT signal intensity, up to a factor seven, while achieving a computational time of 1 ms per iteration, making it applicable for many high speed applications. We demonstrate the correction of five aberrations using 70 iterations of the DONE algorithm performed over 2.8 s of continuous volumetric OCT acquisition. Data acquired from an imaging phantom and in vivo from human research volunteers are presented.

  6. Adaptive oriented PDEs filtering methods based on new controlling speed function for discontinuous optical fringe patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiuling; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Linlin; Lei, Zhenkun; Tang, Shuwei

    2018-01-01

    The filtering of discontinuous optical fringe patterns is a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper is concerned with oriented partial differential equations (OPDEs)-based image filtering methods for discontinuous optical fringe patterns. We redefine a new controlling speed function to depend on the orientation coherence. The orientation coherence can be used to distinguish the continuous regions and the discontinuous regions, and can be calculated by utilizing fringe orientation. We introduce the new controlling speed function to the previous OPDEs and propose adaptive OPDEs filtering models. According to our proposed adaptive OPDEs filtering models, the filtering in the continuous and discontinuous regions can be selectively carried out. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive OPDEs via application to the simulated and experimental fringe patterns, and compare our methods with the previous OPDEs.

  7. Underwater wireless optical MIMO system with spatial modulation and adaptive power allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aiping; Tao, Linwei; Niu, Yilong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of underwater wireless optical multiple-input multiple-output communication system combining spatial modulation (SM-UOMIMO) with flag dual amplitude pulse position modulation (FDAPPM). Channel impulse response for coastal and harbor ocean water links are obtained by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Moreover, we obtain the closed-form and upper bound average bit error rate (BER) expressions for receiver diversity including optical combining, equal gain combining and selected combining. And a novel adaptive power allocation algorithm (PAA) is proposed to minimize the average BER of SM-UOMIMO system. Our numeric results indicate an excellent match between the analytical results and numerical simulations, which confirms the accuracy of our derived expressions. Furthermore, the results show that adaptive PAA outperforms conventional fixed factor PAA and equal PAA obviously. Multiple-input single-output system with adaptive PAA obtains even better BER performance than MIMO one, at the same time reducing receiver complexity effectively.

  8. Adaptive coded spreading OFDM signal for dynamic-λ optical access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates a novel adaptive coded spreading (ACS) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal for dynamic distributed optical ring-based access network. The wavelength can be assigned to different remote nodes (RNs) according to the traffic demand of optical network unit (ONU). The ACS can provide dynamic spreading gain to different signals according to the split ratio or transmission length, which offers flexible power budget for the network. A 10×13.12 Gb/s OFDM access with ACS is successfully demonstrated over two RNs and 120 km transmission in the experiment. The demonstrated method may be viewed as one promising for future optical metro access network.

  9. Field of view advantage of conjugate adaptive optics in microscopy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Jerome; Paudel, Hari; Bifano, Thomas G

    2015-04-10

    The imaging performance of an optical microscope can be degraded by sample-induced aberrations. A general strategy to undo the effect of these aberrations is to apply wavefront correction with a deformable mirror (DM). In most cases the DM is placed conjugate to the microscope pupil, called pupil adaptive optics (AO). When the aberrations are spatially variant an alternative configuration involves placing the DM conjugate to the main source of aberrations, called conjugate AO. We provide a theoretical and experimental comparison of both configurations for the simplified case where spatially variant aberrations are produced by a well-defined phase screen. We pay particular attention to the resulting correction field of view (FOV). Conjugate AO is found to provide a significant FOV advantage. While this result is well known in the astronomical community, our goal here is to recast it specifically for the optical microscopy community.

  10. Clinical Validation of a Smartphone-Based Adapter for Optic Disc Imaging in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastawrous, Andrew; Giardini, Mario Ettore; Bolster, Nigel M; Peto, Tunde; Shah, Nisha; Livingstone, Iain A T; Weiss, Helen A; Hu, Sen; Rono, Hillary; Kuper, Hannah; Burton, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Visualization and interpretation of the optic nerve and retina are essential parts of most physical examinations. To design and validate a smartphone-based retinal adapter enabling image capture and remote grading of the retina. This validation study compared the grading of optic nerves from smartphone images with those of a digital retinal camera. Both image sets were independently graded at Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre. Nested within the 6-year follow-up (January 7, 2013, to March 12, 2014) of the Nakuru Eye Disease Cohort in Kenya, 1460 adults (2920 eyes) 55 years and older were recruited consecutively from the study. A subset of 100 optic disc images from both methods were further used to validate a grading app for the optic nerves. Data analysis was performed April 7 to April 12, 2015. Vertical cup-disc ratio for each test was compared in terms of agreement (Bland-Altman and weighted κ) and test-retest variability. A total of 2152 optic nerve images were available from both methods (also 371 from the reference camera but not the smartphone, 170 from the smartphone but not the reference camera, and 227 from neither the reference camera nor the smartphone). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean difference of 0.02 (95% CI, -0.21 to 0.17) and a weighted κ coefficient of 0.69 (excellent agreement). The grades of an experienced retinal photographer were compared with those of a lay photographer (no health care experience before the study), and no observable difference in image acquisition quality was found. Nonclinical photographers using the low-cost smartphone adapter were able to acquire optic nerve images at a standard that enabled independent remote grading of the images comparable to those acquired using a desktop retinal camera operated by an ophthalmic assistant. The potential for task shifting and the detection of avoidable causes of blindness in the most at-risk communities makes this an attractive public health intervention.

  11. Optics Express

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Ting-Chung; Doh, K. B.

    2007-01-01

    The Hilbert transform as been investigated abundantly in coherent imaging. To the best of our knowledge, it is for the first time investigated in the context of incoherent imaging. We present a two-pupil optical heterodyne scanning system and analyze mathematically the design of its two pupils such that the optical system can perform the Hilbert transform on incoherent objects. Computer simulations of the idea clarify the theoretical results. (c) 2007 Optical Society of America.

  12. Optical electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yariv, Amnon

    1991-01-01

    This classic text introduces engineering students to the first principles of major phenomena and devices of optoelectronics and optical communication technology. Yariv's "first principles" approach employs real-life examples and extensive problems. The text includes separate chapters on quantum well and semiconductor lasers, as well as phase conjugation and its applications. Optical fiber amplification, signal and noise considerations in optical fiber systems, laser arrays and distributed feedback lasers all are covered extensively in major sections within chapters.

  13. Data-based online nonlinear extremum-seeker for wavefront sensorless adaptive optics OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yifan; Verstraete, Hans R. G. W.; Heisler, Morgan; Ju, Myeong Jin; Wahl, Daniel J.; Bliek, Laurens; Kalkman, Jeroen; Bonora, Stefano; Verhaegen, Michel; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2017-02-01

    Adaptive optics has been successfully applied to cellular resolution imaging of the retina, enabling visualization of the characteristic mosaic patterns of the outer retina. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) is a novel technique that facilitates high resolution ophthalmic imaging; it replaces the Hartmann-Shack Wavefront Sensor with an image-driven optimization algorithm and mitigates some the challenges encountered with sensor-based designs. However, WSAO generally requires longer time to perform aberrations correction than the conventional closed-loop adaptive optics. When used for in vivo retinal imaging applications, motion artifacts during the WSAO optimization process will affect the quality of the aberration correction. A faster converging optimization scheme needs to be developed to account for rapid temporal variation of the wavefront and continuously apply corrections. In this project, we investigate the Databased Online Nonlinear Extremum-seeker (DONE), a novel non-linear multivariate optimization algorithm in combination with in vivo human WSAO OCT imaging. We also report both hardware and software updates of our compact lens based WSAO 1060nm swept source OCT human retinal imaging system, including real time retinal layer segmentation and tracking (ILM and RPE), hysteresis correction for the multi-actuator adaptive lens, precise synchronization control for the 200kHz laser source, and a zoom lens unit for rapid switching of the field of view. Cross sectional images of the retinal layers and en face images of the cone photoreceptor mosaic acquired in vivo from research volunteers before and after WSAO optimization are presented.

  14. Retinal axial focusing and multi-layer imaging with a liquid crystal adaptive optics camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rui-Xue; Zheng Xian-Liang; Li Da-Yu; Hu Li-Fa; Cao Zhao-Liang; Mu Quan-Quan; Xuan Li; Xia Ming-Liang

    2014-01-01

    With the help of adaptive optics (AO) technology, cellular level imaging of living human retina can be achieved. Aiming to reduce distressing feelings and to avoid potential drug induced diseases, we attempted to image retina with dilated pupil and froze accommodation without drugs. An optimized liquid crystal adaptive optics camera was adopted for retinal imaging. A novel eye stared system was used for stimulating accommodation and fixating imaging area. Illumination sources and imaging camera kept linkage for focusing and imaging different layers. Four subjects with diverse degree of myopia were imaged. Based on the optical properties of the human eye, the eye stared system reduced the defocus to less than the typical ocular depth of focus. In this way, the illumination light can be projected on certain retina layer precisely. Since that the defocus had been compensated by the eye stared system, the adopted 512 × 512 liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) corrector provided the crucial spatial fidelity to fully compensate high-order aberrations. The Strehl ratio of a subject with −8 diopter myopia was improved to 0.78, which was nearly close to diffraction-limited imaging. By finely adjusting the axial displacement of illumination sources and imaging camera, cone photoreceptors, blood vessels and nerve fiber layer were clearly imaged successfully. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. 50 years of nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yuanrang

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to the birth and early investigations of nonlinear optics, such as second harmonic generation,sum and difference frequency generation, stimulated Raman scattering,and self-action of light etc. Several important research achievements and applications of nonlinear optics are presented as well, including nonlinear optical spectroscopy, phase conjugation and adaptive optics, coherent nonlinear optics, and high-order harmonic generation. In the end, current and future research topics in nonlinear optics are summarized. (authors)

  16. A review of astronomical science with visible light adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Laird M.

    2016-07-01

    We review astronomical results in the visible (λsystem (Baranec, et al. 2016) on the robotic Palomar D=1.5 m telescope (currently relocated to the Kitt Peak 1.8m; Salama et al. 2016). Robo-AO uniquely offers the ability to target >15 objects/hr, which has enabled large (>3000 discrete targets) companion star surveys and has resulted in 23 refereed science publications. The most productive large telescope visible AO system is the D=6.5m Magellan telescope AO system (MagAO). MagAO is an advanced Adaptive Secondary Mirror (ASM) AO system at the Magellan 6.5m in Chile (Morzinski et al. 2016). This ASM secondary has 585 actuators with system (Fusco et al. 2016). ZIMPOL's ability to differentiate scattered polarized light from starlight allows the sensitive detection of circumstellar disks, stellar surfaces, and envelopes of evolved AGB stars. Here we review the key steps to having good performance in the visible and review the exciting new AO visible science opportunities and science results in the fields of: exoplanet detection; circumstellar and protoplanetary disks; young stars; AGB stars; emission line jets; and stellar surfaces. The recent rapid increase in the scientific publications and power of visible AO is due to the maturity of the next-generation of AO systems and our new ability probe circumstellar regions with very high (10-30 mas) spatial resolutions that would otherwise require much larger (>10m) diameter telescopes in the infrared.

  17. Optical Computing With Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitrova, Galina; Gibbs, Hyatt; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is becoming a new thrust in the field of optical computing and signal processing.14 Optical nonlinearity makes the device's transmission intensity dependent, so one can obtain the thresholding needed for logic decisionmaking. Thresholding is essential to digital optical computing, neural nets, and associative memories. GaAs etalons exhibit many of the characteristics desirable for the nonlinear devices including high speed (picosecond) and diode-laser compatability. However, demonstrations of the use of nonlinear decisionmaking for optical computing have used ZnS or ZnSe interference filters. They are slow (millisecond), but they can be used with the visible 514.5-nm output of an argon laser. We have used such filters to demonstrate all-optical logic operations, one-bit addition by symbolic substitution, and recognition of a three-spot pattern in an arbitrary 2 x 8 array of input beams. The application to associative memories is under study.

  18. Laboratory and telescope demonstration of the TP3-WFS for the adaptive optics segment of AOLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colodro-Conde, C.; Velasco, S.; Fernández-Valdivia, J. J.; López, R.; Oscoz, A.; Rebolo, R.; Femenía, B.; King, D. L.; Labadie, L.; Mackay, C.; Muthusubramanian, B.; Pérez Garrido, A.; Puga, M.; Rodríguez-Coira, G.; Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.; Toledo-Moreo, R.; Villó-Pérez, I.

    2017-05-01

    Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI) is a state-of-the-art instrument that combines adaptive optics (AO) and lucky imaging (LI) with the objective of obtaining diffraction-limited images in visible wavelength at mid- and big-size ground-based telescopes. The key innovation of AOLI is the development and use of the new Two Pupil Plane Positions Wavefront Sensor (TP3-WFS). The TP3-WFS, working in visible band, represents an advance over classical wavefront sensors such as the Shack-Hartmann WFS because it can theoretically use fainter natural reference stars, which would ultimately provide better sky coverages to AO instruments using this newer sensor. This paper describes the software, algorithms and procedures that enabled AOLI to become the first astronomical instrument performing real-time AO corrections in a telescope with this new type of WFS, including the first control-related results at the William Herschel Telescope.

  19. On distributed wavefront reconstruction for large-scale adaptive optics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Cornelis C; Brunner, Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The distributed-spline-based aberration reconstruction (D-SABRE) method is proposed for distributed wavefront reconstruction with applications to large-scale adaptive optics systems. D-SABRE decomposes the wavefront sensor domain into any number of partitions and solves a local wavefront reconstruction problem on each partition using multivariate splines. D-SABRE accuracy is within 1% of a global approach with a speedup that scales quadratically with the number of partitions. The D-SABRE is compared to the distributed cumulative reconstruction (CuRe-D) method in open-loop and closed-loop simulations using the YAO adaptive optics simulation tool. D-SABRE accuracy exceeds CuRe-D for low levels of decomposition, and D-SABRE proved to be more robust to variations in the loop gain.

  20. Non-common path aberration correction in an adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubra, Alfredo

    2014-09-01

    The correction of non-common path aberrations (NCPAs) between the imaging and wavefront sensing channel in a confocal scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscope is demonstrated. NCPA correction is achieved by maximizing an image sharpness metric while the confocal detection aperture is temporarily removed, effectively minimizing the monochromatic aberrations in the illumination path of the imaging channel. Comparison of NCPA estimated using zonal and modal orthogonal wavefront corrector bases provided wavefronts that differ by ~λ/20 in root-mean-squared (~λ/30 standard deviation). Sequential insertion of a cylindrical lens in the illumination and light collection paths of the imaging channel was used to compare image resolution after changing the wavefront correction to maximize image sharpness and intensity metrics. Finally, the NCPA correction was incorporated into the closed-loop adaptive optics control by biasing the wavefront sensor signals without reducing its bandwidth.

  1. Adaptive optics correction based on stochastic parallel gradient descent technique using Zernike polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huimin; Qiao, Yan; Shen, Chunshan

    2017-10-01

    Adaptive optics systems based on stochastic parallel gradient descent optimization (SPGD) have yet shown great potential on compensation of phase distortions induced by wave propagation through atmosphere turbulence. One of the key technique is increasing the converge rate of SPGD correction system. In the present study, it is shown that the convergence rate of the algorithm will be greatly reduced with the increase of the number of corrector units. In this paper, an improved SPGD optimization process which is based on Zernike-mode is developed. The optimized object is changed from the voltage to Zernike coefficient. Adaptive optics correction system simulation model base on SPGD for a laser beam projecting system, and the numerical simulation of compensation process of random atmosphere turbulence is proposed. To improve the converge speed, we explore to ameliorate the correction system by controlling the perturbation considering atmosphere aberration proportion. The results show that the system converges smoothly and increasingly after considering the aberration proportion by Zernike correction.

  2. Femtosecond infrared intrastromal ablation and backscattering-mode adaptive-optics multiphoton microscopy in chicken corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualda, Emilio J; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Martínez-García, M Carmen; Moreno, Pablo; Hernández-Toro, Juan; Roso, Luis; Artal, Pablo; Bueno, Juan M

    2011-11-01

    The performance of femtosecond (fs) laser intrastromal ablation was evaluated with backscattering-mode adaptive-optics multiphoton microscopy in ex vivo chicken corneas. The pulse energy of the fs source used for ablation was set to generate two different ablation patterns within the corneal stroma at a certain depth. Intrastromal patterns were imaged with a custom adaptive-optics multiphoton microscope to determine the accuracy of the procedure and verify the outcomes. This study demonstrates the potential of using fs pulses as surgical and monitoring techniques to systematically investigate intratissue ablation. Further refinement of the experimental system by combining both functions into a single fs laser system would be the basis to establish new techniques capable of monitoring corneal surgery without labeling in real-time. Since the backscattering configuration has also been optimized, future in vivo implementations would also be of interest in clinical environments involving corneal ablation procedures.

  3. Adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy: comparison of two, three and four photon fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinefeld, David; Paudel, Hari P; Ouzounov, Dimitre G; Bifano, Thomas G; Xu, Chris

    2015-11-30

    We demonstrate adaptive optics system based on nonlinear feedback from 3- and 4-photon fluorescence. The system is based on femtosecond pulses created by soliton self-frequency shift of a 1550-nm fiber-based femtosecond laser together with micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) phase spatial light modulator (SLM). We perturb the 1020-segment SLM using an orthogonal Walsh sequence basis set with a modified version of three-point phase shifting interferometry. We show the improvement after aberrations correction in 3-photon signal from fluorescent beads. In addition, we compare the improvement obtained in the same adaptive optical system for 2-, 3- and 4-photon fluorescence using dye pool. We show that signal improvement resulting from aberration correction grows exponentially as a function of the order of nonlinearity.

  4. Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Won; Ballesta, Jerome; So, Peter T C

    2010-01-01

    The imaging depth of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy is partly limited by the inhomogeneity of the refractive index in biological specimens. This inhomogeneity results in a distortion of the wavefront of the excitation light. This wavefront distortion results in image resolution degradation and lower signal level. Using an adaptive optics system consisting of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror, wavefront distortion can be measured and corrected. With adaptive optics compensation, we demonstrate that the resolution and signal level can be better preserved at greater imaging depth in a variety of ex-vivo tissue specimens including mouse tongue muscle, heart muscle, and brain. However, for these highly scattering tissues, we find signal degradation due to scattering to be a more dominant factor than aberration.

  5. ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF FOVEAL SPARING IN GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY SECONDARY TO AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querques, Giuseppe; Kamami-Levy, Cynthia; Georges, Anouk; Pedinielli, Alexandre; Capuano, Vittorio; Blanco-Garavito, Rocio; Poulon, Fanny; Souied, Eric H

    2016-02-01

    To describe adaptive optics (AO) imaging of foveal sparing in geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Flood-illumination AO infrared (IR) fundus images were obtained in four consecutive patients with GA using an AO retinal camera (rtx1; Imagine Eyes). Adaptive optics IR images were overlaid with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence images to allow direct correlation of en face AO features with areas of foveal sparing. Adaptive optics appearance of GA and foveal sparing, preservation of functional photoreceptors, and cone densities in areas of foveal sparing were investigated. In 5 eyes of 4 patients (all female; mean age 74.2 ± 11.9 years), a total of 5 images, sized 4° × 4°, of foveal sparing visualized on confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence were investigated by AO imaging. En face AO images revealed GA as regions of inhomogeneous hyperreflectivity with irregularly dispersed hyporeflective clumps. By direct comparison with adjacent regions of GA, foveal sparing appeared as well-demarcated areas of reduced reflectivity with less hyporeflective clumps (mean 14.2 vs. 3.2; P = 0.03). Of note, in these areas, en face AO IR images revealed cone photoreceptors as hyperreflective dots over the background reflectivity (mean cone density 3,271 ± 1,109 cones per square millimeter). Microperimetry demonstrated residual function in areas of foveal sparing detected by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence. Adaptive optics allows the appreciation of differences in reflectivity between regions of GA and foveal sparing. Preservation of functional cone photoreceptors was demonstrated on en face AO IR images in areas of foveal sparing detected by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence.

  6. Synergy of adaptive thresholds and multiple transmitters in free-space optical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louthain, James A; Schmidt, Jason D

    2010-04-26

    Laser propagation through extended turbulence causes severe beam spread and scintillation. Airborne laser communication systems require special considerations in size, complexity, power, and weight. Rather than using bulky, costly, adaptive optics systems, we reduce the variability of the received signal by integrating a two-transmitter system with an adaptive threshold receiver to average out the deleterious effects of turbulence. In contrast to adaptive optics approaches, systems employing multiple transmitters and adaptive thresholds exhibit performance improvements that are unaffected by turbulence strength. Simulations of this system with on-off-keying (OOK) showed that reducing the scintillation variations with multiple transmitters improves the performance of low-frequency adaptive threshold estimators by 1-3 dB. The combination of multiple transmitters and adaptive thresholding provided at least a 10 dB gain over implementing only transmitter pointing and receiver tilt correction for all three high-Rytov number scenarios. The scenario with a spherical-wave Rytov number R=0.20 enjoyed a 13 dB reduction in the required SNR for BER's between 10(-5) to 10(-3), consistent with the code gain metric. All five scenarios between 0.06 and 0.20 Rytov number improved to within 3 dB of the SNR of the lowest Rytov number scenario.

  7. Polarization Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  8. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Integration (VLSI) technology with smaller device dimensions and greater complexity. The smallest .... on a chip, much less than what was mentioned earlier (optical integration is still in its infancy compared to electronics). ..... Optical tunnel devices are under continuous development varying from small caliber endoscopes to ...

  9. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 6. Optical Computing - Optical Components and Storage Systems. Debabrata Goswami. General Article Volume 8 Issue 6 June 2003 pp 56-71. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Multiconjugate adaptive optics applied to an anatomically accurate human eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedggood, P. A.; Ashman, R.; Smith, G.; Metha, A. B.

    2006-09-01

    Aberrations of both astronomical telescopes and the human eye can be successfully corrected with conventional adaptive optics. This produces diffraction-limited imagery over a limited field of view called the isoplanatic patch. A new technique, known as multiconjugate adaptive optics, has been developed recently in astronomy to increase the size of this patch. The key is to model atmospheric turbulence as several flat, discrete layers. A human eye, however, has several curved, aspheric surfaces and a gradient index lens, complicating the task of correcting aberrations over a wide field of view. Here we utilize a computer model to determine the degree to which this technology may be applied to generate high resolution, wide-field retinal images, and discuss the considerations necessary for optimal use with the eye. The Liou and Brennan schematic eye simulates the aspheric surfaces and gradient index lens of real human eyes. We show that the size of the isoplanatic patch of the human eye is significantly increased through multiconjugate adaptive optics.

  11. A self-adaptive and nonmechanical motion autofocusing system for optical microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yufu; Zhu, Shenyu; Zhang, Ping

    2016-11-01

    For the design of a passive autofocusing (AF) system for optical microscopes, many time-consuming and tedious experiments have been performed to determine and design a better focus criterion function, owing to the sample-dependence of this function. To accelerate the development of the AF systems in optical microscopes and to increase AF speed as well as maintain the AF accuracy, this study proposes a self-adaptive and nonmechanical motion AF system. The presented AF system does not require the selection and design of a focus criterion function when it is developed. Instead, the system can automatically determine a better focus criterion function for an observed sample by analyzing the texture features of the sample and subsequently perform an AF procedure to bring the sample into focus in the objective of an optical microscope. In addition, to increase the AF speed, the Z axis scanning of the mechanical motion of the sample or the objective is replaced by focusing scanning performed by a liquid lens, which is driven by an electrical current and does not involve mechanical motion. Experiments show that the reproducibility of the results obtained with the proposed self-adaptive and nonmechanical motion AF system is better than that provided by that of traditional AF systems, and that the AF speed is 10 times faster than that of traditional AF systems. Also, the self-adaptive function increased the speed of AF process by an average of 10.5% than Laplacian and Tenegrad functions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Research on Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm by Improved Expectation Maximization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the effect of adaptive optics images’ restoration, we put forward a deconvolution algorithm improved by the EM algorithm which joints multiframe adaptive optics images based on expectation-maximization theory. Firstly, we need to make a mathematical model for the degenerate multiframe adaptive optics images. The function model is deduced for the points that spread with time based on phase error. The AO images are denoised using the image power spectral density and support constraint. Secondly, the EM algorithm is improved by combining the AO imaging system parameters and regularization technique. A cost function for the joint-deconvolution multiframe AO images is given, and the optimization model for their parameter estimations is built. Lastly, the image-restoration experiments on both analog images and the real AO are performed to verify the recovery effect of our algorithm. The experimental results show that comparing with the Wiener-IBD or RL-IBD algorithm, our iterations decrease 14.3% and well improve the estimation accuracy. The model distinguishes the PSF of the AO images and recovers the observed target images clearly.

  13. High temporal resolution aberrometry in a 50-eye population and implications for adaptive optics error budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Jessica; Mecê, Pedro; Conan, Jean-Marc; Petit, Cyril; Paques, Michel; Meimon, Serge

    2017-04-01

    We formed a database gathering the wavefront aberrations of 50 healthy eyes measured with an original custom-built Shack-Hartmann aberrometer at a temporal frequency of 236 Hz, with 22 lenslets across a 7-mm diameter pupil, for a duration of 20 s. With this database, we draw statistics on the spatial and temporal behavior of the dynamic aberrations of the eye. Dynamic aberrations were studied on a 5-mm diameter pupil and on a 3.4 s sequence between blinks. We noted that, on average, temporal wavefront variance exhibits a n -2 power-law with radial order n and temporal spectra follow a f -1.5 power-law with temporal frequency f . From these statistics, we then extract guidelines for designing an adaptive optics system. For instance, we show the residual wavefront error evolution as a function of the number of corrected modes and of the adaptive optics loop frame rate. In particular, we infer that adaptive optics performance rapidly increases with the loop frequency up to 50 Hz, with gain being more limited at higher rates.

  14. Adaptive optics compensation of atmospheric turbulence: the past, the present, and the promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Robert K.

    1994-06-01

    An overview of adaptive optics systems development is presented with emphasis on its power to compensate for atmospheric turbulence in imaging and laser propagation. A brief history from the conceptual thinking in the 1950s through laboratory implementation in the 1970s to practical reality in the 1990s will be covered. With ongoing research to solve the problem of atmospheric anisoplanatism, the use of artificial guide stars has become as a prominent point of discussion. The understanding of the artificial guide star phenomena and advances in laser technology are bringing systems from the research and technology development mode into systems with scientific utility. Conflicting technical limitations of guide star brightness, laser psoower, and compensation spatial frequency are traded to achieve the most scientific benefit with the least cost. a summary ore recent results from operating adaptive optics systems in observatories around the world will be followed by a brief look at the future promise of adaptive optics in the commercia sector, including requirements of mass market systems for the amateur astronomer.

  15. Optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Adaptive Bit Rate Video Streaming Through an RF/Free Space Optical Laser Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akbulut

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a channel-adaptive video streaming scheme which adjusts video bit rate according to channel conditions and transmits video through a hybrid RF/free space optical (FSO laser communication system. The design criteria of the FSO link for video transmission to 2.9 km distance have been given and adaptive bit rate video streaming according to the varying channel state over this link has been studied. It has been shown that the proposed structure is suitable for uninterrupted transmission of videos over the hybrid wireless network with reduced packet delays and losses even when the received power is decreased due to weather conditions.

  17. MEMS optical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an all-optical sensor utilizing effective index modulation of a waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of reflected light and a force sensing system accommodating said optical sensor. One embodiment of the invention relates to a sensor system comprising...... at least one multimode light source, one or more optical sensors comprising a multimode sensor optical waveguide accommodating a distributed Bragg reflector, at least one transmitting optical waveguide for guiding light from said at least one light source to said one or more multimode sensor optical...... waveguides, a detector for measuring light reflected from said Bragg reflector in said one or more multimode sensor optical waveguides, and a data processor adapted for analyzing variations in the Bragg wavelength of at least one higher order mode of the reflected light....

