WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptive optics imaging

  1. Adaptive optics imaging of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battu, Rajani; Dabir, Supriya; Khanna, Anjani; Kumar, Anupama Kiran; Roy, Abhijit Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive optics is a relatively new tool that is available to ophthalmologists for study of cellular level details. In addition to the axial resolution provided by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, adaptive optics provides an excellent lateral resolution, enabling visualization of the photoreceptors, blood vessels and details of the optic nerve head. We attempt a mini review of the current role of adaptive optics in retinal imaging. PubMed search was performed with key words Adaptive optics OR Retina OR Retinal imaging. Conference abstracts were searched from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) and American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) meetings. In total, 261 relevant publications and 389 conference abstracts were identified.

  2. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for retina imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua Shi; Yun Dai; Ling Wang; Zhihua Ding; Xuejun Rao; Yudong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    When optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used for human retina imaging, its transverse resolution is limited by the aberrations of human eyes. To overcome this disadvantage, a high resolution imaging system for living human retina, which consists of a time domain OCT system and a 37-elements adaptive optics (AO) system, has been developed. The AO closed loop rate is 20 frames per second, and the OCT has a 6.7-μm axial resolution. In this paper, this system is introduced and the high resolution imaging results for retina are presented.

  3. Hybrid Deconvolution of Adaptive Optics Retinal Images from Wavefront Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yu; RAO Chang-Hui; RAO Xue-Jun; WANG Cheng; YU Xiang; LIU Qian; XUE Li-Xia; LING Ning; JIANG Wen-Han

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive optics can be used to compensate for the wave aberration of the human eyes to achieve high-resolution imaging in real time.However the correction is partial due to the limitation of hardware.We propose a kind of hybrid image post-processing method.which uses the blind deconvolution combined with the residual data in wavefront sensor to restore the partially adaptive optics corrected retinal image.This method is applied in the image restoration of the vivid human retinal images.The results show that it is effective to improve the retinal image quality.

  4. Hybrid Deconvolution of Adaptive Optics Retinal Images from Wavefront Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaptive optics can be used to compensate for the wave aberration of the human eyes to achieve high-resolution imaging in real time. However the correction is partial due to the limitation of hardware. We propose a kind of hybrid image post-processing method, which uses the blind deconvolution combined with the residual data in wavefront sensor to restore the partially adaptive optics corrected retinal image. This method is applied in the image restoration of the vivid human retinal images. The results show that it is effective to improve the retinal image quality

  5. Contrast-based sensorless adaptive optics for retinal imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Bui, Bang; Nguyen, Christine T. O.; He, Zheng; Metha, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Conventional adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes use wavefront sensing methods to characterize ocular aberrations for real-time correction. However, there are important situations in which the wavefront sensing step is susceptible to difficulties that affect the accuracy of the correction. To circumvent these, wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (or non-wavefront sensing AO; NS-AO) imaging has recently been developed and has been applied to point-scanning based retinal imaging modalities. In thi...

  6. Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cua, Michelle; Wahl, Daniel J; Zhao, Yuan; Lee, Sujin; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2016-09-07

    Multiphoton microscopy enables imaging deep into scattering tissues. The efficient generation of non-linear optical effects is related to both the pulse duration (typically on the order of femtoseconds) and the size of the focused spot. Aberrations introduced by refractive index inhomogeneity in the sample distort the wavefront and enlarge the focal spot, which reduces the multiphoton signal. Traditional approaches to adaptive optics wavefront correction are not effective in thick or multi-layered scattering media. In this report, we present sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) using low-coherence interferometric detection of the excitation light for depth-resolved aberration correction of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in biological tissue. We demonstrate coherence-gated SAO TPEF using a transmissive multi-actuator adaptive lens for in vivo imaging in a mouse retina. This configuration has significant potential for reducing the laser power required for adaptive optics multiphoton imaging, and for facilitating integration with existing systems.

  7. Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cua, Michelle; Wahl, Daniel J.; Zhao, Yuan; Lee, Sujin; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy enables imaging deep into scattering tissues. The efficient generation of non-linear optical effects is related to both the pulse duration (typically on the order of femtoseconds) and the size of the focused spot. Aberrations introduced by refractive index inhomogeneity in the sample distort the wavefront and enlarge the focal spot, which reduces the multiphoton signal. Traditional approaches to adaptive optics wavefront correction are not effective in thick or multi-layered scattering media. In this report, we present sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) using low-coherence interferometric detection of the excitation light for depth-resolved aberration correction of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in biological tissue. We demonstrate coherence-gated SAO TPEF using a transmissive multi-actuator adaptive lens for in vivo imaging in a mouse retina. This configuration has significant potential for reducing the laser power required for adaptive optics multiphoton imaging, and for facilitating integration with existing systems. PMID:27599635

  8. Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cua, Michelle; Wahl, Daniel J; Zhao, Yuan; Lee, Sujin; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy enables imaging deep into scattering tissues. The efficient generation of non-linear optical effects is related to both the pulse duration (typically on the order of femtoseconds) and the size of the focused spot. Aberrations introduced by refractive index inhomogeneity in the sample distort the wavefront and enlarge the focal spot, which reduces the multiphoton signal. Traditional approaches to adaptive optics wavefront correction are not effective in thick or multi-layered scattering media. In this report, we present sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) using low-coherence interferometric detection of the excitation light for depth-resolved aberration correction of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in biological tissue. We demonstrate coherence-gated SAO TPEF using a transmissive multi-actuator adaptive lens for in vivo imaging in a mouse retina. This configuration has significant potential for reducing the laser power required for adaptive optics multiphoton imaging, and for facilitating integration with existing systems. PMID:27599635

  9. Limitations to adaptive optics image quality in rodent eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Metha, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) retinal image quality of rodent eyes is inferior to that of human eyes, despite the promise of greater numerical aperture. This paradox challenges several assumptions commonly made in AO imaging, assumptions which may be invalidated by the very high power and dioptric thickness of the rodent retina. We used optical modeling to compare the performance of rat and human eyes under conditions that tested the validity of these assumptions. Results showed that AO image quality ...

  10. Digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-11-01

    A digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging (DAOLCI) system is proposed by applying digital holographic adaptive optics to a digital form of line-scanning confocal imaging system. In DAOLCI, each line scan is recorded by a digital hologram, which allows access to the complex optical field from one slice of the sample through digital holography. This complex optical field contains both the information of one slice of the sample and the optical aberration of the system, thus allowing us to compensate for the effect of the optical aberration, which can be sensed by a complex guide star hologram. After numerical aberration compensation, the corrected optical fields of a sequence of line scans are stitched into the final corrected confocal image. In DAOLCI, a numerical slit is applied to realize the confocality at the sensor end. The width of this slit can be adjusted to control the image contrast and speckle noise for scattering samples. DAOLCI dispenses with the hardware pieces, such as Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and deformable mirror, and the closed-loop feedbacks adopted in the conventional adaptive optics confocal imaging system, thus reducing the optomechanical complexity and cost. Numerical simulations and proof-of-principle experiments are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of this idea.

  11. MICADO : The E-ELT adaptive optics imaging camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, Richard; Ageorges, N.; Barl, L.; Bedin, L. R.; Bender, R.; Bernardi, P.; Chapron, F.; Clenet, Y.; Deep, A.; Deul, E.; Drost, M.; Eisenhauer, F.; Falomo, R.; Fiorentino, G.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Gendron, E.; Genzel, R.; Gratadour, D.; Greggio, L.; Grupp, F.; Held, E.; Herbst, T.; Hess, H.-J.; Hubert, Z.; Jahnke, K.; Kuijken, K.; Lutz, D.; Magrin, D.; Muschielok, B.; Navarro, R.; Noyola, E.; Paumard, T.; Piotto, G.; Ragazzoni, R.; Renzini, A.; Rousset, G.; Rix, H.-W.; Saglia, R.; Tacconi, L.; Thiel, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Trippe, S.; Tromp, N.; Valentijn, E. A.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Wegner, M.; McLean, I.S.; Ramsay, S.K.; Takami, H.

    2010-01-01

    MICADO is the adaptive optics imaging camera for the E-ELT. It has been designed and optimised to be mounted to the LGS-MCAO system MAORY, and will provide diffraction limited imaging over a wide (~1 arcmin) field of view. For initial operations, it can also be used with its own simpler AO module th

  12. Contrast-based sensorless adaptive optics for retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Bui, Bang; Nguyen, Christine T O; He, Zheng; Metha, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Conventional adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes use wavefront sensing methods to characterize ocular aberrations for real-time correction. However, there are important situations in which the wavefront sensing step is susceptible to difficulties that affect the accuracy of the correction. To circumvent these, wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (or non-wavefront sensing AO; NS-AO) imaging has recently been developed and has been applied to point-scanning based retinal imaging modalities. In this study we show, for the first time, contrast-based NS-AO ophthalmoscopy for full-frame in vivo imaging of human and animal eyes. We suggest a robust image quality metric that could be used for any imaging modality, and test its performance against other metrics using (physical) model eyes. PMID:26417525

  13. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R; Rossi, Ethan A

    2015-06-01

    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2-3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5-0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05-0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3-5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7-1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07-0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing.

  14. Image restoration of the open-loop adaptive optics retinal imaging system based on optical transfer function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Qi, Yue; Li, Dayu; Xia, Mingliang; Xuan, Li

    2013-07-01

    The residual aberrations of the adaptive optics retinal imaging system will decrease the quality of the retinal images. To overcome this obstacle, we found that the optical transfer function (OTF) of the adaptive optics retinal imaging system can be described as the Levy stable distribution. Then a new method is introduced to estimate the OTF of the open-loop adaptive optics system, based on analyzing the residual aberrations of the open-loop adaptive optics system in the residual aberrations measuring mode. At last, the estimated OTF is applied to restore the retinal images of the open-loop adaptive optics retinal imaging system. The contrast and resolution of the restored image is significantly improved with the Laplacian sum (LS) from 0.0785 to 0.1480 and gray mean grads (GMG) from 0.0165 to 0.0306.

  15. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  16. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo retinal imaging in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jian, Yifan; Xu, Jing; Gradowski, Martin A.; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2014-01-01

    We present wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) for in vivo small animal retinal imaging. WSAO is attractive especially for mouse retinal imaging because it simplifies optical design and eliminates the need for wavefront sensing, which is difficult in the small animal eye. GPU accelerated processing of the OCT data permitted real-time extraction of image quality metrics (intensity) for arbitrarily selected retinal layers to be optimi...

  17. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J D; Goodman, J W

    1989-10-15

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by measuring and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The necessary control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time, which adds to the residual error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper investigates this possibility by studying the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for adaptive optics use.

  18. Adaptive optics imaging of low and intermediate redshift quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Márquez, I; Theodore, B; Bremer, M; Monnet, G; Beuzit, J L

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of adaptive-optics imaging in the H and K bands of 12 low and intermediate redshift (z15.0) themselves as reference for the correction, have typical spatial resolution of FWHM~0.3 arcsec before deconvolution. The deconvolved H-band image of PG1700+514 has a spatial resolution of 0.16 arcsec and reveals a wealth of details on the companion and the host-galaxy. Four out of the twelve quasars have close companions and obvious signs of interactions. The two-dimensional images of three of the host-galaxies unambiguously reveal bars and spiral arms. The morphology of the other objects are difficult to determine from one dimensional surface brightness profile and deeper images are needed. Analysis of mocked data shows that elliptical galaxies are always recognized as such, whereas disk hosts can be missed for small disk scale lengths and large QSO contributions.

  19. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merino D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available David Merino, Pablo Loza-Alvarez The Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Adaptive optics (AO retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it. Keywords: high-resolution, in vivo retinal imaging, AOSLO

  20. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it.

  1. Adaptive Optics and Lucky Imager (AOLI): presentation and first light

    CERN Document Server

    Velasco, S; Mackay, C; Oscoz, A; King, D L; Crass, J; Díaz-Sánchez, A; Femenía, B; González-Escalera, V; Labadie, L; López, R L; Garrido, A Pérez; Puga, M; Rodríguez-Ramos, L F; Zuther, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI), a state-of-the-art instrument which makes use of two well proved techniques for extremely high spatial resolution with ground-based telescopes: Lucky Imaging (LI) and Adaptive Optics (AO). AOLI comprises an AO system, including a low order non-linear curvature wavefront sensor together with a 241 actuators deformable mirror, a science array of four 1024x1024 EMCCDs, allowing a 120x120 down to 36x36 arcseconds field of view, a calibration subsystem and a powerful LI software. Thanks to the revolutionary WFS, AOLI shall have the capability of using faint reference stars ({\\it I\\/} $\\sim$ 16.5-17.5), enabling it to be used over a much wider part of the sky than with common Shack-Hartmann AO systems. This instrument saw first light in September 2013 at William Herschel Telescope. Although the instrument was not complete, these commissioning demonstrated its feasibility, obtaining a FWHM for the best PSF of 0.151$\\pm$0.005 arcsec and a plate scale o...

  2. Adaptive Optics Imaging Survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laag, E A; Canalizo, G; van Breugel, W; Gates, E L; de Vries, W; Stanford, S A

    2006-03-13

    We present high resolution imaging observations of a sample of previously unidentified far-infrared galaxies at z < 0.3. The objects were selected by cross-correlating the IRAS Faint Source Catalog with the VLA FIRST catalog and the HST Guide Star Catalog to allow for adaptive optics observations. We found two new ULIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 12} L{sub {circle_dot}}) and 19 new LIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 11} L{sub {circle_dot}}). Twenty of the galaxies in the sample were imaged with either the Lick or Keck adaptive optics systems in H or K{prime}. Galaxy morphologies were determined using the two dimensional fitting program GALFIT and the residuals examined to look for interesting structure. The morphologies reveal that at least 30% are involved in tidal interactions, with 20% being clear mergers. An additional 50% show signs of possible interaction. Line ratios were used to determine powering mechanism; of the 17 objects in the sample showing clear emission lines--four are active galactic nuclei and seven are starburst galaxies. The rest exhibit a combination of both phenomena.

  3. MICADO: the E-ELT Adaptive Optics Imaging Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, R

    2010-01-01

    MICADO is the adaptive optics imaging camera for the E-ELT. It has been designed and optimised to be mounted to the LGS-MCAO system MAORY, and will provide diffraction limited imaging over a wide (about 1 arcmin) field of view. For initial operations, it can also be used with its own simpler AO module that provides on-axis diffraction limited performance using natural guide stars. We discuss the instrument's key capabilities and expected performance, and show how the science drivers have shaped its design. We outline the technical concept, from the opto-mechanical design to operations and data processing. We describe the AO module, summarise the instrument performance, and indicate some possible future developments.

  4. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  5. Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ying; Dubra, Alfredo; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H; Sharma, Robin; Libby, Richard T; Williams, David R

    2012-04-01

    Correction of the eye's monochromatic aberrations using adaptive optics (AO) can improve the resolution of in vivo mouse retinal images [Biss et al., Opt. Lett. 32(6), 659 (2007) and Alt et al., Proc. SPIE 7550, 755019 (2010)], but previous attempts have been limited by poor spot quality in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS). Recent advances in mouse eye wavefront sensing using an adjustable focus beacon with an annular beam profile have improved the wavefront sensor spot quality [Geng et al., Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 717 (2011)], and we have incorporated them into a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). The performance of the instrument was tested on the living mouse eye, and images of multiple retinal structures, including the photoreceptor mosaic, nerve fiber bundles, fine capillaries and fluorescently labeled ganglion cells were obtained. The in vivo transverse and axial resolutions of the fluorescence channel of the AOSLO were estimated from the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the line and point spread functions (LSF and PSF), and were found to be better than 0.79 μm ± 0.03 μm (STD)(45% wider than the diffraction limit) and 10.8 μm ± 0.7 μm (STD)(two times the diffraction limit), respectively. The axial positional accuracy was estimated to be 0.36 μm. This resolution and positional accuracy has allowed us to classify many ganglion cell types, such as bistratified ganglion cells, in vivo.

  6. Micron narrowband adaptive optics imaging in the arches cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, R D; Pasquali, A; Heydari-Malayeri, M; Conti, P S; Schmutz, W

    2001-01-01

    Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope adaptive optics bonnette images through narrow-band filters in the $K-$band are presented for the Arches cluster. Continuum fluxes, line fluxes, and equivalent widths are derived from high angular resolution images, some near diffraction limited, for the well known massive stars in the Arches cluster. Images were obtained in the lines of \\ion{He}{1} 2.06 \\mic, \\ion{H}{1} Br$\\gamma$ (2.17 \\mic), and \\ion{He}{2} 2.19 \\mic as well as continuum positions at 2.03 \\mic, 2.14 \\mic, and 2.26 \\mic. In addition, fluxes are presented for \\ion{H}{1} P$\\alpha$ (1.87 \\mic) and a nearby continuum position (1.90 \\mic) from Hubble Space Telescope archival data. The 2 \\mic and P$\\alpha$ data reveal two new emission-line stars and three fainter candidate emission-line objects. Indications for a spectral change of one object between earlier observations in 1992/1993 and our data from 1999 are found. The ratio of \\ion{He}{2} 2.19 \\mic to Br$\\gamma$ emission exhibits a narrow distribution among the s...

  7. Principles of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    History and BackgroundIntroductionHistoryPhysical OpticsTerms in Adaptive OpticsSources of AberrationsAtmospheric TurbulenceThermal BloomingNonatmospheric SourcesAdaptive Optics CompensationPhase ConjugationLimitations of Phase ConjugationArtificial Guide StarsLasers for Guide StarsCombining the LimitationsLinear AnalysisPartial Phase ConjugationAdaptive Optics SystemsAdaptive Optics Imaging SystemsBeam Propagation Syst

  8. Coherence gated wavefront sensorless adaptive optics for two photon excited fluorescence retinal imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel system for adaptive optics two photon imaging. We utilize the bandwidth of the femtosecond excitation beam to perform coherence gated imaging (OCT) of the sample. The location of the focus is directly observable in the cross sectional OCT images, and adjusted to the desired depth plane. Next, using real time volumetric OCT, we perform Wavefront Sensorless Adaptive Optics (WSAO) aberration correction using a multi-element adaptive lens capable of correcting up to 4th order Zernike polynomials. The aberration correction is performed based on an image quality metric, for example intensity. The optimization time is limited only by the OCT acquisition rate, and takes ~30s. Following aberration correction, two photon fluorescence images are acquired, and compared to results without adaptive optics correction. This technique is promising for multiphoton imaging in multi-layered, scattering samples such as eye and brain, in which traditional wavefront sensing and guide-star sensorless adaptive optics approaches may not be suitable.

  9. High-resolution Imaging of Living Retina through Optic Adaptive Retinal Imaging System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhui Jiang; Wenji Wang; Ning Ling; Gezhi Xu; Xuejun Rao; Xinyang Li; Yudong Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the possibility as well as the usage of adaptive optics in high-resolution retinal imaging.Methods:From March to November 2001, the fundus of 25 adults were checked by using Optic Adaptive Retinal Imaging System (OAS). The age of the subjects varied from 18~48 years. All had normal visual acuity from 0.9 to 1.0. No abnormality was found in the ocular examination, and their medical as well as ocular history was unremarkable. Results: High-resolution images of the retinal cells, photoreceptor and bipolar cell, were analysed. In these images, the cells are clearly resolved. The density of the photoreceptor at area 1.5 degree from the foveloa is around 40 000~50 000/mm2. At area 3 degree, it drops to less than 30 000/mm2.Conclusion:Optic Adaptive Retinal Imaging System (AOS) is able to get high-resolution image of retinal cells in living human eyes. It may be widely used in ophthalmology experimentally and clinically.

  10. Closed-loop optical stabilization and digital image registration in adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Nozato, Koji; Saito, Kenichi; Williams, David R; Roorda, Austin; Rossi, Ethan A

    2014-09-01

    Eye motion is a major impediment to the efficient acquisition of high resolution retinal images with the adaptive optics (AO) scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). Here we demonstrate a solution to this problem by implementing both optical stabilization and digital image registration in an AOSLO. We replaced the slow scanning mirror with a two-axis tip/tilt mirror for the dual functions of slow scanning and optical stabilization. Closed-loop optical stabilization reduced the amplitude of eye-movement related-image motion by a factor of 10-15. The residual RMS error after optical stabilization alone was on the order of the size of foveal cones: ~1.66-2.56 μm or ~0.34-0.53 arcmin with typical fixational eye motion for normal observers. The full implementation, with real-time digital image registration, corrected the residual eye motion after optical stabilization with an accuracy of ~0.20-0.25 μm or ~0.04-0.05 arcmin RMS, which to our knowledge is more accurate than any method previously reported.

  11. Integrated adaptive optics optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope system for simultaneous cellular resolution in vivo retinal imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zawadzki, RJ; Jones, SM; Pilli, S; Balderas-Mata, S; Kim, DY; Olivier, SS; Werner, JS

    2011-01-01

    We describe an ultrahigh-resolution (UHR) retinal imaging system that combines adaptive optics Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) to allow simultaneous data acquisition by the two modalities. The AO-SLO subsystem was integrated into the previously described AO-UHR OCT instrument with minimal changes to the latter. This was done in order to ensure optimal performance and image quality of the AO- UHR OCT. In this d...

  12. Adaptive optics OCT using 1060nm swept source and dual deformable lenses for human retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yifan; Lee, Sujin; Cua, Michelle; Miao, Dongkai; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive optics concepts have been applied to the advancement of biological imaging and microscopy. In particular, AO has also been very successfully applied to cellular resolution imaging of the retina, enabling visualization of the characteristic mosaic patterns of the outer retinal layers using flood illumination fundus photography, Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Despite the high quality of the in vivo images, there has been a limited uptake of AO imaging into the clinical environment. The high resolution afforded by AO comes at the price of limited field of view and specialized equipment. The implementation of a typical adaptive optics imaging system results in a relatively large and complex optical setup. The wavefront measurement is commonly performed using a Hartmann-Shack Wavefront Sensor (HS-WFS) placed at an image plane that is optically conjugated to the eye's pupil. The deformable mirror is also placed at a conjugate plane, relaying the wavefront corrections to the pupil. Due to the sensitivity of the HS-WFS to back-reflections, the imaging system is commonly constructed from spherical mirrors. In this project, we present a novel adaptive optics OCT retinal imaging system with significant potential to overcome many of the barriers to integration with a clinical environment. We describe in detail the implementation of a compact lens based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) 1060nm swept source OCT human retinal imaging system with dual deformable lenses, and present retinal images acquired in vivo from research volunteers.

  13. “Lucky Averaging”: Quality improvement on Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope Images

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Gang; Zhong, Zhangyi; Zou, Weiyao; Burns, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive optics(AO) has greatly improved retinal image resolution. However, even with AO, temporal and spatial variations in image quality still occur due to wavefront fluctuations, intra-frame focus shifts and other factors. As a result, aligning and averaging images can produce a mean image that has lower resolution or contrast than the best images within a sequence. To address this, we propose an image post-processing scheme called “lucky averaging”, analogous to lucky imaging (Fried, 1978...

  14. Quality evaluation of adaptive optical image based on DCT and Rényi entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuannan; Li, Junwei; Wang, Jing; Deng, Rong; Dong, Yanbing

    2015-04-01

    The adaptive optical telescopes play a more and more important role in the detection system on the ground, and the adaptive optical images are so many that we need find a suitable method of quality evaluation to choose good quality images automatically in order to save human power. It is well known that the adaptive optical images are no-reference images. In this paper, a new logarithmic evaluation method based on the use of the discrete cosine transform(DCT) and Rényi entropy for the adaptive optical images is proposed. Through the DCT using one or two dimension window, the statistical property of Rényi entropy for images is studied. The different directional Rényi entropy maps of an input image containing different information content are obtained. The mean values of different directional Rényi entropy maps are calculated. For image quality evaluation, the different directional Rényi entropy and its standard deviation corresponding to region of interest is selected as an indicator for the anisotropy of the images. The standard deviation of different directional Rényi entropy is obtained as the quality evaluation value for adaptive optical image. Experimental results show the proposed method that the sorting quality matches well with the visual inspection.

  15. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, R. Daniel; Zhong, Zhangyi; Hammer, Daniel X.; Mujat, Mircea; Patel, Ankit H.; Deng, Cong; Zou, Weiyao; Burns, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a new, unified implementation of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) incorporating a wide-field line-scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) and a closed-loop optical retinal tracker. AOSLO raster scans are deflected by the integrated tracking mirrors so that direct AOSLO stabilization is automatic during tracking. The wide-field imager and large-spherical-mirror optical interface design, as well as a large-stroke deformable mirror (DM), enable the AOSLO image fi...

  16. AVES-IMCO: an adaptive optics visible spectrograph and imager/coronograph for NAOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Lagrange, A.-M.; Mouillet, D.; Chauvin, G.; Stadler, E.; Charton, J.; Lacombe, F.; AVES-IMCO Team

    2001-05-01

    The NAOS adaptive optics system will very soon provide diffraction-limited images on the VLT, down to the visible wavelengths (0.020 arcseconds at 0.83 micron for instance). At the moment, the only instrument dedicated to NAOS is the CONICA spectro-imager, operating in the near-infrared from 1 to 5 microns. We are now proposing to ESO, in collaboration with an Italian group, the development of a visible spectrograph/imager/coronograph, AVES-IMCO (Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and IMager/COronograph). We present here the general concept of the new instrument as well as its expected performances in the different modes.

  17. Images of photoreceptors in living primate eyes using adaptive optics two-photon ophthalmoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Jennifer J.; Masella, Benjamin; Dubra, Alfredo; Sharma, Robin; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Palczewska, Grazyna; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Williams, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo two-photon imaging through the pupil of the primate eye has the potential to become a useful tool for functional imaging of the retina. Two-photon excited fluorescence images of the macaque cone mosaic were obtained using a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope, overcoming the challenges of a low numerical aperture, imperfect optics of the eye, high required light levels, and eye motion. Although the specific fluorophores are as yet unknown, strong in vivo intrins...

  18. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy.

  19. Integrated adaptive optics optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope system for simultaneous cellular resolution in vivo retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J; Jones, Steven M; Pilli, Suman; Balderas-Mata, Sandra; Kim, Dae Yu; Olivier, Scot S; Werner, John S

    2011-06-01

    We describe an ultrahigh-resolution (UHR) retinal imaging system that combines adaptive optics Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) to allow simultaneous data acquisition by the two modalities. The AO-SLO subsystem was integrated into the previously described AO-UHR OCT instrument with minimal changes to the latter. This was done in order to ensure optimal performance and image quality of the AO- UHR OCT. In this design both imaging modalities share most of the optical components including a common AO-subsystem and vertical scanner. One of the benefits of combining Fd-OCT with SLO includes automatic co-registration between two acquisition channels for direct comparison between retinal structures imaged by both modalities (e.g., photoreceptor mosaics or microvasculature maps). Because of differences in the detection scheme of the two systems, this dual imaging modality instrument can provide insight into retinal morphology and potentially function, that could not be accessed easily by a single system. In this paper we describe details of the components and parameters of the combined instrument, including incorporation of a novel membrane magnetic deformable mirror with increased stroke and actuator count used as a single wavefront corrector. We also discuss laser safety calculations for this multimodal system. Finally, retinal images acquired in vivo with this system are presented.

  20. Imaging human retinal pigment epithelium cells using adaptive optics optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuolin; Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Turner, Timothy L.; Miller, Donald T.

    2016-03-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are vital to health of the outer retina, but are often compromised in ageing and major ocular diseases that lead to blindness. Early manifestation of RPE disruption occurs at the cellular level, and while biomarkers at this scale hold considerable promise, RPE cells have proven extremely challenging to image in the living human eye. We present a novel method based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) equipped with adaptive optics (AO) that overcomes the associated technical obstacles. The method takes advantage of the 3D resolution of AO-OCT, but more critically sub-cellular segmentation and registration that permit organelle motility to be used as a novel contrast mechanism. With this method, we successfully visualized RPE cells and characterized their 3D reflectance profile in every subject and retinal location (3° and 7° temporal to the fovea) imaged to date. We have quantified RPE packing geometry in terms of cell density, cone-to-RPE ratio, and number of nearest neighbors using Voronoi and power spectra analyses. RPE cell density (cells/mm2) showed no significant difference between 3° (4,892+/-691) and 7° (4,780+/-354). In contrast, cone-to- RPE ratio was significantly higher at 3° (3.88+/-0.52:1) than 7° (2.31+/- 0.23:1). Voronoi analysis also showed most RPE cells have six nearest neighbors, which was significantly larger than the next two most prevalent associations: five and seven. Averaged across the five subjects, prevalence of cells with six neighbors was 51.4+/-3.58% at 3°, and 54.58+/-3.01% at 7°. These results are consistent with histology and in vivo studies using other imaging modalities.

  1. Registration of adaptive optics corrected retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) images

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaswamy, Gomathy; Lombardo, Marco; Devaney, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the western world. Investigation of high-resolution retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) images in patients may lead to new indicators of its onset. Adaptive optics (AO) can provide diffraction-limited images of the retina, providing new opportunities for earlier detection of neuroretinal pathologies. However, precise processing is required to correct for three effects in sequences of AO-assisted, flood-illumination images: uneven illumina...

  2. Real-time blind deconvolution of retinal images in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Lu, Jing; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2011-06-01

    With the use of adaptive optics (AO), the ocular aberrations can be compensated to get high-resolution image of living human retina. However, the wavefront correction is not perfect due to the wavefront measure error and hardware restrictions. Thus, it is necessary to use a deconvolution algorithm to recover the retinal images. In this paper, a blind deconvolution technique called Incremental Wiener filter is used to restore the adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images. The point-spread function (PSF) measured by wavefront sensor is only used as an initial value of our algorithm. We also realize the Incremental Wiener filter on graphics processing unit (GPU) in real-time. When the image size is 512 × 480 pixels, six iterations of our algorithm only spend about 10 ms. Retinal blood vessels as well as cells in retinal images are restored by our algorithm, and the PSFs are also revised. Retinal images with and without adaptive optics are both restored. The results show that Incremental Wiener filter reduces the noises and improve the image quality.

  3. Neptune’s zonal winds from near-IR Keck adaptive optics imaging in August 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, S.C.; De Pater, I.; Marcus, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present H-band (1.4–1.8 μm) images of Neptune with a spatial resolution of ∼0.06″, taken with the W.M. Keck II telescope using the slit-viewing camera (SCAM) of the NIRSPEC instrument backed with Adaptive Optics. Images with 60-second integration times span 4 hours each on UT 20 and 21 August, 20

  4. High resolution mosaic image of capillaries in human retina by adaptive optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ling; Yudong Zhang; Xuejun Rao; Cheng Wang; Yiyun Hu; Wenhan Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) has been proved as a powerful means for high resolution imaging of human retina.Because of the pixel number of charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, the field of view is limited to 1°.In order to have image of capillaries around vivo human fovea, we use mosaic method to obtain high resolution image in area of 6°× 6°. Detailed structures of capillaries around fovea with resolution of 2.3μm are clearly shown. Comparison shows that this method has a much higher resolution than current clinic retina imaging methods.

  5. Adaptive optics instrument for long-range imaging. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T.M.

    1998-06-01

    The science and history of imaging through a turbulent atmosphere is reviewed in detail. Traditional methods for reducing the effects of turbulence are presented. A simplified method for turbulence reduction called the Sheared Coherent Interferometric Photography (SCIP) method is presented. Implementation of SCIP is discussed along with experimental results. Limitations in the use of this method are discussed along with recommendations for future improvements.

  6. Adaptive optics imaging of the outer retinal tubules in Bietti's crystalline dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battu, R; Akkali, M C; Bhanushali, D; Srinivasan, P; Shetty, R; Berendschot, T T J M; Schouten, J S A G; Webers, C A

    2016-05-01

    PurposeTo study the outer retinal tubules using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics and in patients with Bietti's crystalline dystrophy.MethodsTen eyes of five subjects from five independent families with Bietti's crystalline Dystrophy (BCD) were characterized with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), full-field electroretinography, and fundus autofluorescence (FAF). High-resolution images were obtained with the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and adaptive optics (AO).ResultsSD-OCT showed prominent outer retinal layer loss and outer retinal tubulations at the margin of outer retinal loss. AO images displayed prominent macrotubules and microtubules with characteristic features in eight out of the 10 eyes. Crystals were present in all ten eyes. There was a reduction in the cone count in all eyes in the area outside the outer retinal tubules (ORT).ConclusionsThis study describes the morphology of the outer retinal tubules when imaged enface on the adaptive optics in patients with BCD. These findings provide insight into the macular structure of these patients. This may have prognostic implications and refine the study on the pathogenesis of BCD.

  7. Wavefront sensorless approaches to adaptive optics for in vivo fluorescence imaging of mouse retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Daniel J.; Bonora, Stefano; Mata, Oscar S.; Haunerland, Bengt K.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Jian, Yifan

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is necessary to correct aberrations when imaging the mouse eye with high numerical aperture. In order to obtain cellular resolution, we have implemented wavefront sensorless adaptive optics for in vivo fluorescence imaging of mouse retina. Our approach includes a lens-based system and MEMS deformable mirror for aberration correction. The AO system was constructed with a reflectance channel for structural images and fluorescence channel for functional images. The structural imaging was used in real-time for navigation on the retina using landmarks such as blood vessels. We have also implemented a tunable liquid lens to select the retinal layer of interest at which to perform the optimization. At the desired location on the mouse retina, the optimization algorithm used the fluorescence image data to drive a modal hill-climbing algorithm using an intensity or sharpness image quality metric. The optimization requires ~30 seconds to complete a search up to the 20th Zernike mode. In this report, we have demonstrated the AO performance for high-resolution images of the capillaries in a fluorescence angiography. We have also made progress on an approach to AO with pupil segmentation as a possible sensorless technique suitable for small animal retinal imaging. Pupil segmentation AO was implemented on the same ophthalmic system and imaging performance was demonstrated on fluorescent beads with induced aberrations.

  8. Images of photoreceptors in living primate eyes using adaptive optics two-photon ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer J; Masella, Benjamin; Dubra, Alfredo; Sharma, Robin; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H; Palczewska, Grazyna; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Williams, David R

    2010-01-01

    In vivo two-photon imaging through the pupil of the primate eye has the potential to become a useful tool for functional imaging of the retina. Two-photon excited fluorescence images of the macaque cone mosaic were obtained using a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope, overcoming the challenges of a low numerical aperture, imperfect optics of the eye, high required light levels, and eye motion. Although the specific fluorophores are as yet unknown, strong in vivo intrinsic fluorescence allowed images of the cone mosaic. Imaging intact ex vivo retina revealed that the strongest two-photon excited fluorescence signal comes from the cone inner segments. The fluorescence response increased following light stimulation, which could provide a functional measure of the effects of light on photoreceptors. PMID:21326644

  9. Determining the imaging plane of a retinal capillary layer in adaptive optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le-Bao; Hu, Li-Fa; Li, Da-Yu; Cao, Zhao-Liang; Mu, Quan-Quan; Ma, Ji; Xuan, Li

    2016-09-01

    Even in the early stage, endocrine metabolism disease may lead to micro aneurysms in retinal capillaries whose diameters are less than 10 μm. However, the fundus cameras used in clinic diagnosis can only obtain images of vessels larger than 20 μm in diameter. The human retina is a thin and multiple layer tissue, and the layer of capillaries less than 10 μm in diameter only exists in the inner nuclear layer. The layer thickness of capillaries less than 10 μm in diameter is about 40 μm and the distance range to rod&cone cell surface is tens of micrometers, which varies from person to person. Therefore, determining reasonable capillary layer (CL) position in different human eyes is very difficult. In this paper, we propose a method to determine the position of retinal CL based on the rod&cone cell layer. The public positions of CL are recognized with 15 subjects from 40 to 59 years old, and the imaging planes of CL are calculated by the effective focal length of the human eye. High resolution retinal capillary imaging results obtained from 17 subjects with a liquid crystal adaptive optics system (LCAOS) validate our method. All of the subjects’ CLs have public positions from 127 μm to 147 μm from the rod&cone cell layer, which is influenced by the depth of focus. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174274, 11174279, 61205021, 11204299, 61475152, and 61405194).

  10. Enhancement and bias removal of optical coherence tomography images: An iterative approach with adaptive bilateral filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, P V; Issac Niwas, S; Palanisamy, P; Rajan, Jeny; Xiaojun, Yu; Wang, Xianghong; Luo, Yuemei; Liu, Linbo

    2016-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has continually evolved and expanded as one of the most valuable routine tests in ophthalmology. However, noise (speckle) in the acquired images causes quality degradation of OCT images and makes it difficult to analyze the acquired images. In this paper, an iterative approach based on bilateral filtering is proposed for speckle reduction in multiframe OCT data. Gamma noise model is assumed for the observed OCT image. First, the adaptive version of the conventional bilateral filter is applied to enhance the multiframe OCT data and then the bias due to noise is reduced from each of the filtered frames. These unbiased filtered frames are then refined using an iterative approach. Finally, these refined frames are averaged to produce the denoised OCT image. Experimental results on phantom images and real OCT retinal images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed filter. PMID:26907572

  11. Registration of adaptive optics corrected retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Gomathy; Lombardo, Marco; Devaney, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the western world. Investigation of high-resolution retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) images in patients may lead to new indicators of its onset. Adaptive optics (AO) can provide diffraction-limited images of the retina, providing new opportunities for earlier detection of neuroretinal pathologies. However, precise processing is required to correct for three effects in sequences of AO-assisted, flood-illumination images: uneven illumination, residual image motion and image rotation. This processing can be challenging for images of the RNFL due to their low contrast and lack of clearly noticeable features. Here we develop specific processing techniques and show that their application leads to improved image quality on the nerve fiber bundles. This in turn improves the reliability of measures of fiber texture such as the correlation of Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM).

  12. Top-Down Visual Saliency Detection in Optical Satellite Images Based on Local Adaptive Regression Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel top-down visual saliency detection method for optical satellite images using local adaptive regression kernels. This method provides a saliency map by measuring the likeness of image patches to a given single template image. The local adaptive regression kernel (LARK is used as a descriptor to extract feature and compare against analogous feature from the target image. A multi-scale pyramid of the target image is constructed to cope with large-scale variations. In addition, accounting for rotation variations, the histogram of kernel orientation is employed to estimate the rotation angle of image patch, and then comparison is performed after rotating the patch by the estimated angle. Moreover, we use the bounded partial correlation (BPC to compare features between image patches and the template so as to rapidly generate the saliency map. Experiments were performed in optical satellite images to find airplanes, and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and robust in complex scenes.

  13. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics fluorescence biomicroscope for in vivo retinal imaging in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Daniel J; Jian, Yifan; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2016-01-01

    Cellular-resolution in vivo fluorescence imaging is a valuable tool for longitudinal studies of retinal function in vision research. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) is a developing technology that enables high-resolution imaging of the mouse retina. In place of the conventional method of using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to measure the aberrations directly, WSAO uses an image quality metric and a search algorithm to drive the shape of the adaptive element (i.e. deformable mirror). WSAO is a robust approach to AO and it is compatible with a compact, low-cost lens-based system. In this report, we demonstrated a hill-climbing algorithm for WSAO with a variable focus lens and deformable mirror for non-invasive in vivo imaging of EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) labelled ganglion cells and microglia cells in the mouse retina.

  14. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics fluorescence biomicroscope for in vivo retinal imaging in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Daniel J; Jian, Yifan; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2016-01-01

    Cellular-resolution in vivo fluorescence imaging is a valuable tool for longitudinal studies of retinal function in vision research. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) is a developing technology that enables high-resolution imaging of the mouse retina. In place of the conventional method of using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to measure the aberrations directly, WSAO uses an image quality metric and a search algorithm to drive the shape of the adaptive element (i.e. deformable mirror). WSAO is a robust approach to AO and it is compatible with a compact, low-cost lens-based system. In this report, we demonstrated a hill-climbing algorithm for WSAO with a variable focus lens and deformable mirror for non-invasive in vivo imaging of EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) labelled ganglion cells and microglia cells in the mouse retina. PMID:26819812

  15. A method for space-variant deblurring with application to adaptive optics imaging in astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    La Camera, Andrea; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Boccacci, Patrizia; Bertero, Mario; Bellazzini, Michele; Ciliegi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Images from adaptive optics systems are generally affected by significant distortions of the point spread function (PSF) across the field of view, depending on the position of natural and artificial guide stars. Image reduction techniques circumventing or mitigating these effects are important tools to take full advantage of the scientific information encoded in AO images. The aim of this paper is to propose a method for the deblurring of the astronomical image, given a set of samples of the space-variant PSF. The method is based on a partitioning of the image domain into regions of isoplanatism and on applying suitable deconvolution methods with boundary effects correction to each region. The effectiveness of the boundary effects correction is proved. Moreover, the criterion for extending the disjoint sections to partially overlapping sections is validated. The method is applied to simulated images of a stellar system characterized by a spatially variable PSF. We obtain good photometric quality, and therefor...

  16. 3-D Adaptive Sparsity Based Image Compression With Applications to Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Leyuan; Li, Shutao; Kang, Xudong; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-06-01

    We present a novel general-purpose compression method for tomographic images, termed 3D adaptive sparse representation based compression (3D-ASRC). In this paper, we focus on applications of 3D-ASRC for the compression of ophthalmic 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The 3D-ASRC algorithm exploits correlations among adjacent OCT images to improve compression performance, yet is sensitive to preserving their differences. Due to the inherent denoising mechanism of the sparsity based 3D-ASRC, the quality of the compressed images are often better than the raw images they are based on. Experiments on clinical-grade retinal OCT images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed 3D-ASRC over other well-known compression methods. PMID:25561591

  17. Optical Digital Imitation Painting Design Based on Self-Adaptive Image Feature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Liyan; Qin Jianfei; Qu Liyong; Song Shuwei; Xu Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the study of existing digital imitation camouflage technology, we propose a kind of optical digital imitation camouflage design algorithm which is based on the characteristic of self-adaptive image. Picking main color feature of the background by using K-means clustering algorithm, counting the shape characteristics of each main color spots by separating layers, we generated digital camouflage pattern automatically by segmenting the background region characteristics and fill the back...

  18. Solar tomography adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang

    2014-03-10

    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  19. Length-adaptive graph search for automatic segmentation of pathological features in optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brenton; Cunefare, David; Grewal, Dilraj S.; Mahmoud, Tamer H.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a metric in graph search and demonstrate its application for segmenting retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of macular pathology. Our proposed "adjusted mean arc length" (AMAL) metric is an adaptation of the lowest mean arc length search technique for automated OCT segmentation. We compare this method to Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm, which we utilized previously in our popular graph theory and dynamic programming segmentation technique. As an illustrative example, we show that AMAL-based length-adaptive segmentation outperforms the shortest path in delineating the retina/vitreous boundary of patients with full-thickness macular holes when compared with expert manual grading.

  20. MAD Adaptive Optics Imaging of High Luminosity Quasars: A Pilot Project

    CERN Document Server

    Liuzzo, E; Paiano, S; Treves, A; Uslenghi, M; Arcidiacono, C; Baruffolo, A; Diolaiti, E; Farinato, J; Lombini, M; Moretti, A; Ragazzoni, R; Brast, R; Donaldson, R; Kolb, J; Marchetti, E; Tordo, S

    2016-01-01

    We present near-IR images of five luminous quasars at z~2 and one at z~4 obtained with an experimental adaptive optics instrument at the ESO Very Large Telescope. The observations are part of a program aimed at demonstrating the capabilities of multi-conjugated adaptive optics imaging combined with the use of natural guide stars for high spatial resolution studies on large telescopes. The observations were mostly obtained under poor seeing conditions but in two cases. In spite of these non optimal conditions, the resulting images of point sources have cores of FWHM ~0.2 arcsec. We are able to characterize the host galaxy properties for 2 sources and set stringent upper limits to the galaxy luminosity for the others. We also report on the expected capabilities for investigating the host galaxies of distant quasars with adaptive optics systems coupled with future Extremely Large Telescopes. Detailed simulations show that it will be possible to characterize compact (2-3 kpc) quasar host galaxies for QSOs at z = ...

  1. High-Contrast Imaging using Adaptive Optics for Extrasolar Planet Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Julia Wilhelmsen [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Direct imaging of extrasolar planets is an important, but challenging, next step in planetary science. Most planets identified to date have been detected indirectly--not by emitted or reflected light but through the effect of the planet on the parent star. For example, radial velocity techniques measure the doppler shift in the spectrum of the star produced by the presence of a planet. Indirect techniques only probe about 15% of the orbital parameter space of our solar system. Direct methods would probe new parameter space, and the detected light can be analyzed spectroscopically, providing new information about detected planets. High contrast adaptive optics systems, also known as Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO), will require contrasts of between 10-6 and 10-7 at angles of 4-24 λ/D on an 8-m class telescope to image young Jupiter-like planets still warm with the heat of formation. Contrast is defined as the intensity ratio of the dark wings of the image, where a planet might be, to the bright core of the star. Such instruments will be technically challenging, requiring high order adaptive optics with > 2000 actuators and improved diffraction suppression. Contrast is ultimately limited by residual static wavefront errors, so an extrasolar planet imager will require wavefront control with an accuracy of better than 1 nm rms within the low- to mid-spatial frequency range. Laboratory demonstrations are critical to instrument development. The ExAO testbed at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics was designed with low wavefront error and precision optical metrology, which is used to explore contrast limits and develop the technology needed for an extrasolar planet imager. A state-of-the-art, 1024-actuator micro-electrical-mechanical-systems (MEMS) deformable mirror was installed and characterized to provide active wavefront control and test this novel technology. I present 6.5 x 10-8 contrast measurements with a prolate shaped pupil and

  2. High-resolution in-depth imaging of optically cleared thick samples using an adaptive SPIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Aurore; Escande, Paul; Frongia, Céline; Clouvel, Grégory; Ducommun, Bernard; Lorenzo, Corinne

    2015-11-01

    Today, Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) makes it possible to image fluorescent samples through depths of several hundreds of microns. However, LSFM also suffers from scattering, absorption and optical aberrations. Spatial variations in the refractive index inside the samples cause major changes to the light path resulting in loss of signal and contrast in the deepest regions, thus impairing in-depth imaging capability. These effects are particularly marked when inhomogeneous, complex biological samples are under study. Recently, chemical treatments have been developed to render a sample transparent by homogenizing its refractive index (RI), consequently enabling a reduction of scattering phenomena and a simplification of optical aberration patterns. One drawback of these methods is that the resulting RI of cleared samples does not match the working RI medium generally used for LSFM lenses. This RI mismatch leads to the presence of low-order aberrations and therefore to a significant degradation of image quality. In this paper, we introduce an original optical-chemical combined method based on an adaptive SPIM and a water-based clearing protocol enabling compensation for aberrations arising from RI mismatches induced by optical clearing methods and acquisition of high-resolution in-depth images of optically cleared complex thick samples such as Multi-Cellular Tumour Spheroids.

  3. Adaptive anisotropic diffusion for noise reduction of phase images in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Peng, Shizhao; Wu, Yanfeng; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-08-01

    Phase image in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography offers additional flow information of investigated samples, which provides valuable evidence towards accurate medical diagnosis. High quality phase images are thus desirable. We propose a noise reduction method for phase images by combining a synthetic noise estimation criteria based on local noise estimator (LNE) and distance median value (DMV) with anisotropic diffusion model. By identifying noise and signal pixels accurately and diffusing them with different coefficients respectively and adaptive iteration steps, we demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method in both phantom and mouse artery images. Comparison with other methods such as filtering method (mean, median filtering), wavelet method, probabilistic method and partial differential equation based methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) showed the advantages of our method in reserving image energy and removing noise. PMID:27570687

  4. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics Imager: First Results and On-Sky Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; McElwain, Michael; Thalmann, Christian; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present new on-sky results for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics imager (SCExAO) verifying and quantifying the contrast gain enabled by key components: the closed-loop coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor (CLOWFS) and focal plane wavefront control ("speckle nulling"). SCExAO will soon be coupled with a high-order, Pyramid wavefront sensor which will yield > 90% Strehl ratio and enable 10^6--10^7 contrast at small angular separations allowing us to image gas giant planets at solar system scales. Upcoming instruments like VAMPIRES, FIRST, and CHARIS will expand SCExAO's science capabilities.

  5. The First Circumstellar Disk Imaged in Silhouette with Adaptive Optics: MagAO Imaging of Orion 218-354

    CERN Document Server

    Follette, Katherine B; Males, Jared R; Kopon, Derek; Wu, Ya-Lin; Morzinski, Katie M; Hinz, Philip; Rodigas, Timothy J; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa

    2013-01-01

    We present high resolution adaptive optics (AO) corrected images of the silhouette disk Orion 218-354 taken with Magellan AO (MagAO) and its visible light camera, VisAO, in simultaneous differential imaging (SDI) mode at H-alpha. This is the first image of a circumstellar disk seen in silhouette with adaptive optics and is among the first visible light adaptive optics results in the literature. We derive the disk extent, geometry, intensity and extinction profiles and find, in contrast with previous work, that the disk is likely optically-thin at H-alpha. Our data provide an estimate of the column density in primitive, ISM-like grains as a function of radius in the disk. We estimate that only ~10% of the total sub-mm derived disk mass lies in primitive, unprocessed grains. We use our data, Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling and previous results from the literature to make the first self-consistent multiwavelength model of Orion 218-354. We find that we are able to reproduce the 1-1000micron SED with a ~2...

  6. The Robo-AO KOI Survey: laser adaptive optics imaging of every Kepler exoplanet candidate

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Carl; Baranec, Christoph; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Nofi, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star (KOI) with laser adaptive optics imaging to hunt for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions. With the unparalleled efficiency provided by the first fully robotic adaptive optics system, we perform the critical search for nearby stars (0.15" to 4.0" separation with contrasts up to 6 magnitudes) that dilute the observed planetary transit signal, contributing to inaccurate planetary characteristics or astrophysical false positives. We present 3313 high resolution observations of Kepler planetary hosts from 2012-2015, discovering 479 nearby stars. We measure an overall nearby star probability rate of 14.5\\pm0.8%. With this large data set, we are uniquely able to explore broad correlations between multiple star systems and the properties of the planets which they host, providing insight into the formation and evolution of planetary systems in our galaxy. Several KOIs of particular interest...

  7. Coronagraphic Imager with Adaptive Optics (CIAO) for the Subaru 8.2m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, M.; Suto, H.; Murakawa, K.; Hayashi, S.; Kaifu, N.; Itoh, Y.; Fukagawa, M.; Oasa, Y.; Naoi, T.

    2001-05-01

    We describe a near-infrared coronagraphic camera built for use with the Subaru 8.2m telescope and its adaptive optics system. This instrument, CIAO, aims to obtain high-resolution (0.06 arcsec at 2 micron) images of faint objects in close vicinity of bright objects at near-infrared wavelengths. The coronagraphic optics are all cooled. Occulting masks whose diameter ranges from 0.1 to 3 arcsec and several types of Lyot stops are selectable. Standard broad-band imaging and a number of narow-band imaging are possible with or without coronagraph, with two pixel scales of 22 mas/pixel and 11 mas/pixel. Low resolution coronagraphic grism spectroscopy is also available. CIAO utilize one ALLADIN II (1024x1024 InSb) scince-grade array detector manufactured by Raytheon, covering the wavelengths from 1 to 5 micron. CIAO will be very useful for studies of companion brown dwarfs and extra-solar planets, circumstelar disks around both young stelar obejcts and main-sequence stars, jets and outflows from both young stars and evolved stars, circumnuclear regions around AGNs, and host galaxies of QSOs. We also present preliminary results from the first commissioning run with adaptive optics at the Subaru telescope.

  8. Extended object reconstruction in adaptive-optics imaging: the multiresolution approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gallé, Roberto Baena; Gladysz, Szymon

    2012-01-01

    We propose the application of multiresolution transforms, such as wavelets (WT) and curvelets (CT), to the reconstruction of images of extended objects that have been acquired with adaptive optics (AO) systems. Such multichannel approaches normally make use of probabilistic tools in order to distinguish significant structures from noise and reconstruction residuals. Furthermore, we aim to check the historical assumption that image-reconstruction algorithms using static PSFs are not suitable for AO imaging. We convolve an image of Saturn taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with AO PSFs from the 5-m Hale telescope at the Palomar Observatory and add both shot and readout noise. Subsequently, we apply different approaches to the blurred and noisy data in order to recover the original object. The approaches include multi-frame blind deconvolution (with the algorithm IDAC), myopic deconvolution with regularization (with MISTRAL) and wavelets- or curvelets-based static PSF deconvolution (AWMLE and ACMLE algo...

  9. The Orion Fingers: Near-IR Adaptive Optics Imaging of an Explosive Protostellar Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Bally, John; Silvia, Devin; Youngblood, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Adaptive optics images are used to test the hypothesis that the explosive BN/KL outflow from the Orion OMC1 cloud core was powered by the dynamical decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars. Methods. Narrow-band H2, [Fe II], and broad-band Ks obtained with the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (AO) system GeMS and near-infrared imager GSAOI are presented. The images reach resolutions of 0.08 to 0.10", close to the 0.07" diffraction limit of the 8-meter telescope at 2.12 microns. Comparison with previous AO-assisted observations of sub-fields and other ground-based observations enable measurements of proper motions and the investigation of morphological changes in H2 and [Fe II] features with unprecedented precision. The images are compared with numerical simulations of compact, high-density clumps moving ~1000 times their own diameter through a lower density medium at Mach 1000. Results. Several sub-arcsecond H2 features and many [Fe ii] 'fingertips' on the projected outskirts of th...