  18. Delay-aware adaptive sleep mechanism for green wireless-optical broadband access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruyan; Liang, Alei; Wu, Dapeng; Wu, Dalei

    2017-07-01

    Wireless-Optical Broadband Access Network (WOBAN) is capacity-high, reliable, flexible, and ubiquitous, as it takes full advantage of the merits from both optical communication and wireless communication technologies. Similar to other access networks, the high energy consumption poses a great challenge for building up WOBANs. To shot this problem, we can make some load-light Optical Network Units (ONUs) sleep to reduce the energy consumption. Such operation, however, causes the increased packet delay. Jointly considering the energy consumption and transmission delay, we propose a delay-aware adaptive sleep mechanism. Specifically, we develop a new analytical method to evaluate the transmission delay and queuing delay over the optical part, instead of adopting M/M/1 queuing model. Meanwhile, we also analyze the access delay and queuing delay of the wireless part. Based on such developed delay models, we mathematically derive ONU's optimal sleep time. In addition, we provide numerous simulation results to show the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND CORRELATION OF "JAMPOL DOTS" ON ADAPTIVE OPTICS WITH FOVEAL GRANULARITY ON CONVENTIONAL FUNDUS IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Alex C; Roberts, Philipp K; Jampol, Lee M; Nesper, Peter L; Fawzi, Amani A

    2017-11-22

    To describe features characteristic of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). Six women (seven eyes) who presented with MEWDS between June 2014 and April 2017 underwent ophthalmologic examinations and multimodal imaging including infrared, AOSLO, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Bright hyperreflective lesions on AOSLO throughout the course of MEWDS could be correlated to the hyperreflective dots of foveal granularity on infrared imaging without apparent corresponding changes on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. During the acute phase of MEWDS, extrafoveal hyperreflective dots were also visible on AOSLO and infrared and were associated with accumulations of hyperreflective material above the retinal pigment epithelium on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Foveal granularity on conventional fundus imaging could be correlated with hyperreflective lesions visible on AOSLO. We hypothesize that these hyperreflective lesions, "Jampol dots," are the foveal corollaries of the same process associated with the classic "dot" lesions in MEWDS. Based on the intact photoreceptor mosaic on AOSLO, we surmise that this material is accumulating at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium.

  20. Weekly Glacier Flow Estimation from Dense Satellite Time Series Using Adapted Optical Flow Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Altena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary optical remote sensing satellites or constellations of satellites can acquire imagery at sub-weekly or even daily timescales. These systems have the potential to facilitate intra-seasonal, short-term surface velocity variations across a range of ice masses. Current techniques for displacement estimation are based on matching image pairs with sufficient displacement and/or preservation of the surface over time and consequently, do not benefit from an increase in satellite revisit times. Here, we explore an approach that is fundamentally different from image correlation or similar approaches and engages the concept of optical flow. Our goal is to assess whether this technique could overcome the limitations of image matching and yield new insights in glacier flow dynamics. We implement two different methods of optical flow, and test these implementations utilizing the SPOT5 Take5 dataset at two glaciers: Kronebreen, Svalbard and Kaskawulsh Glacier, Yukon. At Kaskawulsh Glacier, we extract intra-seasonal velocity variations that are synchronous with episodes of increased air temperature. Moreover, even for the cloudy dataset of Kronebreen, we can extract spatio-temporal trajectories that correlate well with measured GPS flow paths. Since the underlying concept is simple and computationally efficient due to data-reduction, our optical flow methodology can be rapidly adapted for a range of studies from the investigation of large scale ice sheet dynamics down to the estimation of displacements over small and slow flowing glaciers.

  1. Fiber optic coupled optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kevin J.

    2001-01-01

    A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

  2. Evaluation of adaptation of ceramic inlays using optical coherence tomography and replica technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayse Gozde, Turk; Metin, Sabuncu; Mubin, Ulusoy

    2018-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has generally been used as a nondestructive technique to evaluate integrities of composite restorations. We investigated marginal and internal adaptations of ceramic inlay restorations with OCT and compared them to results with the silicone replica technique. Round-shaped class I cavities were prepared on 16 human maxillary first premolar teeth. Ceramic inlays were fabricated. Silicone replicas from inlays were obtained and sectioned to measure marginal and internal adaptations with a stereomicroscope (Leica Dfc 295, Bensheim, Germany). Inlays were cemented on respective teeth. Marginal and internal adaptations were then measured with the OCT system (Thorlabs, New Jersey, USA) in 200- μm intervals. Replica and OCT measurements were compared with independent samples t-tests. A paired t-test was used to evaluate the marginal and internal adaptations of each group (p inlays, whether measured by replica or OCT techniques, were within clinically acceptable limits.

  3. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  4. Adaptation of zirconia crowns created by conventional versus optical impression: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetik, Sibel; Bahrami, Babak; Fossoyeux, InÈs; Atash, Ramin

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the precision of optical impression (Trios, 3Shape) versus that of conventional impression (Imprint IV, 3M-ESPE) with three different margins (shoulder, chamfer, and knife-edge) on Frasaco teeth. The sample comprised of 60 zirconia half-crowns, divided into six groups according to the type of impression and margin. Scanning electron microscopy enabled us to analyze the gap between the zirconia crowns and the Frasaco teeth, using ImageJ software, based on eight reproducible and standardized measuring points. No statistically significant difference was found between conventional impressions and optical impressions, except for two of the eight points. A statistically significant difference was observed between the three margin types; the chamfer and knife-edge finishing lines appeared to offer better adaptation results than the shoulder margin. Zirconia crowns created from optical impression and those created from conventional impression present similar adaptation. While offering identical results, the former have many advantages. In view of our findings, we believe the chamfer margin should be favored.

  5. Retinal axial focusing and multi-layer imaging with a liquid crystal adaptive optics camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xian-Liang; Li, Da-Yu; Xia, Ming-Liang; Hu, Li-Fa; Cao, Zhao-Liang; Mu, Quan-Quan; Xuan, Li

    2014-09-01

    With the help of adaptive optics (AO) technology, cellular level imaging of living human retina can be achieved. Aiming to reduce distressing feelings and to avoid potential drug induced diseases, we attempted to image retina with dilated pupil and froze accommodation without drugs. An optimized liquid crystal adaptive optics camera was adopted for retinal imaging. A novel eye stared system was used for stimulating accommodation and fixating imaging area. Illumination sources and imaging camera kept linkage for focusing and imaging different layers. Four subjects with diverse degree of myopia were imaged. Based on the optical properties of the human eye, the eye stared system reduced the defocus to less than the typical ocular depth of focus. In this way, the illumination light can be projected on certain retina layer precisely. Since that the defocus had been compensated by the eye stared system, the adopted 512 × 512 liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) corrector provided the crucial spatial fidelity to fully compensate high-order aberrations. The Strehl ratio of a subject with -8 diopter myopia was improved to 0.78, which was nearly close to diffraction-limited imaging. By finely adjusting the axial displacement of illumination sources and imaging camera, cone photoreceptors, blood vessels and nerve fiber layer were clearly imaged successfully.

  6. HiCIAO: the Subaru Telescope's new high-contrast coronographic imager for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Klaus W.; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tamura, Motohide; Abe, Lyu; Suto, Hiroshi; Kandori, Ryo; Morino, Junichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Takami, Hideki; Guyon, Olivier; Jacobson, Shane; Stahlberger, Vern; Yamada, Hubert; Shelton, Richard; Hashimoto, Jun; Tavrov, Alexander; Nishikawa, Jun; Ukita, Nobuharu; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Nakajima, Tadashi; Yamada, Toru; Usuda, Tomonori

    2008-07-01

    The High-Contrast Coronographic Imager for Adaptive Optics (HiCIAO), is a coronographic simultaneous differential imager for the new 188-actuator AO system at the Subaru Telescope Nasmyth focus. It is designed primarily to search for faint companions, brown dwarves and young giant planets around nearby stars, but will also allow observations of disks around young stars and of emission line regions near other bright central sources. HiCIAO will work in conjunction with the new Subaru Telescope 188-actuator adaptive optics system. It is designed as a flexible, experimental instrument that will grow from the initial, simple coronographic system into more complex, innovative optics as these technologies become available. The main component of HiCIAO is an infrared camera optimized for spectral simultaneous differential imaging that uses a Teledyne 2.5 μm HAWAII-2RG detector array operated by a Sidecar ASIC. This paper reports on the assembly, testing, and "first light" observations at the Subaru Telescope.

  7. Modulation transfer function estimation of optical lens system by adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Kiah, Miss Laiha Mat

    2014-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of image quality is an important consideration in any type of imaging system. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a graphical description of the sharpness and contrast of an imaging system or of its individual components. The MTF is also known and spatial frequency response. The MTF curve has different meanings according to the corresponding frequency. The MTF of an optical system specifies the contrast transmitted by the system as a function of image size, and is determined by the inherent optical properties of the system. In this study, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) estimator is designed and adapted to estimate MTF value of the actual optical system. Neural network in ANFIS adjusts parameters of membership function in the fuzzy logic of the fuzzy inference system. The back propagation learning algorithm is used for training this network. This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  8. From optics testing to micro optics testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Christian; Dorn, Ralf; Pfund, Johannes

    2017-10-01

    Testing micro optics, i.e. lenses with dimensions down to 0.1mm and less, with high precision requires a dedicated design of the testing device, taking into account propagation and wave-optical effects. In this paper, we discuss testing methods based on Shack-Hartmann wavefront technology for functional testing in transmission and for the measurement of surface shape in reflection. As a first example of more conventional optics testing, i.e. optics in the millimeter range, we present the measurement of binoculars in transmission, and discuss the measured wave aberrations and imaging quality. By repeating the measurement at different wavelengths, information on chromatic effects is retrieved. A task that is often tackled using Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors is the alignment of collimation optics in front of a light source. In case of a micro-optical collimation unit with a 1/e² beam diameter of ca. 1mm, we need adapted relay optics for suitable beam expansion and well-defined imaging conditions. In this example, we will discuss the alignment process and effects of the relay optics magnification, as well as typical performance data. Oftentimes, micro optics are fabricated not as single pieces, but as mass optics, e.g. by lithographic processes. Thus, in order to reduce tooling and alignment time, an automated test procedure is necessary. We present an approach for the automated testing of wafer- or tray-based micro optics, and discuss transmission and reflection measurement capabilities. Exemplary performance data is shown for a sample type with 30 microns in diameter, where typical repeatabilities of a few nanometers (rms) are reached.

  9. Variable Delay With Directly-Modulated R-SOA and Optical Filters for Adaptive Antenna Radio-Fiber Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Presi, Marco; Chiuchiarelli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    We present an all-optical adaptive-antenna radio over fiber transport system that uses proven, commercially-available components to effectively deliver standard-compliant optical signaling to adaptive multiantenna arrays for current and emerging radio technology implementations. The system is based...... on a directly-modulated reflective emiconductor amplifier (R-SOA) and exploits the interplay between transmission-line dispersion and tunable optical filtering to achieve flexible true time delay, with $2pi$ beam steering at the different antennas. The system was characterized, then successfully tested with two...

  10. Ship detection for high resolution optical imagery with adaptive target filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hongbin

    2015-10-01

    Ship detection is important due to both its civil and military use. In this paper, we propose a novel ship detection method, Adaptive Target Filter (ATF), for high resolution optical imagery. The proposed framework can be grouped into two stages, where in the first stage, a test image is densely divided into different detection windows and each window is transformed to a feature vector in its feature space. The Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is accumulated as a basic feature descriptor. In the second stage, the proposed ATF highlights all the ship regions and suppresses the undesired backgrounds adaptively. Each detection window is assigned a score, which represents the degree of the window belonging to a certain ship category. The ATF can be adaptively obtained by the weighted Logistic Regression (WLR) according to the distribution of backgrounds and targets of the input image. The main innovation of our method is that we only need to collect positive training samples to build the filter, while the negative training samples are adaptively generated by the input image. This is different to other classification method such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic Regression (LR), which need to collect both positive and negative training samples. The experimental result on 1-m high resolution optical images shows the proposed method achieves a desired ship detection performance with higher quality and robustness than other methods, e.g., SVM and LR.

  11. Frequency Adaptive Control Technique for Periodic Runout and Wobble Cancellation in Optical Disk Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Pien Yang

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodic disturbance occurs in various applications on the control of the rotational mechanical systems. For optical disk drives, the spirally shaped tracks are usually not perfectly circular and the assembly of the disk and spindle motor is unavoidably eccentric. The resulting periodic disturbance is, therefore, synchronous with the disk rotation, and becomes particularly noticeable for the track following and focusing servo system. This paper applies a novel adaptive controller, namely Frequency Adaptive Control Technique (FACT, for rejecting the periodic runout and wobble effects in the optical disk drive with dual actuators. The control objective is to attenuate adaptively the specific frequency contents of periodic disturbances without amplifying its rest harmonics. FACT is implemented in a plug-in manner and provides a suitable framework for periodic disturbance rejection in the cases where the fundamental frequencies of the disturbance are alterable. It is shown that the convergence property of parameters in the proposed adaptive algorithm is exponentially stable. It is applicable to both the spindle modes of constant linear velocity (CLV and constant angular velocity (CAV for various operation speeds. The experiments showed that the proposed FACT has successful improvement on the tracking and focusing performance of the CD-ROM, and is extended to various compact disk drives.

  12. Images of photoreceptors in living primate eyes using adaptive optics two-photon ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer J.; Masella, Benjamin; Dubra, Alfredo; Sharma, Robin; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Palczewska, Grazyna; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Williams, David R.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo two-photon imaging through the pupil of the primate eye has the potential to become a useful tool for functional imaging of the retina. Two-photon excited fluorescence images of the macaque cone mosaic were obtained using a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope, overcoming the challenges of a low numerical aperture, imperfect optics of the eye, high required light levels, and eye motion. Although the specific fluorophores are as yet unknown, strong in vivo intrinsic fluorescence allowed images of the cone mosaic. Imaging intact ex vivo retina revealed that the strongest two-photon excited fluorescence signal comes from the cone inner segments. The fluorescence response increased following light stimulation, which could provide a functional measure of the effects of light on photoreceptors. PMID:21326644

  13. Immature visual neural system in children reflected by contrast sensitivity with adaptive optics correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhao, Haoxin; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong; Tang, Yong; Zhou, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neural development status of the visual system of children (around 8 years old) using contrast sensitivity. We achieved this by eliminating the influence of higher order aberrations (HOAs) with adaptive optics correction. We measured HOAs, modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) of six children and five adults with both corrected and uncorrected HOAs. We found that when HOAs were corrected, children and adults both showed improvements in MTF and CSF. However, the CSF of children was still lower than the adult level, indicating the difference in contrast sensitivity between groups cannot be explained by differences in optical factors. Further study showed that the difference between the groups also could not be explained by differences in non-visual factors. With these results we concluded that the neural systems underlying vision in children of around 8 years old are still immature in contrast sensitivity. PMID:24732728

  14. Holographic line field en-face OCT with digital adaptive optics in the retinain vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginner, Laurin; Schmoll, Tilman; Kumar, Abhishek; Salas, Matthias; Pricoupenko, Nastassia; Wurster, Lara M; Leitgeb, Rainer A

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a high-resolution line field en-face time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using an off-axis holography configuration. Line field en-face OCT produces high speed en-face images at rates of up to 100 Hz. The high frame rate favors good phase stability across the lateral field-of-view which is indispensable for digital adaptive optics (DAO). Human retinal structures are acquired in-vivo with a broadband light source at 840 nm, and line rates of 10 kHz to 100 kHz. Structures of different retinal layers, such as photoreceptors, capillaries, and nerve fibers are visualized with high resolution of 2.8 µm and 5.5 µm in lateral directions. Subaperture based DAO is successfully applied to increase the visibility of cone-photoreceptors and nerve fibers. Furthermore, en-face Doppler OCT maps are generated based on calculating the differential phase shifts between recorded lines.

  15. Stochastic parallel gradient descent based adaptive optics used for a high contrast imaging coronagraph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Bing; Ren Deqing; Zhang Xi

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive optics (AO) system based on a stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is proposed to reduce the speckle noises in the optical system of a stellar coronagraph in order to further improve the contrast. The principle of the SPGD algorithm is described briefly and a metric suitable for point source imaging optimization is given. The feasibility and good performance of the SPGD algorithm is demonstrated by an experimental system featured with a 140-actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shark wavefront sensor. Then the SPGD based AO is applied to a liquid crystal array (LCA) based coronagraph to improve the contrast. The LCA can modulate the incoming light to generate a pupil apodization mask of any pattern. A circular stepped pattern is used in our preliminary experiment and the image contrast shows improvement from 10 -3 to 10 -4.5 at an angular distance of 2λ/D after being corrected by SPGD based AO.

  16. Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy with GRIN objective aberration correction by low order adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoletto, Favio; Bonoli, Carlotta; Panizzolo, Paolo; Ciubotaru, Catalin D; Mammano, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Graded Index (GRIN) rod microlenses are increasingly employed in the assembly of optical probes for microendoscopy applications. Confocal, two-photon and optical coherence tomography (OCT) based on GRIN optical probes permit in-vivo imaging with penetration depths into tissue up to the centimeter range. However, insertion of the probe can be complicated by the need of several alignment and focusing mechanisms along the optical path. Furthermore, resolution values are generally not limited by diffraction, but rather by optical aberrations within the endoscope probe and feeding optics. Here we describe a multiphoton confocal fluorescence imaging system equipped with a compact objective that incorporates a GRIN probe and requires no adjustment mechanisms. We minimized the effects of aberrations with optical compensation provided by a low-order electrostatic membrane mirror (EMM) inserted in the optical path of the confocal architecture, resulting in greatly enhanced image quality.

  17. Integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jekowski, J.; Aeby, I.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the R and D effort is to establish a baseline technology in integrated optic techniques within the EMG. Significant investment presently being made by industry in this area indicates that this technology may offer an alternative solution for high speed digital data acquisition and transmission. The objectives of this year's integrated optics program were three-fold: (1) to establish a literature search and maintain industry contacts in an attempt to make the needs of the Weapons Test Program known; (2) to assist the Las Vegas Hybrid facility in establising integrated optic fabrication techniques for their new Thin Film Laboratory; and (3) to conduct basic experiments at Los Alamos in the construction of photolithograhicaly etched plastic film devices. The report describes the successful completion of preliminary investigations into photolithographic techniques and continuing investigations into newly announced integrated optic techniques and devices that would be applicable to the weapons test program

  18. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... containing systems and are characterized using techniques in optical spectroscopy. Of the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy, particular attention has been paid to those based on time-resolved measurements and polarization, which is reflected in the experiment design in the projects. Not all...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  19. High-Altitude Airborne Platform Characterisation of Adaptive Optic Corrected Ground Based Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, F.; Petkovic, M.; Sheard, B.; Greene, B.

    Adaptive optics can be used for more than astronomical imaging with large telescopes. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) and the Space Environment Management Research Centre (SERC) at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Canberra, Australia, have been developing adaptive optics (AO) for space environment management. Turbulence in the atmosphere causes optical signals to become degraded during propagation, which reduces the effective aperture of your transmitting or receiving telescope. An AO system measures and corrects for the turbulence in the atmosphere, allowing for greater resolution of optical signals. AO can be used to correct a laser beam propagating from the ground into space, or high-altitude airborne platform. The AO system performance depends heavily on the chosen site and system design. In order to properly design and implement a cost-effective AO system to propagate a laser into orbit, we propose using high-altitude platforms to measure AO system performance directly as a precursor in-orbit measurements. SERC plan on demonstrating remote manoeuvre of an orbiting object using photon pressure from an AO corrected high power ground based laser. The manoeuvre target will be a suitable piece of debris, or a dedicated satellite mission which is instrumented and tracked to measure the applied photon pressure and resulting orbit perturbation. High-altitude airborne platforms such as weather balloons or UAVs enable us to efficiently de-risk elements of this program by validating our numerical simulations of AO system performance with actual measurements. We are then able to confidently move towards in-orbit measurement of an AO corrected ground based laser, and remote manoeuvre with photon pressure. We present simulations along with experimental results for the development of array detectors which can be used to directly measure AO system performance.

  20. Quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....

  1. Ocean optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

  2. Repeatability of a Commercially Available Adaptive Optics Visual Simulator and Aberrometer in Normal and Keratoconic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Rohit; Kochar, Shruti; Grover, Tushar; Khamar, Pooja; Kusumgar, Pallak; Sainani, Kanchan; Sinha Roy, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of aberration measurement obtained by a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer combined with a visual adaptive optics simulator in normal and keratoconic eyes. One hundred fifteen normal eyes and 92 eyes with grade I and II keratoconus, as per the Amsler-Krumeich classification, were included in the study. To evaluate the repeatability, three consecutive measurements of ocular aberrations were obtained by a single operator. Zernike analyses up to the 5th order for a pupil size of 4.5 mm were performed. Statistical analyses included the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and within-subject standard deviation (SD). For intrasession repeatability, the ICC value for sphere and cylinder was 0.94 and 0.93 in normal eyes and 0.98 and 0.97 in keratoconic eyes, respectively. The ICC for root mean square of higher order aberrations (HOA RMS ) was 0.82 in normal and 0.98 in keratoconic eyes. For 3rd order aberrations (trefoil and coma), the ICC values were greater than 0.87 for normal eyes and greater than 0.92 for keratoconic eyes. The ICC for spherical aberration was 0.92 and 0.90 in normal and keratoconic eyes, respectively. Visual adaptive optics provided repeatable aberrometry data in both normal and keratoconic eyes. For most of the parameters, the repeatability in eyes with early keratoconus was somewhat better than that for normal eyes. The repeatability of the Zernike terms was acceptable for 3rd order (trefoil and coma) and spherical aberrations. Therefore, visual adaptive optics was a suitable tool to perform repeatable aberrometric measurements. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(11):769-772.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Adaptive Sensor Optimization and Cognitive Image Processing Using Autonomous Optical Neuroprocessors; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMERON, STEWART M.

    2001-01-01

    Measurement and signal intelligence demands has created new requirements for information management and interoperability as they affect surveillance and situational awareness. Integration of on-board autonomous learning and adaptive control structures within a remote sensing platform architecture would substantially improve the utility of intelligence collection by facilitating real-time optimization of measurement parameters for variable field conditions. A problem faced by conventional digital implementations of intelligent systems is the conflict between a distributed parallel structure on a sequential serial interface functionally degrading bandwidth and response time. In contrast, optically designed networks exhibit the massive parallelism and interconnect density needed to perform complex cognitive functions within a dynamic asynchronous environment. Recently, all-optical self-organizing neural networks exhibiting emergent collective behavior which mimic perception, recognition, association, and contemplative learning have been realized using photorefractive holography in combination with sensory systems for feature maps, threshold decomposition, image enhancement, and nonlinear matched filters. Such hybrid information processors depart from the classical computational paradigm based on analytic rules-based algorithms and instead utilize unsupervised generalization and perceptron-like exploratory or improvisational behaviors to evolve toward optimized solutions. These systems are robust to instrumental systematics or corrupting noise and can enrich knowledge structures by allowing competition between multiple hypotheses. This property enables them to rapidly adapt or self-compensate for dynamic or imprecise conditions which would be unstable using conventional linear control models. By incorporating an intelligent optical neuroprocessor in the back plane of an imaging sensor, a broad class of high-level cognitive image analysis problems including geometric

  4. High-resolution lidar observations of mesospheric sodium and implications for adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrommer, Thomas; Hickson, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Observations of sodium density variability in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere, obtained using a high-resolution lidar system, show rapid fluctuations in the sodium centroid altitude. The temporal power spectrum extends above 1 Hz and is well-fit by a power law having a slope that is -1.95±0.12. These fluctuations produce focus errors in adaptive optics systems employing continuous-wave sodium laser guide stars, which can be significant for large-aperture telescopes. For a 30 m aperture diameter, the associated rms wavefront error is approximately 4 nm per meter of altitude change and increases as the square of the aperture diameter. The vertical velocity of the sodium centroid altitude is found to be ~23 ms(-1) on a 1 s time scale. If these high-frequency fluctuations arise primarily from advection of horizontal structure by the mesospheric wind, our data imply that variations in the sodium centroid altitude on the order of tens of meters occur over the horizontal scales spanned by proposed laser guide star asterisms. This leads to substantial differential focus errors (~107 nm over a 1 arc min separation with a 30 m aperture diameter) that may impact the performance of wide-field adaptive optics systems. Short-lasting and narrow sodium density enhancements, more than 1 order of magnitude above the local sodium density, occur due to advection of meteor trails. These have the ability to change the sodium centroid altitude by as much as 1 km in less than 1 s, which could result in temporary disruption of adaptive optics systems.

  5. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Diana C.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones; Steven M.

    2010-02-23

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.

  6. Adaptive optics two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy of exogenous fluorophores in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeks, James A; Hunter, Jennifer J

    2017-05-01

    In vivo cellular scale fluorescence lifetime imaging of the mouse retina has the potential to be a sensitive marker of retinal cell health. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescence lifetime imaging of extrinsic fluorophores using adaptive optics fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (AOFLIO). We recorded AOFLIO images of inner retinal cells labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and capillaries labeled with fluorescein. We demonstrate that AOFLIO can be used to differentiate spectrally overlapping fluorophores in the retina. With further refinements, AOFLIO could be used to assess retinal health in early stages of degeneration by utilizing lifetime-based sensors or even fluorophores native to the retina.

  7. Linear-quadratic-Gaussian control for adaptive optics systems using a hybrid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looze, Douglas P

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) design based on the equivalent discrete-time model of an adaptive optics (AO) system. The design model incorporates deformable mirror dynamics, an asynchronous wavefront sensor and zero-order hold operation, and a continuous-time model of the incident wavefront. Using the structure of the discrete-time model, the dimensions of the Riccati equations to be solved are reduced. The LQG controller is shown to improve AO system performance under several conditions.

  8. Adaptive optics microscopy with direct wavefront sensing using fluorescent protein guide stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Azucena, Oscar; Fu, Min; Zuo, Yi; Chen, Diana C; Kubby, Joel

    2011-09-01

    We introduce a direct wavefront sensing method using structures labeled with fluorescent proteins in tissues as guide stars. An adaptive optics confocal microscope using this method is demonstrated for imaging of mouse brain tissue. A dendrite and a cell body of a neuron labeled with yellow fluorescent protein are tested as guide stars without injection of other fluorescent labels. Photobleaching effects are also analyzed. The results shows increased image contrast and 3× improvement in the signal intensity for fixed mouse tissues at depths of 70 μm.

  9. A formal protocol test procedure for the Survivable Adaptable Fiber Optic Embedded Network (SAFENET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, Wayne

    1993-03-01

    This thesis focuses upon a new method for verifying the correct operation of a complex, high speed fiber optic communication network. These networks are of growing importance to the military because of their increased connectivity, survivability, and reconfigurability. With the introduction and increased dependence on sophisticated software and protocols, it is essential that their operation be correct. Because of the speed and complexity of fiber optic networks being designed today, they are becoming increasingly difficult to test. Previously, testing was accomplished by application of conformance test methods which had little connection with an implementation's specification. The major goal of conformance testing is to ensure that the implementation of a profile is consistent with its specification. Formal specification is needed to ensure that the implementation performs its intended operations while exhibiting desirable behaviors. The new conformance test method presented is based upon the System of Communicating Machine model which uses a formal protocol specification to generate a test sequence. The major contribution of this thesis is the application of the System of Communicating Machine model to formal profile specifications of the Survivable Adaptable Fiber Optic Embedded Network (SAFENET) standard which results in the derivation of test sequences for a SAFENET profile. The results applying this new method to SAFENET's OSI and Lightweight profiles are presented.

  10. LSPV+7, a branch-point-tolerant reconstructor for strong turbulence adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbock, Michael J; Hyde, Milo W; Schmidt, Jason D

    2014-06-20

    Optical wave propagation through long paths of extended turbulence presents unique challenges to adaptive optics (AO) systems. As scintillation and branch points develop in the beacon phase, challenges arise in accurately unwrapping the received wavefront and optimizing the reconstructed phase with respect to branch cut placement on a continuous facesheet deformable mirror. Several applications are currently restricted by these capability limits: laser communication, laser weapons, remote sensing, and ground-based astronomy. This paper presents a set of temporally evolving AO simulations comparing traditional least-squares reconstruction techniques to a complex-exponential reconstructor and several other reconstructors derived from the postprocessing congruence operation. The reconstructors' behavior in closed-loop operation is compared and discussed, providing several insights into the fundamental strengths and limitations of each reconstructor type. This research utilizes a self-referencing interferometer (SRI) as the high-order wavefront sensor, driving a traditional linear control law in conjunction with a cooperative point source beacon. The SRI model includes practical optical considerations and frame-by-frame fiber coupling effects to allow for realistic noise modeling. The "LSPV+7" reconstructor is shown to offer the best performance in terms of Strehl ratio and correction stability-outperforming the traditional least-squares reconstructed system by an average of 120% in the studied scenarios. Utilizing a continuous facesheet deformable mirror, these reconstructors offer significant AO performance improvements in strong turbulence applications without the need for segmented deformable mirrors.