  10. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Lyman Break Galaxies as Progenitors of Spheroids in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, M; Kobayashi, N; Ohta, K; Iwata, I

    2007-01-01

    In order to reveal the stellar mass distribution of z~3 galaxies, we are conducting deep imaging observations of U-dropout Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) with Adaptive Optics (AO) systems in K-band, which corresponds to rest-frame V-band of z~3 galaxies. The results of the Subaru intensive-program observations with AO36/NGS/IRCS indicate that 1) the K-band peaks of some of the LBGs brighter than K=22.0 mag show significant offset from those in the optical images, 2) the z~3 Mv* LBGs and serendipitously observed Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs) have flat profiles similar to disk galaxies in the local universe (i.e., Sersic with n2 systems among the luminous z~3 LBGs and DRGs, and their strong spatial clustering, we infer that the dense n2 spheroids of nearby galaxies through relaxations due to major merger events.

  11. Stochastic parallel gradient descent based adaptive optics used for high contrast imaging coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bing; Zhang, Xi

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive optics (AO) system based on stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is proposed to reduce the speckle noises in the optical system of stellar coronagraph in order to further improve the contrast. The principle of SPGD algorithm is described briefly and a metric suitable for point source imaging optimization is given. The feasibility and good performance of SPGD algorithm is demonstrated by experimental system featured with a 140-actuators deformable mirror (DM) and a Hartmann- Shark wavefront sensor. Then the SPGD based AO is applied to a liquid crystal array (LCA) based coronagraph. The LCA can modulate the incoming light to generate a pupil apodization mask in any pattern. A circular stepped pattern is used in our preliminary experiment and the image contrast shows improvement from 10^-3 to 10^-4.5 at angular distance of 2{\\lambda}/D after corrected by SPGD based AO.

  12. Adaptive wiener image restoration kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ding

    2007-06-05

    A method and device for restoration of electro-optical image data using an adaptive Wiener filter begins with constructing imaging system Optical Transfer Function, and the Fourier Transformations of the noise and the image. A spatial representation of the imaged object is restored by spatial convolution of the image using a Wiener restoration kernel.

  13. MAD Adaptive Optics Imaging of High-luminosity Quasars: A Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, E.; Falomo, R.; Paiano, S.; Treves, A.; Uslenghi, M.; Arcidiacono, C.; Baruffolo, A.; Diolaiti, E.; Farinato, J.; Lombini, M.; Moretti, A.; Ragazzoni, R.; Brast, R.; Donaldson, R.; Kolb, J.; Marchetti, E.; Tordo, S.

    2016-08-01

    We present near-IR images of five luminous quasars at z ˜ 2 and one at z ˜ 4 obtained with an experimental adaptive optics (AO) instrument at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. The observations are part of a program aimed at demonstrating the capabilities of multi-conjugated adaptive optics imaging combined with the use of natural guide stars for high spatial resolution studies on large telescopes. The observations were mostly obtained under poor seeing conditions but in two cases. In spite of these nonoptimal conditions, the resulting images of point sources have cores of FWHM ˜ 0.2 arcsec. We are able to characterize the host galaxy properties for two sources and set stringent upper limits to the galaxy luminosity for the others. We also report on the expected capabilities for investigating the host galaxies of distant quasars with AO systems coupled with future Extremely Large Telescopes. Detailed simulations show that it will be possible to characterize compact (2-3 kpc) quasar host galaxies for quasi-stellar objects at z = 2 with nucleus K-magnitude spanning from 15 to 20 (corresponding to absolute magnitude -31 to -26) and host galaxies that are 4 mag fainter than their nuclei.

  14. VLT/NACO infrared adaptive optics images of small scale structures in OMC1

    CERN Document Server

    Lacombe, F; Rouan, D; Clénet, Y; Lemaire, J L; Lagrange, A M; Mouillet, D; Rousset, G; Marlot, C; Feautrier, P; Gustafsson, M; Field, D; Lacombe, Francois; Gendron, Eric; Rouan, Daniel; Clenet, Yann; Lemaire, Jean-Louis; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Mouillet, David; Rousset, Gerard; Marlot, Claude; Feautrier, Philippe; Field, David; Proxy, Bernard Servan; ccsd-00000915, ccsd

    2003-01-01

    Near-infrared observations of line emission from excited H2 and in the continuum are reported in the direction of the Orion molecular cloud OMC1, using the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope UT4, equipped with the NAOS adaptive optics system and the CONICA infrared array camera. Spatial resolution has been achieved at close to the diffraction limit of the telescope (0.08" - 0.12") and images show a wealth of morphological detail. Structure is not fractal but shows two preferred scale sizes of 2.4" (1100 AU) and 1.2" (540 AU), where the larger scale may be associated with star formation.

  15. In-vivo imaging of inner retinal cellular morphology with adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography: challenges and possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Jones, Steven M.; Kim, Dae Yu; Poyneer, Lisa; Capps, Arlie G.; Hamann, Bernd; Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.

    2012-03-01

    Recent progress in retinal image acquisition techniques, including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), combined with improved performance of adaptive optics (AO) instrumentation, has resulted in improvement in the quality of in vivo images of cellular structures in the outer layers of the human retina. Despite the significant progress in imaging cone and rod photoreceptor mosaics, visualization of cellular structures in the inner retina has been achieved only with extrinsic contrast agents that have not been approved for use with humans. In this paper we describe the main limiting factors in visualizing inner retinal cells and the methods we implemented to reduce their effects on images acquired with AO-OCT. These include improving the system point spread function (AO performance), monitoring of motion artifacts (retinal motion tracking), and speckle pattern reduction (temporal and spatial averaging). Results of imaging inner retinal morphology and the improvement offered by the new UC Davis AOOCT system with spatio-temporal image averaging are presented.

  16. Adaptive Optics Imaging and Spectroscopy of Cygnus A: I. Evidence for a Minor Merger

    CERN Document Server

    Canalizo, G; Whysong, D; Antonucci, R; Dahm, S E; Canalizo, Gabriela; Max, Claire; Whysong, David; Antonucci, Robert; Dahm, Scott E.

    2003-01-01

    We present Keck II adaptive optics near infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of the central regions of the powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A. The 0.05" resolution images clearly show an unresolved nucleus between two spectacular ionization/scattering cones. We report the discovery of a relatively bright (K'~19) secondary point source 0.4" or 400 pc in projection southwest of the radio nucleus. The object is also visible in archival Hubble Space Telescope optical images, although it is easily confused with the underlying structure of the host. Although the near infrared colors of this secondary point source are roughly consistent with those of an L-dwarf, its spectrum and optical-to-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) virtually rule out the possibility that it may be any foreground projected object. We conclude that the secondary point source is likely to be an extragalactic object associated with Cygnus A. We consider several interpretations of the nature of this object, including: a young sta...

  17. Comparison of adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopic fluorescein angiography and offset pinhole imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Toco Y P; Dubow, Michael; Pinhas, Alexander; Shah, Nishit; Gan, Alexander; Weitz, Rishard; Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubra, Alfredo; Rosen, Richard B

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances to the adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) have enabled finer in vivo assessment of the human retinal microvasculature. AOSLO confocal reflectance imaging has been coupled with oral fluorescein angiography (FA), enabling simultaneous acquisition of structural and perfusion images. AOSLO offset pinhole (OP) imaging combined with motion contrast post-processing techniques, are able to create a similar set of structural and perfusion images without the use of exogenous contrast agent. In this study, we evaluate the similarities and differences of the structural and perfusion images obtained by either method, in healthy control subjects and in patients with retinal vasculopathy including hypertensive retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal vein occlusion. Our results show that AOSLO OP motion contrast provides perfusion maps comparable to those obtained with AOSLO FA, while AOSLO OP reflectance images provide additional information such as vessel wall fine structure not as readily visible in AOSLO confocal reflectance images. AOSLO OP offers a non-invasive alternative to AOSLO FA without the need for any exogenous contrast agent.

  18. SHARP - III: First Use Of Adaptive Optics Imaging To Constrain Cosmology With Gravitational Lens Time Delays

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Geoff C F; Wong, Kenneth C; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Chiueh, Tzihong; Halkola, Aleksi; Hu, I Shing; Auger, Matthew W; Koopmans, Leon V E; Lagattuta, David J; McKean, John P; Vegetti, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and precise measurements of the Hubble constant are critical for testing our current standard cosmological model and revealing possibly new physics. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging, each strong gravitational lens system with measured time delays can allow one to determine the Hubble constant with an uncertainty of $\\sim 7\\%$. Since HST will not last forever, we explore adaptive-optics (AO) imaging as an alternative that can provide higher angular resolution than HST imaging but has a less stable point spread function (PSF) due to atmospheric distortion. To make AO imaging useful for time-delay-lens cosmography, we develop a method to extract the unknown PSF directly from the imaging of strongly lensed quasars. In a blind test with two mock data sets created with different PSFs, we are able to recover the important cosmological parameters (time-delay distance, external shear, lens mass profile slope, and total Einstein radius). Our analysis of the Keck AO image of the strong lens system RXJ1...

  19. Optical Digital Imitation Painting Design Based on Self-Adaptive Image Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of existing digital imitation camouflage technology, we propose a kind of optical digital imitation camouflage design algorithm which is based on the characteristic of self-adaptive image. Picking main color feature of the background by using K-means clustering algorithm, counting the shape characteristics of each main color spots by separating layers, we generated digital camouflage pattern automatically by segmenting the background region characteristics and fill the background color image according to the statistics expected value. The simulation results show that, the digital camouflage generated automatically is blend well with the background .It keeps the background color and shape features, so has good camouflage effect. This algorithm can also provide the basic algorithm foundation for digital deformation camouflage.

  20. On-sky performance during verification and commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager's adaptive optics system

    CERN Document Server

    Poyneer, Lisa A; Macintosh, Bruce; Palmer, David W; Perrin, Marshall D; Sadakuni, Naru; Savransky, Dmitry; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey K; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyro, Fredrik T; Thomas, Sandrine; Veran, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager instrument's adaptive optics (AO) subsystem was designed specifically to facilitate high-contrast imaging. It features several new technologies, including computationally efficient wavefront reconstruction with the Fourier transform, modal gain optimization every 8 seconds, and the spatially filtered wavefront sensor. It also uses a Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controller (aka Kalman filter) for both pointing and focus. We present on-sky performance results from verification and commissioning runs from December 2013 through May 2014. The efficient reconstruction and modal gain optimization are working as designed. The LQG controllers effectively notch out vibrations. The spatial filter can remove aliases, but we typically use it oversized by about 60% due to stability problems.

  1. Correction of distortion for optimal image stacking in Wide Field Adaptive Optics: Application to GeMS data

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, A; Neichel, B; Fusco, T; Bounissou, S; Samal, M; Andersen, M; Zavagno, A; Plana, H

    2016-01-01

    The advent of Wide Field Adaptive Optics (WFAO) systems marks the beginning of a new era in high spatial resolution imaging. The newly commissioned Gemini South Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) combined with the infrared camera Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI), delivers quasi diffraction-limited images over a field of 2 arc-minutes across. However, despite this excellent performance, some variable residues still limit the quality of the analyses. In particular, distortions severely affect GSAOI and become a critical issue for high-precision astrometry and photometry. In this paper, we investigate an optimal way to correct for the distortion following an inverse problem approach. Formalism as well as applications on GeMS data are presented.

  2. The Robo-AO KOI Survey: Laser Adaptive Optics Imaging of Every Kepler Exoplanet Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed L.

    2016-01-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star (KOI) with laser adaptive optics imaging to hunt for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions. With the unparalleled efficiency provided by the first fully robotic adaptive optics system, we perform the critical search for nearby stars (0.15" to 4.0" separation with contrasts up to 6 magnitudes) that pollute the observed planetary transit signal, contributing to inaccurate planetary characteristics or astrophysical false positives. We present approximately 3300 high resolution observations of Kepler planetary hosts from 2012-2015, with ~500 observed nearby stars. We measure an overall nearby star probability rate of 16.2±0.8%. With this large dataset, we are uniquely able to explore broad correlations between multiple star systems and the properties of the planets which they host. We then use these clues for insight into the formation and evolution of these exotic systems. Several KOIs of particular interest will be discussed, including possible quadruple star systems hosting planets and updated properties for possible rocky planets orbiting in the habitable zone.

  3. Lucky Imaging Adaptive Optics of the brown dwarf binary GJ569Bab

    CERN Document Server

    Femenía, Autors: B; Pérez-Prieto, J A; Hildebrandt, S R; Labadie, L; Pérez-Garrido, A; Béjar, V J S; Díaz-Sánchez, A; Villó, I; Oscoz, A; López, R; Rodríguez, L F; Piqueras, J

    2010-01-01

    The potential of combining Adaptive Optics (AO) and Lucky Imaging (LI) to achieve high precision astrometry and differential photometry in the optical is investigated by conducting observations of the close 0\\farcs1 brown dwarf binary GJ569Bab. We took 50000 $I$-band images with our LI instrument FastCam attached to NAOMI, the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) AO facility. In order to extract the most of the astrometry and photometry of the GJ569Bab system we have resorted to a PSF fitting technique using the primary star GJ569A as a suitable PSF reference which exhibits an $I$-band magnitude of $7.78\\pm0.03$. The AO+LI observations at WHT were able to resolve the binary system GJ569Bab located at $4\\farcs 92 \\pm 0\\farcs05$ from GJ569A. We measure a separation of $98.4 \\pm 1.1$ mas and $I$-band magnitudes of $13.86 \\pm 0.03$ and $14.48 \\pm 0.03$ and $I-J$ colors of 2.72$\\pm$0.08 and 2.83$\\pm$0.08 for the Ba and Bb components, respectively. Our study rules out the presence of any other companion to GJ569A...

  4. An Analysis of Fundamental Waffle Mode in Early AEOS Adaptive Optics Images

    CERN Document Server

    Makidon, R B; Perrin, M D; Roberts, L C; Soummer, R; Oppenheimer, B R; Graham, J R

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems have significantly improved astronomical imaging capabilities over the last decade, and are revolutionizing the kinds of science possible with 4-5m class ground-based telescopes. A thorough understanding of AO system performance at the telescope can enable new frontiers of science as observations push AO systems to their performance limits. We look at recent advances with wave front reconstruction (WFR) on the Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) 3.6 m telescope to show how progress made in improving WFR can be measured directly in improved science images. We describe how a "waffle mode" wave front error (which is not sensed by a Fried geometry Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor) affects the AO point-spread function (PSF). We model details of AEOS AO to simulate a PSF which matches the actual AO PSF in the I-band, and show that while the older observed AEOS PSF contained several times more waffle error than expected, improved WFR techniques noticeably improve AEOS AO performance. ...

  5. Adaptive Optics with a Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator and Its Behavior in Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Tomohiro; Takeno, Kohei; Arimoto, Hidenobu; Furukawa, Hiromitsu

    2009-07-01

    An adaptive optics system with a brand-new device of a liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator (SLM) and its behavior in in vivo imaging of the human retina are described. We confirmed by experiments that closed-loop correction of ocular aberrations of the subject's eye was successfully achieved at the rate of 16.7 Hz in our system to obtain a clear retinal image in real time. The result suggests that an LCOS SLM is one of the promising candidates for a wavefront corrector in a prospective commercial ophthalmic instrument with adaptive optics.

  6. Adaptive optics microscopy enhances image quality in deep layers of CLARITY processed brains of YFP-H mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinig, Marc R.; Novack, Samuel W.; Tao, Xiaodong; Ermini, Florian; Bentolila, Laurent A.; Roberts, Dustin G.; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Godshalk, S. E.; Raven, M. A.; Kubby, Joel

    2016-03-01

    Optical sectioning of biological tissues has become the method of choice for three-dimensional histological analyses. This is particularly important in the brain were neurons can extend processes over large distances and often whole brain tracing of neuronal processes is desirable. To allow deeper optical penetration, which in fixed tissue is limited by scattering and refractive index mismatching, tissue-clearing procedures such as CLARITY have been developed. CLARITY processed brains have a nearly uniform refractive index and three-dimensional reconstructions at cellular resolution have been published. However, when imaging in deep layers at submicron resolution some limitations caused by residual refractive index mismatching become apparent, as the resulting wavefront aberrations distort the microscopic image. The wavefront can be corrected with adaptive optics. Here, we investigate the wavefront aberrations at different depths in CLARITY processed mouse brains and demonstrate the potential of adaptive optics to enable higher resolution and a better signal-to-noise ratio. Our adaptive optics system achieves high-speed measurement and correction of the wavefront with an open-loop control using a wave front sensor and a deformable mirror. Using adaptive optics enhanced microscopy, we demonstrate improved image quality wavefront, point spread function, and signal to noise in the cortex of YFP-H mice.

  7. Adaptive Optics Imaging of QSOs with Double-Peaked Narrow Lines: Are they Dual AGNs?

    CERN Document Server

    Rosario, D J; Max, C E; Shields, G A; Smith, K L

    2011-01-01

    Active galaxies hosting two accreting and merging super-massive black holes (SMBHs) -- dual Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) -- are predicted by many current and popular models of black hole-galaxy co-evolution. We present here the results of a program that has identified a set of probable dual AGN candidates based on Near Infra-red (NIR) Laser Guide-Star Adaptive Optics (LGS AO) imaging with the Keck II telescope. These candidates are selected from a complete sample of radio-quiet Quasi-stellar Objects (QSOs) that show double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines, drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Of the twelve QSOs imaged, we find six with double galaxy structure, of which four are in galaxy mergers. We measure the ionization of the two velocity components in the narrow AGN lines to test the hypothesis that both velocity components come from an active nucleus. The combination of a well-defined parent sample and high-quality imaging allows us to place constraints on the fraction of SDSS QSOs that host d...

  8. A fully automatic framework for cell segmentation on non-confocal adaptive optics images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfei; Dubra, Alfredo; Tam, Johnny

    2016-03-01

    By the time most retinal diseases are diagnosed, macroscopic irreversible cellular loss has already occurred. Earlier detection of subtle structural changes at the single photoreceptor level is now possible, using the adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). This work aims to develop a fully automatic segmentation framework to extract cell boundaries from non-confocal split-detection AOSLO images of the cone photoreceptor mosaic in the living human eye. Significant challenges include anisotropy, heterogeneous cell regions arising from shading effects, and low contrast between cells and background. To overcome these challenges, we propose the use of: 1) multi-scale Hessian response to detect heterogeneous cell regions, 2) convex hulls to create boundary templates, and 3) circularlyconstrained geodesic active contours to refine cell boundaries. We acquired images from three healthy subjects at eccentric retinal regions and manually contoured cells to generate ground-truth for evaluating segmentation accuracy. Dice coefficient, relative absolute area difference, and average contour distance were 82±2%, 11±6%, and 2.0±0.2 pixels (Mean±SD), respectively. We find that strong shading effects from vessels are a main factor that causes cell oversegmentation and false segmentation of non-cell regions. Our segmentation algorithm can automatically and accurately segment photoreceptor cells on non-confocal AOSLO images, which is the first step in longitudinal tracking of cellular changes in the individual eye over the time course of disease progression.

  9. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Healthy and Abnormal Regions of Retinal Nerve Fiber Bundles of Patients With Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Monica F; Chui, Toco Y. P; Alhadeff, Paula; Rosen, Richard B.; Ritch, Robert; Dubra, Alfredo; Hood, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive optics SLO images revealed details of glaucomatous damage that are difficult, if not impossible, to see with current OCT technology. Thus, AO-SLO may prove useful in following progression in clinical trials, or in disease management if AO-SLO becomes widely available and easy to use.

  10. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Low-redshift Damped Lyman-alpha Quasar Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, M R; Kulkarni, V P; Takamiya, M; Chun, Mark R.; Gharanfoli, Soheila; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Takamiya, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out a high angular resolution near-infrared imaging study of the fields of 6 quasars with 7 strong absorption line systems at z < 0.5, using the Hokupa'a adaptive optics system and the QUIRC near-infrared camera on the Gemini-North telescope. These absorption systems include 4 classical damped Lyman-alpha absorbers (DLAs), 2 sub-DLAs, and one Lyman-limit system. Images were obtained in the H or K' filters with FWHM between 0.2"-0.5" with the goal of detecting the absorbing galaxies and identifying their morphologies. Features are seen at projected separations of 0.5"-16.0" from the quasars and all of the fields show features at less than 2" separation. We find candidate absorbers in all of the seven systems. With the assumption that some of these are associated with the absorbers, the absorbers are low luminosity < 0.1 L*_H or L*_K; we do not find any large bright candidate absorbers in any of our fields. Some fields show compact features that are too faint for quantitative morphology, b...

  11. Simulated human eye retina adaptive optics imaging system based on a liquid crystal on silicon device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Bao-Guang; Cao Zhao-Liang; Mu Quan-Quan; Hu Li-Fa; Li Chao; Xuan Li

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain a clear image of the retina of model eye, an adaptive optics system used to correct the wave-front error is introduced in this paper. The spatial light modulator that we use here is a liquid crystal on a silicon device instead of a conversional deformable mirror. A paper with carbon granule is used to simulate the retina of human eye. The pupil size of the model eye is adjustable (3-7 mm). A Shack-Hartman wave-front sensor is used to detect the wave-front aberration. With this construction, a value of peak-to-valley is achieved to be 0.086 λ, where A is wavelength.The modulation transfer functions before and after corrections are compared. And the resolution of this system after correction (691p/m) is very close to the diffraction limit resolution. The carbon granule on the white paper which has a size of 4.7μm is seen clearly. The size of the retina cell is between 4 and 10 μm. So this system has an ability to image the human eye's retina.

  12. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  13. High-resolution imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Takayama

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To conduct high-resolution imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in normal eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO. METHODS: AO-SLO images were obtained in 20 normal eyes at multiple locations in the posterior polar area and a circular path with a 3-4-mm diameter around the optic disc. For each eye, images focused on the RNFL were recorded and a montage of AO-SLO images was created. RESULTS: AO-SLO images for all eyes showed many hyperreflective bundles in the RNFL. Hyperreflective bundles above or below the fovea were seen in an arch from the temporal periphery on either side of a horizontal dividing line to the optic disc. The dark lines among the hyperreflective bundles were narrower around the optic disc compared with those in the temporal raphe. The hyperreflective bundles corresponded with the direction of the striations on SLO red-free images. The resolution and contrast of the bundles were much higher in AO-SLO images than in red-free fundus photography or SLO red-free images. The mean hyperreflective bundle width around the optic disc had a double-humped shape; the bundles at the temporal and nasal sides of the optic disc were narrower than those above and below the optic disc (P<0.001. RNFL thickness obtained by optical coherence tomography correlated with the hyperreflective bundle widths on AO-SLO (P<0.001 CONCLUSIONS: AO-SLO revealed hyperreflective bundles and dark lines in the RNFL, believed to be retinal nerve fiber bundles and Müller cell septa. The widths of the nerve fiber bundles appear to be proportional to the RNFL thickness at equivalent distances from the optic disc.

  14. Lucky Imaging Adaptive Optics of the brown dwarf binary GJ569Bab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femenía, B.; Rebolo, R.; Pérez-Prieto, J. A.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Labadie, L.; Pérez-Garrido, A.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Díaz-Sánchez, A.; Villó, I.; Oscoz, A.; López, R.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Piqueras, J.

    2011-05-01

    The potential of combining Adaptive Optics (AO) and Lucky Imaging (LI) to achieve high-precision astrometry and differential photometry in the optical is investigated by conducting observations of the close 0.1 arcsec brown dwarf binary GJ569Bab. We took 50 000 I-band images with our LI instrument FastCam attached to NAOMI, the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) AO facility. In order to extract the most of the astrometry and photometry of the GJ569Bab system we have resorted to a PSF fitting technique using the primary star GJ569A as a suitable PSF reference which exhibits an I-band magnitude of 7.78 ± 0.03. The AO+LI observations at WHT were able to resolve the binary system GJ569Bab located at 4.92 ± 0.05 arcsec from GJ569A. We measure a separation of 98.4 ± 1.1 mas and I-band magnitudes of 13.86 ± 0.03 and 14.48 ± 0.03 and I-J colours of 2.72 ± 0.08 and 2.83 ± 0.08 for the Ba and Bb components, respectively. Our study rules out the presence of any other companion to GJ569A down to magnitude I˜ 17 at distances larger than 1 arcsec. The I-J colours measured are consistent with M8.5-M9 spectral types for the Ba and Bb components. The available dynamical, photometric and spectroscopic data are consistent with a binary system with Ba being slightly (10-20 per cent) more massive than Bb. We obtain new orbital parameters which are in good agreement with those in the literature. Based on service observations made with the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group and on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  15. Retina imaging system with adaptive optics for the eye with or without myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Xia, Mingliang; Jiang, Baoguang; Mu, Quanquan; Chen, Shaoyuan; Xuan, Li

    2009-04-01

    An adaptive optics system for the retina imaging is introduced in the paper. It can be applied to the eye with myopia from 0 to 6 diopters without any adjustment of the system. A high-resolution liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) device is used as the wave-front corrector. The aberration is detected by a Shack-Harmann wave-front sensor (HASO) that has a Root Mean Square (RMS) measurement accuracy of λ/100 ( λ = 0.633 μm). And an equivalent scale model eye is constructed with a short focal length lens (˜18 mm) and a diffuse reflection object (paper screen) as the retina. By changing the distance between the paper screen and the lens, we simulate the eye with larger diopters than 5 and the depth of field. The RMS value both before and after correction is obtained by the wave-front sensor. After correction, the system reaches the diffraction-limited resolution approximately 230 cycles/mm at the object space. It is proved that if the myopia is smaller than 6 diopters and the depth of field is between -40 and +50 mm, the system can correct the aberration very well.

  16. Understanding the changes of cone reflectance in adaptive optics flood illumination retinal images over three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Letizia; Devaney, Nicholas; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the investigation of cone reflectance variability, little is understood about its characteristics over long time scales. Cone detection and its automation is now becoming a fundamental step in the assessment and monitoring of the health of the retina and in the understanding of the photoreceptor physiology. In this work we provide an insight into the cone reflectance variability over time scales ranging from minutes to three years on the same eye, and for large areas of the retina (≥ 2.0 × 2.0 degrees) at two different retinal eccentricities using a commercial adaptive optics (AO) flood illumination retinal camera. We observed that the difference in reflectance observed in the cones increases with the time separation between the data acquisitions and this may have a negative impact on algorithms attempting to track cones over time. In addition, we determined that displacements of the light source within 0.35 mm of the pupil center, which is the farthest location from the pupil center used by operators of the AO camera to acquire high-quality images of the cone mosaic in clinical studies, does not significantly affect the cone detection and density estimation.

  17. Understanding the changes of cone reflectance in adaptive optics flood illumination retinal images over three years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Letizia; Devaney, Nicholas; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the investigation of cone reflectance variability, little is understood about its characteristics over long time scales. Cone detection and its automation is now becoming a fundamental step in the assessment and monitoring of the health of the retina and in the understanding of the photoreceptor physiology. In this work we provide an insight into the cone reflectance variability over time scales ranging from minutes to three years on the same eye, and for large areas of the retina (≥ 2.0 × 2.0 degrees) at two different retinal eccentricities using a commercial adaptive optics (AO) flood illumination retinal camera. We observed that the difference in reflectance observed in the cones increases with the time separation between the data acquisitions and this may have a negative impact on algorithms attempting to track cones over time. In addition, we determined that displacements of the light source within 0.35 mm of the pupil center, which is the farthest location from the pupil center used by operators of the AO camera to acquire high-quality images of the cone mosaic in clinical studies, does not significantly affect the cone detection and density estimation. PMID:27446708

  18. High Contrast L' Band Adaptive Optics Imaging to Detect Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Heinze, A; Sivanandam, S; Apai, D; Meyer, M; Heinze, Ari; Hinz, Phil; Sivanandam, Suresh; Apai, Daniel; Meyer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We are carrying out a survey to search for giant extrasolar planets around nearby, moderate-age stars in the mid-infrared L' and M bands (3.8 and 4.8 microns, respectively), using the Clio camera with the adaptive optics system on the MMT telescope. To date we have observed 7 stars, of a total 50 planned, including GJ 450 (distance about 8.55pc, age about 1 billion years, no real companions detected), which we use as our example here. We report the methods we use to obtain extremely high contrast imaging in L', and the performance we have obtained. We find that the rotation of a celestial object over time with respect to a telescope tracking it with an altazimuth mount can be a powerful tool for subtracting telescope-related stellar halo artifacts and detecting planets near bright stars. We have carried out a thorough Monte Carlo simulation demonstrating our ability to detect planets as small as 6 Jupiter masses around GJ 450. The division of a science data set into two independent parts, with companions requ...

  19. High contrast L' band adaptive optics imaging to detect extrasolar planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Ari; Hinz, Phil; Sivanandam, Suresh; Apai, Daniel; Meyer, Michael

    2006-06-01

    We are carrying out a survey to search for giant extrasolar planets around nearby, moderate-age stars in the mid-infrared L' and M bands (3.8 and 4.8 microns, respectively), using the Clio camera with the adaptive optics system on the MMT telescope. To date we have observed 7 stars, of a total 50 planned, including GJ 450 (distance about 8.55pc, age about 1 billion years, no real companions detected), which we use as our example here. We report the methods we use to obtain extremely high contrast imaging in L', and the performance we have obtained. We find that the rotation of a celestial object over time with respect to a telescope tracking it with an altazimuth mount can be a powerful tool for subtracting telescope-related stellar halo artifacts and detecting planets near bright stars. We have carried out a thorough Monte Carlo simulation demonstrating our ability to detect planets as small as 6 Jupiter masses around GJ 450. The division of a science data set into two independent parts, with companions required to be detected on both in order to be recognized as real, played a crucial role in detecting companions in this simulation. We mention also our discovery of a previously unknown faint stellar companion to another of our survey targets, HD 133002. Followup is needed to confirm this as a physical companion, and to determine its physical properties.

  20. Adaptive optical zoom sensor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweatt, William C.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor

    2005-11-01

    In order to optically vary the magnification of an imaging system, continuous mechanical zoom lenses require multiple optical elements and use fine mechanical motion to precisely adjust the separations between individual or groups of lenses. By incorporating active elements into the optical design, we have designed and demonstrated imaging systems that are capable of variable optical magnification with no macroscopic moving parts. Changing the effective focal length and magnification of an imaging system can be accomplished by adeptly positioning two or more active optics in the optical design and appropriately adjusting the optical power of those elements. In this application, the active optics (e.g. liquid crystal spatial light modulators or deformable mirrors) serve as variable focal-length lenses. Unfortunately, the range over which currently available devices can operate (i.e. their dynamic range) is relatively small. Therefore, the key to this concept is to create large changes in the effective focal length of the system with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual elements by leveraging the optical power of conventional optical elements surrounding the active optics. By appropriately designing the optical system, these variable focal-length lenses can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length, and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses.

  1. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  2. Diffractive generalized phase contrast for adaptive phase imaging and optical security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the properties of Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) when the input phase modulation is implemented using diffractive gratings. In GPC applications for patterned illumination, the use of a dynamic diffractive optical element for encoding the GPC input phase allows for onthe- fly...... optimization of the input aperture parameters according to desired output characteristics. For wavefront sensing, the achieved aperture control opens a new degree of freedom for improving the accuracy of quantitative phase imaging. Diffractive GPC input modulation also fits well with grating-based optical...

  3. A convergent blind deconvolution method for post-adaptive-optics astronomical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a blind deconvolution method which applies to data perturbed by Poisson noise. The objective function is a generalized Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence, depending on both the unknown object and unknown point spread function (PSF), without the addition of regularization terms; constrained minimization, with suitable convex constraints on both unknowns, is considered. The problem is non-convex and we propose to solve it by means of an inexact alternating minimization method, whose global convergence to stationary points of the objective function has been recently proved in a general setting. The method is iterative and each iteration, also called outer iteration, consists of alternating an update of the object and the PSF by means of a fixed number of iterations, also called inner iterations, of the scaled gradient projection (SGP) method. Therefore, the method is similar to other proposed methods based on the Richardson–Lucy (RL) algorithm, with SGP replacing RL. The use of SGP has two advantages: first, it allows one to prove global convergence of the blind method; secondly, it allows the introduction of different constraints on the object and the PSF. The specific constraint on the PSF, besides non-negativity and normalization, is an upper bound derived from the so-called Strehl ratio (SR), which is the ratio between the peak value of an aberrated versus a perfect wavefront. Therefore, a typical application, but not a unique one, is to the imaging of modern telescopes equipped with adaptive optics systems for the partial correction of the aberrations due to atmospheric turbulence. In the paper, we describe in detail the algorithm and we recall the results leading to its convergence. Moreover, we illustrate its effectiveness by means of numerical experiments whose results indicate that the method, pushed to convergence, is very promising in the reconstruction of non-dense stellar clusters. The case of more complex astronomical targets

  4. CATS: Optical to Near-Infrared Colors of the Bulge and Disk of Two z=0.7 Galaxies Using HST and Keck Laser Adaptive Optics Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbring, E; Metevier, A J; Koo, D C; Chun, M R; Simard, L; Larkin, J E; Max, C E

    2008-01-01

    We have employed laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) on the Keck II telescope to obtain near-infrared (NIR) images in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) deep galaxy survey field. This is a continuation of our Center for Adaptive Optics Treasury Survey (CATS) program of targeting 0.5images with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are already in hand. Our AO field has already been imaged by the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the Near Infared Camera and Multiobject Spectrograph (NICMOS). Our AO images at 2.2 microns (K') are comparable in depth to those from HST, have Strehl ratios up to 0.4, and FWHM resolutions superior to that from NICMOS. By sampling the field with the LGS at different positions, we obtain better quality AO images than with an immovable natural guide star. As examples of the power of adding LGS AO to HST data we study the optical to NIR colors and color gradients of the bulge and disk of two galaxies in the field with z=0.7.

  5. Tracking and imaging of dynamic objects in scattering media by time-reversed adapted-perturbation (TRAP) optical focusing

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Cheng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lihong V

    2014-01-01

    The ability to steer light propagation inside scattering media has long been sought-after due to its potential widespread applications. To form optical foci inside scattering media, the only feasible strategy is to guide photons by using either implanted or virtual guide stars. However, all of these guide stars must be introduced extrinsically, either invasively or by physical contact, limiting the scope of their application. Here, we focus light inside scattering media by employing intrinsic dynamics as guide stars. By time-reversing the perturbed component of the scattered light adaptively, we concentrate light to the origin of the perturbation, where the permittivity varied spontaneously. We demonstrate dynamic light focusing onto moving targets and imaging of a time-variant object obscured by highly scattering media, without invasiveness and physical contact. Anticipated applications include all-weather optical communication with airplanes or satellites, tracking vehicles in thick fogs, and imaging and ph...

  6. Adaptive Optics Imaging of IRAS 18276-1431: a bipolar pre-planetary nebula with circumstellar "searchlight beams" and "arcs"

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, C S; Sahai, R; De Paz, A G; Morris, M

    2006-01-01

    We present high-angular resolution images of the post-AGB nebula IRAS18276-1431 (also known as OH17.7-2.0) obtained with the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) system in its Natural Guide Star (NGS) mode in the Kp, Lp, and Ms near-infrared bands. We also present supporting optical F606W and F814W HST images as well as interferometric observations of the 12CO(J=1-0), 13CO(J=1-0), and 2.6mm continuum emission with OVRO. The envelope of IRAS18276-1431 displays a clear bipolar morphology in our optical and NIR images with two lobes separated by a dark waist and surrounded by a faint 4.5"x3.4" halo. Our Kp-band image reveals two pairs of radial ``searchlight beams'' emerging from the nebula center and several intersecting, arc-like features. From our CO data we derive a mass of M>0.38[D/3kpc]^2 Msun and an expansion velocity v_exp=17km/s for the molecular envelope. The density in the halo follows a radial power-law proportional to r^-3, which is consistent with a mass-loss rate increasing with time. Analysis of the NIR ...

  7. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system: enabling high-contrast imaging on solar-system scales

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanovic, N; Guyon, O; Clergeon, C; Singh, G; Kudo, T; Garrel, V; Newman, K; Doughty, D; Lozi, J; Males, J; Minowa, Y; Hayano, Y; Takato, N; Morino, J; Kuhn, J; Serabyn, E; Norris, B; Tuthill, P; Schworer, G; Stewart, P; Close, L; Huby, E; Perrin, G; Lacour, S; Gauchet, L; Vievard, S; Murakami, N; Oshiyama, F; Baba, N; Matsuo, T; Nishikawa, J; Tamura, M; Lai, O; Marchis, F; Duchene, G; Kotani, T; Woillez, J

    2015-01-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument is a multipurpose high-contrast imaging platform designed for the discovery and detailed characterization of exoplanetary systems and serves as a testbed for high-contrast imaging technologies for ELTs. It is a multi-band instrument which makes use of light from 600 to 2500nm allowing for coronagraphic direct exoplanet imaging of the inner 3 lambda/D from the stellar host. Wavefront sensing and control are key to the operation of SCExAO. A partial correction of low-order modes is provided by Subaru's facility adaptive optics system with the final correction, including high-order modes, implemented downstream by a combination of a visible pyramid wavefront sensor and a 2000-element deformable mirror. The well corrected NIR (y-K bands) wavefronts can then be injected into any of the available coronagraphs, including but not limited to the phase induced amplitude apodization and the vector vortex coronagraphs, both of which offer an inner worki...

  8. Progress on Developing Adaptive Optics–Optical Coherence Tomography for In Vivo Retinal Imaging: Monitoring and Correction of Eye Motion Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Zawadzki, RJ; Capps, AG; Kim, DY; Panorgias, A.; Stevenson, SB; Hamann, B; Werner, JS

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in retinal image acquisition techniques, including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), combined with improved performance of adaptive optics (AO) instrumentation, has resulted in improvement in the quality of in vivo images of cellular structures in the human retina. Here, we present a short review of progress on developing AO-OCT instruments. Despite significant progress in imaging speed and resolution, eye movements present during acqu...

  9. Three-State Locally Adaptive Texture Preserving Filter for Radar and Optical Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko T. Astola

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Textural features are one of the most important types of useful information contained in images. In practice, these features are commonly masked by noise. Relatively little attention has been paid to texture preserving properties of noise attenuation methods. This stimulates solving the following tasks: (1 to analyze the texture preservation properties of various filters; and (2 to design image processing methods capable to preserve texture features well and to effectively reduce noise. This paper deals with examining texture feature preserving properties of different filters. The study is performed for a set of texture samples and different noise variances. The locally adaptive three-state schemes are proposed for which texture is considered as a particular class. For “detection” of texture regions, several classifiers are proposed and analyzed. As shown, an appropriate trade-off of the designed filter properties is provided. This is demonstrated quantitatively for artificial test images and is confirmed visually for real-life images.

  10. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S

    2001-09-18

    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  11. Real-time atmospheric imaging and processing with hybrid adaptive optics and hardware accelerated lucky-region fusion (LRF) algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jony Jiang; Carhart, Gary W.; Beresnev, Leonid A.; Aubailly, Mathieu; Jackson, Christopher R.; Ejzak, Garrett; Kiamilev, Fouad E.

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulences can significantly deteriorate the performance of long-range conventional imaging systems and create difficulties for target identification and recognition. Our in-house developed adaptive optics (AO) system, which contains high-performance deformable mirrors (DMs) and the fast stochastic parallel gradient decent (SPGD) control mechanism, allows effective compensation of such turbulence-induced wavefront aberrations and result in significant improvement on the image quality. In addition, we developed advanced digital synthetic imaging and processing technique, "lucky-region" fusion (LRF), to mitigate the image degradation over large field-of-view (FOV). The LRF algorithm extracts sharp regions from each image obtained from a series of short exposure frames and fuses them into a final improved image. We further implemented such algorithm into a VIRTEX-7 field programmable gate array (FPGA) and achieved real-time video processing. Experiments were performed by combining both AO and hardware implemented LRF processing technique over a near-horizontal 2.3km atmospheric propagation path. Our approach can also generate a universal real-time imaging and processing system with a general camera link input, a user controller interface, and a DVI video output.

  12. Superresolving distant galaxies with gravitational telescopes : Keck laser guide star adaptive optics and Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the lens system SDSS J0737+3216

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, Philip J.; Treu, Tommaso; Melbourne, Jason; Gavazzi, Raphael; Bundy, Kevin; Ammons, S. Mark; Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Larkin, James E.; Le Mignant, David; Koo, David C.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Max, Claire E.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Steinbring, Eric; Wright, Shelley A.

    2007-01-01

    We combine high-resolution images in four optical/infrared bands, obtained with the laser guide star adaptive optics ( LGSAO) system on the Keck telescope and with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST), to study the gravitational lens system SDSS J0737 + 3216 ( lens redshift 0.3223, source redshift 0.58

  13. A simplified method to measure choroidal thickness using adaptive compensation in enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Gupta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate a simplified method to measure choroidal thickness (CT using commercially available enhanced depth imaging (EDI spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. METHODS: We measured CT in 31 subjects without ocular diseases using Spectralis EDI SD-OCT. The choroid-scleral interface of the acquired images was first enhanced using a post-processing compensation algorithm. The enhanced images were then analysed using Photoshop. Two graders independently graded the images to assess inter-grader reliability. One grader re-graded the images after 2 weeks to determine intra-grader reliability. Statistical analysis was performed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and Bland-Altman plot analyses. RESULTS: Using adaptive compensation both the intra-grader reliability (ICC: 0.95 to 0.97 and inter-grader reliability (ICC: 0.93 to 0.97 were perfect for all five locations of CT. However, with the conventional technique of manual CT measurements using built-in callipers provided with the Heidelberg explorer software, the intra- (ICC: 0.87 to 0.94 and inter-grader reliability (ICC: 0.90 to 0.93 for all the measured locations is lower. Using adaptive compensation, the mean differences (95% limits of agreement for intra- and inter-grader sub-foveal CT measurements were -1.3 (-3.33 to 30.8 µm and -1.2 (-36.6 to 34.2 µm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of CT obtained from EDI SD-OCT using our simplified method was highly reliable and efficient. Our method is an easy and practical approach to improve the quality of choroidal images and the precision of CT measurement.

  14. Poor man's adaptive optics with high Strehl and low anisoplanatic effects: holographic imaging in crowded fields

    CERN Document Server

    Schoedel, R; Ghez, A; Girard, J H V; Labadie, L; Rebolo, R; Perez-Garrido, A

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm for speckle holography that is optimised for crowded fields. The key features of this algorithm are an iterative approach, the possibility to use several guide stars simultaneously, and cleaning of the instantaneous PSFs of the reference stars from faint secondary sources. High signal-to-noise and accuracy can in this way be reached on the PSFs extracted from the speckle frames. We find that relatively faint (K~12) reference stars are sufficient to reconstruct images with Strehl ratios. If the instrumental FOV is larger than the isoplanatic angle, then the algorithm can be used to reconstruct small sub-fields if the density of reference sources is sufficiently high. The reconstructed sub-images can then be combined to a final mosaic that is largely free of anisoplanatic effects. We have performed experiments with near-infrared and optical speckle data that show the excellent performance of the algorithm. A Strehl ratio of almost 20% was reached on I-band speckle data under average seei...

  15. Near-infrared adaptive optics imaging of infrared luminous galaxies: the brightest cluster magnitude - star formation rate relation

    CERN Document Server

    Randriamanakoto, Zara; Vaisanen, Petri; Kankare, Erkki; Kotilainen, Jari; Mattila, Seppo; Ryder, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ~ 40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M_K ~ - 2.6 log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying...

  16. NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER MAGNITUDE-STAR FORMATION RATE RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randriamanakoto, Z.; Väisänen, P. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, 7935 Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); Escala, A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Mattila, S. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Ryder, S., E-mail: zara@saao.ac.za [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2013-10-01

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster (SSC) magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near-infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ∼40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M{sub K} ∼ –2.6log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude versus SFR dependency.

  17. Analytical expression of long-exposure adaptive-optics-corrected coronagraphic image. First application to exoplanet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, J-F; Mugnier, L M; Rousset, G; Fusco, T

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we derive an analytical model of a long-exposure star image for an adaptive-optics(AO)-corrected coronagraphic imaging system. This expression accounts for static aberrations upstream and downstream of the coronagraphic mask as well as turbulence residuals. It is based on the perfect coronagraph model. The analytical model is validated by means of simulations using the design and parameters of the SPHERE instrument. The analytical model is also compared to a simulated four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. Then, its sensitivity to a miscalibration of structure function and upstream static aberrations is studied, and the impact on exoplanet detectability is quantified. Last, a first inversion method is presented for a simulation case using a single monochromatic image with no reference. The obtained result shows a planet detectability increase by two orders of magnitude with respect to the raw image. This analytical model presents numerous potential applications in coronographic imaging, such as exoplanet direct detection, and circumstellar disk observation.

  18. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  19. DIFFRACTO-ASTROMETRY WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE AND ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Como continuación del trabajo de Allen et al. (1974, 2004 acerca de los movimientos internos de sistemas tipo Trapecio, decidimos investigar la posibilidad de realizar astrometría de precisión sobre imágenes del Telescopio Espacial Hubble (HST y sobre imágenes obtenidas con sistemas de óptica Adaptativa (OA. Una región muy bien observada por el HST es la del Trapecio de Orión. Los archivos del HST contienen observaciones de acceso público de este Trapecio tomadas con la WFPC/WFPC2 durante un intervalo de 16 años (1991¿2007. Con la utilización de nuevas técnicas (a las que llamamos Difracto Astrometría determinamos la separación entre las componentes A y E del Trapecio de Orión con una precisión que llega a 0.03" sobre imágenes saturadas. Estas técnicas parecen ser muy prometedoras para explotar no solamente el banco de datos públicos del HST, sino también imágenes obtenidas con telescopios que utilizan técnicas de OA. Para demostrar este último punto, usamos estas mismas técnicas para realizar astrometría de precisición sobre imágenes IR del Trapecio de Orión obtenidas con el sistema Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO del VLT.

  20. The close circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse - Adaptive optics spectro-imaging in the near-IR with VLT/NACO

    CERN Document Server

    Kervella, Pierre; Ridgway, Stephen T; Perrin, Guy; Lacour, Sylvestre; Cami, Jan; Haubois, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Context: Betelgeuse is one the largest stars in the sky in terms of angular diameter. Structures on the stellar photosphere have been detected in the visible and near-infrared as well as a compact molecular environment called the MOLsphere. Mid-infrared observations have revealed the nature of some of the molecules in the MOLsphere, some being the precursor of dust. Aims: Betelgeuse is an excellent candidate to understand the process of mass loss in red supergiants. Using diffraction-limited adaptive optics (AO) in the near-infrared, we probe the photosphere and close environment of Betelgeuse to study the wavelength dependence of its extension, and to search for asymmetries. Methods: We obtained AO images with the VLT/NACO instrument, taking advantage of the "cube" mode of the CONICA camera to record separately a large number of short-exposure frames. This allowed us to adopt a "lucky imaging" approach for the data reduction, and obtain diffraction-limited images over the spectral range 1.04-2.17 $\\mu$m in 1...

  1. The ERIS adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Fedrigo, Enrico; Le Louarn, Miska; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Soenke, Christian; Brast, Roland; Conzelmann, Ralf; Delabre, Bernard; Duchateau, Michel; Frank, Christoph; Klein, Barbara; Amico, Paola; Hubin, Norbert; Esposito, Simone; Antichi, Jacopo; Carbonaro, Luca; Puglisi, Alfio; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Xompero, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the new Adaptive Optics based instrument for ESO's VLT aiming at replacing NACO and SINFONI to form a single compact facility with AO fed imaging and integral field unit spectroscopic scientific channels. ERIS completes the instrument suite at the VLT adaptive telescope. In particular it is equipped with a versatile AO system that delivers up to 95% Strehl correction in K band for science observations up to 5 micron It comprises high order NGS and LGS correction enabling the observation from exoplanets to distant galaxies with a large sky coverage thanks to the coupling of the LGS WFS with the high sensitivity of its visible WFS and the capability to observe in dust embedded environment thanks to its IR low order WFS. ERIS will be installed at the Cassegrain focus of the VLT unit hosting the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). The wavefront correction is provided by the AOF deformable secondary mirror while the Laser Guide Star is provided by one of the four launch units of the 4 Laser Guide Star Facility for the AOF. The overall layout of the ERIS AO system is extremely compact and highly optimized: the SPIFFI spectrograph is fed directly by the Cassegrain focus and both the NIX's (IR imager) and SPIFFI's entrance windows work as visible/infrared dichroics. In this paper we describe the concept of the ERIS AO system in detail, starting from the requirements and going through the estimated performance, the opto-mechanical design and the Real-Time Computer design.

  2. High-Resolution Imaging by Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Reveals Two Morphologically Distinct Types of Retinal Hard Exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Muneo; Nakao, Shintaro; Kaizu, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakama, Takahito; Arima, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Shigeo; Oshima, Yuji; Takeda, Atsunobu; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Mukai, Shizuo; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2016-01-01

    Histological studies from autopsy specimens have characterized hard exudates as a composition of lipid-laden macrophages or noncellular materials including lipid and proteinaceous substances (hyaline substances). However, the characteristics of hard exudates in living patients have not been examined due to insufficient resolution of existing equipment. In this study, we used adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to examine the characteristics of hard exudates in patients with retinal vascular diseases. High resolution imaging using AO-SLO enables morphological classification of retinal hard exudates into two types, which could not be distinguished either on fundus examination or by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). One, termed a round type, consisted of an accumulation of spherical particles (average diameter of particles: 26.9 ± 4.4 μm). The other, termed an irregular type, comprised an irregularly shaped hyper-reflective deposition. The retinal thickness in regions with round hard exudates was significantly greater than the thickness in regions with irregular hard exudates (P = 0.01 →0.02). This differentiation of retinal hard exudates in patients by AO-SLO may help in understanding the pathogenesis and clinical prognosis of retinal vascular diseases. PMID:27641223

  3. High-Resolution Imaging by Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Reveals Two Morphologically Distinct Types of Retinal Hard Exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Muneo; Nakao, Shintaro; Kaizu, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakama, Takahito; Arima, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Shigeo; Oshima, Yuji; Takeda, Atsunobu; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Mukai, Shizuo; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Koh-hei

    2016-01-01

    Histological studies from autopsy specimens have characterized hard exudates as a composition of lipid-laden macrophages or noncellular materials including lipid and proteinaceous substances (hyaline substances). However, the characteristics of hard exudates in living patients have not been examined due to insufficient resolution of existing equipment. In this study, we used adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to examine the characteristics of hard exudates in patients with retinal vascular diseases. High resolution imaging using AO-SLO enables morphological classification of retinal hard exudates into two types, which could not be distinguished either on fundus examination or by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). One, termed a round type, consisted of an accumulation of spherical particles (average diameter of particles: 26.9 ± 4.4 μm). The other, termed an irregular type, comprised an irregularly shaped hyper-reflective deposition. The retinal thickness in regions with round hard exudates was significantly greater than the thickness in regions with irregular hard exudates (P = 0.01 →0.02). This differentiation of retinal hard exudates in patients by AO-SLO may help in understanding the pathogenesis and clinical prognosis of retinal vascular diseases. PMID:27641223

  4. Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey III: Adaptive Optics Imaging of 1629 Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Carl; Morton, Tim; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Baker, Anna; Roberts, Sarah; Ciardi, David R

    2016-01-01

    The Robo-AO \\textit{Kepler} Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every \\textit{Kepler} planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging to search for blended nearby stars, which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. We present in this paper the results of our search for stars nearby 1629 \\textit{Kepler} planet candidate hosts. With survey sensitivity to objects as close as $\\sim$0.15" and magnitude differences $\\Delta$m$\\le$6, we find 223 stars in the vicinity of 206 target KOIs; 209 of these nearby stars have not previously been imaged in high resolution. We measure an overall nearby-star probability for \\textit{Kepler} planet candidates of 12.6\\%$\\pm$0.9\\% out to a separation of 4.0". Particularly interesting KOI systems are discussed, including 23 stars with detected companions which host rocky, habitable zone candidates, and five new candidate planet-hosting quadruple star systems. We explore the broad correlations between planetary systems...

  5. THE FIRST CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK IMAGED IN SILHOUETTE AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS: MagAO IMAGING OF ORION 218-354

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follette, Katherine B.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Wu, Ya-Lin; Morzinski, Katie M.; Hinz, Philip; Rodigas, Timothy J. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kopon, Derek [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa [INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2013-09-20

    We present high-resolution adaptive optics (AO) corrected images of the silhouette disk Orion 218-354 taken with Magellan AO (MagAO) and its visible light camera, VisAO, in simultaneous differential imaging mode at Hα. This is the first image of a circumstellar disk seen in silhouette with AO and is among the first visible light AO results in the literature. We derive the disk extent, geometry, intensity, and extinction profiles and find, in contrast with previous work, that the disk is likely optically thin at Hα. Our data provide an estimate of the column density in primitive, ISM-like grains as a function of radius in the disk. We estimate that only ∼10% of the total submillimeter derived disk mass lies in primitive, unprocessed grains. We use our data, Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling, and previous results from the literature to make the first self-consistent multiwavelength model of Orion 218-354. We find that we are able to reproduce the 1-1000 μm spectral energy distribution with a ∼2-540 AU disk of the size, geometry, small versus large grain proportion, and radial mass profile indicated by our data. This inner radius is a factor of ∼15 larger than the sublimation radius of the disk, suggesting that it is likely cleared in the very interior.

  6. Diffractive generalized phase contrast for adaptive phase imaging and optical security

    OpenAIRE

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the properties of Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) when the input phase modulation is implemented using diffractive gratings. In GPC applications for patterned illumination, the use of a dynamic diffractive optical element for encoding the GPC input phase allows for onthe- fly optimization of the input aperture parameters according to desired output characteristics. For wavefront sensing, the achieved aperture control opens a new degree of freedom for improving the accuracy of quan...