  11. Optical solar energy adaptations and radiative temperature control of green leaves and tree barks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrion, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut [Department of Si-Photovoltaik and Solare Energetik, Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Trees have adapted to keep leaves and barks cool in sunshine and can serve as interesting bionic model systems for radiative cooling. Silicon solar cells, on the other hand, loose up to one third of their energy efficiency due to heating in intensive sunshine. It is shown that green leaves minimize absorption of useful radiation and allow efficient infrared thermal emission. Since elevated temperatures are detrimental for tensile water flow in the Xylem tissue below barks, the optical properties of barks should also have evolved so as to avoid excessive heating. This was tested by performing optical studies with tree bark samples from representative trees. It was found that tree barks have optimized their reflection of incoming sunlight between 0.7 and 2 {mu}m. This is approximately the optical window in which solar light is transmitted and reflected by green vegetation. Simultaneously, the tree bark is highly absorbing and thus radiation emitting between 6 and 10 {mu}m. These two properties, mainly provided by tannins, create optimal conditions for radiative temperature control. In addition, tannins seem to have adopted a function as mediators for excitation energy towards photo-antioxidative activity for control of radiation damage. The results obtained are used to discuss challenges for future solar cell optimization. (author)

  12. Uniform enhancement of optical micro-angiography images using Rayleigh contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Siavash; Qin, Jia; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K

    2013-02-01

    Optical microangiography is an imaging technology that is capable of providing detailed functional blood flow maps within microcirculatory tissue beds in vivo. Some practical issues however exist when displaying and quantifying the microcirculation that perfuses the scanned tissue volume. These issues include: (I) Probing light is subject to specular reflection when it shines onto sample. The unevenness of the tissue surface makes the light energy entering the tissue not uniform over the entire scanned tissue volume. (II) The biological tissue is heterogeneous in nature, meaning the scattering and absorption properties of tissue would attenuate the probe beam. These physical limitations can result in local contrast degradation and non-uniform micro-angiogram images. In this paper, we propose a post-processing method that uses Rayleigh contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization to increase the contrast and improve the overall appearance and uniformity of optical micro-angiograms without saturating the vessel intensity and changing the physical meaning of the micro-angiograms. The qualitative and quantitative performance of the proposed method is compared with those of common histogram equalization and contrast enhancement methods. We demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms other existing approaches. The proposed method is not limited to optical microangiography and can be used in other image modalities such as photo-acoustic tomography and scanning laser confocal microscopy.

  13. Adaptive optics binocular visual simulator to study stereopsis in the presence of aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Enrique J; Prieto, Pedro M; Artal, Pablo

    2010-11-01

    A binocular adaptive optics visual simulator has been devised for the study of stereopsis and of binocular vision in general. The apparatus is capable of manipulating the aberrations of each eye separately while subjects perform visual tests. The correcting device is a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator permitting the control of aberrations in the two eyes of the observer simultaneously in open loop. The apparatus can be operated as an electro-optical binocular phoropter with two micro-displays projecting different scenes to each eye. Stereo-acuity tests (three-needle test and random-dot stereograms) have been programmed for exploring the performance of the instrument. As an example, stereo-acuity has been measured in two subjects in the presence of defocus and/or trefoil, showing a complex relationship between the eye's optical quality and stereopsis. This instrument might serve for a better understanding of the relationship of binocular vision and stereopsis performance and the eye's aberrations.

  14. Experimental demonstration of single-mode fiber coupling over relatively strong turbulence with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Xian, Hao

    2015-10-10

    High-speed free-space optical communication systems using fiber-optic components can greatly improve the stability of the system and simplify the structure. However, propagation through atmospheric turbulence degrades the spatial coherence of the signal beam and limits the single-mode fiber (SMF) coupling efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the SMF coupling efficiency over various turbulences. The results show that the SMF coupling efficiency drops from 81% without phase distortion to 10% when phase root mean square value equals 0.3λ. The simulations of SMF coupling with adaptive optics (AO) indicate that it is inevitable to compensate the high-order aberrations for SMF coupling over relatively strong turbulence. The SMF coupling efficiency experiments, using an AO system with a 137-element deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, obtain average coupling efficiency increasing from 1.3% in open loop to 46.1% in closed loop under a relatively strong turbulence, D/r0=15.1.

  15. Handling complex adaptive optics concepts including the third and fourth dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Marco; Viotto, Valentina; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bergomi, Maria; Brunelli, Alessandro; Farinato, Jacopo; Gentile, Giorgia; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Satta, Antonello

    2010-07-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) concepts involve sometimes very complex behaviors of rays, waves and optical elements. Just think, to be convinced, the way multiple probes aim to correct for a large field of view Multi Conjugated AO, and to how these deploy onto a dynamic turbulent atmosphere. In order to explain the behavior of novel concepts we developed visualization techniques that involve the display of three dimensional images and the creation of movies to explain how the concept deals with an evolving situation, or, in other words, adding the fourth dimension of time. We produce solid models of the optical concepts we are developing, including the evolving temporal behavior of the turbulence, and these can be manipulated in a virtual manner in order to allow for the production of different means of visualization. These ranges from so called "static movies" where a three dimensional concept is just explored in three dimension by handling it around the observer, to the creation of three dimensional anaglyphs or anaglyphs movies. While the paper is mainly focused onto the ways these techniques are exploited in order to produce satisfactory results, the poster allow the visitor to experience some of these images and movies. The aim of this work is not only of a sort of high level didactical purpose, but we think it would be useful into scientific discussion and during meeting to develop engineering concepts of several AO concepts.

  16. Adaptive optics for in-vivo exploration of human retinal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paques, Michel; Meimon, Serge; Grieve, Kate; Rossant, Florence

    2017-06-01

    Adaptive optics (AO)-enhanced imaging of the retina is now reaching a level of technical maturity which fosters its expanding use in research and clinical centers in the world. By achieving wavelength-limited resolution it did not only allow a better observation of retinal substructures already visible by other means, it also broke anatomical frontiers such as individual photoreceptors or vessel walls. The clinical applications of AO-enhanced imaging has been slower than that of optical coherence tomography because of the combination of technical complexity, costs and the paucity of interpretative scheme of complex data. In several diseases, AO-enhanced imaging has already proven to provide added clinical value and quantitative biomarkers. Here, we will review some of the clinical applications of AO-enhanced en face imaging, and trace perspectives to improve its clinical pertinence in these applications. An interesting perspective is to document cell motion through time-lapse imaging such as during agerelated macular degeneration. In arterial hypertension, the possibility to measure parietal thickness and perform fine morphometric analysis is of interest for monitoring patients. In the near future, implementation of novel approaches and multimodal imaging, including in particular optical coherence tomography, will undoubtedly expand our imaging capabilities. Tackling the technical, scientific and medical challenges offered by high resolution imaging are likely to contribute to our rethinking of many retinal diseases, and, most importantly, may find applications in other areas of medicine.

  17. QUANTUM OPTICS. Universal linear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Jacques; Harrold, Christopher; Sparrow, Chris; Martín-López, Enrique; Russell, Nicholas J; Silverstone, Joshua W; Shadbolt, Peter J; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Oguma, Manabu; Itoh, Mikitaka; Marshall, Graham D; Thompson, Mark G; Matthews, Jonathan C F; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Laing, Anthony

    2015-08-14

    Linear optics underpins fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and quantum technologies. We demonstrate a single reprogrammable optical circuit that is sufficient to implement all possible linear optical protocols up to the size of that circuit. Our six-mode universal system consists of a cascade of 15 Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 30 thermo-optic phase shifters integrated into a single photonic chip that is electrically and optically interfaced for arbitrary setting of all phase shifters, input of up to six photons, and their measurement with a 12-single-photon detector system. We programmed this system to implement heralded quantum logic and entangling gates, boson sampling with verification tests, and six-dimensional complex Hadamards. We implemented 100 Haar random unitaries with an average fidelity of 0.999 ± 0.001. Our system can be rapidly reprogrammed to implement these and any other linear optical protocol, pointing the way to applications across fundamental science and quantum technologies. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Lowered threshold energy for femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in a water based eye model by aberration correction with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Géneaux, Romain; Günther, Axel; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2013-06-01

    In femtosecond laser ophthalmic surgery tissue dissection is achieved by photodisruption based on laser induced optical breakdown. In order to minimize collateral damage to the eye laser surgery systems should be optimized towards the lowest possible energy threshold for photodisruption. However, optical aberrations of the eye and the laser system distort the irradiance distribution from an ideal profile which causes a rise in breakdown threshold energy even if great care is taken to minimize the aberrations of the system during design and alignment. In this study we used a water chamber with an achromatic focusing lens and a scattering sample as eye model and determined breakdown threshold in single pulse plasma transmission loss measurements. Due to aberrations, the precise lower limit for breakdown threshold irradiance in water is still unknown. Here we show that the threshold energy can be substantially reduced when using adaptive optics to improve the irradiance distribution by spatial beam shaping. We found that for initial aberrations with a root-mean-square wave front error of only one third of the wavelength the threshold energy can still be reduced by a factor of three if the aberrations are corrected to the diffraction limit by adaptive optics. The transmitted pulse energy is reduced by 17% at twice the threshold. Furthermore, the gas bubble motions after breakdown for pulse trains at 5 kilohertz repetition rate show a more transverse direction in the corrected case compared to the more spherical distribution without correction. Our results demonstrate how both applied and transmitted pulse energy could be reduced during ophthalmic surgery when correcting for aberrations. As a consequence, the risk of retinal damage by transmitted energy and the extent of collateral damage to the focal volume could be minimized accordingly when using adaptive optics in fs-laser surgery.

  19. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN MACULAR EDEMA AND CIRCULATORY STATUS IN EYES WITH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION: An Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Yuto; Muraoka, Yuki; Uji, Akihito; Ooto, Sotaro; Murakami, Tomoaki; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Arichika, Shigeta; Takahashi, Ayako; Miwa, Yuko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2017-10-01

    To investigate associations between parafoveal microcirculatory status and foveal pathomorphology in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Ten consecutive patients (10 eyes) with acute retinal vein occlusion were enrolled, 9 eyes of which received intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections. Foveal morphologic changes were examined via optical coherence tomography (OCT), and parafoveal circulatory status was assessed via adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). The mean parafoveal aggregated erythrocyte velocity (AEV) measured by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with retinal vein occlusion was 0.99 ± 0.43 mm/second at baseline, which was significantly lower than that of age-matched healthy subjects (1.41 ± 0.28 mm/second, P = 0.042). The longitudinal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy examinations of each patient showed that parafoveal AEV was strongly inversely correlated with optical coherence tomography-measured central foveal thickness (CFT) over the entire observation period. Using parafoveal AEV and central foveal thickness measurements obtained at the first and second examinations, we investigated associations between differences in parafoveal AEV and central foveal thickness, which were significantly and highly correlated (r = -0.84, P = 0.002). Using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with retinal vein occlusion macular edema, we could quantitatively evaluate the parafoveal AEV. A reduction or an increase in parafoveal AEV may be a clinical marker for the resolution or development/progression of macular edema respectively.

  20. Adaptive optics microscopy enhances image quality in deep layers of CLARITY processed brains of YFP-H mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinig, Marc R.; Novack, Samuel W.; Tao, Xiaodong; Ermini, Florian; Bentolila, Laurent A.; Roberts, Dustin G.; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Godshalk, S. E.; Raven, M. A.; Kubby, Joel

    2016-03-01

    Optical sectioning of biological tissues has become the method of choice for three-dimensional histological analyses. This is particularly important in the brain were neurons can extend processes over large distances and often whole brain tracing of neuronal processes is desirable. To allow deeper optical penetration, which in fixed tissue is limited by scattering and refractive index mismatching, tissue-clearing procedures such as CLARITY have been developed. CLARITY processed brains have a nearly uniform refractive index and three-dimensional reconstructions at cellular resolution have been published. However, when imaging in deep layers at submicron resolution some limitations caused by residual refractive index mismatching become apparent, as the resulting wavefront aberrations distort the microscopic image. The wavefront can be corrected with adaptive optics. Here, we investigate the wavefront aberrations at different depths in CLARITY processed mouse brains and demonstrate the potential of adaptive optics to enable higher resolution and a better signal-to-noise ratio. Our adaptive optics system achieves high-speed measurement and correction of the wavefront with an open-loop control using a wave front sensor and a deformable mirror. Using adaptive optics enhanced microscopy, we demonstrate improved image quality wavefront, point spread function, and signal to noise in the cortex of YFP-H mice.

  1. Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging [Invited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pircher, Michael; Zawadzki, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    In vivo imaging of the human retina with a resolution that allows visualization of cellular structures has proven to be essential to broaden our knowledge about the physiology of this precious and very complex neural tissue that enables the first steps in vision. Many pathologic changes originate from functional and structural alterations on a cellular scale, long before any degradation in vision can be noted. Therefore, it is important to investigate these tissues with a sufficient level of detail in order to better understand associated disease development or the effects of therapeutic intervention. Optical retinal imaging modalities rely on the optical elements of the eye itself (mainly the cornea and lens) to produce retinal images and are therefore affected by the specific arrangement of these elements and possible imperfections in curvature. Thus, aberrations are introduced to the imaging light and image quality is degraded. To compensate for these aberrations, adaptive optics (AO), a technology initially developed in astronomy, has been utilized. However, the axial sectioning provided by retinal AO-based fundus cameras and scanning laser ophthalmoscope instruments is limited to tens of micrometers because of the rather small available numerical aperture of the eye. To overcome this limitation and thus achieve much higher axial sectioning in the order of 2-5µm, AO has been combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) into AO-OCT. This enabled for the first time in vivo volumetric retinal imaging with high isotropic resolution. This article summarizes the technical aspects of AO-OCT and provides an overview on its various implementations and some of its clinical applications. In addition, latest developments in the field, such as computational AO-OCT and wavefront sensor less AO-OCT, are covered. PMID:28663890

  2. Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pircher, Michael; Zawadzki, Robert J

    2017-05-01

    In vivo imaging of the human retina with a resolution that allows visualization of cellular structures has proven to be essential to broaden our knowledge about the physiology of this precious and very complex neural tissue that enables the first steps in vision. Many pathologic changes originate from functional and structural alterations on a cellular scale, long before any degradation in vision can be noted. Therefore, it is important to investigate these tissues with a sufficient level of detail in order to better understand associated disease development or the effects of therapeutic intervention. Optical retinal imaging modalities rely on the optical elements of the eye itself (mainly the cornea and lens) to produce retinal images and are therefore affected by the specific arrangement of these elements and possible imperfections in curvature. Thus, aberrations are introduced to the imaging light and image quality is degraded. To compensate for these aberrations, adaptive optics (AO), a technology initially developed in astronomy, has been utilized. However, the axial sectioning provided by retinal AO-based fundus cameras and scanning laser ophthalmoscope instruments is limited to tens of micrometers because of the rather small available numerical aperture of the eye. To overcome this limitation and thus achieve much higher axial sectioning in the order of 2-5µm, AO has been combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) into AO-OCT. This enabled for the first time in vivo volumetric retinal imaging with high isotropic resolution. This article summarizes the technical aspects of AO-OCT and provides an overview on its various implementations and some of its clinical applications. In addition, latest developments in the field, such as computational AO-OCT and wavefront sensor less AO-OCT, are covered.

  3. Evaluation of adaptation of ceramic inlays using optical coherence tomography and replica technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURK Ayse Gozde

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Optical coherence tomography (OCT has generally been used as a nondestructive technique to evaluate integrities of composite restorations. We investigated marginal and internal adaptations of ceramic inlay restorations with OCT and compared them to results with the silicone replica technique. Round-shaped class I cavities were prepared on 16 human maxillary first premolar teeth. Ceramic inlays were fabricated. Silicone replicas from inlays were obtained and sectioned to measure marginal and internal adaptations with a stereomicroscope (Leica Dfc 295, Bensheim, Germany. Inlays were cemented on respective teeth. Marginal and internal adaptations were then measured with the OCT system (Thorlabs, New Jersey, USA in 200- μm intervals. Replica and OCT measurements were compared with independent samples t-tests. A paired t-test was used to evaluate the marginal and internal adaptations of each group (p < 0.05. Marginal and internal adaptations were 100.97 ± 31.36 and 113.94 ± 39.75 μm, respectively, using the replica technique and 28.97 ± 17.86 and 97.87 ± 21.83 μm, respectively, using OCT. The differences between the techniques were significant (p = 0.00 and p = 0.01, respectively. On evaluation within the groups, internal adaptation values were found to be significantly higher than the marginal adaptation values for the replica technique (p = 0.00 and OCT (p = 0.00. Therefore, the replica and OCT techniques showed different results, with higher values of marginal and internal adaptation found with the replica technique. Marginal and internal adaptation values of ceramic inlays, whether measured by replica or OCT techniques, were within clinically acceptable limits.

  4. Semiconductor Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Klingshirn, Claus F

    2012-01-01

    This updated and enlarged new edition of Semiconductor Optics provides an introduction to and an overview of semiconductor optics from the IR through the visible to the UV, including linear and nonlinear optical properties, dynamics, magneto and electrooptics, high-excitation effects and laser processes, some applications, experimental techniques and group theory. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered extend from physics to materials science and optoelectronics. Significantly updated chapters add coverage of current topics such as electron hole plasma, Bose condensation of excitons and meta materials. Over 120 problems, chapter introductions and a detailed index make it the key textbook for graduate students in physics. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered ...

  5. Optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  6. Phenotypic diversity in autosomal-dominant cone-rod dystrophy elucidated by adaptive optics retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongxin; Rossi, Ethan A; Stone, Edwin; Latchney, Lisa; Williams, David; Dubra, Alfredo; Chung, Mina

    2018-01-01

    Several genes causing autosomal-dominant cone-rod dystrophy (AD-CRD) have been identified. However, the mechanisms by which genetic mutations lead to cellular loss in human disease remain poorly understood. Here we combine genotyping with high-resolution adaptive optics retinal imaging to elucidate the retinal phenotype at a cellular level in patients with AD-CRD harbouring a defect in the GUCA1A gene. Nine affected members of a four-generation AD-CRD pedigree and three unaffected first-degree relatives underwent clinical examinations including visual acuity, fundus examination, Goldmann perimetry, spectral domain optical coherence tomography and electroretinography. Genome-wide scan followed by bidirectional sequencing was performed on all affected participants. High-resolution imaging using a custom adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) was performed for selected participants. Clinical evaluations showed a range of disease severity from normal fundus appearance in teenaged patients to pronounced macular atrophy in older patients. Molecular genetic testing showed a mutation in in GUCA1A segregating with disease. AOSLO imaging revealed that of the two teenage patients with mild disease, one had severe disruption of the photoreceptor mosaic while the other had a normal cone mosaic. AOSLO imaging demonstrated variability in the pattern of cone and rod cell loss between two teenage cousins with early AD-CRD, who had similar clinical features and had the identical disease-causing mutation in GUCA1A . This finding suggests that a mutation in GUCA1A does not lead to the same degree of AD-CRD in all patients. Modifying factors may mitigate or augment disease severity, leading to different retinal cellular phenotypes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Tree-based solvers for adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH - I: gravity and optical depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, R.; Walch, S.; Dinnbier, F.; Whitworth, A.

    2018-04-01

    We describe an OctTree algorithm for the MPI parallel, adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH, which can be used to calculate the gas self-gravity, and also the angle-averaged local optical depth, for treating ambient diffuse radiation. The algorithm communicates to the different processors only those parts of the tree that are needed to perform the tree-walk locally. The advantage of this approach is a relatively low memory requirement, important in particular for the optical depth calculation, which needs to process information from many different directions. This feature also enables a general tree-based radiation transport algorithm that will be described in a subsequent paper, and delivers excellent scaling up to at least 1500 cores. Boundary conditions for gravity can be either isolated or periodic, and they can be specified in each direction independently, using a newly developed generalization of the Ewald method. The gravity calculation can be accelerated with the adaptive block update technique by partially re-using the solution from the previous time-step. Comparison with the FLASH internal multigrid gravity solver shows that tree-based methods provide a competitive alternative, particularly for problems with isolated or mixed boundary conditions. We evaluate several multipole acceptance criteria (MACs) and identify a relatively simple approximate partial error MAC which provides high accuracy at low computational cost. The optical depth estimates are found to agree very well with those of the RADMC-3D radiation transport code, with the tree-solver being much faster. Our algorithm is available in the standard release of the FLASH code in version 4.0 and later.

  8. Widefield fluorescence microscopy with sensor-based conjugate adaptive optics using oblique back illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Bifano, Thomas G; Mertz, Jerome

    2016-12-01

    We describe a wavefront sensor strategy for the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) in microscope applications involving thick, scattering media. The strategy is based on the exploitation of multiple scattering to provide oblique back illumination of the wavefront-sensor focal plane, enabling a simple and direct measurement of the flux-density tilt angles caused by aberrations at this plane. Advantages of the sensor are that it provides a large measurement field of view (FOV) while requiring no guide star, making it particularly adapted to a type of AO called conjugate AO, which provides a large correction FOV in cases when sample-induced aberrations arise from a single dominant plane (e.g., the sample surface). We apply conjugate AO here to widefield (i.e., nonscanning) fluorescence microscopy for the first time and demonstrate dynamic wavefront correction in a closed-loop implementation.

  9. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  10. Optical dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukaroff, I.; Fishman, R.

    1984-01-01

    A reflecting optical dosimeter is a thin block of optical material having an input light pipe at one corner and an output light pipe at another corner, arranged so that the light path includes several reflections off the edges of the block to thereby greatly extend its length. In a preferred embodiment, one corner of the block is formed at an angle so that after the light is reflected several times between two opposite edges, it is then reflected several more times between the other two edges

  11. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  12. Quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flytzanis, C.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Quantum Optics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program is focused on the behavior of dense and dilute materials submitted to short and high-intensity light radiation fields. Nonlinear optics techniques, with time and spatial resolution, are developed. An important research activity concerns the investigations on the interactions between the photon beams and the inhomogeneous or composite materials, as well as the artificial microstructures. In the processes involving molecular beams and surfaces, the research works on the photophysics of surfaces and the molecule-surface interactions, are included [fr

  13. Robust Multi-Frame Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Poisson Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongming; Sun, Changming; Yang, Jinhua; Liu, Huan; Peng, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lijuan

    2017-04-06

    An adaptive optics (AO) system provides real-time compensation for atmospheric turbulence. However, an AO image is usually of poor contrast because of the nature of the imaging process, meaning that the image contains information coming from both out-of-focus and in-focus planes of the object, which also brings about a loss in quality. In this paper, we present a robust multi-frame adaptive optics image restoration algorithm via maximum likelihood estimation. Our proposed algorithm uses a maximum likelihood method with image regularization as the basic principle, and constructs the joint log likelihood function for multi-frame AO images based on a Poisson distribution model. To begin with, a frame selection method based on image variance is applied to the observed multi-frame AO images to select images with better quality to improve the convergence of a blind deconvolution algorithm. Then, by combining the imaging conditions and the AO system properties, a point spread function estimation model is built. Finally, we develop our iterative solutions for AO image restoration addressing the joint deconvolution issue. We conduct a number of experiments to evaluate the performances of our proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm produces accurate AO image restoration results and outperforms the current state-of-the-art blind deconvolution methods.

  14. Multi-conjugate adaptive optics observations of the Orion Trapezium Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr-Gotzens, M G; Kolb, J; Marchetti, E; Sterzik, M F; Ivanov, V D; Nuernberger, D; Koehler, R; Bouy, H; MartIn, E L; Huelamo, N; Navascues, D Barrado y

    2008-01-01

    We obtained very deep and high spatial resolution near-infrared images of the Orion Trapezium Cluster using the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator (MAD) instrument at the VLT. The goal of these observations has been to search for objects at the very low-mass end of the IMF down to the planetary-mass regime. Three fields in the innermost dense part of the Trapezium Cluster, with a total area of 3.5 sq.arcmin have been surveyed at 1.65μm and 2.2μm. Several new candidate planetary mass objects with potential masses Jup have been detected based on their photometry and on their location in the colour-magnitude diagram. The performance of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics correction is excellent over a large field-of-view of ∼ 1'. The final data has a spatial resolution of Jup ), however, must await future confirmation by spectroscopic and/or photometric observations.

  15. Rate adaptive multilevel coded modulation with high coding gain in intensity modulation direct detection optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Qinghua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Yongjun; Rao, Lan; Ullah, Rahat; Zhao, Feng; Li, Deng'ao

    2018-02-01

    A rate-adaptive multilevel coded modulation (RA-MLC) scheme based on fixed code length and a corresponding decoding scheme is proposed. RA-MLC scheme combines the multilevel coded and modulation technology with the binary linear block code at the transmitter. Bits division, coding, optional interleaving, and modulation are carried out by the preset rule, then transmitted through standard single mode fiber span equal to 100 km. The receiver improves the accuracy of decoding by means of soft information passing through different layers, which enhances the performance. Simulations are carried out in an intensity modulation-direct detection optical communication system using MATLAB®. Results show that the RA-MLC scheme can achieve bit error rate of 1E-5 when optical signal-to-noise ratio is 20.7 dB. It also reduced the number of decoders by 72% and realized 22 rate adaptation without significantly increasing the computing time. The coding gain is increased by 7.3 dB at BER=1E-3.

  16. Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Sulai, Yusufu; Norris, Jennifer L.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubis, Adam M.; Williams, David R.; Carroll, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The rod photoreceptors are implicated in a number of devastating retinal diseases. However, routine imaging of these cells has remained elusive, even with the advent of adaptive optics imaging. Here, we present the first in vivo images of the contiguous rod photoreceptor mosaic in nine healthy human subjects. The images were collected with three different confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopes at two different institutions, using 680 and 775 nm superluminescent diodes for illumination. Estimates of photoreceptor density and rod:cone ratios in the 5°–15° retinal eccentricity range are consistent with histological findings, confirming our ability to resolve the rod mosaic by averaging multiple registered images, without the need for additional image processing. In one subject, we were able to identify the emergence of the first rods at approximately 190 μm from the foveal center, in agreement with previous histological studies. The rod and cone photoreceptor mosaics appear in focus at different retinal depths, with the rod mosaic best focus (i.e., brightest and sharpest) being at least 10 μm shallower than the cones at retinal eccentricities larger than 8°. This study represents an important step in bringing high-resolution imaging to bear on the study of rod disorders. PMID:21750765

  17. MAD ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF HIGH-LUMINOSITY QUASARS: A PILOT PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liuzzo, E. [Osservatorio di Radioastronomia, INAF, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Falomo, R.; Paiano, S.; Baruffolo, A.; Farinato, J.; Moretti, A.; Ragazzoni, R. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, INAF, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Treves, A. [Università dell’Insubria (Como) (Italy); Uslenghi, M. [INAF-IASF, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Arcidiacono, C.; Diolaiti, E.; Lombini, M. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, INAF, Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Brast, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Via Irnerio, 46, I-40126, Bologna (Italy); Donaldson, R.; Kolb, J.; Marchetti, E.; Tordo, S., E-mail: liuzzo@ira.inaf.it [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    We present near-IR images of five luminous quasars at z ∼ 2 and one at z ∼ 4 obtained with an experimental adaptive optics (AO) instrument at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. The observations are part of a program aimed at demonstrating the capabilities of multi-conjugated adaptive optics imaging combined with the use of natural guide stars for high spatial resolution studies on large telescopes. The observations were mostly obtained under poor seeing conditions but in two cases. In spite of these nonoptimal conditions, the resulting images of point sources have cores of FWHM ∼ 0.2 arcsec. We are able to characterize the host galaxy properties for two sources and set stringent upper limits to the galaxy luminosity for the others. We also report on the expected capabilities for investigating the host galaxies of distant quasars with AO systems coupled with future Extremely Large Telescopes. Detailed simulations show that it will be possible to characterize compact (2–3 kpc) quasar host galaxies for quasi-stellar objects at z = 2 with nucleus K -magnitude spanning from 15 to 20 (corresponding to absolute magnitude −31 to −26) and host galaxies that are 4 mag fainter than their nuclei.

  18. Robust Multi-Frame Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Poisson Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive optics (AO system provides real-time compensation for atmospheric turbulence. However, an AO image is usually of poor contrast because of the nature of the imaging process, meaning that the image contains information coming from both out-of-focus and in-focus planes of the object, which also brings about a loss in quality. In this paper, we present a robust multi-frame adaptive optics image restoration algorithm via maximum likelihood estimation. Our proposed algorithm uses a maximum likelihood method with image regularization as the basic principle, and constructs the joint log likelihood function for multi-frame AO images based on a Poisson distribution model. To begin with, a frame selection method based on image variance is applied to the observed multi-frame AO images to select images with better quality to improve the convergence of a blind deconvolution algorithm. Then, by combining the imaging conditions and the AO system properties, a point spread function estimation model is built. Finally, we develop our iterative solutions for AO image restoration addressing the joint deconvolution issue. We conduct a number of experiments to evaluate the performances of our proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm produces accurate AO image restoration results and outperforms the current state-of-the-art blind deconvolution methods.