  7. Pulse front adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B.; Salter, P. S.; Booth, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    The accurate focusing of ultrashort laser pulses is extremely important in multiphoton microscopy. Using adaptive optics to manipulate the incident ultrafast beam in either the spectral or spatial domain can introduce significant benefits when imaging. Here we introduce pulse front adaptive optics: manipulating an ultrashort pulse in both the spatial and temporal domains. A deformable mirror and a spatial light modulator are operated in concert to modify contours of constant intensity in space and time within an ultrashort pulse. Through adaptive control of the pulse front, we demonstrate an enhancement in the measured fluorescence from a two photon microscope.

  8. Adaptive optics applications in vision science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.

    2003-06-01

    Adaptive optics can be used to correct the aberrations in the human eye caused by imperfections in the cornea and the lens and thereby, improve image quality both looking into and out of the eye. Under the auspices of the NSF Center for Adaptive Optics and the DOE Biomedical Engineering Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has joined together with leading vision science researchers around the country to develop and test new ophthalmic imaging systems using novel wavefront corrector technologies. Results of preliminary comparative evaluations of these technologies in initial system tests show promise for future clinical utility.

  9. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27416593

  10. Status and performance of the Gemini Planet Imager adaptive optics system

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Vanessa P; Macintosh, Bruce A; Savransky, Dmitry; Wang, Jason J; De Rosa, Robert J; Follette, Katherine B; Ammons, S Mark; Hayward, Thomas; Ingraham, Patrick; Maire, Jérôme; Palmer, David W; Perrin, Marshall D; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Thomas, Sandrine; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a high-contrast near-infrared instrument specifically designed to image exoplanets and circumstellar disks over a narrow field of view. We use science data and AO telemetry taken during the first 1.5 yr of the GPI Exoplanet Survey to quantify the performance of the AO system. In a typical 60 sec H-band exposure, GPI achieves a 5$\\sigma$ raw contrast of 10$^{-4}$ at 0.4"; typical final 5$\\sigma$ contrasts for full 1 hr sequences are more than 10 times better than raw contrasts. We find that contrast is limited by bandwidth wavefront error over much of the PSF. Preliminary exploratory factor analysis can explain 60-70% of the variance in raw contrasts with combinations of seeing and wavefront error metrics. We also examine the effect of higher loop gains on contrast by comparing wavefront error maps reconstructed from AO telemetry to concurrent IFS images. These results point to several ways that GPI performance could be improved in software or hardware.

  11. The absolute age of the globular cluster M15 using near-infrared adaptive optics images from PISCES/LBT

    CERN Document Server

    Monelli, M; Bono, G; Ferraro, I; Iannicola, G; Fiorentino, G; Arcidiacono, C; Massari, D; Boutsia, K; Briguglio, R; Busoni, L; Carini, R; Close, L; Cresci, G; Esposito, S; Fini, L; Fumana, M; Guerra, J C; Hill, J; Kulesa, C; Mannucci, F; McCarthy, D; Pinna, E; Puglisi, A; Quiros-Pacheco, F; Ragazzoni, R; Riccardi, A; Skemer, A; Xompero, M

    2015-01-01

    We present deep near-infrared (NIR) J, Ks photometry of the old, metal-poor Galactic globular cluster M\\,15 obtained with images collected with the LUCI1 and PISCES cameras available at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). We show how the use of First Light Adaptive Optics system coupled with the (FLAO) PISCES camera allows us to improve the limiting magnitude by ~2 mag in Ks. By analyzing archival HST data, we demonstrate that the quality of the LBT/PISCES color magnitude diagram is fully comparable with analogous space-based data. The smaller field of view is balanced by the shorter exposure time required to reach a similar photometric limit. We investigated the absolute age of M\\,15 by means of two methods: i) by determining the age from the position of the main sequence turn-off; and ii) by the magnitude difference between the MSTO and the well-defined knee detected along the faint portion of the MS. We derive consistent values of the absolute age of M15, that is 12.9+-2.6 Gyr and 13.3+-1.1 Gyr, respectiv...

  12. Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey II: Adaptive Optics Imaging of 969 Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Schonhut, Jessica; Crepp, Justin

    2016-01-01

    We initiated the Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey in 2012 to observe each Kepler exoplanet candidate host star with high-angular-resolution visible-light laser-adaptive-optics imaging. Our goal is to find nearby stars lying in Kepler's photometric apertures that are responsible for the relatively high probability of false-positive exoplanet detections and that cause underestimates of the size of transit radii. Our comprehensive survey will also shed light on the effects of stellar multiplicity on exoplanet properties and will identify rare exoplanetary architectures. In this second part of our ongoing survey, we observed an additional 969 Kepler planet candidate hosts and we report blended stellar companions up to $\\Delta m \\approx 6$ that contribute to Kepler's measured light curves. We found 203 companions within $\\sim$4" of 181 of the Kepler stars, of which 141 are new discoveries. We measure the nearby-star probability for this sample of Kepler planet candidate host stars to be 10.6% $\\pm$ 1.1% a...

  13. QSO hosts and environments at z=0.9 to 4.2 $JHK$ images with adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchings, J B; Morris, S L; Durand, D; Steinbring, E

    1998-01-01

    We have observed nine QSOs with redshifts 0.85 to 4.16 at near-IR wavelengths with the adaptive optics bonnette of the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. Exposure times ranged from 1500 to 24000s (mostly near 7000s) in J, H, or K bands, with pixels 0.035 arcsec on the sky. The FWHM of the co-added images at the location of the quasars are typically 0.16 arcsec. Including another QSO published previously, we find associated QSO structure in at least eight of ten objects, including the QSO at z = 4.16. The structures seen in all cases include long faint features which appear to be tidal tails. In four cases we have also resolved the QSO host galaxy, but find them to be smooth and symmetrical: future PSF removal may expand this result. Including one object previously reported, of the nine objects with more extended structure, five are radio-loud, and all but one of these appear to be in a dense small group of compact galaxy companions. The radio-quiet objects do not occupy the same dense environments, as seen in th...

  14. Adaptive Optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavel, D T

    2003-03-10

    Adaptive optics enables high resolution imaging through the atmospheric by correcting for the turbulent air's aberrations to the light waves passing through it. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for a number of years has been at the forefront of applying adaptive optics technology to astronomy on the world's largest astronomical telescopes, in particular at the Keck 10-meter telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The technology includes the development of high-speed electrically driven deformable mirrors, high-speed low-noise CCD sensors, and real-time wavefront reconstruction and control hardware. Adaptive optics finds applications in many other areas where light beams pass through aberrating media and must be corrected to maintain diffraction-limited performance. We describe systems and results in astronomy, medicine (vision science), and horizontal path imaging, all active programs in our group.

  15. Optical image encryption topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Liang, Xiao; Xin, Zhou; Qiong-Hua, Wang; Sheng, Yuan; Yao-Yao, Chen

    2009-10-15

    Optical image encryption topology is proposed based on the principle of random-phase encoding. Various encryption topological units, involving peer-to-peer, ring, star, and tree topologies, can be realized by an optical 6f system. These topological units can be interconnected to constitute an optical image encryption network. The encryption and decryption can be performed in both digital and optical methods.

  16. SEEDS Adaptive Optics Imaging of the Asymmetric Transition Disk Oph IRS 48 in Scattered Light

    CERN Document Server

    Follette, Katherine B; Swearingen, Jeremy R; Sitko, Michael L; Champney, Elizabeth H; van der Marel, Nienke; Takami, Michihiro; Kuchner, Marc J; Close, Laird M; Muto, Takayuki; Mayama, Satoshi; McElwain, Michael W; Fukagawa, Misato; Maaskant, Koen; Min, Michiel; Russell, Ray W; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Abe, Lyu; Akiyama, Eiji; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John P; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2014-01-01

    We present the first resolved near infrared imagery of the transition disk Oph IRS 48 (WLY 2-48), which was recently observed with ALMA to have a strongly asymmetric sub-millimeter flux distribution. H-band polarized intensity images show a $\\sim$60AU radius scattered light cavity with two pronounced arcs of emission, one from Northeast to Southeast and one smaller, fainter and more distant arc in the Northwest. K-band scattered light imagery reveals a similar morphology, but with a clear third arc along the Southwestern rim of the disk cavity. This arc meets the Northwestern arc at nearly a right angle, revealing the presence of a spiral arm or local surface brightness deficit in the disk, and explaining the East-West brightness asymmetry in the H-band data. We also present 0.8-5.4$\\mu$m IRTF SpeX spectra of this object, which allow us to constrain the spectral class to A0$\\pm$1 and measure a low mass accretion rate of 10$^{-8.5}$M$_{\\odot}$/yr, both consistent with previous estimates. We investigate a varie...

  17. Biomedical optical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, James G

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical optical imaging is a rapidly emerging research area with widespread fundamental research and clinical applications. This book gives an overview of biomedical optical imaging with contributions from leading international research groups who have pioneered many of these techniques and applications. A unique research field spanning the microscopic to the macroscopic, biomedical optical imaging allows both structural and functional imaging. Techniques such as confocal and multiphoton microscopy provide cellular level resolution imaging in biological systems. The integration of this tech

  18. High-efficiency Autonomous Laser Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M; Ramaprakash, A N; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Hogstrom, Kristina; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol; Dekany, Richard; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    As new large-scale astronomical surveys greatly increase the number of objects targeted and discoveries made, the requirement for efficient follow-up observations is crucial. Adaptive optics imaging, which compensates for the image-blurring effects of Earth's turbulent atmosphere, is essential for these surveys, but the scarcity, complexity and high demand of current systems limits their availability for following up large numbers of targets. To address this need, we have engineered and implemented Robo-AO, a fully autonomous laser adaptive optics and imaging system that routinely images over 200 objects per night with an acuity 10 times sharper at visible wavelengths than typically possible from the ground. By greatly improving the angular resolution, sensitivity, and efficiency of 1-3 m class telescopes, we have eliminated a major obstacle in the follow-up of the discoveries from current and future large astronomical surveys.

  19. HIGH-EFFICIENCY AUTONOMOUS LASER ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As new large-scale astronomical surveys greatly increase the number of objects targeted and discoveries made, the requirement for efficient follow-up observations is crucial. Adaptive optics imaging, which compensates for the image-blurring effects of Earth's turbulent atmosphere, is essential for these surveys, but the scarcity, complexity and high demand of current systems limit their availability for following up large numbers of targets. To address this need, we have engineered and implemented Robo-AO, a fully autonomous laser adaptive optics and imaging system that routinely images over 200 objects per night with an acuity 10 times sharper at visible wavelengths than typically possible from the ground. By greatly improving the angular resolution, sensitivity, and efficiency of 1-3 m class telescopes, we have eliminated a major obstacle in the follow-up of the discoveries from current and future large astronomical surveys

  20. Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainty, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    pt. 1. Wavefront correctors and control. Liquid crystal lenses for correction of presbyopia (Invited Paper) / Guoqiang Li and Nasser Peyghambarian. Converging and diverging liquid crystal lenses (oral paper) / Andrew X. Kirby, Philip J. W. Hands, and Gordon D. Love. Liquid lens technology for miniature imaging systems: status of the technology, performance of existing products and future trends (invited paper) / Bruno Berge. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer deformable mirrors for high energy laser applications (oral paper) / S. R. Restaino ... [et al.]. Tiny multilayer deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Tatiana Cherezova ... [et al.]. Performance analysis of piezoelectric deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Oleg Soloviev, Mikhail Loktev and Gleb Vdovin. Deformable membrane mirror with high actuator density and distributed control (oral paper) / Roger Hamelinck ... [et al.]. Characterization and closed-loop demonstration of a novel electrostatic membrane mirror using COTS membranes (oral paper) / David Dayton ... [et al.]. Electrostatic micro-deformable mirror based on polymer materials (oral paper) / Frederic Zamkotsian ... [et al.]. Recent progress in CMOS integrated MEMS A0 mirror development (oral paper) / A. Gehner ... [et al.]. Compact large-stroke piston-tip-tilt actuator and mirror (oral paper) / W. Noell ... [et al.]. MEMS deformable mirrors for high performance AO applications (oral paper) / Paul Bierden, Thomas Bifano and Steven Cornelissen. A versatile interferometric test-rig for the investigation and evaluation of ophthalmic AO systems (poster paper) / Steve Gruppetta, Jiang Jian Zhong and Luis Diaz-Santana. Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics (poster paper) / Thomas Farrell and Chris Dainty. Deformable mirrors based on transversal piezoeffect (poster paper) / Gleb Vdovin, Mikhail Loktev and Oleg Soloviev. Low-cost spatial light modulators for ophthalmic applications (poster paper) / Vincente Durán ... [et al.]. Latest MEMS DM developments and the path ahead

  1. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Heidi; Sredar, Nripun; Queener, Hope; Li, Chaohong; Porter, Jason

    2011-07-01

    Wavefront sensor noise and fidelity place a fundamental limit on achievable image quality in current adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes. Additionally, the wavefront sensor `beacon' can interfere with visual experiments. We demonstrate real-time (25 Hz), wavefront sensorless adaptive optics imaging in the living human eye with image quality rivaling that of wavefront sensor based control in the same system. A stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm directly optimized the mean intensity in retinal image frames acquired with a confocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). When imaging through natural, undilated pupils, both control methods resulted in comparable mean image intensities. However, when imaging through dilated pupils, image intensity was generally higher following wavefront sensor-based control. Despite the typically reduced intensity, image contrast was higher, on average, with sensorless control. Wavefront sensorless control is a viable option for imaging the living human eye and future refinements of this technique may result in even greater optical gains.

  2. Optical imaging and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, David J

    2009-01-01

    An essential reference for optical sensor system design This is the first text to present an integrated view of the optical and mathematical analysis tools necessary to understand computational optical system design. It presents the foundations of computational optical sensor design with a focus entirely on digital imaging and spectroscopy. It systematically covers: Coded aperture and tomographic imaging Sampling and transformations in optical systems, including wavelets and generalized sampling techniques essential to digital system analysis Geometric, wave, and statis

  3. The Absolute Age of the Globular Cluster M15 Using Near-infrared Adaptive Optics Images from PISCES/LBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monelli, M.; Testa, V.; Bono, G.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Fiorentino, G.; Arcidiacono, C.; Massari, D.; Boutsia, K.; Briguglio, R.; Busoni, L.; Carini, R.; Close, L.; Cresci, G.; Esposito, S.; Fini, L.; Fumana, M.; Guerra, J. C.; Hill, J.; Kulesa, C.; Mannucci, F.; McCarthy, D.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Quiros-Pacheco, F.; Ragazzoni, R.; Riccardi, A.; Skemer, A.; Xompero, M.

    2015-10-01

    We present deep near-infrared J, {K}{{s}} photometry of the old, metal-poor Galactic globular cluster M15 obtained with images collected with the LUCI1 and PISCES cameras available at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). We show how the use of First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system coupled with the PISCES camera allows us to improve the limiting magnitude by ˜2 mag in {K}{{s}}. By analyzing archival Hubble Space Telescope data, we demonstrate that the quality of the LBT/PISCES color-magnitude diagram is fully comparable with analogous space-based data. The smaller field of view is balanced by the shorter exposure time required to reach a similar photometric limit. We investigated the absolute age of M15 by means of two methods: (i) by determining the age from the position of the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO), and (ii) by the magnitude difference between the MSTO and the well-defined knee detected along the faint portion of the MS. We derive consistent values of the absolute age of M15, that is, 12.9 ± 2.6 Gyr and 13.3 ± 1.1 Gyr, respectively. Observations were carried out using the Large Binocular Telescope at Mount Graham, AZ. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; the Ohio State University; and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  4. Deep imaging survey of the environment of Alpha Centauri - I. Adaptive optics imaging of Alpha Cen B with VLT-NACO

    CERN Document Server

    Kervella, P; Foresto, V C D; Kervella, Pierre; Th\\'{e}venin, Fr\\'{e}d\\'{e}ric; Foresto, Vincent Coud\\'{e} Du

    2006-01-01

    Context: Alpha Centauri is our closest stellar neighbor, at a distance of only 1.3 pc, and its two main components have spectral types comparable to the Sun. This is therefore a favorable target for an imaging search for extrasolar planets. Moreover, indications exist that the gravitational mass of Alpha Cen B is higher than its modeled mass, the difference being consistent with a substellar companion of a few tens of Jupiter masses. Aims: We searched for faint comoving companions to Alpha Cen B. As a secondary objective, we built a catalogue of the detected background sources. Methods: We used the NACO adaptive optics system of the VLT in the J, H, and Ks bands to search for companions to Alpha Cen B. This instrument allowed us to achieve a very high sensitivity to point-like sources, with a limiting magnitude of m\\_Ks ~ 18 at 7" from the star. We complemented this data set with archival coronagraphic images from the HST-ACS instrument to obtain an accurate astrometric calibration. Results: Over the observed...

  5. Adaptive optics and laser guide stars at Lick observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    For the past several years LLNL has been developing adaptive optics systems for correction of both atmospheric turbulence effects and thermal distortions in optics for high-power lasers. Our early work focused on adaptive optics for beam control in laser isotope separation and ground-based free electron lasers. We are currently developing innovative adaptive optics and laser systems for sodium laser guide star applications at the University of California`s Lick and Keck Observeratories. This talk will describe our adaptive optics technology and some of its applications in high-resolution imaging and beam control.

  6. Adaptive optics parallel near-confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Gu, Boyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2016-08-15

    We present an adaptive optics parallel near-confocal scanning ophthalmoscope (AOPCSO) using a digital micromirror device (DMD). The imaging light is modulated to be a line of point sources by the DMD, illuminating the retina simultaneously. By using a high-speed line camera to acquire the image and using adaptive optics to compensate the ocular wave aberration, the AOPCSO can image the living human eye with cellular level resolution at the frame rate of 100 Hz. AOPCSO has been demonstrated with improved spatial resolution in imaging of the living human retina compared with adaptive optics line scan ophthalmoscopy.

  7. Adaptive optics parallel near-confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Gu, Boyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2016-08-15

    We present an adaptive optics parallel near-confocal scanning ophthalmoscope (AOPCSO) using a digital micromirror device (DMD). The imaging light is modulated to be a line of point sources by the DMD, illuminating the retina simultaneously. By using a high-speed line camera to acquire the image and using adaptive optics to compensate the ocular wave aberration, the AOPCSO can image the living human eye with cellular level resolution at the frame rate of 100 Hz. AOPCSO has been demonstrated with improved spatial resolution in imaging of the living human retina compared with adaptive optics line scan ophthalmoscopy. PMID:27519106

  8. Fluorescent scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for cellular resolution in vivo mouse retinal imaging: benefits and drawbacks of implementing adaptive optics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Goswami, Mayank; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is a very important imaging tool in ophthalmology research. By combing with Adaptive Optics (AO) technique, AO-SLO can correct for ocular aberrations resulting in cellular level resolution, allowing longitudinal studies of single cells morphology in the living eyes. The numerical aperture (NA) sets the optical resolution that can be achieve in the "classical" imaging systems. Mouse eye has more than twice NA of the human eye, thus offering theoretically higher resolution. However, in most SLO based imaging systems the imaging beam size at mouse pupil sets the NA of that instrument, while most of the AO-SLO systems use almost the full NA of the mouse eye. In this report, we first simulated the theoretical resolution that can be achieved in vivo for different imaging beam sizes (different NA), assumingtwo cases: no aberrations and aberrations based on published mouse ocular wavefront data. Then we imaged mouse retinas with our custom build SLO system using different beam sizes to compare these results with theory. Further experiments include comparison of the SLO and AO-SLO systems for imaging different type of fluorescently labeled cells (microglia, ganglion, photoreceptors, etc.). By comparing those results and taking into account systems complexity and ease of use, the benefits and drawbacks of two imaging systems will be discussed.

  9. Micromirror Arrays for Adaptive Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, E.J.

    2000-08-07

    The long-range goal of this project is to develop the optical and mechanical design of a micromirror array for adaptive optics that will meet the following criteria: flat mirror surface ({lambda}/20), high fill factor (> 95%), large stroke (5-10 {micro}m), and pixel size {approx}-200 {micro}m. This will be accomplished by optimizing the mirror surface and actuators independently and then combining them using bonding technologies that are currently being developed.

  10. Gemini Frontier Fields: Wide-field Adaptive Optics $K_s$-band Imaging of the Galaxy Cluster MACS J0416.1-2403

    CERN Document Server

    Schirmer, Mischa; Pessev, Peter; Garrel, Vincent; Winge, Claudia; Neichel, Benoit; Vidal, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Fields Campaign targets six massive clusters of galaxies, exploiting the strong gravitational lensing effect to study the distant Universe. At Gemini South we observe the three southern-most clusters in Ks-band, overcoming HST/WFC3's sensitivity cut-off redwards of 1.7 microns. We use the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI), delivering near diffraction-limited images on arcminute scales. In this paper we describe our public release of 100"x110" wide images of the first target, MACS J0416.1-2403. We have achieved an angular resolution of 0.07"-0.10", twice as high as HST/WFC3, with only one natural guide star. With a $5\\sigma$ depth of Ks=23.8 mag for extended sources our images are shallower than the HST/WFC3 images. The data were distortion corrected and registered with sub-pixel accuracy despite only a few low-S/N extended sources are visible in the individual exposures. This is a demonstration tha...

  11. 15 Gbit/s indoor optical wireless systems employing fast adaptation and imaging reception in a realistic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaadi, Fuad E.

    2016-03-01

    Optical wireless systems are promising candidates for next-generation indoor communication networks. Optical wireless technology offers freedom from spectrum regulations and, compared to current radio-frequency networks, higher data rates and increased security. This paper presents a fast adaptation method for multibeam angle and delay adaptation systems and a new spot-diffusing geometry, and also considers restrictions needed for complying with eye safety regulations. The fast adaptation algorithm reduces the computational load required to reconfigure the transmitter in the case of transmitter and/or receiver mobility. The beam clustering approach enables the transmitter to assign power to spots within the pixel's field of view (FOV) and increases the number of such spots. Thus, if the power per spot is restricted to comply with eye safety standards, the new approach, in which more spots are visible within the FOV of the pixel, leads to enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Simulation results demonstrate that the techniques proposed in this paper lead to SNR improvements that enable reliable operation at data rates as high as 15 Gbit/s. These results are based on simulation and not on actual measurements or experiments.

  12. Field guide to adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert K

    2004-01-01

    ""...These field guides will be immensely useful to all scientists and engineers who wish to brush up on authentic definitions, equations, and tables of data in optics. And the format is really user friendly! I...wonder now how I ever got along in optics without this ready reference....a real winner!"" --Dr. Leno S. Pedrotti, Center for Occupational Research and Development (CORD) Third in the Field Guide Series, this is a summary of the methods for determining the requirements of an adaptive optics system, the performance of the system, and the requirements for the components of th

  13. Future trends in adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louarn, Miska

    2001-05-01

    In this talk, I will summarize the limitations of current adaptive optics systems (cone effect, anisoplanatism) and I will show what methods can be used to overcome them. I will focus on Multi-Conjugate AO and the polychromatic laser guide star. I will also address AO for Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs), such as OWL (ESO) and CELT (University of California / Caltech).

  14. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Heidi; Sredar, Nripun; Queener, Hope; Li, Chaohong; Porter, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Wavefront sensor noise and fidelity place a fundamental limit on achievable image quality in current adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes. Additionally, the wavefront sensor ‘beacon’ can interfere with visual experiments. We demonstrate real-time (25 Hz), wavefront sensorless adaptive optics imaging in the living human eye with image quality rivaling that of wavefront sensor based control in the same system. A stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm directly optimized the mean intensity in ...

  15. Optical breast imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, S.M.W.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Optical breast imaging uses near-infrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue. It can be performed relying on intrinsic breast tissue contrast alone or with the use of exogenous imaging agents that accumulate at the tumor site. Different tissue components have unique scattering a

  16. Adaptive-optics SLO imaging combined with widefield OCT and SLO enables precise 3D localization of fluorescent cells in the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Miller, Eric B; Goswami, Mayank; Wang, Xinlei; Jonnal, Ravi S; Lee, Sang-Hyuck; Kim, Dae Yu; Flannery, John G; Werner, John S; Burns, Marie E; Pugh, Edward N

    2015-06-01

    Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) has recently been used to achieve exquisite subcellular resolution imaging of the mouse retina. Wavefront sensing-based AO typically restricts the field of view to a few degrees of visual angle. As a consequence the relationship between AO-SLO data and larger scale retinal structures and cellular patterns can be difficult to assess. The retinal vasculature affords a large-scale 3D map on which cells and structures can be located during in vivo imaging. Phase-variance OCT (pv-OCT) can efficiently image the vasculature with near-infrared light in a label-free manner, allowing 3D vascular reconstruction with high precision. We combined widefield pv-OCT and SLO imaging with AO-SLO reflection and fluorescence imaging to localize two types of fluorescent cells within the retinal layers: GFP-expressing microglia, the resident macrophages of the retina, and GFP-expressing cone photoreceptor cells. We describe in detail a reflective afocal AO-SLO retinal imaging system designed for high resolution retinal imaging in mice. The optical performance of this instrument is compared to other state-of-the-art AO-based mouse retinal imaging systems. The spatial and temporal resolution of the new AO instrumentation was characterized with angiography of retinal capillaries, including blood-flow velocity analysis. Depth-resolved AO-SLO fluorescent images of microglia and cone photoreceptors are visualized in parallel with 469 nm and 663 nm reflectance images of the microvasculature and other structures. Additional applications of the new instrumentation are discussed.

  17. Adaptive optics implementation with a Fourier reconstructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Oded; Ribak, Erez N; Mirkin, Leonid

    2007-02-01

    Adaptive optics takes its servo feedback error cue from a wavefront sensor. The common Hartmann-Shack spot grid that represents the wavefront slopes is usually analyzed by finding the spot centroids. In a novel application, we used the Fourier decomposition of a spot pattern to find deviations from grid regularity. This decomposition was performed either in the Fourier domain or in the image domain, as a demodulation of the grid of spots. We analyzed the system, built a control loop for it, and tested it thoroughly. This allowed us to close the loop on wavefront errors caused by turbulence in the optical system.

  18. Adaptive optics program at TMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, C.; Adkins, Sean; Andersen, David R.; Atwood, Jenny; Bo, Yong; Byrnes, Peter; Caputa, Kris; Cavaco, Jeff; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Gregory, James; Herriot, Glen; Hickson, Paul; Ljusic, Zoran; Manter, Darren; Marois, Christian; Otárola, Angel; Pagès, Hubert; Schoeck, Matthias; Sinquin, Jean-Christophe; Smith, Malcolm; Spano, Paolo; Szeto, Kei; Tang, Jinlong; Travouillon, Tony; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Lianqi; Wei, Kai

    2014-07-01

    The TMT first light Adaptive Optics (AO) facility consists of the Narrow Field Infra-Red AO System (NFIRAOS) and the associated Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF). NFIRAOS is a 60 × 60 laser guide star (LGS) multi-conjugate AO (MCAO) system, which provides uniform, diffraction-limited performance in the J, H, and K bands over 17-30 arc sec diameter fields with 50 per cent sky coverage at the galactic pole, as required to support the TMT science cases. NFIRAOS includes two deformable mirrors, six laser guide star wavefront sensors, and three low-order, infrared, natural guide star wavefront sensors within each client instrument. The first light LGSF system includes six sodium lasers required to generate the NFIRAOS laser guide stars. In this paper, we will provide an update on the progress in designing, modeling and validating the TMT first light AO systems and their components over the last two years. This will include pre-final design and prototyping activities for NFIRAOS, preliminary design and prototyping activities for the LGSF, design and prototyping for the deformable mirrors, fabrication and tests for the visible detectors, benchmarking and comparison of different algorithms and processing architecture for the Real Time Controller (RTC) and development and tests of prototype candidate lasers. Comprehensive and detailed AO modeling is continuing to support the design and development of the first light AO facility. Main modeling topics studied during the last two years include further studies in the area of wavefront error budget, sky coverage, high precision astrometry for the galactic center and other observations, high contrast imaging with NFIRAOS and its first light instruments, Point Spread Function (PSF) reconstruction for LGS MCAO, LGS photon return and sophisticated low order mode temporal filtering.

  19. Content adaptive screen image scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Yao; Wang, Qifei; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient content adaptive screen image scaling scheme for the real-time screen applications like remote desktop and screen sharing. In the proposed screen scaling scheme, a screen content classification step is first introduced to classify the screen image into text and pictorial regions. Afterward, we propose an adaptive shift linear interpolation algorithm to predict the new pixel values with the shift offset adapted to the content type of each pixel. The shift offse...

  20. Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubra, Alfredo

    2012-07-01

    Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections.

  1. Gemini Frontier Fields: Wide-field Adaptive Optics Ks-band Imaging of the Galaxy Clusters MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Carrasco, E. R.; Pessev, P.; Garrel, V.; Winge, C.; Neichel, B.; Vidal, F.

    2015-04-01

    We have observed two of the six Frontier Fields galaxy clusters, MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744, using the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI). With 0.″ 08-0.″ 10 FWHM our data are nearly diffraction-limited over a 100\\prime\\prime × 100\\prime\\prime wide area. GeMS/GSAOI complements the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) redwards of 1.6 μm with twice the angular resolution. We reach a 5σ depth of {{K}s}˜ 25.6 mag (AB) for compact sources. In this paper, we describe the observations, data processing, and initial public data release. We provide fully calibrated, co-added images matching the native GSAOI pixel scale as well as the larger plate scales of the HST release, adding to the legacy value of the Frontier Fields. Our work demonstrates that even for fields at high galactic latitude where natural guide stars are rare, current multi-conjugated adaptive optics technology at 8 m telescopes has opened a new window on the distant universe. Observations of a third Frontier Field, Abell 370, are planned. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal Observatories, Chile.

  2. Preliminary images from an adaptive imaging system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Griffiths; M.G. Metaxas; S. Pani; H. Schulerud; C. Esbrand; G.J. Royle; B. Price; T. Rokvic; R. Longo; A. Asimidis; E. Bletsas; D. Cavouras; A. Fant; P. Gasiorek; H. Georgiou; G. Hall; J. Jones; J. Leaver; G. Li; D. Machin; N. Manthos; J. Matheson; M. Noy; J.M. Østby; F. Psomadellis; P.F. van der Stelt; S. Theodoridis; F. Triantis; R. Turchetta; C. Venanzi; R.D. Speller

    2008-01-01

    I-ImaS (Intelligent Imaging Sensors) is a European project aiming to produce real-time adaptive X-ray imaging systems using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) to create images with maximum diagnostic information within given dose constraints. Initial systems concentrate on mammography and cephal

  3. Scientific Objectives and Design Study of an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) for the NAOS Visitor Focus at the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Zerbi, Filippo; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Bonanno, Giovanni; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Delabre, Bernard; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Marcantonio, Paolo Di; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Molaro, Paolo; Pasquini, Luca; Santin, Paolo

    We present the scientific case for an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) that we propose as a visitor instrument for the secondary port of NAOS at the VLT. We show that such an instrument would be ideal for intermediate resolution (R=16,000) spectroscopy of faint sky-limited objects down to a magnitude of V=24.0 and will complement very effectively the near-IR imaging capabilities of CONICA. We present examples of science programmes that could be carried out with such an instrument and which cannot be addressed with existing VLT instruments. We also report on the result of a two-year design study of the instrument, with specific reference to its use as parallel instrument of NAOS.

  4. VLT adaptive optics imaging of QSO host galaxies and close environment at z ~2.5: results from a pilot program

    CERN Document Server

    Falomo, R; Scarpa, R; Treves, A

    2004-01-01

    We report ESO-VLT near-infrared adaptive optics imaging of one radio-loud (PKS 0113-283) and two radio-quiet (Q 0045-3337 and Q 0101-337) QSOs at z > 2. In the first case, we are able to resolve the QSO and find that it is hosted by an elliptical of absolute magnitude M(K) = -27.6. For the other two objects, no extended emission has been unambiguously detected. This result, though restricted to a single object, extends up to z ~2.5 the finding that cosmic evolution of radio-loud QSO hosts follows the trend expected for luminous and massive spheroids undergoing passive evolution. For Q 0045-3337, our high resolution images show that it is located 1.2 arcsec from a K = 17.5 foreground disc galaxy, which may act as a gravitational lens, since the QSO most probably lies within the galaxy Einstein radius.

  5. Optical imaging and metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Osten, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the state of the art and advances in the field, while also outlining the future potential and development trends of optical imaging and optical metrology, an area of fast growth with numerous applications in nanotechnology and nanophysics. Written by the world's leading experts in the field, it fills the gap in the current literature by bridging the fields of optical imaging and metrology, and is the only up-to-date resource in terms of fundamental knowledge, basic concepts, methodologies, applications, and development trends.

  6. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Omer P; Turner, Timothy L; Liu, Zhuolin; Miller, Donald T

    2014-12-01

    Image acquisition speed of optical coherence tomography (OCT) remains a fundamental barrier that limits its scientific and clinical utility. Here we demonstrate a novel multi-camera adaptive optics (AO-)OCT system for ophthalmologic use that operates at 1 million A-lines/s at a wavelength of 790 nm with 5.3 μm axial resolution in retinal tissue. Central to the spectral-domain design is a novel detection channel based on four high-speed spectrometers that receive light sequentially from a 1 × 4 optical switch assembly. Absence of moving parts enables ultra-fast (50ns) and precise switching with low insertion loss (-0.18 dB per channel). This manner of control makes use of all available light in the detection channel and avoids camera dead-time, both critical for imaging at high speeds. Additional benefit in signal-to-noise accrues from the larger numerical aperture afforded by the use of AO and yields retinal images of comparable dynamic range to that of clinical OCT. We validated system performance by a series of experiments that included imaging in both model and human eyes. We demonstrated the performance of our MHz AO-OCT system to capture detailed images of individual retinal nerve fiber bundles and cone photoreceptors. This is the fastest ophthalmic OCT system we know of in the 700 to 915 nm spectral band.

  7. 高度屈光不正人眼的视网膜自适应成像系统%Large refractive error adaptive optical retinal imaging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丽; 邓玉福

    2012-01-01

    In order to correct the aberration of the eye with huge low aberration and get a better quality of retina image, an adaptive optics imaging system based on low order aberration serf-compensating system was demonstrated. An optical system based on eye accommodation property was utilized to correct the low order aberration of eye. The LCOS (liquid crystal on silicon)and Shark-Hartman wave-front sensor were used for wave-front correcting and wave-front detecting respectively. The residual low order aberration and high order wave-front aberration were corrected by LCOS wave-front corrector. System aberration was reduced significantly. The optical system diffraction limit was approached at 70 lp/mm. Utilizing a Low order aberration self-compensating system, enhanced images of retina were obtained by liquid crystal adaptive optics imaging system facing large eye refractive error.%为了更好的利用液晶自适应成像系统进行具有较大屈光不正人眼像差校正及视网膜的成像,建立了一套基于低阶像差自补偿的眼底自适应成像系统.该系统采用基于人眼调节特性的光学系统进行屈光补偿,用夏克哈特曼波前传感器进行实时的波面探测,将探测所得波前畸变进行波前重构,通过LCOS波前校正器进行高阶像差的波面校正提高系统成像质量.经过校正后系统波前误差得到有效控制.光学系统的分辨率接近70 lp/mm,已经到达该光学系统的衍射极限分辨.可以得出:液晶自适应视网膜成像系统可以满足高度屈光不正情况下的人眼视网膜成像要求.

  8. Optical scatter imaging using digital Fourier microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Seet, K Y T; Meredith, P; Zvyagin, A V

    2007-01-01

    An approach reported recently by Alexandrov et al. on optical scatter imaging, termed digital Fourier microscopy (DFM), represents an adaptation of digital Fourier holography to selective imaging of biological matter. Holographic mode of recording of the sample optical scatter enables reconstruction of the sample image. Form-factor of the sample constituents provides a basis for discrimination of these constituents implemented via flexible digital Fourier filtering at the post processing stage. Like in the dark-field microscopy, the DFM image contrast appears to improve due to the suppressed optical scatter from extended sample structures. In this paper, we present theoretical and experimental study of DFM using biological phantom that contains polymorphic scatterers.

  9. Solar adaptive optics at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltau, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Schmidt, Dirk; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2013-10-01

    Observing the Sun with high angular resolution is difficult because the turbulence in the atmosphere is strongest during day time. In this paper we describe the principles of solar adaptive optics exemplified by the two German solar telescopes VTT and GREGOR at the Observatorio del Teide. With theses systems we obtain near diffraction limited images of the Sun. Ways to overcome the limits of conventional AO by applying multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) are shown.

  10. Noise Estimation from Remote Sensing Images by Fractal Theory and Adaptive Image Block Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Peng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for additive noise estimation from highly textured optical remote sensing images has been proposed, which is based on fractal theory and adaptive image block division. Different from the conventional regular block division based noise estimation methods, the divided adaptive image blocks with the proposed method are adhering to the local image information, which are most likely to be homogeneous blocks. Combining with the week textured image region detection using fractal theory and noise standard deviation calculation using statistical analysis, the proposed method can automatically estimate additive noise intensity from optical remote sensing images. Quantified analysis of experiments with ZY-3 satellite images demonstrates that the proposed method is applicable to optical remote sensing images with various complexities and different noise levels. Meanwhile, the notion of week textured image region detection and adaptive image block division can also be applied to multiplicative noise estimation from radar images after modification.

  11. Initial concepts for CELT adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekany, Richard G.; Bauman, Brian J.; Gavel, Donald T.; Troy, Mitchell; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Britton, Matthew C.

    2003-02-01

    The California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) project has recently completed a 12-month conceptual design phase that has investigated major technology challenges in a number of Observatory subsystems, including adaptive optics (AO). The goal of this effort was not to adopt one or more specific AO architectures. Rather, it was to investigate the feasibility of adaptive optics correction of a 30-meter diameter telescope and to suggest realistic cost ceilings for various adaptive optics capabilities. We present here the key design issues uncovered during conceptual design and present two non-exclusive ‘baseline" adaptive optics concepts that are expected to be further developed during the following preliminary design phase. Further analysis, detailed engineering trade studies, and certain laboratory and telescope experiments must be performed, and key component technology prototypes demonstrated, prior to adopting one or more adaptive optics systems architectures for realization.

  12. Acousto-optic laser optical feedback imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquin, Olivier; Lacot, Eric; Hugon, Olivier; De Chatellus, Hugues Guillet; François, Ramaz

    2012-01-01

    We present a photon noise and diffraction limited imaging method combining the imaging laser and ultrasonic waves. The laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI) technique is an ultrasensitive imaging method for imaging objects through or embedded within a scattering medium. However, LOFI performances are dramatically limited by parasitic optical feedback occurring in the experimental setup. In this work, we have tagged the ballistic photons by an acousto-optic effect in order to filter the parasitic feedback effect and to reach the theoretical and ultimate sensitivity of the LOFI technique. We present the principle and the experimental setup of the acousto-optic laser optical feedback imaging (AO-LOFI) technique, and we demonstrate the suppression of the parasitic feedback.

  13. Adaptive optics in digital micromirror based confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, P.; Wilding, D.; Soloviev, O.; Vdovin, G.; Verhaegen, M.

    2016-03-01

    This proceeding reports early results in the development of a new technique for adaptive optics in confocal microscopy. The term adaptive optics refers to the branch of optics in which an active element in the optical system is used to correct inhomogeneities in the media through which light propagates. In its most classical form, mostly used in astronomical imaging, adaptive optics is achieved through a closed loop in which the actuators of a deformable mirror are driven by a wavefront sensor. This approach is severely limited in fluorescence microscopy, as the use of a wavefront sensor requires the presence of a bright, point like source in the field of view, a condition rarely satisfied in microscopy samples. Previously reported approaches to adaptive optics in fluorescence microscopy are therefore limited to the inclusion of fluorescent microspheres in the sample, to use as bright stars for wavefront sensors, or time consuming sensorless optimization procedures, requiring several seconds of optimization before the acquisition of a single image. We propose an alternative approach to the problem, implementing sensorless adaptive optics in a Programmable array microscope. A programmable array microscope is a microscope based on a digital micromirror device, in which the single elements of the micromirror act both as point sources and pinholes.

  14. Optical Design and Optimization of Translational Reflective Adaptive Optics Ophthalmoscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulai, Yusufu N. B.

    The retina serves as the primary detector for the biological camera that is the eye. It is composed of numerous classes of neurons and support cells that work together to capture and process an image formed by the eye's optics, which is then transmitted to the brain. Loss of sight due to retinal or neuro-ophthalmic disease can prove devastating to one's quality of life, and the ability to examine the retina in vivo is invaluable in the early detection and monitoring of such diseases. Adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopy is a promising diagnostic tool in early stages of development, still facing significant challenges before it can become a clinical tool. The work in this thesis is a collection of projects with the overarching goal of broadening the scope and applicability of this technology. We begin by providing an optical design approach for AO ophthalmoscopes that reduces the aberrations that degrade the performance of the AO correction. Next, we demonstrate how to further improve image resolution through the use of amplitude pupil apodization and non-common path aberration correction. This is followed by the development of a viewfinder which provides a larger field of view for retinal navigation. Finally, we conclude with the development of an innovative non-confocal light detection scheme which improves the non-invasive visualization of retinal vasculature and reveals the cone photoreceptor inner segments in healthy and diseased eyes.

  15. The Coming of Age of Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    How Ground-Based Astronomers Beat the Atmosphere Adaptive Optics (AO) is the new ``wonder-weapon'' in ground-based astronomy. By means of advanced electro-optical devices at their telescopes, astronomers are now able to ``neutralize'' the image-smearing turbulence of the terrestrial atmosphere (seen by the unaided eye as the twinkling of stars) so that much sharper images can be obtained than before. In practice, this is done with computer-controlled, flexible mirrors which refocus the blurred images up to 100 times per second, i.e. at a rate that is faster than the changes in the atmospheric turbulence. This means that finer details in astronomical objects can be studied and also - because of the improved concentration of light in the telescope's focal plane - that fainter objects can be observed. At the moment, Adaptive Optics work best in the infrared part of spectrum, but at some later time it may also significantly improve observations at the shorter wavelengths of visible light. The many-sided aspects of this new technology and its impact on astronomical instrumentation was the subject of a recent AO conference [1] with over 150 participants from about 30 countries, presenting a total of more than 100 papers. The Introduction of AO Techniques into Astronomy The scope of this meeting was the design, fabrication and testing of AO systems, characterisation of the sources of atmospheric disturbance, modelling of compensation systems, individual components, astronomical AO results, non-astronomical applications, laser guide star systems, non-linear optical phase conjugation, performance evaluation, and other areas of this wide and complex field, in which front-line science and high technology come together in a new and powerful symbiosis. One of the specific goals of the meeting was to develop contacts between AO scientists and engineers in the western world and their colleagues in Russia and Asia. For the first time at a conference of this type, nine Russian

  16. Query Adaptive Image Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta Dubewar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Images play a crucial role in various fields such as art gallery, medical, journalism and entertainment. Increasing use of image acquisition and data storage technologies have enabled the creation of large database. So, it is necessary to develop appropriate information management system to efficiently manage these collections and needed a system to retrieve required images from these collections. This paper proposed query adaptive image retrieval system (QAIRS to retrieve images similar to the query image specified by user from database. The goal of this system is to support image retrieval based on content properties such as colour and texture, usually encoded into feature vectors. In this system, colour feature extracted by various techniques such as colour moment, colour histogram and autocorrelogram and texture feature extracted by using gabor wavelet. Hashing technique is used to embed high dimensional image features into hamming space, where search can be performed by hamming distance of compact hash codes. Depending upon minimum hamming distance it returns the similar image to query image.

  17. Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B J

    2003-11-26

    Designing an adaptive optics (AO) system for extremely large telescopes (ELT's) will present new optical engineering challenges. Several of these challenges are addressed in this work, including first-order design of multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems, pyramid wavefront sensors (PWFS's), and laser guide star (LGS) spot elongation. MCAO systems need to be designed in consideration of various constraints, including deformable mirror size and correction height. The y,{bar y} method of first-order optical design is a graphical technique that uses a plot with marginal and chief ray heights as coordinates; the optical system is represented as a segmented line. This method is shown to be a powerful tool in designing MCAO systems. From these analyses, important conclusions about configurations are derived. PWFS's, which offer an alternative to Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensors (WFS's), are envisioned as the workhorse of layer-oriented adaptive optics. Current approaches use a 4-faceted glass pyramid to create a WFS analogous to a quad-cell SH WFS. PWFS's and SH WFS's are compared and some newly-considered similarities and PWFS advantages are presented. Techniques to extend PWFS's are offered: First, PWFS's can be extended to more pixels in the image by tiling pyramids contiguously. Second, pyramids, which are difficult to manufacture, can be replaced by less expensive lenslet arrays. An approach is outlined to convert existing SH WFS's to PWFS's for easy evaluation of PWFS's. Also, a demonstration of PWFS's in sensing varying amounts of an aberration is presented. For ELT's, the finite altitude and finite thickness of LGS's means that the LGS will appear elongated from the viewpoint of subapertures not directly under the telescope. Two techniques for dealing with LGS spot elongation in SH WFS's are presented. One method assumes that the laser will be pulsed and uses a segmented micro

  18. Large Binocular Telescope Adaptive Optics System: New achievements and perspectives in adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Agapito, Guido; Busoni, Lorenzo; Fini, Luca; Argomedo, Javier; Gherardi, Alessandro; Brusa, Guido; Miller, Douglas; Guerra, Juan Carlos; Stefanini, Paolo; Salinari, Piero; 10.1117/12.898641

    2012-01-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is a unique telescope featuring two co-mounted optical trains with 8.4m primary mirrors. The telescope Adaptive Optics (AO) system uses two innovative key components, namely an adaptive secondary mirror with 672 actuators and a high-order pyramid wave-front sensor. During the on-sky commissioning such a system reached performances never achieved before on large ground-based optical telescopes. Images with 40mas resolution and Strehl Ratios higher than 80% have been acquired in H band (1.6 micron). Such images showed a contrast as high as 10e-4. Based on these results, we compare the performances offered by a Natural Guide Star (NGS) system upgraded with the state-of-the-art technology and those delivered by existing Laser Guide Star (LGS) systems. The comparison, in terms of sky coverage and performances, suggests rethinking the current role ascribed to NGS and LGS in the next generation of AO systems for the 8-10 meter class telescopes and Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs)...

  19. Object-oriented Matlab adaptive optics toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, R.; Correia, C.

    2014-08-01

    Object-Oriented Matlab Adaptive Optics (OOMAO) is a Matlab toolbox dedicated to Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. OOMAO is based on a small set of classes representing the source, atmosphere, telescope, wavefront sensor, Deformable Mirror (DM) and an imager of an AO system. This simple set of classes allows simulating Natural Guide Star (NGS) and Laser Guide Star (LGS) Single Conjugate AO (SCAO) and tomography AO systems on telescopes up to the size of the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT). The discrete phase screens that make the atmosphere model can be of infinite size, useful for modeling system performance on large time scales. OOMAO comes with its own parametric influence function model to emulate different types of DMs. The cone effect, altitude thickness and intensity profile of LGSs are also reproduced. Both modal and zonal modeling approach are implemented. OOMAO has also an extensive library of theoretical expressions to evaluate the statistical properties of turbulence wavefronts. The main design characteristics of the OOMAO toolbox are object-oriented modularity, vectorized code and transparent parallel computing. OOMAO has been used to simulate and to design the Multi-Object AO prototype Raven at the Subaru telescope and the Laser Tomography AO system of the Giant Magellan Telescope. In this paper, a Laser Tomography AO system on an ELT is simulated with OOMAO. In the first part, we set-up the class parameters and we link the instantiated objects to create the source optical path. Then we build the tomographic reconstructor and write the script for the pseudo-open-loop controller.

  20. Preliminary images from an adaptive imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J A; Metaxas, M G; Pani, S; Schulerud, H; Esbrand, C; Royle, G J; Price, B; Rokvic, T; Longo, R; Asimidis, A; Bletsas, E; Cavouras, D; Fant, A; Gasiorek, P; Georgiou, H; Hall, G; Jones, J; Leaver, J; Li, G; Machin, D; Manthos, N; Matheson, J; Noy, M; Ostby, J M; Psomadellis, F; van der Stelt, P F; Theodoridis, S; Triantis, F; Turchetta, R; Venanzi, C; Speller, R D

    2008-06-01

    I-ImaS (Intelligent Imaging Sensors) is a European project aiming to produce real-time adaptive X-ray imaging systems using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) to create images with maximum diagnostic information within given dose constraints. Initial systems concentrate on mammography and cephalography. In our system, the exposure in each image region is optimised and the beam intensity is a function of tissue thickness and attenuation, and also of local physical and statistical parameters in the image. Using a linear array of detectors, the system will perform on-line analysis of the image during the scan, followed by optimisation of the X-ray intensity to obtain the maximum diagnostic information from the region of interest while minimising exposure of diagnostically less important regions. This paper presents preliminary images obtained with a small area CMOS detector developed for this application. Wedge systems were used to modulate the beam intensity during breast and dental imaging using suitable X-ray spectra. The sensitive imaging area of the sensor is 512 x 32 pixels 32 x 32 microm(2) in size. The sensors' X-ray sensitivity was increased by coupling to a structured CsI(Tl) scintillator. In order to develop the I-ImaS prototype, the on-line data analysis and data acquisition control are based on custom-developed electronics using multiple FPGAs. Images of both breast tissues and jaw samples were acquired and different exposure optimisation algorithms applied. Results are very promising since the average dose has been reduced to around 60% of the dose delivered by conventional imaging systems without decrease in the visibility of details. PMID:18291697

  1. Adaptive optical interconnects: the ADDAPT project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henker, Ronny; Pliva, Jan; Khafaji, Mahdi; Ellinger, Frank; Toifl, Thomas; Offrein, Bert; Cevrero, Alessandro; Oezkaya, Ilter; Seifried, Marc; Ledentsov, Nikolay; Kropp, Joerg-R.; Shchukin, Vitaly; Zoldak, Martin; Halmo, Leos; Turkiewicz, Jaroslaw; Meredith, Wyn; Eddie, Iain; Georgiades, Michael; Charalambides, Savvas; Duis, Jeroen; van Leeuwen, Pieter

    2015-09-01

    Existing optical networks are driven by dynamic user and application demands but operate statically at their maximum performance. Thus, optical links do not offer much adaptability and are not very energy-efficient. In this paper a novel approach of implementing performance and power adaptivity from system down to optical device, electrical circuit and transistor level is proposed. Depending on the actual data load, the number of activated link paths and individual device parameters like bandwidth, clock rate, modulation format and gain are adapted to enable lowering the components supply power. This enables flexible energy-efficient optical transmission links which pave the way for massive reductions of CO2 emission and operating costs in data center and high performance computing applications. Within the FP7 research project Adaptive Data and Power Aware Transceivers for Optical Communications (ADDAPT) dynamic high-speed energy-efficient transceiver subsystems are developed for short-range optical interconnects taking up new adaptive technologies and methods. The research of eight partners from industry, research and education spanning seven European countries includes the investigation of several adaptive control types and algorithms, the development of a full transceiver system, the design and fabrication of optical components and integrated circuits as well as the development of high-speed, low loss packaging solutions. This paper describes and discusses the idea of ADDAPT and provides an overview about the latest research results in this field.

  2. Deconvolution of post-adaptive optics images of faint circumstellar environments by means of the inexact Bregman procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfenati, A.; La Camera, A.; Carbillet, M.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: High-dynamic range images of astrophysical objects present some difficulties in their restoration because of the presence of very bright point-wise sources surrounded by faint and smooth structures. We propose a method that enables the restoration of this kind of images by taking these kinds of sources into account and, at the same time, improving the contrast enhancement in the final image. Moreover, the proposed approach can help to detect the position of the bright sources. Methods: The classical variational scheme in the presence of Poisson noise aims to find the minimum of a functional compound of the generalized Kullback-Leibler function and a regularization functional: the latter function is employed to preserve some characteristic in the restored image. The inexact Bregman procedure substitutes the regularization function with its inexact Bregman distance. This proposed scheme allows us to take under control the level of inexactness arising in the computed solution and permits us to employ an overestimation of the regularization parameter (which balances the trade-off between the Kullback-Leibler and the Bregman distance). This aspect is fundamental, since the estimation of this kind of parameter is very difficult in the presence of Poisson noise. Results: The inexact Bregman procedure is tested on a bright unresolved binary star with a faint circumstellar environment. When the sources' position is exactly known, this scheme provides us with very satisfactory results. In case of inexact knowledge of the sources' position, it can in addition give some useful information on the true positions. Finally, the inexact Bregman scheme can be also used when information about the binary star's position concerns a connected region instead of isolated pixels.

  3. Compressive adaptive computational ghost imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Aßmann, Marc; 10.1038/srep01545

    2013-01-01

    Compressive sensing is considered a huge breakthrough in signal acquisition. It allows recording an image consisting of $N^2$ pixels using much fewer than $N^2$ measurements if it can be transformed to a basis where most pixels take on negligibly small values. Standard compressive sensing techniques suffer from the computational overhead needed to reconstruct an image with typical computation times between hours and days and are thus not optimal for applications in physics and spectroscopy. We demonstrate an adaptive compressive sampling technique that performs measurements directly in a sparse basis. It needs much fewer than $N^2$ measurements without any computational overhead, so the result is available instantly.