  19. Testing and integrating the laser system of ARGOS: the ground layer adaptive optics for LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, C.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Borelli, J.; Deysenroth, M.; Gaessler, W.; Gemperlein, H.; Honsberg, M.; Kulas, M.; Lederer, R.; Raab, W.; Rahmer, G.; Ziegleder, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Laser Guide Star facility ARGOS will provide Ground Layer Adaptive Optics to the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The system operates three pulsed laser beacons above each of the two primary mirrors, which are Rayleigh scattered in 12km height. This enables correction over a wide field of view, using the adaptive secondary mirror of the LBT. The ARGOS laser system is designed around commercially available, pulsed Nd:YAG lasers working at 532 nm. In preparation for a successful commissioning, it is important to ascertain that the specifications are met for every component of the laser system. The testing of assembled, optical subsystems is likewise necessary. In particular it is required to confirm a high output power, beam quality and pulse stability of the beacons. In a second step, the integrated laser system along with its electronic cabinets are installed on a telescope simulator. This unit is capable of carrying the whole assembly and can be tilted to imitate working conditions at the LBT. It allows alignment and functionality testing of the entire system, ensuring that flexure compensation and system diagnosis work properly in different orientations.

  20. Research on adaptive optics image restoration algorithm based on improved joint maximum a posteriori method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Yang; Wang, Junnan; Liu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a point spread function (PSF) reconstruction method and joint maximum a posteriori (JMAP) estimation method for the adaptive optics image restoration. Using the JMAP method as the basic principle, we establish the joint log likelihood function of multi-frame adaptive optics (AO) images based on the image Gaussian noise models. To begin with, combining the observed conditions and AO system characteristics, a predicted PSF model for the wavefront phase effect is developed; then, we build up iterative solution formulas of the AO image based on our proposed algorithm, addressing the implementation process of multi-frame AO images joint deconvolution method. We conduct a series of experiments on simulated and real degraded AO images to evaluate our proposed algorithm. Compared with the Wiener iterative blind deconvolution (Wiener-IBD) algorithm and Richardson-Lucy IBD algorithm, our algorithm has better restoration effects including higher peak signal-to-noise ratio ( PSNR) and Laplacian sum ( LS) value than the others. The research results have a certain application values for actual AO image restoration.

  1. Wavelength reused bidirectional transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in WDM-PONs incorporating SOA and RSOA intensity modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J L; Hugues-Salas, E; Giddings, R P; Jin, X Q; Zheng, X; Mansoor, S; Tang, J M

    2010-05-10

    Detailed numerical investigations are undertaken of wavelength reused bidirectional transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM (AMOOFDM) signals over a single SMF in a colorless WDM-PON incorporating a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) intensity modulator and a reflective SOA (RSOA) intensity modulator in the optical line termination and optical network unit, respectively. A comprehensive theoretical model describing the performance of such network scenarios is, for the first time, developed, taking into account dynamic optical characteristics of SOA and RSOA intensity modulators as well as the effects of Rayleigh backscattering (RB) and residual downstream signal-induced crosstalk. The developed model is rigorously verified experimentally in RSOA-based real-time end-to-end OOFDM systems at 7.5 Gb/s. It is shown that the RB noise and crosstalk effects are dominant factors limiting the maximum achievable downstream and upstream transmission performance. Under optimum SOA and RSOA operating conditions as well as practical downstream and upstream optical launch powers, 10 Gb/s downstream and 6 Gb/s upstream over 40 km SMF transmissions of conventional double sideband AMOOFDM signals are feasible without utilizing in-line optical amplification and chromatic dispersion compensation. In particular, the aforementioned transmission performance can be improved to 23 Gb/s downstream and 8 Gb/s upstream over 40 km SMFs when single sideband subcarrier modulation is adopted in the downstream systems. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  2. Precise Prediction of Optical Performance for Near Infrared Instrument Using Adaptive Fitting Line

    OpenAIRE

    Kyeongyeon Ko; Jeong-Yeol Han; Jakyoung Nah; Heeyoung Oh; In-Soo Yuk; Chan Park; Moo-Young Chun; Jae Sok Oh; Kang-Min Kim; Hanshin Lee; Ueejeong Jeong; Daniel T. Jaffe

    2013-01-01

    Infrared optical systems are operated at low temperature and vacuum (LT-V) condition, whereas the assembly and alignment are performed at room temperature and non-vacuum (RT-NV) condition. The differences in temperature and pressure between assembly/alignment environments and operation environment change the physical characteristics of optical and opto-mechanical parts (e.g., thickness, height, length, curvature, and refractive index), and the resultant optical performance changes...

  3. Diophantine Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouan, D.

    2016-09-01

    What I call Diophantine optics is the exploitation in optics of some remarkable algebraic relations between powers of integers. The name comes from Diophantus of Alexandria, a greek mathematician, known as the father of algebra. He studied polynomial equations with integer coefficients and integer solutions, called diophantine equations. Since constructive or destructive interferences are playing with optical path differences which are multiple integer (odd or even) of λ/2 and that the complex amplitude is a highly non-linear function of the optical path difference (or equivalently of the phase), one can understand that any Taylor development of this amplitude implies powers of integers. This is the link with Diophantine equations. We show how, especially in the field of interferometry, remarkable relations between powers of integers can help to solve several problems, such as achromatization of a phase shifter or deep nulling efficiency. It appears that all the research that was conducted in this frame of thinking, relates to the field of detection of exoplanets, a very active domain of astrophysics today.

  4. Optical profilometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieloszyńska, Aleksandra; StrÄ kowski, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    The profilometry plays a huge role in the most fields of science and technology. It allows to measure the profile of the surface with high-resolution. This technique is used in the fields like optic, electronic, medicine, automotive, and much more. The aim of the current work was to design and build optical profilometer based on the interference phenomena. The developed device has been working with He-Ne laser (632.8 nm). The optical parts have been chosen in order to reach the sized 2.0 mm x 1.6 mm of scanning area. The setup of the profilometer is based on Twyman-Green interferometer. Therefore, the phase distribution of the backreflected light from measured surface is recorded. The measurements are carried out with the aid of multiframe algorithms. In this approach we have used the Hariharan algorithm to obtain the exact value of the recorded phase. During tests, which have been carried out in order to check the functionality of the device, the interference patterns have been recoded and processed in order to obtain the 3D profile of measured surface. In this contribution the setup of the optical system, as well as signal processing methods are going to be presented. The brief discussion about the advantages and disadvantages, and usefulness of this approach will be carried out.

  5. Optical fibres

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    These optical fibres are used to detect particles passing through in bunches. Made from scintillating material, the fibres glow when a high energy particle passes through them. These detectors are known as spaghetti detectors and are used to measure the energy of particles.

  6. Optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.; Trautman, A.

    1988-01-01

    The geometry of classical physics is Lorentzian; but weaker geometries are often more appropriate: null geodesics and electromagnetic fields, for example, are well known to be objects of conformal geometry. To deal with a single null congruence, or with the radiative electromagnetic fields associated with it, even less is needed: flag geometry for the first, optical geometry, with which this paper is chiefly concerned, for the second. The authors establish a natural one-to-one correspondence between optical geometries, considered locally, and three-dimensional Cauchy-Riemann structures. A number of Lorentzian geometries are shown to be equivalent from the optical point of view. For example the Goedel universe, the Taub-NUT metric and Hauser's twisting null solution have an optical geometry isomorphic to the one underlying the Robinson congruence in Minkowski space. The authors present general results on the problem of lifting a CR structure to a Lorentz manifold and, in particular, to Minkowski space; and exhibit the relevance of the deviation form to this problem

  7. Optical twisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We describe a diffracting beam with orbital angular momentum (OAM) but with a helical profile in both phase and amplitude components of the beam. This is different from Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams where only the phase component has a helical profile. Such profile in LG beams introduces a phase s....... Such beams can be applied to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps for cold atoms and for optical manipulation of microscopic particles....... and linearly scaled towards no phase singularity at the centre of the beam. At the focal volume, we show that our beam forms an intensity distribution that can be accurately described as an "optical twister" as it propagates in the forward direction. Unlike LG beams, an optical twister can have minimal changes...... in radius but with a scalable OAM. Furthermore, we characterize the OAM in terms of its capacity to introduce spiral motion on particles trapped along its orbit. We also show that our "optical twister" maintains a high concentration of photons at the focus even as the topological charge is increased...

  8. Skin optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, M. J.; Jacques, S. L.; Sterenborg, H. J.; Star, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model

  9. Optical metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gåsvik, Kjell J

    2003-01-01

    New material on computerized optical processes, computerized ray tracing, and the fast Fourier transform, Bibre-Bragg sensors, and temporal phase unwrapping.* New introductory sections to all chapters.* Detailed discussion on lasers and laser principles, including an introduction to radiometry and photometry.* Thorough coverage of the CCD camera.

  10. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 7. Optical Computing - Research Trends. Debabrata Goswami. General Article Volume 8 Issue 7 July 2003 pp 8-21. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0008-0021. Keywords.

  11. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi

  12. Optical Magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budker, Dmitry; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson

    2013-03-01

    Part I. Principles and Techniques: 1. General principles and characteristics of optical magnetometers D. F. Jackson Kimball, E. B. Alexandrov and D. Budker; 2. Quantum noise in atomic magnetometers M. V. Romalis; 3. Quantum noise, squeezing, and entanglement in radio-frequency optical magnetometers K. Jensen and E. S. Polzik; 4. Mx and Mz magnetometers E. B. Alexandrov and A. K. Vershovskiy; 5. Spin-exchange-relaxation-free (serf) magnetometers I. Savukov and S. J. Seltzer; 6. Optical magnetometry with modulated light D. F. Jackson Kimball, S. Pustelny, V. V. Yashchuk and D. Budker; 7. Microfabricated atomic magnetometers S. Knappe and J. Kitching; 8. Optical magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, P. R. Hemmer, J. R. Maze and R. L. Walsworth; 9. Magnetometry with cold atoms W. Gawlik and J. M. Higbie; 10. Helium magnetometers R. E. Slocum, D. D. McGregor and A. W. Brown; 11. Surface coatings for atomic magnetometry S. J. Seltzer, M.-A. Bouchiat and M. V. Balabas; 12. Magnetic shielding V. V. Yashchuk, S.-K. Lee and E. Paperno; Part II. Applications: 13. Remote detection magnetometry S. M. Rochester, J. M. Higbie, B. Patton, D. Budker, R. Holzlöhner and D. Bonaccini Calia; 14. Detection of nuclear magnetic resonance with atomic magnetometers M. P. Ledbetter, I. Savukov, S. J. Seltzer and D. Budker; 15. Space magnetometry B. Patton, A. W. Brown, R. E. Slocum and E. J. Smith; 16. Detection of biomagnetic fields A. Ben-Amar Baranga, T. G. Walker and R. T. Wakai; 17. Geophysical applications M. D. Prouty, R. Johnson, I. Hrvoic and A. K. Vershovskiy; Part III. Broader Impact: 18. Tests of fundamental physics with optical magnetometers D. F. Jackson Kimball, S. K. Lamoreaux and T. E. Chupp; 19. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscopes E. A. Donley and J. Kitching; 20. Commercial magnetometers and their application D. C. Hovde, M. D. Prouty, I. Hrvoic and R. E. Slocum; Index.

  13. Volumetric imaging of rod and cone photoreceptor structure with a combined adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography-scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells-Gray, Elaine M; Choi, Stacey S; Zawadzki, Robert J; Finn, Susanna C; Greiner, Cherry; Werner, John S; Doble, Nathan

    2018-03-01

    We have designed and implemented a dual-mode adaptive optics (AO) imaging system that combines spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) for in vivo imaging of the human retina. The system simultaneously acquires SLO frames and OCT B-scans at 60 Hz with an OCT volume acquisition time of 4.2 s. Transverse eye motion measured from the SLO is used to register the OCT B-scans to generate three-dimensional (3-D) volumes. Key optical design considerations include: minimizing system aberrations through the use of off-axis relay telescopes, conjugate pupil plane requirements, and the use of dichroic beam splitters to separate and recombine the OCT and SLO beams around the nonshared horizontal scanning mirrors. To demonstrate system performance, AO-OCT-SLO images and measurements are taken from three normal human subjects ranging in retinal eccentricity from the fovea out to 15-deg temporal and 20-deg superior. Also presented are en face OCT projections generated from the registered 3-D volumes. The ability to acquire high-resolution 3-D images of the human retina in the midperiphery and beyond has clinical importance in diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  14. Adaptive optics compensation of orbital angular momentum beams with a modified Gerchberg-Saxton-based phase retrieval algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huan; Yin, Xiao-li; Cui, Xiao-zhou; Zhang, Zhi-chao; Ma, Jian-xin; Wu, Guo-hua; Zhang, Li-jia; Xin, Xiang-jun

    2017-12-01

    Practical orbital angular momentum (OAM)-based free-space optical (FSO) communications commonly experience serious performance degradation and crosstalk due to atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, we propose a wave-front sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) system with a modified Gerchberg-Saxton (GS)-based phase retrieval algorithm to correct distorted OAM beams. We use the spatial phase perturbation (SPP) GS algorithm with a distorted probe Gaussian beam as the only input. The principle and parameter selections of the algorithm are analyzed, and the performance of the algorithm is discussed. The simulation results show that the proposed adaptive optics (AO) system can significantly compensate for distorted OAM beams in single-channel or multiplexed OAM systems, which provides new insights into adaptive correction systems using OAM beams.

  15. DYNAMISM OF DOT SUBRETINAL DRUSENOID DEPOSITS IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION DEMONSTRATED WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Xiaolin; Godara, Pooja; Zhang, Tianjiao; Clark, Mark E; Witherspoon, C Douglas; Spaide, Richard F; Owsley, Cynthia; Curcio, Christine A

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the natural history of dot subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) in age-related macular degeneration, using high-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Six eyes of four patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration were studied at baseline and 1 year later. Individual dot SDD within the central 30° retina were examined with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography. A total of 269 solitary SDD were identified at baseline. Over 12.25 ± 1.18 months, all 35 Stage 1 SDD progressed to advanced stages. Eighteen (60%) Stage 2 lesions progressed to Stage 3 and 12 (40%) remained at Stage 2. Of 204 Stage 3 SDD, 12 (6.4%) disappeared and the rest remained. Twelve new SDD were identified, including 6 (50%) at Stage 1, 2 (16.7%) at Stage 2, and 4 (33.3%) at Stage 3. The mean percentage of the retina affected by dot SDD, measured by the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, increased in 5/6 eyes (from 2.31% to 5.08% in the most changed eye) and decreased slightly in 1/6 eye (from 10.67% to 10.54%). Dynamism, the absolute value of the areas affected by new and regressed lesions, ranged from 0.7% to 9.3%. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy reveals that dot SDD, like drusen, are dynamic.

  16. AMA- and RWE- Based Adaptive Kalman Filter for Denoising Fiber Optic Gyroscope Drift Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gongliu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Ming; Song, Shunguang

    2015-10-23

    An improved double-factor adaptive Kalman filter called AMA-RWE-DFAKF is proposed to denoise fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) drift signal in both static and dynamic conditions. The first factor is Kalman gain updated by random weighting estimation (RWE) of the covariance matrix of innovation sequence at any time to ensure the lowest noise level of output, but the inertia of KF response increases in dynamic condition. To decrease the inertia, the second factor is the covariance matrix of predicted state vector adjusted by RWE only when discontinuities are detected by adaptive moving average (AMA).The AMA-RWE-DFAKF is applied for denoising FOG static and dynamic signals, its performance is compared with conventional KF (CKF), RWE-based adaptive KF with gain correction (RWE-AKFG), AMA- and RWE- based dual mode adaptive KF (AMA-RWE-DMAKF). Results of Allan variance on static signal and root mean square error (RMSE) on dynamic signal show that this proposed algorithm outperforms all the considered methods in denoising FOG signal.

  17. Recent results and future plans for a 45 actuator adaptive x-ray optics experiment at the advanced light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai F., E-mail: brejnholt1@llnl.gov; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Hill, Randal M.; Pardini, Tommaso; Hagler, Lisle; Jackson, Jessie; Jeon, Jae; McCarville, Thomas J.; Palmer, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Celestre, Richard [Advanced Light Source - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Brooks, Audrey D. [Northrop Grumman - AOA Xinetics Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-07-27

    We report on the current status of the Adaptive X-ray Optics project run by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL is collaborating with the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to demonstrate a near real-time adaptive X-ray optic. To this end, a custom-built 45 cm long deformable mirror has been installed at ALS beamline 5.3.1 (end station 2) for a two-year period that started in September 2014. We will outline general aspects of the instrument, present results from a recent experimental campaign and touch on future plans for the project.

  18. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Pluto-Charon and the Discovery of a Moon aroun d the Asteroid 45 Eugenia: The Potential of Adaptive Optics in Planetary Astrono my

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, L. M.; Merline, W. J.; Tholen, D.; Owen, T.; Roddier, F.; Dumas, C.

    1999-12-01

    We outline two separate projects which highlight the power of adaptive optics (AO) to aid planetary research. The first project utilized AO to resolve the Pluto-Charon system by producing 0.15" FWHM images. We used the University of Hawaii AO system (Roddier et al. PASP 103, 131,1991) at CFHT to obtain deep (20 min) narrow band images in/out the molecular bands of water and methane ices. Our images confirm that the variation of Pluto's albedo is mainly governed by the presence of methane ice over its surface, resulting in a lower albedo at 2.26 um than at 2.02 um. Our observations confirm also that Charon is mostly covered with water-ice (Buie et al. NATURE 329, 522,1987). See Tholen et al. (ICARUS submitted) for more details on these AO results. In another application of AO, we discovered a moon around asteroid 45 Eugenia by use of the PUEO AO facility at CFHT (Rigaut et al. PASP 110, 152, 1998). With PUEO we preformed a search for asteroidal satellites among two dozen asteroids, achieving moderate Strehl ratios (35%) and FWHM of about 0.12" at H band. During this survey, we detected a faint close companion to 45 Eugenia. The satellite was 6.14 magnitudes (at 1.65 um) fainter and located at most 0.75" from Eugenia. Without the ability of AO (to sharpen the contrast and increase the resolution to 0.1"), the detection of this companion would have been impossible with ground based-telescopes. The companion was found to be in a 1200 km circular orbit with a period of 4.7 days. A more detailed discussion of this new satellite is given by Merline et al. in this volume. Adaptive optics is entering a powerful new age as all the major ground based large telescopes are developing facility AO systems. Planetary astronomy is particularly well posed to take advantage of the diffraction-limited, near-IR images (0.050" FWHM) that will become commonplace at all 8 m facilities in the near future (It is already occurring on the KECK and GEMINI-North telescopes). In particular, we

  19. Demonstration of a vectorial optical field generator with adaptive close loop control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Kong, Lingjiang; Zhan, Qiwen

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a vectorial optical field generator (VOF-Gen) with an adaptive close loop control. The close loop control capability is illustrated with the calibration of polarization modulation of the system. To calibrate the polarization ratio modulation, we generate 45° linearly polarized beam and make it propagate through a linear analyzer whose transmission axis is orthogonal to the incident beam. For the retardation calibration, circularly polarized beam is employed and a circular polarization analyzer with the opposite chirality is placed in front of the CCD as the detector. In both cases, the close loop control automatically changes the value of the corresponding calibration parameters in the pre-set ranges to generate the phase patterns applied to the spatial light modulators and records the intensity distribution of the output beam by the CCD camera. The optimized calibration parameters are determined corresponding to the minimum total intensity in each case. Several typical kinds of vectorial optical beams are created with and without the obtained calibration parameters, and the full Stokes parameter measurements are carried out to quantitatively analyze the polarization distribution of the generated beams. The comparisons among these results clearly show that the obtained calibration parameters could remarkably improve the accuracy of the polarization modulation of the VOF-Gen, especially for generating elliptically polarized beam with large ellipticity, indicating the significance of the presented close loop in enhancing the performance of the VOF-Gen.

  20. Astrometric and photometric measurements of binary stars with adaptive optics: observations from 2001 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lewis C.; Mason, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    The adaptive optics system at the 3.6 m Advanced Electro-Optical System telescope was used to measure the astrometry and differential magnitude in I band of binary star systems between 2002 and 2006. We report 413 astrometric and photometric measurements of 373 stellar pairs. The astrometric measurements will be of use for future orbital determination, and the photometric measurements will be of use in estimating the spectral types of the component stars. For 21 binaries that had not been observed in decades, we are able to confirm that the systems share common proper motion. Candidate new companions were detected in 24 systems; for these we show the discovery images. Follow-up observations should be able to determine if these systems share common proper motion and are gravitationally bound objects. We computed orbits for nine binaries. Of these, the orbits of five systems are improved compared to prior orbits and four systems have their orbits computed for the first time. In addition, 315 stars were unresolved and the full-width half maxima of the images are presented.

  1. Static and predictive tomographic reconstruction for wide-field multi-object adaptive optics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, C; Jackson, K; Véran, J-P; Andersen, D; Lardière, O; Bradley, C

    2014-01-01

    Multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) systems are still in their infancy: their complex optical designs for tomographic, wide-field wavefront sensing, coupled with open-loop (OL) correction, make their calibration a challenge. The correction of a discrete number of specific directions in the field allows for streamlined application of a general class of spatio-angular algorithms, initially proposed in Whiteley et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A15, 2097 (1998)], which is compatible with partial on-line calibration. The recent Learn & Apply algorithm from Vidal et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, A253 (2010)] can then be reinterpreted in a broader framework of tomographic algorithms and is shown to be a special case that exploits the particulars of OL and aperture-plane phase conjugation. An extension to embed a temporal prediction step to tackle sky-coverage limitations is discussed. The trade-off between lengthening the camera integration period, therefore increasing system lag error, and the resulting improvement in SNR can be shifted to higher guide-star magnitudes by introducing temporal prediction. The derivation of the optimal predictor and a comparison to suboptimal autoregressive models is provided using temporal structure functions. It is shown using end-to-end simulations of Raven, the MOAO science, and technology demonstrator for the 8 m Subaru telescope that prediction allows by itself the use of 1-magnitude-fainter guide stars.

  2. Adaptive Optics for Direct Detection of Extrasolar Planets: The Gemini Planet Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B; Graham, J; Palmer, D; Doyon, R; Gavel, D; Larkin, J; Oppenheimer, B; Saddlemyer, L; Wallace, J K; Bauman, B; Erikson, D; Poyneer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Soummer, R; Veran, J

    2007-04-24

    The direct detection of photons emitted or reflected by extrasolar planets, spatially resolved from their parent star, is a major frontier in the study of other solar systems. Direct detection will provide statistical information on planets in 5-50 AU orbits, inaccessible to current Doppler searches, and allow spectral characterization of radius, temperature, surface gravity, and perhaps composition. Achieving this will require new dedicated high-contrast instruments. One such system under construction is the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI.) This combines a high-order/high-speed adaptive optics system to control wavefront errors from the Earth's atmosphere, an advanced coronagraph to block diffraction, ultrasmooth optics, a precision infrared interferometer to measure and correct systematic errors, and a integral field spectrograph/polarimeter to image and characterize target planetary systems. We predict that GPI will be able to detect planets with brightness less than 10{sup -7} of their parent star, sufficient to observe warm self-luminous planets around a large population of targets.

  3. Intelligent correction of laser beam propagation through turbulent media using adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jonathan; Wu, Chensheng; Davis, Christopher C.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptive optics methods have long been used by researchers in the astronomy field to retrieve correct images of celestial bodies. The approach is to use a deformable mirror combined with Shack-Hartmann sensors to correct the slightly distorted image when it propagates through the earth's atmospheric boundary layer, which can be viewed as adding relatively weak distortion in the last stage of propagation. However, the same strategy can't be easily applied to correct images propagating along a horizontal deep turbulence path. In fact, when turbulence levels becomes very strong (Cn 2>10-13 m-2/3), limited improvements have been made in correcting the heavily distorted images. We propose a method that reconstructs the light field that reaches the camera, which then provides information for controlling a deformable mirror. An intelligent algorithm is applied that provides significant improvement in correcting images. In our work, the light field reconstruction has been achieved with a newly designed modified plenoptic camera. As a result, by actively intervening with the coherent illumination beam, or by giving it various specific pre-distortions, a better (less turbulence affected) image can be obtained. This strategy can also be expanded to much more general applications such as correcting laser propagation through random media and can also help to improve designs in free space optical communication systems.

  4. An H-band Vector Vortex Coronagraph for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme-adaptive Optics System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, J.; Serabyn, E.; Lozi, J.; Jovanovic, N.; Currie, T.; Guyon, O.; Kudo, T.; Martinache, F.; Liewer, K.; Singh, G.; Tamura, M.; Mawet, D.; Hagelberg, J.; Defrere, D.

    2018-03-01

    The vector vortex is a coronagraphic imaging mode of the recently commissioned Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) platform on the 8 m Subaru Telescope. This multi-purpose high-contrast visible and near-infrared (R- to K-band) instrument is not only intended to serve as a VLT-class “planet-imager” instrument in the northern hemisphere, but also to operate as a technology demonstration testbed ahead of the ELTs-era, with a particular emphasis on small inner-working angle (IWA) coronagraphic capabilities. The given priority to small-IWA imaging led to the early design choice to incorporate focal-plane phase-mask coronagraphs. In this context, a test H-band vector vortex liquid crystal polymer waveplate was provided to SCExAO, to allow a one-to-one comparison of different small-IWA techniques on the same telescope instrument, before considering further steps. Here we present a detailed overview of the vector vortex coronagraph, from its installation and performances on the SCExAO optical bench, to the on-sky results in the extreme AO regime, as of late 2016/early 2017. To this purpose, we also provide a few recent on-sky imaging examples, notably high-contrast ADI detection of the planetary-mass companion κ Andromedae b, with a signal-to-noise ratio above 100 reached in less than 10 mn exposure time.

  5. Multiphoton imaging microscopy at deeper layers with adaptive optics control of spherical aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Juan M; Skorsetz, Martin; Palacios, Raquel; Gualda, Emilio J; Artal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the inherent confocality and optical sectioning capabilities of multiphoton microscopy, three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of thick samples is limited by the specimen-induced aberrations. The combination of immersion objectives and sensorless adaptive optics (AO) techniques has been suggested to overcome this difficulty. However, a complex plane-by-plane correction of aberrations is required, and its performance depends on a set of image-based merit functions. We propose here an alternative approach to increase penetration depth in 3-D multiphoton microscopy imaging. It is based on the manipulation of the spherical aberration (SA) of the incident beam with an AO device while performing fast tomographic multiphoton imaging. When inducing SA, the image quality at best focus is reduced; however, better quality images are obtained from deeper planes within the sample. This is a compromise that enables registration of improved 3-D multiphoton images using nonimmersion objectives. Examples on ocular tissues and nonbiological samples providing different types of nonlinear signal are presented. The implementation of this technique in a future clinical instrument might provide a better visualization of corneal structures in living eyes.

  6. Multisensory and Modality-Specific Influences on Adaptation to Optical Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Calzolari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation to optical prisms displacing the visual scene (prism adaptation, PA is a method used for investigating visuo-motor plasticity in healthy individuals and, in clinical settings, for the rehabilitation of unilateral spatial neglect. In the standard paradigm, the adaptation phase involves repeated pointings to visual targets, while wearing optical prisms displacing the visual scene laterally. Here we explored differences in PA, and its aftereffects (AEs, as related to the sensory modality of the target. Visual, auditory, and multisensory – audio-visual – targets in the adaptation phase were used, while participants wore prisms displacing the visual field rightward by 10°. Proprioceptive, visual, visual-proprioceptive, auditory-proprioceptive straight-ahead shifts were measured. Pointing to auditory and to audio-visual targets in the adaptation phase produces proprioceptive, visual-proprioceptive, and auditory-proprioceptive AEs, as the typical visual targets did. This finding reveals that cross-modal plasticity effects involve both the auditory and the visual modality, and their interactions (Experiment 1. Even a shortened PA phase, requiring only 24 pointings to visual and audio-visual targets (Experiment 2, is sufficient to bring about AEs, as compared to the standard 92-pointings procedure. Finally, pointings to auditory targets cause AEs, although PA with a reduced number of pointings (24 to auditory targets brings about smaller AEs, as compared to the 92-pointings procedure (Experiment 3. Together, results from the three experiments extend to the auditory modality the sensorimotor plasticity underlying the typical AEs produced by PA to visual targets. Importantly, PA to auditory targets appears characterized by less accurate pointings and error correction, suggesting that the auditory component of the PA process may be less central to the building up of the AEs, than the sensorimotor pointing activity per se. These

  7. Application of fluidic lens technology to an adaptive holographic optical element see-through autophoropter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancy, Carl H.