  4. A DETAILED GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODEL BASED ON SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF A HERSCHEL-ATLAS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY AT z = 4.243 {sup ,} {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Gurwell, M. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fu Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Smith, D. J. B.; Bonfield, D.; Dunne, L. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dye, S.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Auld, R. [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M.; Fritz, J. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Cava, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A. [Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Coppin, K. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Dannerbauer, H. [Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Astronomie, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Wien, Oesterreich (Austria); De Zotti, G. [Universita di Padova, Dipto di Astronomia, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, IT 35122, Padova (Italy); Hopwood, R., E-mail: rbussmann@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-09-10

    We present high-spatial resolution imaging obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 880 {mu}m and the Keck adaptive optics (AO) system at the K{sub S}-band of a gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 4.243 discovered in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. The SMA data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''6) resolve the dust emission into multiple lensed images, while the Keck AO K{sub S}-band data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''1) resolve the lens into a pair of galaxies separated by 0.''3. We present an optical spectrum of the foreground lens obtained with the Gemini-South telescope that provides a lens redshift of z{sub lens} = 0.595 {+-} 0.005. We develop and apply a new lens modeling technique in the visibility plane that shows that the SMG is magnified by a factor of {mu} = 4.1 {+-} 0.2 and has an intrinsic infrared (IR) luminosity of L{sub IR} = (2.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. We measure a half-light radius of the background source of r{sub s} = 4.4 {+-} 0.5 kpc which implies an IR luminosity surface density of {Sigma}{sub IR} (3.4 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2}, a value that is typical of z > 2 SMGs but significantly lower than IR luminous galaxies at z {approx} 0. The two lens galaxies are compact (r{sub lens} Almost-Equal-To 0.9 kpc) early-types with Einstein radii of {theta}{sub E1} 0.57 {+-} 0.01 and {theta}{sub E2} = 0.40 {+-} 0.01 that imply masses of M{sub lens1} = (7.4 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and M{sub lens2} = (3.7 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The two lensing galaxies are likely about to undergo a dissipationless merger, and the mass and size of the resultant system should be similar to other early-type galaxies at z {approx} 0.6. This work highlights the importance of high spatial resolution imaging in developing models of strongly lensed galaxies

  5. VASAO: visible all sky adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillet, Christian; Lai, Olivier; Salmon, Derrick; Pique, Jean-Paul

    2006-06-01

    Building on an extensive and successful experience in Adaptive Optics (AO) and on recent developments made in its funding nations, the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope Corporation (CFHT) is studying the VASAO concept: an integrated AO system that would allow diffraction limited imaging of the whole sky in the visible as well as in the infrared. At the core of VASAO, Pueo-Hou (the new Pueo) is built on Pueo, the current CFHT AO bonnette. Pueo will be refurbished and improved to be able to image the isoplanetic field at 700 nm with Strehl ratios of 30% or better, making possible imaging with a resolution of 50 milliarcseconds between 500 and 700nm, and at the telescope limit of diffraction above. The polychromatic tip-tilt laser guide star currently envisioned will be generated by a single 330nm mode-less laser, and the relative position of the 330nm and 589nm artificial stars created on the mesosphere by the 330nm excitation of the sodium layer will be monitored to provide the atmospheric tip-tilt along the line of sight, following the philosophy developed for the ELP-OA project. The feasibility study of VASAO will take most of 2006 in parallel with the development of a science case making the best possible use of the unique capabilities of the system, If the feasibility study is encouraging, VASAO development could start in 2007 for a full deployment on the sky by 2011-2012.

  6. Teaching Optics and Systems Engineering With Adaptive Optics Workbenches

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, David; Hunter, Lisa; Max, Claire; Hoffmann, Mark; Pitts, Mark; Armstrong, J D

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive optics workbenches are fully functional optical systems that can be used to illustrate and teach a variety of concepts and cognitive processes. Four systems have been funded, designed and constructed by various institutions and people as part of education programs associated with the Center for Adaptive Optics, the Professional Development Program and the Institute for Science and Engineer Educators. Activities can range from first-year undergraduate explorations to professional level training. These workbenches have been used in many venues including the Center for Adaptive Optics AO Summer School, the Maui Community College hosted Akamai Maui Short Course, classrooms, training of new staff in laboratories and other venues. The activity content has focused on various elements of systems thinking, characterization, feedback and system control, basic optics and optical alignment as well as advanced topics such as phase conjugation, wave-front sensing and correction concepts and system design. The work...

  7. Amplitude variations on the Extreme Adaptive Optics testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J; Thomas, S; Dillon, D; Gavel, D; Phillion, D; Macintosh, B

    2007-08-14

    High-contrast adaptive optics systems, such as those needed to image extrasolar planets, are known to require excellent wavefront control and diffraction suppression. At the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics on the Extreme Adaptive Optics testbed, we have already demonstrated wavefront control of better than 1 nm rms within controllable spatial frequencies. Corresponding contrast measurements, however, are limited by amplitude variations, including those introduced by the micro-electrical-mechanical-systems (MEMS) deformable mirror. Results from experimental measurements and wave optic simulations of amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed are presented. We find systematic intensity variations of about 2% rms, and intensity variations with the MEMS to be 6%. Some errors are introduced by phase and amplitude mixing because the MEMS is not conjugate to the pupil, but independent measurements of MEMS reflectivity suggest that some error is introduced by small non-uniformities in the reflectivity.

  8. The Grey Needle: Large Grains in the HD 15115 Debris Disk from LBT/PISCES/Ks and LBTI/LMIRcam/L' Adaptive Optics Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rodigas, Timothy J; Leissenring, Jarron; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Skemer, Andrew J; Skrutskie, Michael; Su, Kate Y L; Bailey, Vanessa; Schneider, Glenn; Close, Laird; Mannucci, Filippo; Esposito, Simone; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Pinna, Enrico; Argomedo, Javier; Agapito, Guido; Apai, Daniel; Bono, Giuseppe; Boutsia, Kostantina; Briguglio, Runa; Brusa, Guido; Busoni, Lorenzo; Cresci, Giovanni; Currie, Thayne; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Falomo, Renato; Fini, Luca; Follette, Kate; Fontana, Adriano; Garnavich, Peter; Gratton, Raffaele; Green, Richard; Guerra, Juan Carlos; Hill, J M; Hoffmann, William F; Jones, Terry Jay; Krejny, Megan; Kulesa, Craig; Males, Jared; Masciadri, Elena; Mesa, Dino; McCarthy, Don; Meyer, Michael; Miller, Doug; Nelson, Matthew J; Puglisi, Alfio; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Sani, Eleonora; Stefanini, Paolo; Testa, Vincenzo; Wilson, John; Woodward, Charles E; Xompero, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We present diffraction-limited \\ks band and \\lprime adaptive optics images of the edge-on debris disk around the nearby F2 star HD 15115, obtained with a single 8.4 m primary mirror at the Large Binocular Telescope. At \\ks band the disk is detected at signal-to-noise per resolution element (SNRE) \\about 3-8 from \\about 1-2\\fasec 5 (45-113 AU) on the western side, and from \\about 1.2-2\\fasec 1 (63-90 AU) on the east. At \\lprime the disk is detected at SNRE \\about 2.5 from \\about 1-1\\fasec 45 (45-90 AU) on both sides, implying more symmetric disk structure at 3.8 \\microns . At both wavelengths the disk has a bow-like shape and is offset from the star to the north by a few AU. A surface brightness asymmetry exists between the two sides of the disk at \\ks band, but not at \\lprime . The surface brightness at \\ks band declines inside 1\\asec (\\about 45 AU), which may be indicative of a gap in the disk near 1\\asec. The \\ks - \\lprime disk color, after removal of the stellar color, is mostly grey for both sides of the ...

  9. Subaru Adaptive-optics High-spatial-resolution Infrared K- and L'-band Imaging Search for Deeply Buried Dual AGNs in Merging Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of infrared K- (2.2 micron) and L'-band (3.8 micron) high-spatial-resolution (<0.2 arcsec) imaging observations of nearby gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies, assisted by the adaptive optics (AO) system on the Subaru 8.2-m telescope. We investigate the presence and frequency of red K-L' compact sources, which are sensitive indicators of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including AGNs that are deeply buried in gas and dust. We observed 29 merging systems and confirmed at least one AGN in all but one system. However, luminous dual AGNs were detected in only four of the 29 systems (~14%), despite our method's being sensitive to buried AGNs. For multiple nuclei sources, we compared the estimated AGN luminosities with supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses inferred from large aperture K-band stellar emission photometry in individual nuclei. We found that mass accretion rates onto SMBHs are significantly different among multiple SMBHs, such that larger-mass SMBHs generally s...

  10. Hessian-LoG filtering for enhancement and detection of photoreceptor cells in adaptive optics retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareva, Anfisa; Liatsis, Panos; Rauscher, Franziska G

    2016-01-01

    Automated analysis of retinal images plays a vital role in the examination, diagnosis, and prognosis of healthy and pathological retinas. Retinal disorders and the associated visual loss can be interpreted via quantitative correlations, based on measurements of photoreceptor loss. Therefore, it is important to develop reliable tools for identification of photoreceptor cells. In this paper, an automated algorithm is proposed, based on the use of the Hessian-Laplacian of Gaussian filter, which allows enhancement and detection of photoreceptor cells. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated on both synthetic and high-resolution retinal images, in terms of packing density. The results on the synthetic data were compared against ground truth as well as cone counts obtained by the Li and Roorda algorithm. For the synthetic datasets, our method showed an average detection accuracy of 98.8%, compared to 93.9% for the Li and Roorda approach. The packing density estimates calculated on the retinal datasets were validated against manual counts and the results obtained by a proprietary software from Imagine Eyes and the Li and Roorda algorithm. Among the tested methods, the proposed approach showed the closest agreement with manual counting. PMID:26831589

  11. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C.; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: self­interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex-i.e., amplitude plus phase-hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  12. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  13. On the influence of the Illuminati in astronomical adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Morzinski, Katie M

    2012-01-01

    Astronomical adaptive optics (AO) has come into its own. Major O/IR telescopes are achieving diffraction-limited imaging; major facilities are being built with AO as an integral part. To the layperson, it may seem that AO has developed along a serpentine path. However, with a little illumination, the mark of Galileo's heirs becomes apparent in explaining the success of AO.

  14. A shift in Jupiter's equatorial haze distribution imaged with the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator at the VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Michael H; Marchetti, Enrico; Amico, Paola; Tordo, Sebastien; Bouy, Herve; de Pater, Imke

    2008-01-01

    Jupiter was imaged during the Science Demonstration of the MCAO Demonstrator (MAD) at the European Southern Observatory's UT3 Very Large Telescope unit. Io and Europa were used as natural guide stars on either side of Jupiter, separated from each other by about 1.6 arcmin from 23:41 to 01:32 UT (2008 Aug 16/17). The corrected angular resolution was 0.090 arcsec across the entire field of view, as measured on background stars. The observations at 2.02, 2.14, and 2.16 micrometers were sensitive to portions of the Jovian spectrum with strong methane absorption. The data probe the upper troposphere, which is populated with a fine (~0.5 micrometer) haze. Two haze sources have been proposed: lofting of fine cloud particles into the stable upper troposphere, and condensation of hydrazine produced via ammonia photochemistry. The upper tropospheric haze is enhanced over Jupiter's equatorial region. Dramatic changes in the underlying cloud cover--part of the 2006/2007 "global upheaval"--may be associated with changes i...

  15. A Miniaturized Adaptive Optic Device for Optical Telecommunications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To advance the state-of-the-art uplink laser communication technology, new adaptive optic beam compensation techniques are needed for removing various time-varying...

  16. Optical ballast and adaptive dynamic stable resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guang-Yin; Jiao Zhi-Yong; Guo Shu-Guang; Zhang Xiao-Hua; Gu Xue-Wen; Yan Cai-Fan; Wu Ding-Er; Song Feng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new concept of ‘optical ballast' is put forward. Optical ballast is a kind of device that can be used to decrease the variation and fluctuation of the propagation characteristics of light beams caused by the disturbance of refractive index of the medium. To illustrate the idea clearly and concretely, a fully adaptive dynamic stable solid-state laser resonator is presented as application example of optical ballast.

  17. Overview of Advanced LIGO Adaptive Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Aidan F.; Abbott, Benjamin; Arain, Muzammil A.; Ciani, Giacomo; Cole, Ayodele; Grabeel, Greg; Gustafson, Eric; Guido, Chris; Heintze, Matthew; Heptonstall, Alastair; Jacobson, Mindy; KIM, WON; King, Eleanor; Lynch, Alexander; O'Connor, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This is an overview of the adaptive optics used in Advanced LIGO (aLIGO), known as the thermal compensation system (TCS). The thermal compensation system was designed to minimize thermally-induced spatial distortions in the interferometer optical modes and to provide some correction for static curvature errors in the core optics of aLIGO. The TCS is comprised of ring heater actuators, spatially tunable CO$_{2}$ laser projectors and Hartmann wavefront sensors. The system meets the requirements...

  18. Optical Profilometers Using Adaptive Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gregory A.; Youngquist, Robert; Mikhael, Wasfy

    2006-01-01

    A method of adaptive signal processing has been proposed as the basis of a new generation of interferometric optical profilometers for measuring surfaces. The proposed profilometers would be portable, hand-held units. Sizes could be thus reduced because the adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to substitute lower-power coherent light sources (e.g., laser diodes) for white light sources and would eliminate the need for most of the optical components of current white-light profilometers. The adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to attain scanning ranges of the order of decimeters in the proposed profilometers.

  19. Optical image encryption based on diffractive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R

    2010-11-15

    In this Letter, we propose a method for optical image encryption based on diffractive imaging. An optical multiple random phase mask encoding system is applied, and one of the phase-only masks is selected and laterally translated along a preset direction during the encryption process. For image decryption, a phase retrieval algorithm is proposed to extract a high-quality plaintext. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical results. The proposed method can provide a new strategy instead of conventional interference methods, and it may open up a new research perspective for optical image encryption.

  20. Stellar photometry with Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorentino, Giuliana; McConnachie, Alan; Stetson, Peter B; Bono, Giuseppe; Turri, Paolo; Andersen, David; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Schreiber, Laura; Ciliegi, Paolo; Bellazzini, Michele; Tolstoy, Eline; Monelli, Matteo; Iannicola, Giacinto; Ferraro, Ivan; Testa, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We overview the current status of photometric analyses of images collected with Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) at 8-10m class telescopes that operated, or are operating, on sky. Particular attention will be payed to resolved stellar population studies. Stars in crowded stellar systems, such as globular clusters or in nearby galaxies, are ideal test particles to test AO performance. We will focus the discussion on photometric precision and accuracy reached nowadays. We briefly describe our project on stellar photometry and astrometry of Galactic globular clusters using images taken with GeMS at the Gemini South telescope. We also present the photometry performed with DAOPHOT suite of programs into the crowded regions of these globulars reaching very faint limiting magnitudes Ks ~21.5 mag on moderately large fields of view (~1.5 arcmin squared). We highlight the need for new algorithms to improve the modeling of the complex variation of the Point Spread Function across the ?eld of view. Finally, we outl...

  1. 7th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In continuation of the FRINGE Workshop Series this Proceeding contains all contributions presented at the 7. International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology. The FRINGE Workshop Series is dedicated to the presentation, discussion and dissemination of recent results in Optical Imaging and Metrology. Topics of particular interest for the 7. Workshop are: - New methods and tools for the generation, acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data in Optical Imaging and Metrology (digital wavefront engineering, computational imaging, model-based reconstruction, compressed sensing, inverse problems solution) - Application-driven technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (high-resolution, adaptive, active, robust, reliable, flexible, in-line, real-time) - High-dynamic range solutions in Optical Imaging and Metrology (from macro to nano) - Hybrid technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (hybrid optics, sensor and data fusion, model-based solutions, multimodality) - New optical sensors, imagi...

  2. Wavelet methods in multi-conjugate adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Helin, Tapio

    2013-01-01

    The next generation ground-based telescopes rely heavily on adaptive optics for overcoming the limitation of atmospheric turbulence. In the future adaptive optics modalities, like multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO), atmospheric tomography is the major mathematical and computational challenge. In this severely ill-posed problem a fast and stable reconstruction algorithm is needed that can take into account many real-life phenomena of telescope imaging. We introduce a novel reconstruction method for the atmospheric tomography problem and demonstrate its performance and flexibility in the context of MCAO. Our method is based on using locality properties of compactly supported wavelets, both in the spatial and frequency domain. The reconstruction in the atmospheric tomography problem is obtained by solving the Bayesian MAP estimator with a conjugate gradient based algorithm. An accelerated algorithm with preconditioning is also introduced. Numerical performance is demonstrated on the official end-to-end simul...

  3. Wavelet methods in multi-conjugate adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, T.; Yudytskiy, M.

    2013-08-01

    The next generation ground-based telescopes rely heavily on adaptive optics for overcoming the limitation of atmospheric turbulence. In the future adaptive optics modalities, like multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO), atmospheric tomography is the major mathematical and computational challenge. In this severely ill-posed problem, a fast and stable reconstruction algorithm is needed that can take into account many real-life phenomena of telescope imaging. We introduce a novel reconstruction method for the atmospheric tomography problem and demonstrate its performance and flexibility in the context of MCAO. Our method is based on using locality properties of compactly supported wavelets, both in the spatial and frequency domains. The reconstruction in the atmospheric tomography problem is obtained by solving the Bayesian MAP estimator with a conjugate-gradient-based algorithm. An accelerated algorithm with preconditioning is also introduced. Numerical performance is demonstrated on the official end-to-end simulation tool OCTOPUS of European Southern Observatory.

  4. Adaptive optics assisted Fourier domain OCT with balanced detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadway, A.; Bradu, A.; Hathaway, M.; Van der Jeught, S.; Rosen, R. B.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2011-03-01

    Two factors are of importance to optical coherence tomography (OCT), resolution and sensitivity. Adaptive optics improves the resolution of a system by correcting for aberrations causing distortions in the wave-front. Balanced detection has been used in time domain OCT systems by removing excess photon noise, however it has not been used in Fourier domain systems, as the cameras used in the spectrometers saturated before excess photon noise becomes a problem. Advances in camera technology mean that this is no longer the case and balanced detection can now be used to improve the signal to noise ratio in a Fourier domain (FD) OCT system. An FD-OCT system, enhanced with adaptive optics, is presented and is used to show the improvement that balanced detection can provide. The signal to noise ratios of single camera detection and balanced detection are assessed and in-vivo retinal images are acquired to demonstrate better image quality when using balance detection.

  5. Lens-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics swept source OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yifan; Lee, Sujin; Ju, Myeong Jin; Heisler, Morgan; Ding, Weiguang; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Bonora, Stefano; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized modern ophthalmology, providing depth resolved images of the retinal layers in a system that is suited to a clinical environment. Although the axial resolution of OCT system, which is a function of the light source bandwidth, is sufficient to resolve retinal features at a micrometer scale, the lateral resolution is dependent on the delivery optics and is limited by ocular aberrations. Through the combination of wavefront sensorless adaptive optics and the use of dual deformable transmissive optical elements, we present a compact lens-based OCT system at an imaging wavelength of 1060 nm for high resolution retinal imaging. We utilized a commercially available variable focal length lens to correct for a wide range of defocus commonly found in patient’s eyes, and a novel multi-actuator adaptive lens for aberration correction to achieve near diffraction limited imaging performance at the retina. With a parallel processing computational platform, high resolution cross-sectional and en face retinal image acquisition and display was performed in real time. In order to demonstrate the system functionality and clinical utility, we present images of the photoreceptor cone mosaic and other retinal layers acquired in vivo from research subjects.

  6. The Adaptive Optics Summer School Laboratory Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Ammons, S Mark; Armstrong, J D; Crossfield, Ian; Do, Tuan; Fitzgerald, Mike; Harrington, David; Hickenbotham, Adam; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Jess; Johnson, Luke; Li, Kaccie; Lu, Jessica; Maness, Holly; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Putnam, Nicole; Roorda, Austin; Rossi, Ethan; Yelda, Sylvana

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is a new and rapidly expanding field of instrumentation, yet astronomers, vision scientists, and general AO practitioners are largely unfamiliar with the root technologies crucial to AO systems. The AO Summer School (AOSS), sponsored by the Center for Adaptive Optics, is a week-long course for training graduate students and postdoctoral researchers in the underlying theory, design, and use of AO systems. AOSS participants include astronomers who expect to utilize AO data, vision scientists who will use AO instruments to conduct research, opticians and engineers who design AO systems, and users of high-bandwidth laser communication systems. In this article we describe new AOSS laboratory sessions implemented in 2006-2009 for nearly 250 students. The activity goals include boosting familiarity with AO technologies, reinforcing knowledge of optical alignment techniques and the design of optical systems, and encouraging inquiry into critical scientific questions in vision science using AO sys...

  7. Pulse front control with adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B.; Salter, P. S.; Booth, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    The focusing of ultrashort laser pulses is extremely important for processes including microscopy, laser fabrication and fundamental science. Adaptive optic elements, such as liquid crystal spatial light modulators or membrane deformable mirrors, are routinely used for the correction of aberrations in these systems, leading to improved resolution and efficiency. Here, we demonstrate that adaptive elements used with ultrashort pulses should not be considered simply in terms of wavefront modification, but that changes to the incident pulse front can also occur. We experimentally show how adaptive elements may be used to engineer pulse fronts with spatial resolution.

  8. Adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The present proposal describes the development of an adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS), or "Snapshot" spectrometer which can...

  9. Characterization and Operation of Liquid Crystal Adaptive Optics Phoropter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, A; Bauman, B; Gavel, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Hardy, J L; Barnes, T; Werner, J S

    2003-02-05

    Adaptive optics (AO), a mature technology developed for astronomy to compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence, can also be used to correct the aberrations of the eye. The classic phoropter is used by ophthalmologists and optometrists to estimate and correct the lower-order aberrations of the eye, defocus and astigmatism, in order to derive a vision correction prescription for their patients. An adaptive optics phoropter measures and corrects the aberrations in the human eye using adaptive optics techniques, which are capable of dealing with both the standard low-order aberrations and higher-order aberrations, including coma and spherical aberration. High-order aberrations have been shown to degrade visual performance for clinical subjects in initial investigations. An adaptive optics phoropter has been designed and constructed based on a Shack-Hartmann sensor to measure the aberrations of the eye, and a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to compensate for them. This system should produce near diffraction-limited optical image quality at the retina, which will enable investigation of the psychophysical limits of human vision. This paper describes the characterization and operation of the AO phoropter with results from human subject testing.

  10. Imaging investigations of optic gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate CT and MR imaging findings of optic gliomas and their clinical significance. Methods: CT and MR imaging findings of 20 patients with pathologically confirmed optic gliomas were analyzed retrospectively. The age of the patients ranged from 8 months to 69 years. Ten patients were female and ten were male. CT scanning was performed in 10 patients with contrast scanning in 2, and MR imaging was performed in 19 patients with contrast scanning in 14. Results: Of the 20 cases with optic gliomas, a fusiform thickening of the optic nerve was found on CT and/or MR imaging in 12, a tubular enlarging and kinking of the optic nerve in 5, a dumb-bell mass of the optic nerve in 2, and an ovoid mass in 1. Enlargement of intraorbital and intracanalicular segments of the optic nerve was seen in all 20 cases, simultaneous enlargement of intracranial segment in 15, a simultaneous mass of intraocular segment in 4, a simultaneous mass of optic chiasm in 6, and simultaneous enlargement of optic tract in 2. CT scanning performed in 10 patients showed iso-density mass. Enhancement of enlarged optic nerve was observed on postcontrast CT in two. MR imaging performed in 19 patients displayed a long T1 and long T2 signal intensity mass in 12, a long T1 and identical T2 signal intensity mass in 5, and an isointense mass on T1- and T2- weighted images in 2. After contrast administration in 14 cases, marked enhancement of the mass was seen in 12 cases, and moderate enhancement was demonstrated in 2. Of the 7 patients associated with neurofibromatosis I, four optic gliomas appeared as a specific sign-isointense in the center on both T1- and T2-weighted images , hypointense on T1- and T2-weighted images in the intermediate portion, and long T1 and long T2 signal intensity in peripheral portion. After statistical analysis, MR imaging was superior to CT in demonstrating the tumor involvement of the intracanalicular and intracranial segments of the optic nerve (P<0

  11. Plenoptic microscope based on laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI)

    CERN Document Server

    Glastre, W; Jacquin, O; de Chatellus, H Guillet; Lacot, E

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the performances of a plenoptic microscope which combines the high sensitivity of a laser optical feedback imaging setup , the high resolution of optical synthetic aperture and a shot noise limited signal to noise ratio by using acoustic photon tagging. By using an adapted phase filtering, this microscope allows phase drift correction and numerical aberration compensation (defocusing, coma, astigmatism ...). This new kind of microscope seems to be well adapted to make deep imaging through scattering and heterogeneous media.

  12. Optical axis jitter rejection for double overlapped adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi; Luo, Xi; Li, Xinyang

    2016-04-01

    Optical axis jitters, or vibrations, which arise from wind shaking and structural oscillations of optical platforms, etc., cause a deleterious impact on the performance of adaptive optics systems. When conventional integrators are utilized to reject such high frequency and narrow-band disturbance, the benefits are quite small despite their acceptable capabilities to reject atmospheric turbulence. In our case, two suits of complete adaptive optics systems called double overlapped adaptive optics systems (DOAOS) are used to counteract both optical jitters and atmospheric turbulence. A novel algorithm aiming to remove vibrations is proposed by resorting to combine the Smith predictor and notch filer. With the help of loop shaping method, the algorithm will lead to an effective and stable controller, which makes the characteristics of error transfer function close to notch filters. On the basis of the spectral analysis of observed data, the peak frequency and bandwidth of vibrations can be identified in advance. Afterwards, the number of notch filters and their parameters will be determined using coordination descending method. The relationship between controller parameters and filtering features is discussed, and the robustness of the controller against varying parameters of the control object is investigated. Preliminary experiments are carried out to validate the proposed algorithms. The overall control performance of DOAOS is simulated. Results show that time delays are a limit of the performance, but the algorithm can be successfully implemented on our systems, which indicate that it has a great potential to reject jitters.

  13. The ERIS Adaptive Optics System

    CERN Document Server

    Riccardi, A; Agapito, G; Antichi, J; Biliotti, V; Blain, C; Briguglio, R; Busoni, L; Carbonaro, L; Di Rico, G; Giordano, C; Pinna, E; Puglisi, A; Spanò, P; Xompero, M; Baruffolo, A; Kasper, M; Egner, S; Valles, M Suàrez; Soenke, C; Downing, M; Reyes, J

    2016-01-01

    ERIS is the new AO instrument for VLT-UT4 led by a Consortium of Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, UK-ATC, ETH-Zurich, ESO and INAF. The ERIS AO system provides NGS mode to deliver high contrast correction and LGS mode to extend high Strehl performance to large sky coverage. The AO module includes NGS and LGS wavefront sensors and, with VLT-AOF Deformable Secondary Mirror and Laser Facility, will provide AO correction to the high resolution imager NIX (1-5um) and the IFU spectrograph SPIFFIER (1-2.5um). In this paper we present the preliminary design of the ERIS AO system and the estimated correction performance.

  14. Adaptive optics at the Subaru telescope: current capabilities and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Tamura, Motohide; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Oya, Shin; Minowa, Yosuke; Lai, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Takato, Naruhisa; Kasdin, Jeremy; Groff, Tyler; Hayashi, Masahiko; Arimoto, Nobuo; Takami, Hideki; Bradley, Colin; Sugai, Hajime; Perrin, Guy; Tuthill, Peter; Mazin, Ben

    2014-08-01

    Current AO observations rely heavily on the AO188 instrument, a 188-elements system that can operate in natural or laser guide star (LGS) mode, and delivers diffraction-limited images in near-IR. In its LGS mode, laser light is transported from the solid state laser to the launch telescope by a single mode fiber. AO188 can feed several instruments: the infrared camera and spectrograph (IRCS), a high contrast imaging instrument (HiCIAO) or an optical integral field spectrograph (Kyoto-3DII). Adaptive optics development in support of exoplanet observations has been and continues to be very active. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme-AO (SCExAO) system, which combines extreme-AO correction with advanced coronagraphy, is in the commissioning phase, and will greatly increase Subaru Telescope's ability to image and study exoplanets. SCExAO currently feeds light to HiCIAO, and will soon be combined with the CHARIS integral field spectrograph and the fast frame MKIDs exoplanet camera, which have both been specifically designed for high contrast imaging. SCExAO also feeds two visible-light single pupil interferometers: VAMPIRES and FIRST. In parallel to these direct imaging activities, a near-IR high precision spectrograph (IRD) is under development for observing exoplanets with the radial velocity technique. Wide-field adaptive optics techniques are also being pursued. The RAVEN multi-object adaptive optics instrument was installed on Subaru telescope in early 2014. Subaru Telescope is also planning wide field imaging with ground-layer AO with the ULTIMATE-Subaru project.

  15. Adaptive holography for optical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residori, S.; Bortolozzo, U.; Peigné, A.; Molin, S.; Nouchi, P.; Dolfi, D.; Huignard, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive holography is a promising method for high sensitivity phase modulation measurements in the presence of slow perturbations from the environment. The technique is based on the use of a nonlinear recombining medium, here an optically addressed spatial light modulator specifically realized to operate at 1.55 μm. Owing to the physical mechanisms involved, the interferometer adapts to slow phase variations within a range of 5-10 Hz, thus filtering out low frequency noise while transmitting higher frequency phase modulations. We present the basic principles of the adaptive interferometer and show that it can be used in association with a sensing fiber in order to detect phase modulations. Finally, a phase-OTDR architecture using the adaptive holographic interferometer is presented and shown to allows the detection of localized perturbations along the sensing fiber.

  16. New algorithms for adaptive optics point-spread function reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Gendron, E; Fusco, T; Rousset, G; Gendron, Eric; Cl\\'{e}net, Yann; Fusco, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    Context. The knowledge of the point-spread function compensated by adaptive optics is of prime importance in several image restoration techniques such as deconvolution and astrometric/photometric algorithms. Wavefront-related data from the adaptive optics real-time computer can be used to accurately estimate the point-spread function in adaptive optics observations. The only point-spread function reconstruction algorithm implemented on astronomical adaptive optics system makes use of particular functions, named $U\\_{ij}$. These $U\\_{ij}$ functions are derived from the mirror modes, and their number is proportional to the square number of these mirror modes. Aims. We present here two new algorithms for point-spread function reconstruction that aim at suppressing the use of these $U\\_{ij}$ functions to avoid the storage of a large amount of data and to shorten the computation time of this PSF reconstruction. Methods. Both algorithms take advantage of the eigen decomposition of the residual parallel phase covari...

  17. Optical and digital image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cristobal, Gabriel; Thienpont, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Moore's law has fostered the steady growth of the field of digital image processing, though the computational complexity remains a problem for most of the digital image processing applications. In parallel, the research domain of optical image processing has matured, potentially bypassing the problems digital approaches were suffering and bringing new applications. The advancement of technology calls for applications and knowledge at the intersection of both areas but there is a clear knowledge gap between the digital signal processing and the optical processing communities. T

  18. Adaptive optics without altering visual perception

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig,, I.; NW, Hart; HJ, Hofer

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive optics combined with visual psychophysics creates the potential to study the relationship between visual function and the retina at the cellular scale. This potential is hampered, however, by visual interference from the wavefront-sensing beacon used during correction. For example, we have previously shown that even a dim, visible beacon can alter stimulus perception (Hofer, H. J., Blaschke, J., Patolia, J., & Koenig, D. E. (2012). Fixation light hue bias revisited: Implications for ...

  19. Thermo-optically driven adaptive mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Felix; Lüthy, Willy

    2006-02-01

    The ideal adaptive optical mirror combines large aperture with high spatial and temporal resolution and a phase shift of at least 2π. Further, a simple low-cost solution is preferred. No adaptive system can perfectly fulfill all these requirements. We present a system that has the potential to reach this goal with the exception of high temporal resolution. But even with a moderate temporal resolution of one second such a system can find practical applications. For example as a laser resonator mirror that allows to modify the intensity distribution of the emission, or to correct slowly varying aberrations of optical systems. Two possible mechanisms can be used to change the optical path length of the adaptive mirror: thermal expansion of the mirror substrate or the thermally induced change of the refractive index (thermal dispersion) of a medium in front of the mirror. Both mechanisms have been shown to lead to promising results. In both cases heating was performed by irradiation of light in the active medium. The thermal dispersion based adaptive mirror is built with a thin layer of a liquid in front of a mirror. To allow a modification of the refractive index by irradiation with a diode laser at 808 nm, a suitable absorber is dissolved in the water. With chopped irradiation a resolution of 3.8 Hz at 30 % contrast is measured. This mirror has been used in a laser resonator to modify the output distribution of the laser. The thermal expansion based adaptive mirror is built with a thin layer of a silicon elastomer with a gold coated front side. We present a preparation method to produce thin films of Sylgard on sapphire. With an irradiated intensity of only 370 mW/cm2 surface modulations of up to 350 nm are obtained. With a test pattern a resolution of 1.6 line-pairs per millimeter at 30 % contrast is measured. The temporal resolution is better than one second.

  20. The AVES adaptive optics spectrograph for the VLT: status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Delabre, Bernard; Pasquini, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Santin, Paolo; Damiani, Francesco; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Spano, Paolo; Bonifacio, P.; Catalano, Santo; Molaro, Paolo P.; Randich, S.; Rodono, Marcello

    2003-03-01

    We report on the status of AVES, the Adaptive-optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph proposed for the secondary port of the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) recently installed at the VLT. AVES is an intermediate resolution (R ≍ 16,000) high-efficiency fixed- format echelle spectrograph which operates in the spectral band 500 - 1,000 nm. In addition to a high intrinsic efficiency, comparable to that of ESI at Keck II, it takes advantage of the adaptive optics correction provided by NAOS to reduce the sky and detector contribution in background-limited observations of weak sources, thus allowing a further magnitude gain with respect to comparable non-adaptive optics spectrographs. Simulations show that the instrument will be capable of reaching a magnitude V = 22.5 at S/N > 10 in two hours, two magnitudes weaker than GIRAFFE at the same resolution and 3 magnitudes weaker than the higher resolution UVES spectrograph. Imaging and coronographic functions have also been implemented in the design. We present the results of the final design study and we dicuss the technical and operational issues related to its implementation at the VLT as a visitor instrument. We also discuss the possibility of using a scaled-up non-adaptive optics version of the same design as an element of a double- or triple-arm intermediate-resolution spectrograph for the VLT. Such an option looks attractive in the context of a high-efficiency large-bandwidth (320 - 1,500 nm) spectrograph ("fast-shooter") being considered by ESO as a 2nd-generation VLT instrument.

  1. Sensorless adaptive optics and the effect of field of view in biological second harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Vanbel, Maarten K.; Verbiest, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    In light of the population aging in many developed countries, there is a great economical interest in improving the speed and cost-efficiency of healthcare. Clinical diagnosis tools are key to these improvements, with biophotonics providing a means to achieve them. Standard optical microscopy of in vitro biological samples has been an important diagnosis tool since the invention of the microscope, with well known resolution limits. Nonlinear optical imaging improves on the resolution limits of linear microscopy, while providing higher contrast images and a greater penetration depth due to the red-shifted incident light compared to standard optical microscopy. It also provides information on molecular orientation and chirality. Adaptive optics can improve the quality of nonlinear optical images. We analyzed the effect of sensorless adaptive optics on the quality of the nonlinear optical images of biological samples. We demonstrate that care needs to be taken when using a large field of view. Our findings provide information on how to improve the quality of nonlinear optical imaging, and can be generalized to other in vitro biological samples. The image quality improvements achieved by adaptive optics should help speed up clinical diagnostics in vitro, while increasing their accuracy and helping decrease detection limits. The same principles apply to in vivo biological samples, and in the future it may be possible to extend these findings to other nonlinear optical effects used in biological imaging.

  2. Overview of Advanced LIGO Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Aidan F; Arain, Muzammil A; Ciani, Giacomo; Cole, Ayodele; Grabeel, Greg; Gustafson, Eric; Guido, Chris; Heintze, Matthew; Heptonstall, Alastair; Jacobson, Mindy; Kim, Won; King, Eleanor; Lynch, Alexander; O'Connor, Stephen; Ottaway, David; Mailand, Ken; Mueller, Guido; Munch, Jesper; Sannibale, Virginio; Shao, Zhenhua; Smith, Michael; Veitch, Peter; Vo, Thomas; Vorvick, Cheryl; Willems, Phil

    2016-01-01

    This is an overview of the adaptive optics used in Advanced LIGO (aLIGO), known as the thermal compensation system (TCS). The thermal compensation system was designed to minimize thermally-induced spatial distortions in the interferometer optical modes and to provide some correction for static curvature errors in the core optics of aLIGO. The TCS is comprised of ring heater actuators, spatially tunable CO$_{2}$ laser projectors and Hartmann wavefront sensors. The system meets the requirements of correcting for nominal distortion in Advanced LIGO to a maximum residual error of 5.4nm, weighted across the laser beam, for up to 125W of laser input power into the interferometer.

  3. Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β PIC b. I. Direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-IR with NICI {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Kopon, Derek; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wahhaj, Zahed [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001 Santiago (Chile); Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Chun, Mark [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa [Arcetri Observatory/INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125-Firenze (Italy); Biller, Beth A. [Institute for Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Hayward, Thomas L., E-mail: jrmales@as.arizona.edu [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); and others

    2014-05-01

    We present the first ground-based CCD (λ < 1 μm) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet β Pictoris b in Y-short (Y{sub S} , 0.985 μm), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.''010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10{sup –5}. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH {sub 4S,1%} (1.58 μm), K{sub S} (2.18 μm), and K {sub cont} (2.27 μm). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L {sub bol}/L {sub ☉}) = –3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for β Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M {sub Jup} for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L {sub bol}-based hot-start estimate for temperature is T {sub eff} = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R {sub Jup}, this T {sub eff} is ∼250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, β Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.

  4. Adaptive optics for space debris tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Francis; D'Orgeville, Celine; Gao, Yue; Gardhouse, William; Paulin, Nicolas; Price, Ian; Rigaut, Francois; Ritchie, Ian T.; Smith, Craig H.; Uhlendorf, Kristina; Wang, Yanjie

    2014-07-01

    Space debris in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is becoming an increasing threat to satellite and spacecraft. A reliable and cost effective method for detecting possible collisions between orbiting objects is required to prevent an exponential growth in the number of debris. Current RADAR survey technologies used to monitor the orbits of thousands of space debris objects are relied upon to manoeuvre operational satellites to prevent possible collisions. A complimentary technique, ground-based laser LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) have been used to track much smaller objects with higher accuracy than RADAR, giving greater prediction of possible collisions and avoiding unnecessary manoeuvring. Adaptive optics will play a key role in any ground based LIDAR tracking system as a cost effective way of utilising smaller ground stations or less powerful lasers. The use of high power and high energy lasers for the orbital modification of debris objects will also require an adaptive optic system to achieve the high photon intensity on the target required for photon momentum transfer and laser ablation. EOS Space Systems have pioneered the development of automated laser space debris tracking for objects in low Earth orbit. The Australian National University have been developing an adaptive optics system to improve this space debris tracking capability at the EOS Space Systems Mount Stromlo facility in Canberra, Australia. The system is integrated with the telescope and commissioned as an NGS AO system before moving on to LGS AO and tracking operations. A pulsed laser propagated through the telescope is used to range the target using time of flight data. Adaptive optics is used to increase the maximum range and number or targets available to the LIDAR system, by correcting the uplink laser beam. Such a system presents some unique challenges for adaptive optics: high power lasers reflecting off deformable mirrors, high slew rate tracking, and variable off-axis tracking correction. A

  5. Electron density measurements for plasma adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiswander, Brian W.

    Over the past 40 years, there has been growing interest in both laser communications and directed energy weapons that operate from moving aircraft. As a laser beam propagates from an aircraft in flight, it passes through boundary layers, turbulence, and shear layers in the near-region of the aircraft. These fluid instabilities cause strong density gradients which adversely affect the transmission of laser energy to a target. Adaptive optics provides corrective measures for this problem but current technology cannot respond quickly enough to be useful for high speed flight conditions. This research investigated the use of plasma as a medium for adaptive optics for aero-optics applications. When a laser beam passes through plasma, its phase is shifted proportionally to the electron density and gas heating within the plasma. As a result, plasma can be utilized as a dynamically controllable optical medium. Experiments were carried out using a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge plasma chamber which generated a sub-atmospheric pressure, low-temperature plasma. An electrostatic model of this design was developed and revealed an important design constraint relating to the geometry of the chamber. Optical diagnostic techniques were used to characterize the plasma discharge. Single-wavelength interferometric experiments were performed and demonstrated up to 1.5 microns of optical path difference (OPD) in a 633 nm laser beam. Dual-wavelength interferometry was used to obtain time-resolved profiles of the plasma electron density and gas heating inside the plasma chamber. Furthermore, a new multi-wavelength infrared diagnostic technique was developed and proof-of-concept simulations were conducted to demonstrate the system's capabilities.

  6. Micro-optics for imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boye, Robert R.

    2010-09-01

    This project investigates the fundamental imaging capability of an optic with a physical thickness substantially less than 1 mm. The analysis assumes that post-processing can overcome certain restrictions such as detector pixel size and image degradation due to aberrations. A first order optical analysis quickly reveals the limitations of even an ideal thin lens to provide sufficient image resolution and provides the justification for pursuing an annular design. Some straightforward examples clearly show the potential of this approach. The tradeoffs associated with annular designs, specifically field of view limitations and reduced mid-level spatial frequencies, are discussed and their impact on the imaging performance evaluated using several imaging examples. Additionally, issues such as detector acceptance angle and the need to balance aberrations with resolution are included in the analysis. With these restrictions, the final results present an excellent approximation of the expected performance of the lens designs presented.

  7. 大视场液晶自适应视网膜成像系统%Retinal imaging system with large field of view based on liquid crystal adaptive optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丽; 黄涛; 蔡敏; 高明; 封文江

    2013-01-01

    A retinal imaging Adaptive Optical (AO) system with a large Field of View(FOV) was designed to expand the FOV of the retinal image of liquid crystal AO system. Based on analysis of the AO retinal imaging system under an isoplanatic angle, it pointed out that the FOV for wave-front detection should be smaller than a half isoplanatic angle for precise wave-front detection and the half FOV should not be larger than the isoplanatic angle in imaging. A coaxial wave-front detection and optical imaging system was fabricated, meanwhile, an adjustable pupil was used to switch the different FOVs for wave-front detection and imaging, respectively. After adaptive optical wave front correction, the wave-front error is significantly reduced and the FOV for imaging is enlarged from a diameter of 200 μm to 500 μm without any harmful effect on imaging quality. By utilizing an adjustable pupil in the system based on the isoplanatic angle, the retinal image FOV has increased by 2.5 times as compared with that of existing AO system. The applicability of the system on clinical practice is increased a lot by this research.%设计了大视场眼底自适应成像系统,用于扩大现有视网膜自适应成像系统的视场.对人眼等晕角视场下的自适应像差校正成像进行分析,确定了波前探测与成像校正两个过程对视场的不同要求.在共光源像差探测及成像光学系统中,采用切变视场光阑的方式先后在波前探测和自适应校正成像过程中进行小-大视场切换,避免了大视场中眼波像差探测失真问题,使成像区域由200 μm扩展到500 μm.利用人眼等晕角大视场使眼底液晶自适应成像系统在不降低成像质量的前提下将成像区域扩展了2.5倍,大幅提升了该自适应成像系统在临床上应用的可行性.

  8. 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Wittrock, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    This book treats the development and application of adaptive optics for industry and medicine. The contributions describe recently developed components for adaptive-optics systems such as deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors, and mirror drivers as well as complete adaptive optical systems and their applications in industry and medicine. Applications range from laser-beam forming and adaptive aberration correction for high-power lasers to retinal imaging in ophthalmology. The contributions are based on presentations made at the 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics in Industry and Medicine which took place in Münster, Germany, in October 2003. This highly successful series of workshops on adaptive optics started in 1997 and continues with the 5th workshop in Beijing in 2005.

  9. Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics without Tip-tilt

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, R; Lidman, C; Louarn, M Le; Kasper, M; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Roccatagliata, V; Ageorges, N; Amico, P; Dumas, C; Mannucci, F

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems allow a telescope to reach its diffraction limit at near infrared wavelengths. But to achieve this, a bright natural guide star (NGS) is needed for the wavefront sensing, severely limiting the fraction of the sky over which AO can be used. To some extent this can be overcome with a laser guide star (LGS). While the laser can be pointed anywhere in the sky, one still needs to have a natural star, albeit fainter, reasonably close to correct the image motion (tip-tilt) to which laser guide stars are insensitive. There are in fact many astronomical targets without suitable tip-tilt stars, but for which the enhanced resolution obtained with the Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF) would still be very beneficial. This article explores what adaptive optics performance one might expect if one dispenses with the tip-tilt star, and in what situations this mode of observing might be needed.

  10. Neptune and Titan Observed with Keck Telescope Adaptive Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, C.E.; Macintosh, B.A.; Gibbard, S.; Gavel, D.T.; Roe, H.; De Pater, I.; Ghez, A.M.; Acton, S.; Wizinowich, P.L.; Lai, O.

    2000-05-05

    The authors report on observations taken during engineering science validation time using the new adaptive optics system at the 10-m Keck II Telescope. They observe Neptune and Titan at near-infrared wavelengths. These objects are ideal for adaptive optics imaging because they are bright and small, yet have many diffraction-limited resolution elements across their disks. In addition Neptune and Titan have prominent physical features, some of which change markedly with time. They have observed infrared-bright storms on Neptune, and very low-albedo surface regions on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, Spatial resolution on Neptune and Titan was 0.05-0.06 and 0.04-0.05 arc sec, respectively.

  11. The CHARA Array Adaptive Optics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brummelaar, Theo; Che, Xiao; McAlister, Harold A.; Ireland, Michael; Monnier, John D.; Mourard, Denis; Ridgway, Stephen T.; sturmann, judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Turner, Nils H.; Tuthill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The CHARA array is an optical/near infrared interferometer consisting of six 1-meter diameter telescopes the longest baseline of which is 331 meters. With sub-millisecond angular resolution, the CHARA array is able to spatially resolve nearby stellar systems to reveal the detailed structures. To improve the sensitivity and scientific throughput, the CHARA array was funded by NSF-ATI in 2011, and by NSF-MRI in 2015, for an upgrade of adaptive optics (AO) systems to all six telescopes. The initial grant covers Phase I of the adaptive optics system, which includes an on-telescope Wavefront Sensor and non-common-path (NCP) error correction. The WFS use a fairly standard Shack-Hartman design and will initially close the tip tilt servo and log wavefront errors for use in data reduction and calibration. The second grant provides the funding for deformable mirrors for each telescope which will be used closed loop to remove atmospheric aberrations from the beams. There are then over twenty reflections after the WFS at the telescopes that bring the light several hundred meters into the beam combining laboratory. Some of these, including the delay line and beam reducing optics, are powered elements, and some of them, in particular the delay lines and telescope Coude optics, are continually moving. This means that the NCP problems in an interferometer are much greater than those found in more standard telescope systems. A second, slow AO system is required in the laboratory to correct for these NCP errors. We will breifly describe the AO system, and it's current status, as well as discuss the new science enabled by the system with a focus on our YSO program.

  12. High-redshift quasar host galaxies with adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlbrodt, B; Wisotzki, L; Jahnke, K

    2005-01-01

    We present K band adaptive optics observations of three high-redshift (z ~ 2.2) high-luminosity quasars, all of which were studied for the first time. We also bserved several point spread function (PSF) calibrators, non-simultaneously because of the small field of view. The significant temporal PSF variations on timescales of minutes inhibited a straightforward scaled PSF removal from the quasar images. Characterising the degree of PSF concentration by the radii encircling 20% and 80% of the total flux, respectively, we found that even under very different observing conditions the r20 vs. r80 relation varied coherently between individual short exposure images, delineating a well-defined relation for point sources. Placing the quasar images on this relation, we see indications that all three objects were resolved. We designed a procedure to estimate the significance of this result, and to estimate host galaxy parameters, by reproducing the statistical distribution of the individual short exposure images. We fi...

  13. Non-iterative adaptive optical microscopy using wavefront sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, X.; Azucena, O.; Kubby, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper will review the development of wide-field and confocal microscopes with wavefront sensing and adaptive optics for correcting refractive aberrations and compensating scattering when imaging through thick tissues (Drosophila embryos and mouse brain tissue). To make wavefront measurements in biological specimens we have modified the laser guide-star techniques used in astronomy for measuring wavefront aberrations that occur as star light passes through Earth's turbulent atmosphere. Here sodium atoms in Earth's mesosphere, at an altitude of 95 km, are excited to fluoresce at resonance by a high-power sodium laser. The fluorescent light creates a guide-star reference beacon at the top of the atmosphere that can be used for measuring wavefront aberrations that occur as the light passes through the atmosphere. We have developed a related approach for making wavefront measurements in biological specimens using cellular structures labeled with fluorescent proteins as laser guide-stars. An example is a fluorescently labeled centrosome in a fruit fly embryo or neurons and dendrites in mouse brains. Using adaptive optical microscopy we show that the Strehl ratio, the ratio of the peak intensity of an aberrated point source relative to the diffraction limited image, can be improved by an order of magnitude when imaging deeply into live dynamic specimens, enabling near diffraction limited deep tissue imaging.

  14. Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B

    2005-08-01

    Adaptive optics systems typically include an optical relay that simultaneously images the science field to be corrected and also a set of pupil planes conjugate to the deformable mirror of the system. Often, in the optical spaces where DM's are placed, the pupils are aberrated, leading to a displacement and/or distortion of the pupil that varies according to field position--producing a type of anisoplanatism, i.e., a degradation of the AO correction with field angle. The pupil aberration phenomenon is described and expressed in terms of Seidel aberrations. An expression for anisoplanatism as a function of pupil distortion is derived, an example of an off-axis parabola is given, and a convenient method for controlling pupil-aberration-generated anisoplanatism is proposed.

  15. Luminescent probes for optical in vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier, Isabelle; Josserand, Veronique; Garanger, Elisabeth; Razkin, Jesus; Jin, Zhaohui; Dumy, Pascal; Favrot, Marie; Boturyn, Didier; Coll, Jean-Luc

    2005-04-01

    Going along with instrumental development for small animal fluorescence in vivo imaging, we are developing molecular fluorescent probes, especially for tumor targeting. Several criteria have to be taken into account for the optimization of the luminescent label. It should be adapted to the in vivo imaging optical conditions : red-shifted absorption and emission, limited overlap between absorption and emission for a good signal filtering, optimized luminescence quantum yield, limited photo-bleaching. Moreover, the whole probe should fulfill the biological requirements for in vivo labeling : adapted blood-time circulation, biological conditions compatibility, low toxicity. We here demonstrate the ability of the imaging fluorescence set-up developed in LETI to image the bio-distribution of molecular probes on short times after injection. Targeting with Cy5 labeled holo-transferrin of subcutaneous TS/Apc (angiogenic murine breast carcinoma model) or IGROV1 (human ovarian cancer) tumors was achieved. Differences in the kinetics of the protein uptake by the tumors were evidenced. IGROV1 internal metastatic nodes implanted in the peritoneal cavity could be detected in nude mice. However, targeted metastatic nodes in lung cancer could only be imaged after dissection of the mouse. These results validate our fluorescence imaging set-up and the use of Cy5 as a luminescent label. New fluorescent probes based on this dye and a molecular delivery template (the RAFT molecule) can thus be envisioned.

  16. Phase sensor for solar adaptive-optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Aglae

    2011-01-01

    Wavefront sensing in solar adaptive-optics is currently done with correlating Shack-Hartmann sensors, although the spatial- and temporal-resolutions of the phase measurements are then limited by the extremely fast computing required to correlate the sensor signals at the frequencies of daytime atmospheric-fluctuations. To avoid this limitation, a new wavefront-sensing technique is presented, that makes use of the solar brightness and is applicable to extended sources. The wavefront is sent through a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A small, central part of the wavefront is used as reference and is made to interfere with the rest of the wavefront. The contrast of two simultaneously measured interference-patterns provides a direct estimate of the wavefront phase, no additional computation being required. The proposed optical layout shows precise initial alignment to be the critical point in implementing the new wavefront-sensing scheme.

  17. Design considerations for CELT adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekany, Richard G.; Nelson, Jerry E.; Bauman, Brian J.

    2000-07-01

    California Institute of Technology and University of California have begun conceptual design studies for a new telescope for astronomical research at visible and infrared wavelengths. The California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) is currently envisioned as a filled-aperture, steerable, segmented telescope of approximately 30 m diameter. The key to satisfying many of the science goals of this observatory is the availability of diffraction-limited wavefront control. We describe potential observing modes of CELT, including a discussion of the several major outstanding AO system architectural design issues to be resolved prior to the initiation of the detailed design of the adaptive optics capability.

  18. Adaptive Holographic Fiber-Optic Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Nikolai M.; Lipovskaya, Margarita J.

    1990-04-01

    Interaction of phase-modulated light beams in photorefractive local inertial responce media was analysed. Interaction of this type allows to registrate phase-modulated signals adaptively under low frequency phase disturbtion. The experiments on multimode fiber-optic interferometer with demodulation element based on photorefractive bacteriorhodopsin-doped polimer film are described. As the writing of dynamic phase hologram is an inertial process the signal fluctuations with the frequencies up to 100 Hz can be canceled. The hologram efficiencies are enough to registrate high frequency phase shifts ~10-4 radn.