    A device for performing an objective eye exam has been developed to automatically determine ophthalmic prescriptions. The closed loop fluidic auto-phoropter has been designed, modeled, fabricated and tested for the automatic measurement and correction of a patient's prescriptions. The adaptive phoropter is designed through the combination of a spherical-powered fluidic lens and two cylindrical fluidic lenses that are orientated 45o relative to each other. In addition, the system incorporates Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing technology to identify the eye's wavefront error and corresponding prescription. Using the wavefront error information, the fluidic auto-phoropter nulls the eye's lower order wavefront error by applying the appropriate volumes to the fluidic lenses. The combination of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor the fluidic auto-phoropter allows for the identification and control of spherical refractive error, as well as cylinder error and axis; thus, creating a truly automated refractometer and corrective system. The fluidic auto-phoropter is capable of correcting defocus error ranging from -20D to 20D and astigmatism from -10D to 10D. The transmissive see-through design allows for the observation of natural scenes through the system at varying object planes with no additional imaging optics in the patient's line of sight. In this research, two generations of the fluidic auto-phoropter are designed and tested; the first generation uses traditional glass optics for the measurement channel. The second generation of the fluidic auto-phoropter takes advantage of the progress in the development of holographic optical elements (HOEs) to replace all the traditional glass optics. The addition of the HOEs has enabled the development of a more compact, inexpensive and easily reproducible system without compromising its performance. Additionally, the fluidic lenses were tested during a National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) parabolic flight campaign, to

  8. Cone structure imaged with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayit-Soudry, Shiri; Duncan, Jacque L; Syed, Reema; Menghini, Moreno; Roorda, Austin J

    2013-11-15

    To evaluate cone spacing using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) in eyes with nonneovascular AMD, and to correlate progression of AOSLO-derived cone measures with standard measures of macular structure. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images were obtained over 12 to 21 months from seven patients with AMD including four eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) and four eyes with drusen. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images were overlaid with color, infrared, and autofluorescence fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images to allow direct correlation of cone parameters with macular structure. Cone spacing was measured for each visit in selected regions including areas over drusen (n = 29), at GA margins (n = 14), and regions without drusen or GA (n = 13) and compared with normal, age-similar values. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging revealed continuous cone mosaics up to the GA edge and overlying drusen, although reduced cone reflectivity often resulted in hyporeflective AOSLO signals at these locations. Baseline cone spacing measures were normal in 13/13 unaffected regions, 26/28 drusen regions, and 12/14 GA margin regions. Although standard clinical measures showed progression of GA in all study eyes, cone spacing remained within normal ranges in most drusen regions and all GA margin regions. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy provides adequate resolution for quantitative measurement of cone spacing at the margin of GA and over drusen in eyes with AMD. Although cone spacing was often normal at baseline and remained normal over time, these regions showed focal areas of decreased cone reflectivity. These findings may provide insight into the pathophysiology of AMD progression. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00254605).

  9. Hard X-ray nanofocusing using adaptive focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takumi; Nakamori, Hiroki; Kimura, Takashi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Matsuyama, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    An adaptive Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors was constructed at SPring-8 and its focusing performance characteristics were demonstrated. By adjusting the voltages applied to the deformable mirrors, the shape errors (compared to a target elliptical shape) were finely corrected on the basis of the mirror shape determined using the pencil-beam method, which is a type of at-wavelength figure metrology in the X-ray region. The mirror shapes were controlled with a peak-to-valley height accuracy of 2.5 nm. A focused beam with an intensity profile having a full width at half maximum of 110 × 65 nm (V × H) was achieved at an X-ray energy of 10 keV.

  10. Multigrid approach to predictive wave-front reconstruction in adaptive optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchers, Jeffrey D

    2004-06-20

    A computationally efficient approach, based on the principles of multigrid methods, to predictive wave-front reconstruction in adaptive optical systems is described. Local predictive estimators are computed by use of recursive least squares on multiple grids. Each grid is increasingly coarse, allowing for temporal prediction of the behavior of both high- and low-spatial-frequency aberrations. Example numerical simulation results are given, showing that implementing the recursive least-squares algorithm for predictive estimation in a multigrid fashion greatly accelerates convergence to the steady-state optimal estimator condition. By implementation of the multigrid predictive reconstructor in parallel, the computational cost of implementing a predictive wave-front reconstruction scheme that uses recursive least squares for each processor at each cycle can be reduced from [symbol: see text](m2) to [symbol: see text](2m), where m is the number of actuators.

  11. Robo-AO: autonomous and replicable laser-adaptive-optics and science system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, C.; Riddle, R.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Law, N.; Tendulkar, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Dekany, R.; Bui, K.; Davis, J.; Burse, M.; Das, H.; Hildebrandt, S.; Punnadi, S.; Smith, R.

    2012-07-01

    We have created a new autonomous laser-guide-star adaptive-optics (AO) instrument on the 60-inch (1.5-m) telescope at Palomar Observatory called Robo-AO. The instrument enables diffraction-limited resolution observing in the visible and near-infrared with the ability to observe well over one-hundred targets per night due to its fully robotic operation. Robo-AO is being used for AO surveys of targets numbering in the thousands, rapid AO imaging of transient events and long-term AO monitoring not feasible on large diameter telescope systems. We have taken advantage of cost-effective advances in deformable mirror and laser technology while engineering Robo-AO with the intention of cloning the system for other few-meter class telescopes around the world.

  12. An automated algorithm for photoreceptors counting in adaptive optics retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhang, Yudong; Yun, Dai

    2012-10-01

    Eyes are important organs of humans that detect light and form spatial and color vision. Knowing the exact number of cones in retinal image has great importance in helping us understand the mechanism of eyes' function and the pathology of some eye disease. In order to analyze data in real time and process large-scale data, an automated algorithm is designed to label cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics (AO) retinal images. Images acquired by the flood-illuminated AO system are taken to test the efficiency of this algorithm. We labeled these images both automatically and manually, and compared the results of the two methods. A 94.1% to 96.5% agreement rate between the two methods is achieved in this experiment, which demonstrated the reliability and efficiency of the algorithm.

  13. Adaptive matching of the iota ring linear optics for space charge compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, A. [Fermilab; Bruhwiler, D. L. [RadiaSoft, Boulder; Cook, N. [RadiaSoft, Boulder; Hall, C. [RadiaSoft, Boulder

    2016-10-09

    Many present and future accelerators must operate with high intensity beams when distortions induced by space charge forces are among major limiting factors. Betatron tune depression of above approximately 0.1 per cell leads to significant distortions of linear optics. Many aspects of machine operation depend on proper relations between lattice functions and phase advances, and can be i proved with proper treatment of space charge effects. We implement an adaptive algorithm for linear lattice re matching with full account of space charge in the linear approximation for the case of Fermilab’s IOTA ring. The method is based on a search for initial second moments that give closed solution and, at the same predefined set of goals for emittances, beta functions, dispersions and phase advances at and between points of interest. Iterative singular value decomposition based technique is used to search for optimum by varying wide array of model parameters

  14. Fast correction approach for wavefront sensorless adaptive optics based on a linear phase diversity technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Dan; Nie, Haitao; Li, Ye; Ying, Changsheng

    2018-03-01

    Wavefront sensorless (WFSless) adaptive optics (AO) systems have been widely studied in recent years. To reach optimum results, such systems require an efficient correction method. This paper presents a fast wavefront correction approach for a WFSless AO system mainly based on the linear phase diversity (PD) technique. The fast closed-loop control algorithm is set up based on the linear relationship between the drive voltage of the deformable mirror (DM) and the far-field images of the system, which is obtained through the linear PD algorithm combined with the influence function of the DM. A large number of phase screens under different turbulence strengths are simulated to test the performance of the proposed method. The numerical simulation results show that the method has fast convergence rate and strong correction ability, a few correction times can achieve good correction results, and can effectively improve the imaging quality of the system while needing fewer measurements of CCD data.

  15. Unsupervised identification of cone photoreceptors in non-confocal adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeles, Christos; Dubis, Adam M; Davidson, Benjamin; Kasilian, Melissa; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Carroll, Joseph; Dubra, Alfredo; Michaelides, Michel; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2017-06-01

    Precise measurements of photoreceptor numerosity and spatial arrangement are promising biomarkers for the early detection of retinal pathologies and may be valuable in the evaluation of retinal therapies. Adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) is a method of imaging that corrects for aberrations of the eye to acquire high-resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. These images are typically graded manually by experienced observers, obviating the robust, large-scale use of the technology. This paper addresses unsupervised automated detection of cones in non-confocal, split-detection AOSLO images. Our algorithm leverages the appearance of split-detection images to create a cone model that is used for classification. Results show that it compares favorably to the state-of-the-art, both for images of healthy retinas and for images from patients affected by Stargardt disease. The algorithm presented also compares well to manual annotation while excelling in speed.

  16. A high speed model-based approach for wavefront sensorless adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianghua, Wen; Yang, Ping; Shuai, Wang; Wenjing, Liu; Shanqiu, Chen; Xu, Bing

    2018-02-01

    To improve temporal-frequency property of wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (AO) systems, a fast general model-based aberration correction algorithm is presented. The fast general model-based approach is based on the approximately linear relation between the mean square of the aberration gradients and the second moment of far-field intensity distribution. The presented model-based method is capable of completing a mode aberration effective correction just applying one disturbing onto the deformable mirror(one correction by one disturbing), which is reconstructed by the singular value decomposing the correlation matrix of the Zernike functions' gradients. Numerical simulations of AO corrections under the various random and dynamic aberrations are implemented. The simulation results indicate that the equivalent control bandwidth is 2-3 times than that of the previous method with one aberration correction after applying N times disturbing onto the deformable mirror (one correction by N disturbing).

  17. Compensation for the orbital angular momentum of a vortex beam in turbulent atmosphere by adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chu, Xiuxiang; Zhang, Pengfei; Feng, Xiaoxing; Fan, ChengYu; Qiao, Chunhong

    2018-01-01

    A method which can be used to compensate for a distorted orbital angular momentum and wavefront of a beam in atmospheric turbulence, simultaneously, has been proposed. To confirm the validity of the method, an experimental setup for up-link propagation of a vortex beam in a turbulent atmosphere has been simulated. Simulation results show that both of the distorted orbital angular momentum and the distorted wavefront of a beam due to turbulence can be compensated by an adaptive optics system with the help of a cooperative beacon at satellite. However, when the number of the lenslet of wavefront sensor (WFS) and the actuators of the deform mirror (DM) is small, satisfactory results cannot be obtained.

  18. Retinal cell imaging in myopic chickens using adaptive optics multiphoton microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Juan M; Palacios, Raquel; Giakoumaki, Anastasia; Gualda, Emilio J; Schaeffel, Frank; Artal, Pablo

    2014-03-01

    Abnormal eye growth induced by visual deprivation can modify the structure and density of the retinal cells. We have used an adaptive optics multiphoton microscope to image photoreceptors (PRs) and ganglion cells (GCs) at different retinal locations in unstained retinas of chicken eyes with about 10D of myopia and their normal-sighted fellow eyes. In all samples, the local averaged inter-PR distance increased with eccentricity. No significant differences in PR density were found between control and myopic eyes. GC density declined in myopic eyes compared to control eyes and the inter-cell distance increased. In normal eyes, the size of the GC cell bodies increased approximately two-fold between the area centralis and the peripheral retina. In myopic eyes, this trend was preserved but the GC bodies were larger at each retinal location, compared to control eyes. Obviously, GC morphology is changing when the retinal area is enlarged in myopic eyes.

  19. Image-based adaptive optics for in vivo imaging in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champelovier, D; Teixeira, J; Conan, J-M; Balla, N; Mugnier, L M; Tressard, T; Reichinnek, S; Meimon, S; Cossart, R; Rigneault, H; Monneret, S; Malvache, A

    2017-02-21

    Adaptive optics is a promising technique for the improvement of microscopy in tissues. A large palette of indirect and direct wavefront sensing methods has been proposed for in vivo imaging in experimental animal models. Application of most of these methods to complex samples suffers from either intrinsic and/or practical difficulties. Here we show a theoretically optimized wavefront correction method for inhomogeneously labeled biological samples. We demonstrate its performance at a depth of 200 μm in brain tissue within a sparsely labeled region such as the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus, with cells expressing GCamP6. This method is designed to be sample-independent thanks to an automatic axial locking on objects of interest through the use of an image-based metric that we designed. Using this method, we show an increase of in vivo imaging quality in the hippocampus.

  20. First exoplanet and disk results with the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekany, Richard; Burruss, Rick; Shelton, J. Chris; Oppenheimer, Ben; Vasisht, Gautam; Metchev, Stanimir; Roberts, Jennifer; Tesch, Jonathan; Truong, Tuan; Milburn, Jennifer; Hale, David; Baranec, Christoph; Hildebrandt, Sergi; Wahl, Matthew; Beichman, Chas; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Patel, Rahul; Hinkley, Sasha; Cady, Eric; Parry, Ian

    2013-12-01

    We describe the status of the PALM-3000 adaptive optics facility instrument for the Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. Since first light in June 2011, PALM-3000 has made significant advances in both performance and sensitivity. Using Strehl ratio as our performance metric, we present results in 64x64 and 32x32 wavefront sensor pupil sampling modes on a range of guide stars from V ~ 3 to 12. We describe our automated reconstructor pipeline tool, which incorporates pupil illumination and an optimal-estimator Baysian approach which serve to boost faint guide star performance. We conclude by presenting initial high-contrast circumstellar disk results from the PHARO vector vortex coronagraph and exoplanet spectra from the P1640 integral field spectrograph.

  1. An auto-adapting global-to-local color balancing method for optical imagery mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Yongjun; Sun, Mingwei; Zhou, Xiuguang; Liu, Chi

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a novel auto-adapting global-to-local color balancing method which aims to eliminate the effects of color differences between adjacent optical images to achieve seamless image mosaicking. The proposed method combines global and local optimization strategies to eliminate color differences between different target images adaptively without assigning the reference image. The global optimization strategy takes the constraint that the color information of the image before and after the color balancing process should be minimal, by which the assigning of reference images can be avoided. The strategy takes all target images as a whole and solves the normalization regression models simultaneously, which transfers the color difference elimination problem into the least square optimization one and eliminates the total color differences effectively. The local optimization strategy is a supplement for the global one, which focuses on the local information to eliminate the color differences in the overlap areas of the target images with the Gamma transform algorithm. It is worth noting that the proposed method can select a suitable processing flow from both the global and local optimization aspects based on the characteristics of the target images. When the total overlap rate of the target images is small, both the global and local strategies are employed; and when the total overlap rate of the target images is large, only the local optimization strategy is employed, by which a seamless color balancing result can be generated. The experimental results in this paper demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in color balancing for multi-type optical datasets.

  2. Towards an automatic wind speed and direction profiler for Wide Field adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, G.; Turchi, A.; Masciadri, E.; Guesalaga, A.; Neichel, B.

    2018-05-01

    Wide Field Adaptive Optics (WFAO) systems are among the most sophisticated adaptive optics (AO) systems available today on large telescopes. Knowledge of the vertical spatio-temporal distribution of wind speed (WS) and direction (WD) is fundamental to optimize the performance of such systems. Previous studies already proved that the Gemini Multi-Conjugated AO system (GeMS) is able to retrieve measurements of the WS and WD stratification using the SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR) technique and to store measurements in the telemetry data. In order to assess the reliability of these estimates and of the SLODAR technique applied to such complex AO systems, in this study we compared WS and WD values retrieved from GeMS with those obtained with the atmospheric model Meso-NH on a rich statistical sample of nights. It has previously been proved that the latter technique provided excellent agreement with a large sample of radiosoundings, both in statistical terms and on individual flights. It can be considered, therefore, as an independent reference. The excellent agreement between GeMS measurements and the model that we find in this study proves the robustness of the SLODAR approach. To bypass the complex procedures necessary to achieve automatic measurements of the wind with GeMS, we propose a simple automatic method to monitor nightly WS and WD using Meso-NH model estimates. Such a method can be applied to whatever present or new-generation facilities are supported by WFAO systems. The interest of this study is, therefore, well beyond the optimization of GeMS performance.

  3. Technical factors influencing cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lombardo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of various technical factors on the variation of cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images. METHODS: Adaptive optics images of the photoreceptor mosaic were obtained in fifteen healthy subjects. The cone density and Voronoi diagrams were assessed in sampling windows of 320×320 µm, 160×160 µm and 64×64 µm at 1.5 degree temporal and superior eccentricity from the preferred locus of fixation (PRL. The technical factors that have been analyzed included the sampling window size, the corrected retinal magnification factor (RMFcorr, the conversion from radial to linear distance from the PRL, the displacement between the PRL and foveal center and the manual checking of cone identification algorithm. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between cone density estimated within the different sampling window conditions. RESULTS: The cone density declined with decreasing sampling area and data between areas of different size showed low agreement. A high agreement was found between sampling areas of the same size when comparing density calculated with or without using individual RMFcorr. The agreement between cone density measured at radial and linear distances from the PRL and between data referred to the PRL or the foveal center was moderate. The percentage of Voronoi tiles with hexagonal packing arrangement was comparable between sampling areas of different size. The boundary effect, presence of any retinal vessels, and the manual selection of cones missed by the automated identification algorithm were identified as the factors influencing variation of cone packing arrangements in Voronoi diagrams. CONCLUSIONS: The sampling window size is the main technical factor that influences variation of cone density. Clear identification of each cone in the image and the use of a large buffer zone are necessary to minimize factors influencing variation of Voronoi

  4. Adaptive tool servo diamond turning for enhancing machining efficiency and surface quality of freeform optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet

    2015-08-10

    Fast tool servo/ slow tool servo (FTS/STS) diamond turning is a very promising technique for the generation of freeform optics. However, the currently adopted constant scheme for azimuth sampling and side-feeding motion possesses no adaptation to surface shape variation, leading to the non-uniform surface quality and low machining efficiency. To overcome this defect, this paper reports on a novel adaptive tool servo (ATS) diamond turning technique which is essentially based on the novel two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) FTS/STS. In the ATS, the sampling interval and the side-feeding motion are actively controlled at any cutting point to adapt the machining process to shape variation of the desired surface, making both the sampling induced interpolation error and the side-feeding induced residual tool mark be within the desired tolerances. Characteristic of the required cutting motion suggests that besides the conventional z-axis servo motion, another servo motion along the x-axis synthesizing by the c-axis is mandatory for implementing the ATS. Comparative studies of surface generation of typical micro-structured surfaces in FTS/STS and ATS are thoroughly conducted both theoretically and experimentally. The result demonstrates that the ATS outperforms the FTS/STS with improved surface quality while simultaneously enhanced machining efficiency.

  5. An Adaptive Damping Network Designed for Strapdown Fiber Optic Gyrocompass System for Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The strapdown fiber optic gyrocompass (strapdown FOGC system for ships primarily works on external horizontal damping and undamping statuses. When there are large sea condition changes, the system will switch frequently between the external horizontal damping status and the undamping status. This means that the system is always in an adjustment status and influences the dynamic accuracy of the system. Aiming at the limitations of the conventional damping method, a new design idea is proposed, where the adaptive control method is used to design the horizontal damping network of the strapdown FOGC system. According to the size of acceleration, the parameters of the damping network are changed to make the system error caused by the ship’s maneuvering to a minimum. Furthermore, the jump in damping coefficient was transformed into gradual change to make a smooth system status switch. The adaptive damping network was applied for strapdown FOGC under the static and dynamic condition, and its performance was compared with the conventional damping, and undamping means. Experimental results showed that the adaptive damping network was effective in improving the dynamic performance of the strapdown FOGC.

  6. The main postulates of adaptive correction of distortions of the wave front in large-size optical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of optical telescopes, striving to increase the penetrating power of a telescope has been always the main trend. A real way to solve this problem is to raise the quality of the image (reduction of the image angular size under real conditions of distorting factor and increase a diameter of the main mirror. This is counteracted by the various distorting factors or interference occurring in realtime use of telescopes, as well as by complicated manufacturing processes of large mirrors.It is shown that the most effective method to deal with the influence of distorting factors on the image quality in the telescope is the minimization (through selecting the place to mount a telescope and choosing the rational optical scheme, creating materials and new technologies, improving a design, unloading the mirrors, mounting choice, etc., and then the adaptive compensation of remaining distortions.It should be noted that a domestic concept to design large-sized telescopes allows us to use, in our opinion, the most efficient ways to do this. It means to abandon the creation of "an absolutely rigid and well-ordered" design, providing the passively aligned state telescope optics under operating conditions. The design must just have such a level of residual deformations that their effect can be efficiently compensated by the adaptive system using the segmented elements of the primary mirror and the secondary mirror as a corrector.It has been found that in the transmission optical systems to deliver laser power to a remote object, it is necessary not only to overcome the distorting effect of factors inherent in optical information systems, but, additionally, find a way to overcome a number of new difficulties. The main ones have been identified to be as follows:• the influence of laser radiation on the structure components and the propagation medium and, as a consequence, the opposite effect of the structure components and the propagation

  7. Acousto-optic-assisted diffuse optical tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratchenia, A.; Molenaar, Robert; van Leeuwen, Ton; Kooyman, R.P.H.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and experimentally demonstrate acousto-optic-assisted diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using a holography-based acousto-optic setup. The method is based on probing a scattering medium with a localized acoustical modulation of the phase of the scattered light. The optical properties of

  8. CHIRALITY IN NONLINEAR OPTICS AND OPTICAL SWITCHING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.W.; Feringa, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    Chirality in molecular opto-electronics is limited sofar to the use of optically active liquid crystals and a number of optical phenomena are related to the helical macroscopic structure obtained by using one enantiomer, only. In this paper, the use of chirality in nonlinear optics and optical

  9. A three-photon microscope with adaptive optics for deep-tissue in vivo structural and functional brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Lu, Ju; Lam, Tuwin; Rodriguez, Ramiro; Zuo, Yi; Kubby, Joel

    2017-02-01

    We developed a three-photon adaptive optics add-on to a commercial two-photon laser scanning microscope. We demonstrated its capability for structural and functional imaging of neurons labeled with genetically encoded red fluorescent proteins or calcium indicators deep in the living mouse brain with cellular and subcellular resolution.

  10. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi?GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2014-05-04

    European Extreme Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a high priority project in ground based astronomy that aims at constructing the largest telescope ever built. MOSAIC is an instrument proposed for E-ELT using Multi- Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique for astronomical telescopes, which compensates for effects of atmospheric turbulence on image quality, and operates on patches across a large FoV.

  11. The Absolute Age of the Globular Cluster M15 Using Near-infrared Adaptive Optics Images from PISCES/LBT.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monelli, M.; Testa, V.; Bono, G.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Fiorentino, G.; Arcidiacono, C.; Massari, D.; Boutsia, K.; Briguglio, R.; Busoni, L.; Carini, R.; Close, L.; Cresci, G.; Esposito, S.; Fini, L.; Fumana, M.; Guerra, J. C.; Hill, J.; Kulesa, C.; Mannucci, F.; McCarthy, D.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Quiros-Pacheco, F.; Ragazzoni, R.; Riccardi, A.; Skemer, A.; Xompero, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present deep near-infrared J, {K}{{s}} photometry of the old, metal-poor Galactic globular cluster M15 obtained with images collected with the LUCI1 and PISCES cameras available at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). We show how the use of First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system coupled with

  12. ℋ2-optimal control of an adaptive optics system. Pt.I: data-driven modeling of the wavefront disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnen, K.J.G.; Verhaegen, M.; Doelman, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Even though the wavefront distortion introduced by atmospheric turbulence is a dynamic process, its temporal evolution is usually neglected in the adaptive optics (AO) control design. Most AO control systems consider only the spatial correlation in a separate wavefront reconstruction step. By

  13. Comparison of the marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite inlay restorations with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Ayşe Gözde; Sabuncu, Metin; Ünal, Sena; Önal, Banu; Ulusoy, Mübin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to use the photonic imaging modality of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to compare the marginal adaptation of composite inlays fabricated by direct and indirect techniques. Class II cavities were prepared on 34 extracted human molar teeth. The cavities were randomly divided into two groups according to the inlay fabrication technique. The first group was directly restored on cavities with a composite (Esthet X HD, Dentsply, Germany) after isolating. The second group was indirectly restored with the same composite material. Marginal adaptations were scanned before cementation with an invisible infrared light beam of OCT (Thorlabs), allowing measurement in 200 µm intervals. Restorations were cemented with a self-adhesive cement resin (SmartCem2, Dentsply), and then marginal adaptations were again measured with OCT. Mean values were statistically compared by using independent-samples t-test and paired samples t-test (pinlays presented statistically smaller marginal discrepancy values than indirect inlays, before (p=0.00001442) and after (p=0.00001466) cementation. Marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations after cementation (p=0.00008839, p=0.000000952 for direct and indirect inlays, respectively). The mean marginal discrepancy value of the direct group increased from 56.88±20.04 µm to 91.88±31.7 µm, whereas the indirect group increased from 107.54±35.63 µm to 170.29±54.83 µm. Different techniques are available to detect marginal adaptation of restorations, but the OCT system can give quantitative information about resin cement thickness and its interaction between tooth and restoration in a nondestructive manner. Direct inlays presented smaller marginal discrepancy than indirect inlays. The marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations that refer to cement thickness after cementation.

  14. Comparison of the marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite inlay restorations with optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Gözde TÜRK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of the study was to use the photonic imaging modality of optical coherence tomography (OCT to compare the marginal adaptation of composite inlays fabricated by direct and indirect techniques. Material and Methods Class II cavities were prepared on 34 extracted human molar teeth. The cavities were randomly divided into two groups according to the inlay fabrication technique. The first group was directly restored on cavities with a composite (Esthet X HD, Dentsply, Germany after isolating. The second group was indirectly restored with the same composite material. Marginal adaptations were scanned before cementation with an invisible infrared light beam of OCT (Thorlabs, allowing measurement in 200 µm intervals. Restorations were cemented with a self-adhesive cement resin (SmartCem2, Dentsply, and then marginal adaptations were again measured with OCT. Mean values were statistically compared by using independent-samples t-test and paired samples t-test (p<0.05, before and after cementation. Results Direct inlays presented statistically smaller marginal discrepancy values than indirect inlays, before (p=0.00001442 and after (p=0.00001466 cementation. Marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations after cementation (p=0.00008839, p=0.000000952 for direct and indirect inlays, respectively. The mean marginal discrepancy value of the direct group increased from 56.88±20.04 µm to 91.88±31.7 µm, whereas the indirect group increased from 107.54±35.63 µm to 170.29±54.83 µm. Different techniques are available to detect marginal adaptation of restorations, but the OCT system can give quantitative information about resin cement thickness and its interaction between tooth and restoration in a nondestructive manner. Conclusions Direct inlays presented smaller marginal discrepancy than indirect inlays. The marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations that refer to cement thickness after

  15. On the power and offset allocation for rate adaptation of spatial multiplexing in optical wireless MIMO channels

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we consider resource allocation method in the visible light communication. It is challenging to achieve high data rate due to the limited bandwidth of the optical sources. In order to increase the spectral efficiency, we design a suitable multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system utilizing spatial multiplexing based on singular value decomposition and adaptive modulation. More specifically, after explaining why the conventional allocation method in radio frequency MIMO channels cannot be applied directly to the optical intensity channels, we theoretically derive a power allocation method for an arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas for optical wireless MIMO systems. Based on three key constraints: the nonnegativity of the intensity-modulated signal, the aggregate optical power budget, and the bit error rate requirement, we propose a novel method to allocate the optical power, the offset value, and the modulation size. Based on some selected simulation results, we show that our proposed allocation method gives a better spectral efficiency at the expense of an increased computational complexity in comparison to a simple method that allocates the optical power equally among all the data streams. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Refined adaptive optics simulation with wide field of view for the E-ELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebbo, Manal

    2012-01-01

    Refined simulation tools for wide field AO systems (such as MOAO, MCAO or LTAO) on ELTs present new challenges. Increasing the number of degrees of freedom (scales as the square of the telescope diameter) makes the standard simulation's codes useless due to the huge number of operations to be performed at each step of the Adaptive Optics (AO) loop process. This computational burden requires new approaches in the computation of the DM voltages from WFS data. The classical matrix inversion and the matrix vector multiplication have to be replaced by a cleverer iterative resolution of the Least Square or Minimum Mean Square Error criterion (based on sparse matrices approaches). Moreover, for this new generation of AO systems, concepts themselves will become more complex: data fusion coming from multiple Laser and Natural Guide Stars (LGS / NGS) will have to be optimized, mirrors covering all the field of view associated to dedicated mirrors inside the scientific instrument itself will have to be coupled using split or integrated tomography schemes, differential pupil or/and field rotations will have to be considered, etc. All these new entries should be carefully simulated, analysed and quantified in terms of performance before any implementation in AO systems. For those reasons I developed, in collaboration with the ONERA, a full simulation code, based on iterative solution of linear systems with many parameters (use of sparse matrices). On this basis, I introduced new concepts of filtering and data fusion (LGS / NGS) to effectively manage modes such as tip, tilt and defocus in the entire process of tomographic reconstruction. The code will also eventually help to develop and test complex control laws (Multi-DM and multi-field) who have to manage a combination of adaptive telescope and post-focal instrument including dedicated deformable mirrors. The first application of this simulation tool has been studied in the framework of the EAGLE multi-object spectrograph

  17. Visual Experience Facilitates BDNF-Dependent Adaptive Recruitment of New Neurons in the Postembryonic Optic Tectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Zachary J; Tropepe, Vincent

    2018-02-21

    Postembryonic brain development is sensitive to environmental input and sensory experience, but the mechanisms underlying healthy adaptive brain growth are poorly understood. Here, we tested the importance of visual experience on larval zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) postembryonic development of the optic tectum (OT), a midbrain structure involved in visually guided behavior. We first characterized postembryonic neurogenic growth in OT, in which new neurons are generated along the caudal tectal surface and contribute appositionally to anatomical growth. Restricting visual experience during development by rearing larvae in dim light impaired OT anatomical and neurogenic growth, specifically by reducing the survival of new neurons in the medial periventricular gray zone. Neuronal survival in the OT was reduced only when visual experience was restricted for the first 5 d following new neuron generation, suggesting that tectal neurons exhibit an early sensitive period in which visual experience protects these cells from subsequent neuronal loss. The effect of dim rearing on neuronal survival was mimicked by treatment with an NMDA receptor antagonist early, but not later, in a new neuron's life. Both dim rearing and antagonist treatment reduced BDNF production in the OT, and supplementing larvae with exogenous BDNF during dim rearing prevented neuronal loss, suggesting that visual experience protects new tectal neurons through neural activity-dependent BDNF expression. Collectively, we present evidence for a sensitive period of neurogenic adaptive growth in the larval zebrafish OT that relies on visual experience-dependent mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Early brain development is shaped by environmental factors via sensory input; however, this form of experience-dependent neuroplasticity is traditionally studied as structural and functional changes within preexisting neurons. Here, we found that restricting visual experience affects development of the larval zebrafish

  18. Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Garrison, J C

    2008-01-01

    Quantum optics, i.e. the interaction of individual photons with matter, began with the discoveries of Planck and Einstein, but in recent years it has expanded beyond pure physics to become an important driving force for technological innovation. This book serves the broader readership growing out of this development by starting with an elementary description of the underlying physics and then building up a more advanced treatment. The reader is led from the quantum theory of thesimple harmonic oscillator to the application of entangled states to quantum information processing. An equally impor

  19. Speckle noise reduction for optical coherence tomography based on adaptive 2D dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongli; Fu, Shujun; Zhang, Caiming; Zhai, Lin

    2018-05-01

    As a high-resolution biomedical imaging modality, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is widely used in medical sciences. However, OCT images often suffer from speckle noise, which can mask some important image information, and thus reduce the accuracy of clinical diagnosis. Taking full advantage of nonlocal self-similarity and adaptive 2D-dictionary-based sparse representation, in this work, a speckle noise reduction algorithm is proposed for despeckling OCT images. To reduce speckle noise while preserving local image features, similar nonlocal patches are first extracted from the noisy image and put into groups using a gamma- distribution-based block matching method. An adaptive 2D dictionary is then learned for each patch group. Unlike traditional vector-based sparse coding, we express each image patch by the linear combination of a few matrices. This image-to-matrix method can exploit the local correlation between pixels. Since each image patch might belong to several groups, the despeckled OCT image is finally obtained by aggregating all filtered image patches. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method over other state-of-the-art despeckling methods, in terms of objective metrics and visual inspection.