  19. In vivo cellular visualization of the human retina using optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S S; Jones, S M; Chen, D C; Zawadzki, R J; Choi, S S; Laut, S P; Werner, J S

    2006-01-05

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) sees the human retina sharply with adaptive optics. In vivo cellular visualization of the human retina at micrometer-scale resolution is possible by enhancing Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography with adaptive optics, which compensate for the eye's optical aberrations.

  20. CS Radar Imaging via Adaptive CAMP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present results on application of Compressive Sensing (CS) to high resolution radar imaging and pro- pose the adaptive Complex Approximate Message Passing (CAMP) algorithm for image reconstruction. CS provides a theoretical framework that guarantees, under certain assumptions, recon

  1. Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhizheng; Ben Amara, Foued

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems presents a novel design of wavefront correctors based on magnetic fluid deformable mirrors (MFDM) as well as corresponding control algorithms. The presented wavefront correctors are characterized by their linear, dynamic response. Various mirror surface shape control algorithms are presented along with experimental evaluations of the performance of the resulting adaptive optics systems. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used in various fields of application to enhance the performance of optical systems, such as imaging, laser, free space optical communication systems, etc. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students, professors, engineers, scientists and researchers working on the design of adaptive optics systems and their various emerging fields of application. Zhizheng Wu is an associate professor at Shanghai University, China. Azhar Iqbal is a research associate at the University of Toronto, Canada. Foue...

  2. Adaptive image processing a computational intelligence perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Ling; Wong, Hau San

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive image processing is one of the most important techniques in visual information processing, especially in early vision such as image restoration, filtering, enhancement, and segmentation. While existing books present some important aspects of the issue, there is not a single book that treats this problem from a viewpoint that is directly linked to human perception - until now. This reference treats adaptive image processing from a computational intelligence viewpoint, systematically and successfully, from theory to applications, using the synergies of neural networks, fuzzy logic, and

  3. Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive optics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, M A; Mignant, D L; Macintosh, B A

    2004-01-19

    In this paper, the adaptive optics (AO) system at the W.M. Keck Observatory is characterized. The authors calculate the error budget of the Keck AO system operating in natural guide star mode with a near infrared imaging camera. By modeling the control loops and recording residual centroids, the measurement noise and band-width errors are obtained. The error budget is consistent with the images obtained. Results of sky performance tests are presented: the AO system is shown to deliver images with average Strehl ratios of up to 0.37 at 1.58 {micro}m using a bright guide star and 0.19 for a magnitude 12 star.

  4. Adaptive Optics Observations of Exoplanets, Brown Dwarfs, & Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkley, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    The current direct observations of brown dwarfs and exoplanets have been obtained using instruments not specifically designed for overcoming the large contrast ratio between the host star and any wide-separation faint companions. However, we are about to witness the birth of several new dedicated observing platforms specifically geared towards high contrast imaging of these objects. The Gemini Planet Imager, VLT-SPHERE, Subaru HiCIAO, and Project 1640 at the Palomar 5m telescope will return images of numerous exoplanets and brown dwarfs over hundreds of observing nights in the next five years. Along with diffraction-limited coronagraphs and high-order adaptive optics, these instruments also will return spectral and polarimetric information on any discovered targets, giving clues to their atmospheric compositions and characteristics. Such spectral characterization will be key to forming a detailed theory of comparative exoplanetary science which will be widely applicable to both exoplanets and brown dwarfs. Fu...

  5. Optical design of the adaptive optics laser guide star system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The design of an adaptive optics package for the 3 meter Lick telescope is presented. This instrument package includes a 69 actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann type wavefront sensor operating in the visible wavelength; a quadrant detector for the tip-tile sensor and a tip-tilt mirror to stabilize atmospheric first order tip-tile errors. A high speed computer drives the deformable mirror to achieve near diffraction limited imagery. The different optical components and their individual design constraints are described. motorized stages and diagnostics tools are used to operate and maintain alignment throughout observation time from a remote control room. The expected performance are summarized and actual results of astronomical sources are presented.

  6. The Tesat transportable adaptive optical ground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucke, Karen; Seiter, Christoph; Heine, Frank; Gregory, Mark; Tröndle, Daniel; Fischer, Edgar; Berkefeld, Thomas; Feriencik, Mikael; Feriencik, Marco; Richter, Ines; Meyer, Rolf

    2016-03-01

    Tesat together with Synopta have built a Transportable Adaptive Optical Ground Station (TAOGS) under contract of German Aerospace Center DLR for communication with the 1st and 2nd generation of Tesat's spaceborne Laser Communication Terminals (LCTs), which employ coherent homodyne optical communication with 1064 nm and binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. The TAOGS is able to communicate with space segments on low earth orbit (LEO, high pointing and tracking dynamics, 5.625 Gbps), and with space segments on geostationary orbit (GEO, low pointing dynamics, up to 40,000 km distance, optical data rate of 2.8125 Gbps and user data rate of 1.8 Gbps). After an alignment and testing phase at the location of Izana, Tenerife, using the TDP1 LCT on geostationary Alphasat as counter terminal, the TAOGS is now fully functioning. Several up-links, down-links and bi-directional links have been performed. Experimental results of some of these links are presented. An outlook to further activities is given.

  7. Computational adaptive optics for broadband interferometric tomography of tissues and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G.; Mulligan, Jeffrey A.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) can shape aberrated optical wavefronts to physically restore the constructive interference needed for high-resolution imaging. With access to the complex optical field, however, many functions of optical hardware can be achieved computationally, including focusing and the compensation of optical aberrations to restore the constructive interference required for diffraction-limited imaging performance. Holography, which employs interferometric detection of the complex optical field, was developed based on this connection between hardware and computational image formation, although this link has only recently been exploited for 3D tomographic imaging in scattering biological tissues. This talk will present the underlying imaging science behind computational image formation with optical coherence tomography (OCT) -- a beam-scanned version of broadband digital holography. Analogous to hardware AO (HAO), we demonstrate computational adaptive optics (CAO) and optimization of the computed pupil correction in 'sensorless mode' (Zernike polynomial corrections with feedback from image metrics) or with the use of 'guide-stars' in the sample. We discuss the concept of an 'isotomic volume' as the volumetric extension of the 'isoplanatic patch' introduced in astronomical AO. Recent CAO results and ongoing work is highlighted to point to the potential biomedical impact of computed broadband interferometric tomography. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of HAO vs. CAO for the effective shaping of optical wavefronts, and highlight opportunities for hybrid approaches that synergistically combine the unique advantages of hardware and computational methods for rapid volumetric tomography with cellular resolution.

  8. The numerical simulation tool for the MAORY multiconjugate adaptive optics system

    CERN Document Server

    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bregoli, Giovanni; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Foppiani, Italo; Agapito, Guido; Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco; Oberti, Sylvain; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Lombini, Matteo; Butler, Chris R; Ciliegi, Paolo; Cortecchia, Fausto; Patti, Mauro; Esposito, Simone; Feautrier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics RelaY (MAORY) is and Adaptive Optics module to be mounted on the ESO European-Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). It is a hybrid Natural and Laser Guide System that will perform the correction of the atmospheric turbulence volume above the telescope feeding the Multi-AO Imaging Camera for Deep Observations Near Infrared spectro-imager (MICADO). We developed an end-to-end Monte- Carlo adaptive optics simulation tool to investigate the performance of a the MAORY and the calibration, acquisition, operation strategies. MAORY will implement Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics combining Laser Guide Stars (LGS) and Natural Guide Stars (NGS) measurements. The simulation tool implements the various aspect of the MAORY in an end to end fashion. The code has been developed using IDL and uses libraries in C++ and CUDA for efficiency improvements. Here we recall the code architecture, we describe the modeled instrument components and the control strategies implemented in the code.

  9. Contrast enhancement in microscopy of human thyroid tumors by means of acousto-optic adaptive spatial filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, Konstantin B.; Molchanov, Vladimir Y.; Belousov, Pavel V.; Abrosimov, Aleksander Y.

    2016-01-01

    We report a method for edge enhancement in the images of transparent samples using analog image processing in coherent light. The experimental technique is based on adaptive spatial filtering with an acousto-optic tunable filter in a telecentric optical system. We demonstrate processing of microscopic images of unstained and stained histological sections of human thyroid tumor with improved contrast.

  10. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Anitropov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures of its optimization were proposed. Method. We investigated the applicability of the theory of composition and synthesis of non-imaging optical systems. The main provisions of the theory of composition are based on the division of all available optical elements in four types depending on their functionality, which corresponds to a modular design. Similar items were identified in non-imaging optical systems and adaptation of composition theory to their design became possible. Main Results. General design patterns of imaging and non-imaging optical systems were studied. Classification of systems, components, as well as technical and generic characteristics of imaging and non-imaging optical systems was determined. Search mechanism of the initial optical system by means of structural and parametric synthesis of non-imaging optical system was formalized. The basic elements were determined included in non-imaging systems and their classification by functionality was done. They were subdivided into basic, corrective, wide angle and high aperture ones. The rules for formation of these elements and their composition were determined: surface reflecting, refracting, spherical and nonspherical elements with total internal reflection. The foundations of composition theory for non-imaging optical systems were laid. The approbation of this method was carried out on the example of the illumination system calculation for surgical room. A 3D model of an illumination optical

  11. Optical Waveguide Sensing and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Wojtek J; Tanev, Stoyan

    2008-01-01

    The book explores various aspects of existing and emerging fiber and waveguide optics sensing and imaging technologies including recent advances in nanobiophotonics. The focus is both on fundamental and applied research as well as on applications in civil engineering, biomedical sciences, environment, security and defence. The main goal of the multi-disciplinarry team of Editors was to provide an useful reference of state-of-the-art overviews covering a variety of complementary topics on the interface of engineering and biomedical sciences.

  12. Durham adaptive optics real-time controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, Alastair; Geng, Deli; Myers, Richard; Younger, Eddy

    2010-11-10

    The Durham adaptive optics (AO) real-time controller was initially a proof of concept design for a generic AO control system. It has since been developed into a modern and powerful central-processing-unit-based real-time control system, capable of using hardware acceleration (including field programmable gate arrays and graphical processing units), based primarily around commercial off-the-shelf hardware. It is powerful enough to be used as the real-time controller for all currently planned 8 m class telescope AO systems. Here we give details of this controller and the concepts behind it, and report on performance, including latency and jitter, which is less than 10 μs for small AO systems.

  13. Adaptive interference hyperspectral image compression with spectrum distortion control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ma; Yunsong Li; Chengke Wu; Dong Chen

    2009-01-01

    As one of the next generation imaging spectrometers,interferential spectrometer has been paid much attention.With traditional spectrum compression methods,the hyperspectral images generated by interferential spectrometer can only be protected with better visual quality in spatial domain,but its optical applications in Fourier domain are often ignored.So the relation between the distortion in Fourier domain and the compression in spatial domain is analyzed in this letter.Based on this analysis,a novel coding scheme is proposed,which can compress data in spatial domain while reducing the distortion in Fourier domain.The bitstream of set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) is truncated by adaptively lifting the rate-distortion slopes of zerotrees according to the priorities of optical path difference (OPD) based on rate-distortion optimization theory.Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can achieve better performance in Fourier domain while maintaining the image quality in spatial domain.

  14. Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an 'optically detected magnetic resonance imaging' technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors

  15. A Learning Approach for Adaptive Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Vincent; Thonnat, Monique

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we have proposed a learning approach for three major issues of image segmentation: context adaptation, algorithm selection and parameter tuning according to the image content and the application need. This supervised learning approach relies on hand-labelled samples. The learning process is guided by the goal of the segmentation and therefore makes the approach reliable for a broad range of applications. The user effort is restrained compared to other supervised methods since...

  16. Optical imaging of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza Dominguez, Jorge

    In this thesis, a new time-dependent model for describing light propagation in biological media is proposed. The model is based on the simplified spherical harmonics approximation and is represented by a set of coupled parabolic partial differential equations (TD-pSPN equations). In addition, the model is extended for modeling the time-dependent response of fluorescent agents in biological tissues and the ensuing time-domain propagation of light therein. In a comparison with Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that the TD-pSPN equations present unique features in its derivation that makes it a more accurate alternative to the diffusion equation (DE). The TD-pSPN model (for orders N > 1) outperforms the DE in the description of the propagation of light in near-nondiffusive media and in all the physical situations where DE fails. Often, only small orders of the SP N approximation are needed to obtain accurate results. A diffuse optical tomography (DOT) algorithm is also implemented based on the TD-pSPN equations as the forward model using constrained optimization methods. The algorithm uses time-dependent (TD) data directly. Such an approach is benefited from both the accuracy of the SPN models and the richness of TD data. In the calculation of the gradient of the objective function, a time-dependent adjoint differentiation method is introduced that reduces computation time. Several numerical experiments are performed for small geometry media with embedded inclusions that mimic small animal imaging. In these experiments, the values of the optical coefficients are varied within realistic bounds that are representative of those found in the range of the near-infrared spectrum, including high absorption values. Single and multi-parameter reconstructions (absorption and diffusion coefficients) are performed. The reconstructed images based on the TD-pSPN equations (N > 1) give better estimates of the optical properties of the media than the DE. On the other hand

  17. Using Site Testing Data for Adaptive Optics Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Herriot, Glen; Andersen, David; Conan, Rod; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Hickson, Paul; Jackson, Kate; Lardière, Olivier; Pfrommer, Thomas; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Lianqi

    2011-01-01

    Astronomical Site testing data plays a vital role in the simulation, design, evaluation and operation of adaptive optics systems for large telescope. We present the example of TMT and its first light facilitiy adaptive optics system NFIRAOS, and illustrate the many simulations done based on site testing data.

  18. Compact MEMS-based Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography for Clinical Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Zawadzki, R; Evans, J; Choi, S; Werner, J

    2008-02-04

    We describe a compact MEMS-based adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography system with improved AO performance and ease of clinical use. A typical AO system consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror that measures and corrects the ocular and system aberrations. Because of the limitation on the current deformable mirror technologies, the amount of real-time ocular-aberration compensation is restricted and small in the previous AO-OCT instruments. In this instrument, we proposed to add an optical apparatus to correct the spectacle aberrations of the patients such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This eliminated the tedious process of the trial lenses in clinical imaging. Different amount of spectacle aberration compensation was achieved by motorized stages and automated with the AO computer for ease of clinical use. In addition, the compact AO-OCT was optimized to have minimum system aberrations to reduce AO registration errors and improve AO performance.

  19. CRAO: a compact and refractive adaptive-optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Naofumi; Kitao, Eiji; Shimizu, Tomo; Matsui, Takuya; Ikeda, Yuji; Kawakita, Hideyo; Oya, Shin

    2014-08-01

    CRAO is a demonstrator of a compact and low-cost adaptive-optics (AO) with a double-pass lens configuration. Owing to its compact optical layout compared to conventional reflective AOs, the instrument size can be reduced to only 0.03 square meters. We plan to apply this miniaturization technique into future AOs on a variety of telescopes ranging from 1m- to 30m-class. CRAO is installed at a Nasmyth focus of the 1.3m Araki telescope at Koyama Astronomical Observatory in Kyoto Sangyo University. CRAO adopts a closed-loop single-conjugate system with wavelength coverage of 400 - 700 nm and the field of view of 30 arcsec. For low cost, we also employ commercial products on its wavefront sensor (WFS), deformable mirror (DM), and tip-tilt (TT) stage. CRAO is designed to improve the atmospheric seeing from 2.5 to 0.6arcsec under a typical condition at Koyama Astronomical Observatory with 12x12 subapertures in the WFS, 48 electrodes in the membrane DM and the control bandwidth of 200Hz. In order to examine key issues inherent in refractive optical system such as chromatic aberration, temperature aberration and ghost images, room and on-sky experiments are currently underway. CRAO has seen first light in May 2014, and we have confirmed that effects of chromatic aberration and ghost images induced by its refractive optics are negligible for at least TT correction. In this paper, we present experimental results as well as the design of optics, opto-mechanics and control system.

  20. Vision Is Adapted to the Natural Level of Blur Present in the Retinal Image

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Sawides; Pablo Gracia; Carlos Dorronsoro; Webster, Michael A.; Susana Marcos

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The image formed by the eye's optics is inherently blurred by aberrations specific to an individual's eyes. We examined how visual coding is adapted to the optical quality of the eye. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the relationship between perceived blur and the retinal image blur resulting from high order aberrations in an individual's optics. Observers judged perceptual blur in a psychophysical two-alternative forced choice paradigm, on stimuli viewed through perfectly correc...

  1. Optimized micromirror arrays for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicek, M. Adrian; Comtois, John H.; Hetherington, Dale L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, layout, fabrication, and surface characterization of highly optimized surface micromachined micromirror devices. Design considerations and fabrication capabilities are presented. These devices are fabricated in the state-of-the-art, four-level, planarized, ultra-low-stress polysilicon process available at Sandia National Laboratories known as the Sandia Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology (SUMMiT). This enabling process permits the development of micromirror devices with near-ideal characteristics that have previously been unrealizable in standard three-layer polysilicon processes. The reduced 1 μm minimum feature sizes and 0.1 μm mask resolution make it possible to produce dense wiring patterns and irregularly shaped flexures. Likewise, mirror surfaces can be uniquely distributed and segmented in advanced patterns and often irregular shapes in order to minimize wavefront error across the pupil. The ultra-low-stress polysilicon and planarized upper layer allow designers to make larger and more complex micromirrors of varying shape and surface area within an array while maintaining uniform performance of optical surfaces. Powerful layout functions of the AutoCAD editor simplify the design of advanced micromirror arrays and make it possible to optimize devices according to the capabilities of the fabrication process. Micromirrors fabricated in this process have demonstrated a surface variance across the array from only 2-3 nm to a worst case of roughly 25 nm while boasting active surface areas of 98% or better. Combining the process planarization with a ``planarized-by-design'' approach will produce micromirror array surfaces that are limited in flatness only by the surface deposition roughness of the structural material. Ultimately, the combination of advanced process and layout capabilities have permitted the fabrication of highly optimized micromirror arrays for adaptive optics.

  2. Adaptive wide-field optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vivek; Intes, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    We describe a wide-field optical tomography technique, which allows the measurement-guided optimization of illumination patterns for enhanced reconstruction performances. The iterative optimization of the excitation pattern aims at reducing the dynamic range in photons transmitted through biological tissue. It increases the number of measurements collected with high photon counts resulting in a dataset with improved tomographic information. Herein, this imaging technique is applied to time-resolved fluorescence molecular tomography for preclinical studies. First, the merit of this approach is tested by in silico studies in a synthetic small animal model for typical illumination patterns. Second, the applicability of this approach in tomographic imaging is validated in vitro using a small animal phantom with two fluorescent capillaries occluded by a highly absorbing inclusion. The simulation study demonstrates an improvement of signal transmitted (˜2 orders of magnitude) through the central portion of the small animal model for all patterns considered. A corresponding improvement in the signal at the emission wavelength by 1.6 orders of magnitude demonstrates the applicability of this technique for fluorescence molecular tomography. The successful discrimination and localization (˜1 mm error) of the two objects with higher resolution using the optimized patterns compared with nonoptimized illumination establishes the improvement in reconstruction performance when using this technique.

  3. Beam shaping for laser-based adaptive optics in astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Béchet, Clémentine; Guesalaga, Andrés; Neichel, Benoit; Fesquet, Vincent; González-Núñez, Héctor; Zúñiga, Sebastián; Escarate, Pedro; Guzman, Dani

    2014-01-01

    The availability and performance of laser-based adaptive optics (AO) systems are strongly dependent on the power and quality of the laser beam before being projected to the sky. Frequent and time-consuming alignment procedures are usually required in the laser systems with free-space optics to optimize the beam. Despite these procedures, significant distortions of the laser beam have been observed during the first two years of operation of the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics syst...

  4. Adaptive contrast imaging: transmit frequency optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménigot, Sébastien; Novell, Anthony; Voicu, Iulian; Bouakaz, Ayache; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Since the introduction of ultrasound (US) contrast imaging, the imaging systems use a fixed emitting frequency. However it is known that the insonified medium is time-varying and therefore an adapted time-varying excitation is expected. We suggest an adaptive imaging technique which selects the optimal transmit frequency that maximizes the acoustic contrast. Two algorithms have been proposed to find an US excitation for which the frequency was optimal with microbubbles. Methods and Materials: Simulations were carried out for encapsulated microbubbles of 2 microns by considering the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation for 2 MHz transmit frequency and for various pressure levels (20 kPa up to 420kPa). In vitro experiments were carried out using a transducer operating at 2 MHz and using a programmable waveform generator. Contrast agent was then injected into a small container filled with water. Results and discussions: We show through simulations and in vitro experiments that our adaptive imaging technique gives: 1) in case of simulations, a gain of acoustic contrast which can reach 9 dB compared to the traditional technique without optimization and 2) for in vitro experiments, a gain which can reach 18 dB. There is a non negligible discrepancy between simulations and experiments. These differences are certainly due to the fact that our simulations do not take into account the diffraction and nonlinear propagation effects. Further optimizations are underway.

  5. Adaptive optics for daytime deep space laser communications to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keith E.; Wright, Malcolm; Lee, Shinkhak; Troy, Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes JPL research in adaptive optics (AO) to reduce the daytime background noise on a Mars-to-Earth optical communications link. AO can reduce atmosphere-induced wavefront aberrations, and enable single mode receiver operation thereby buying back margin in the deep space optical communications link.

  6. AVES: an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Luca; Delabre, Bernard; Avila, Gerardo; Bonaccini, Domenico

    1998-07-01

    We present the preliminary study of a low cost, high performance spectrograph for the VLT, for observations in the V, R and I bands. This spectrograph is meant for intermediate (R equals 16,000) resolution spectroscopy of faint (sky and/or detector limited) sources, with particular emphasis on the study of solar-type (F-G) stars belonging to the nearest galaxies and to distant (or highly reddened) galactic clusters. The spectrograph is designed to use the adaptive optics (AO) systems at the VLT Telescope. Even if these AO systems will not provide diffraction limited images in the V, R and I bands, the photon concentration will still be above approximately 60% of the flux in an 0.3 arcsecond aperture for typical Paranal conditions. This makes the construction of a compact, cheap and efficient echelle spectrograph possible. AVES will outperform comparable non adaptive optic instruments by more than one magnitude for sky- and/or detector-limited observations, and it will be very suitable for observations in crowded fields.

  7. Non-common path aberration correction in an adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubra, Alfredo

    2014-09-01

    The correction of non-common path aberrations (NCPAs) between the imaging and wavefront sensing channel in a confocal scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscope is demonstrated. NCPA correction is achieved by maximizing an image sharpness metric while the confocal detection aperture is temporarily removed, effectively minimizing the monochromatic aberrations in the illumination path of the imaging channel. Comparison of NCPA estimated using zonal and modal orthogonal wavefront corrector bases provided wavefronts that differ by ~λ/20 in root-mean-squared (~λ/30 standard deviation). Sequential insertion of a cylindrical lens in the illumination and light collection paths of the imaging channel was used to compare image resolution after changing the wavefront correction to maximize image sharpness and intensity metrics. Finally, the NCPA correction was incorporated into the closed-loop adaptive optics control by biasing the wavefront sensor signals without reducing its bandwidth.

  8. Automated interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy and computational adaptive optics for improved optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Boppart, Stephen A; Carney, P Scott

    2016-03-10

    In this paper, we introduce an algorithm framework for the automation of interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM). Under this framework, common processing steps such as dispersion correction, Fourier domain resampling, and computational adaptive optics aberration correction are carried out as metrics-assisted parameter search problems. We further present the results of this algorithm applied to phantom and biological tissue samples and compare with manually adjusted results. With the automated algorithm, near-optimal ISAM reconstruction can be achieved without manual adjustment. At the same time, the technical barrier for the nonexpert using ISAM imaging is also significantly lowered. PMID:26974799

  9. Probing other solar systems with current and future adaptive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B; Marois, C; Phillion, D; Poyneer, L; Graham, J; Zuckerman, B; Gavel, D; Veran, J; Wilhelmsen-Evans, J; Mellis, C

    2008-09-08

    Over the past decade, the study of extrasolar planets through indirect techniques--primarily Doppler measurements--has revolutionized our understanding of other solar systems. The next major step in this field will be the direct detection and characterization, via imaging and spectroscopy, of the planets themselves. To achieve this, we must separate the light from the faint planet from the extensive glare of its parent star. We pursued this goal using the current generation of adaptive optics (AO) systems on large ground-based telescopes, using infrared imaging to search for the thermal emission from young planets and developing image processing techniques to distinguish planets from telescope-induced artifacts. Our new Angular Differential Imaging (ADI) technique, which uses the sidereal rotation of the Earth and telescope, is now standard for ground-based high-contrast imaging. Although no young planets were found in our surveys, we placed the strongest limits yet on giant planets in wide orbits (>30 AU) around young stars and characterized planetary companion candidates. The imaging of planetary companions on solar-system-like scales (5-30 AU) will require a new generation of advanced AO systems that are an order of magnitude more powerful than the LLNL-built Keck AO system. We worked to develop and test the key technologies needed for these systems, including a spatially-filtered wavefront sensor, efficient and accurate wavefront reconstruction algorithms, and precision AO wavefront control at the sub-nm level. LLNL has now been selected by the Gemini Observatory to lead the construction of the Gemini Planet Imager, a $24M instrument that will be the most advanced AO system in the world.

  10. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  11. INFLUENCE OF OPTICAL AND NEURAL FACTORS ON QUALITY OF THE PERCEIVED IMAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Karitāns, Varis

    2012-01-01

    INFLUENCE OF OPTICAL AND NEURAL FACTORS ON QUALITY OF THE PERCEIVED IMAGE An eye is an optical system suffering from optical aberrations. Ocular aberrations influence both visual perception and visibility of retinal features. As technologies of adaptive optics advanced it became possible to control optical quality of an eye at very high level. Dependence of visual functions on optical quality of an eye is widely studied. There is no scientific agreement regarding the role o...

  12. Adaptive optics ophthalmologic systems using dual deformable mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S; Olivier, S; Chen, D; Sadda, S; Joeres, S; Zawadzki, R; Werner, J S; Miller, D

    2007-02-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) have been increasingly combined with a variety of ophthalmic instruments over the last decade to provide cellular-level, in-vivo images of the eye. The use of MEMS deformable mirrors in these instruments has recently been demonstrated to reduce system size and cost while improving performance. However, currently available MEMS mirrors lack the required range of motion for correcting large ocular aberrations, such as defocus and astigmatism. In order to address this problem, we have developed an AO system architecture that uses two deformable mirrors, in a woofer/tweeter arrangement, with a bimorph mirror as the woofer and a MEMS mirror as the tweeter. This setup provides several advantages, including extended aberration correction range, due to the large stroke of the bimorph mirror, high order aberration correction using the MEMS mirror, and additionally, the ability to ''focus'' through the retina. This AO system architecture is currently being used in four instruments, including an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system and a retinal flood-illuminated imaging system at the UC Davis Medical Center, a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) at the Doheny Eye Institute, and an OCT system at Indiana University. The design, operation and evaluation of this type of AO system architecture will be presented.

  13. Kalman filtering to suppress spurious signals in Adaptive Optics control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyneer, L; Veran, J P

    2010-03-29

    In many scenarios, an Adaptive Optics (AO) control system operates in the presence of temporally non-white noise. We use a Kalman filter with a state space formulation that allows suppression of this colored noise, hence improving residual error over the case where the noise is assumed to be white. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new filter in the case of the estimated Gemini Planet Imager tip-tilt environment, where there are both common-path and non-common path vibrations. We discuss how this same framework can also be used to suppress spatial aliasing during predictive wavefront control assuming frozen flow in a low-order AO system without a spatially filtered wavefront sensor, and present experimental measurements from Altair that clearly reveal these aliased components.

  14. Enhancing stellar spectroscopy with extreme adaptive optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanovic, Nemanja; Cvetojevic, Nick; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz

    2016-01-01

    Extreme adaptive optics systems are now in operation across the globe. These systems, capable of high order wavefront correction, deliver Strehl ratios of 90% in the near-infrared. Originally intended for the direct imaging of exoplanets, these systems are often equipped with advanced coronagraphs that suppress the on-axis-star, interferometers to calibrate wavefront errors, and low order wavefront sensors to stabilize any tip/tilt residuals to a degree never seen before. Such systems are well positioned to facilitate the detailed spectroscopic characterization of faint substellar companions at small angular separations from the host star. Additionally, the increased light concentration of the point-spread function and the unprecedented stability create opportunities in other fields of astronomy as well, including spectroscopy. With such Strehl ratios, efficient injection into single-mode fibers or photonic lanterns becomes possible. With diffraction-limited components feeding the instrument, calibrating a sp...

  15. Comparison of Adaptive Optics and Phase-Conjugate Mirrors for Correction of Aberrations in Double-Pass Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackel, Steven; Moshe, Inon; Lavi, Raphy

    2003-02-01

    Correction of birefringence-induced effects (depolarization and bipolar focusing) were achieved in double-pass amplifiers by use of a Faraday rotator between the laser rod and the retroreflecting optic. A necessary condition was ray retrace. Retrace was limited by imperfect conjugate-beam fidelity and by nonreciprocal refractive indices. We compared various retroreflectors: stimulated-Brillouin-scatter phase-conjugate mirrors (PCMs), PCMs with rod-to-PCM relay imaging (IPCM), IPCMs with astigmatism-correcting adaptive optics, and all-adaptive-optics imaging variable-radius mirrors. Results with flash-lamp-pumped, Nd:Cr:GSGG double-pass amplifiers showed the superiority of adaptive optics over nonlinear optics retroreflectors in terms of maximum average power, improved beam quality, and broader oscillator pulse duration /bandwidth operating range. Hybrid PCM-adaptive optics retroreflectors yielded intermediate power /beam-quality results.

  16. Adaptive Optics for the 8 meter Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Jacques; Liu, Zhong; Deng, Yuanyong; Ji, Haisheng

    2013-12-01

    Solar ELTs enable diffraction limited imaging of the basic structure of the solar atmosphere. Magneto-hydrodynamic considerations limit their size to about 0.03 arcsec. To observe them in the near-infrared 8-meter class telescopes are needed. The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, or CGST, is such a NIR solar ELT. It is a Ring Telescope with 8-meter outer diameter and a central clear aperture of about 6-meter diameter. At present various options for such a Gregorian type telescope are under study like a continuous ring made of segments or a multiple aperture ring made of 7 off-axis telescopes. The advantages of such a ring telescope is that its MTF covers all spatial frequencies out to those corresponding to its outer diameter, that its circular symmetry makes it polarization neutral, and that its large central hole helps thermal control and provides ample space for MCAO and Gregorian instrumentation. We present the current status of the design of the CGST. Our thinking is guided by the outstanding performance of the 1-meter vacuum solar telescope of the Yunnan Solar Observatory which like the CGST uses both AO and image reconstruction. Using it with a ring-shape aperture mask the imaging techniques for the CGST are being explored. The CGST will have Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO). The peculiarities of Atmospheric Wavefront Tomography for Ring Telescopes are aided by the ample availability of guide stars on the Sun. IR MCAO-aided diffraction limited imaging offers the advantage of a large FOV, and high solar magnetic field sensitivity. Site testing is proceeding in western China, (e.g. northern Yunnan Province and Tibet). The CGST is a Chinese solar community project originated by the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, the National Astronomical Observatories, the Purple Mountain Observatory, the Nanjing University, the Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology and the Beijing Normal University.

  17. Adaptive thresholding of digital subtraction angiography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Nong; Li, Heng; Peng, Weixue; Zhang, Tianxu

    2005-10-01

    In clinical practice, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a powerful technique for the visualization of blood vessels in the human body. Blood vessel segmentation is a main problem for 3D vascular reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a new adaptive thresholding method for the segmentation of DSA images. Each pixel of the DSA images is declared to be a vessel/background point with regard to a threshold and a few local characteristic limits depending on some information contained in the pixel neighborhood window. The size of the neighborhood window is set according to a priori knowledge of the diameter of vessels to make sure that each window contains the background definitely. Some experiments on cerebral DSA images are given, which show that our proposed method yields better results than global thresholding methods and some other local thresholding methods do.

  18. Wavefront correction and high-resolution in vivo OCT imaging with an objective integrated multi-actuator adaptive lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2015-08-24

    Adaptive optics is rapidly transforming microscopy and high-resolution ophthalmic imaging. The adaptive elements commonly used to control optical wavefronts are liquid crystal spatial light modulators and deformable mirrors. We introduce a novel Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens that can correct aberrations to high order, and which has the potential to increase the spread of adaptive optics to many new applications by simplifying its integration with existing systems. Our method combines an adaptive lens with an imaged-based optimization control that allows the correction of images to the diffraction limit, and provides a reduction of hardware complexity with respect to existing state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens design that we present can correct wavefront aberrations up to the 4th order of the Zernike polynomial characterization. The performance of the Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens is demonstrated in a wide field microscope, using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for closed loop control. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens and image-based wavefront-sensorless control were also integrated into the objective of a Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography system for in vivo imaging of mouse retinal structures. The experimental results demonstrate that the insertion of the Multi-actuator Objective Lens can generate arbitrary wavefronts to correct aberrations down to the diffraction limit, and can be easily integrated into optical systems to improve the quality of aberrated images. PMID:26368169

  19. Adaptive optics in spinning disk microscopy: improved contrast and brightness by a simple and fast method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisier, V; Clouvel, G; Jasaitis, A; Dimitrov, A; Piolot, T; Salamero, J

    2015-09-01

    Multiconfocal microscopy gives a good compromise between fast imaging and reasonable resolution. However, the low intensity of live fluorescent emitters is a major limitation to this technique. Aberrations induced by the optical setup, especially the mismatch of the refractive index and the biological sample itself, distort the point spread function and further reduce the amount of detected photons. Altogether, this leads to impaired image quality, preventing accurate analysis of molecular processes in biological samples and imaging deep in the sample. The amount of detected fluorescence can be improved with adaptive optics. Here, we used a compact adaptive optics module (adaptive optics box for sectioning optical microscopy), which was specifically designed for spinning disk confocal microscopy. The module overcomes undesired anomalies by correcting for most of the aberrations in confocal imaging. Existing aberration detection methods require prior illumination, which bleaches the sample. To avoid multiple exposures of the sample, we established an experimental model describing the depth dependence of major aberrations. This model allows us to correct for those aberrations when performing a z-stack, gradually increasing the amplitude of the correction with depth. It does not require illumination of the sample for aberration detection, thus minimizing photobleaching and phototoxicity. With this model, we improved both signal-to-background ratio and image contrast. Here, we present comparative studies on a variety of biological samples.

  20. Architecture and performance of astronomical adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, E.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the technological advances of adaptive optics have enabled a great deal of innovative science. In this lecture I review the system-level design of modern astronomical AO instruments, and discuss their current capabilities.

  1. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  2. Astronomy applications of adaptive optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Brian J.; Gavel, Donald T.

    2003-06-01

    Astronomical applications of adaptive optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a history that extends from 1984. The program started with the Lick Observatory Adaptive Optics system and has progressed through the years to lever-larger telescopes: Keck, and now the proposed CELT (California Extremely Large Telescope) 30m telescope. LLNL AO continues to be at the forefront of AO development and science.

  3. Astronomy Applications of Adaptive Optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B J; Gavel, D T

    2003-04-23

    Astronomical applications of adaptive optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a history that extends from 1984. The program started with the Lick Observatory Adaptive Optics system and has progressed through the years to lever-larger telescopes: Keck, and now the proposed CELT (California Extremely Large Telescope) 30m telescope. LLNL AO continues to be at the forefront of AO development and science.

  4. An adaptive optics approach for laser beam correction in turbulence utilizing a modified plenoptic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jonathan; Wu, Chensheng; Davis, Christopher C.

    2015-09-01

    Adaptive optics has been widely used in the field of astronomy to correct for atmospheric turbulence while viewing images of celestial bodies. The slightly distorted incoming wavefronts are typically sensed with a Shack-Hartmann sensor and then corrected with a deformable mirror. Although this approach has proven to be effective for astronomical purposes, a new approach must be developed when correcting for the deep turbulence experienced in ground to ground based optical systems. We propose the use of a modified plenoptic camera as a wavefront sensor capable of accurately representing an incoming wavefront that has been significantly distorted by strong turbulence conditions (C2n distortions. After the large distortions have been corrected, a secondary mode utilizing more traditional adaptive optics algorithms can take over to fine tune the wavefront correction. This two-stage algorithm can find use in free space optical communication systems, in directed energy applications, as well as for image correction purposes.

  5. Placing Limits on Extragalactic Substructure with Gravitational Lenses and Adaptive Optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagattuta, David J.; Vegetti, S.; Auger, M. W.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; McKean, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first results from a systematic search for extragalactic substructure, using high resolution Adaptive Optics (AO) images of known strong gravitational lenses. In particular we focus on two lens systems, B0128+437 and B1939+666, placing limits on both luminous and dark matter substruct

  6. Magellan Adaptive Optics first-light observations of the exoplanet beta Pic b. II. 3-5 micron direct imaging with MagAO+Clio, and the empirical bolometric luminosity of a self-luminous giant planet

    CERN Document Server

    Morzinski, Katie M; Skemer, Andy J; Close, Laird M; Hinz, Phil M; Rodigas, T J; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Bailey, Vanessa P; Follette, Katherine B; Kopon, Derek; Weinberger, Alycia J; Wu, Ya-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Young giant exoplanets are a unique laboratory for understanding cool, low-gravity atmospheres. A quintessential example is the massive extrasolar planet $\\beta$ Pic b, which is 9 AU from and embedded in the debris disk of the young nearby A6V star $\\beta$ Pictoris. We observed the system with first light of the Magellan Adaptive Optics (MagAO) system. In Paper I we presented the first CCD detection of this planet with MagAO+VisAO. Here we present four MagAO+Clio images of $\\beta$ Pic b at 3.1 $\\mu$m, 3.3 $\\mu$m, $L^\\prime$, and $M^\\prime$, including the first observation in the fundamental CH$_4$ band. To remove systematic errors from the spectral energy distribution (SED), we re-calibrate the literature photometry and combine it with our own data, for a total of 22 independent measurements at 16 passbands from 0.99--4.8 $\\mu$m. Atmosphere models demonstrate the planet is cloudy but are degenerate in effective temperature and radius. The measured SED now covers $>$80\\% of the planet's energy, so we approach ...

  7. Photonic crystal-adaptive optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas

    -doped liquid crystal gain medium for the realization of cheap and compact optically pumped, electrically tunable lasers. Finally, a transparent projection display is presented which uses sub-wavelength gratings for redirection of light guided inside a waveguide and facilitates electro-optic switching by means...

  8. Adaptive Beamforming for Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund

    This dissertation investigates the application of adaptive beamforming for medical ultrasound imaging. The investigations have been concentrated primarily on the Minimum Variance (MV) beamformer. A broadband implementation of theMV beamformer is described, and simulated data have been used...... is suggested. These investigations show that the MV beamformer provides a significantly reduced main-lobe width compared to the conventional delay and sum beamformer. The effects of near-field propagation and a comparison between a subband and a temporal implementation are considered. And an investigation...

  9. GPU-based computational adaptive optics for volumetric optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Han; Mulligan, Jeffrey A.; Untracht, Gavrielle R.; Zhang, Xihao; Adie, Steven G.

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that measures reflectance from within biological tissues. Current higher-NA optical coherence microscopy (OCM) technologies with near cellular resolution have limitations on volumetric imaging capabilities due to the trade-offs between resolution vs. depth-of-field and sensitivity to aberrations. Such trade-offs can be addressed using computational adaptive optics (CAO), which corrects aberration computationally for all depths based on the complex optical field measured by OCT. However, due to the large size of datasets plus the computational complexity of CAO and OCT algorithms, it is a challenge to achieve high-resolution 3D-OCM reconstructions at speeds suitable for clinical and research OCM imaging. In recent years, real-time OCT reconstruction incorporating both dispersion and defocus correction has been achieved through parallel computing on graphics processing units (GPUs). We add to these methods by implementing depth-dependent aberration correction for volumetric OCM using plane-by-plane phase deconvolution. Following both defocus and aberration correction, our reconstruction algorithm achieved depth-independent transverse resolution of 2.8 um, equal to the diffraction-limited focal plane resolution. We have translated the CAO algorithm to a CUDA code implementation and tested the speed of the software in real-time using two GPUs - NVIDIA Quadro K600 and Geforce TITAN Z. For a data volume containing 4096×256×256 voxels, our system's processing speed can keep up with the 60 kHz acquisition rate of the line-scan camera, and takes 1.09 seconds to simultaneously update the CAO correction for 3 en face planes at user-selectable depths.

  10. Testing of electro-optical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Barela, Jaroslaw; Firmanty, Krzysztof

    2004-08-01

    Humans cannot objectively judge electro-optical imaging systems looking on an image of typical scenery. Quality of the image can be bad for some people but good for others and therefore objective test methods and advanced equipment are needed to evaluate these imaging systems. Test methods and measuring systems that enable reliable testing and evaluation of modern thermal cameras, color and monochrome TV cameras, LLLTV cameras and image intensifier systems are presented in this paper.

  11. Image-guided and adaptive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) aims to take into account anatomical variations occurring during irradiation by visualization of anatomical structures. It may consist of a rigid registration of the tumour by moving the patient, in case of prostatic irradiation for example. IGRT associated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is strongly recommended when high-dose is delivered in the prostate, where it seems to reduce rectal and bladder toxicity. In case of significant anatomical deformations, as in head and neck tumours (tumour shrinking and decrease in volume of the salivary glands), re-planning appears to be necessary, corresponding to the adaptive radiotherapy. This should ideally be 'monitored' and possibly triggered based on a calculation of cumulative dose, session after session, compared to the initial planning dose, corresponding to the concept of dose-guided adaptive radiotherapy. The creation of 'planning libraries' based on predictable organ positions (as in cervical cancer) is another way of adaptive radiotherapy. All of these strategies still appear very complex and expensive and therefore require stringent validation before being routinely applied. (authors)

  12. Optical design for LED dental lighting with imaging optic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Hoon; Bae, Seung-Chul; Lim, Hae-Ryong; Jang, Ja-Soon

    2011-10-01

    We did a research as follows. First of all, selected optimum LEDs and mixed it for higher CRI, target CCT and illuminance. The following step is optical module design. Light directional characteristics of dental lighting must be concentrated to illuminate a part. Because This part is oral cavity, The feature of illumination pattern is rectangular. For uniformity of illuminance and clearer pattern boundary at reference distance, we designed it as direct type (no use reflector) by imaging optic technique. First, Image is rectangular feature, so object must be the same feature with magnification in general imaging optics. But the emitting surface feature of LED (1W grade) is square or circular generally. For that reason, made object as rectangular source with rectangular lightguide. This optical component was designed for higher efficiency by illumination optic technique. Next, we designed optical lenses based on imaging optic technique for image object feature using Code V. set to high NA for light efficiency in this design. Fundamentally, Finally, This product is luminaire so illumination simulation and result analysis were executed by LightTools as illumination design software.

  13. Image correction in magneto-optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Larsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, B.A.;

    2003-01-01

    An image-processing procedure that assures correct determination of the magnetic field distribution of magneto-optical images is presented. The method remedies image faults resulting from sources that are proportional to the incident light intensity, such as different types of defects in the indi...

  14. Optics for Advanced Neutron Imaging and Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncton, David E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Khaykovich, Boris [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    During the report period, we continued the work as outlined in the original proposal. We have analyzed potential optical designs of Wolter mirrors for the neutron-imaging instrument VENUS, which is under construction at SNS. In parallel, we have conducted the initial polarized imaging experiment at Helmholtz Zentrum, Berlin, one of very few of currently available polarized-imaging facilities worldwide.

  15. Adaptive-optic approach to mitigating aero-optic disturbances for a forced shear layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Alice M.

    Non-uniform, variable-density fields, resulting from compressibility effects in turbulent flows, are the source of aero-optical distortions which cause significant reductions in optical system performance. As a laser beam transverses through an optically active medium, containing index-of-refraction variations, several optical phenomena occur including beam wander, image distortion, and beam defocus. When encountering a variation in the index field, light waves refract causing an otherwise planar wavefront of a laser beam to become aberrated, contributing to the adverse effects mentioned above. Adaptive-Optics (AO) is a technique used to correct for such spatially and temporally varying aberrations on an optical beam by applying a conjugate waveform correction prior to the beams transmission through the flow. Conventional AO systems are bandwidth limited by real-time processing issues and wavefront sensor limitations. Therefore, an alternative to the conventional AO approach has been proposed, developed and evaluated with the goal of overcoming such bandwidth limitations. The alternative AO system, presented throughout this document, consists of two main features; feed-forward flow control and a phase-locked-loop AO control strategy. Initially irregular, unpredictable large-scale structures within a shear layer are regularized using flow control. Subsequently, the resulting optical wavefront, and corresponding optical signal, emerging from the regularized flow becomes more periodic and predictable effectively reducing the bandwidth necessary to make real-time corrections. A phase-lock-loop controller is then used to perform real-time corrections. Wavefront corrections are estimated based upon the regularized flow, while two small aperture laser beams provide a non-intrusive means of acquiring amplitude and phase error measurements. The phase-lock-loop controller uses these signals as feedback to synchronize the deformable mirror's waveform to that of the shear

  16. NAOMI: nanoparticle-assisted optical molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Dirk J.; de Bruin, Martijn; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Verbraak, Frank D.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2007-02-01

    We present our first steps towards nanoparticle assisted, optical molecular imaging (NAOMI) using biodegradable nanoparticles. Our focus is on using optical coherence tomography(OCT) as the imaging modality. We propose to use nanoparticles based on biodegradable polymers, loaded with carefully selected dyes as contrast agent, and outline a method for establishing their desired optical properties prior to synthesis. Moreover, we perform a qualitative pilot study using these biodegradable nanoparticles, measuring their optical properties which are found to be in line with theoretical predictions.

  17. An adaptive extended Kalman filter for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of tumor pharmacokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wu, Linhui; Yi, Xi; Zhang, Limin; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan

    2014-03-01

    According to the morphological differences in the vascularization between healthy and diseased tissues, pharmacokinetic-rate images of fluorophore can provide diagnostic information for tumor differentiation, and especially have the potential for staging of tumors. In this paper, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography method is firstly used to acquire metabolism-related time-course images of the fluorophore concentration. Based on a two-compartment model comprised of plasma and extracelluar-extravascular space, we next propose an adaptive-EKF framework to estimate the pharmacokinetic-rate images. With the aid of a forgetting factor, the adaptive-EKF compensate the inaccuracy initial values and emphasize the effect of the current data in order to realize a better online estimation compared with the conventional EKF. We use simulate data to evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology. The results suggest that the adaptive-EKF can obtain preferable pharmacokinetic-rate images than the conventional EKF with higher quantitativeness and noise robustness.

  18. Radio-Optical Imaging of ATLBS Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kshitij Thorat

    2011-12-01

    We present the radio-optical imaging of ATLBS, a sensitive radio survey (Subrahmanyan et al. 2010). The primary aim of the ATLBS survey is to image low-power radio sources which form the bulk of the radio source population to moderately high red-shifts ( ∼ 1.0). The accompanying multiband optical and near infra-red observations provide information about the hosts and environments of the radio sources. We give here details of the imaging of the radio data and optical data for the ATLBS survey.

  19. PASSATA - Object oriented numerical simulation software for adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agapito, G; Esposito, S

    2016-01-01

    We present the last version of the PyrAmid Simulator Software for Adaptive opTics Arcetri (PASSATA), an IDL and CUDA based object oriented software developed in the Adaptive Optics group of the Arcetri observatory for Monte-Carlo end-to-end adaptive optics simulations. The original aim of this software was to evaluate the performance of a single conjugate adaptive optics system for ground based telescope with a pyramid wavefront sensor. After some years of development, the current version of PASSATA is able to simulate several adaptive optics systems: single conjugate, multi conjugate and ground layer, with Shack Hartmann and Pyramid wavefront sensors. It can simulate from 8m to 40m class telescopes, with diffraction limited and resolved sources at finite or infinite distance from the pupil. The main advantages of this software are the versatility given by the object oriented approach and the speed given by the CUDA implementation of the most computational demanding routines. We describe the software with its...

  20. Robust image registration using adaptive coherent point drift method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Tian, Zheng; Zhao, Wei; Wen, Jinhuan; Yan, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    Coherent point drift (CPD) method is a powerful registration tool under the framework of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). However, the global spatial structure of point sets is considered only without other forms of additional attribute information. The equivalent simplification of mixing parameters and the manual setting of the weight parameter in GMM make the CPD method less robust to outlier and have less flexibility. An adaptive CPD method is proposed to automatically determine the mixing parameters by embedding the local attribute information of features into the construction of GMM. In addition, the weight parameter is treated as an unknown parameter and automatically determined in the expectation-maximization algorithm. In image registration applications, the block-divided salient image disk extraction method is designed to detect sparse salient image features and local self-similarity is used as attribute information to describe the local neighborhood structure of each feature. The experimental results on optical images and remote sensing images show that the proposed method can significantly improve the matching performance.

  1. Adaptative Multigrid and Variable Parameterization for Optical-flow Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Memin, Etienne; Pérez, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the use of adaptative multigrid minimization algorithms for the estimation of the apparent motion field. The proposed approach provides a coherent and efficient framework for estimating piecewise smooth flow fields for different parameterizations relative to adaptative partitions of the image. The performances of the resulting algorithms are demonstrated in the difficult context of a non convex global energy formulation.

  2. Spaceborne astronomy with electro-optical image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Space Telescope, planned for orbiting in the early 1980s, is described, with emphasis on its electro-optical image sensing capability. Relative advantages of image tubes and solid state arrays as image detectors are summarized; image tube technology is well characterized, but preference may be given to a more versatile tandem solid state array consisting of one module with high silicon response covering most of the spectrum, and a second intensified array with ultraviolet sensitivity and low noise readout. The classical 'photoelectron noise limit' calculation is reviewed, and a detailed calculation of sensitivity limits adaptable to analysis of image tube or solid state array detectors is also given. In particular, characteristics of a filter to optimize the signal to noise ratio is determined. Typical sensitivity calculations for an image tube detector show that with an exposure of one orbital night (approximately 2000 seconds), 10% photometry may be done to a low limit of visual magnitude.

  3. Space-based optical image encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2010-12-20

    In this paper, we propose a new method based on a three-dimensional (3D) space-based strategy for the optical image encryption. The two-dimensional (2D) processing of a plaintext in the conventional optical encryption methods is extended to a 3D space-based processing. Each pixel of the plaintext is considered as one particle in the proposed space-based optical image encryption, and the diffraction of all particles forms an object wave in the phase-shifting digital holography. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical results. The proposed method can provide a new optical encryption strategy instead of the conventional 2D processing, and may open up a new research perspective for the optical image encryption.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foram Gala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies.

  5. AO-OCT for in vivo mouse retinal imaging: Application of adaptive lens in wavefornt sensorless aberration correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Pugh, Edward N.; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate Adaptive optics - Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) with modal sensorless Adaptive Optics correction with the use of novel Adaptive Lens (AL) applied for in-vivo imaging of mouse retinas. The AL can generate low order aberrations: defocus, astigmatism, coma and spherical aberration that were used in an adaptive search algorithm. Accelerated processing of the OCT data with a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) permitted real time extraction of image projection total intensity for arbitrarily selected retinal depth plane to be optimized. Wavefront sensorless control is a viable option for imaging biological structures for which AOOCT cannot establish a reliable wavefront that could be corrected by wavefront corrector. Image quality improvements offered by adaptive lens with sensorless AO-OCT was evaluated on in vitro samples followed by mouse retina data acquired in vivo.

  6. Short-term neural adaptation to simultaneous bifocal images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswaryah Radhakrishnan

    Full Text Available Simultaneous vision is an increasingly used solution for the correction of presbyopia (the age-related loss of ability to focus near images. Simultaneous Vision corrections, normally delivered in the form of contact or intraocular lenses, project on the patient's retina a focused image for near vision superimposed with a degraded image for far vision, or a focused image for far vision superimposed with the defocused image of the near scene. It is expected that patients with these corrections are able to adapt to the complex Simultaneous Vision retinal images, although the mechanisms or the extent to which this happens is not known. We studied the neural adaptation to simultaneous vision by studying changes in the Natural Perceived Focus and in the Perceptual Score of image quality in subjects after exposure to Simultaneous Vision. We show that Natural Perceived Focus shifts after a brief period of adaptation to a Simultaneous Vision blur, similar to adaptation to Pure Defocus. This shift strongly correlates with the magnitude and proportion of defocus in the adapting image. The magnitude of defocus affects perceived quality of Simultaneous Vision images, with 0.5 D defocus scored lowest and beyond 1.5 D scored "sharp". Adaptation to Simultaneous Vision shifts the Perceptual Score of these images towards higher rankings. Larger improvements occurred when testing simultaneous images with the same magnitude of defocus as the adapting images, indicating that wearing a particular bifocal correction improves the perception of images provided by that correction.

  7. Optical image encryption using multilevel Arnold transform and noninterferometric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2011-11-01

    Information security has attracted much current attention due to the rapid development of modern technologies, such as computer and internet. We propose a novel method for optical image encryption using multilevel Arnold transform and rotatable-phase-mask noninterferometric imaging. An optical image encryption scheme is developed in the gyrator transform domain, and one phase-only mask (i.e., phase grating) is rotated and updated during image encryption. For the decryption, an iterative retrieval algorithm is proposed to extract high-quality plaintexts. Conventional encoding methods (such as digital holography) have been proven vulnerably to the attacks, and the proposed optical encoding scheme can effectively eliminate security deficiency and significantly enhance cryptosystem security. The proposed strategy based on the rotatable phase-only mask can provide a new alternative for data/image encryption in the noninterferometric imaging.