  20. NASA Laser Communications with Adaptive Optics and Linear Mode Photon Counting, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this effort, the Optical Sciences Company (tOSC) and Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) will team to provide NASA with a long range laser communications system for...

  1. woptic: Optical conductivity with Wannier functions and adaptive k-mesh refinement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Assmann, E.; Wissgott, P.; Kuneš, Jan; Toschi, A.; Blaha, P.; Held, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 202, May (2016), s. 1-11 ISSN 0010-4655 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : optical spectra * Wannier orbital Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.936, year: 2016

  2. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  3. Dual-conjugate adaptive optics for wide-field high-resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaung, Jörgen; Knutsson, Per; Popovic, Zoran; Owner-Petersen, Mette

    2009-03-16

    We present analysis and preliminary laboratory testing of a real-time dual-conjugate adaptive optics (DCAO) instrument for ophthalmology that will enable wide-field high resolution imaging of the retina in vivo. The setup comprises five retinal guide stars (GS) and two deformable mirrors (DM), one conjugate to the pupil and one conjugate to a plane close to the retina. The DCAO instrument has a closed-loop wavefront sensing wavelength of 834 nm and an imaging wavelength of 575 nm. It incorporates an array of collimator lenses to spatially filter the light from all guide stars using one adjustable iris, and images the Hartmann patterns of multiple reference sources on a single detector. Zemax simulations were performed at 834 nm and 575 nm with the Navarro 99 and the Liou- Brennan eye models. Two correction alternatives were evaluated; conventional single conjugate AO (SCAO, using one GS and a pupil DM) and DCAO (using multiple GS and two DM). Zemax simulations at 575 nm based on the Navarro 99 eye model show that the diameter of the corrected field of view for diffraction-limited imaging (Strehl >or= 0.8) increases from 1.5 deg with SCAO to 6.5 deg using DCAO. The increase for the less stringent condition of a wavefront error of 1 rad or less (Strehl >or= 0.37) is from 3 deg with SCAO to approximately 7.4 deg using DCAO. Corresponding results for the Liou-Brennan eye model are 3.1 deg (SCAO) and 8.2 deg (DCAO) for Strehl >or= 0.8, and 4.8 deg (SCAO) and 9.6 deg (DCAO) for Strehl >or= 0.37. Potential gain in corrected field of view with DCAO is confirmed both by laboratory experiments on a model eye and by preliminary in vivo imaging of a human eye. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  4. Sensorless adaptive optics and the effect of field of view in biological second harmonic generation microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Vanbel, Maarten; Verbiest, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In light of the population aging in many developed countries, there is a great economical interest in improving the speed and cost-efficiency of healthcare. Clinical diagnosis tools are key to these improvements, with biophotonics providing a means to achieve them. Standard optical microscopy of in vitro biological samples has been an important diagnosis tool since the invention of the microscope, with well known resolution limits. Nonlinear optical imaging improves on the resolution limits o...

  5. Hybrid diversity method utilizing adaptive diversity function for recovering unknown aberrations in an optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of recovering unknown aberrations in an optical system includes collecting intensity data produced by the optical system, generating an initial estimate of a phase of the optical system, iteratively performing a phase retrieval on the intensity data to generate a phase estimate using an initial diversity function corresponding to the intensity data, generating a phase map from the phase retrieval phase estimate, decomposing the phase map to generate a decomposition vector, generating an updated diversity function by combining the initial diversity function with the decomposition vector, generating an updated estimate of the phase of the optical system by removing the initial diversity function from the phase map. The method may further include repeating the process beginning with iteratively performing a phase retrieval on the intensity data using the updated estimate of the phase of the optical system in place of the initial estimate of the phase of the optical system, and using the updated diversity function in place of the initial diversity function, until a predetermined convergence is achieved.

  6. Errors in the estimation method for the rejection of vibrations in adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    In recent years the problem of the mechanical vibrations impact in adaptive optics (AO) systems has been renewed. These signals are damped sinusoidal signals and have deleterious effect on the system. One of software solutions to reject the vibrations is an adaptive method called AVC (Adaptive Vibration Cancellation) where the procedure has three steps: estimation of perturbation parameters, estimation of the frequency response of the plant, update the reference signal to reject/minimalize the vibration. In the first step a very important problem is the estimation method. A very accurate and fast (below 10 ms) estimation method of these three parameters has been presented in several publications in recent years. The method is based on using the spectrum interpolation and MSD time windows and it can be used to estimate multifrequency signals. In this paper the estimation method is used in the AVC method to increase the system performance. There are several parameters that affect the accuracy of obtained results, e.g. CiR - number of signal periods in a measurement window, N - number of samples in the FFT procedure, H - time window order, SNR, b - number of ADC bits, γ - damping ratio of the tested signal. Systematic errors increase when N, CiR, H decrease and when γ increases. The value for systematic error is approximately 10^-10 Hz/Hz for N = 2048 and CiR = 0.1. This paper presents equations that can used to estimate maximum systematic errors for given values of H, CiR and N before the start of the estimation process.

  7. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  8. Removing damped sinusoidal vibrations in adaptive optics systems using a DFT-based estimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    The problem of a vibrations rejection in adaptive optics systems is still present in publications. These undesirable signals emerge because of shaking the system structure, the tracking process, etc., and they usually are damped sinusoidal signals. There are some mechanical solutions to reduce the signals but they are not very effective. One of software solutions are very popular adaptive methods. An AVC (Adaptive Vibration Cancellation) method has been presented and developed in recent years. The method is based on the estimation of three vibrations parameters and values of frequency, amplitude and phase are essential to produce and adjust a proper signal to reduce or eliminate vibrations signals. This paper presents a fast (below 10 ms) and accurate estimation method of frequency, amplitude and phase of a multifrequency signal that can be used in the AVC method to increase the AO system performance. The method accuracy depends on several parameters: CiR - number of signal periods in a measurement window, N - number of samples in the FFT procedure, H - time window order, SNR, THD, b - number of A/D converter bits in a real time system, γ - the damping ratio of the tested signal, φ - the phase of the tested signal. Systematic errors increase when N, CiR, H decrease and when γ increases. The value of systematic error for γ = 0.1%, CiR = 1.1 and N = 32 is approximately 10^-4 Hz/Hz. This paper focuses on systematic errors of and effect of the signal phase and values of γ on the results.

  9. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  10. Enhancing performance of LCoS-SLM as adaptive optics by using computer-generated holograms modulation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Wei; Lyu, Bo-Han; Wang, Chen; Hung, Cheng-Chieh

    2017-05-01

    We have already developed multi-function and easy-to-use modulation software that was based on LabVIEW system. There are mainly four functions in this modulation software, such as computer generated holograms (CGH) generation, CGH reconstruction, image trimming, and special phase distribution. Based on the above development of CGH modulation software, we could enhance the performance of liquid crystal on silicon - spatial light modulator (LCoSSLM) as similar as the diffractive optical element (DOE) and use it on various adaptive optics (AO) applications. Through the development of special phase distribution, we are going to use the LCoS-SLM with CGH modulation software into AO technology, such as optical microscope system. When the LCOS-SLM panel is integrated in an optical microscope system, it could be placed on the illumination path or on the image forming path. However, LCOS-SLM provides a program-controllable liquid crystal array for optical microscope. It dynamically changes the amplitude or phase of light and gives the obvious advantage, "Flexibility", to the system

  11. A High-resolution Multi-wavelength Simultaneous Imaging System with Solar Adaptive Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Changhui; Zhu, Lei; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Xuejun; Zhang, Lanqiang; Bao, Hua; Kong, Lin; Guo, Youming; Zhong, Libo; Ma, Xue’an; Li, Mei; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Fan, Xinlong; Chen, Donghong; Feng, Zhongyi; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Zhiyong, E-mail: gunaiting@ioe.ac.cn [The Key Laboratory on Adaptive Optics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 350, Shuangliu, Chengdu 610209, Sichuan (China)

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution multi-wavelength simultaneous imaging system from visible to near-infrared bands with a solar adaptive optics system, in which seven imaging channels, including the G band (430.5 nm), the Na i line (589 nm), the H α line (656.3 nm), the TiO band (705.7 nm), the Ca ii IR line (854.2 nm), the He i line (1083 nm), and the Fe i line (1565.3 nm), are chosen, is developed to image the solar atmosphere from the photosphere layer to the chromosphere layer. To our knowledge, this is the solar high-resolution imaging system with the widest spectral coverage. This system was demonstrated at the 1 m New Vaccum Solar Telescope and the on-sky high-resolution observational results were acquired. In this paper, we will illustrate the design and performance of the imaging system. The calibration and the data reduction of the system are also presented.

  12. Adaptive Optics Simulation for the World's Largest Telescope on Multicore Architectures with Multiple GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem

    2016-06-02

    We present a high performance comprehensive implementation of a multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) simulation on multicore architectures with hardware accelerators in the context of computational astronomy. This implementation will be used as an operational testbed for simulating the de- sign of new instruments for the European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT), the world\\'s biggest eye and one of Europe\\'s highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. The simulation corresponds to a multi-step multi-stage pro- cedure, which is fed, near real-time, by system and turbulence data coming from the telescope environment. Based on the PLASMA library powered by the OmpSs dynamic runtime system, our implementation relies on a task-based programming model to permit an asynchronous out-of-order execution. Using modern multicore architectures associated with the enormous computing power of GPUS, the resulting data-driven compute-intensive simulation of the entire MOAO application, composed of the tomographic reconstructor and the observing sequence, is capable of coping with the aforementioned real-time challenge and stands as a reference implementation for the computational astronomy community.

  13. Use of focus measure operators for characterization of flood illumination adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Caneiro, David; Sampson, Danuta M; Chew, Avenell L; Collins, Michael J; Chen, Fred K

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive optics flood illumination ophthalmoscopy (AO-FIO) allows imaging of the cone photoreceptor in the living human retina. However, clinical interpretation of the AO-FIO image remains challenging due to suboptimal quality arising from residual uncorrected wavefront aberrations and rapid eye motion. An objective method of assessing image quality is necessary to determine whether an AO-FIO image is suitable for grading and diagnostic purpose. In this work, we explore the use of focus measure operators as a surrogate measure of AO-FIO image quality. A set of operators are tested on data sets acquired at different focal depths and different retinal locations from healthy volunteers. Our results demonstrate differences in focus measure operator performance in quantifying AO-FIO image quality. Further, we discuss the potential application of the selected focus operators in (i) selection of the best quality AO-FIO image from a series of images collected at the same retinal location and (ii) assessment of longitudinal changes in the diseased retina. Focus function could be incorporated into real-time AO-FIO image processing and provide an initial automated quality assessment during image acquisition or reading center grading.

  14. Axial length and cone density as assessed with adaptive optics in myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Dabir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the variations in cone mosaic in myopia and its correlation with axial length (AL. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-five healthy myopic volunteers underwent assessment of photoreceptors using adaptive optics retinal camera at 2° and 3° from the foveal center in four quadrants superior, inferior, temporal and nasal. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17 (IBM. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to study the relation between cone density and AL, quadrant around the fovea and eccentricity from the fovea. Results: The mean cone density was significantly lower as the eccentricity increased from 2° from the fovea to 3° (18,560 ± 5455-16,404 ± 4494/mm 2 respectively. There was also a statistically significant difference between four quadrants around the fovea. The correlation of cone density and spacing with AL showed that there was a significant inverse relation of AL with the cone density. Conclusion: In myopic patients with good visual acuity cone density around the fovea depends on the quadrant, distance from the fovea as well as the AL. The strength of the relation of AL with cone density depends on the quadrant and distance.

  15. Performance Comparison of Wavefront-Sensorless Adaptive Optics Systems by Using of the Focal Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizhen Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The correction capability and the convergence speed of the wavefront-sensorless adaptive optics (AO system are compared based on two different system control algorithms, which both use the information of focal plane. The first algorithm is designed through the linear relationship between the second moment of the aberration gradients and the masked far-field intensity distribution and the second is stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD, which is the most commonly used algorithm in wavefront-sensorless AO systems. A wavefront-sensorless AO model is established with a 61-element deformable mirror (DM and a CCD. Performance of the two control algorithms is investigated and compared through correcting different wavefront aberrations. Results show that the correction ability of AO system based on the proposed control algorithm is obviously better than that of AO system based on SPGD algorithm when the wavefront aberrations increase. The time needed by the proposed control algorithm is much less than that of SPGD when the AO system achieves similar correction results. Additionally, the convergence speed of the proposed control algorithm is independent of the turbulence strength while the number of intensity measurements needed by SPGD increases as the turbulence strength magnifies.

  16. Use of focus measure operators for characterization of flood illumination adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Caneiro, David; Sampson, Danuta M.; Chew, Avenell L.; Collins, Michael J.; Chen, Fred K.

    2018-01-01

    Adaptive optics flood illumination ophthalmoscopy (AO-FIO) allows imaging of the cone photoreceptor in the living human retina. However, clinical interpretation of the AO-FIO image remains challenging due to suboptimal quality arising from residual uncorrected wavefront aberrations and rapid eye motion. An objective method of assessing image quality is necessary to determine whether an AO-FIO image is suitable for grading and diagnostic purpose. In this work, we explore the use of focus measure operators as a surrogate measure of AO-FIO image quality. A set of operators are tested on data sets acquired at different focal depths and different retinal locations from healthy volunteers. Our results demonstrate differences in focus measure operator performance in quantifying AO-FIO image quality. Further, we discuss the potential application of the selected focus operators in (i) selection of the best quality AO-FIO image from a series of images collected at the same retinal location and (ii) assessment of longitudinal changes in the diseased retina. Focus function could be incorporated into real-time AO-FIO image processing and provide an initial automated quality assessment during image acquisition or reading center grading. PMID:29552404

  17. Simulated human eye retina adaptive optics imaging system based on a liquid crystal on silicon device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Baoguang; Cao Zhaoliang; Mu Quanquan; Hu Lifa; Li Chao; Xuan Li

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain a clear image of the retina of model eye, an adaptive optics system used to correct the wave-front error is introduced in this paper. The spatial light modulator that we use here is a liquid crystal on a silicon device instead of a conversional deformable mirror. A paper with carbon granule is used to simulate the retina of human eye. The pupil size of the model eye is adjustable (3-7 mm). A Shack–Hartman wave-front sensor is used to detect the wave-front aberration. With this construction, a value of peak-to-valley is achieved to be 0.086 λ, where λ is wavelength. The modulation transfer functions before and after corrections are compared. And the resolution of this system after correction (691p/m) is very close to the dirraction limit resolution. The carbon granule on the white paper which has a size of 4.7 μm is seen clearly. The size of the retina cell is between 4 and 10 mu;m. So this system has an ability to image the human eye's retina. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  18. Enhanced optical alignment of a digital micro mirror device through Bayesian adaptive exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Kevin B.; Knuth, Kevin H.; Petruccelli, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    As the use of Digital Micro Mirror Devices (DMDs) becomes more prevalent in optics research, the ability to precisely locate the Fourier "footprint" of an image beam at the Fourier plane becomes a pressing need. In this approach, Bayesian adaptive exploration techniques were employed to characterize the size and position of the beam on a DMD located at the Fourier plane. It couples a Bayesian inference engine with an inquiry engine to implement the search. The inquiry engine explores the DMD by engaging mirrors and recording light intensity values based on the maximization of the expected information gain. Using the data collected from this exploration, the Bayesian inference engine updates the posterior probability describing the beam's characteristics. The process is iterated until the beam is located to within the desired precision. This methodology not only locates the center and radius of the beam with remarkable precision but accomplishes the task in far less time than a brute force search. The employed approach has applications to system alignment for both Fourier processing and coded aperture design.

  19. Multifractality in steady-state accommodation is robust to dynamic correction of aberrations using adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Karen M.; Mallen, Edward A. H.

    2012-07-01

    When fixating on a stationary object, the human eye exhibits microfluctuations in accommodation. Changes in the magnitude of these fluctuations reflect changes in the accommodation control system. We used adaptive optics to determine the effect of monochromatic aberration dynamics on the control of steady-state accommodation of four subjects. The subjects viewed a stationary stimulus at 2 D while selective Zernike aberrations were corrected. The fluctuations in accommodation were characterised using a wavelet-based multifractal formalism approach. We found that for all subjects, and all experimental conditions, the accommodative fluctuations were multifractal. For one subject, we found that the width of the multifractal spectrum was statistically significantly larger when even-order aberrations were corrected as compared to no aberrations corrected. Hence, in general, for the subjects tested, the multifractal nature of steady-state accommodation control is unaffected by the manipulation of monochromatic aberration dynamics. Averaging across all subjects and experimental conditions, the mean spectrum was right-skewed with a most frequently occurring Hölder exponent of 0.31 ± 0.08. Future applications of multifractal analysis to accommodation control are discussed.

  20. The Chandra Deep Field South as a test case for Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluri, E.; Viotto, V.; Ragazzoni, R.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bergomi, M.; Greggio, D.; Biondi, F.; Dima, M.; Magrin, D.; Farinato, J.

    2017-04-01

    The era of the next generation of giant telescopes requires not only the advent of new technologies but also the development of novel methods, in order to exploit fully the extraordinary potential they are built for. Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics (GMCAO) pursues this approach, with the goal of achieving good performance over a field of view of a few arcmin and an increase in sky coverage. In this article, we show the gain offered by this technique to an astrophysical application, such as the photometric survey strategy applied to the Chandra Deep Field South as a case study. We simulated a close-to-real observation of a 500 × 500 arcsec2 extragalactic deep field with a 40-m class telescope that implements GMCAO. We analysed mock K-band images of 6000 high-redshift (up to z = 2.75) galaxies therein as if they were real to recover the initial input parameters. We attained 94.5 per cent completeness for source detection with SEXTRACTOR. We also measured the morphological parameters of all the sources with the two-dimensional fitting tools GALFIT. The agreement we found between recovered and intrinsic parameters demonstrates GMCAO as a reliable approach to assist extremely large telescope (ELT) observations of extragalactic interest.

  1. Rapid and highly integrated FPGA-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Pin; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) programmed on LabVIEW can be highly integrated into customized applications such as adaptive optics system (AOS) for performing real-time wavefront measurement. Further, a Camera Link frame grabber embedded with FPGA is adopted to enhance the sensor speed reacting to variation considering its advantage of the highest data transmission bandwidth. Instead of waiting for a frame image to be captured by the FPGA, the Shack-Hartmann algorithm are implemented in parallel processing blocks design and let the image data transmission synchronize with the wavefront reconstruction. On the other hand, we design a mechanism to control the deformable mirror in the same FPGA and verify the Shack-Hartmann sensor speed by controlling the frequency of the deformable mirror dynamic surface deformation. Currently, this FPGAbead SHWS design can achieve a 266 Hz cyclic speed limited by the camera frame rate as well as leaves 40% logic slices for additionally flexible design.

  2. Enhanced optical alignment of a digital micro mirror device through Bayesian adaptive exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Wynne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the use of Digital Micro Mirror Devices (DMDs becomes more prevalent in optics research, the ability to precisely locate the Fourier “footprint” of an image beam at the Fourier plane becomes a pressing need. In this approach, Bayesian adaptive exploration techniques were employed to characterize the size and position of the beam on a DMD located at the Fourier plane. It couples a Bayesian inference engine with an inquiry engine to implement the search. The inquiry engine explores the DMD by engaging mirrors and recording light intensity values based on the maximization of the expected information gain. Using the data collected from this exploration, the Bayesian inference engine updates the posterior probability describing the beam’s characteristics. The process is iterated until the beam is located to within the desired precision. This methodology not only locates the center and radius of the beam with remarkable precision but accomplishes the task in far less time than a brute force search. The employed approach has applications to system alignment for both Fourier processing and coded aperture design.

  3. Extreme Computing for Extreme Adaptive Optics: the Key to Finding Life Outside our Solar System

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem

    2018-01-01

    The real-time correction of telescopic images in the search for exoplanets is highly sensitive to atmospheric aberrations. The pseudo- inverse algorithm is an efficient mathematical method to filter out these turbulences. We introduce a new partial singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm based on QR-based Diagonally Weighted Halley (QDWH) iteration for the pseudo-inverse method of adaptive optics. The QDWH partial SVD algorithm selectively calculates the most significant singular values and their corresponding singular vectors. We develop a high performance implementation and demonstrate the numerical robustness of the QDWH-based partial SVD method. We also perform a benchmarking campaign on various generations of GPU hardware accelerators and compare against the state-of-the-art SVD implementation SGESDD from the MAGMA library. Numerical accuracy and performance results are reported using synthetic and real observational datasets from the Subaru telescope. Our implementation outperforms SGESDD by up to fivefold and fourfold performance speedups on ill-conditioned synthetic matrices and real observational datasets, respectively. The pseudo-inverse simulation code will be deployed on-sky for the Subaru telescope during observation nights scheduled early 2018.

  4. Design of a Compact, Bimorph Deformable Mirror-Based Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Deng, Guohua; Wei, Ling; Li, Xiqi; Yang, Jinsheng; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    We have designed, constructed and tested an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) using a bimorph mirror. The simulated AOSLO system achieves diffraction-limited criterion through all the raster scanning fields (6.4 mm pupil, 3° × 3° on pupil). The bimorph mirror-based AOSLO corrected ocular aberrations in model eyes to less than 0.1 μm RMS wavefront error with a closed-loop bandwidth of a few Hz. Facilitated with a bimorph mirror at a stroke of ±15 μm with 35 elements and an aperture of 20 mm, the new AOSLO system has a size only half that of the first-generation AOSLO system. The significant increase in stroke allows for large ocular aberrations such as defocus in the range of ±600° and astigmatism in the range of ±200°, thereby fully exploiting the AO correcting capabilities for diseased human eyes in the future.

  5. Flexible Riser Monitoring Using Hybrid Magnetic/Optical Strain Gage Techniques through RLS Adaptive Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipa, Daniel; Morikawa, Sérgio; Pires, Gustavo; Camerini, Claudio; Santos, JoãoMárcio

    2010-12-01

    Flexible riser is a class of flexible pipes which is used to connect subsea pipelines to floating offshore installations, such as FPSOs (floating production/storage/off-loading unit) and SS (semisubmersible) platforms, in oil and gas production. Flexible risers are multilayered pipes typically comprising an inner flexible metal carcass surrounded by polymer layers and spiral wound steel ligaments, also referred to as armor wires. Since these armor wires are made of steel, their magnetic properties are sensitive to the stress they are subjected to. By measuring their magnetic properties in a nonintrusive manner, it is possible to compare the stress in the armor wires, thus allowing the identification of damaged ones. However, one encounters several sources of noise when measuring electromagnetic properties contactlessly, such as movement between specimen and probe, and magnetic noise. This paper describes the development of a new technique for automatic monitoring of armor layers of flexible risers. The proposed approach aims to minimize these current uncertainties by combining electromagnetic measurements with optical strain gage data through a recursive least squares (RLSs) adaptive filter.

  6. Flexible Riser Monitoring Using Hybrid Magnetic/Optical Strain Gage Techniques through RLS Adaptive Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipa Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible riser is a class of flexible pipes which is used to connect subsea pipelines to floating offshore installations, such as FPSOs (floating production/storage/off-loading unit and SS (semisubmersible platforms, in oil and gas production. Flexible risers are multilayered pipes typically comprising an inner flexible metal carcass surrounded by polymer layers and spiral wound steel ligaments, also referred to as armor wires. Since these armor wires are made of steel, their magnetic properties are sensitive to the stress they are subjected to. By measuring their magnetic properties in a nonintrusive manner, it is possible to compare the stress in the armor wires, thus allowing the identification of damaged ones. However, one encounters several sources of noise when measuring electromagnetic properties contactlessly, such as movement between specimen and probe, and magnetic noise. This paper describes the development of a new technique for automatic monitoring of armor layers of flexible risers. The proposed approach aims to minimize these current uncertainties by combining electromagnetic measurements with optical strain gage data through a recursive least squares (RLSs adaptive filter.

  7. PALM-3000: Exoplanet Adaptive Optics for the 5 m Hale Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekany, Richard; Roberts, Jennifer; Burruss, Rick; Bouchez, Antonin; Truong, Tuan; Baranec, Christoph; Guiwits, Stephen; Hale, David; Angione, John; Trinh, Thang; Zolkower, Jeffry; Shelton, J. Christopher; Palmer, Dean; Henning, John; Croner, Ernest; Troy, Mitchell; McKenna, Dan; Tesch, Jonathan; Hildebrandt, Sergi; Milburn, Jennifer

    2013-10-01

    We describe and report first results from PALM-3000, the second-generation astronomical adaptive optics (AO) facility for the 5.1 m Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. PALM-3000 has been engineered for high-contrast imaging and emission spectroscopy of brown dwarfs and large planetary mass bodies at near-infrared wavelengths around bright stars, but also supports general natural guide star use to V ≈ 17. Using its unique 66 × 66 actuator deformable mirror, PALM-3000 has thus far demonstrated residual wavefront errors of 141 nm rms under ~1'' seeing conditions. PALM-3000 can provide phase conjugation correction over a 6.''4 × 6.''4 working region at λ = 2.2 μm, or full electric field (amplitude and phase) correction over approximately one-half of this field. With optimized back-end instrumentation, PALM-3000 is designed to enable 10-7 contrast at 1'' angular separation, including post-observation speckle suppression processing. While continued optimization of the AO system is ongoing, we have already successfully commissioned five back-end instruments and begun a major exoplanet characterization survey, Project 1640.

  8. Quantum optics for experimentalists

    CERN Document Server

    Ou, Zhe-Yu Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This book on quantum optics is from the point of view of an experimentalist. It approaches the theory of quantum optics with the language of optical modes of classical wave theory, with which experimentalists are most familiar.

  9. Introduction to biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Splinter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    GENERAL BIOMEDICAL OPTICS THEORYIntroduction to the Use of Light for Diagnostic and Therapeutic ModalitiesWhat Is Biomedical Optics?Biomedical Optics TimelineElementary Optical DiscoveriesHistorical Events in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Use of LightLight SourcesCurrent State of the ArtSummaryAdditional ReadingProblemsReview of Optical Principles: Fundamental Electromagnetic Theory and Description of Light SourcesDefinitions in OpticsKirchhoff's Laws of RadiationElectromagnetic Wave TheoryLight SourcesApplications of Various LasersSummaryAdditional ReadingProblemsReview of Optical Principles: Classical OpticsGeometrical OpticsOther Optical PrinciplesQuantum PhysicsGaussian OpticsSummaryAdditional ReadingProblemsReview of Optical Interaction PropertiesAbsorption and ScatteringSummaryAdditional ReadingProblemsLight-Tissue Interaction VariablesLaser VariablesTissue VariablesLight Transportation TheoryLight Propagation under Dominant AbsorptionSummaryNomenclatureAdditional ReadingProblemsLight-Tissue Interaction Th...

  10. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  11. Tunable laser optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ

    2015-01-01

    This Second Edition of a bestselling book describes the optics and optical principles needed to build lasers. It also highlights the optics instrumentation necessary to characterize laser emissions and focuses on laser-based optical instrumentation. The book emphasizes practical and utilitarian aspects of relevant optics including the essential theory. This revised, expanded, and improved edition contains new material on tunable lasers and discusses relevant topics in quantum optics.

  12. Diffractive generalized phase contrast for adaptive phase imaging and optical security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the properties of Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) when the input phase modulation is implemented using diffractive gratings. In GPC applications for patterned illumination, the use of a dynamic diffractive optical element for encoding the GPC input phase allows for onthe- fly...... optimization of the input aperture parameters according to desired output characteristics. For wavefront sensing, the achieved aperture control opens a new degree of freedom for improving the accuracy of quantitative phase imaging. Diffractive GPC input modulation also fits well with grating-based optical...... security applications and can be used to create phasebased information channels for enhanced information security....

  13. Adapting optical technologies for low pressure measurements in the marine industry (1-10 bar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, D. Rodriguez; Lawal, A.; Awcock, G.; Busbridge, S.; Cooper, P.; Spenceley, J.

    2013-05-01

    Optical sensing is a very attractive technology option to design transducers for applications, such as the measurement of liquid level in oil fuel tanks, which require intrinsic safety and electromagnetic compatibility. PSM Instrumentation Ltd., an UK firm specialised in instrumentation for liquid level measurement for the marine industry and the University of Brighton are currently collaborating in a 2 year research programme funded by the UK government scheme Knowledge Transfer Partnerships. This paper evaluates how optical technologies could be used in pressure transducers, and their potential benefits, such as intrinsic safety compliance and low cost cabling, for low pressure applications such as fuel tank gauging for applications in the marine industry.

  14. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  15. Fibre-optic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoy, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    This book describes in a comprehensive manner the components and systems of fiber optic communications and networks. The first section explains the theory of multimode and single-mode fibers, then the technological features, including manufacturing, cabling, and connecting. The second section describes the various components (passive and active optical components, integrated optics, opto-electronic transmitters and receivers, and optical amplifiers) used in fiber optic systems. Finally, the optical transmission system design is explained, and applications to optical networks and fiber optic se

  16. Adaptive guided image filter for warping in variational optical flow computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Z.; Poppe, R.W.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    The variational optical flow method is considered to be the standard method to calculate an accurate dense motion field between successive frames. It assumes that the energy function has spatiotemporal continuities and appearance motions are small. However, for real image sequences, the temporal

  17. Fast temporal adaptation of on-off units in the first optic chiasm of the blowfly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, N.M.; Hateren, J.H. van

    1991-01-01

    We recorded from spiking units in the first optic chiasm between lamina and medulla in the brain of the blowfly (Calliphora vicina). Both previously characterized neuron types, on-off units and sustaining units, were encountered. On-off units had a temporal frequency response with a lower cut-off

  18. Gender equity issues in astronomy: facts, fiction, and what the adaptive optics community can do to close the gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orgeville, Céline; Rigaut, François; Maddison, Sarah; Masciadri, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Gender equality in modern societies is a topic that never fails to raise passion and controversy, in spite of the large body of research material and studies currently available to inform the general public and scientists alike. This paper brings the gender equity and equality discussion on the Adaptive Optics community doorstep. Its aim is threefold: (1) Raising awareness about the gender gap in science and astronomy in general, and in Adaptive Optics in particular; (2) Providing a snapshot of real and/or perceived causes for the gender gap existing in science and engineering; and (3) Presenting a range of practical solutions which have been or are being implemented at various institutions in order to bridge this gap and increase female participation at all levels of the scientific enterprise. Actual data will be presented to support aim (1), including existing gender data in science, engineering and astronomy, as well as original data specific to the Adaptive Optics community to be gathered in time for presentation at this conference. (2) will explore the often complex causes converging to explain gender equity issues that are deeply rooted in our male-dominated culture, including: conscious and unconscious gender biases in perceptions and attitudes, worklife balance, n-body problem, fewer numbers of female leaders and role models, etc. Finally, (3) will offer examples of conscious and pro-active gender equity measures which are helping to bring the female to male ratio closer to its desirable 50/50 target in science and astronomy.

  19. A correction algorithm to simultaneously control dual deformable mirrors in a woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaohong; Sredar, Nripun; Ivers, Kevin M.; Queener, Hope; Porter, Jason

    2010-01-01

    We present a direct slope-based correction algorithm to simultaneously control two deformable mirrors (DMs) in a woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system. A global response matrix was derived from the response matrices of each deformable mirror and the voltages for both deformable mirrors were calculated simultaneously. This control algorithm was tested and compared with a 2-step sequential control method in five normal human eyes using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The mean residual total root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront errors across subjects after adaptive optics (AO) correction were 0.128 ± 0.025 μm and 0.107 ± 0.033 μm for simultaneous and 2-step control, respectively (7.75-mm pupil). The mean intensity of reflectance images acquired after AO convergence was slightly higher for 2-step control. Radially-averaged power spectra calculated from registered reflectance images were nearly identical for all subjects using simultaneous or 2-step control. The correction performance of our new simultaneous dual DM control algorithm is comparable to 2-step control, but is more efficient. This method can be applied to any woofer-tweeter AO system. PMID:20721058

  20. Light Optics for Optical Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andorf, Matthew [NICADD, DeKalb; Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Piot, Philippe [NICADD, DeKalb; Ruan, Jinhao [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    In Optical Stochastic Cooling (OSC) radiation generated by a particle in a "pickup" undulator is amplified and transported to a downstream "kicker" undulator where it interacts with the same particle which radiated it. Fermilab plans to carry out both passive (no optical amplifier) and active (optical amplifier) tests of OSC at the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) currently in construction*. The performace of the optical system is analyzed with simulations in Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) accounting for the specific temporal and spectral properties of undulator radiation and being augmented to include dispersion of lens material.

  1. Increasing the field of view of adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Salas, Matthias; Hitzenberger, Christoph K; Pircher, Michael

    2017-11-01

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) set-up with two deformable mirrors (DM) is presented. It allows high resolution imaging of the retina on a 4°×4° field of view (FoV), considering a 7 mm pupil diameter at the entrance of the eye. Imaging on such a FoV, which is larger compared to classical AO-SLO instruments, is allowed by the use of the two DMs. The first DM is located in a plane that is conjugated to the pupil of the eye and corrects for aberrations that are constant in the FoV. The second DM is conjugated to a plane that is located ∼0.7 mm anterior to the retina. This DM corrects for anisoplanatism effects within the FoV. The control of the DMs is performed by combining the classical AO technique, using a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor, and sensorless AO, which uses a criterion characterizing the image quality. The retinas of four healthy volunteers were imaged in-vivo with the developed instrument. In order to assess the performance of the set-up and to demonstrate the benefits of the 2 DM configuration, the acquired images were compared with images taken in conventional conditions, on a smaller FoV and with only one DM. Moreover, an image of a larger patch of the retina was obtained by stitching of 9 images acquired with a 4°×4° FoV, resulting in a total FoV of 10°×10°. Finally, different retinal layers were imaged by shifting the focal plane.

  2. Distribution of cone density, spacing and arrangement in adult healthy retinas with adaptive optics flood illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Richard; Gaudric, Alain; Woog, Kelly

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse cone density, spacing and arrangement using an adaptive optics flood illumination retina camera (rtx1™) on a healthy population. Cone density, cone spacing and packing arrangements were measured on the right retinas of 109 subjects at 2°, 3°, 4°, 5° and 6° of eccentricity along 4 meridians. The effects of eccentricity, meridian, axial length, spherical equivalent, gender and age were evaluated. Cone density decreased on average from 28 884 ± 3 692 cones/mm2, at 2° of eccentricity, to 15 843 ± 1 598 cones/mm2 at 6°. A strong inter-individual variation, especially at 2°, was observed. No important difference of cone density was observed between the nasal and temporal meridians or between the superior and inferior meridians. However, the horizontal and vertical meridians differed by around 14% (T-test, p<0.0001). Cone density, expressed in units of area, decreased as a function of axial length (r2 = 0.60), but remained constant (r2 = 0.05) when cone density is expressed in terms of visual angle supporting the hypothesis that the retina is stretched during the elongation of the eyeball. Gender did not modify the cone distribution. Cone density was slightly modified by age but only at 2°. The older group showed a smaller density (7%). Cone spacing increased from 6,49 ± 0,42 μm to 8,72 ± 0,45 μm respectively between 2° and 6° of eccentricity. The mosaic of the retina is mainly triangularly arranged (i.e. cells with 5 to 7 neighbors) from 2° to 6°. Around half of the cells had 6 neighbors.

  3. The ARGOS laser system: green light for ground layer adaptive optics at the LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Walfried; Rabien, Sebastian; Gässler, Wolfgang; Esposito, Simone; Barl, Lothar; Borelli, Jose; Daysenroth, Matthias; Gemperlein, Hans; Kulas, Martin; Ziegleder, Julian

    2014-07-01

    We report on the development of the laser system of ARGOS, the multiple laser guide star adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The system uses a total of six high powered, pulsed Nd:YAG lasers frequency-doubled to a wavelength of 532 nm to generate a set of three guide stars above each of the LBT telescopes. The position of each of the LGS constellations on sky as well as the relative position of the individual laser guide stars within this constellation is controlled by a set of steerable mirrors and a fast tip-tilt mirror within the laser system. The entire opto-mechanical system is housed in two hermetically sealed and thermally controlled enclosures on the SX and DX side of the LBT telescope. The laser beams are propagated through two refractive launch telescopes which focus the beams at an altitude of 12 km, creating a constellation of laser guide stars around a 4 arcminute diameter circle by means of Rayleigh scattering. In addition to the GLAO Rayleigh beacon system, ARGOS has also been designed for a possible future upgrade with a hybrid sodium laser - Rayleigh beacon combination, enabling diffraction limited operation. The ARGOS laser system was successfully installed at the LBT in April 2013. Extensive functional tests have been carried out and have verified the operation of the systems according to specifications. The alignment of the laser system with respect to the launch telescope was carried out during two more runs in June and October 2013, followed by the first propagation of laser light on sky in November 2013.

  4. An Automated Reference Frame Selection (ARFS) Algorithm for Cone Imaging with Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Alexander E; Cooper, Robert F; Langlo, Christopher S; Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    To develop an automated reference frame selection (ARFS) algorithm to replace the subjective approach of manually selecting reference frames for processing adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) videos of cone photoreceptors. Relative distortion was measured within individual frames before conducting image-based motion tracking and sorting of frames into distinct spatial clusters. AOSLO images from nine healthy subjects were processed using ARFS and human-derived reference frames, then aligned to undistorted AO-flood images by nonlinear registration and the registration transformations were compared. The frequency at which humans selected reference frames that were rejected by ARFS was calculated in 35 datasets from healthy subjects, and subjects with achromatopsia, albinism, or retinitis pigmentosa. The level of distortion in this set of human-derived reference frames was assessed. The average transformation vector magnitude required for registration of AOSLO images to AO-flood images was significantly reduced from 3.33 ± 1.61 pixels when using manual reference frame selection to 2.75 ± 1.60 pixels (mean ± SD) when using ARFS ( P = 0.0016). Between 5.16% and 39.22% of human-derived frames were rejected by ARFS. Only 2.71% to 7.73% of human-derived frames were ranked in the top 5% of least distorted frames. ARFS outperforms expert observers in selecting minimally distorted reference frames in AOSLO image sequences. The low success rate in human frame choice illustrates the difficulty in subjectively assessing image distortion. Manual reference frame selection represented a significant barrier to a fully automated image-processing pipeline (including montaging, cone identification, and metric extraction). The approach presented here will aid in the clinical translation of AOSLO imaging.

  5. NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER MAGNITUDE-STAR FORMATION RATE RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamanakoto, Z.; Väisänen, P.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Mattila, S.; Ryder, S.

    2013-01-01

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster (SSC) magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near-infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ∼40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M K ∼ –2.6log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude versus SFR dependency

  6. Detection of the dusty torus in AGN with COMIC, the new infrared camera dedicated to the ESO adaptive optics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Olivier

    1997-10-01

    High angular resolution observation has greatly benefitted from adaptive optic systems working in the infrared. The COMIC camera, the second camera dedicated to ADONIS, the ESO 3.60 meter telescope adaptive optics system, allows observation in the spectral range 3-5 micron at the diffraction limit of the telescope. The characterization of the camera at the Meudon and Grenoble laboratories, then its performances determination on the sky in Chile constitute the first part of this dissertation. A new method for evaluating the limiting magnitudes is proposed which takes into account the various contributions to the detectivity loss between laboratory testing and real condition observations. This approach can be transferred to any other case where a priori observing conditions are known ( Strehl ratio or seeing ). Study of the central region of Active Galactic Nuclei (~1 arcsec) requires high angular resolution. In particular, warm and hot dust is emissive in the 1-5 micron spectral region. Thus, adaptive optics observations are well suited to AGN observation. It is predicted that the central engine and its neighboring environment are embedded within an optically thin dusty/molecular torus which may, along some lines of sight, obscure and even fully hide the nuclear emission leading to distinct observational properties for objects supposed to be identical. Observations made with ADONIS & COMIC of NGC7469 and NGC1068 have shown large amounts of dust located in the torus but also mixed with gas from the narrow line emission region. The high angular resolution achieved has allowed the determination of the dust temperature, mass and spatial distribution around the AGN central engine. These results are in agreement with several torus models and could help to constrain them.

  7. Adaptive optics imaging of healthy and abnormal regions of retinal nerve fiber bundles of patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Monica F; Chui, Toco Y P; Alhadeff, Paula; Rosen, Richard B; Ritch, Robert; Dubra, Alfredo; Hood, Donald C

    2015-01-08

    To better understand the nature of glaucomatous damage of the macula, especially the structural changes seen between relatively healthy and clearly abnormal (AB) retinal regions, using an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO). Adaptive optics SLO images and optical coherence tomography (OCT) vertical line scans were obtained on one eye of seven glaucoma patients, with relatively deep local arcuate defects on the 10-2 visual field test in one (six eyes) or both hemifields (one eye). Based on the OCT images, the retinal nerve fiber (RNF) layer was divided into two regions: (1) within normal limits (WNL), relative RNF layer thickness within mean control values ±2 SD; and (2) AB, relative thickness less than -2 SD value. As seen on AO-SLO, the pattern of AB RNF bundles near the border of the WNL and AB regions differed across eyes. There were normal-appearing bundles in the WNL region of all eyes and AB-appearing bundles near the border with the AB region. This region with AB bundles ranged in extent from a few bundles to the entire AB region in the case of one eye. All other eyes had a large AB region without bundles. However, in two of these eyes, a few bundles were seen within this region of otherwise missing bundles. The AO-SLO images revealed details of glaucomatous damage that are difficult, if not impossible, to see with current OCT technology. Adaptive optics SLO may prove useful in following progression in clinical trials, or in disease management, if AO-SLO becomes widely available and easy to use. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  8. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  9. Optical image encryption topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Liang, Xiao; Xin, Zhou; Qiong-Hua, Wang; Sheng, Yuan; Yao-Yao, Chen

    2009-10-15

    Optical image encryption topology is proposed based on the principle of random-phase encoding. Various encryption topological units, involving peer-to-peer, ring, star, and tree topologies, can be realized by an optical 6f system. These topological units can be interconnected to constitute an optical image encryption network. The encryption and decryption can be performed in both digital and optical methods.

  10. Optics activity for hospitalized children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo, Ana; Gómez-Varela, Ana I.; González-Nuñez, Hector; Delgado, Tamara; Almaguer, Citlalli; Cambronero, Ferran; Garcia-Sanchez, Angel; Flores-Arias, Maria T.

    2014-08-01

    USC-OSA is a student chapter whose objective is to bring Optics knowledge closer to the non-optics community. The activity developed at the Hospital school was one of the most important last year. It was consisted in a few Optics experiments and workshops with hospitalized children of different ages and pathologies. The experiments had to be adapted to their physical conditions with the aim of everyone could participate. We think this activity has several benefits including spreading Optics through children meanwhile they have fun and forget their illness for a while.

  11. Optics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Duree, Galen C

    2011-01-01

    The easy way to shed light on Optics In general terms, optics is the science of light. More specifically, optics is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light?including visible, infrared, and ultraviolet?and the interaction of light with matter. Optics For Dummies gives you an approachable introduction to optical science, methods, and applications. You'll get plain-English explanations of the nature of light and optical effects; reflection, refraction, and diffraction; color dispersion; optical devices, industrial, medical, and military applicatio

  12. Fiber optic connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Muhs, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

  13. Integrated optics technology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The materials and processes available for the fabrication of single mode integrated electrooptical components are described. Issues included in the study are: (1) host material and orientation, (2) waveguide formation, (3) optical loss mechanisms, (4) wavelength selection, (5) polarization effects and control, (6) laser to integrated optics coupling,(7) fiber optic waveguides to integrated optics coupling, (8) souces, (9) detectors. The best materials, technology and processes for fabrication of integrated optical components for communications and fiber gyro applications are recommended.

  14. Measurement of optical glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1978-11-01

    The possibilities of measurement of the optical glasses parameters needed in building optical devices especially in lasers devices are presented. In the first chapter the general features of the main optical glasses as well as the modalities of obtaining them are given. Chapter two defines the optical glass parameters, and the third chapter describes the measuring methods of the optical glass parameters. Finally, the conclusions which point out the utilization of this paper are presented. (author)

  15. Optical imaging and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, David J

    2009-01-01

    An essential reference for optical sensor system design This is the first text to present an integrated view of the optical and mathematical analysis tools necessary to understand computational optical system design. It presents the foundations of computational optical sensor design with a focus entirely on digital imaging and spectroscopy. It systematically covers: Coded aperture and tomographic imaging Sampling and transformations in optical systems, including wavelets and generalized sampling techniques essential to digital system analysis Geometric, wave, and statis

  16. Smart X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michette, A G; Pfauntsch, S J; Sahraei, S; Shand, M; Morrison, G R; Hart, D; Vojnovic, B; Stevenson, T; Parkes, W; Dunare, C; Willingale, R; Feldman, C; Button, T; Zhang, D; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, D; Wang, H

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes reflective adaptive/active optics for applications including studies of biological radiation damage. The optics work on the polycapillary principle, but use arrays of channels in thin silicon. For optimum performance the x-rays should reflect once off a channel wall in each of two successive arrays. This reduces aberrations since then the Abbe sine condition is approximately satisfied. Adaptivity is achieved by flexing the arrays via piezo actuation, providing further aberration reduction and controllable focal length.

  17. Adaptation of zirconia crowns created by conventional versus optical impression: in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Cetik, Sibel; Bahrami, Babak; Fossoyeux, In?s; Atash, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the precision of optical impression (Trios, 3Shape) versus that of conventional impression (Imprint IV, 3M-ESPE) with three different margins (shoulder, chamfer, and knife-edge) on Frasaco teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS The sample comprised of 60 zirconia half-crowns, divided into six groups according to the type of impression and margin. Scanning electron microscopy enabled us to analyze the gap between the zirconia crowns and the Frasaco teeth, usi...

  18. Design and optimization of an adaptive optics system for a high-average-power multi-slab laser (HiLASE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar, Jan; Slezak, Ondrej; Sikocinski, Pawel; Divoky, Martin; Sawicka, Magdalena; Bonora, Stefano; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomas; Jelinkova, Helena

    2014-05-20

    We report numerical and experimental results obtained with an optical setup that simulates the heating and cooling processes expected in a multi-slab high-average-power laser head. We have tested the performance of an adaptive optics system consisting of a photo-controlled deformable mirror (PCDM) and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for the effective correction of the generated wavefront aberrations. The performance of the adaptive optics system is characterized for different layouts of the actuator array and for different configurations of the heating mechanisms. The numerical results are benchmarked using a PCDM, which allowed us to experimentally compare the performances of different deformable mirrors.

  19. Structure-functional correlation using adaptive optics, OCT, and microperimetry in a case of occult macular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlos Ítalo Viana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We report retinal functional and structural changes of a 40-year-old man diagnosed with occult macular dystrophy. Comprehensive ophthalmological evaluation was performed, followed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OC - Heidelberg and image acquisition using an adaptive optics (AO camera (RTX1, Imagine Eyes for photoreceptor density analysis. Functional tests included full-field ERG (ERG and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG (Diagnosys, LLC and microperimetry with scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO fixation controlled (MAIA, CenterVUE. OCT revealed a line of discontinuity corresponding to cone outer-segment photoreceptors associated with a loss of cone density, highlighted by a dark blue spot on the AO co ne-density map on the fovea in both eyes. Loss of central sensitivity was revealed using microperimetry; ERG was within the normal range, although the mfERG showed a reduced central response amplitude.

  20. Statistical properties of single-mode fiber coupling of satellite-to-ground laser links partially corrected by adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuet, Lucien; Védrenne, Nicolas; Conan, Jean-Marc; Petit, Cyril; Artaud, Geraldine; Rissons, Angelique; Lacan, Jerome

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of satellite-to-ground laser downlinks, an analytical model describing the variations of the instantaneous coupled flux into a single-mode fiber after correction of the incoming wavefront by partial adaptive optics (AO) is presented. Expressions for the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function as well as for the average fading duration and fading duration distribution of the corrected coupled flux are given. These results are of prime interest for the computation of metrics related to coded transmissions over correlated channels, and they are confronted by end-to-end wave-optics simulations in the case of a geosynchronous satellite (GEO)-to-ground and a low earth orbit satellite (LEO)-to-ground scenario. Eventually, the impact of different AO performances on the aforementioned fading duration distribution is analytically investigated for both scenarios.

  1. Estimation and control of large-scale systems with an application to adaptive optics for EUV lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haber, A.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) lithography is a new technology for production of integrated circuits. In EUV lithographic machines, optical elements are heated by absorption of exposure energy. Heating induces thermoelastic deformations of optical elements and consequently, it creates wavefront

  2. Design of optical switches by illusion optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoorian, H R; Abrishamian, M S

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, illusion optics theory is employed to form Bragg gratings in an optical waveguide in order to design an optical switch. By using an illusion device at a certain distance from the waveguide, the effective refractive index of the waveguide is remotely modulated, turning the waveguide into a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) which blocks the waves at a stop band. By removing the illusion device, the waves propagate through the waveguide again. In addition, this method is used to remotely tune DBR optical properties such as resonant frequency and bandwidth in a wide range, which leads to a tunable filter for optical switching applications. Finally, using an illusion device at a distance, an optical cavity is created by inserting defects remotely in a DBR without any physical damage in the primary device. (paper)

  3. Design of optical switches by illusion optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoorian, H. R.; Abrishamian, M. S.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, illusion optics theory is employed to form Bragg gratings in an optical waveguide in order to design an optical switch. By using an illusion device at a certain distance from the waveguide, the effective refractive index of the waveguide is remotely modulated, turning the waveguide into a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) which blocks the waves at a stop band. By removing the illusion device, the waves propagate through the waveguide again. In addition, this method is used to remotely tune DBR optical properties such as resonant frequency and bandwidth in a wide range, which leads to a tunable filter for optical switching applications. Finally, using an illusion device at a distance, an optical cavity is created by inserting defects remotely in a DBR without any physical damage in the primary device.

  4. The Dimensions and Pole of Asteroid (21) Lutetia from Adaptive Optics Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Conrad, A.; Merline, W.; Carry, B.

    2009-09-01

    In a campaign to study the Rosetta mission target, asteroid (21) Lutetia, we obtained 81 images on December 2, 2008, at 2.12 microns with adaptive optics (AO) on the Keck-II 10 m telescope. From these nearly consecutive images obtained over a quarter of rotation, we have determined the asteroid's triaxial ellipsoid diameters to be 132x101x76 km, with formal uncertainties of 1 km for the equatorial dimensions, and 31 km for the shortest axis. This latter uncertainty occurs because the observations were made at the relatively high sub-Earth latitude of -69 degrees. From these observations we determine that Lutetia's pole lies at 2000.0 coordinates of RA=48, Dec=+9, or Ecliptic coordinates of [49;-8], with a formal uncertainty radius of 3 deg. (The other possible pole is eliminated by considering its lightcurve history.) The rotational pole derived for the lightcurve inversion model (available at http://astro.troja.mff.cuni.cz/ projects/asteroids3D/web.php), is only 5 deg from ours, but comparing our images to the lightcurve inversion model we find that Lutetia is more pointed than the model. Our technique of deriving the dimensions of asteroids from AO images has been calibrated against Pluto and 4 satellites of Saturn with precise diameters, and we find that any systematic errors can be no more than 1-3%. We acknowledge the assistance of other team members Christophe Dumas (ESO), Peter Tamblyn (SwRI), and Clark Chapman (SwRI). We also thank Hal Weaver (JHU/APL) as the lead for our collaboration with the Rosetta mission. We are grateful for telescope time made available to us by S. Kulkarni and M. Busch (Cal Tech) for a portion of our overall Lutetia effort. We also thank our collaborators on Team Keck, the Keck science staff, for making possible some of the Lutetia observations and for their participation. Additional Lutetia observations were acquired at Gemini North under NOAO time allocation.