  8. Adaptive Real Time Imaging Synthesis Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Melvyn

    2012-01-01

    The digital revolution is transforming astronomy from a data-starved to a data-submerged science. Instruments such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will measure their accumulated data in petabytes. The capacity to produce enormous volumes of data must be matched with the computing power to process that data and produce meaningful results. In addition to handling huge data rates, we need adaptive calibration and beamforming to handle atmospheric fluctuations and radio frequency interference, and to provide a user environment which makes the full power of large telescope arrays accessible to both expert and non-expert users. Delayed calibration and analysis limit the science which can be done. To make the best use of both telescope and human resources we must reduce the burden of data reduction. Our instrumentation comprises of a flexible correlator, beam former and imager with digital signal processing closely coupled...

  9. Beaconless adaptive-optics technique for HEL beam control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    Effective performance of forthcoming laser systems capable of power delivery on a distant target requires an adaptive optics system to correct atmospheric perturbations on the laser beam. The turbulence-induced effects are responsible for beam wobbling, wandering, and intensity scintillation, resulting in degradation of the beam quality and power density on the target. Adaptive optics methods are used to compensate for these negative effects. In its turn, operation of the AOS system requires a reference wave that can be generated by the beacon on the target. This report discusses a beaconless approach for wavefront correction with its performance based on the detection of the target-scattered light. Postprocessing of the beacon-generated light field enables retrieval and detailed characterization of the turbulence-perturbed wavefront -data that is essential to control the adaptive optics module of a high-power laser system.

  10. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrymgeour, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boye, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Adelsberger, Kathleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  11. A new method for adaptive color image filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An adaptive color image filter (ACIF) is proposed in this note. Through analyzing noise corruption of color image, efficient locally adaptive filters are chosen for image enhancement. The proposed adaptive color image filter combines advantages of both nonlinear vector filters and linear filters, it attenuates noise and preserves edges and details very well. Experimental results show that the proposed filter performs better than vector median filter, directional-distance filter, directional-magnitude vector filter, adaptive nearest-neighbor filter, and -trimmed mean filter.

  12. Surface Plasmon Wave Adapter Designed with Transformation Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Wubs, Martijn;

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved...... with homogeneous anisotropic naturally occurring materials or subwavelength grating-structured dielectric materials. Full wave simulations based on a finite-element method have been performed to validate our proposal....

  13. A real-time simulation facility for astronomical adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Basden, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation for astronomical adaptive optics, and present the case for the requirement for such a facility. This real-time simulation, when linked with an adaptive optics real-time control system, provides an essential tool for the validation, verification and integration of the Extremely Large Telescope real-time control systems prior to commissioning at the telescope. We demonstrate that such a facility is crucial for the success of the future extremely large telescopes.

  14. Optical encryption with selective computational ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafari, Mohammad; kheradmand, Reza; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab

    2014-10-01

    Selective computational ghost imaging (SCGI) is a technique which enables the reconstruction of an N-pixel image from N measurements or less. In this paper we propose an optical encryption method based on SCGI and experimentally demonstrate that this method has much higher security under eavesdropping and unauthorized accesses compared with previous reported methods.

  15. Impacts of optical turbulence on underwater imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weilin; Woods, S.; Goode, W.; Jarosz, E.; Weidemann, A.

    2011-06-01

    Optical signal transmission underwater is of vital interests to both civilian and military applications. The range and signal to noise during the transmission, as a function of system and water optical properties determines the effectiveness of EO technology. These applications include diver visibility, search and rescue, mine detection and identification, and optical communications. The impact of optical turbulence on underwater imaging has been postulated and observed by many researchers. However, no quantative studies have been done until recently, in terms of both the environmental conditions, and impacts on image quality as a function of range and spatial frequencies. Image data collected from field measurements during SOTEX (Skaneateles Optical Turbulence Exercise, July 22-31, 2010) using the Image Measurement Assembly for Subsurface Turbulence (IMAST) are presented. Optical properties of the water column in the field were measured using WETLab's ac-9 and Laser In Situ Scattering and Transmissometer (LISST, Sequoia Scientific), in coordination with physical properties including CTD (Seabird), dissipation rate of kinetic energy and heat, using both the Vector velocimeter and CT combo (Nortek and PME), and shear probe based Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP, Rockland). The strong stratification structure in the water column provides great opportunity to observe various dissipation strengths throughout the water column, which corresponds directly with image quality as shown. Initial results demonstrate general agreement between data collected and model prediction, while discrepancies between measurements and model suggest higher spatial and temporal observations are needed in the future.

  16. NAOMI: nanoparticle assisted optical molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Dirk J.; van Velthoven, Mirjam E. J.; de Bruin, Martijn; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Verbraak, Frank D.; Graf, Christina; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2006-02-01

    Our first steps towards nanoparticle assisted, optical molecular imaging (NAOMI) using OCT as the imaging modality are presented. We derive an expression to estimate the sensitivity of this technique. We propose to use nanoparticles based on biodegradable polymers, loaded with suitable dyes as contrast agent, and outline a method for establishing their desired optical properties prior to synthesis. This report presents preliminary results of our investigation on the use of nanoshells to serve as contrast agents We injected nanoshells with specific contrast features in the 800 nm wavelength region in excised porcine eyes. The nanoshells showed up as bright reflecting structures in the OCT images, which confirm their potential as contrast agents.

  17. Positron emission tomography and optical tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falen, Steven W.; Hoefer, Richard A.; Majewski, Stanislaw; McKisson, John; Kross, Brian; Proffitt, James; Stolin, Alexander; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2012-05-22

    A mobile compact imaging system that combines both PET imaging and optical imaging into a single system which can be located in the operating room (OR) and provides faster feedback to determine if a tumor has been fully resected and if there are adequate surgical margins. While final confirmation is obtained from the pathology lab, such a device can reduce the total time necessary for the procedure and the number of iterations required to achieve satisfactory resection of a tumor with good margins.

  18. Cloned images and the optical unconscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romic, Bojana

    In this presentation I would discuss the term optical unconscious as defined in the writings of Walter Benjamin and Rosalind Krauss, and propose a broadened definition of this term, taking into account the new media spreadability (Jenkins et al., 2013) and 'image cloning' (W.J.T. Mitchell, 2008)....... of Images 2001-04. in: Costello, D. and Willsdon, D. (eds) (2008) The Life and Death of Images: Ethics and Aesthetics. London: Tate Publishing....

  19. The optical design of a visible adaptive optics system for the Magellan Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopon, Derek

    The Magellan Adaptive Optics system will achieve first light in November of 2012. This AO system contains several subsystems including the 585-actuator concave adaptive secondary mirror, the Calibration Return Optic (CRO) alignment and calibration system, the CLIO 1-5 microm IR science camera, the movable guider camera and active optics assembly, and the W-Unit, which contains both the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor (PWFS) and the VisAO visible science camera. In this dissertation, we present details of the design, fabrication, assembly, alignment, and laboratory performance of the VisAO camera and its optical components. Many of these components required a custom design, such as the Spectral Differential Imaging Wollaston prisms and filters and the coronagraphic spots. One component, the Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector (ADC), required a unique triplet design that had until now never been fabricated and tested on sky. We present the design, laboratory, and on-sky results for our triplet ADC. We also present details of the CRO test setup and alignment. Because Magellan is a Gregorian telescope, the ASM is a concave ellipsoidal mirror. By simulating a star with a white light point source at the far conjugate, we can create a double-pass test of the whole system without the need for a real on-sky star. This allows us to test the AO system closed loop in the Arcetri test tower at its nominal design focal length and optical conjugates. The CRO test will also allow us to calibrate and verify the system off-sky at the Magellan telescope during commissioning and periodically thereafter. We present a design for a possible future upgrade path for a new visible Integral Field Spectrograph. By integrating a fiber array bundle at the VisAO focal plane, we can send light to a pre-existing facility spectrograph, such as LDSS3, which will allow 20 mas spatial sampling and R˜1,800 spectra over the band 0.6-1.05 microm. This would be the highest spatial resolution IFU to date, either

  20. Imaging Coronary Atherosclerosis and Vulnerable Plaques with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearney, Guillermo J.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Kashiwagi, Manubu; Bouma, Brett E.

    Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invasive microscopic imaging technology that has been developed for the identification of vulnerable plaque. OCT acquires cross-sectional images of tissue reflectance and, since it may be implemented through an optical fiber probe, it is readily adaptable to coronary catheters for insertion into coronary arteries and circumferential imaging of arterial pathology. The first investigation of vascular optical coherence tomography ex vivo demonstrated the potential of this technique to identify arterial microstructure. Subsequent development of OCT technology enabled image acquisition at rates sufficient for intracoronary imaging in human patients. In this chapter, we review studies conducted with this technology at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Results from these studies show that a wide variety of microscopic features, including those associated with TCFAs, can be identified by OCT imaging both ex vivo and in living human patients. These findings suggest that this technology will play an important role in improving our understanding of coronary artery disease, guiding local therapy, and decreasing themortality of AMI.

  1. Active reflective components for adaptive optical zoom systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, Matthew Edward Lewis

    This dissertation presents the theoretical and experimental exploration of active reflective components specifically for large-aperture adaptive optical zoom systems. An active reflective component can change its focal length by physically deforming its reflecting surface. Adaptive optical zoom (AOZ) utilizes active components in order to change magnification and achieve optical zoom, as opposed to traditional zooming systems that move elements along the optical axis. AOZ systems are theoretically examined using a novel optical design theory that enables a full-scale tradespace analysis, where optical design begins from a broad perspective and optimizes to a particular system. The theory applies existing strategies for telescope design and aberration simulation to AOZ, culminating in the design of a Cassegrain objective with a 3.3X zoom ratio and a 375mm entrance aperture. AOZ systems are experimentally examined with the development of a large-aperture active mirror constructed of a composite material called carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). The active CFRP mirror uses a novel actuation method to change radius of curvature, where actuators press against two annular rings placed on the mirror's back. This method enables the radius of curvature to increase from 2000mm to 2010mm. Closed-loop control maintains good optical performance of 1.05 waves peak-to-valley (with respect to a HeNe laser) when the active CFRP mirror is used in conjunction with a commercial deformable mirror.

  2. Wavefront reconstruction in adaptive optics systems using nonlinear multivariate splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, C.C.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for zonal wavefront reconstruction (WFR) with application to adaptive optics systems. This new method, indicated as Spline based ABerration REconstruction (SABRE), uses bivariate simplex B-spline basis functions to reconstruct the wavefront using local wavefront slop

  3. Data-Driven Optimal Control for Adaptive Optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnen, K.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technique to actively correct the wavefront distortions introduced in a light beam as it propagates through a turbulent medium. Nowadays, it is commonly applied in ground-based telescopes to counteract the devastating effect of atmospheric turbulence. This thesis focuses on

  4. Ship detection for high resolution optical imagery with adaptive target filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hongbin

    2015-10-01

    Ship detection is important due to both its civil and military use. In this paper, we propose a novel ship detection method, Adaptive Target Filter (ATF), for high resolution optical imagery. The proposed framework can be grouped into two stages, where in the first stage, a test image is densely divided into different detection windows and each window is transformed to a feature vector in its feature space. The Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is accumulated as a basic feature descriptor. In the second stage, the proposed ATF highlights all the ship regions and suppresses the undesired backgrounds adaptively. Each detection window is assigned a score, which represents the degree of the window belonging to a certain ship category. The ATF can be adaptively obtained by the weighted Logistic Regression (WLR) according to the distribution of backgrounds and targets of the input image. The main innovation of our method is that we only need to collect positive training samples to build the filter, while the negative training samples are adaptively generated by the input image. This is different to other classification method such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic Regression (LR), which need to collect both positive and negative training samples. The experimental result on 1-m high resolution optical images shows the proposed method achieves a desired ship detection performance with higher quality and robustness than other methods, e.g., SVM and LR.

  5. Optical encryption for large-sized images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpei, Takuho; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Oikawa, Minoru; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2016-02-01

    We propose an optical encryption framework that can encrypt and decrypt large-sized images beyond the size of the encrypted image using our two methods: random phase-free method and scaled diffraction. In order to record the entire image information on the encrypted image, the large-sized images require the random phase to widely diffuse the object light over the encrypted image; however, the random phase gives rise to the speckle noise on the decrypted images, and it may be difficult to recognize the decrypted images. In order to reduce the speckle noise, we apply our random phase-free method to the framework. In addition, we employ scaled diffraction that calculates light propagation between planes with different sizes by changing the sampling rates.

  6. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  7. Optic flow improves adaptability of spatiotemporal characteristics during split-belt locomotor adaptation with tactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikema, Diderik Jan A; Chien, Jung Hung; Stergiou, Nicholas; Myers, Sara A; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Mukherjee, Mukul

    2016-02-01

    Human locomotor adaptation requires feedback and feed-forward control processes to maintain an appropriate walking pattern. Adaptation may require the use of visual and proprioceptive input to decode altered movement dynamics and generate an appropriate response. After a person transfers from an extreme sensory environment and back, as astronauts do when they return from spaceflight, the prolonged period required for re-adaptation can pose a significant burden. In our previous paper, we showed that plantar tactile vibration during a split-belt adaptation task did not interfere with the treadmill adaptation however, larger overground transfer effects with a slower decay resulted. Such effects, in the absence of visual feedback (of motion) and perturbation of tactile feedback, are believed to be due to a higher proprioceptive gain because, in the absence of relevant external dynamic cues such as optic flow, reliance on body-based cues is enhanced during gait tasks through multisensory integration. In this study, we therefore investigated the effect of optic flow on tactile-stimulated split-belt adaptation as a paradigm to facilitate the sensorimotor adaptation process. Twenty healthy young adults, separated into two matched groups, participated in the study. All participants performed an overground walking trial followed by a split-belt treadmill adaptation protocol. The tactile group (TC) received vibratory plantar tactile stimulation only, whereas the virtual reality and tactile group (VRT) received an additional concurrent visual stimulation: a moving virtual corridor, inducing perceived self-motion. A post-treadmill overground trial was performed to determine adaptation transfer. Interlimb coordination of spatiotemporal and kinetic variables was quantified using symmetry indices and analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Marked changes of step length characteristics were observed in both groups during split-belt adaptation. Stance and swing time symmetries were

  8. Real-time adaptive video image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garside, John R.; Harrison, Chris G.

    1999-07-01

    As part of a continuing collaboration between the University of Manchester and British Aerospace, a signal processing array has been constructed to demonstrate that it is feasible to compensate a video signal for the degradation caused by atmospheric haze in real-time. Previously reported work has shown good agreement between a simple physical model of light scattering by atmospheric haze and the observed loss of contrast. This model predicts a characteristic relationship between contrast loss in the image and the range from the camera to the scene. For an airborne camera, the slant-range to a point on the ground may be estimated from the airplane's pose, as reported by the inertial navigation system, and the contrast may be obtained from the camera's output. Fusing data from these two streams provides a means of estimating model parameters such as the visibility and the overall illumination of the scene. This knowledge allows the same model to be applied in reverse, thus restoring the contrast lost to atmospheric haze. An efficient approximation of range is vital for a real-time implementation of the method. Preliminary results show that an adaptive approach to fitting the model's parameters, exploiting the temporal correlation between video frames, leads to a robust implementation with a significantly accelerated throughput.

  9. A Reflective Gaussian Coronagraph for Extreme Adaptive Optics: Laboratory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ryeojin; Close, Laird M.; Siegler, Nick; Nielsen, Eric L.; Stalcup, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    We report laboratory results of a coronagraphic test bench to assess the intensity reduction differences between a ``Gaussian'' tapered focal plane coronagraphic mask and a classical hard-edged ``top hat'' function mask at extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) Strehl ratios of ~94%. However, unlike a traditional coronagraph design, we insert a reflective focal plane mask at 45° to the optical axis. We also use an intermediate secondary mask (mask 2) before a final image in order to block additional mask-edge-diffracted light. The test bench simulates the optical train of ground-based telescopes (in particular, the 8.1 m Gemini North Telescope). It includes one spider vane, different mask radii (r = 1.9λ/D, 3.7λ/D, and 7.4λ/D), and two types of reflective focal plane masks (hard-edged top-hat and Gaussian tapered profiles). In order to investigate the relative performance of these competing coronagraphic designs with regard to extrasolar planet detection sensitivity, we utilize the simulation of realistic extrasolar planet populations (Nielsen et al.). With an appropriate translation of our laboratory results to expected telescope performance, a Gaussian tapered mask radius of 3.7λ/D with an additional mask (mask 2) performs best (highest planet detection sensitivity). For a full survey with this optimal design, the simulation predicts that ~30% more planets would be detected than with a top-hat function mask of similar size with mask 2. Using the best design, the point contrast ratio between the stellar point-spread function (PSF) peak and the coronagraphic PSF at 10λ/D (0.4" in the H band if D = 8.1 m) is ~10 times higher than a classical Lyot top-hat coronagraph. Hence, we find that a Gaussian apodized mask with an additional blocking mask is superior (~10 times higher contrast) to the use of a classical Lyot coronagraph for ExAO-like Strehl ratios.

  10. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  11. Adaptive Super-Spatial Prediction Approach For Lossless Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita C. Raut,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing prediction based lossless image compression schemes perform prediction of an image data using their spatial neighborhood technique which can’t predict high-frequency image structure components, such as edges, patterns, and textures very well which will limit the image compression efficiency. To exploit these structure components, adaptive super-spatial prediction approach is developed. The super-spatial prediction approach is adaptive to compress high frequency structure components from the grayscale image. The motivation behind the proposed prediction approach is taken from motion prediction in video coding, which attempts to find an optimal prediction of structure components within the previously encoded image regions. This prediction approach is efficient for image regions with significant structure components with respect to parameters as compression ratio, bit rate as compared to CALIC (Context-based adaptive lossless image coding.

  12. LDA optical setup using holographic imaging configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes one of the possible ways for improving fringe quality at LDA measuring volume using a holographic imaging configuration consisting of a single hololens. For its comparative study with a conventional imaging configuration, a complete characterization of fringes formed at the measurement volume by both the configuration is presented. Results indicate the qualitative as well as quantitative improvement of the fringes formed at measurement volume by the holographic imaging configuration. Hence it is concluded that use of holographic imaging configuration for making LDA optical setup is a better choice than the conventional one.

  13. Nonlinear Optical Image Processing with Bacteriorhodopsin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin film spatial light modulators are uniquely suited to allow nonlinear optical image processing operations to be applied to images with multiplicative noise characteristics. A logarithmic amplitude transmission feature of the film permits the conversion of multiplicative noise to additive noise, which may then be linearly filtered out in the Fourier plane of the transformed image. The bacteriorhodopsin film displays the logarithmic amplitude response for write beam intensities spanning a dynamic range greater than 2.0 orders of magnitude. We present experimental results demonstrating the principle and capability for several different image and noise situations, including deterministic noise and speckle. Using the bacteriorhodopsin film, we successfully filter out image noise from the transformed image that cannot be removed from the original image.

  14. Sound and Image Processing with Optical Biocomputers

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Cameron L

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method to perform signal processing using cells or atoms to synthesize variation in digital data stored in optical format. Interfacing small-scale biological or chemical systems with information stored on CD, DVD and related disc media has been termed molecular media. This is defined as micron or nanoscale interference and/or augmentation of optical data translation with a specific focus on sound and image processing. The principle of this approach uses cells with ...

  15. Optics of astigmatism and retinal image quality

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaseca, M.; Díaz-Doutón, F.; Luque, S. O.; Aldaba, M.; Arjona, M.; Pujol, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this chapter, the optical condition of astigmatism is defined. The main causes and available classifications of ocular astigmatism are briefly described. The most relevant optical properties of image formation in an astigmatic eye are analysed and compared to that of an emmetropic eye and an eye with spherical ametropia. The spectacle prescription and axis notation for astigmatism are introduced, and the correction of astigmatism by means of lenses is briefly described. ...

  16. High Resolution Open-Loop Adaptive Optics System for Retinal Imaging Based on Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator%高分辨率开环液晶自适应光学视网膜成像系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐岳; 孔宁宁; 李大禹; 夏明亮; 宣丽

    2012-01-01

    利用液晶空间光调制器和夏克-哈特曼波前探测器作为核心器件搭建了一套开环双光源液晶自适应光学视网膜成像系统.系统采用人眼屈光0D基准设计并使用动态视标定位人眼,提高了人眼在测试时的稳定性,有效降低了由不同人眼个体差异带来的影响.通过补偿镜预补偿,配合微调照明光焦面,使照明光聚焦在眼底视觉细胞层,保证了像差探测精度和成像质量.利用人眼的偏振特性,采用偏振光照明的方式,将系统的能量利用率提高了20%.优化了系统的工作流程,优化后系统连续工作频率可超过20 Hz.对4名志愿者进行了实验,均获得了清晰的眼底视网膜细胞图像.%An open-loop adaptive optics system with liquid crystal spatial light modulator and Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is constructed. The system is designed according to zero diopter. Compared with the static target,the stability of the pupil increases obviously while staring at the dynamic target during the experiment. The impact of individual differences on human eyes has been reduced effectively. The focal plane of the light source can be axial shifted to ensure it can reach the photoreceptors layer of the retina with the help of trial lens. The fundus is illuminated by polarized light and the energy efficiency increases by 20% . The control flow of the system is optimized and the continuous working frequency of the system is above 20 Hz. Four volunteers are participated in the experiments. Both of them obtain the clear photoreceptor images after corrections.

  17. MR imaging of optic chiasmatic glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the MR findings of optic chiasmatic glioma (OCG). MR images were reviewed in 14 patients with histologically proven OCGs and one with neurofibromatosis type 1 (male: female=8:7, mean age=8.5 years.) Tumors were evaluated retrospectively with respect to their size, involvement of the optic pathway, transverse/vertical diameter ratio based on the coronal plane, signal intensities, enhancement pattern, and the presence of a cyst or calcification. Tumors was measured 1.7-5.5 (mean, 3.3) cm in maximum diameter. In ten patients, the optic tracts were involved, and in three, the optic nerves. In 12 patients, tumors had a transverse/vertical diameter ratio of over one, and showed iso (n=5) or low signal intensity (n=10) compared with gray matter at T1-weighted imaging and high signal intensity (n=15) at T2-weighted imaging. Cyst formations were ween in eight patients, and tumors were enhanced strongly and homogeneously in nine and peripherally in four. In seven three was associated hydrocephalus, and in one, calcification. OCG is a suprasellar tumor which can extend into the optic pathway, has a transverse/vertical diameter ratio of more than one, and shows strong and homogeneous enhancement. These MR imaging findings are useful for the differentiation of OCG from other suprasellar tumors

  18. MR imaging of optic chiasmatic glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Sook; Lee, Ho Kyu; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ryu, Meung Sun; Goo, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul; Ra, Young Shin; Khang, Shin Kwang [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    To evaluate the MR findings of optic chiasmatic glioma (OCG). MR images were reviewed in 14 patients with histologically proven OCGs and one with neurofibromatosis type 1 (male: female=8:7, mean age=8.5 years.) Tumors were evaluated retrospectively with respect to their size, involvement of the optic pathway, transverse/vertical diameter ratio based on the coronal plane, signal intensities, enhancement pattern, and the presence of a cyst or calcification. Tumors was measured 1.7-5.5 (mean, 3.3) cm in maximum diameter. In ten patients, the optic tracts were involved, and in three, the optic nerves. In 12 patients, tumors had a transverse/vertical diameter ratio of over one, and showed iso (n=5) or low signal intensity (n=10) compared with gray matter at T1-weighted imaging and high signal intensity (n=15) at T2-weighted imaging. Cyst formations were ween in eight patients, and tumors were enhanced strongly and homogeneously in nine and peripherally in four. In seven three was associated hydrocephalus, and in one, calcification. OCG is a suprasellar tumor which can extend into the optic pathway, has a transverse/vertical diameter ratio of more than one, and shows strong and homogeneous enhancement. These MR imaging findings are useful for the differentiation of OCG from other suprasellar tumors.

  19. Non-destructive imaging of optical nanofibres

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Lars S; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Bowen, Warwick P

    2016-01-01

    Single-mode optical nanofibres are a central component of a broad range of applications and emerging technologies. Their fabrication has been extensively studied over the past decade, but imaging of the final sub-micrometre products has been restricted to destructive or low-precision techniques. Here we demonstrate an optical scattering-based scanning method that uses a probe nanofibre to locally scatter the evanescent field of a sample nanofibre. The method does not damage the sample nanofibre and is easily implemented only using the same equipment as in a standard fibre puller setup. We demonstrate sub-nanometre radial resolution at video rates (0.7 nm in 10 ms) on single mode nanofibres, allowing for a complete high-precision profile to be obtained within minutes of fabrication. The method thus enables non-destructive, fast and precise characterisation of optical nanofibers, with applications ranging from optical sensors and cold atom traps to non-linear optics.

  20. Proton irradiation of liquid crystal based adaptive optical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess its radiation hardness, a liquid crystal based adaptive optical element has been irradiated using a 60 MeV proton beam. The device with the functionality of an optical beam steerer was characterised before, during and after the irradiation. A systematic set of measurements on the transmission and beam deflection angles was carried out. The measurements showed that the transmission decreased only marginally and that its optical performance degraded only after a very high proton fluence (1010p/cm2). The device showed complete annealing in the functionality as a beam steerer, which leads to the conclusion that the liquid crystal technology for optical devices is not vulnerable to proton irradiation as expected in space.

  1. An adaptive threshold based image processing technique for improved glaucoma detection and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issac, Ashish; Partha Sarathi, M; Dutta, Malay Kishore

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy which is one of the main causes of permanent blindness worldwide. This paper presents an automatic image processing based method for detection of glaucoma from the digital fundus images. In this proposed work, the discriminatory parameters of glaucoma infection, such as cup to disc ratio (CDR), neuro retinal rim (NRR) area and blood vessels in different regions of the optic disc has been used as features and fed as inputs to learning algorithms for glaucoma diagnosis. These features which have discriminatory changes with the occurrence of glaucoma are strategically used for training the classifiers to improve the accuracy of identification. The segmentation of optic disc and cup based on adaptive threshold of the pixel intensities lying in the optic nerve head region. Unlike existing methods the proposed algorithm is based on an adaptive threshold that uses local features from the fundus image for segmentation of optic cup and optic disc making it invariant to the quality of the image and noise content which may find wider acceptability. The experimental results indicate that such features are more significant in comparison to the statistical or textural features as considered in existing works. The proposed work achieves an accuracy of 94.11% with a sensitivity of 100%. A comparison of the proposed work with the existing methods indicates that the proposed approach has improved accuracy of classification glaucoma from a digital fundus which may be considered clinically significant. PMID:26321351

  2. Adaptive beaming and imaging in the turbulent atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Lukin, Vladimir P

    2002-01-01

    Due to the wide application of adaptive optical systems, an understanding of optical wave propagation in randomly inhomogeneous media has become essential, and several numerical models of individual AOS components and of efficient correction algorithms have been developed. This monograph contains detailed descriptions of the mathematical experiments that were designed and carried out during more than a decade's worth of research.

  3. Multimodal Medical Image Fusion by Adaptive Manifold Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Geng; Shuaiqi Liu; Shanna Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Medical image fusion plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. The modified local contrast information is proposed to fuse multimodal medical images. Firstly, the adaptive manifold filter is introduced into filtering source images as the low-frequency part in the modified local contrast. Secondly, the modified spatial frequency of the source images is adopted as the high-frequency part in the modified local contrast. Finally,...

  4. Development of Optical Molecular Imaging System for the Acquisition of Bioluminescence Signals from Small Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical imaging is providing great advance and improvement in genetic and molecular imaging of animals and humans. Optical imaging system consists of optical imaging devices, which carry out major function for monitoring, tracing, and imaging in most of molecular in-vivo researches. In bio-luminescent imaging, small animals containing luciferase gene locally irradiate light, and emitted photons transmitted through skin of the small animals are imaged by using a high sensitive charged coupled device (CCD) camera. In this paper, we introduced optical imaging system for the image acquisition of bio-luminescent signals emitted from small animals. In the system, Nikon lens and four LED light sources were mounted at the inside of a dark box. A cooled CCD camera equipped with a control module was used. We tested the performance of the optical imaging system using effendorf tube and light emitting bacteria which injected intravenously into CT26 tumor bearing nude mouse. The performance of implemented optical imaging system for bio-luminescence imaging was demonstrated and the feasibility of the system in small animal imaging application was proved. We anticipate this system could be a useful tool for the molecular imaging of small animals adaptable for various experimental conditions in future

  5. Fast binarized time-reversed adapted-perturbation (b-TRAP) optical focusing inside scattering media

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Cheng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-01-01

    Light scattering inhibits high-resolution optical imaging, manipulation and therapy deep inside biological tissue by preventing focusing. To form deep foci, wavefront-shaping and time-reversal techniques that break the optical diffusion limit have been developed. For in vivo applications, such focusing must provide high gain, high speed, and a large number of spatial modes. However, none of the previous techniques meet these requirements simultaneously. Here, we overcome this challenge by rapidly measuring the perturbed optical field within a single camera exposure followed by adaptively time-reversing the phase-binarized perturbation. Consequently, a phase-conjugated wavefront is synthesized within a millisecond, two orders of magnitude shorter than the digitally achieved record. We demonstrated real-time focusing in dynamic scattering media, and extended laser speckle contrast imaging to new depths. The unprecedented combination of fast response, high gain, and large mode count makes this work a major strid...

  6. Mission to Mars: Adaptive Identifier for the Solution of Inverse Optical Metrology Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapivin, Vladimir F.; Varotsos, Costas A.; Christodoulakis, John

    2016-06-01

    A human mission to Mars requires the solution of many problems that mainly linked to the safety of life, the reliable operational control of drinking water as well as health care. The availability of liquid fuels is also an important issue since the existing tools cannot fully provide the required liquid fuels quantities for the mission return journey. This paper presents the development of new methods and technology for reliable, operational, and with high availability chemical analysis of liquid solutions of various types. This technology is based on the employment of optical sensors (such as the multi-channel spectrophotometers or spectroellipsometers and microwave radiometers) and the development of a database of spectral images for typical liquid solutions that could be the objects of life on Mars. This database exploits the adaptive recognition of optical images of liquids using specific algorithms that are based on spectral analysis, cluster analysis and methods for solving the inverse optical metrology tasks.

  7. Fast calibration of high-order adaptive optics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Markus; Fedrigo, Enrico; Looze, Douglas P; Bonnet, Henri; Ivanescu, Liviu; Oberti, Sylvain

    2004-06-01

    We present a new method of calibrating adaptive optics systems that greatly reduces the required calibration time or, equivalently, improves the signal-to-noise ratio. The method uses an optimized actuation scheme with Hadamard patterns and does not scale with the number of actuators for a given noise level in the wavefront sensor channels. It is therefore highly desirable for high-order systems and/or adaptive secondary systems on a telescope without a Gregorian focal plane. In the latter case, the measurement noise is increased by the effects of the turbulent atmosphere when one is calibrating on a natural guide star. PMID:15191182

  8. Infinite impulse response modal filtering in visible adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agapito, G; Quirós-Pacheco, F; Puglisi, A; Esposito, S

    2012-01-01

    Diffraction limited resolution adaptive optics (AO) correction in visible wavelengths requires a high performance control. In this paper we investigate infinite impulse response filters that optimize the wavefront correction: we tested these algorithms through full numerical simulations of a single-conjugate AO system comprising an adaptive secondary mirror with 1127 actuators and a pyramid wavefront sensor (WFS). The actual practicability of the algorithms depends on both robustness and knowledge of the real system: errors in the system model may even worsen the performance. In particular we checked the robustness of the algorithms in different conditions, proving that the proposed method can reject both disturbance and calibration errors.

  9. Infinite impulse response modal filtering in visible adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapito, G.; Arcidiacono, C.; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.

    2012-07-01

    Diffraction limited resolution adaptive optics (AO) correction in visible wavelengths requires a high performance control. In this paper we investigate infinite impulse response filters that optimize the wavefront correction: we tested these algorithms through full numerical simulations of a single-conjugate AO system comprising an adaptive secondary mirror with 1127 actuators and a pyramid wavefront sensor (WFS). The actual practicability of the algorithms depends on both robustness and knowledge of the real system: errors in the system model may even worsen the performance. In particular we checked the robustness of the algorithms in different conditions, proving that the proposed method can reject both disturbance and calibration errors.

  10. Adaptive image ray-tracing for astrophysical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, E R

    2010-01-01

    A technique is presented for producing synthetic images from numerical simulations whereby the image resolution is adapted around prominent features. In so doing, adaptive image ray-tracing (AIR) improves the efficiency of a calculation by focusing computational effort where it is needed most. The results of test calculations show that a factor of >~ 4 speed-up, and a commensurate reduction in the number of pixels required in the final image, can be achieved compared to an equivalent calculation with a fixed resolution image.

  11. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...

  12. Diffuse Optical Tomography for Brain Imaging: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen; Jiang, Huabei

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive, nonionizing, and inexpensive imaging technique that uses near-infrared light to probe tissue optical properties. Regional variations in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations as well as blood flow and oxygen consumption can be imaged by monitoring spatiotemporal variations in the absorption spectra. For brain imaging, this provides DOT unique abilities to directly measure the hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuronal responses to cells (neurons), and tissue and organ activations with high temporal resolution and good tissue penetration. DOT can be used as a stand-alone modality or can be integrated with other imaging modalities such as fMRI/MRI, PET/CT, and EEG/MEG in studying neurophysiology and pathology. This book chapter serves as an introduction to the basic theory and principles of DOT for neuroimaging. It covers the major aspects of advances in neural optical imaging including mathematics, physics, chemistry, reconstruction algorithm, instrumentation, image-guided spectroscopy, neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling, and clinical applications.

  13. Adaptive optics for improved retinal surgery and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humayun, M S; Sadda, S R; Thompson, C A; Olivier, S S; Kartz, M W

    2000-08-21

    It is now possible to field a compact adaptive optics (AO) system on a surgical microscope for use in retinal diagnostics and surgery. Recent developments in integrated circuit technology and optical photonics have led to the capability of building an AO system that is compact and significantly less expensive than traditional AO systems. It is foreseen that such an AO system can be integrated into a surgical microscope while maintaining a package size of a lunchbox. A prototype device can be developed in a manner that lends itself well to large-scale manufacturing.

  14. Adaptive Data Rates for Flexible Transceivers in Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Thomas Teipen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Efforts towards commercializing higher-speed optical transmission have demonstrated the need for advanced modulation formats, several of which require similar transceiver hardware architecture. Adaptive transceivers can be built to have a number of possible operational configurations selected by software. Such software-defined transceiver configurations can create specific modulation formats to support sets of data rates, corresponding tolerances to system impairments, and sets of electronic digital signal processing schemes chosen to best function in a given network environment. In this paper, we discuss possibilities and advantages of reconfigurable, bit-rate flexible transceivers, and their potential applications in future optical networks.

  15. A New Adaptive Image Denoising Method Based on Neighboring Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Mantosh; Om, Hari

    2016-03-01

    Many good techniques have been discussed for image denoising that include NeighShrink, improved adaptive wavelet denoising method based on neighboring coefficients (IAWDMBNC), improved wavelet shrinkage technique for image denoising (IWST), local adaptive wiener filter (LAWF), wavelet packet thresholding using median and wiener filters (WPTMWF), adaptive image denoising method based on thresholding (AIDMT). These techniques are based on local statistical description of the neighboring coefficients in a window. These methods however do not give good quality of the images since they cannot modify and remove too many small wavelet coefficients simultaneously due to the threshold. In this paper, a new image denoising method is proposed that shrinks the noisy coefficients using an adaptive threshold. Our method overcomes these drawbacks and it has better performance than the NeighShrink, IAWDMBNC, IWST, LAWF, WPTMWF, and AIDMT denoising methods.

  16. Adaptation technology between IP layer and optical layer in optical Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuefeng; Li, Hua; Sun, Yongmei

    2001-10-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network provides a platform with high bandwidth capacity and is supposed to be the backbone infrastructure supporting the next-generation high-speed multi-service networks (ATM, IP, etc.). In the foreseeable future, IP will be the predominant data traffic, to make fully use of the bandwidth of the WDM optical network, many attentions have been focused on IP over WDM, which has been proposed as the most promising technology for new kind of network, so-called Optical Internet. According to OSI model, IP is in the 3rd layer (network layer) and optical network is in the 1st layer (physical layer), so the key issue is what adaptation technology should be used in the 2nd layer (data link layer). In this paper, firstly, we analyze and compare the current adaptation technologies used in backbone network nowadays. Secondly, aiming at the drawbacks of above technologies, we present a novel adaptation protocol (DONA) between IP layer and optical layer in Optical Internet and describe it in details. Thirdly, the gigabit transmission adapter (GTA) we accomplished based on the novel protocol is described. Finally, we set up an experiment platform to apply and verify the DONA and GTA, the results and conclusions of the experiment are given.

  17. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy prediction of modulation transfer function of optical lens system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Md Nasir, Mohd Hairul Nizam; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Akib, Shatirah

    2014-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of image quality is an important consideration in any type of imaging system. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a graphical description of the sharpness and contrast of an imaging system or of its individual components. The MTF is also known and spatial frequency response. The MTF curve has different meanings according to the corresponding frequency. The MTF of an optical system specifies the contrast transmitted by the system as a function of image size, and is determined by the inherent optical properties of the system. In this study, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) estimator is designed and adapted to predict MTF value of the actual optical system. Neural network in ANFIS adjusts parameters of membership function in the fuzzy logic of the fuzzy inference system. The back propagation learning algorithm is used for training this network. This intelligent estimator is implemented using MATLAB/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  18. Modulation transfer function estimation of optical lens system by adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Kiah, Miss Laiha Mat

    2014-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of image quality is an important consideration in any type of imaging system. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a graphical description of the sharpness and contrast of an imaging system or of its individual components. The MTF is also known and spatial frequency response. The MTF curve has different meanings according to the corresponding frequency. The MTF of an optical system specifies the contrast transmitted by the system as a function of image size, and is determined by the inherent optical properties of the system. In this study, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) estimator is designed and adapted to estimate MTF value of the actual optical system. Neural network in ANFIS adjusts parameters of membership function in the fuzzy logic of the fuzzy inference system. The back propagation learning algorithm is used for training this network. This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  19. Laser Tomography Adaptive Optics (LTAO): A performance study

    CERN Document Server

    Tatulli, E

    2013-01-01

    We present an analytical derivation of the on-axis performance of Adaptive Optics systems using a given number of guide stars of arbitrary altitude, distributed at arbitrary angular positions in the sky. The expressions of the residual error are given for cases of both continuous and discrete turbulent atmospheric profiles. Assuming Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with circular apertures, we demonstrate that the error is formally described by integrals of products of three Bessel functions. We compare the performance of Adaptive Optics correction when using natural, Sodium or Rayleigh laser guide stars. For small diameter class telescopes (~5m), we show that a few number of Rayleigh beacons can provide similar performance to that of a single Sodium laser, for a lower overall cost of the instrument. For bigger apertures, using Rayleigh stars may not be such a suitable alternative because of the too severe cone effect that drastically degrades the quality of the correction.

  20. Optical imaging of cancer and cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Bangwen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the work included in this PhD thesis was to explore the diverse application possibility of using NIR fluorescent probes with specific properties to visualize and characterize cancer and cell death. In this thesis, we mainly focus on optical imaging and its application, both at microscopic

  1. Exploiting data redundancy in computational optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Peter R T

    2015-11-30

    We present an algorithm which exploits data redundancy to make computational, coherent, optical imaging more computationally efficient. This algorithm specifically addresses the computation of how light scattered by a sample is collected and coherently detected. It is of greatest benefit in the simulation of broadband optical systems employing coherent detection, such as optical coherence tomography. Although also amenable to time-harmonic data, the algorithm is designed to be embedded within time-domain electromagnetic scattering simulators such as the psuedo-spectral and finite-difference time domain methods. We derive the algorithm in detail as well as criteria which ensure accurate execution of the algorithm. We present simulations that verify the developed algorithm and demonstrate its utility. We expect this algorithm to be important to future developments in computational imaging.

  2. LIFT: analysis of performance in a laser assisted adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantet, Cedric; Meimon, Serge; Conan, Jean-Marc; Neichel, Benoît; Fusco, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Laser assisted adaptive optics systems rely on Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wave-Front Sensors (WFS) for high order aberration measurements, and rely on Natural Guide Stars (NGS) WFS to complement the measurements on low orders such as tip-tilt and focus. The sky-coverage of the whole system is therefore related to the limiting magnitude of the NGS WFS. We have recently proposed LIFT, a novel phase retrieval WFS technique, that allows a 1 magnitude gain over the usually used 2×2 Shack-Hartmann WFS. After an in-lab validation, LIFT's concept has been demonstrated on sky in open loop on GeMS (the Gemini Multiconjugate adaptive optics System at Gemini South). To complete its validation, LIFT now needs to be operated in closed loop in a laser assisted adaptive optics system. The present work gives a detailed analysis of LIFT's behavior in presence of high order residuals and how to limit aliasing effects on the tip/tilt/focus estimation. Also, we study the high orders' impact on noise propagation. For this purpose, we simulate a multiconjugate adaptive optics loop representative of a GeMS-like 5 LGS configuration. The residual high orders are derived from a Fourier based simulation. We demonstrate that LIFT keeps a high performance gain over the Shack-Hartmann 2×2 whatever the turbulence conditions. Finally, we show the first simulation of a closed loop with LIFT estimating turbulent tip/tilt and focus residuals that could be induced by sodium layer's altitude variations.

  3. Multi-modal adaptive optics system including fundus photography and optical coherence tomography for the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Matthias; Drexler, Wolfgang; Levecq, Xavier; Lamory, Barbara; Ritter, Markus; Prager, Sonja; Hafner, Julia; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Pircher, Michael

    2016-05-01

    We present a new compact multi-modal imaging prototype that combines an adaptive optics (AO) fundus camera with AO-optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a single instrument. The prototype allows acquiring AO fundus images with a field of view of 4°x4° and with a frame rate of 10fps. The exposure time of a single image is 10 ms. The short exposure time results in nearly motion artifact-free high resolution images of the retina. The AO-OCT mode allows acquiring volumetric data of the retina at 200kHz A-scan rate with a transverse resolution of ~4 µm and an axial resolution of ~5 µm. OCT imaging is acquired within a field of view of 2°x2° located at the central part of the AO fundus image. Recording of OCT volume data takes 0.8 seconds. The performance of the new system is tested in healthy volunteers and patients with retinal diseases.

  4. Magellan Adaptive Optics first-light observations of the exoplanet $\\beta$ Pic b. I. Direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-IR with NICI

    CERN Document Server

    Males, Jared R; Morzinski, Katie M; Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C; Skemer, Andrew J; Kopon, Derek; Follette, Katherine B; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Biller, Beth A; Nielsen, Eric L; Hinz, Philip M; Rodigas, Timothy J; Hayward, Thomas L; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W; Wu, Ya-Lin

    2014-01-01

    We present the first ground-based CCD ($\\lambda < 1\\mu$m) image of an extrasolar planet. Using MagAO's VisAO camera we detected the extrasolar giant planet (EGP) $\\beta$ Pictoris b in $Y$-short ($Y_S$, 0.985 $\\mu$m), at a separation of $0.470 \\pm 0.010''$ and a contrast of $(1.63 \\pm 0.49) \\times 10^{-5}$. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1, with an empirically estimated upper-limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the NICI instrument on the Gemini-South telescope, in $CH_{4S,1\\%}$ ($1.58$ $\\mu m$), $K_S$ ($2.18\\mu m$), and $K_{cont}$ (2.27 $\\mu m$). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L$2.5\\pm1.5$, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log$(L_{bol}/L_{Sun})$ = $-3.86 \\pm 0.04$, which is consistent with prior estimates for $\\beta$ Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs. This yields a hot-start mass estimate of $11.9 \\pm 0.7$ $M_{Jup}$ for an age of $21\\pm4$ M...

  5. Stellar populations from adaptive optics observations four test cases

    CERN Document Server

    Bedding, T R; Courbin, F; Sams, B J

    1997-01-01

    We describe a first attempt to apply adaptive optics to the study of resolved stellar populations in galaxies. Advantages over traditional approaches are (i) improved spatial resolution and point-source sensitivity through adaptive optics, and (ii) use of the near-infrared region, where the peak of the spectral energy distribution for old populations is found. Disadvantages are the small area covered and the need for excellent seeing. We made observations with the ADONIS system at the European Southern Observatory of the peculiar elliptical galaxy NGC 5128; the irregular galaxy IC 5152 (a possible outer member of the Local Group); the Sc galaxy NGC 300 (a member of the Sculptor group); and the Sgr window in the bulge of the Milky Way. These different fields give excellent test cases for the potential of adaptive optics. In the first two cases, we failed to obtain photometry of individual stars, which would have required excellent seeing. For NGC 300 we measured magnitudes for nine individual supergiants (H = ...

  6. Fast optical imaging of human brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gratton

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Great advancements in brain imaging during the last few decades have opened a large number of new possibilities for neuroscientists. The most dominant methodologies (electrophysiological and magnetic resonance-based methods emphasize temporal and spatial information, respectively. However, theorizing about brain function has recently emphasized the importance of rapid (within 100 ms or so interactions between different elements of complex neuronal networks. Fast optical imaging, and in particular the event-related optical signal (EROS, a technology that has emerged over the last 15 years may provide descriptions of localized (to sub-cm level brain activity with a temporal resolution of less than 100 ms. The main limitations of EROS are its limited penetration, which allows us to image cortical structures not deeper than 3 cm from the surface of the head, and its low signal-to-noise ratio. Advantages include the fact that EROS is compatible with most other imaging methods, including electrophysiological, magnetic resonance, and trans-cranial magnetic stimulation techniques, with which can be recorded concurrently. In this paper we present a summary of the research that has been conducted so far on fast optical imaging, including evidence for the possibility of recording neuronal signals with this method, the properties of the signals, and various examples of applications to the study of human cognitive neuroscience. Extant issues, controversies, and possible future developments are also discussed.

  7. Optical coherence tomography for embryonic imaging: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Raksha; Singh, Manmohan; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-05-01

    Embryogenesis is a highly complex and dynamic process, and its visualization is crucial for understanding basic physiological processes during development and for identifying and assessing possible defects, malformations, and diseases. While traditional imaging modalities, such as ultrasound biomicroscopy, micro-magnetic resonance imaging, and micro-computed tomography, have long been adapted for embryonic imaging, these techniques generally have limitations in their speed, spatial resolution, and contrast to capture processes such as cardiodynamics during embryogenesis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging modality with micrometer-scale spatial resolution and imaging depth up to a few millimeters in tissue. OCT has bridged the gap between ultrahigh resolution imaging techniques with limited imaging depth like confocal microscopy and modalities, such as ultrasound sonography, which have deeper penetration but poorer spatial resolution. Moreover, the noninvasive nature of OCT has enabled live imaging of embryos without any external contrast agents. We review how OCT has been utilized to study developing embryos and also discuss advances in techniques used in conjunction with OCT to understand embryonic development.

  8. Optimizing Photon Collection from Point Sources with Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Alexander; Hervas, David; Nash, Joseph; Graham, Martin; Burgers, Alexander; Paudel, Uttam; Steel, Duncan; Kwiat, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Collection of light from point-like sources is typically poor due to the optical aberrations present with very high numerical-aperture optics. In the case of quantum dots, the emitted mode is nonisotropic and may be quite difficult to couple into single- or even few-mode fiber. Wavefront aberrations can be corrected using adaptive optics at the classical level by analyzing the wavefront directly (e.g., with a Shack-Hartmann sensor); however, these techniques are not feasible at the single-photon level. We present a new technique for adaptive optics with single photons using a genetic algorithm to optimize collection from point emitters with a deformable mirror. We first demonstrate our technique for improving coupling from a subwavelength pinhole, which simulates isotropic emission from a point source. We then apply our technique in situto InAs/GaAs quantum dots, obtaining coupling increases of up to 50% even in the presence of an artificial source of drift.

  9. Manufacturing of glassy thin shell for adaptive optics: results achieved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutriquet, F.; Rinchet, A.; Carel, J.-L.; Leplan, H.; Ruch, E.; Geyl, R.; Marque, G.

    2012-07-01

    Glassy thin shells are key components for the development of adaptive optics and are part of future & innovative projects such as ELT. However, manufacturing thin shells is a real challenge. Even though optical requirements for the front face - or optical face - are relaxed compared to conventional passive mirrors, requirements concerning thickness uniformity are difficult to achieve. In addition, process has to be completely re-defined as thin mirror generates new manufacturing issues. In particular, scratches and digs requirement is more difficult as this could weaken the shell, handling is also an important issue due to the fragility of the mirror. Sagem, through REOSC program, has recently manufactured different types of thin shells in the frame of European projects: E-ELT M4 prototypes and VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror (VLT DSM).

  10. Plane Wave Medical Ultrasound Imaging Using Adaptive Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the adaptive, minimum variance (MV) beamformer is applied to medical ultrasound imaging. The Significant resolution and contrast gain provided by the adaptive, minimum variance (MV) beamformer, introduces the possibility of plane wave (PW) ultrasound imaging. Data is obtained using...... Field H and a 7 MHz, 128-elements, linear array transducer with lambda/2-spacing. MV is compared to the conventional delay-and-sum (DS) beamformer with Boxcar and Hanning weights. Furthermore, the PW images are compared to the a conventional ultrasound image, obtained from a linear scan sequence...

  11. Analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with optical image rejection receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Foged; Mikkelsen, Benny; Mahon, Cathal J.

    1992-01-01

    performance. Two types of optical image rejection receivers are investigated: a novel, all-optical configuration and the conventional, microwave-based configuration. The analysis shows that local oscillator-spontaneous emission beat noise (LO-SP), signal-spontaneous emission beat noise (S-SP), and spontaneous......-spontaneous beat noise (SP-SP) can all be reduced by 3 dB, thereby doubling the dynamic range of the optical amplifier. A 2.5-dB improvement in dynamic range has been demonstrated experimentally with the all-optical image rejection configuration. The implications of the increased dynamic range thus obtained...

  12. Image edge detection based on adaptive weighted morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Jiang; Yanying Guo

    2007-01-01

    A novel morphological edge detector based on adaptive weighted morphological operators is presented. It judges image edge and direction by adaptive weighted morphological structuring elements (SEs). If the edge direction exists, a big weight factor in SE is put; if it does not exist, a small weight factor in SE is put. Thus we can achieve an intensified edge detector. Experimental results prove that the new operator's performance dominates those of classical operators for images in edge detection, and obtains superbly detail edges.

  13. Horizontal Shear Wave Imaging of Large Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarry, M J

    2007-09-05

    When complete the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be the world's largest and most energetic laser and will be capable of achieving for the first time fusion ignition in the laboratory. Detecting optics features within the laser beamlines and sizing them at diameters of 0.1 mm to 10 mm allows timely decisions concerning refurbishment and will help with the routine operation of the system. Horizontally polarized shear waves at 10 MHz were shown to accurately detect, locate, and size features created by laser operations from 0.5 mm to 8 mm by placing sensors at the edge of the optic. The shear wave technique utilizes highly directed beams. The outer edge of an optic can be covered with shear wave transducers on four sides. Each transducer sends a pulse into the optic and any damage reflects the pulse back to the transmitter. The transducers are multiplexed, and the collected time waveforms are enveloped and replicated across the width of the element. Multiplying the data sets from four directions produces a map of reflected amplitude to the fourth power, which images the surface of the optic. Surface area can be measured directly from the image, and maximum depth was shown to be correlated to maximum amplitude of the reflected waveform.

  14. Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review I: Design, trade-offs and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rigaut, Francois; Boccas, Maxime; d'Orgeville, Céline; Vidal, Fabrice; van Dam, Marcos A; Arriagada, Gustavo; Fesquet, Vincent; Galvez, Ramon L; Gausachs, Gaston; Cavedoni, Chad; Ebbers, Angelic W; Karewicz, Stan; James, Eric; Lührs, Javier; Montes, Vanessa; Perez, Gabriel; Rambold, William N; Rojas, Roberto; Walker, Shane; Bec, Matthieu; Trancho, Gelys; Sheehan, Michael; Irarrazaval, Benjamin; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent L; Flicker, Ralf; Gratadour, Damien; Garcia-Rissmann, Aurea; Daruich, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) at the Gemini South telescope in Cerro Pach{\\'o}n is the first sodium-based multi-Laser Guide Star (LGS) adaptive optics system. It uses five LGSs and two deformable mirrors to measure and compensate for atmospheric distortions. The GeMS project started in 1999, and saw first light in 2011. It is now in regular operation, producing images close to the diffraction limit in the near infrared, with uniform quality over a field of view of two square arcminutes. The present paper (I) is the first one in a two-paper review of GeMS. It describes the system, explains why and how it was built, discusses the design choices and trade-offs, and presents the main issues encountered during the course of the project. Finally, we briefly present the results of the system first light.

  15. An adaptive algorithm for low contrast infrared image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-dong; Peng, Cheng-yuan; Wang, Ming-jia; Wu, Zhi-guo; Liu, Jia-qi

    2013-08-01

    An adaptive infrared image enhancement algorithm for low contrast is proposed in this paper, to deal with the problem that conventional image enhancement algorithm is not able to effective identify the interesting region when dynamic range is large in image. This algorithm begin with the human visual perception characteristics, take account of the global adaptive image enhancement and local feature boost, not only the contrast of image is raised, but also the texture of picture is more distinct. Firstly, the global image dynamic range is adjusted from the overall, the dynamic range of original image and display grayscale form corresponding relationship, the gray scale of bright object is raised and the the gray scale of dark target is reduced at the same time, to improve the overall image contrast. Secondly, the corresponding filtering algorithm is used on the current point and its neighborhood pixels to extract image texture information, to adjust the brightness of the current point in order to enhance the local contrast of the image. The algorithm overcomes the default that the outline is easy to vague in traditional edge detection algorithm, and ensure the distinctness of texture detail in image enhancement. Lastly, we normalize the global luminance adjustment image and the local brightness adjustment image, to ensure a smooth transition of image details. A lot of experiments is made to compare the algorithm proposed in this paper with other convention image enhancement algorithm, and two groups of vague IR image are taken in experiment. Experiments show that: the contrast ratio of the picture is boosted after handled by histogram equalization algorithm, but the detail of the picture is not clear, the detail of the picture can be distinguished after handled by the Retinex algorithm. The image after deal with by self-adaptive enhancement algorithm proposed in this paper becomes clear in details, and the image contrast is markedly improved in compared with Retinex

  16. Integrated modeling of the GMT laser tomography adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatrou, Piotr

    2014-08-01

    Laser Tomography Adaptive Optics (LTAO) is one of adaptive optics systems planned for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). End-to-end simulation tools that are able to cope with the complexity and computational burden of the AO systems to be installed on the extremely large telescopes such as GMT prove to be an integral part of the GMT LTAO system development endeavors. SL95, the Fortran 95 Simulation Library, is one of the software tools successfully used for the LTAO system end-to-end simulations. The goal of SL95 project is to provide a complete set of generic, richly parameterized mathematical models for key elements of the segmented telescope wavefront control systems including both active and adaptive optics as well as the models for atmospheric turbulence, extended light sources like Laser Guide Stars (LGS), light propagation engines and closed-loop controllers. The library is implemented as a hierarchical collection of classes capable of mutual interaction, which allows one to assemble complex wavefront control system configurations with multiple interacting control channels. In this paper we demonstrate the SL95 capabilities by building an integrated end-to-end model of the GMT LTAO system with 7 control channels: LGS tomography with Adaptive Secondary and on-instrument deformable mirrors, tip-tilt and vibration control, LGS stabilization, LGS focus control, truth sensor-based dynamic noncommon path aberration rejection, pupil position control, SLODAR-like embedded turbulence profiler. The rich parameterization of the SL95 classes allows to build detailed error budgets propagating through the system multiple errors and perturbations such as turbulence-, telescope-, telescope misalignment-, segment phasing error-, non-common path-induced aberrations, sensor noises, deformable mirror-to-sensor mis-registration, vibration, temporal errors, etc. We will present a short description of the SL95 architecture, as well as the sample GMT LTAO system simulation

  17. Vision is adapted to the natural level of blur present in the retinal image.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Sawides

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The image formed by the eye's optics is inherently blurred by aberrations specific to an individual's eyes. We examined how visual coding is adapted to the optical quality of the eye. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the relationship between perceived blur and the retinal image blur resulting from high order aberrations in an individual's optics. Observers judged perceptual blur in a psychophysical two-alternative forced choice paradigm, on stimuli viewed through perfectly corrected optics (using a deformable mirror to compensate for the individual's aberrations. Realistic blur of different amounts and forms was computer simulated using real aberrations from a population. The blur levels perceived as best focused were close to the levels predicted by an individual's high order aberrations over a wide range of blur magnitudes, and were systematically biased when observers were instead adapted to the blur reproduced from a different observer's eye. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide strong evidence that spatial vision is calibrated for the specific blur levels present in each individual's retinal image and that this adaptation at least partly reflects how spatial sensitivity is normalized in the neural coding of blur.

  18. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  19. Towards Adaptive High-Resolution Images Retrieval Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgli, A.; Sebai, H.; Bouteldja, S.; Oukil, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, content-based image-retrieval techniques constitute powerful tools for archiving and mining of large remote sensing image databases. High spatial resolution images are complex and differ widely in their content, even in the same category. All images are more or less textured and structured. During the last decade, different approaches for the retrieval of this type of images have been proposed. They differ mainly in the type of features extracted. As these features are supposed to efficiently represent the query image, they should be adapted to all kind of images contained in the database. However, if the image to recognize is somewhat or very structured, a shape feature will be somewhat or very effective. While if the image is composed of a single texture, a parameter reflecting the texture of the image will reveal more efficient. This yields to use adaptive schemes. For this purpose, we propose to investigate this idea to adapt the retrieval scheme to image nature. This is achieved by making some preliminary analysis so that indexing stage becomes supervised. First results obtained show that by this way, simple methods can give equal performances to those obtained using complex methods such as the ones based on the creation of bag of visual word using SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) descriptors and those based on multi scale features extraction using wavelets and steerable pyramids.

  20. Optical physics enables advances in multiphoton imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the initial images were taken using a multiphoton imaging technique the method has rapidly established itself as the preferred method for imaging deeply into biological samples with micron resolution in three dimensions. Multiphoton imaging has thus enabled researchers in the life sciences to undertake studies that had previously been believed to be impossible without significantly perturbing the sample. Many of these experiments have only been realized due to close cooperation between optical physicists, from a range of disciplines, and the biomedical researchers. This paper will provide a general review of the current state of the field demonstrating how the various aspects of the physics development have brought the multiphoton technique to its current position at the forefront of biological microscopy. (topical review)

  1. Image Distortion of Optical Coherence Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安源; 姚建铨

    2004-01-01

    A kind of image distortion in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) resulted from average refractive index changes between structures of bio-tissue is discussed for the first time.Analysis is given on following situations:1) Exact refraction index changes between microstructures;2)The gradient of average refractive index change between different tissue layers is parallel to the probe beam;3) The gradient of average refractive index change is vertical to the probe beam.The results show that the image distortion of situation 1) is usually negligible;in situation 2) there is a spread or shrink effect without relative location error; however,in situation 3) there is a significant image error inducing relative location displacement between different structures.Preliminary design to eliminate the distortion is presented,the method of which mainly based on the image classification and pixel array re-arrangement.

  2. Graphite/Cyanate Ester Face Sheets for Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Harold; Shaffer, Joseph; Romeo, Robert

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed that thin face sheets of wide-aperture deformable mirrors in adaptive-optics systems be made from a composite material consisting of cyanate ester filled with graphite. This composite material appears to offer an attractive alternative to low-thermal-expansion glasses that are used in some conventional optics and have been considered for adaptive-optics face sheets. Adaptive-optics face sheets are required to have maximum linear dimensions of the order of meters or even tens of meters for some astronomical applications. If the face sheets were to be made from low-thermal-expansion glasses, then they would also be required to have thicknesses of the order of a millimeter so as to obtain the optimum compromise between the stiffness needed for support and the flexibility needed to enable deformation to controlled shapes by use of actuators. It is difficult to make large glass sheets having thicknesses less than 3 mm, and 3-mm-thick glass sheets are too stiff to be deformable to the shapes typically required for correction of wavefronts of light that has traversed the terrestrial atmosphere. Moreover, the primary commercially produced candidate low-thermal-expansion glass is easily fractured when in the form of thin face sheets. Graphite-filled cyanate ester has relevant properties similar to those of the low-expansion glasses. These properties include a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the order of a hundredth of the CTEs of other typical mirror materials. The Young s modulus (which quantifies stiffness in tension and compression) of graphite-filled cyanate ester is also similar to the Young's moduli of low-thermal-expansion glasses. However, the fracture toughness of graphite-filled cyanate ester is much greater than that of the primary candidate low-thermal-expansion glass. Therefore, graphite-filled cyanate ester could be made into nearly unbreakable face sheets, having maximum linear dimensions greater than a meter and thicknesses of

  3. Beam shaping for laser-based adaptive optics in astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Béchet, Clémentine; Neichel, Benoit; Fesquet, Vincent; González-Núñez, Héctor; Zúñiga, Sebastián; Escarate, Pedro; Guzman, Dani

    2014-01-01

    The availability and performance of laser-based adaptive optics (AO) systems are strongly dependent on the power and quality of the laser beam before being projected to the sky. Frequent and time-consuming alignment procedures are usually required in the laser systems with free-space optics to optimize the beam. Despite these procedures, significant distortions of the laser beam have been observed during the first two years of operation of the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics system (GeMS). A beam shaping concept with two deformable mirrors is investigated in order to provide automated optimization of the laser quality for astronomical AO. This study aims at demonstrating the correction of quasi-static aberrations of the laser, in both amplitude and phase, testing a prototype of this two-deformable mirror concept on GeMS. The paper presents the results of the preparatory study before the experimental phase. An algorithm to control amplitude and phase correction, based on phase retrieval techniques...

  4. Algorithm for localized adaptive diffuse optical tomography and its application in bioluminescence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mohamed A.; Patterson, Michael S.; Wong, John W.

    2014-04-01

    A reconstruction algorithm for diffuse optical tomography based on diffusion theory and finite element method is described. The algorithm reconstructs the optical properties in a permissible domain or region-of-interest to reduce the number of unknowns. The algorithm can be used to reconstruct optical properties for a segmented object (where a CT-scan or MRI is available) or a non-segmented object. For the latter, an adaptive segmentation algorithm merges contiguous regions with similar optical properties thereby reducing the number of unknowns. In calculating the Jacobian matrix the algorithm uses an efficient direct method so the required time is comparable to that needed for a single forward calculation. The reconstructed optical properties using segmented, non-segmented, and adaptively segmented 3D mouse anatomy (MOBY) are used to perform bioluminescence tomography (BLT) for two simulated internal sources. The BLT results suggest that the accuracy of reconstruction of total source power obtained without the segmentation provided by an auxiliary imaging method such as x-ray CT is comparable to that obtained when using perfect segmentation.

  5. Algorithm for localized adaptive diffuse optical tomography and its application in bioluminescence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reconstruction algorithm for diffuse optical tomography based on diffusion theory and finite element method is described. The algorithm reconstructs the optical properties in a permissible domain or region-of-interest to reduce the number of unknowns. The algorithm can be used to reconstruct optical properties for a segmented object (where a CT-scan or MRI is available) or a non-segmented object. For the latter, an adaptive segmentation algorithm merges contiguous regions with similar optical properties thereby reducing the number of unknowns. In calculating the Jacobian matrix the algorithm uses an efficient direct method so the required time is comparable to that needed for a single forward calculation. The reconstructed optical properties using segmented, non-segmented, and adaptively segmented 3D mouse anatomy (MOBY) are used to perform bioluminescence tomography (BLT) for two simulated internal sources. The BLT results suggest that the accuracy of reconstruction of total source power obtained without the segmentation provided by an auxiliary imaging method such as x-ray CT is comparable to that obtained when using perfect segmentation. (paper)

  6. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  7. Novel optical system for neonatal brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zhou, Shuoming; Nioka, Shoko; Chance, Britton; Anday, Endla; Ravishankar, Sudha; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, Maria

    1999-03-01

    A highly portable, fast, safe and affordable imaging system that provides interpretable images of brain function in full- and pre-term neonates within a few seconds has been applied to neonates with normal and pathological states. We have used a uniquely sensitive optical tomography system, termed phased array, which has revealed significant functional responses, particularly to parietal stimulation in neonate brain. This system can indicate the blood concentration and oxygenation change during the parietal brain activation in full- and pre-term neonates. The preliminary clinical results, especially a longitudinal study of a cardiac arrest neonate, suggest a variety of future applications.

  8. Modified Adaptive Weighted Averaging Filtering Algorithm for Noisy Image Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Weifeng; YU Daoyin; CHEN Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    In order to avoid the influence of noise variance on the filtering performances, a modified adaptive weighted averaging (MAWA) filtering algorithm is proposed for noisy image sequences. Based upon adaptive weighted averaging pixel values in consecutive frames, this algorithm achieves the filtering goal by assigning smaller weights to the pixels with inappropriate estimated motion trajectory for noise. It only utilizes the intensity of pixels to suppress noise and accordingly is independent of noise variance. To evaluate the performance of the proposed filtering algorithm, its mean square error and percentage of preserved edge points were compared with those of traditional adaptive weighted averaging and non-adaptive mean filtering algorithms under different noise variances. Relevant results show that the MAWA filtering algorithm can preserve image structures and edges under motion after attenuating noise, and thus may be used in image sequence filtering.

  9. Scintillating Optical Fiber Imagers for biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.O.F.I (Scintillating Optical Fiber Imager) is a detector developed to replace the autoradiographic films used in molecular biology for the location of radiolabelled (32P) DNA molecules in blotting experiments. It analyses samples on a 25 x 25 cm2 square area still 25 times faster than autoradiographic films, with a 1.75 and 3 mm resolution for two orthogonal directions. This device performs numerised images with a dynamic upper than 100 which allows the direct quantitation of the analysed samples. First, this thesis describes the S.O.F.I. development (Scintillating Optical Fibers, coding of these fibers and specific electronic for the treatment of the Multi-Anode Photo-Multiplier signals) and experiments made in collaboration with molecular biology laboratories. In a second place, we prove the feasibility of an automatic DNA sequencer issued from S.O.F.I

  10. High-resolution adaptive imaging of a single atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Campos, J. D.; Johnson, K. G.; Neyenhuis, B.; Mizrahi, J.; Monroe, C.

    2016-09-01

    Optical imaging systems are used extensively in the life and physical sciences because of their ability to non-invasively capture details on the microscopic and nanoscopic scales. Such systems are often limited by source or detector noise, image distortions and human operator misjudgement. Here, we report a general, quantitative method to analyse and correct these errors. We use this method to identify and correct optical aberrations in an imaging system for single atoms and realize an atomic position sensitivity of ˜0.5 nm Hz-1/2 with a minimum uncertainty of 1.7 nm, allowing the direct imaging of atomic motion. This is the highest position sensitivity ever measured for an isolated atom and opens up the possibility of performing out-of-focus three-dimensional particle tracking, imaging of atoms in three-dimensional optical lattices or sensing forces at the yoctonewton (10-24 N) scale.

  11. Context adaptive coding of bi-level images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    for the modern paradigm of data compression based on a modelling and a coding stage. One advantage of contexts is their flexibility, e.g. choosing a two-dimensional ("-D) context facilitates efficient image coding. The area of image coding has greatly been influenced by context adaptive coding, applied e...

  12. IOT Overview: Optical Spectro-Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patat, F.

    Taking the FORS instruments as a representative case, I review the Calibration Plan for optical spectro-imagers currently offered at ESO, discussing various aspects related both to the scientific outcome and the instrument/site monitoring. I also describe ongoing and future calibration projects planned by the Instrument Operations Teams, trying to give an objective view on the limitations of the Calibration Plans currently implemented at ESO for this class of instruments.

  13. Field of view advantage of conjugate adaptive optics in microscopy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mertz, Jerome; Bifano, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    The imaging performance of an optical microscope can be degraded by sample-induced aberrations. A general strategy to undo the effect of these aberrations is to apply wavefront correction with a deformable mirror (DM). In most cases, the DM is placed conjugate to the microscope pupil, called pupil adaptive optics (AO). When the aberrations are spatially variant, an alternative configuration involves placing the DM conjugate to the main source of aberrations, called conjugate AO. We provide theoretical and experimental comparison of both configurations for the simplified case where spatially variant aberrations are produced by a well defined phase screen. We pay particular attention to the resulting correction field of view (FOV). Conjugate AO is found to provide a significant FOV advantage. While this result is well known in the astronomy community, our goal here is to recast it specifically for the optical microscopy community.

  14. Mono- and multimodal registration of optical breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Paul C.; Adams, Arthur; Elias, Sjoerd G.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2012-08-01

    Optical breast imaging offers the possibility of noninvasive, low cost, and high sensitivity imaging of breast cancers. Poor spatial resolution and a lack of anatomical landmarks in optical images of the breast make interpretation difficult and motivate registration and fusion of these data with subsequent optical images and other breast imaging modalities. Methods used for registration and fusion of optical breast images are reviewed. Imaging concerns relevant to the registration problem are first highlighted, followed by a focus on both monomodal and multimodal registration of optical breast imaging. Where relevant, methods pertaining to other imaging modalities or imaged anatomies are presented. The multimodal registration discussion concerns digital x-ray mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography.

  15. Adaptive optical design in surface plasma resonance sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; ZHONG Jin-gang

    2006-01-01

    A double-prism adaptive optical design in surface plasma resonance (SPR) sensor is proposed,which consists of two identical isosceles right-triangular prisms. One prism is used as a component of Kretschmann configuration,and the other is for regulation of the optical path. When double-prism structure is angle-scanned by an immovable incident ray,the output ray will be always parallel with the incident ray and just has a small displacement with the shift of output point.The output ray can be focused on a fixed photodetector by a convex lens.Thus it can be avoided that a prism and a photodetector rotate by θ and 2θ respectively in conventional angular scanning SPR sensor.This new design reduces the number of the movable components,makes the structure simple and compact,and makes the manipulation convenient.

  16. Six-channel adaptive fibre-optic interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashko, R V; Bezruk, M N; Kamshilin, A A; Kulchin, Yurii N

    2012-06-30

    We have proposed and analysed a scheme for the multiplexing of orthogonal dynamic holograms in photorefractive crystals which ensures almost zero cross talk between the holographic channels upon phase demodulation. A six-channel adaptive fibre-optic interferometer was built, and the detection limit for small phase fluctuations in the channels of the interferometer was determined to be 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} rad W{sup 1/2} Hz{sup -1/2}. The channel multiplexing capacity of the interferometer was estimated. The formation of 70 channels such that their optical fields completely overlap in the crystal reduces the relative detection limit in the working channel by just 10 %. We found conditions under which the maximum cross talk between the channels was within the intrinsic noise level in the channels (-47 dB).

  17. High Resolution Observations using Adaptive Optics: Achievements and Future Needs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Sankarasubramanian; T. Rimmele

    2008-03-01

    Over the last few years, several interesting observations were obtained with the help of solar Adaptive Optics (AO). In this paper, few observations made using the solarAOare enlightened and briefly discussed. A list of disadvantages with the current AO system are presented. With telescopes larger than 1.5 m expected during the next decade, there is a need to develop the existing AO technologies for large aperture telescopes. Some aspects of this development are highlighted. Finally, the recent AO developments in India are also presented.

  18. Self-characterization of linear and nonlinear adaptive optics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Peter J; Conan, Rodolphe; Keskin, Onur; Bradley, Colin; Agathoklis, Pan

    2008-01-10

    We present methods used to determine the linear or nonlinear static response and the linear dynamic response of an adaptive optics (AO) system. This AO system consists of a nonlinear microelectromechanical systems deformable mirror (DM), a linear tip-tilt mirror (TTM), a control computer, and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The system is modeled using a single-input-single-output structure to determine the one-dimensional transfer function of the dynamic response of the chain of system hardware. An AO system has been shown to be able to characterize its own response without additional instrumentation. Experimentally determined models are given for a TTM and a DM. PMID:18188192

  19. Adaptive enhancement method of infrared image based on scene feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Tingzhu; Shang, Fei

    2008-12-01

    All objects emit radiation in amounts related to their temperature and their ability to emit radiation. The infrared image shows the invisible infrared radiation emitted directly. Because of the advantages, the technology of infrared imaging is applied to many kinds of fields. But compared with visible image, the disadvantages of infrared image are obvious. The characteristics of low luminance, low contrast and the inconspicuous difference target and background are the main disadvantages of infrared image. The aim of infrared image enhancement is to improve the interpretability or perception of information in infrared image for human viewers, or to provide 'better' input for other automated image processing techniques. Most of the adaptive algorithm for image enhancement is mainly based on the gray-scale distribution of infrared image, and is not associated with the actual image scene of the features. So the pertinence of infrared image enhancement is not strong, and the infrared image is not conducive to the application of infrared surveillance. In this paper we have developed a scene feature-based algorithm to enhance the contrast of infrared image adaptively. At first, after analyzing the scene feature of different infrared image, we have chosen the feasible parameters to describe the infrared image. In the second place, we have constructed the new histogram distributing base on the chosen parameters by using Gaussian function. In the last place, the infrared image is enhanced by constructing a new form of histogram. Experimental results show that the algorithm has better performance than other methods mentioned in this paper for infrared scene images.

  20. Applications of Non-Imaging Micro-Optic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Katherine Anne

    While imaging optics necessarily transmit a clear image of an object, non-imaging optics manipulate light in many different ways. Two important applications are illumination and concentration. In this thesis, I cover an application in each of these areas involving small-scale optics. Extremely low birth weight infants typically require intubation, but existing laryngoscopes for viewing the airway are not suited to this population. Small commercial cameras can fit within the required geometry, but need high illumination with low heating. Repurposing the mechanical structure of the laryngoscope as a waveguide for an LED source meets both these requirements. Concentrator photovoltaic systems accept sunlight over a large aperture and focus it to a proportionally small photovoltaic cell. This kind of configuration allows the cost of expensive but highly efficient multijunction cells to be amortized over a large area module, resulting in cost-effective, high efficiency systems. A prior design from our lab uses a lenslet array and mirrored micro-prisms to concentrate sunlight within a glass waveguide. This enables high efficiency concentration with a compact form factor compatible with mass fabrication and eliminating problems associated with discrete PV cells. I first adapt the basic planar concentrator design for specific applications. One-dimensional polar tracking is an attractive design space, and either passive optical tracking or mechanical micro-tracking can be used to adapt the concentrator for this framework. The concentrator can also be used in solar thermal rather than photovoltaic applications with the addition of an output coupler. I also address a completely different approach to concentrator tracking. This non-imaging system is nonlinear, implementing a reactive cladding layer to enable the system to self-track the sun. I present design studies to quantify the requirements of such a material, then present a candidate materials system to meet these

  1. Intelligent correction of laser beam propagation through turbulent media using adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jonathan; Wu, Chensheng; Davis, Christopher C.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptive optics methods have long been used by researchers in the astronomy field to retrieve correct images of celestial bodies. The approach is to use a deformable mirror combined with Shack-Hartmann sensors to correct the slightly distorted image when it propagates through the earth's atmospheric boundary layer, which can be viewed as adding relatively weak distortion in the last stage of propagation. However, the same strategy can't be easily applied to correct images propagating along a horizontal deep turbulence path. In fact, when turbulence levels becomes very strong (Cn 2>10-13 m-2/3), limited improvements have been made in correcting the heavily distorted images. We propose a method that reconstructs the light field that reaches the camera, which then provides information for controlling a deformable mirror. An intelligent algorithm is applied that provides significant improvement in correcting images. In our work, the light field reconstruction has been achieved with a newly designed modified plenoptic camera. As a result, by actively intervening with the coherent illumination beam, or by giving it various specific pre-distortions, a better (less turbulence affected) image can be obtained. This strategy can also be expanded to much more general applications such as correcting laser propagation through random media and can also help to improve designs in free space optical communication systems.

  2. Adaptive color contrast enhancement for digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Luo, Yupin

    2011-11-01

    Noncanonical illumination that is too dim or with color cast induces degenerated images. To cope with this, we propose a method for color-contrast enhancement. First, intensity, chrominance, and contrast characteristics are explored and integrated in the Naka-Rushton equation to remove underexposure and color cast simultaneously. Motivated by the comparison mechanism in Retinex, the ratio of each pixel to its surroundings is utilized to improve image contrast. Finally, inspired by the two color-opponent dimensions in CIELAB space, a color-enhancement strategy is devised based on the transformation from CIEXYZ to CIELAB color space. For images that suffer from underexposure, color cast, or both problems, our algorithm produces promising results without halo artifacts and corruption of uniform areas.

  3. Imaging Granulomatous Lesions with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Banzhaf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors. Methods: Two patients with granulomas, tophi and granuloma annulare (GA, respectively, were photographed digitally, OCT-scanned and biopsied in the said order. Normal skin was OCT-scanned for comparison, but not biopsied. The OCT images from each lesion were compared with their histologic images as well as with OCT images with similar characteristics obtained from nonmelanoma skin tumors. Results: The OCT images of the tophi showed hyperreflective, rounded cloud-like structures in dermis, their upper part sharply delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. The deeper areas appeared blurred. The crystalline structures were delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. OCT images of GA showed two different structures in dermis: a hyporeflective rounded one, and one that was lobulated and wing-like. Conclusion: Granulomatous tissue surrounding urate deposits appeared as a clear hyporeflective fringe surrounding a light, hyperreflective area. The urate crystals appeared as hyperreflective areas, shielding the deeper part of dermis, meaning OCT could only visualize the upper part of the lesions. The lobulated, wing-like structure in GA may resemble diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as seen on histology. The rounded structure in GA may represent an actual granuloma or either diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as described above. This case suggests that OCT images granulomatous tissue as absorbent, hyporeflective areas, and urate crystals appear as reflective areas, obscuring the underlying tissue. In GA a new image shape looking like a wing has been found. The frequency, specificity and sensitivity of this new pattern in OCT imaging will require further studies.

  4. ESO Imaging survey: Optical Deep Public Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Mignano, A; Costa, L; Olsen, L F; Prandoni, I; Arnouts, S; Benoist, C; Dietrich, J P; Madejsky, R; Slijkhuis, R; Zaggia, S

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents new five passbands (UBVRI) optical wide-field imaging data accumulated as part of the DEEP Public Survey (DPS) carried out as a public survey by the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. Out of the 3 square degrees originally proposed, the survey covers 2.75 square degrees, in at least one band (normally R), and 1.00 square degrees in five passbands. The median seeing, as measured in the final stacked images, is 0.97", ranging from 0.75" to 2.0". The median limiting magnitudes (AB system, 2" aperture, 5 sigma detection limit) are U_(AB)=25.65, B_(AB)=25.54, V_(AB)=25.18, R_(AB) = 24.8 and I_(AB)=24.12 mag, consistent with those proposed in the original survey design. The paper describes the observations and data reduction using the EIS Data Reduction System and its associated EIS/MVM library. The quality of the individual images were inspected, bad images discarded and the remaining used to produce final image stacks in each passband, from which sources have been extracted. Finally, the scient...

  5. Early ComeOn+ Adaptive Optics Observation of GQ Lup and its Substellar Companion

    CERN Document Server

    Janson, M; Henning, T; Zinnecker, H; Janson, Markus; Brandner, Wolfgang; Henning, Thomas; Zinnecker, Hans

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of adaptive optics K-band imaging data of GQ Lup acquired in 1994 by the first generation adaptive optics system ComeOn+ at the ESO 3.6m optical telescope in La Silla is presented. The data reveal a likely candidate for the low-mass companion recently reported in the literature. An a posteriori detection in the 11 year old data would provide a useful astrometric data point for the very long period (~1000 yr) orbit of the GQ Lup system. However, the data is severely contaminated by speckle noise at the given projected separation, which decreases the confidence of the detection. Still, from the data we can conclude that GQ Lup B is not an unrelated background source, but instead a physical companion to GQ Lup A. We present here the reduction and analysis of the ComeOn+ images, as well as the results. We also discuss the nature of the companion based on data and models available in the scientific literature and examine claims made regarding the classification of the object as a planet.

  6. RADIANCE AND PHOTON NOISE: Imaging in geometrical optics, physical optics, quantum optics and radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Caucci, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular and wavelength variables. The mean of this random process is the spectral radiance. The principle of conservation of radiance then allows a full characterization of the noise in the image (conditional on viewing a specified object). To elucidate these connections, we first review the definitions and basic properties of radiance as defined in terms of geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Then we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors. The relation between the radiance and the statistical properties of the detector output is discussed and related to task-based measures of image quality and the information content of a single detected photon.

  7. Photo-magnetic Imaging: Resolving Optical Contrast at MRI resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yuting; Gao, Hao; Thayer, David; Luk, Alex L.; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the mathematical framework of a novel imaging technique, namely Photo-magnetic Imaging (PMI). PMI uses laser to illuminate biological tissues and measure the induced temperature variations using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMI overcomes the limitation of conventional optical imaging and allows imaging of optical contrast at MRI spatial resolution. The image reconstruction for PMI, using a finite element-based algorithm with iterative approach, is presented in...

  8. Neutron imaging for inertial confinement fusion and molecular optic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific domains that require imaging of micrometric/nano-metric objects are dramatically increasing (Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, Biotechnology, Earth Sciences...). Difficulties encountered in imaging smaller and smaller objects make this research area more and more challenging and in constant evolution. The two scientific domains, through which this study has been led, are the neutron imaging in the context of the inertial confinement fusion and the fluorescence molecular imaging. Work presented in this thesis has two main objectives. The first one is to describe the instrumentation characteristics that require such imagery and, relatively to the scientific domains considered, identify parameters likely to optimize the imaging system accuracy. The second one is to present the developed data analysis and reconstruction methods able to provide spatial resolution adapted to the size of the observed object. Similarities of numerical algorithms used in these two scientific domains, which goals are quiet different, show how micrometric/nano-metric object imaging is a research area at the border of a large number of scientific disciplines. (author)

  9. Adaptive optics sky coverage modeling for extremely large telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Richard M; Ellerbroek, Brent L; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2006-12-10

    A Monte Carlo sky coverage model for laser guide star adaptive optics systems was proposed by Clare and Ellerbroek [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 418 (2006)]. We refine the model to include (i) natural guide star (NGS) statistics using published star count models, (ii) noise on the NGS measurements, (iii) the effect of telescope wind shake, (iv) a model for how the Strehl and hence NGS wavefront sensor measurement noise varies across the field, (v) the focus error due to imperfectly tracking the range to the sodium layer, (vi) the mechanical bandwidths of the tip-tilt (TT) stage and deformable mirror actuators, and (vii) temporal filtering of the NGS measurements to balance errors due to noise and servo lag. From this model, we are able to generate a TT error budget for the Thirty Meter Telescope facility narrow-field infrared adaptive optics system (NFIRAOS) and perform several design trade studies. With the current NFIRAOS design, the median TT error at the galactic pole with median seeing is calculated to be 65 nm or 1.8 mas rms.

  10. Adaptive fingerprint image enhancement with emphasis on preprocessing of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartůnek, Josef Ström; Nilsson, Mikael; Sällberg, Benny; Claesson, Ingvar

    2013-02-01

    This article proposes several improvements to an adaptive fingerprint enhancement method that is based on contextual filtering. The term adaptive implies that parameters of the method are automatically adjusted based on the input fingerprint image. Five processing blocks comprise the adaptive fingerprint enhancement method, where four of these blocks are updated in our proposed system. Hence, the proposed overall system is novel. The four updated processing blocks are: 1) preprocessing; 2) global analysis; 3) local analysis; and 4) matched filtering. In the preprocessing and local analysis blocks, a nonlinear dynamic range adjustment method is used. In the global analysis and matched filtering blocks, different forms of order statistical filters are applied. These processing blocks yield an improved and new adaptive fingerprint image processing method. The performance of the updated processing blocks is presented in the evaluation part of this paper. The algorithm is evaluated toward the NIST developed NBIS software for fingerprint recognition on FVC databases.

  11. Image Deblurring Using Derivative Compressed Sensing for Optical Imaging Application

    CERN Document Server

    Rostami, Mohammad; Wang, Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Reconstruction of multidimensional signals from the samples of their partial derivatives is known to be a standard problem in inverse theory. Such and similar problems routinely arise in numerous areas of applied sciences, including optical imaging, laser interferometry, computer vision, remote sensing and control. Though being ill-posed in nature, the above problem can be solved in a unique and stable manner, provided proper regularization and relevant boundary conditions. In this paper, however, a more challenging setup is addressed, in which one has to recover an image of interest from its noisy and blurry version, while the only information available about the imaging system at hand is the amplitude of the generalized pupil function (GPF) along with partial observations of the gradient of GPF's phase. In this case, the phase-related information is collected using a simplified version of the Shack-Hartmann interferometer, followed by recovering the entire phase by means of derivative compressed sensing. Su...

  12. Astrometric performance of the Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system in crowded fields

    CERN Document Server

    Neichel, Benoit; Rigaut, Francois; Ammons, S Mark; Carrasco, Eleazar R; Lassalle, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) is a facility instrument for the Gemini-South telescope. It delivers uniform, near-diffraction-limited image quality at near-infrared wavelengths over a 2 arcminute field of view. Together with the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI), a near-infrared wide field camera, GeMS/GSAOI's combination of high spatial resolution and a large field of view will make it a premier facility for precision astrometry. Potential astrometric science cases cover a broad range of topics including exo-planets, star formation, stellar evolution, star clusters, nearby galaxies, black holes and neutron stars, and the Galactic center. In this paper, we assess the astrometric performance and limitations of GeMS/GSAOI. In particular, we analyze deep, mono-epoch images, multi-epoch data and distortion calibration. We find that for single-epoch, un-dithered data, an astrometric error below 0.2 mas can be achieved for exposure times exceeding one minute, provided enough star...

  13. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Diana C.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones; Steven M.

    2010-02-23

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.

  14. Frida: the first instrument for the adaptive optics system of GTC

    OpenAIRE

    López, J. A.; V. Bringas; S. Cuevas; J. J. Díaz; Eikenberry, S. S.; Espejo, C.; Flores, R.; F. J. Fuentes; Gallego, J.; Garzón, F.; Hammersley, P.; Pelló, R.; Prieto, A.; Sánchez, B.; Watson, A.

    2007-01-01

    FRIDA (inFRrared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) se está diseñando como un instrumento con óptica limitada por difracción con capacidades de imagen de banda ancha y angosta y espectroscopia integral de campo para operar en el intervalo de longitudes de onda de 0.9 2.5 um. FRIDA es un proyecto de colaboración entre los socios principales de GTC; a saber, España, México y Florida. Las principales características de diseño de FRID...

  15. An Improved Adaptive Deconvolution Algorithm for Single Image Deblurring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Che Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common defects in digital photography is motion blur caused by camera shake. Shift-invariant motion blur can be modeled as a convolution of the true latent image and a point spread function (PSF with additive noise. The goal of image deconvolution is to reconstruct a latent image from a degraded image. However, ringing is inevitable artifacts arising in the deconvolution stage. To suppress undesirable artifacts, regularization based methods have been proposed using natural image priors to overcome the ill-posedness of deconvolution problem. When the estimated PSF is erroneous to some extent or the PSF size is large, conventional regularization to reduce ringing would lead to loss of image details. This paper focuses on the nonblind deconvolution by adaptive regularization which preserves image details, while suppressing ringing artifacts. The way is to control the regularization weight adaptively according to the image local characteristics. We adopt elaborated reference maps that indicate the edge strength so that textured and smooth regions can be distinguished. Then we impose an appropriate constraint on the optimization process. The experiments’ results on both synthesized and real images show that our method can restore latent image with much fewer ringing and favors the sharp edges.

  16. Adaptive image contrast enhancement based on human visual properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing methods for image contrast enhancement focus mainly on the properties of the image to be processed while excluding any consideration of the observer characteristics. In several applications, particularly in the medical imaging area, effective contrast enhancement for diagnostic purposes can be achieved by including certain basic human visual properties. In this paper the authors present a novel adaptive algorithm that tailors the required amount of contrast enhancement based on the local contrast of the image and the observer's Just-Noticeable-Difference (JND). This algorithm always produces adequate contrast in the output image, and results in almost no ringing artifacts even around sharp transition regions, which is often seen in images processed by conventional contrast enhancement techniques. By separating smooth and detail areas of an image and considering the dependence of noise visibility on the spatial activity of the image, the algorithm treats them differently and thus avoids excessive enhancement of noise, which is another common problem for many existing contrast enhancement techniques. The present JND-Guided Adaptive Contrast Enhancement (JGACE) technique is very general and can be applied to a variety of images. In particular, it offers considerable benefits in digital radiography applications where the objective is to increase the diagnostic utility of images. A detailed performance evaluation together with a comparison with the existing techniques is given to demonstrate the strong features of JGACE

  17. MEMS compatible illumination and imaging micro-optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, A.; Dannberg, P.; Duparré, J.; Höfer, B.; Schreiber, P.; Scholles, M.

    2007-01-01

    The development of new MOEMS demands for cooperation between researchers in micromechanics, optoelectronics and microoptics at a very early state. Additionally, microoptical technologies being compatible with structured silicon have to be developed. The microoptical technologies used for two silicon based microsystems are described in the paper. First, a very small scanning laser projector with a volume of less than 2 cm 3, which operates with a directly modulated lasers collimated with a microlens, is shown. The laser radiation illuminates a 2D-MEMS scanning mirror. The optical design is optimized for high resolution (VGA). Thermomechanical stability is realized by design and using a structured ceramics motherboard. Secondly, an ultrathin CMOS-camera having an insect inspired imaging system has been realized. It is the first experimental realization of an artificial compound eye. Micro-optical design principles and technology is used. The overall thickness of the imaging system is only 320 μm, the diagonal field of view is 21°, and the f-number is 2.6. The monolithic device consists of an UV-replicated microlens array upon a thin silica substrate with a pinhole array in a metal layer on the back side. The pitch of the pinholes differs from that of the lens array to provide individual viewing angle for each channel. The imaging chip is directly glued to a CMOS sensor with adapted pitch. The whole camera is less than 1mm thick. New packaging methods for these systems are under development.

  18. An Adaptive Blind Watermarking Algorithm for Color Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiming Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a novel blind color digital watermarking algorithm based on Integer Discrete Wavelet Transform (IDWT and Human Visual System (HVS. Firstly, color watermark image was processed into one dimension digital information, and color host image was converted into YIQ color space. Then, according to the features of HVS, encrypted watermark was embedded adaptively into the Y luminance component of the YIQ color space in IDWT domain. The proposed algorithm allowed extracting watermark without the help of original watermark and host image. Experiment results show that the embedded watermark is invisible and robust against common image attacks. 

  19. Adaptive polyphase subband decomposition structures for image compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerek, O N; Cetin, A E

    2000-01-01

    Subband decomposition techniques have been extensively used for data coding and analysis. In most filter banks, the goal is to obtain subsampled signals corresponding to different spectral regions of the original data. However, this approach leads to various artifacts in images having spatially varying characteristics, such as images containing text, subtitles, or sharp edges. In this paper, adaptive filter banks with perfect reconstruction property are presented for such images. The filters of the decomposition structure which can be either linear or nonlinear vary according to the nature of the signal. This leads to improved image compression ratios. Simulation examples are presented. PMID:18262904

  20. Adaptive distributed Kalman filtering with wind estimation for astronomical adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massioni, Paolo; Gilles, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of adaptive optics (AO) for astronomy, it is a common assumption to consider the atmospheric turbulent layers as "frozen flows" sliding according to the wind velocity profile. For this reason, having knowledge of such a velocity profile is beneficial in terms of AO control system performance. In this paper we show that it is possible to exploit the phase estimate from a Kalman filter running on an AO system in order to estimate wind velocity. This allows the update of the Kalman filter itself with such knowledge, making it adaptive. We have implemented such an adaptive controller based on the distributed version of the Kalman filter, for a realistic simulation of a multi-conjugate AO system with laser guide stars on a 30 m telescope. Simulation results show that this approach is effective and promising and the additional computational cost with respect to the distributed filter is negligible. Comparisons with a previously published slope detection and ranging wind profiler are made and the impact of turbulence profile quantization is assessed. One of the main findings of the paper is that all flavors of the adaptive distributed Kalman filter are impacted more significantly by turbulence profile quantization than the static minimum mean square estimator which does not incorporate wind profile information.

  1. Adaptive distributed Kalman filtering with wind estimation for astronomical adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massioni, Paolo; Gilles, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of adaptive optics (AO) for astronomy, it is a common assumption to consider the atmospheric turbulent layers as "frozen flows" sliding according to the wind velocity profile. For this reason, having knowledge of such a velocity profile is beneficial in terms of AO control system performance. In this paper we show that it is possible to exploit the phase estimate from a Kalman filter running on an AO system in order to estimate wind velocity. This allows the update of the Kalman filter itself with such knowledge, making it adaptive. We have implemented such an adaptive controller based on the distributed version of the Kalman filter, for a realistic simulation of a multi-conjugate AO system with laser guide stars on a 30 m telescope. Simulation results show that this approach is effective and promising and the additional computational cost with respect to the distributed filter is negligible. Comparisons with a previously published slope detection and ranging wind profiler are made and the impact of turbulence profile quantization is assessed. One of the main findings of the paper is that all flavors of the adaptive distributed Kalman filter are impacted more significantly by turbulence profile quantization than the static minimum mean square estimator which does not incorporate wind profile information. PMID:26831389

  2. First-order design of off-axis reflective ophthalmic adaptive optics systems using afocal telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vieyra, Armando; Dubra, Alfredo; Williams, David R.; Malacara-Hernández, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (SLOs) and optical coherence tomographs are the state-of-the-art retinal imaging instruments, and are essential for early and reliable diagnosis of eye disease. Recently, with the incorporation of adaptive optics (AO), these instruments have started to deliver near diffraction-limited performance in both humans and animal models, enabling the resolution of the retinal ganglion cell bodies, their processes, the cone photoreceptor and the retinal pigment epithelial cells mosaics. Unfortunately, these novel instruments have not delivered consistent performance across human subjects and animal models. One of the limitations of current instruments is the astigmatism in the pupil and imaging planes, which degrades image quality, by preventing the wavefront sensor from measuring aberrations with high spatial content. This astigmatism is introduced by the sequence of off-axis reflective elements, typically spherical mirrors, used for relaying pupil and imaging planes. Expressions for minimal astigmatism on the image and pupil planes in off-axis reflective afocal telescopes formed by pairs of spherical mirrors are presented. The formulas, derived from the marginal ray fans equation, are valid for small angles of incidence (systems. An example related to this last application is discussed.

  3. Temporal adaptation enhances efficient contrast gain control on natural images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Sinz

    Full Text Available Divisive normalization in primary visual cortex has been linked to adaptation to natural image statistics in accordance to Barlow's redundancy reduction hypothesis. Using recent advances in natural image modeling, we show that the previously studied static model of divisive normalization is rather inefficient in reducing local contrast correlations, but that a simple temporal contrast adaptation mechanism of the half-saturation constant can substantially increase its efficiency. Our findings reveal the experimentally observed temporal dynamics of divisive normalization to be critical for redundancy reduction.

  4. Optical Methods and Instrumentation in Brain Imaging and Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of optical approaches used in brain imaging and therapy. It covers a variety of imaging techniques including diffuse optical imaging, laser speckle imaging, photoacoustic imaging and optical coherence tomography. A number of laser-based therapeutic approaches are reviewed, including photodynamic therapy, fluorescence guided resection and photothermal therapy. Fundamental principles and instrumentation are discussed for each imaging and therapeutic technique. Represents the first publication dedicated solely to optical diagnostics and therapeutics in the brain Provides a comprehensive review of the principles of each imaging/therapeutic modality Reviews the latest advances in instrumentation for optical diagnostics in the brain Discusses new optical-based therapeutic approaches for brain diseases

  5. Content-Based Color Image Retrieval Using Adaptive Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Manimegalai

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An image retrieval system is a computer system for browsing, searching and retrieving images from a large database of digital images. CBIR aims at avoiding the use of textual descriptions and instead retrieves images based on their visual similarity to a user-supplied query image or user-specified image features. Although classical wavelet transform is effective in representing image feature and thus is suitable in CBIR, it still encounters problems especially in implementation, e.g. floating-point operation and decomposition speed, which may nicely be solved by lifting scheme, a novel spatial approach for constructing biorthogonal wavelet filters. Lifting scheme has such intriguing properties as convenient construction, simple structure, integer-to-integer transform, low computational complexity as well as flexible adaptivity, revealing its potentialsin CBIR. In this paper, by using general lifting and its adaptive version, we decompose HSI color images into multi-level scale and wavelet coefficients, with which, we can perform image feature extraction.

  6. Nonlinear optical imaging: toward chemical imaging during neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tobias; Dietzek, Benjamin; Krafft, Christoph; Romeike, Bernd F. M.; Reichart, Rupert; Kalff, Rolf; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    Tumor recognition and precise tumor margin detection presents a central challenge during neurosurgery. In this contribution we present our recent all-optical approach to tackle this problem. We introduce various nonlinear optical techniques, such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second-harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPEF), to study the morphology and chemical composition of (ex vivo) brain tissue. As the experimental techniques presented are contact-free all-optical techniques, which do not rely on the administration of external (fluorescence) labels, we anticipate that their implementation into surgical microscopes will provide significant advantages of intraoperative tumor diagnosis. In this contribution an introduction to the different optical spectroscopic methods will be presented and their implementation into a multimodal microscopic setup will be discussed. Furthermore, we will exemplify their application to brain tissue, i.e. both pig brain as a model for healthy brain tissue and human brain samples taken from surgical procedures. The data to be discussed show the capability of a joint CARS/SHG/TPEF multimodal imaging approach in highlighting various aspects of tissue morphochemistry. The consequences of this microspectroscopic potential, when combined with the existing technology of surgical microscopes, will be discussed.

  7. Configuration optimization of laser guide stars and wavefront correctors for multi-conjugation adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Li; He, Bin; Hu, Li-Fa; Li, Da-Yu; Xu, Huan-Yu; Zhang, Xing-Yun; Wang, Shao-Xin; Wang, Yu-Kun; Yang, Cheng-Liang; Cao, Zhao-Liang; Mu, Quan-Quan; Lu, Xing-Hai

    2016-09-01

    Multi-conjugation adaptive optics (MCAOs) have been investigated and used in the large aperture optical telescopes for high-resolution imaging with large field of view (FOV). The atmospheric tomographic phase reconstruction and projection of three-dimensional turbulence volume onto wavefront correctors, such as deformable mirrors (DMs) or liquid crystal wavefront correctors (LCWCs), is a very important step in the data processing of an MCAO’s controller. In this paper, a method according to the wavefront reconstruction performance of MCAO is presented to evaluate the optimized configuration of multi laser guide stars (LGSs) and the reasonable conjugation heights of LCWCs. Analytical formulations are derived for the different configurations and are used to generate optimized parameters for MCAO. Several examples are given to demonstrate our LGSs configuration optimization method. Compared with traditional methods, our method has minimum wavefront tomographic error, which will be helpful to get higher imaging resolution at large FOV in MCAO. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174274, 11174279, 61205021, 11204299, 61475152, and 61405194) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. A high precision phase reconstruction algorithm for multi-laser guide stars adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Hu, Li-Fa; Li, Da-Yu; Xu, Huan-Yu; Zhang, Xing-Yun; Wang, Shao-Xin; Wang, Yu-Kun; Yang, Cheng-Liang; Cao, Zhao-Liang; Mu, Quan-Quan; Lu, Xing-Hai; Xuan, Li

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems are widespread and considered as an essential part of any large aperture telescope for obtaining a high resolution imaging at present. To enlarge the imaging field of view (FOV), multi-laser guide stars (LGSs) are currently being investigated and used for the large aperture optical telescopes. LGS measurement is necessary and pivotal to obtain the cumulative phase distortion along a target in the multi-LGSs AO system. We propose a high precision phase reconstruction algorithm to estimate the phase for a target with an uncertain turbulence profile based on the interpolation. By comparing with the conventional average method, the proposed method reduces the root mean square (RMS) error from 130 nm to 85 nm with a 30% reduction for narrow FOV. We confirm that such phase reconstruction algorithm is validated for both narrow field AO and wide field AO. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174274, 11174279, 61205021, 11204299, 61475152, and 61405194) and State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. An adaptive Kalman filter for speckle reductions in ultrasound images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speckle is the term used to describe the granular appearance found in ultrasound images. The presence of speckle reduces the diagnostic potential of the echographic technique because it tends to mask small inhomogeneities of the investigated tissue. We developed a new method of speckle reductions that utilizes an adaptive one-dimensional Kalman filter based on the assumption that the observed image can be considered as a superimposition of speckle on a ''true images''. The filter adaptivity, necessary to avoid loss of resolution, has been obtained by statistical considerations on the local signal variations. The results of the applications of this particular Kalman filter, both on A-Mode and B-MODE images, show a significant speckle reduction

  10. Optical metabolic imaging for monitoring tracheal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharick, Joe T.; Gil, Daniel A.; Choma, Michael A.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-04-01

    The health of the tracheal mucosa and submucosa is a vital yet poorly understood component of critical care medicine, and a minimally-invasive method is needed to monitor tracheal health in patients. Of particular interest are the ciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium that move mucus away from the lungs and prevent respiratory infection. Optical metabolic imaging (OMI) allows cellular-level measurement of metabolism, and is a compelling method for assessing tracheal health because ciliary motor proteins require ATP to function. In this pilot study, we apply multiphoton imaging of the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of metabolic co-enzymes NAD(P)H and FAD to the mucosa and submucosa of ex vivo mouse trachea. We demonstrate the feasibility and potential diagnostic utility of these measurements for assessing tracheal health and pathophysiology at the single-cell level.

  11. A content-based image retrieval method for optical colonoscopy images based on image recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosato, Hirokazu; Sakanashi, Hidenori; Takahashi, Eiichi; Murakawa, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a content-based image retrieval method for optical colonoscopy images that can find images similar to ones being diagnosed. Optical colonoscopy is a method of direct observation for colons and rectums to diagnose bowel diseases. It is the most common procedure for screening, surveillance and treatment. However, diagnostic accuracy for intractable inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis (UC), is highly dependent on the experience and knowledge of the medical doctor, because there is considerable variety in the appearances of colonic mucosa within inflammations with UC. In order to solve this issue, this paper proposes a content-based image retrieval method based on image recognition techniques. The proposed retrieval method can find similar images from a database of images diagnosed as UC, and can potentially furnish the medical records associated with the retrieved images to assist the UC diagnosis. Within the proposed method, color histogram features and higher order local auto-correlation (HLAC) features are adopted to represent the color information and geometrical information of optical colonoscopy images, respectively. Moreover, considering various characteristics of UC colonoscopy images, such as vascular patterns and the roughness of the colonic mucosa, we also propose an image enhancement method to highlight the appearances of colonic mucosa in UC. In an experiment using 161 UC images from 32 patients, we demonstrate that our method improves the accuracy of retrieving similar UC images.

  12. Morphologies of High Redshift, Dust Obscured Galaxies from Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Melbourne, J; Armus, Lee; Dey, Arjun; Brand, K; Thompson, D; Soifer, B T; Matthews, K; Jannuzi, B T; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    Spitzer MIPS images in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey have revealed a class of extremely dust obscured galaxy (DOG) at z~2. The DOGs are defined by very red optical to mid-IR (observed-frame) colors, R - [24 um] > 14 mag, i.e. f_v (24 um) / f_v (R) > 1000. They are Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies with L_8-1000 um > 10^12 -10^14 L_sun, but typically have very faint optical (rest-frame UV) fluxes. We imaged three DOGs with the Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGSAO) system, obtaining ~0.06'' resolution in the K'-band. One system was dominated by a point source, while the other two were clearly resolved. Of the resolved sources, one can be modeled as a exponential disk system. The other is consistent with a de Vaucouleurs profile typical of elliptical galaxies. The non-parametric measures of their concentration and asymmetry, show the DOGs to be both compact and smooth. The AO images rule out double nuclei with separations of greater than 0.1'' (< 1 kpc at z=2), making it unlikely ...

  13. Diffusion kurtosis imaging based on adaptive spherical integral

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y; Chen, L.; Yu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a recent approach in medical engineering that has potential value for both neurological diseases and basic neuroscience research. In this letter, we develop a robust method based on adaptive spherical integral that can compute kurtosis based quantities more precisely and efficiently. Our method integrates spherical trigonometry with a recursive computational scheme to make numerical estimations in kurtosis imaging convergent. Our algorithm improves the effi...

  14. Introduction: Feature Issue on Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Perelman, Lev T.

    2010-01-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, “Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy,” which was a technical area at the 2010 Optical Society of America (OSA), Biomedical Optics (BIOMED) Topical Meeting held on 11–14 April in Miami, Florida. The feature issue includes 23 contributions from conference attendees.

  15. Introduction: Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography, Photoacoustic Imaging, and Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X; Beard, P.C.; Georgakoudi, I.

    2010-01-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, “Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography, Photoacoustic Imaging, and Microscopy,” which combines three technical areas from the 2010 Optical Society of America (OSA), Biomedical Optics (BIOMED) Topical Meeting held on 11–14 April in Miami, Florida, and includes contributions from conference attendees.

  16. RESEARCH ON IMAGE TRANSLATION BETWEEN SAR AND OPTICAL IMAGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Fu; Zhang,

    2012-01-01

    Compare to optical sensors, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors can work at all time and under all weather conditions. However, SAR images are less intuitive and more difficult to understand. To complement advantages of optical and SAR sensors, a technique of image translation is put forward. Firstly, the concept named as remote sensing image translation is presented, and a set of technology thinking for multi-source remote sensing image translation is also given. Image understand...

  17. The adaptation of methods in multilayer optics for the calculation of specular neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptation of standard methods in multilayer optics to the calculation of specular neutron reflection is described. Their application is illustrated with examples which include a glass optical flat and a deuterated Langmuir-Blodgett film. (author)

  18. Adaptive edge image enhancement based on maximum fuzzy entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiu-hua; YANG Kun-tao

    2006-01-01

    Based on the maximum fuzzy entropy principle,the edge image with low contrast is optimally classified into two classes adaptively,under the condition of probability partition and fuzzy partition.The optimal threshold is used as the classified threshold value,and a local parametric gray-level transformation is applied to the obtained classes.By means of two parameters representing,the homogeneity of the regions in edge image is improved.The excellent performance of the proposed technique is exercisable through simulation results on a set of test images.It is shown how the extracted and enhanced edges provide an efficient edge-representation of images.It is shown that the proposed technique possesses excellent performance in homogeneity through simulations on a set of test images,and the extracted and enhanced edges provide an efficient edge-representation of images.