  5. Modeling astronomical adaptive optics performance with temporally filtered Wiener reconstruction of slope data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Carlos M; Bond, Charlotte Z; Sauvage, Jean-François; Fusco, Thierry; Conan, Rodolphe; Wizinowich, Peter L

    2017-10-01

    We build on a long-standing tradition in astronomical adaptive optics (AO) of specifying performance metrics and error budgets using linear systems modeling in the spatial-frequency domain. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive tool for the calculation of error budgets in terms of residual temporally filtered phase power spectral densities and variances. In addition, the fast simulation of AO-corrected point spread functions (PSFs) provided by this method can be used as inputs for simulations of science observations with next-generation instruments and telescopes, in particular to predict post-coronagraphic contrast improvements for planet finder systems. We extend the previous results presented in Correia and Teixeira [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, 2763 (2014)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.31.002763] to the closed-loop case with predictive controllers and generalize the analytical modeling of Rigaut et al. [Proc. SPIE3353, 1038 (1998)PSISDG0277-786X10.1117/12.321649], Flicker [Technical Report (W. M. Keck Observatory, 2007)], and Jolissaint [J. Eur. Opt. Soc.5, 10055 (2010)1990-257310.2971/jeos.2010.10055]. We follow closely the developments of Ellerbroek [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A22, 310 (2005)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.22.000310] and propose the synthesis of a distributed Kalman filter to mitigate both aniso-servo-lag and aliasing errors while minimizing the overall residual variance. We discuss applications to (i) analytic AO-corrected PSF modeling in the spatial-frequency domain, (ii) post-coronagraphic contrast enhancement, (iii) filter optimization for real-time wavefront reconstruction, and (iv) PSF reconstruction from system telemetry. Under perfect knowledge of wind velocities, we show that ∼60  nm rms error reduction can be achieved with the distributed Kalman filter embodying antialiasing reconstructors on 10 m class high-order AO systems, leading to contrast improvement factors of up to three orders of magnitude at few λ/D separations (∼1-5λ/D) for a

  6. Laser Guidestar Satellite for Ground-based Adaptive Optics Imaging of Geosynchronous Satellites and Astronomical Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, W. A.; Cahoy, K.; Males, J.; Carlton, A.; Yoon, H.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time observation and monitoring of geostationary (GEO) satellites with ground-based imaging systems would be an attractive alternative to fielding high cost, long lead, space-based imagers, but ground-based observations are inherently limited by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used to help ground telescopes achieve diffraction-limited seeing. AO systems have historically relied on the use of bright natural guide stars or laser guide stars projected on a layer of the upper atmosphere by ground laser systems. There are several challenges with this approach such as the sidereal motion of GEO objects relative to natural guide stars and limitations of ground-based laser guide stars; they cannot be used to correct tip-tilt, they are not point sources, and have finite angular sizes when detected at the receiver. There is a difference between the wavefront error measured using the guide star compared with the target due to cone effect, which also makes it difficult to use a distributed aperture system with a larger baseline to improve resolution. Inspired by previous concepts proposed by A.H. Greenaway, we present using a space-based laser guide starprojected from a satellite orbiting the Earth. We show that a nanosatellite-based guide star system meets the needs for imaging GEO objects using a low power laser even from 36,000 km altitude. Satellite guide star (SGS) systemswould be well above atmospheric turbulence and could provide a small angular size reference source. CubeSatsoffer inexpensive, frequent access to space at a fraction of the cost of traditional systems, and are now being deployed to geostationary orbits and on interplanetary trajectories. The fundamental CubeSat bus unit of 10 cm cubed can be combined in multiple units and offers a common form factor allowing for easy integration as secondary payloads on traditional launches and rapid testing of new technologies on-orbit. We describe a 6U CubeSat SGS measuring 10 cm x 20 cm x

  7. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  8. Optical Fiber Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  9. Introduction to nonimaging optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Nonimaging Optics covers the theoretical foundations and design methods of nonimaging optics, as well as key concepts from related fields. This fully updated, revised, and expanded Second Edition: Features a new and intuitive introduction with a basic description of the advantages of nonimaging opticsAdds new chapters on wavefronts for a prescribed output (irradiance or intensity), infinitesimal étendue optics (generalization of the aplanatic optics), and Köhler optics and color mixingIncorporates new material on the simultaneous multiple surface (SMS) design method in 3-D, int

  10. Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Parravano, Mariacristina; Serrao, Sebastiano; Ducoli, Pietro; Stirpe, Mario; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    To illustrate a noninvasive method to analyze the retinal capillary lumen caliber in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Adaptive optics imaging of the retinal capillaries were acquired in two parafoveal regions of interest in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and unaffected controls. Measures of the retinal capillary lumen caliber were quantified using an algorithm written in Matlab by an independent observer in a masked manner. Comparison of the adaptive optics images with red-free and color wide fundus retinography images was also assessed. Eight eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (eight patients, study group), no macular edema, and preserved visual acuity and eight control eyes (eight healthy volunteers; control group) were analyzed. The repeatability of capillary lumen caliber measurements was 0.22 μm (3.5%) with the 95% confidence interval between 0.12 and 0.31 μm in the study group. It was 0.30 μm (4.1%) with the 95% confidence interval between 0.16 and 0.43 μm in the control group. The average capillary lumen caliber was significantly narrower in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (6.27 ± 1.63 μm) than in the control eyes (7.31 ± 1.59 μm, P = 0.002). The authors demonstrated a noninvasive method to analyze, with micrometric scale of resolution, the lumen of retinal capillaries. The parafoveal capillaries were narrower in patients with Type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy than in healthy subjects, showing the potential capability of adaptive optics imaging to detect pathologic variations of the retinal microvascular structures in vaso-occlusive diseases.

  11. Miniature Optical Isolator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for miniature optical isolators in atom interferometry applications, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a miniature optical...

  12. Peptide Optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Shostak, Tamar; Rosenman, Gil

    2017-02-01

    Small-scale optical devices, designed and fabricated onto one dielectric substrate, create integrated optical chip like their microelectronic analogues. These photonic circuits, based on diverse physical phenomena such as light-matter interaction, propagation of electromagnetic waves in a thin dielectric material, nonlinear and electro-optical effects, allow transmission, distribution, modulation, and processing of optical signals in optical communication systems, chemical and biological sensors, and more. The key component of these optical circuits providing both optical processing and photonic interconnections is light waveguides. Optical confinement and transmitting of the optical waves inside the waveguide material are possible due to the higher refractive index of the waveguides in comparison with their surroundings. In this work, we propose a novel field of bionanophotonics based on a new concept of optical waveguiding in synthetic elongated peptide nanostructures composed of ordered peptide dipole biomolecules. New technology of controllable deposition of peptide optical waveguiding structures by nanofountain pen technique is developed. Experimental studies of refractive index, optical transparency, and linear and nonlinear waveguiding in out-of-plane and in-plane diphenylalanine peptide nanotubes have been conducted. Optical waveguiding phenomena in peptide structures are simulated by the finite difference time domain method. The advantages of this new class of bio-optical waveguides are high refractive index contrast, wide spectral range of optical transparency, large optical nonlinearity, and electro-optical effect, making them promising for new applications in integrated multifunctional photonic circuits. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Modeling satellite-Earth quantum channel downlinks with adaptive-optics coupling to single-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruneisen, Mark T.; Flanagan, Michael B.; Sickmiller, Brett A.

    2017-12-01

    The efficient coupling of photons from a free-space quantum channel into a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) has important implications for quantum network concepts involving SMF interfaces to quantum detectors, atomic systems, integrated photonics, and direct coupling to a fiber network. Propagation through atmospheric turbulence, however, leads to wavefront errors that degrade mode matching with SMFs. In a free-space quantum channel, this leads to photon losses in proportion to the severity of the aberration. This is particularly problematic for satellite-Earth quantum channels, where atmospheric turbulence can lead to significant wavefront errors. This report considers propagation from low-Earth orbit to a terrestrial ground station and evaluates the efficiency with which photons couple either through a circular field stop or into an SMF situated in the focal plane of the optical receiver. The effects of atmospheric turbulence on the quantum channel are calculated numerically and quantified through the quantum bit error rate and secure key generation rates in a decoy-state BB84 protocol. Numerical simulations include the statistical nature of Kolmogorov turbulence, sky radiance, and an adaptive-optics system under closed-loop control.

  14. HIGH-REDSHIFT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES: A MORPHOLOGY-SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION CONNECTION REVEALED BY KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melbourne, J.; Matthews, K.; Soifer, B. T.

    2009-01-01

    A simple optical to mid-IR color selection, R - [24]>14, i.e., f ν (24 μm)/f ν (R) ∼> 1000, identifies highly dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) with typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 ± 0.5. Extreme mid-IR luminosities (L IR > 10 12-14 ) suggest that DOGs are powered by a combination of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation, possibly driven by mergers. In an effort to compare their photometric properties with their rest-frame optical morphologies, we obtained high-spatial resolution (0.''05-0.''1) Keck Adaptive Optics K'-band images of 15 DOGs. The images reveal a wide range of morphologies, including small exponential disks (eight of 15), small ellipticals (four of 15), and unresolved sources (two of 15). One particularly diffuse source could not be classified because of low signal-to-noise ratio. We find a statistically significant correlation between galaxy concentration and mid-IR luminosity, with the most luminous DOGs exhibiting higher concentration and smaller physical size. DOGs with high concentration also tend to have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) suggestive of AGN activity. Thus, central AGN light may be biasing the morphologies of the more luminous DOGs to higher concentration. Conversely, more diffuse DOGs tend to show an SED shape suggestive of star formation. Two of 15 in the sample show multiple resolved components with separations of ∼1 kpc, circumstantial evidence for ongoing mergers.

  15. Higher performance and lower cost optical DPSK receiver

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To demonstrate (benchtop experiment) a DPSK receiver with a free-space interferometer, showing that fiber-optic coupling, associated adaptive optics, and optical...

  16. Optical Airborne Tracker System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Airborne Tracker System (OATS) is an airborne dual-axis optical tracking system capable of pointing at any sky location or ground target.  The objectives...

  17. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  18. Optics for SIERRA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To demonstrate a massively parallel optical ray trace to enable the design and analysis of extremely large aperture optical systems. This, in turn, enables...

  19. Fiber Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  20. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  1. Optical illusion: apogee development

    OpenAIRE

    Elena, Chernyсhuk; Bazylevych, Viktoriya

    2015-01-01

    The article provides a classification of optical illusions performed by the authors. Briefly described each of the 11 identified species. Offered the variants using optical illusions in the urban environment, exterior and interior.

  2. Fiber Ring Optical Gyroscope (FROG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The design, construction, and testing of a one meter diameter fiber ring optical gyro, using 1.57 kilometers of single mode fiber, are described. The various noise components: electronic, thermal, mechanical, and optical, were evaluated. Both dc and ac methods were used. An attempt was made to measure the Earth rotation rate; however, the results were questionable because of the optical and electronic noise present. It was concluded that fiber ring optical gyroscopes using all discrete components have many serious problems that can only be overcome by discarding the discrete approach and adapting an all integrated optic technique that has the laser source, modulator, detector, beamsplitters, and bias element on a single chip.

  3. Advanced digital optical communications

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a fundamental understanding of digital communication applications in optical communication technologies. Emphasizing operation principles versus mathematical analysis, the Second Edition includes new coverage of superchannel optical transmission systems, metropolitan and long-haul optical systems and networks, and Nyquist pulse shaping and high spectral efficiency of optical transmission systems, as well as new homework problems and examples. Featuring theoretical foundations as well as practical case studies, the text focuses on enhancements to digital technologies that are

  4. Emerging Correlation Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Gbur, Gregory J.; Polyanskii, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting the state-of-the-art of correlation optics and showing synergetics between the theoretical background and experimental techniques.......This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting the state-of-the-art of correlation optics and showing synergetics between the theoretical background and experimental techniques....

  5. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2009-01-01

    In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Backscattering and Anderson localization of light- Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices- Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification- Invisibility cloaks

  6. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field

  7. Multiplane optical microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tongcang; Ota, Sadao; Kim, Jeongmin; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-11-21

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to optical microscopy. In one aspect, an apparatus includes a sample holder, a first objective lens, a plurality of optical components, a second objective lens, and a mirror. The apparatus may directly image a cross-section of a sample oblique to or parallel to the optical axis of the first objective lens, without scanning.

  8. Fun with Optical Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alti, Kamlesh

    2017-01-01

    Optical fibres play a very crucial role in today's technologies. Academic courses in optical fibres start at the undergraduate level. Nevertheless, student's curiosity towards optical fibres starts from the school level. In this paper, some fun experiments have been designed for both school and college students, which have some concrete…

  9. Optical ordinal optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2000-07-01

    Ordinal optimization is a relatively new field of mathematics that seems never to have been applied to optics. Optics has made extensive use of traditional cardinal optimization. This paper explores the possibility that ordinal optimization might be useful in optics. The conclusion is: Not directly but indirectly.

  10. Adaptive restoration of a partially coherent blurred image using an all-optical feedback interferometer with a liquid-crystal device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Tomohiro; Barnes, Thomas H

    2002-02-01

    A liquid-crystal adaptive optics system using all-optical feedback interferometry is applied to partially coherent imaging through a phase disturbance. A theoretical analysis based on the propagation of the cross-spectral density shows that the blurred image due to the phase disturbance can be restored, in principle, irrespective of the state of coherence of the light illuminating the object. Experimental verification of the theory has been performed for two cases when the object to be imaged is illuminated by spatially coherent light originating from a He-Ne laser and by spatially incoherent white light from a halogen lamp. We observed in both cases that images blurred by the phase disturbance were successfully restored, in agreement with the theory, immediately after the adaptive optics system was activated. The origin of the deviation of the experimental results from the theory, together with the effect of the feedback misalignment inherent in our optical arrangement, is also discussed.

  11. Aberration correction during real time in vivo imaging of bone marrow with sensorless adaptive optics confocal microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibin; Wei, Dan; Wei, Ling; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Wei, Xunbin; Zhang, Yudong

    2014-08-01

    We have demonstrated adaptive correction of specimen-induced aberration during in vivo imaging of mouse bone marrow vasculature with confocal fluorescence microscopy. Adaptive optics system was completed with wavefront sensorless correction scheme based on stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm. Using image sharpness as the optimization metric, aberration correction was performed based upon Zernike polynomial modes. The experimental results revealed the improved signal and resolution leading to a substantially enhanced image contrast with aberration correction. The image quality of vessels at 38- and 75-μm depth increased three times and two times, respectively. The corrections allowed us to detect clearer bone marrow vasculature structures at greater contrast and improve the signal-to-noise ratio.

  12. Dynamically reconfigurable multiple beam illumination based on optical correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2009-01-01

    We adapt concepts from optical correlation and optical pattern recognition to propose a method for generating reconfigurable multiple spots with high efficiency. The generated spots correspond to the correlation spikes in optical pattern recognition. In pattern recognition, optimizing...... reconfigurable optical patterns with high efficiency for optical micromanipulation and other applications....

  13. Time Transfer in Optical Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    adapter structure. It consists of two main components: the FPGA chip Virtex 5 and the SFP (Small Form-factor Pluggable) transceiver. The optical...signal arrives at the receiver part of the SFP , where it is converted into an electrical signal. The demodulator in the FPGA regenerates the carrier...inaccuracy, i.e. the noise in the transmission channel, SFP transceivers, signal modulator/demodulator, etc. We also compared the accuracy of our optical

  14. Adaption and application of the Green function method to research on molecular ultrathin film optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setrajcic, Jovan P; Ilic, Dusan I; Markoski, Branko; Setrajcic, Ana J; Vucenovic, Sinisa M; Mirjanic, Dragoljub Lj; Skipina, Blanka; Pelemis, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the study of the exciton subsystem in crystalline structures (in this case nanostructures, i.e. thin films) occurred because dielectric, optical, photoelectric and other properties of materials can be explained by means of it. The basic question to be solved concerning theoretical research into the spatially strongly bounded structures is the inability to apply the standard mathematical tools: differential equations and Fourier analysis. In this paper, it is shown how the Green function method can also be efficiently applied to crystalline samples so constrained that quantum size effects play a significant role on them. For the purpose of exemplification of this method's application, we shall consider a molecular crystal of simple cubic structure: spatially unbounded (bulk) and strongly bounded alongside one direction (ultrathin film).

  15. Development of an adaptive optics test-bed for relay mirror applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Justin D.; Jacobs, Arturo A.; Maynard, Morris

    2005-08-01

    The relay mirror concept involves deploying a passive optical station at a high altitude for relaying a beam from a laser weapon to a target. Relay mirrors have been proposed as a method of increasing the range of laser weapons that is less costly than deploying a larger number of laser weapons. Relay mirrors will only be effective if the beam spreading and beam quality degradation induced by atmospheric aberrations and thermal blooming can be mitigated. In this paper we present the first phase of a multi-year effort to develop a theoretical and experimental capability at Boeing-SVS to study these problems. A team from MZA and Boeing-SVS has developed a laboratory test-bed consisting of a distributed atmospheric path simulated by three liquid crystal phase screens, a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and a MEMS membrane deformable mirror. We present results of AO component calibration and evaluation, the system construction, and the system performance.

  16. An IIR adaptive electronic equalizer for polarization multiplexed fiber optic communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang-Ye; Liu, Jian-Fei; Zhao, Qi-Da

    2011-09-01

    An electronic digital equalizer for polarization multiplex coherent fiber optic communication systems is designed to compensate polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and residual chromatic dispersion (CD) of transmission channel. The proposed equalizer is realized with fraction spaced infinite impulse response (IIR) butterfly structure with 21 feedforward taps and 2 feedback taps. Compared with finite impulse response (FIR) structure, this structure can reduce implementation complexity of hardware under the same condition. To keep track of the random variation of channel characteristics, the filter weights are updated by least mean square (LMS) algorithm. The simulation results show that the proposed equalizer can compensate residual chromatic dispersion (CD) of 1600 ps/nm and differential group delay (DGD) of 90 ps simultaneously, and also can increase the PMD and residual CD tolerance of the whole communication system.

  17. Optical measuring system with an interrogator and a polymer-based single-mode fibre optic sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical measuring system comprising a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system (102), an optical interrogator (101), and an optical arrangement (103) interconnecting the optical interrogator (101) and the polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor...... system (102). The invention further relates to an optical interrogator adapted to be connected to a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system via an optical arrangement. The interrogator comprises a broadband light source arrangement (104) and a spectrum analysing arrangement which receives...... and analyses light reflected from the polymer-based single- mode fibre-optic sensor system....

  18. Near perfect optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeke, R.; Farnsworth, A.V.; Neumann, C.C.; Sweatt, W.C.; Warren, M.E.; Weed, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    This report discusses a novel fabrication process to produce nearly perfect optics. The process utilizes vacuum deposition techniques to optimally modify polished optical substrate surfaces. The surface figure, i.e. contour of a polished optical element, is improved by differentially filling in the low spots on the surface using flux from a physical vapor deposition source through an appropriate mask. The process is expected to enable the manufacture of diffraction-limited optical systems for the UV, extreme UV, and soft X-ray spectral regions, which would have great impact on photolithography and astronomy. This same technique may also reduce the fabrication cost of visible region optics with aspheric surfaces.

  19. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  20. Optical Binding of Nanowires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simpson, Stephen Hugh; Zemánek, Pavel; Marago, O.M.; Jones, P.H.; Hanna, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2017), s. 3485-3492 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) CNR-16-12 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : optical binding nanowires * Brownian motion * self -organization * non-equilibrium thermodynamics * non-equilibrium steady state * spin-orbit coupling * emergent phenomena Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 12.712, year: 2016

  1. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  2. Optic disc oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Kromann; Hamann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Optic disc oedema describes the nonspecific, localized swelling of the optic nerve head regardless of aetiology. Therefore, differentiating among the various aetiologies depends on a thorough history and knowledge of the clinical characteristics of the underlying conditions. Papilloedema strictly...... refers to optic disc oedema as a consequence of elevated intracranial pressure. It is usually a bilateral condition and visual function is preserved until late. Optic disc oedema caused by an anterior optic neuropathy is usually unilateral and accompanied by the loss of visual function....

  3. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2006-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  4. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    1977-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  5. Optical Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    costs and cable size. The PS3’s 256 MB of main XDR RAM runs at 3.2 Ghz for 25.6 Gbps (versus the GPU running at 550 MHz, and its GDDR3 memory...picoboards, which are tiny 1GHz computers with 1 GB RAM , a 1 GHz processor, 16 GByte CF drive, USB 2.0 and 10/100 Ethernet. They are small enough to...Xiaotong; Wang, Jingcun “Design of optical interconnection network adapter based on DDR DIMM bus for cluster system”, Computer Engineering, v 33, n

  6. Peptide Integrated Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Lapshina, Nadezda; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2018-02-01

    Bio-nanophotonics is a wide field in which advanced optical materials, biomedicine, fundamental optics, and nanotechnology are combined and result in the development of biomedical optical chips. Silk fibers or synthetic bioabsorbable polymers are the main light-guiding components. In this work, an advanced concept of integrated bio-optics is proposed, which is based on bioinspired peptide optical materials exhibiting wide optical transparency, nonlinear and electrooptical properties, and effective passive and active waveguiding. Developed new technology combining bottom-up controlled deposition of peptide planar wafers of a large area and top-down focus ion beam lithography provides direct fabrication of peptide optical integrated circuits. Finding a deep modification of peptide optical properties by reconformation of biological secondary structure from native phase to β-sheet architecture is followed by the appearance of visible fluorescence and unexpected transition from a native passive optical waveguiding to an active one. Original biocompatibility, switchable regimes of waveguiding, and multifunctional nonlinear optical properties make these new peptide planar optical materials attractive for application in emerging technology of lab-on-biochips, combining biomedical photonic and electronic circuits toward medical diagnosis, light-activated therapy, and health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  8. Optical logic: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2005-05-01

    Progress of optical logic has been anything but uniform or even monotonic. The hope for "all optical computers" was largely abandoned after devastating critiques by Keyes. Over time, optical logic transformed into a very viable niche activity by the needs of optical communication for "all optical" logic and the advent of a critical component: the SOA or Semiconductor Optical Amplifier. I argue that a new phase in this uneven history can be defined - linear (single photon, not multiple entangled photon) quantum optical logic. These can perform conservative, reversible logic operations without energy or time penalties, but cascading requires the irreversible act of measurement, so only single devices or single layers can deliver those advantages.

  9. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  10. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  11. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  12. The wire optical test: a thorough analytical study in and out of caustic surface, and advantages of a dynamical adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; Sosa-Sánchez, Citlalli Teresa; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Omar; Espíndola-Ramos, Ernesto; Ortega-Vidals, Paula

    2018-03-01

    Among the best known non-interferometric optical tests are the wire test, the Foucault test and Ronchi test with a low frequency grating. Since the wire test is the seed to understand the other ones, the aim of the present work is to do a thorough study of this test for a lens with symmetry of revolution and to do this study for any configuration of the object and detection planes where both planes could intersect: two, one or no branches of the caustic region (including the marginal and paraxial foci). To this end, we calculated the vectorial representation for the caustic region, and we found the analytical expression for the pattern; we report that the analytical pattern explicitly depends on the magnitude of a branch of the caustic. With the analytical pattern we computed a set of simulations of a dynamical adaptation of the optical wire test. From those simulations, we have done a thorough analysis of the topological structure of the pattern; so we explain how the multiple image formation process and the image collapse process take place for each configuration, in particular, when both the wire and the detection planes are placed inside the caustic region, which has not been studied before. For the first time, we remark that not only the intersections of the object and detection planes with the caustic are important in the change of pattern topology; but also the projection of the intersection between the caustic and the object plane mapped onto the detection plane; and the virtual projection of the intersection between the caustic and the detection plane mapped onto the object plane. We present that for the new configurations of the optical system, the wire image is curves of the Tschirnhausen’s cubic, the piriform and the deformed eight-curve types.

  13. Fibre-optical microendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, M; Bao, H; Kang, H

    2014-04-01

    Microendoscopy has been an essential tool in exploring micro/nano mechanisms in vivo due to high-quality imaging performance, compact size and flexible movement. The investigations into optical fibres, micro-scanners and miniature lens have boosted efficiencies of remote light delivery to sample site and signal collection. Given the light interaction with materials in the fluorescence imaging regime, this paper reviews two classes of compact microendoscopy based on a single fibre: linear optical microendoscopy and nonlinear optical microendoscopy. Due to the fact that fluorescence occurs only in the focal volume, nonlinear optical microendoscopy can provide stronger optical sectioning ability than linear optical microendoscopy, and is a good candidate for deep tissue imaging. Moreover, one-photon excited fluorescence microendoscopy as the linear optical microendoscopy suffers from severe photobleaching owing to the linear dependence of photobleaching rate on excitation laser power. On the contrary, nonlinear optical microendoscopy, including two-photon excited fluorescence microendoscopy and second harmonic generation microendoscopy, has the capability to minimize or avoid the photobleaching effect at a high excitation power and generate high image contrast. The combination of various nonlinear signals gained by the nonlinear optical microendoscopy provides a comprehensive insight into biophenomena in internal organs. Fibre-optical microendoscopy overcomes physical limitations of traditional microscopy and opens up a new path to achieve early cancer diagnosis and microsurgery in a minimally invasive and localized manner. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. Laser beam propagation through turbulence and adaptive optics for beam delivery improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Stephane

    2015-10-01

    We report results from numerical simulations of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence. In particular, we study the statistical variations of the fractional beam energy hitting inside an optical aperture placed at several kilometer distance. The simulations are performed for different turbulence conditions and engagement ranges, with and without the use of turbulence mitigation. Turbulence mitigation is simulated with phase conjugation. The energy fluctuations are deduced from time sequence realizations. It is shown that turbulence mitigation leads to an increase of the mean energy inside the aperture and decrease of the fluctuations even in strong turbulence conditions and long distance engagement. As an example, the results are applied to a high energy laser countermeasure system, where we determine the probability that a single laser pulse, or one of the pulses in a sequence, will provide a lethal energy inside the target aperture. Again, turbulence mitigation contributes to increase the performance of the system at long-distance and for strong turbulence conditions in terms of kill probability. We also discuss a specific case where turbulence contributes to increase the pulse energy within the target aperture. The present analysis can be used to evaluate the performance of a variety of systems, such as directed countermeasures, laser communication, and laser weapons.

  15. Optical Method For Monitoring Tool Control For Green Burnishing With Using Of Algorithms With Adaptive Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanov, A. A.; Grigoriev, S. N.; Bobrovskij, I. N.; Melnikov, P. A.; Bobrovskij, N. M.

    2017-05-01

    With regard to the complexity of the new technology and increase its reliability requirements laboriousness of control operations in industrial quality control systems increases significantly. The importance of quality management control due to the fact that its promotes the correct use of production conditions, the relevant requirements are required. Digital image processing allows to reach a new technological level of production (new technological way). The most complicated automated interpretation of information is the basis for decision-making in the management of production processes. In the case of surface analysis of tools used for processing with the using of metalworking fluids (MWF) it is more complicated. The authors suggest new algorithm for optical inspection of the wear of the cylinder tool for burnishing, which used in surface plastic deformation without using of MWF. The main advantage of proposed algorithm is the possibility of automatic recognition of images of burnisher tool with the subsequent allocation of its boundaries, finding a working surface and automatically allocating the defects and wear area. Software that implements the algorithm was developed by the authors in Matlab programming environment, but can be implemented using other programming languages.

  16. Compact, single-frequency, doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped in an achromatic phase-adapted double-pass geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, B; Berrou, A; Guilbaud, S; Raybaut, M; Godard, A; Lefebvre, M

    2011-03-01

    We report on a nested-cavity, doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (NesCOPO) architecture for widely tunable, mid-IR, single-frequency generation. By use of an achromatic phase-adapted double-pass pumping scheme, this new, low-threshold, semimonolithic architecture only requires two free-standing cavity mirrors and a nonlinear crystal with a mirror coating deposited on its input facet while the other facet is antireflection coated. It is thus as simple and compact as any basic linear optical parametric oscillator cavity, is easily tunable, and displays low sensitivity to mechanical vibrations. Using a high-repetition-rate (4.8 kHz) microlaser as the pump source of the NesCOPO, we demonstrate a compact source that provides pulsed, stable single-frequency output over a wide spectral range (3.8-4.3 μm) with a high peak power (up to 50 W), which are properties well suited for practical gas sensing applications.

  17. Deformable Mirrors Correct Optical Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    By combining the high sensitivity of space telescopes with revolutionary imaging technologies consisting primarily of adaptive optics, the Terrestrial Planet Finder is slated to have imaging power 100 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope. To this end, Boston Micromachines Corporation, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for space-based adaptive optical technology. The work resulted in a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) called the Kilo-DM. The company now offers a full line of MEMS DMs, which are being used in observatories across the world, in laser communication, and microscopy.

  18. Measuring Tilt and Focus for Sodium Beacon Adaptive Optics on the Starfile 3.5 Meter Telescope -- Conference Proceedings (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    in detail by Link and Foucault . [2] They show these approaches to focus control have comparable performance in the presence of atmospheric turbulence... Foucault B., Investigation of focus control for NGAS, Starfire Optical Range internal memo, 8 May 2007. 3. Goodman J., Introduction to Fourier Optics

  19. On the power and offset allocation for rate adaptation of spatial multiplexing in optical wireless MIMO channels

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2011-07-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) using optical sources which can be simultaneously utilized for illumination and communication is currently an attractive option for wireless personal area network. Improving the data rate in optical wireless communication system is challenging due to the limited bandwidth of the optical sources. In this paper, we design the singular value decomposition (SVD)- based multiplexing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system to support two data streams in optical wireless channels. Noting that the conventional allocation method in radio frequency (RF) MIMO channels cannot be applied directly to the optical intensity channels, we propose a novel method to allocate the optical power, the offset value and the modulation size for maximum sum rate under the constraints of the nonnegativity of the modulated signals, the aggregate optical power and the bit error rate (BER) requirement. The simulation results show that the proposed allocation method gives the better performance than the method to allocate the optical power equally for each data stream. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. In-the-plane design of an off-axis ophthalmic adaptive optics system using toroidal mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuolin; Kocaoglu, Omer P; Miller, Donald T

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopes have garnered increased clinical and scientific use for imaging the microscopic retina. Unlike conventional ophthalmoscopes, however, AO systems are commonly designed with spherical mirrors that must be used off-axis. This arrangement causes astigmatism to accumulate at the retina and pupil conjugate planes, degrading AO performance. To mitigate this effect and more fully tap the benefit of AO, we investigated a novel solution based on toroidal mirrors. Derived 2(nd) order analytic solutions along with commercial ray tracing predict performance benefit of toroidal mirrors for ophthalmoscopic use. For the Indiana AO ophthalmoscope, a minimum of three toroids is required to achieve performance criteria for retinal image quality, beam displacement, and beam ellipticity. Measurements with fabricated toroids and retinal imaging on subjects substantiate the theoretical predictions. Comparison to off-the-plane method is also presented.