  19. Intensify Denoisy Image Using Adaptive Multiscale Product Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Anup T. Gadre,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This Paper presents a wavelet-based multiscale products thresholding scheme for noise suppression of magnetic resonance images. This paper proposed a method based on image de-noising and edge enhancement of noisy multidimensional imaging data sets. Medical images are generally suffered from signal dependent noises i.e. speckle noise and broken edges. Most of the noises signals appear from machine and environment generally not contribute to the tissue differentiation. But, the noise generated due to above mentioned reason causes a grainy appearance on the image, hence image enhancement is required. For the intent of image denoising, Adaptive Multiscale Product Thresholding based on 2-D wavelet transform is used. In this method, contiguous wavelet sub bands are multiplied to improve edge structure while reducing noise. In multiscale products, boundaries can be successfully distinguished from noise. Adaptive threshold is designed and forced on multiscale products as an alternative of wavelet coefficients or recognize important features. For the edge enhancement. Canny Edge Detection Algorithm is used with scale multiplication technique. Simulation results shows that the planned technique better suppress the Poisson noise among several noises i.e. salt & pepper, speckle noise and random noise. The Performance of Image Intesification can be estimate by means of PSNR, MSE.

  20. `imaka - a ground-layer adaptive optics system on Maunakea

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Mark; Toomey, Douglas; Lu, Jessica; Service, Max; Baranec, Christoph; Thibault, Simon; Brousseau, Denis; Hayano, Yutaka; Oya, Shin; Santi, Shane; Kingery, Christopher; Loss, Keith; Gardiner, John; Steele, Brad

    2016-01-01

    We present the integration status for `imaka, the ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) system on the University of Hawaii 2.2-meter telescope on Maunakea, Hawaii. This wide-field GLAO pathfinder system exploits Maunakea's highly confined ground layer and weak free-atmosphere to push the corrected field of view to ~1/3 of a degree, an areal field approaching an order of magnitude larger than any existing or planned GLAO system, with a FWHM ~ 0.33 arcseconds in the visible and near infrared. We discuss the unique design aspects of the instrument, the driving science cases and how they impact the system, and how we will demonstrate these cases on the sky.

  1. Synthetic Modeling of Astronomical Closed Loop Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Jolissaint, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    We present an analytical model of a single natural guide star astronomical adaptive optics system, in closed loop mode. The model is used to simulate the long exposure system point spread function, using the spatial frequency (or Fourier) approach, and complement an initial open loop model. Applications range from system design, science case analysis and AO data reduction. All the classical phase errors have been included: deformable mirror fitting error, wavefront sensor spatial aliasing, wavefront sensor noise, and the correlated anisoplanatic and servo-lag error. The model includes the deformable mirror spatial transfer function, and the actuator array geometry can be different from the wavefront sensor lenslet array geometry. We also include the dispersion between the sensing and the correction wavelengths. Illustrative examples are given at the end of the paper.

  2. Multiple Object Adaptive Optics: Mixed NGS/LGS tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Tim; Gendron, Eric; Basden, Alastair; Martin, Olivier; Osborn, James; Henry, David; Hubert, Zoltan; Sivo, Gaetano; Gratadour, Damien; Chemla, Fanny; Sevin, Arnaud; Cohen, Matthieu; Younger, Eddy; Vidal, Fabrice; Wilson, Richard; Batterley, Tim; Bitenc, Urban; Reeves, Andrew; Bharmal, Nazim; Raynaud, Henri-François; Kulcsar, Caroline; Conan, Jean-Marc; Guzman, Dani; De Cos Juez, Javier; Huet, Jean-Michel; Perret, Denis; Dickson, Colin; Atkinson, David; Baillie, Tom; Longmore, Andy; Todd, Stephen; Talbot, Gordon; Morris, Simon; Myers, Richard; Rousset, Gérard

    2013-12-01

    Open-loop adaptive optics has been successfully demonstrated on-sky by several groups, including the fully tomographic MOAO demonstration made using CANARY. MOAO instrumentation such as RAVEN will deliver the first astronomical science and other planned instruments aim to extend both open-loop AO performance and the number of corrected fields. Many of these planned systems rely on the use of tomographic open-loop LGS wavefront sensing. Here we present results from the combined NGS/LGS tomographic CANARY system and then compare the NGS- and LGS-based tomographic system performance. We identify the major system performance drivers, and highlight some potential routes for further exploitation of open-loop tomographic AO.

  3. Adaptive fiber optics collimator based on flexible hinges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Pengfei; Si, Lei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu

    2014-08-20

    In this manuscript, we present a new design for an adaptive fiber optics collimator (AFOC) based on flexible hinges by using piezoelectric stacks actuators for X-Y displacement. Different from traditional AFOC, the new structure is based on flexible hinges to drive the fiber end cap instead of naked fiber. We fabricated a real AFOC based on flexible hinges, and the end cap's deviation and resonance frequency of the device were measured. Experimental results show that this new AFOC can provide fast control of tip-tilt deviation of the laser beam emitting from the end cap. As a result, the fiber end cap can support much higher power than naked fiber, which makes the new structure ideal for tip-tilt controlling in a high-power fiber laser system.

  4. Molecular probes for nonlinear optical imaging of biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Desce, Mireille H.; Ventelon, Lionel; Charier, Sandrine; Moreaux, Laurent; Mertz, Jerome

    2001-12-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) are nonlinear optical (NLO) phenomena that scale with excitation intensity squared, and hence give rise to an intrinsic 3-dimensional resolution when used in microscopic imaging. TPEF microscopy has gained widespread popularity in the biology community whereas SHG microscopy promises to be a powerful tool because of its sensitivity to local asymmetry. We have implemented an approach toward the design of NLO-probes specifically adapted for SHG and/or TPEF imaging of biological membranes. Our strategy is based on the design of nanoscale amphiphilic NLO-phores. We have prepared symmetrical bolaamphiphilic fluorophores combining very high two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-sections in the visible red region and affinity for cellular membranes. Their incorporation and orientation in lipid membranes can be monitored via TPEF anisotropy. We have also prepared amphiphilic push-pull chromophores exhibiting both large TPA cross-sections and very large first hyperpolarizabilities in the near-IR region. These NLO-probes have proved to be particularly useful for imaging of biological membranes by simultaneous SHG and TPEF microscopy and offer attractive prospects for real-time imaging of fundamental biological processes such as adhesion, fusion or reporting of membrane potentials.

  5. Applications of non-imaging micro-optic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Katherine Anne

    2012-01-01

    While imaging optics necessarily transmit a clear image of an object, non-imaging optics manipulate light in many different ways. Two important applications are illumination and concentration. In this thesis, I cover an application in each of these areas involving small-scale optics. Extremely low birth weight infants typically require intubation, but existing laryngoscopes for viewing the airway are not suited to this population. Small commercial cameras can fit within the required geometry,...

  6. [An adaptive threshloding segmentation method for urinary sediment image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongming; Zeng, Xiaoping; Qin, Jian; Han, Liang

    2009-02-01

    In this paper is proposed a new method to solve the segmentation of the complicated defocusing urinary sediment image. The main points of the method are: (1) using wavelet transforms and morphology to erase the effect of defocusing and realize the first segmentation, (2) using adaptive threshold processing in accordance to the subimages after wavelet processing, and (3) using 'peel off' algorithm to deal with the overlapped cells' segmentations. The experimental results showed that this method was not affected by the defocusing, and it made good use of many kinds of characteristics of the images. So this new mehtod can get very precise segmentation; it is effective for defocusing urinary sediment image segmentation.

  7. Optimal stellar photometry for multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems using science-based metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Turri, P; Stetson, P B; Fiorentino, G; Andersen, D R; Bono, G; Massari, D; Veran, J -P

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed discussion of how to obtain precise stellar photometry in crowded fields using images obtained with multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO), with the intent of informing the scientific development of this key technology for the Extremely Large Telescopes. We use deep J and K$_\\mathrm{s}$ exposures of NGC 1851 obtained using the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) on Gemini South to quantify the performance of the system and to develop an optimal strategy for extracting precise stellar photometry from the images using well-known PSF-fitting techniques. We judge the success of the various techniques we employ by using science-based metrics, particularly the width of the main sequence turn-off region. We also compare the GeMS photometry with the exquisite HST data of the same target in the visible. We show that the PSF produced by GeMS possesses significant spatial and temporal variability that must be accounted for during the photometric analysis by allowing the PSF model a...

  8. Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance

    CERN Document Server

    Neichel, Benoit; Vidal, Fabrice; van Dam, Marcos A; Garrel, Vincent; Carrasco, Eleazar Rodrigo; Pessev, Peter; Winge, Claudia; Boccas, Maxime; d'Orgeville, Céline; Arriagada, Gustavo; Serio, Andrew; Fesquet, Vincent; Rambold, William N; Lührs, Javier; Moreno, Cristian; Gausachs, Gaston; Galvez, Ramon L; Montes, Vanessa; Vucina, Tomislav B; Marin, Eduardo; Urrutia, Cristian; Lopez, Ariel; Diggs, Sarah J; Marchant, Claudio; Ebbers, Angelic W; Trujillo, Chadwick; Bec, Matthieu; Trancho, Gelys; McGregor, Peter; Young, Peter J; Colazo, Felipe; Edwards, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics System - GeMS, a facility instrument mounted on the Gemini South telescope, delivers a uniform, near diffraction limited images at near infrared wavelengths (0.95 microns- 2.5 microns) over a field of view of 120 arc seconds. GeMS is the first sodium layer based multi laser guide star adaptive optics system used in astronomy. It uses five laser guide stars distributed on a 60 arc seconds square constellation to measure for atmospheric distortions and two deformable mirrors to compensate for it. In this paper, the second devoted to describe the GeMS project, we present the commissioning, overall performance and operational scheme of GeMS. Performance of each sub-system is derived from the commissioning results. The typical image quality, expressed in full with half maximum, Strehl ratios and variations over the field delivered by the system are then described. A discussion of the main contributor to performance limitation is carried-out. Finally, overheads and future ...

  9. Adaptive Movement Compensation for In Vivo Imaging of Fast Cellular Dynamics within a Moving Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Hugues; De Koninck, Paul; De Koninck, Yves; Côté, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In vivo non-linear optical microscopy has been essential to advance our knowledge of how intact biological systems work. It has been particularly enabling to decipher fast spatiotemporal cellular dynamics in neural networks. The power of the technique stems from its optical sectioning capability that in turn also limits its application to essentially immobile tissue. Only tissue not affected by movement or in which movement can be physically constrained can be imaged fast enough to conduct functional studies at high temporal resolution. Here, we show dynamic two-photon Ca2+ imaging in the spinal cord of a living rat at millisecond time scale, free of motion artifacts using an optical stabilization system. We describe a fast, non-contact adaptive movement compensation approach, applicable to rough and weakly reflective surfaces, allowing real-time functional imaging from intrinsically moving tissue in live animals. The strategy involves enslaving the position of the microscope objective to that of the tissue surface in real-time through optical monitoring and a closed feedback loop. The performance of the system allows for efficient image locking even in conditions of random or irregular movements. PMID:21629702

  10. Batch fabrication of micro-optical sensing and imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Reimann, A.; Oelschläger, A.; Dannberg, P.; Blöhbaum, F.; Koburg, C.; Köhler, T.

    2013-03-01

    As demonstrated in microelectronics, the batch fabrication based on the processing of wafers can lead to a significant reduction in prize as well as in size. This concept was adapted to the fabrication of imaging optics extensively used in mobile phone cameras relying on small pixels and low resolutions such as VGA. We report on batch fabricated customer specific opto-electronical modules used in machine sensing and automotive applications relying on large pixel sizes and non-conventional sensor characteristics. We specially focus on the lens mold mastering for the subsequent UV-replication since comparatively large sag heights of 250μm are required. Two technological approaches were applied, first, based on reflow of photoresist and, second, using diamond turning for the generation of a single lens mold and a subsequent step&repeat-process for array mastering on 8" wafers. Aspects of the optical design and simulation, the batch fabrication based on 8" wafers and characterization results are provided by the example of an f/1.1 opto-electronic sensor and an objective for a global shutter imager using 550x550 pixels with 3.6μm pitch.

  11. Functional connectivity of the rodent brain using optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Codina, Edgar

    The aim of this thesis is to apply functional connectivity in a variety of animal models, using several optical imaging modalities. Even at rest, the brain shows high metabolic activity: the correlation in slow spontaneous fluctuations identifies remotely connected areas of the brain; hence the term "functional connectivity". Ongoing changes in spontaneous activity may provide insight into the neural processing that takes most of the brain metabolic activity, and so may provide a vast source of disease related changes. Brain hemodynamics may be modified during disease and affect resting-state activity. The thesis aims to better understand these changes in functional connectivity due to disease, using functional optical imaging. The optical imaging techniques explored in the first two contributions of this thesis are Optical Imaging of Intrinsic Signals and Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging, together they can estimate the metabolic rate of oxygen consumption, that closely parallels neural activity. They both have adequate spatial and temporal resolution and are well adapted to image the convexity of the mouse cortex. In the last article, a depth-sensitive modality called photoacoustic tomography was used in the newborn rat. Optical coherence tomography and laminar optical tomography were also part of the array of imaging techniques developed and applied in other collaborations. The first article of this work shows the changes in functional connectivity in an acute murine model of epileptiform activity. Homologous correlations are both increased and decreased with a small dependence on seizure duration. These changes suggest a potential decoupling between the hemodynamic parameters in resting-state networks, underlining the importance to investigate epileptic networks with several independent hemodynamic measures. The second study examines a novel murine model of arterial stiffness: the unilateral calcification of the right carotid. Seed-based connectivity analysis

  12. Adaptive Image Restoration and Segmentation Method Using Different Neighborhood Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Li

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The image restoration methods based on the Bayesian's framework and Markov random fields (MRF have been widely used in the image-processing field. The basic idea of all these methods is to use calculus of variation and mathematical statistics to average or estimate a pixel value by the values of its neighbors. After applying this averaging process to the whole image a number of times, the noisy pixels, which are abnormal values, are filtered out. Based on the Tea-trade model, which states that the closer the neighbor, more contribution it makes, almost all of these methods use only the nearest four neighbors for calculation. In our previous research [1, 2], we extended the research on CLRS (image restoration and segmentation by using competitive learning algorithm to enlarge the neighborhood size. The results showed that the longer neighborhood range could improve or worsen the restoration results. We also found that the autocorrelation coefficient was an important factor to determine the proper neighborhood size. We then further realized that the computational complexity increased dramatically along with the enlargement of the neighborhood size. This paper is to further the previous research and to discuss the tradeoff between the computational complexity and the restoration improvement by using longer neighborhood range. We used a couple of methods to construct the synthetic images with the exact correlation coefficients we want and to determine the corresponding neighborhood size. We constructed an image with a range of correlation coefficients by blending some synthetic images. Then an adaptive method to find the correlation coefficients of this image was constructed. We restored the image by applying different neighborhood CLRS algorithm to different parts of the image according to its correlation coefficient. Finally, we applied this adaptive method to some real-world images to get improved restoration results than by using single

  13. An adaptive multi-feature segmentation model for infrared image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Han, Jin; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lianfa

    2016-04-01

    Active contour models (ACM) have been extensively applied to image segmentation, conventional region-based active contour models only utilize global or local single feature information to minimize the energy functional to drive the contour evolution. Considering the limitations of original ACMs, an adaptive multi-feature segmentation model is proposed to handle infrared images with blurred boundaries and low contrast. In the proposed model, several essential local statistic features are introduced to construct a multi-feature signed pressure function (MFSPF). In addition, we draw upon the adaptive weight coefficient to modify the level set formulation, which is formed by integrating MFSPF with local statistic features and signed pressure function with global information. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can make up for the inadequacy of the original method and get desirable results in segmenting infrared images.

  14. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  15. A Tilt-correction Adaptive Optical System for the Solar Telescope of Nanjing University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Hui Rao; Xiu-Fa Gao; Tian Mi; Wen-Han Jiang; Cheng Fang; Ning Ling; Wei-Chao Zhou; Ming-De Ding; Xue-Jun Zhang; Dong-Hong Chen; Mei Li

    2003-01-01

    A tilt-correction adaptive optical system installed on the 430 mm Solar Telescope of Nanjing University has been put in operation. It consists of a tip-tilt mirror, a correlation tracker and an imaging CCD camera. An absolute difference algorithm is used for detecting image motion in the correlation tracker. The sampling frequency of the system is 419 Hz. We give a description of the system's configuration, an analysis of its performance and a report of our observational results. A residual jitter of 0.14 arcsec has been achieved. The error rejection bandwidth of the system can be adjusted in the range 5-28 Hz according to the beacon size and the strength of atmospheric turbulence.

  16. Autonomous Image Segmentation using Density-Adaptive Dendritic Cell Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwambhar Pathak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary image processing based applications like medical diagnosis automation and analysis of satellite imagery include autonomous image segmentation as inevitable facility. The research done shows the efficiency of an adaptive evolutionary algorithm based on immune system dynamics for the task of autonomous image segmentation. The recognition dynamics of immune-kernels modeled with infinite Gaussian mixture models exhibit the capability to automatically determine appropriate number of segments in presence of noise. In addition, the model using representative density-kernel-parameters processes the information with much reduced space requirements. Experiments conducted with synthetic images as well as real images recorded assured convergence and optimal autonomous model estimation. The segmentation results tested in terms of PBM-index values have been found comparable to those of the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM for the same number of segments as generated by our algorithm.

  17. Adaptive texture filtering for defect inspection in ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmola, Carl; Segal, Andrew C.; Lovewell, Brian; Nash, Charles

    1993-05-01

    The use of ultrasonic imaging to analyze defects and characterize materials is critical in the development of non-destructive testing and non-destructive evaluation (NDT/NDE) tools for manufacturing. To develop better quality control and reliability in the manufacturing environment advanced image processing techniques are useful. For example, through the use of texture filtering on ultrasound images, we have been able to filter characteristic textures from highly-textured C-scan images of materials. The materials have highly regular characteristic textures which are of the same resolution and dynamic range as other important features within the image. By applying texture filters and adaptively modifying their filter response, we have examined a family of filters for removing these textures.

  18. Adaptive Image Digital Watermarking with DCT and FCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Liyun; MA Hong; TANG Shifu

    2006-01-01

    A novel adaptive digital image watermark algorithm is proposed. Fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) is used to classify the original image blocks into two classes based on several characteristic parameters of human visual system (HVS). One is suited for embedding a digital watermark, the other is not. So the appropriate blocks in an image are selected to embed the watermark. The watermark is embedded in the middle-frequency part of the host image in conjunction with HVS and discrete cosine transform (DCT). The maximal watermark strength is fixed according to the frequency masking. In the same time, for the good performance, the watermark is modulated into a fractal modulation array. The simulation results show that we can remarkably extract the hiding watermark and the algorithm can achieve good robustness with common signal distortion or geometric distortion and the quality of the watermarked image is guaranteed.

  19. FOCAL PLANE WAVEFRONT SENSING USING RESIDUAL ADAPTIVE OPTICS SPECKLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codona, Johanan L.; Kenworthy, Matthew, E-mail: jlcodona@gmail.com [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    Optical imperfections, misalignments, aberrations, and even dust can significantly limit sensitivity in high-contrast imaging systems such as coronagraphs. An upstream deformable mirror (DM) in the pupil can be used to correct or compensate for these flaws, either to enhance the Strehl ratio or suppress the residual coronagraphic halo. Measurement of the phase and amplitude of the starlight halo at the science camera is essential for determining the DM shape that compensates for any non-common-path (NCP) wavefront errors. Using DM displacement ripples to create a series of probe and anti-halo speckles in the focal plane has been proposed for space-based coronagraphs and successfully demonstrated in the lab. We present the theory and first on-sky demonstration of a technique to measure the complex halo using the rapidly changing residual atmospheric speckles at the 6.5 m MMT telescope using the Clio mid-IR camera. The AO system's wavefront sensor measurements are used to estimate the residual wavefront, allowing us to approximately compute the rapidly evolving phase and amplitude of speckle halo. When combined with relatively short, synchronized science camera images, the complex speckle estimates can be used to interferometrically analyze the images, leading to an estimate of the static diffraction halo with NCP effects included. In an operational system, this information could be collected continuously and used to iteratively correct quasi-static NCP errors or suppress imperfect coronagraphic halos.

  20. Reconstruction of Optical Thickness from Hoffman Modulation Contrast Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Holm; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads;

    2003-01-01

    Hoffman microscopy imaging systems are part of numerous fertility clinics world-wide. We discuss the physics of the Hoffman imaging system from optical thickness to image intensity, implement a simple, yet fast, reconstruction algorithm using Fast Fourier Transformation and discuss the usability...... of the method on a number of cells from a human embryo. Novelty is identifying the non-linearity of a typical Hoffman imaging system, and the application of Fourier Transformation to reconstruct the optical thickness....

  1. Numerical modelling and image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Hamid; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Pogue, Brian W.; Gibson, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The development of diffuse optical tomography as a functional imaging modality has relied largely on the use of model-based image reconstruction. The recovery of optical parameters from boundary measurements of light propagation within tissue is inherently a difficult one, because the problem is nonlinear, ill-posed and ill-conditioned. Additionally, although the measured near-infrared signals of light transmission through tissue provide high imaging contrast, the reconstructed images suffer ...

  2. High Redshift Dust Obscured Galaxies, A Morphology-SED Connection Revealed by Keck Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Melbourne, J; Brand, K; Desai, V; Armus, L; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B T; Houck, J R; Matthews, K; Soifer, B T

    2009-01-01

    A simple optical to mid-IR color selection, R-[24] > 14, i.e. f_nu(24) / f_nu(R) > 1000, identifies highly dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) with typical redshifts of z~2 +/- 0.5. Extreme mid-IR luminosities (L_{IR} > 10^{12-14}) suggest that DOGs are powered by a combination of AGN and star formation, possibly driven by mergers. In an effort to compare their photometric properties with their rest frame optical morphologies, we obtained high spatial resolution (0.05 -0.1") Keck Adaptive Optics (AO) K'-band images of 15 DOGs. The images reveal a wide range of morphologies, including: small exponential disks (8 of 15), small ellipticals (4 of 15), and unresolved sources (2 of 15). One particularly diffuse source could not be classified because of low signal to noise ratio. We find a statistically significant correlation between galaxy concentration and mid-IR luminosity, with the most luminous DOGs exhibiting higher concentration and smaller physical size. DOGs with high concentration also tend to have spectral ene...

  3. Handling complex adaptive optics concepts including the third and fourth dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Marco; Viotto, Valentina; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bergomi, Maria; Brunelli, Alessandro; Farinato, Jacopo; Gentile, Giorgia; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Satta, Antonello

    2010-07-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) concepts involve sometimes very complex behaviors of rays, waves and optical elements. Just think, to be convinced, the way multiple probes aim to correct for a large field of view Multi Conjugated AO, and to how these deploy onto a dynamic turbulent atmosphere. In order to explain the behavior of novel concepts we developed visualization techniques that involve the display of three dimensional images and the creation of movies to explain how the concept deals with an evolving situation, or, in other words, adding the fourth dimension of time. We produce solid models of the optical concepts we are developing, including the evolving temporal behavior of the turbulence, and these can be manipulated in a virtual manner in order to allow for the production of different means of visualization. These ranges from so called "static movies" where a three dimensional concept is just explored in three dimension by handling it around the observer, to the creation of three dimensional anaglyphs or anaglyphs movies. While the paper is mainly focused onto the ways these techniques are exploited in order to produce satisfactory results, the poster allow the visitor to experience some of these images and movies. The aim of this work is not only of a sort of high level didactical purpose, but we think it would be useful into scientific discussion and during meeting to develop engineering concepts of several AO concepts.

  4. Changing image of correlation optics: introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Gbur, Gregory J.;

    2016-01-01

    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting recent progress of correlation optics and illustrating current trends in vector singular optics, internal energy flows at light fields, optical science of materials, and new biomedical applications of lasers. (C......) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  5. Image Super-Resolution via Adaptive Regularization and Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feilong; Cai, Miaomiao; Tan, Yuanpeng; Zhao, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that image patches can be well represented as a sparse linear combination of elements from an appropriately selected over-complete dictionary. Recently, single-image super-resolution (SISR) via sparse representation using blurred and downsampled low-resolution images has attracted increasing interest, where the aim is to obtain the coefficients for sparse representation by solving an l0 or l1 norm optimization problem. The l0 optimization is a nonconvex and NP-hard problem, while the l1 optimization usually requires many more measurements and presents new challenges even when the image is the usual size, so we propose a new approach for SISR recovery based on regularization nonconvex optimization. The proposed approach is potentially a powerful method for recovering SISR via sparse representations, and it can yield a sparser solution than the l1 regularization method. We also consider the best choice for lp regularization with all p in (0, 1), where we propose a scheme that adaptively selects the norm value for each image patch. In addition, we provide a method for estimating the best value of the regularization parameter λ adaptively, and we discuss an alternate iteration method for selecting p and λ . We perform experiments, which demonstrates that the proposed regularization nonconvex optimization method can outperform the convex optimization method and generate higher quality images.

  6. Application of a photorefractive bismuth titanate crystal for the construction of adaptive fiber optic seismic receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using a photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystal to create an adaptive fiber optic geophone has been studied. It is shown that this crystal provides efficient phase demodulation in and adaptive interferometer scheme at low optical powers

  7. Lasers, lenses and light curves : adaptive optics microscopy and peculiar transiting exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, Theodorus Isaak Mattheus van

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we present an adaptive optics implementation for multi-photon microscopy correcting sample-induced wavefront aberrations using either direct wavefront sensing to run a close-loop adaptive optics system (Chapter 3), or use a model-based sensorless approach to iterati

  8. Optical processing of images using computer calculated filters displayed on a liquid crystal electro-optical relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hybrid data processing associating a computer calculation of the processing filters to their use in coherent optical set-up may lead to real-time filtering. On the principle, it is shown that an instantaneous filtering of all known and unknown defects in images can be attained using a well adapted electro-optical relay. Some synthetical holograms, holographic lenses with variable focussing, and a number of processing filters were calculated, all holograms being phase coded in binary. The results were tape registred and displayed in delayed time on a 128x128 points liquid crystal electro-optical relay allowing the quality of reproduction for the computed holograms to be tested on a simple diffraction bench, and on a double diffraction bench in the case of the results of the image filtering

  9. Raster image adaptation for mobile devices using profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, René; Hamann, Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Focusing on digital imagery, this paper introduces a strategy to handle heterogeneous hardware in mobile environments. Constrained system resources of most mobile viewing devices require contents that are tailored to the requirements of the user and the capabilities of the device. Appropriate image adaptation is still an unsolved research question. Due to the complexity of the problem, available solutions are either too resource-intensive or inflexible to be more generally applicable. The proposed approach is based on scalable image compression and progressive refinement as well as data and user profiles. A scalable image is created once and used multiple times for different kinds of devices and user requirements. Profiles available on the server side allow for an image representation that is adapted to the most important resources in mobile computing: screen space, computing power, and the volume of the transmitted data. Options for progressively refining content thereby allow for a fluent viewing experience during adaptation. Due to its flexibility and low complexity, the proposed solution is much more general compared to related approaches. To document the advantages of our approach we provide empirical results obtained in experiments with an implementation of the method.

  10. Can preoperative MR imaging predict optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyoung Doo, E-mail: kdsong0308@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Hong, E-mail: rtombow@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye, E-mail: jhkate.kim@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, So-Young, E-mail: sy1131.yoo@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Tae Yeon, E-mail: hathor97.jeon@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of pre-operative MRI for the detection of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were waived for this retrospective study. A total of 41 patients were included. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven retinoblastoma, availability of diagnostic-quality preoperative MR images acquired during the 4 weeks before surgery, unilateral retinoblastoma, and normal-sized optic nerve. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MR images independently. Five imaging findings (diffuse mild optic nerve enhancement, focal strong optic nerve enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, tumor location, and tumor size) were evaluated against optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma. The predictive performance of all MR imaging findings for optic nerve invasion was also evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Optic nerve invasion was histopathologically confirmed in 24% of study population (10/41). The differences in diffuse mild enhancement, focal strong enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, and tumor location between patients with optic nerve invasion and patients without optic nerve invasion were not significant. Tumor sizes were 16.1 mm (SD: 2.2 mm) and 14.9 mm (SD: 3.6 mm) in patients with and without optic nerve involvement, respectively (P = 0.444). P-Values from binary logistic regression indicated that all five imaging findings were not significant predictors of tumor invasion of optic nerve. The AUC values of all MR imaging findings for the prediction of optic nerve invasion were 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.499–0.879) and 0.653 (95% confidence interval: 0.445–0.861) for observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. Conclusion: Findings of MRI in patients with normal-sized optic nerves have limited usefulness in preoperatively predicting the presence of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma.

  11. Advances in the Simultaneous Multiple Surface optical design method for imaging and non-imaging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Classical imaging optics has been developed over centuries in many areas, such as its paraxial imaging theory and practical design methods like multi-parametric optimization techniques. Although these imaging optical design methods can provide elegant solutions to many traditional optical problems, there are more and more new design problems, like solar concentrator, illumination system, ultra-compact camera, etc., that require maximum energy transfer efficiency, or ultra-compact optical stru...

  12. An Matching Method for Vehicle-borne Panoramic Image Sequence Based on Adaptive Structure from Motion Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhengpeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Panoramic image matching method with the constraint condition of local structure from motion similarity feature is an important method, the process requires multivariable kernel density estimations for the structure from motion feature used nonparametric mean shift. Proper selection of the kernel bandwidth is a critical step for convergence speed and accuracy of matching method. Variable bandwidth with adaptive structure from motion feature for panoramic image matching method has been proposed in this work. First the bandwidth matrix is defined using the locally adaptive spatial structure of the sampling point in spatial domain and optical flow domain. The relaxation diffusion process of structure from motion similarity feature is described by distance weighting method of local optical flow feature vector. Then the expression form of adaptive multivariate kernel density function is given out, and discusses the solution of the mean shift vector, termination conditions, and the seed point selection method. The final fusions of multi-scale SIFT the features and structure features to establish a unified panoramic image matching framework. The sphere panoramic images from vehicle-borne mobile measurement system are chosen such that a comparison analysis between fixed bandwidth and adaptive bandwidth is carried out in detail. The results show that adaptive bandwidth is good for case with the inlier ratio changes and the object space scale changes. The proposed method can realize the adaptive similarity measure of structure from motion feature, improves the correct matching points and matching rate, experimental results have shown our method to be robust.

  13. Large binocular telescope interferometer adaptive optics: on-sky performance and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Vanessa P.; Hinz, Philip M.; Puglisi, Alfio T.; Esposito, Simone; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Skemer, Andrew J.; Defrère, Denis; Vaz, Amali; Leisenring, Jarron M.

    2014-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer is a high contrast imager and interferometer that sits at the combined bent Gregorian focus of the LBT's dual 8.4 m apertures. The interferometric science drivers dictate 0.1" resolution with 103 - 104 contrast at 10 μm, while the 4 μm imaging science drivers require even greater contrasts, but at scales <0.2". In imaging mode, LBTI's Adaptive Optics system is already delivering 4 μm contrast of 104 - 105 at 0.3" - 0.75" in good conditions. Even in poor seeing, it can deliver up to 90% Strehl Ratio at this wavelength. However, the performance could be further improved by mitigating Non-Common Path Aberrations. Any NCPA remedy must be feasible using only the current hardware: the science camera, the wavefront sensor, and the adaptive secondary mirror. In preliminary testing, we have implemented an "eye doctor" grid search approach for astigmatism and trefoil, achieving 5% improvement in Strehl Ratio at 4 μm, with future plans to test at shorter wavelengths and with more modes. We find evidence of NCPA variability on short timescales and discuss possible upgrades to ameliorate time-variable effects.

  14. Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer Adaptive Optics: On-sky performance and lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Vanessa P; Puglisi, Alfio T; Esposito, Simone; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Skemer, Andrew J; Defrere, Denis; Vaz, Amali; Leisenring, Jarron M

    2014-01-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer is a high contrast imager and interferometer that sits at the combined bent Gregorian focus of the LBT's dual 8.4~m apertures. The interferometric science drivers dictate 0.1'' resolution with $10^3-10^4$ contrast at $10~\\mu m$, while the $4~\\mu m$ imaging science drivers require even greater contrasts, but at scales $>$0.2''. In imaging mode, LBTI's Adaptive Optics system is already delivering $4~\\mu m$ contrast of $10^4-10^5$ at $0.3''-0.75''$ in good conditions. Even in poor seeing, it can deliver up to 90\\% Strehl Ratio at this wavelength. However, the performance could be further improved by mitigating Non-Common Path Aberrations. Any NCPA remedy must be feasible using only the current hardware: the science camera, the wavefront sensor, and the adaptive secondary mirror. In preliminary testing, we have implemented an ``eye doctor'' grid search approach for astigmatism and trefoil, achieving 5\\% improvement in Strehl Ratio at $4~\\mu m$, with future plans to tes...

  15. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org; Huang, Hailiang; Li, Diana G.; Chen, Qing; Gaebler, Carl P.; Mechalakos, James [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Wei, Jie [Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Sullivan, James [Pulmonary Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Zatcky, Joan; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔV{sub torso} = ΔV{sub thorax} + ΔV{sub abdomen}) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BP{sub v} = ΔV{sub thorax}/ΔV{sub torso}) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume

  16. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔVtorso = ΔVthorax + ΔVabdomen) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BPv = ΔVthorax/ΔVtorso) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume differences measured using OSI imaging and CT

  17. Unveiling Su Aurigae in the near Infrared: New high spatial resolution results using Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, A; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Ge, Jian

    2004-01-01

    We present here new results on circumstellar nebulosity around SU Aurigae, a T-Tauri star of about 2 solar mass and 5 Myrs old at 152 pc in the J, H and K bands using high resolution adaptive optics imaging (0$\\farcs$30) with the Penn state IR Imaging Spectrograph (PIRIS) at the 100 inch Mt. Wilson telescope. A comparison with HST STIS optical (0.2 to 1.1 micron) images shows that the orientation of the circumstellar nebulosity in the near-IR extends from PAs 210 to 270 degrees in H and K bands and up to 300 degrees in the J band. We call the circumstellar nebulosity seen between 210 to 270 degrees as 'IR nebulosity'. We find that the IR nebulosity (which extends up to 3.5 arcsecs in J band and 2.5 arcsecs in the K band) is due to scattered light from the central star. The IR nebulosity is either a cavity formed by the stellar outflows or part of the circumstellar disk. We present a schematic 3-dimensional geometrical model of the disk and jet of SU Aur based on STIS and our near-IR observations. According to...

  18. Fast Adaptive Wavelet for Remote Sensing Image Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Li; Run-Hai Jiao; Yuan-Cheng Li

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing images are hard to achieve high compression ratio because of their rich texture. By analyzing the influence of wavelet properties on image compression, this paper proposes wavelet construction rules and builds a new biorthogonal wavelet construction model with parameters. The model parameters are optimized by using genetic algorithm and adopting energy compaction as the optimization object function. In addition, in order to resolve the computation complexity problem of online construction, according to the image classification rule proposed in this paper we construct wavelets for different classes of images and implement the fast adaptive wavelet selection algorithm (FAWS). Experimental results show wavelet bases of FAWS gain better compression performance than Daubechies9/7.

  19. Adaptive Image Transmission Scheme over Wavelet-Based OFDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOXinying; YUANDongfeng; ZHANGHaixia

    2005-01-01

    In this paper an adaptive image transmission scheme is proposed over Wavelet-based OFDM (WOFDM) system with Unequal error protection (UEP) by the design of non-uniform signal constellation in MLC. Two different data division schemes: byte-based and bitbased, are analyzed and compared. Different bits are protected unequally according to their different contribution to the image quality in bit-based data division scheme, which causes UEP combined with this scheme more powerful than that with byte-based scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that image transmission by UEP with bit-based data division scheme presents much higher PSNR values and surprisingly better image quality. Furthermore, by considering the tradeoff of complexity and BER performance, Haar wavelet with the shortest compactly supported filter length is the most suitable one among orthogonal Daubechies wavelet series in our proposed system.

  20. Scintillating optical fibers in detection of X synchrotron radiation images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is pointed out how the use of optical fiber matrices (or alluminated optical guides) of scintillating glass can constitute systems of X image detection with energy higher than 2 KeV, with high efficiency, high spatial resolution and an acquisition capability dependent on the X flux, in the formation of the single images

  1. Analytical model and optical design of distributed aperture optical system for millimeter-wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caihua; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Samluk, Jesse; Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; MacKrides, Daniel G.; Mirotznik, Mark; Prather, Dennis W.

    2008-10-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging is very interesting due to its unique transmission properties through a broad range of atmospheric obscurants such as cloud, dust, fog, sandstorms, and smoke, which thereby enables all-weather passive imaging. Unfortunately, the usefulness of millimeter-wave imagers is often limited by the large aperture sizes required to obtain images of sufficient resolution, as governed by the diffraction limit. To this end, we previously proposed a distributed aperture system for direct non-scan millimeter-wave imaging using an optical upconversion technique. In this proposed approach, an antenna array is employed to sample image signals in the millimeter-wave domain. The sampled millimeter-wave signals are then upconverted to the optical domain using electro-optic modulation techniques. These optical signals are mapped into a similar array on the entrance pupil of the following optical system for direct imaging. Although distributed aperture imaging is not new in both radio astronomy and conventional optical inteferometric imaging, the proposed approach is different in that it physically samples image in the millimeter-wave domain and directly forms the image in the optical domain. Therefore, specific analysis and evaluation techniques are required for the design and optimization of the proposed system. In this paper, we will address these issues, develop techniques to evaluate and enhance the system imaging performance and present methods to optimize the geometric configuration.

  2. Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking Based on Combination of HVS Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Foris

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two new blind adaptive digital watermarking methods of color images are presented. The adaptability is based on perceptual watermarking which exploits Human Visual System (HVS models. The first method performs watermark embedding in transform domain of DCT and the second method is based on DWT. Watermark is embedded into transform domain of a chosen color image component in a selected color space. Both methods use a combination of HVS models to select perceptually significant transform coefficients and at the same time to determine the bounds of modification of selected coefficients. The final HVS model consists of three parts. The first part is the HVS model in DCT (DWT domain. The second part is the HVS model based on Region of Interest and finally the third part is the HVS model based on Noise Visibility Function. Watermark has a form of a real number sequence with normal distribution.

  3. Adaptive registration of diffusion tensor images on lie groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, LeiTing; Cai, HongBin; Qiu, Hang; Fei, Nanxi

    2016-08-01

    With diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), more exquisite information on tissue microstructure is provided for medical image processing. In this paper, we present a locally adaptive topology preserving method for DTI registration on Lie groups. The method aims to obtain more plausible diffeomorphisms for spatial transformations via accurate approximation for the local tangent space on the Lie group manifold. In order to capture an exact geometric structure of the Lie group, the local linear approximation is efficiently optimized by using the adaptive selection of the local neighborhood sizes on the given set of data points. Furthermore, numerical comparative experiments are conducted on both synthetic data and real DTI data to demonstrate that the proposed method yields a higher degree of topology preservation on a dense deformation tensor field while improving the registration accuracy.

  4. Adaptive registration of diffusion tensor images on lie groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, LeiTing; Cai, HongBin; Qiu, Hang; Fei, Nanxi

    2016-06-01

    With diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), more exquisite information on tissue microstructure is provided for medical image processing. In this paper, we present a locally adaptive topology preserving method for DTI registration on Lie groups. The method aims to obtain more plausible diffeomorphisms for spatial transformations via accurate approximation for the local tangent space on the Lie group manifold. In order to capture an exact geometric structure of the Lie group, the local linear approximation is efficiently optimized by using the adaptive selection of the local neighborhood sizes on the given set of data points. Furthermore, numerical comparative experiments are conducted on both synthetic data and real DTI data to demonstrate that the proposed method yields a higher degree of topology preservation on a dense deformation tensor field while improving the registration accuracy.

  5. Novel optical scanning cryptography using Fresnel telescope imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aimin; Sun, Jianfeng; Hu, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Liren

    2015-07-13

    We propose a new method called modified optical scanning cryptography using Fresnel telescope imaging technique for encryption and decryption of remote objects. An image or object can be optically encrypted on the fly by Fresnel telescope scanning system together with an encryption key. For image decryption, the encrypted signals are received and processed with an optical coherent heterodyne detection system. The proposed method has strong performance through use of secure Fresnel telescope scanning with orthogonal polarized beams and efficient all-optical information processing. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experimental results.

  6. Optical authentication via photon-synthesized ghost imaging using optical nonlinear correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    We present a method for optical authentication via photon-synthesized ghost imaging using optical nonlinear correlation. In ghost imaging, multiple series of photons recorded at the object beam arm can be arbitrarily controlled for the generation of synthesized objects. Ghost imaging with sparse reference intensity patterns provides a channel to effectively modulate the noise-like synthesized objects during the recovery, and the reconstructed (noise-like) objects, i.e., added or subtracted information, can be further authenticated by optical nonlinear correlation algorithm. It is expected that the proposed method can provide an effective and promising alternative for ghost-imaging-based optical processing.

  7. Adaptive noise Wiener filter for scanning electron microscope imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, K S; Teh, V; Nia, M E

    2016-03-01

    Noise on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images is studied. Gaussian noise is the most common type of noise in SEM image. We developed a new noise reduction filter based on the Wiener filter. We compared the performance of this new filter namely adaptive noise Wiener (ANW) filter, with four common existing filters as well as average filter, median filter, Gaussian smoothing filter and the Wiener filter. Based on the experiments results the proposed new filter has better performance on different noise variance comparing to the other existing noise removal filters in the experiments. SCANNING 38:148-163, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26235517

  8. Adaptive sigmoid function bihistogram equalization for image contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Garcia, Edgar F.; Sanchez-Yanez, Raul E.; Ruiz-Pinales, Jose; Garcia-Hernandez, Ma. de Guadalupe

    2015-09-01

    Contrast enhancement plays a key role in a wide range of applications including consumer electronic applications, such as video surveillance, digital cameras, and televisions. The main goal of contrast enhancement is to increase the quality of images. However, most state-of-the-art methods induce different types of distortion such as intensity shift, wash-out, noise, intensity burn-out, and intensity saturation. In addition, in consumer electronics, simple and fast methods are required in order to be implemented in real time. A bihistogram equalization method based on adaptive sigmoid functions is proposed. It consists of splitting the image histogram into two parts that are equalized independently by using adaptive sigmoid functions. In order to preserve the mean brightness of the input image, the parameter of the sigmoid functions is chosen to minimize the absolute mean brightness metric. Experiments on the Berkeley database have shown that the proposed method improves the quality of images and preserves their mean brightness. An application to improve the colorfulness of images is also presented.

  9. Document Indexing for Image-Based Optical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Thomas J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of image-based information retrieval systems focuses on indexing. Highlights include computerized information retrieval; multimedia optical systems; optical mass storage and personal computers; and a case study that describes an optical disk system which was developed to preserve, access, and disseminate military documents. (19…

  10. Understanding the optics to aid microscopy image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhaozheng; Li, Kang; Kanade, Takeo; Chen, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Image segmentation is essential for many automated microscopy image analysis systems. Rather than treating microscopy images as general natural images and rushing into the image processing warehouse for solutions, we propose to study a microscope's optical properties to model its image formation process first using phase contrast microscopy as an exemplar. It turns out that the phase contrast imaging system can be relatively well explained by a linear imaging model. Using this model, we formulate a quadratic optimization function with sparseness and smoothness regularizations to restore the "authentic" phase contrast images that directly correspond to specimen's optical path length without phase contrast artifacts such as halo and shade-off. With artifacts removed, high quality segmentation can be achieved by simply thresholding the restored images. The imaging model and restoration method are quantitatively evaluated on two sequences with thousands of cells captured over several days. PMID:20879233

  11. Focusing adaptive-optics for neutron spectroscopy at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeoni, G. G.; Valicu, R. G.; Borchert, G.; Böni, P.; Rasmussen, N. G.; Yang, F.; Kordel, T.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Kargl, F.; Meyer, A.

    2015-12-01

    Neutron Spectroscopy employing extreme-conditions sample environments is nowadays a crucial tool for the understanding of fundamental scientific questions as well as for the investigation of materials and chemical-physical properties. For all these kinds of studies, an increased neutron flux over a small sample area is needed. The prototype of a focusing neutron guide component, developed and produced completely at the neutron source FRM II in Garching (Germany), has been installed at the time-of-flight (TOF) disc-chopper neutron spectrometer TOFTOF and came into routine-operation. The design is based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept for finite-size divergent sources. It represents a unique device combining the supermirror technology with Adaptive Optics, suitable for broad-bandwidth thermal-cold TOF neutron spectroscopy (here optimized for 1.4-10 Å). It is able to squeeze the beam cross section down to a square centimeter, with a more than doubled signal-to-background ratio, increased efficiency at high scattering angles, and improved symmetry of the elastic resolution function. We present a comparison between the simulated and measured beam cross sections, as well as the performance of the instrument within real experiments. This work intends to show the unprecedented opportunities achievable at already existing instruments, along with useful guidelines for the design and construction of next-generation neutron spectrometers.

  12. New challenges for Adaptive Optics Extremely Large Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Le Louarn, M; Sarazin, M; Tokovinin, A

    2000-01-01

    The performance of an adaptive optics (AO) system on a 100m diameter ground based telescope working in the visible range of the spectrum is computed using an analytical approach. The target Strehl ratio of 60% is achieved at 0.5um with a limiting magnitude of the AO guide source near R~10, at the cost of an extremely low sky coverage. To alleviate this problem, the concept of tomographic wavefront sensing in a wider field of view using either natural guide stars (NGS) or laser guide stars (LGS) is investigated. These methods use 3 or 4 reference sources and up to 3 deformable mirrors, which increase up to 8-fold the corrected field size (up to 60\\arcsec at 0.5 um). Operation with multiple NGS is limited to the infrared (in the J band this approach yields a sky coverage of 50% with a Strehl ratio of 0.2). The option of open-loop wavefront correction in the visible using several bright NGS is discussed. The LGS approach involves the use of a faint (R ~22) NGS for low-order correction, which results in a sky cov...

  13. Adaptive optics near infrared integral field spectroscopy of NGC 2992

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, S; Hicks, E K S; Engel, H; Müller-Sánchez, F; Genzel, R; Tacconi, L J

    2010-01-01

    NGC 2992 is an intermediate Seyfert 1 galaxy showing outflows on kilo parsec scales which might be due either to AGN or starburst activity. We therefore aim at investigating its central region for a putative starburst in the past and its connection to the AGN and the outflows. Observations were performed with the adaptive optics near infrared integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the VLT, complemented by longslit observations with ISAAC on the VLT, as well as N- and Q-band data from the Spitzer archive. The spatial and spectral resolutions of the SINFONI data are 50 pc and 83 km/s, respectively. The field of view of 3" x 3" corresponds to 450 pc x 450 pc. Br_gamma equivalent width and line fluxes from PAHs were compared to stellar population models to constrain the age of the putative recent star formation. A simple geometric model of two mutually inclined disks and an additional cone to describe an outflow was developed to explain the observed complex velocity field in H_2 1-0S(1). The morphologies of the B...

  14. Novel adaptive fiber-optics collimator for coherent beam combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Pengfei; Ma, Yanxing; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2014-12-15

    In this manuscript, we experimentally validate a novel design of adaptive fiber-optics collimator (AFOC), which utilizes two levers to enlarge the movable range of the fiber end cap. The enlargement of the range makes the new AFOC possible to compensate the end-cap/tilt aberration in fiber laser beam combining system. The new AFOC based on flexible hinges and levers was fabricated and the performance of the new AFOC was tested carefully, including its control range, frequency response and control accuracy. Coherent beam combination (CBC) of two 5-W fiber amplifiers array with simultaneously end-cap/tilt control and phase-locking control was implemented successfully with the novel AFOC. Experimental results show that the average normalized power in the bucket (PIB) value increases from 0.311 to 0.934 with active phasing and tilt aberration compensation simultaneously, and with both controls on, the fringe contrast improves to more than 82% from 0% for the case with both control off. This work presents a promising structure for tilt aberration control in high power CBC system.

  15. Adaptive optics for ultra short pulsed lasers in UHV environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneuville, Francois; Ropert, Laurent; Sauvageot, Paul; Theis, Sébastien

    2015-02-01

    ISP SYSTEM has developed an electro-mechanical deformable mirror compatible with Ultra High Vacuum environment, suitable for ultra short pulsed lasers. The design of the MD-AME deformable mirror is based on force application on numerous locations. μ-AME actuators are driven by stepper motors, and their patented special design allows controlling the force with a very high accuracy. Materials and assembly method have been adapted to UHV constraints and the performances were evaluated on a first application for a beam with a diameter of 250mm. A Strehl ratio above 0.9 was reached for this application. Optical aberrations up to Zernike order 5 can be corrected with a very low residual error as for standard MD-AME mirror. Amplitude can reach up to several hundreds of μm for low order corrections. Hysteresis is lower than 0.1% and linearity better than 99%. Contrary to piezo-electric actuators, the μ-AME actuators avoid print-through effects and they permit to keep the mirror shape stable even unpowered, providing a high resistance to electro-magnetic pulses. The deformable mirror design allows changing easily an actuator or even the membrane if needed, in order to improve the facility availability. They are designed for circular, square or elliptical aperture from 30mm up to 500mm or more, with incidence angle from 0° to 45°. They can be equipped with passive or active cooling for high power lasers with high repetition rate.

  16. Focusing adaptive-optics for neutron spectroscopy at extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeoni, G. G., E-mail: ggsimeoni@outlook.com [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), FRM II, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physics Department E13, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Valicu, R. G. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), FRM II, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physics Department E13, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physics Department E21, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Borchert, G. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), FRM II, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Böni, P. [Physics Department E21, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rasmussen, N. G. [Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yang, F.; Kordel, T.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Kargl, F.; Meyer, A. [Institut für Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, D-51170 Köln (Germany)

    2015-12-14

    Neutron Spectroscopy employing extreme-conditions sample environments is nowadays a crucial tool for the understanding of fundamental scientific questions as well as for the investigation of materials and chemical-physical properties. For all these kinds of studies, an increased neutron flux over a small sample area is needed. The prototype of a focusing neutron guide component, developed and produced completely at the neutron source FRM II in Garching (Germany), has been installed at the time-of-flight (TOF) disc-chopper neutron spectrometer TOFTOF and came into routine-operation. The design is based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept for finite-size divergent sources. It represents a unique device combining the supermirror technology with Adaptive Optics, suitable for broad-bandwidth thermal-cold TOF neutron spectroscopy (here optimized for 1.4–10 Å). It is able to squeeze the beam cross section down to a square centimeter, with a more than doubled signal-to-background ratio, increased efficiency at high scattering angles, and improved symmetry of the elastic resolution function. We present a comparison between the simulated and measured beam cross sections, as well as the performance of the instrument within real experiments. This work intends to show the unprecedented opportunities achievable at already existing instruments, along with useful guidelines for the design and construction of next-generation neutron spectrometers.

  17. Changing image of correlation optics: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsky, Oleg V; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Gbur, Gregory J; Hanson, Steen G; Lee, Tim; Miyamoto, Yoko; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Wyant, James C

    2016-04-20

    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting recent progress of correlation optics and illustrating current trends in vector singular optics, internal energy flows at light fields, optical science of materials, and new biomedical applications of lasers.

  18. Handbook of 3D machine vision optical metrology and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and

  19. Overcoming adverse weather conditions with a common optical path, multiple sensors, and intelligent image fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Joseph; Piacentino, Michael; Caldwell, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Mission success is highly dependent on the ability to accomplish Surveillance, Situation Awareness, Target Detection and Classification, but is challenging under adverse weather conditions. This paper introduces an engineering prototype to address the image collection challenges using a Common Optical Path, Multiple Sensors and an Intelligent Image Fusion System, and provides illustrations and sample fusion images. Panavision's advanced wide spectrum optical design has permitted a suite of imagers to perform observations through a common optical path with a common field of view, thereby aligning images and facilitating optimized downstream image processing. The adaptable design also supports continuous zoom or Galilean lenses for multiple field of views. The Multiple Sensors include: (1) High-definition imaging sensors that are small, have low power consumption and a wide dynamic range; (2) EMCCD sensors that transition from daylight to starlight, even under poor weather conditions, with sensitivity down to 0.00025 Lux; and (3) SWIR sensors that, with the advancement in InGaAs, are able to generate ultra-high sensitivity images from 1-1.7μm reflective light and can achieve imaging through haze and some types of camouflage. The intelligent fusion of multiple sensors provides high-resolution color information with previously impossible sensitivity and contrast. With the integration of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), real-time Image Processing and Fusion Algorithms can facilitate mission success in a small, low power package.

  20. Complex adaptation-based LDR image rendering for 3D image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Hyuk-Ju; Sohng, Kyu-Ik

    2014-07-01

    A low-dynamic tone-compression technique is developed for realistic image rendering that can make three-dimensional (3D) images similar to realistic scenes by overcoming brightness dimming in the 3D display mode. The 3D surround provides varying conditions for image quality, illuminant adaptation, contrast, gamma, color, sharpness, and so on. In general, gain/offset adjustment, gamma compensation, and histogram equalization have performed well in contrast compression; however, as a result of signal saturation and clipping effects, image details are removed and information is lost on bright and dark areas. Thus, an enhanced image mapping technique is proposed based on space-varying image compression. The performance of contrast compression is enhanced with complex adaptation in a 3D viewing surround combining global and local adaptation. Evaluating local image rendering in view of tone and color expression, noise reduction, and edge compensation confirms that the proposed 3D image-mapping model can compensate for the loss of image quality in the 3D mode.